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Sample records for evolutional approach proven

  1. A proven approach for more effective software development and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Hall, Dana; Sinclair, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Modern space flight mission operations and associated ground data systems are increasingly dependent upon reliable, quality software. Critical functions such as command load preparation, health and status monitoring, communications link scheduling and conflict resolution, and transparent gateway protocol conversion are routinely performed by software. Given budget constraints and the ever increasing capabilities of processor technology, the next generation of control centers and data systems will be even more dependent upon software across all aspects of performance. A key challenge now is to implement improved engineering, management, and assurance processes for the development and maintenance of that software; processes that cost less, yield higher quality products, and that self-correct for continual improvement evolution. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has a unique experience base that can be readily tapped to help solve the software challenge. Over the past eighteen years, the Software Engineering Laboratory within the code 500 Flight Dynamics Division has evolved a software development and maintenance methodology that accommodates the unique characteristics of an organization while optimizing and continually improving the organization's software capabilities. This methodology relies upon measurement, analysis, and feedback much analogous to that of control loop systems. It is an approach with a time-tested track record proven through repeated applications across a broad range of operational software development and maintenance projects. This paper describes the software improvement methodology employed by the Software Engineering Laboratory, and how it has been exploited within the Flight Dynamics Division with GSFC Code 500. Examples of specific improvement in the software itself and its processes are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. Finally, the initial findings are given when this methodology was applied across the

  2. Provenance of the spacewatch small Earth-approaching asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F., Jr.; Nolan, M. C.; Greenberg, R.; Vickery, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.

    1994-07-01

    Recent discoveries of small Earth-approaching asteroids by the 0.9-m Spacewatch telescope (referred to here as S-SEAs) reveal more bodies with diameter D less than 50 m than had previously been inferred from the distribution of larger bodies (D greater than 100 m). Assuming that the S-SEA observations represent a steady-state excess of small bodies in that orbital space, candidate sources are impact ejecta from one (or more) terrestrial planets, collisional fragments from the main belt, or collisional break-up of a larger Earth-crossing asteroid. To determine the most viable provenance region for the S-SEAs, we track test bodies as they dynamically and collisionally evolve from each possible source. We then compare their most probable evolutionary paths with the dynamical constraints given by observations. We use the Monte Carlo dynamical evolution code of Melosh and Tonks, modified to include an impact disruption model based on a map (in orbital a, e, i space) of collision probabilities and mean impact velocities found using actual main-belt and near-Earth asteroid orbits. These results show that bodies with high eccentricities disrupt more frequently than bodies with low eccentricities, due to high-impact velocities and the large amount of time spent near aphelion among main belt projectiles. Our results show that main-belt objects exiting the 3:1 and dot-nu6 resonances when they become Earth crossing are unlikely to become S-SEAs. Furthermore, though frequent impacts with the main belt would produce fresh collisional debris, there is no reason for the process to create the clear excess of small bodies seen as S-SEAs. However, planetary ejecta from either the Earth-Moon system or Venus could produce a small-body excess spanning the current S-SEA orbits within about 10 m.y. after ejection. Ejecta from these regions is collisionally decoupled from the main belt, allowing it to survive and maintain its steep size-frequency distribution.

  3. A proven knowledge-based approach to prioritizing process information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Many space-related processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect is rapid analysis of the changing process information. During a disturbance, this task can overwhelm humans as well as computers. Humans deal with this by applying heuristics in determining significant information. A simple, knowledge-based approach to prioritizing information is described. The approach models those heuristics that humans would use in similar circumstances. The approach described has received two patents and was implemented in the Alarm Filtering System (AFS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). AFS was first developed for application in a nuclear reactor control room. It has since been used in chemical processing applications, where it has had a significant impact on control room environments. The approach uses knowledge-based heuristics to analyze data from process instrumentation and respond to that data according to knowledge encapsulated in objects and rules. While AFS cannot perform the complete diagnosis and control task, it has proven to be extremely effective at filtering and prioritizing information. AFS was used for over two years as a first level of analysis for human diagnosticians. Given the approach's proven track record in a wide variety of practical applications, it should be useful in both ground- and space-based systems.

  4. Influence of Rock Strength on Landscape Evolution and Sediment Provenance Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Yanites, B.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital minerals within the stratigraphic record provide key constraints for a range of geologic problems, including the first order tectonic setting of basins, structural histories within orogens, changes in climate, and major drainage network reorganizations. Numerous provenance techniques exist for linking detrital minerals to their source areas, but the majority of these methods share an underlying assumption that sediment delivered to a basin is a representative sample of the bedrock geology of the source area. Satisfying this assumption requires that sediment production rates, i.e. erosion rates, of a source area are uniform throughout. In detail, erosion rates within a source area vary as a function of patterns of landscape evolution dictated by rock erodibility, climate, and relative uplift rate, thus long-term and transient biasing of sediment provenance records is expected. Biases associated with landscape evolution in response to changes in climate, tectonics, or strength of exposed rock can last 10s Myr. Previous work recognized a potential influence of differential erosion on provenance records, but the relative importance of this effect has proven difficult to quantify with field data. To address this, we are using a modified version of the CHILD landscape evolution model (LEM), which supports numerous lithologies with different erodibilities within a landscape. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the relative influence of rock strength and changes in climate or uplift rate on provenance records. We focus on U-Pb detrital zircon records because these data have seen wide adoption as a provenance tool and the refractory nature of zircon makes them less likely to be influenced by chemical weathering effects that are beyond the scope of this work. We plan to test several scenarios including variations in rock erodibility and temporal changes in climate or uplift rate. We will then use results from the LEM to calculate erosion rates from different

  5. DACUM: A Proven and Powerful Approach to Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    Developing A CurriculUM (DACUM) is an approach to job/occupational analysis. The profile chart that results from DACUM analysis is a low-cost, effective method of quickly determining what tasks must be performed by employees in a given job or occupational area. The DACUM analysis can be used as a basis for the following: curriculum development;…

  6. Provenance of Des Moines lobe till records ice-stream catchment evolution during Laurentide deglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusardi, B.A.; Jennings, C.E.; Harris, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and analysis of deposits of the Des Moines lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, active after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), reveal several texturally and lithologically distinct tills within what had been considered to be a homogeneous deposit. Although the differences between tills are subtle, minor distinctions are predictable and mappable, and till sheets within the area covered by the lobe can be correlated for hundreds of kilometres parallel to ice flow. Lateral till-sheet contacts are abrupt or overlap in a narrow zone, coincident with a geomorphic discontinuity interpreted to be a shear margin. Till sheets 10 to 20m thick show mixing in their lower 2 to 3m. We suggest that: (i) lithologically distinct till sheets correspond to unique ice-stream source areas; (ii) the sequence of tills deposited by the Des Moines lobe was the result of the evolution and varying dominance of nearby and competing ice streams and their tributaries; and (iii) in at least one instance, more than one ice stream simultaneously contributed to the lobe. Therefore the complex sequence of tills of subtly different provenances, and the unconformities between them record the evolution of an ice-catchment area during Laurentide Ice Sheet drawdown. Till provenance data suggest that, after till is created in the ice-stream source area, the subglacial conditions required for transporting till decline and incorporation of new material is limited. ?? 2011 The Authors. Boreas ?? 2011 The Boreas Collegium.

  7. Multiobjective Optimization Using a Pareto Differential Evolution Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary algorithm that has proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult single-objective optimization problems. In this paper, the Differential Evolution algorithm is extended to multiobjective optimization problems by using a Pareto-based approach. The algorithm performs well when applied to several test optimization problems from the literature.

  8. A convergent diffusion and social marketing approach for disseminating proven approaches to physical activity promotion.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W; Maibach, Edward W; Buller, David B

    2006-10-01

    Approaches from diffusion of innovations and social marketing are used here to propose efficient means to promote and enhance the dissemination of evidence-based physical activity programs. While both approaches have traditionally been conceptualized as top-down, center-to-periphery, centralized efforts at social change, their operational methods have usually differed. The operational methods of diffusion theory have a strong relational emphasis, while the operational methods of social marketing have a strong transactional emphasis. Here, we argue for a convergence of diffusion of innovation and social marketing principles to stimulate the efficient dissemination of proven-effective programs. In general terms, we are encouraging a focus on societal sectors as a logical and efficient means for enhancing the impact of dissemination efforts. This requires an understanding of complex organizations and the functional roles played by different individuals in such organizations. In specific terms, ten principles are provided for working effectively within societal sectors and enhancing user involvement in the processes of adoption and implementation.

  9. Provenance record of Paleogene exhumation and Laramide basin evolution along the southern Rocky Mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, M. A.; Horton, B. K.; Murphy, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Sangre de Cristo and Nacimiento uplifts of the southern Rocky Mountains formed key parts of a major Paleogene topographic boundary separating the Cordilleran orogenic system from the North American plate interior. This barrier largely isolated interior Laramide basins from a broad Laramide foreland with fluvial systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, and thereby played a critical role in the evolution of continental-scale paleodrainage patterns. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance analyses of Cretaceous-Paleogene siliciclastic strata in the Raton, Galisteo-El Rito, and San Juan basins record the partitioning of the broad Cordilleran (Sevier) foreland basin by Laramide basement uplifts. These trends are recognized both in provenance signals and depositional styles corresponding to cratonward (eastward) propagation of the Laramide deformation front and resultant advance of flexural depocenters in the North American interior. Along the eastern flank of the deformation front, the Raton basin shows a mix of Cordilleran, Appalachian, and Grenville age zircons restricted to the Cretaceous Dakota and Vermejo formations, marine units of the Western Interior Seaway. Upsection, the Cordilleran age peaks are absent from Paleocene-Eocene units, consistent with significant Laramide drainage reorganization and isolation from Cordilleran sources to the west. In the Galisteo-El Rito basin system, a shift to dominantly Mazatzal-Yavapai basement ages is recognized in the Paleocene El Rito and Oligocene Ritito formations. The heavy mineral results show a corresponding shift to less mature, dominantly metamorphic source compositions. These new datasets bear upon Cretaceous-Cenozoic reconstructions of North American paleodrainage and have implications for potential linkages between major fluvial systems of the southern Rocky Mountains and Paleogene deepwater reservoir units in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

  10. Provenance evolution of collapse graben fill in the Himalaya—The Miocene to Quaternary Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Wagreich, Michael

    This study focuses on the detailed provenance evolution of young, syn- to post-orogenic extensional grabens in orogens like the Himalaya to trace the tectonic history of such late-stage basins, using the Neogene Thakkhola-Mustang Graben as a case study. The graben is situated within the Tibetan-Tethys zone and is filled with > 870 m of continental deposits of Miocene to Holocene age-. Based on logged sections within the predominantly alluvial to coarse-grained fluvial fill of the graben we investigated paleocurrent data and the petrology of sandstones and conglomerates including heavy minerals studies to interpret provenance and source areas in detail. Significant changes are recorded by slight differences in heavy mineral and pebble compositions. The sandstones can be classified as lithic greywackes, lithic arkoses and feldspathic litharenites. Sandstone, mudstone, quartzite and some granite clasts are dominant in conglomerates of the central part of the graben. Tetang Formation conglomerates of Miocene age comprise mostly clasts of Mesozoic rocks with an eastern provenance, consistent with measured paleocurrent directions. All paleocurrent data and compositional analyses of imbricated conglomerates of the Miocene-Pliocene Thakkhola Formation in the northeast of the graben suggest that clasts were derived from eastern source areas comprising mainly Mesozoic rocks whereas Paleozoic clasts of a western to northern source area predominate in the centre of the graben. Heavy mineral analysis indicates that tourmaline, staurolite, zircon, garnet and apatite constitute a significant proportion of the assemblages of all formations through time whereas epidote, andalusite, kyanite, chloritoid, hornblende, chrome-spinel, rutile and amphiboles are less common. These assemblages reflect in general stable minerals and low to high-grade metamorphic source rocks, and are principally controlled by reworking of older, passive margin sediments of the Tibetan-Tethys zone as

  11. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Common sediment fingerprinting techniques use either (1) extensive analytical datasets, sometimes nearly complete with respect to accessible characterization techniques; they are processed by multidimensional statistics based on certain statistical assumptions on distribution functions of analytical results and conservativeness/additivity of some components, or (2) analytically demanding characteristics such as isotope ratios assumed to be unequivocal "labels" on the parent material unaltered by any catchment process. The inherent problem of the approach ad (1) is that interpretation of statistical components ("sources") is done ex post and remains purely formal. The problem of the approach ad (2) is that catchment processes (weathering, transport, deposition) can modify most geochemical parameters of soils and sediments, in other words, that the idea that some geochemistry parameters are "conservative" may be idealistic. Grain-size effects and sediment provenance have a joint influence on chemical composition of fluvial sediments that is indeed not easy to distinguish. Attempts to separate those two main components using only statistics seem risky and equivocal, because grain-size dependence of element composition is nearly individual for each element and reflects sediment maturity and catchment-specific formation transport processes. We suppose that the use of less extensive datasets of analytical results and their interpretation respecting fundamental principles should be more robust than only statistic tools applied to overwhelming datasets. We examined sediment composition, both published by other researchers and gathered by us, and we found some general principles, which are in our opinion relevant for fingerprinting: (1) Concentrations of all elements are grain-size sensitive, i.e. there are no "conservative" elements in conventional sense of provenance- or transport-pathways tracing, (2) fractionation by catchment processes and fluvial transport changes

  12. Provenance Constraints on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Queen Charlotte Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J.; Haggart, J. W.; Kimbrough, D.; Grove, M.

    2007-05-01

    The medial Cretaceous magmatic arc system of western North America was flanked by a series of forearc basins extending from Mexico to Alaska. Cretaceous strata in the Queen Charlotte Islands of northwest British Columbia are unique in this series of basins, as these strata have been displaced from the arc system by formation of the extensional Queen Charlotte basin in Cenozoic time. This displacement complicates reconstruction of the forearc basin, and makes it difficult to evaluate the controls on basin evolution. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and detrital zircon analyses of forearc strata represented by the Valanginian- Campanian Queen Charlotte Group (QCG) constrain basin evolution and provide a framework for an interpretation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Queen Charlotte Islands region. Basin subsidence initiated in Valanginian time with a marine transgression over irregular topography consisting of extensional fault blocks of pre-Cretaceous strata. Locally derived conglomerates at the base of the Longarm Formation are overlain by shallow marine shelf deposits that represent a westward-deepening, fining-upward transgressive succession with an eastern depositional edge that migrated eastward during Valanginian to Aptian time. West-directed paleocurrents and a unimodal detrital zircon population of 120-175 Ma grains provide the first linkage between the Cretaceous QCG and unroofed Jura-Cretaceous plutons of the Coast Plutonic Complex to the east. This initial transgressive sequence is superseded by a second pulse of clastic detritus in early Albian time, characterized by an easterly-derived, fossiliferous shallow-shelf sandstone (Haida Formation), fine-grained, outer shelf to upper slope strata (Bearskin Bay Formation), and mass-sediment gravity flows (Skidegate Formation). The unimodal zircon population (ca 140-175 Ma) in the lower Haida Formation is interpreted to reflect renewed uplift of Jura-Cretaceous arc plutons by contractional

  13. Biomechanical differences in the stem straightening process among Pinus pinaster provenances. A new approach for early selection of stem straightness.

    PubMed

    Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario; Pando, Valentín; Martínez-Zurimendi, Pablo; Peñalvo, Alejandro; Báscones, Esther; Moulia, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Stem straightness is an important selection trait in Pinus pinaster Ait. breeding programs. Despite the stability of stem straightness rankings in provenance trials, the efficiency of breeding programs based on a quantitative index of stem straightness remains low. An alternative approach is to analyze biomechanical processes that underlie stem form. The rationale for this selection method is that genetic differences in the biomechanical processes that maintain stem straightness in young plants will continue to control stem form throughout the life of the tree. We analyzed the components contributing most to genetic differences among provenances in stem straightening processes by kinetic analysis and with a biomechanical model defining the interactions between the variables involved (Fournier's model). This framework was tested on three P. pinaster provenances differing in adult stem straightness and growth. One-year-old plants were tilted at 45 degrees, and individual stem positions and sizes were recorded weekly for 5 months. We measured the radial extension of reaction wood and the anatomical features of wood cells in serial stem cross sections. The integral effect of reaction wood on stem leaning was computed with Fournier's model. Responses driven by both primary and secondary growth were involved in the stem straightening process, but secondary-growth-driven responses accounted for most differences among provenances. Plants from the straight-stemmed provenance showed a greater capacity for stem straightening than plants from the sinuous provenances mainly because of (1) more efficient reaction wood (higher maturation strains) and (2) more pronounced secondary-growth-driven autotropic decurving. These two process-based traits are thus good candidates for early selection of stem straightness, but additional tests on a greater number of genotypes over a longer period are required.

  14. A Multi-technique Approach for Provenance Studies of Mesozoic Clastic Rocks in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Zimmermann, U.; Støle, L.; Ruud, C.; Mostafa, E.; Andò, S.; Borromeo, L.; Magnaghi, M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments of Mesozoic age deposited in the Arctic Hammerfest and Tromsø basins (southern Barents Sea) are the focus of a comprehensive provenance study which forms part of ongoing work by the LoCrA consortium (Lower Cretaceous Basin Studies in the Arctic). Jurassic (Stø, Fuglen, Hekkingen) and Cretaceous (Knurr, Kolje, Kolmule) formations were sampled from seven wells. Analytical methods include petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, heavy mineral (HM) analysis and U-Pb on detrital zircons. HM concentration is <1%, with an ultrastable HM assemblage of zircon, rutile, tourmaline, spinel, apatite, garnet, chloritoid and common authigenic heavy minerals and opaques. Cretaceous sedimentary rocks show geochemical variations that reflect an unrecycled Upper Continental Crust signature, whereas Jurassic detritus tends to show more evidence of recycling with a relatively low input of mafic material. Kolmule Formation whole-rock geochemistry indicates sediment recycling from a major Sc-depleted but intermediate to mafic source and hence suggests input of rift detritus from the syn-depositional opening of the Atlantic Ocean. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons for Cretaceous sandstones show age groups of 200-500 Ma, 1200-1800 Ma, and 2100-2800 Ma, indicating potential source regions in the Urals/Novaya Zemlya, the Caledonides, Grenvillian/Sveconorwegian, and Palaeoproterozoic and Archean sources. Provenance data via geochemistry and HM analysis indicate different sources in the same formation basin-wide, with a significant change in provenance and sediment composition from Jurassic to Cretaceous and between the Knurr and Kolmule formations. These differences in composition need to be compared to detailed single grain studies and may only be explained in terms of basin dynamics, or even on a smaller scale, in terms of facies distributions. If so, this case study raises concerns about the use of single samples for provenance models on a larger scale.

  15. Detrital zircon provenance analysis of the Great Valley Group, California: Evolution of an arc-forearc system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Graham, S.A.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    The improved resolution of sediment provenance from detrital zircon analysis of Great Valley stratigraphy enables recognition of previously undocumented arc magmatism and the evolution of regional drainage systems within the Cretaceous arc-forearc system related to uplift, magmatism, and structure in the arc. Great Valley detrital zircon age data confirm previous studies that indicate that the locus of the sediment source in the southern Sierra Nevada arc migrated east with the active volcanic front and suggest rapid rates of uplift and unroofing of the southern arc. Sacramento Valley detrital zircon age data indicate a more complex history of drainage in the northern Klamath-Sierran arc than previously documented. Detrital zircon age distributions from the Cache Creek section of the Great Valley Group broaden through time from nearly unimodal age distributions to signatures with multiple age peaks. This transition to more broadly distributed detrital zircon age spectra likely results from a combination of (1) expanding subaerial drainage systems from highly localized to more broadly distributed catchments; (2) changing shelf and submarine-canyon morphology with rising sea level and/or basin subsidence; (3) increased degree of dissection of the Klamath-Sierran arc; and (4) potential drainage capture and redirection within the arc. Sacramento Valley detrital zircon age data also record a pulse of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatism in the northwestern Sierra Nevada arc, an age of Cordilleran magmatism and deformation represented by limited exposure in the modern Sierra Nevada. These results offer significant new insights into the evolution of a well-studied arc-forearc system.

  16. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-06-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution teaching can be particularly challenging for student teachers who are just beginning to gain pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge related to evolution teaching and who seek approval from university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Science teacher educators need to know how to best support student teachers as they broach the sometimes daunting task of teaching evolution within student teaching placements. This multiple case study report documents how three student teachers approached evolution instruction and what influenced their approaches. Data sources included student teacher interviews, field note observations for 4-5 days of evolution instruction, and evolution instructional artifacts. Data were analyzed using grounded theory approaches to develop individual cases and a cross-case analysis. Seven influences (state exams and standards, cooperating teacher, ideas about teaching and learning, concerns about evolution controversy, personal commitment to evolution, knowledge and preparation for teaching evolution, and own evolution learning experiences) were identified and compared across cases. Implications for science teacher preparation and future research are provided.

  17. An Approach to Evaluate Scientist Support in Abstract Workflows and Provenance Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Salayandia, Leonardo; Gates, Ann Q.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02

    Abstract workflows are useful to bridge the gap between scientists and technologists towards using computer systems to carry out scientific processes. Provenance traces provide evidence required to validate results and support their reuse. Assuming both technologies are based on formal semantics, a knowledge-based system that consistently merges both technologies is useful for scientists that produce data to document their data collecting and transformation processes; it is also useful for scientists that reuse data to assess scientific processes and resulting datasets produced by others. While evaluation of each technology is necessary for a given application, this work discusses their combined evaluation. The claim is that both technologies should complement each other and align consistently to a scientist’s perspective in order to be effective for science. Evaluation criteria are proposed based on lessons learned and exemplified for discussion.

  18. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  19. Formulation design space: a proven approach to maximize flexibility and outcomes within early clinical development.

    PubMed

    McDermott, John; Scholes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Traditional formulation development studies involve expensive and time-consuming screening of prototypes in preclinical species to select 'lead' systems for evaluation in human clinical pharmacokinetic studies. A new paradigm, Translational Pharmaceutics, has emerged to integrate pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and clinical functions to address these restrictions. Rapid Formulation development and Clinical Testing (RapidFACT) is applied to exploit the benefits of Translational Pharmaceutics in the clinical screening and optimization of drug products. Benefits are maximized by the adapted utilization of the concept of 'formulation design space'. This article presents the experience of the application of design space within RapidFACT and is supported by data from over 200 formulations studied to date, including case studies on how the approach has been applied.

  20. Middle-Late Mesozoic sedimentary provenances of the Luxi and Jiaolai areas: Implications for tectonic evolution of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Provenances of sedimentary rocks may provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the North China Block (NCB). Previous studies have demonstrated that the northern NCB (NNCB) and the Xing-Meng orogenic belt (XMOB) supplied massive detritus southward into the hinterland of the NCB during the Jurassic. In order to study the evolution of sedimentary provenance during the Middle-Late Mesozoic, U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic geochemistry of detrital zircon grains and chemical compositions of detrital garnets from sandstones in the Luxi and Jiaolai areas, eastern NCB, were analyzed in combination with published data on the Jurassic sandstones. The Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic (367-139 Ma) zircons in the lowermost Cretaceous Mengyin Formation samples from the Luxi area show εHf(t) values of -15.3 to -3.2 and +1.3 to +10.0, which are very similar to the results of analyses of the Jurassic formations. Further, the increased amount of Mesozoic zircons and granulite-derived garnets in the Mengyin Formation samples, compared to those in the Jurassic samples, indicates there was more detritus supply from the NNCB than from the XMOB. In the overlying Qingshan Formation samples, zircon grains do not exhibit Paleozoic ages, but most of them have Early Cretaceous ages and negative εHf(t) values, which are similar to the zircon grains extracted from the widespread Early Cretaceous igneous rocks in the NCB. This suggests that the provenance might have changed to a locally derived source. In contrast, the zircon population of the Early Cretaceous sandstones from the Jiaolai basin is dominated by grains of mid-Neoproterozoic age (700-900 Ma) which signifies contribution from the Sulu orogen. Moreover, the detrital garnet assemblages of sandstones in the Luxi area are not consistent with those from representative metamorphic rocks in the Sulu orogen. The above results seem to confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary provenance of the Luxi area had no evident connection with

  1. Provenance evolution of the Jurassic northern Qaidam Basin (West China) and its geological implications: evidence from detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Long; Xiao, Ancheng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yuntao; Rittner, Martin; Lou, Qianqian; Pan, Xiaotian

    2017-03-01

    The Jurassic system is the major hydrocarbon source rock and of crucial importance for understanding the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in West China. This paper presents systematic detrital zircon geochronology of the Jurassic outcropping at the Dameigou locality in the northern Qaidam Basin, and reports 1000 single-grain U-Pb zircon ages that have implications for the provenance, the corresponding basin property as well as the tectonic setting of West China during Jurassic. Zircon ages exhibit two major clusters at 250 and 2400 Ma whereas two minor clusters at 450 and 850 Ma, suggesting primary sources from the East Kunlun Shan and Oulongbuluke Block, secondary sources from the North Qaidam UHP belt and South Qilian Shan. Combined with observation of lithology and sedimentary facies, two rifting periods were inferred in the earliest Jurassic and the early stage of the Middle Jurassic, respectively, accompanied by further extension throughout the Jurassic. Our results do not support a foreland basin related to the Jurassic southward thrusting of the South Qilian Shan, but favor that the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in West China were characterised by pulsed responses to specific collisions rather than a persisting contractional setting during Jurassic period.

  2. Sedimentological and stratigraphic evolution of the southern part of the Barberton greenstone belt: A case of changing provenance and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The sedimentological and stratigraphic evolution of the 3.5 to 3.3 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt can be divided into three principal stages: (1) the volcanic platform stage during which at least 8 km of mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks, minor felsic volcanic units, and thin sedimentary layers (Onverwacht Group) accumulated under generally anorogenic conditions; (2) a transitional stage of developing instability during which widespread dacitic volcanism and associated pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sedimentation was punctuated by the deposition of terrigenous debris derived by uplift and shallow erosion of the belt itself (Fig Tree Group); (3) an orogenic stage involving cessation of active volcanism, extensive thrust faulting, and widespread deposition of clastic sediments representing deep erosion of the greenstone belt sequence as well as sources outside of the belt (Moodies Group).

  3. Combined heavy mineral and biomarker analysis in silt: a novel approach for provenance studies (Indus Fan, IODP Expedition 355)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Bratenkov, Sophia; Hahn, Annette; George, Simon; Clift, Peter D.; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution mineralogical study of Indus Fan turbiditic sediments cored during IODP Expedition 355 (Arabian Sea Monsoon) in the Laxmi Basin was carried out to investigate and quantify the different compositional signatures encoded in the sand, silt, and clay fractions. The turbidite deposits recovered at IODP Sites U1456 and U1457 in sedimentological Unit II were chosen as the best candidate for such a study. The integrated dataset presented here was obtained by coupling traditional and innovative bulk-sediment to single-grain analytical techniques, including bulk petrography, heavy-mineral and biomarker analyses on the same samples. Reliable quantitative results even in the medium to fine silt classes, which represent the dominant sediment sizes encountered in the recovered cores, were obtained by point-counting under the microscope, assisted by Micro-Raman spectroscopy (Andò et al., 2011; 2014). Preliminary data from the studied turbidites document rich and diverse heavy mineral assemblages in both the sand and silty-sand fractions. Heavy-mineral concentrations, as well as the number of mineral species, reach a maximum in sand and tend to decrease with grain size, becoming minimal in the clay fraction. Conversely, the biomarker analysis is generally focused on the finer sediment fractions and clay, where better preservation of biomarker compounds are obtained. The two approaches are thus complementary. Because biomarkers tend to be depleted in sand and heavy minerals in clay, the medium silt fraction represents the most suitable size window for the joint application of these two techniques. Comparing heavy-mineral assemblages with biomarkers allows us to evaluate both continental and marine inputs in turbidites and the hemipelagic deposits of the Indus Fan. This new methodological approach plays a key role in the identification of the effects of climate change on marine depositional environments and helps us to differentiate among the diverse Himalayan

  4. Information Provenance in Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

    Information appearing in social media provides a challenge for determining the provenance of the information. However, the same characteristics that make the social media environment challenging provide unique and untapped opportunities for solving the information provenance problem for social media. Current approaches for tracking provenance information do not scale for social media and consequently there is a gap in provenance methodologies and technologies providing exciting research opportunities for computer scientists and sociologists. This paper introduces a theoretical approach aimed guiding future efforts to realize a provenance capability for social media that is not available today. The guiding vision is the use of social media information itself to realize a useful amount provenance data for information in social media.

  5. Glacial landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying: A multiscale computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2016-11-01

    Quarrying of bedrock is a primary agent of subglacial erosion. Although the mechanical theory behind the process has been studied for decades, it has proven difficult to formulate the governing principles so that large-scale landscape evolution models can be used to integrate erosion over time. The existing mechanical theory thus stands largely untested in its ability to explain postglacial topography. In this study we relate the physics of quarrying to long-term landscape evolution with a multiscale approach that connects meter-scale cavities to kilometer-scale glacial landscapes. By averaging the quarrying rate across many small-scale bedrock steps, we quantify how regional trends in basal sliding speed, effective pressure, and bed slope affect the rate of erosion. A sensitivity test indicates that a power law formulated in terms of these three variables provides an acceptable basis for quantifying regional-scale rates of quarrying. Our results highlight the strong influence of effective pressure, which intensifies quarrying by increasing the volume of the bed that is stressed by the ice and thereby the probability of rock failure. The resulting pressure dependency points to subglacial hydrology as a primary factor for influencing rates of quarrying and hence for shaping the bedrock topography under warm-based glaciers. When applied in a landscape evolution model, the erosion law for quarrying produces recognizable large-scale glacial landforms: U-shaped valleys, hanging valleys, and overdeepenings. The landforms produced are very similar to those predicted by more standard sliding-based erosion laws, but overall quarrying is more focused in valleys, and less effective at higher elevations.

  6. Provenance and tectonic-paleogeographic evolution: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic deposits in the northern Sichuan basin, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tongbin; Cheng, Nanfei; Song, Maoshuang

    2016-09-01

    U-Pb ages of 290 new detrital zircons from five Late Triassic-Early Jurassic sandstone samples in the northern Sichuan basin, along with other geological data, are used to constrain the sediment provenance and evaluate tectonic-paleogeographic evolution for the adjacent orogens through/from which these sediments were potentially derived. The Upper Triassic depocenter was located at the front of the Longmen Shan belt, and sediments in the western, southern and eastern Sichuan basin shared the southern North China block (NCB) and Qinling belt with the eastern Songpan-Ganzi terrane of Middle-Upper Triassic via the Longmen Shan belt, whereas the northern part of the basin was fed by dominant South Qinling belt (SQB) and northern Yangtze block and possibly subordinate southern NCB. Also, the youngest population in the northern Sichuan basin has a slightly younger age peak (∼235 Ma) than those (∼270 Ma) in other parts of the basin. During the Early Jurassic, the depocenter was still at the front of the Longmen Shan belt but only northern regions (e.g., SQB and northern Yangtze block) fed the basin. The northern Sichuan basin received less sediments from the southern NCB and more from the SQB and northern Yangtze block during the Early Jurassic than during the Late Triassic. The middle Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, which likely originated from the North Qinling belt and northern Yangtze block where rocks with these zircons may be unexposed, occur more widely in the Lower Jurassic than in the Upper Triassic. These facts suggest that from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, it was increasingly difficult for sediments to transport from the NCB into the northern Sichuan basin and the provenance transferred progressively from the southern NCB to both the SQB and northern Yangtze block, implying the continuous South China block-NCB collision during that time.

  7. Evolution of the western East African Rift System reflected in provenance changes of Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments (Albertine Rift, Uganda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Sandra; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments in the Albertine Graben reflect the complex geodynamic evolution in the Western branch of the East African Rift System. In this study we focus on the provenance of these siliciclastic deposits to identify sediment sources and supply paths with the ultimate goal to reconstruct the exhumation history of different tectonic blocks during prolonged rifting, with specific focus on the uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda. We present framework and heavy mineral petrographic data combined with varietal studies of detrital garnet and rutile, based on logged sediment sections on the Ugandan side of Lake Albert (Kisegi-Nyabusosi area). The analyzed sedimentary units have a feldspatho-quartzose composition and distinct variations in heavy mineral assemblages and mineral chemical composition indicating two provenance changes. The Miocene part of the stratigraphy is dominated by garnet, zircon, tourmaline and rutile, whereas Pliocene to Pleistocene sediment yields high amounts of less stable amphibole and epidote. An abrupt switch in heavy mineral assemblages occurs during the early Pliocene ( 5.5-5.0 Ma) and clearly postdates the formation of Palaeolake Obweruka at 8 Ma. Provenance signatures point to major sediment supply from the northeast and subsequently from the southeast. We interpret this first shift as transition from the pre-rift to the syn-rift stage. In this scenario, formation of Palaeolake Obweruka is due to higher humidity in the upper Miocene, rather than forced rifting. A second change of sediment composition is documented by mineral geochemistry and coincides with fragmentation of Palaeolake Obweruka starting at 2.5 Ma. Detrital garnet in sediment of Miocene to Pliocene age is rich in pyrope and almandine and calculated Zr-in-rutile temperatures range between 550 and 950 °C. In contrast, garnet occurring in Pleistocene sediment (Nyabusosi Formation) has a higher spessartine component and rutile thermometry is

  8. Clay mineral contribution from various provenances in the northern South China Sea over the past 400 kyr: implications for the East Asian monsoon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Xie, Xin; Kissel, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Clay mineralogy of Core MD12-3432 taken at 2125 m water depth (CIRCEA cruise on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne, IPEV) in the northern South China Sea was investigated in order to understand the time series contribution of terrigenous sediments from various provenances. With calibration of a low-resolution analysis on carbonate concentration and major elements, we converted the XRF core scanned calcium data into a high-resolution carbonate content records. Through referring to the well-dated carbonate record of nearby Core MD05-2904, we established a reliable age model, indicating about 400 kyr ago at the bottom of Core MD12-3432. The clay mineral assemblage is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). The time series variation of clay mineral assemblages indicates strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity. In general, the variation in smectite content is similar to that of carbonate concentration, with higher values during interglacials than during glacials, while illite and chlorite contents showing opposite patterns. The change in kaolinite content shows an independent pattern with high values during glacials, corresponding well with the illite crystallinity variation. The provenance analysis of these clay minerals suggests three end-member sources: all smectites derive from Luzon, all kaolinites originate from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite are coming from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. Using the linear separation method of illite crystallinity, a time series of the clay mineral contribution from the three major provenances to the northern South China Sea was reconstructed. Combined with spectral analyses, we suggest the clay mineral contribution from Pearl River was mainly influenced by sea level change, while the East Asian summer monsoon controlled the contribution from Luzon. The strong precipitation rate related to intensive East Asian summer monsoon would have enhanced the denudation and

  9. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution…

  10. Biological evolution and behavioral evolution: two approaches to altruism.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Locey, Matthew L; Safin, Vasiliy

    2013-02-01

    Altruism may be learned (behavioral evolution) in a way similar to that proposed in the target article for its biological evolution. Altruism (over social space) corresponds to self-control (over time). In both cases, one must learn to ignore the rewards to a particular (person or moment) and behave to maximize the rewards to a group (of people or moments).

  11. Evolution of approaches to viral safety issues for biological products.

    PubMed

    Lubiniecki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Approaches to viral safety issues for biological products have evolved during the past 50+ years. The first cell culture products (viral vaccines) relied largely on the use of in vitro and in vivo virus screening assays that were based upon infectivity of adventitious viral agents. The use of Cohn fractionation and pasteurization by manufacturers of plasma derivatives introduced the concepts that purification and treatment with physical and chemical agents could greatly reduce the risk of viral contamination of human albumin and immunoglobulin products. But the limitations of such approaches became clear for thermolabile products that were removed early in fractionation such as antihemophilic factors, which transmitted hepatitis viruses and HIV-1 to some product recipients. These successes and limitations were taken into account by the early developers of recombinant DNA (rDNA)-derived cell culture products and by regulatory agencies, leading to the utilization of cloning technology to reduce/eliminate contamination due to human viruses and purification technologies to physically remove and inactivate adventitious and endogenous viruses, along with cell banking and cell bank characterization for adventitious and endogenous viruses, viral screening of biological raw materials, and testing of cell culture harvests, to ensure virus safety. Later development and incorporation of nanofiltration technology in the manufacturing process provided additional assurance of viral clearance for safety of biotechnology products. These measures have proven very effective at preventing iatrogenic infection of recipients of biotechnology products; however, viral contamination of production cell cultures has

  12. [Technological approach to insect anatomy and evolution].

    PubMed

    Fedoseeva, E B

    2008-01-01

    Principal disadvantage of most of the recent approaches to reconstructions of the insect evolution is due to comparison of the species by formal character sets with unknown functional relations. This leads to ignorance of the systemic nature of differences caused by integrity of the living beings. Under consideration is an alternative approach to description of the insect body construction based on A.M. Ugolev's concept of natural technologies. According to it, a morphological structure is a device designed for fulfilment of certain tasks. Therefore, a structure's characteristics have to fulfill the tasks' conditions. This approach is considered as applied to the systems of muscles and sclerits providing for vitally significant functions such as feeding, locomotion, communication, protection etc. Any such skeletal-muscle system is arranged hierarchically. A muscle together with its supporting sclerits is considered as a skeletal-muscle complex (SMC) capable for a mechanic action. Such SMCs, after respective muscle activations, are integrated into blocks responsible for the elementary tasks of the lower level of the motoric process. Each block can be formed by both a particular active SMC and by a group of biomechanical elements. Each block is considered mono-functional, unlike multifunctional SMCs, as it accomplishes a particular elementary task, namely displacement of a particular sclerit. Various compositions of blocks form subsystems corresponding to the higher level tasks. An aggregation of SMCs constituting the blocks accomplishing elementary actions is defined as the technological system designed for the motoric process. Organismic SMCs being compositionally constant, control over their activity serves as a mechanism of combining biomechanical elements. This mechanism is responsible for creation of a wide spectrum of motoric systems. SMCs' composition is changed in the course of evolution which is reflected into motoric parameters. Thus, certain

  13. A Proven Way to Incorporate Catholic Social Thought in Business School Curricula: Teaching Two Approaches to Management in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Widespread agreement suggests that it is appropriate and desirable to develop and teach business theory and practice consistent with Catholic social teaching (CST) in Catholic business schools. Such a curriculum would cover the same mainstream material taught in other business schools, but then offer a CST approach to business that can be…

  14. New approach to the differentiation of marble samples using thermal analysis and chemometrics in order to identify provenance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The possibility of applying a novel chemometric approach which could allow the differentiation of marble samples, all from different quarries located in the Mediterranean basin and frequently used in ancient times for artistic purposes, was investigated. By suggesting tentative or allowing to rule out unlikely attributions, this kind of differentiation could, indeed, be of valuable support to restorers and other professionals in the field of cultural heritage. Experimental data were obtained only using thermal analytical techniques: Thermogravimetry (TG), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Results The extraction of kinetic parameters from the curves obtained using these thermal analytical techniques allowed Activation Energy values to be evaluated together with the logarithm of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor of the main TG-DTG process. The main data thus obtained after subsequent chemometric evaluation (using Principal Components Analysis) have already proved useful in the identification the original quarry of a small number of archaeological marble finds. Conclusion One of the most evident advantages of the thermoanalytical – chemometric approach adopted seems to be that it allows the certain identification of an unknown find composed of a marble known to be present among the reference samples considered, that is, contained in the reference file. On the other hand with equal certainty it prevents the occurrence of erroneous or highly uncertain identification if the find being tested does not belong to the reference file considered. PMID:24982691

  15. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  16. A Cultural Evolution Approach to Digital Media.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Digital media have today an enormous diffusion, and their influence on the behavior of a vast part of the human population can hardly be underestimated. In this review I propose that cultural evolution theory, including both a sophisticated view of human behavior and a methodological attitude to modeling and quantitative analysis, provides a useful framework to study the effects and the developments of media in the digital age. I will first give a general presentation of the cultural evolution framework, and I will then introduce this more specific research program with two illustrative topics. The first topic concerns how cultural transmission biases, that is, simple heuristics such as "copy prestigious individuals" or "copy the majority," operate in the novel context of digital media. The existence of transmission biases is generally justified with their adaptivity in small-scale societies. How do they operate in an environment where, for example, prestigious individuals possess not-relevant skills, or popularity is explicitly quantified and advertised? The second aspect relates to fidelity of cultural transmission. Digitally-mediated interactions support cheap and immediate high-fidelity transmission, in opposition, for example, to oral traditions. How does this change the content that is more likely to spread? Overall, I suggest the usefulness of a "long view" to our contemporary digital environment, contextualized in cognitive science and cultural evolution theory, and I discuss how this perspective could help us to understand what is genuinely new and what is not.

  17. A Cultural Evolution Approach to Digital Media

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Digital media have today an enormous diffusion, and their influence on the behavior of a vast part of the human population can hardly be underestimated. In this review I propose that cultural evolution theory, including both a sophisticated view of human behavior and a methodological attitude to modeling and quantitative analysis, provides a useful framework to study the effects and the developments of media in the digital age. I will first give a general presentation of the cultural evolution framework, and I will then introduce this more specific research program with two illustrative topics. The first topic concerns how cultural transmission biases, that is, simple heuristics such as “copy prestigious individuals” or “copy the majority,” operate in the novel context of digital media. The existence of transmission biases is generally justified with their adaptivity in small-scale societies. How do they operate in an environment where, for example, prestigious individuals possess not-relevant skills, or popularity is explicitly quantified and advertised? The second aspect relates to fidelity of cultural transmission. Digitally-mediated interactions support cheap and immediate high-fidelity transmission, in opposition, for example, to oral traditions. How does this change the content that is more likely to spread? Overall, I suggest the usefulness of a “long view” to our contemporary digital environment, contextualized in cognitive science and cultural evolution theory, and I discuss how this perspective could help us to understand what is genuinely new and what is not. PMID:28018200

  18. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  19. Articulating Babel: An approach to cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, William C

    2013-12-01

    After an initial discussion of the character of interdisciplinary linkages between complex disciplines, I consider an area with confluences of many diverse disciplines-the study of cultural evolution. This must embrace not only the traditional biological sciences, but also the multiple often warring disciplines of the human sciences. This interdisciplinary articulation is in its early stages compared, e.g., to that of evolutionary biology or evolutionary developmental biology, and I try to lay out major axes along which its articulation should plausibly occur, given the relevant causal processes acting at different levels. One cannot have an adequate account of cultural evolution without recognizing a central role for cognitive and social development (since culture is cumulatively acquired by individuals through the life-cycle) and the social and cultural organizations and institutions and artifactual tools and infrastructure that support and structure these developmental processes. These induce a population structure that mediates the transmission, expression, and elaboration of culture, and in particular the different ways in which they scaffold learning and the development and articulation of complex skills. I consider how these elements should articulate the disciplines that tend to focus separately on them. Intentions and the market are not explicitly included in this account, and I consider ways in which these perspectives might enter.

  20. Evolution of a Teaching Approach for Beginning Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rakhi; Subramaniam, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article reports aspects of the evolution of a teaching approach over repeated trials for beginning symbolic algebra. The teaching approach emphasized the structural similarity between arithmetic and algebraic expressions and aimed at supporting students in making a transition from arithmetic to beginning algebra. The study was conducted with…

  1. Differential Evolution approach to detect recent admixture.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Konstantin; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Hassan, Mehedi; Triska, Martin; Triska, Petr; Flegontov, Pavel; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of human populations is extraordinarily complex and of fundamental importance to studies of anthropology, evolution, and medicine. As increasingly many individuals are of mixed origin, there is an unmet need for tools that can infer multiple origins. Misclassification of such individuals can lead to incorrect and costly misinterpretations of genomic data, primarily in disease studies and drug trials. We present an advanced tool to infer ancestry that can identify the biogeographic origins of highly mixed individuals. reAdmix can incorporate individual's knowledge of ancestors (e.g. having some ancestors from Turkey or a Scottish grandmother). reAdmix is an online tool available at http://chcb.saban-chla.usc.edu/reAdmix/.

  2. Experimental approaches to studying cumulative cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Christine A.; Atkinson, Mark; Renner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In humans, cultural traditions often change in ways which increase efficiency and functionality. This process, widely referred to as cumulative cultural evolution, sees beneficial traits preferentially retained, and it is so pervasive that we may be inclined to take it for granted. However, directional change of this kind appears to distinguish human cultural traditions from behavioural traditions that have been documented in other animals. Cumulative culture is therefore attracting an increasing amount of attention within psychology, and researchers have begun to develop methods of studying this phenomenon under controlled conditions. These studies have now addressed a number of different questions, including which learning mechanisms may be implicated, and how the resulting behaviours may be influenced by factors such as population structure. The current article provides a synopsis of some of these studies, and highlights some of the unresolved issues in this field. PMID:27397972

  3. Differential Evolution approach to detect recent admixture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of human populations is extraordinarily complex and of fundamental importance to studies of anthropology, evolution, and medicine. As increasingly many individuals are of mixed origin, there is an unmet need for tools that can infer multiple origins. Misclassification of such individuals can lead to incorrect and costly misinterpretations of genomic data, primarily in disease studies and drug trials. We present an advanced tool to infer ancestry that can identify the biogeographic origins of highly mixed individuals. reAdmix can incorporate individual's knowledge of ancestors (e.g. having some ancestors from Turkey or a Scottish grandmother). reAdmix is an online tool available at http://chcb.saban-chla.usc.edu/reAdmix/. PMID:26111206

  4. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  5. Evolution, Physics, and Cancer: Disrupting Traditional Approache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert

    Physicists who were recruited to try and assist with the stubbornly constant mortality rates of cancer world-wide over the past 100 years have basically had the invitation withdrawn by the oncology community. The oncologists became annoyed with the independence of thought and the skepticism of some physicists with continuation of the present paradigm of the cancer genome as the rosette stone as the key to cancer. To quote a recent letter in Physics Today: ``Curing cancer is a complex biological problem to be solved by biologists''. Apparently our mission as minions is is to be high-level technicians. But I think that is wrong and will lead to continuation of the string of failures and deceptions foisted on the public at large by the Medical Industrial Complex, I think we really need to re-think cancer as a phenomena which is driven by evolution and may be desired by the organism and be a product of both the aging of the proteome and the genome. Further, searching for mutations (The Cancer Genome) may be completely the wrong direction, searching for protected genes may be as important as looking for mutated genes. I'll try to present the case that physicists should not have been kicked out of the Medical Industrial Complex that keeps the cancer business humming and profitable.

  6. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  7. Provenance in Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.; Van Horn, John D.; Woods, Roger P.; Crawford, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image’s provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data. PMID:18519166

  8. The composition and provenance of the Tortonian and Messinian turbidites in the context of the structural evolution of the Central Apennines along the ``Ancona-Anzio'' line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiocchini, Ugo; Cipriani, Nicola

    1989-06-01

    The "Ancona-Anzio" line is a complex tectonic system separating the Umbro-Marchide domain from the Latium-Abruzzi platform in the Central Apennines. It played a decisive role in turbiditic sedimentation in the four Latium-Abruzzi basins (Salto, Tagliacozzo, Liri and Sacco) in the Tortonian and in the Laga basin during the Messinian. Petrographic studies show that the composition of the turbiditic sandstones is the same in all the basins. In particular: (1) K-feldspar is always present in greater quantities than plagioclase; (2) the rock fragments consist mainly of carbonates and granitic-type rocks. The provenance of the turbidites is to be found in the western areas, from a fragment of the Alpine Chain that was associated with the Ligurids nappes during the eastward migration of the Apennines deformation. This fragment was probably eroded gradually between the Langhian and the Lower Pliocene with the filling-in of the Laga Basin. The presence of clasts derived from the erosion of crystalline rocks and from the Ligurids nappes has been documented as early as the Langhian in the basin of the Marnoso-Arenacea. During the Tortonian, the Latium-Abruzzi platform was lower than the Umbro-Marchide region and the gravity flows with western provenance were able to feed the four basins formed within the platform. Between the end of the Tortonian and the beginning of the Messinian, the relative uplift of the Latium-Abruzzi platform, due to displacements along the "Ancona-Anzio" line, caused the cessation of turbiditic sedimentation in the basins formed within the platform. The progressive eastward shift of the Apennine Chain favoured the migration of turbiditic sedimentation towards the outer foreland Laga basin.

  9. Depositional and provenance record of the Paleogene transition from foreland to hinterland basin evolution during Andean orogenesis, northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Christopher J.; Horton, Brian K.; Caballero, Victor; Mora, Andrés; Parra, Mauricio; Sierra, Jair

    2011-10-01

    The Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera of the northern Andes form the topographic flanks of the north-trending Magdalena Valley Basin. Constraining the growth of these ranges and intervening basin has implications for Andean shortening and the transformation from a foreland to hinterland basin configuration. We present sedimentological, paleocurrent, and sandstone petrographic results from Cenozoic type localities to provide insights into the tectonic history of the northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin of Colombia. In the Nuevo Mundo Syncline, the mid-Paleocene transition from marine to nonmarine deposystems of the Lisama Formation corresponds with a paleocurrent shift from northward to eastward transport. These changes match detrital geochronological evidence for a contemporaneous shift from cratonic (Amazonian) to orogenic (Andean) provenance, suggesting initial shortening-related uplift of the Central Cordillera and foreland basin generation in the Magdalena Valley by mid-Paleocene time. Subsequent establishment of a meandering fluvial system is recorded in lower-middle Eocene strata of the lower La Paz Formation. Eastward paleocurrents in mid-Paleocene through uppermost Eocene fluvial deposits indicate a continuous influence of western sediment source areas. However, at the upper middle Eocene (˜40 Ma) boundary between the lower and upper La Paz Formation, sandstone compositions show a drastic decrease in lithic content, particularly lithic volcanic fragments. This change is accompanied by a facies shift from mixed channel and overbank facies to thick, amalgamated braided fluvial deposits of possible fluvial megafans, reflecting changes in both the composition and proximity of western sediment sources. We attribute these modifications to the growing influence of exhumed La Cira-Infantas paleohighs in the axial Magdalena Valley, features presently buried beneath upper Eocene-Quaternary basin fill along the western flank of the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. In

  10. Empirical approaches to the study of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-02-01

    The study of language evolution, and human cognitive evolution more generally, has often been ridiculed as unscientific, but in fact it differs little from many other disciplines that investigate past events, such as geology or cosmology. Well-crafted models of language evolution make numerous testable hypotheses, and if the principles of strong inference (simultaneous testing of multiple plausible hypotheses) are adopted, there is an increasing amount of relevant data allowing empirical evaluation of such models. The articles in this special issue provide a concise overview of current models of language evolution, emphasizing the testable predictions that they make, along with overviews of the many sources of data available to test them (emphasizing comparative, neural, and genetic data). The key challenge facing the study of language evolution is not a lack of data, but rather a weak commitment to hypothesis-testing approaches and strong inference, exacerbated by the broad and highly interdisciplinary nature of the relevant data. This introduction offers an overview of the field, and a summary of what needed to evolve to provide our species with language-ready brains. It then briefly discusses different contemporary models of language evolution, followed by an overview of different sources of data to test these models. I conclude with my own multistage model of how different components of language could have evolved.

  11. Current approaches in evolution: from molecules to cells and organisms.

    PubMed

    Thattai, Mukund; Peisajovich, Sergio G

    2014-11-01

    This is an exciting time to be an evolutionary biologist. Indeed, it is difficult to keep up with all the studies that fall under the broad category of "Evolution" since they span species, traits, and scales of organization. This special issue gives a flavor of exciting new approaches in evolutionary biology, but also emphasizes universal themes. The reviews contained here discuss important aspects of molecular evolution at multiple scales, from individual proteins to complex regulatory networks, as well as from unicellular organisms to macroscopic traits in animals. Though the model systems are diverse, the issues addressed are fundamental: the origin of evolutionary novelties, and the forces that drive them to fixation.

  12. The evolution of water transport in plants: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Pittermann, J

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the evolution of the plant vascular system from its beginnings in the green algae to modern arborescent plants, highlighting the recent advances in developmental, organismal, geochemical and climatological research that have contributed to our understanding of the evolution of xylem. Hydraulic trade-offs in vascular structure-function are discussed in the context of canopy support and drought and freeze-thaw stress resistance. This qualitative and quantitative neontological approach to palaeobotany may be useful for interpreting the water-transport efficiencies and hydraulic limits in fossil plants. Large variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are recorded in leaf stomatal densities, and may have had profound impacts on the water conservation strategies of ancient plants. A hypothesis that links vascular function with stomatal density is presented and examined in the context of the evolution of wood and/or vessels. A discussion of the broader impacts of plant transport on hydrology and climate concludes this review.

  13. The provenance of rutile.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    Most coarse detrital rutile is derived from high-grade metamorphic rocks. Contrary to a conventional assumption, independent rutile grains are particularly rare in igneous rocks except alkalic rocks. The use of rutile in the zircon-tourmaline-rutile index of mineralogic maturity is only partially valid, owing to its restricted provenance. -Author

  14. Innocent Until Proven Guilty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Catherine; Whitaker, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this…

  15. Proven in vitro evolution of protease cathepsin E-inhibitors and -activators at pH 4.5 using a paired peptide method.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Koichiro; Komatsu, Masayuki; Biyani, Madhu; Futakami, Masae; Kawakubo, Tomoyo; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    Improving a particular function of molecules is often more difficult than identifying such molecules ab initio. Here, a method to acquire higher affinity and/or more functional peptides was developed as a progressive library selection method. The primary library selection products were utilized to build a secondary library composed of blocks of 4 amino acids, of which selection led to peptides with increased activity. These peptides were further converted to randomly generate paired peptides. Cathepsin E-inhibitors thus obtained exhibited the highest activities and affinities (pM order). This was also the case with cathepsin E-activating peptides, proving the methodological effectiveness. The primary, secondary, and tertiary library selections can be regarded as module-finding, module-shuffling, and module-pairing, respectively, which resembles the progression of the natural evolution of proteins. The mode of peptide binding to their target proteins is discussed in analogy to antibodies and epitopes of an antigen.

  16. Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety — Evolution and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for the detection of oxygen in industrial safety applications has historically been met by electrochemical technologies based on the consumption of metal anodes. Products using this approach have been technically and commercially successful for more than three decades. However, a combination of new requirements is driving the development of alternative approaches offering fresh opportunities and challenges. This paper reviews some key aspects in the evolution of consumable anode products and highlights recent developments in alternative technologies aimed at meeting current and anticipated future needs in this important application. PMID:24681673

  17. Sandstone provenance and tectonic evolution of the Xiukang Mélange from Neotethyan subduction to India-Asia collision (Yarlung-Zangbo suture, south Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Wei; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Xiukang Mélange of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone in south Tibet documents low efficiency of accretion along the southern active margin of Asia during Cretaceous Neotethyan subduction, followed by final development during the early Paleogene stages of the India-Asia collision. Here we investigate four transverses in the Xigaze area (Jiding, Cuola Pass, Riwuqi and Saga), inquiry the composition in each transverse, and present integrated petrologic, U-Pb detrital-zircon geochronology and Hf isotope data on sandstone blocks. In fault contact with the Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite to the north and the Tethyan Himalaya to the south, the Xiukang mélange can be divided into three types: serpentinite-matrix mélange composed by broken Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite, thrust-sheets consisting mainly chert, quartzose or limestone sheets(>100m) with little intervening marix, and mudstone-matrix mélange displaying typical blocks-in-matrix texture. While serpentinite-matrix mélange is exposed adjacent to the ophiolite, distributions of thrust-sheets and blocks in mudstone-matrix mélange show along-strike diversities. For example, Jiding transverse is dominant by chert sheets and basalt blocks with scarcely sandstone blocks, while Cuola Pass and Saga transverses expose large amounts of limestone/quartzarenite sheets in the north and volcaniclastic blocks in the south. However, turbidite sheets and volcaniclastic blocks are outcropped in the north Riwuqi transverse with quartzarenite blocks preserved in the south. Three groups of sandstone blocks/sheets with different provenance and depositional setting are distinguished by their petrographic, geochronological and isotopic fingerprints. Sheets of turbiditic quartzarenite originally sourced from the Indian continent were deposited in pre-Cretaceous time on the northernmost edge of the Indian passive margin and eventually involved into the mélange at the early stage of the India-Asia collision. Two distinct groups of volcaniclastic

  18. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  19. Multi-Model approach to reconstruct the Mediterranean Freshwater Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Dirk; Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Lunt, Dan; Hilgen, Frits; Meijer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Today the Mediterranean Sea is isolated from the global ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar. This restricted nature causes the Mediterranean basin to react more sensitively to climatic and tectonic related phenomena than the global ocean. Not just eustatic sea-level and regional river run-off, but also gateway tectonics and connectivity between sub-basins are leaving an enhanced fingerprint in its geological record. To understand its evolution, it is crucial to understand how these different effects are coupled. The Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record of the Mediterranean shows alternations in composition and colour and has been astronomically tuned. Around the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary the most extreme changes occur in the Mediterranean Sea. About 6% of the salt in the global ocean deposited in the Mediterranean Region, forming an approximately 2 km thick salt layer, which is still present today. This extreme event is named the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33 Ma). The gateway and climate evolution is not well constrained for this time, which makes it difficult to distinguish which of the above mentioned drivers might have triggered the MSC. We, therefore, decided to tackle this problem via a multi-model approach: (1) We calculate the Mediterranean freshwater evolution via 30 atmosphere-ocean-vegetation simulations (using HadCM3L), to which we fitted to a function, using a regression model. This allows us to directly relate the orbital curves to evaporation, precipitation and run off. The resulting freshwater evolution can be directly correlated to other sedimentary and proxy records in the late Miocene. (2) By feeding the new freshwater evolution curve into a box/budget model we can predict the salinity and strontium evolution of the Mediterranean for a certain Atlantic-Mediterranean gateway. (3) By comparing these results to the known salinity thresholds of gypsum and halite saturation of sea water, but also to the late Miocene Mediterranean strontium

  20. A systematic approach to design for lifelong aircraft evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dongwook

    This research proposes a systematic approach with which the decision makers can evaluate the value and risk of a new aircraft development program, including potential derivative development opportunities. The proposed Evaluation of Lifelong Vehicle Evolution (EvoLVE) method is a two- or multi-stage representation of the aircraft design process that accommodates initial development phases as well as follow-on phases. One of the key elements of this method is the Stochastic Programming with Recourse (SPR) technique, which accounts for uncertainties associated with future requirements. The remedial approach of SPR in its two distinctive problem-solving steps is well suited to aircraft design problems where derivatives, retrofits, and upgrades have been used to fix designs that were once but no longer optimal. The solution approach of SPR is complemented by the Risk-Averse Strategy Selection (RASS) technique to gauge risk associated with vehicle evolution options. In the absence of a full description of the random space, a scenario-based approach captures the randomness with a few probable scenarios and reveals implications of different future events. Last, an interactive framework for decision-making support allows simultaneous navigation of the current and future design space with a greater degree of freedom. A cantilevered beam design problem was set up and solved using the SPR technique to showcase its application to an engineering design setting. The full EvoLVE method was conducted on a notional multi-role fighter based on the F/A-18 Hornet.

  1. Sm-Nd isotopic study of Precambrian/Cambrian sedimentary provenance in the Great Basin and implications for the tectonic evolution of the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nd isotopic compositions and Sm-Nd model ages were determined for 14 Precambrian to Cambrian clastic miogeoclinal and 2 Lower Paleozoic eugeoclinal metasedimentary rocks in the Great Basin to determine the sediment source regions and constrain the tectonic evolution of the western margin of the continental US Upper Precambrian (McCoy Creek Group-MCG) and Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal sandstones and shales have homogeneous 147SM/144Nd values (.110 to .119) but show a regional variation in measured element of/sub Nd/, from values of -18 and -26 (T/sub DM/=1.9 and 2.5Ga) in the Pilot and Ruby Ranges in N. Nevada, to values clustering at -11 and -18 (T/sub DM/=1.3 and 1.9Ga) in the Deep Creek and Schell Creek Ranges in the east-central Great Basin. The isotopic variations in the MCG correspond spatially to changes in the element of/sub ND/(0) and T/sub DM/ Precambrian basement adjacent to the miogeocline, suggesting that the MCG were derived from these crustal terranes and were deposited close to the paleocontinental margin of the western US. An element of/sub Nd/(0)=22.14 (T/sub DM/=2.1 Ga) for deeper water miogeoclinal sediment in the southern Great Basin (Wyman Fm-White Mountains, California) requires a source either in nearby T/sub DM/=2.2Ga crust in the S. Sierra Nevada (Bennett and DePaolo, 1984), or in T/sub DM/>2.0Ga crustal terranes to the north, with the sediment having been transported southward via Precambrian longshore currents. Feldspathic sandstone of the Cambrian Harmony Formation in north-central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-25.22 (T/sub DM/=2.4Ga), consistent with a northerly source in Archean crust of present-day Idaho, while Ordovician shale of the Vinini Fm. in central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-17.6, identical to values for the MCG exposed directly to the east.

  2. Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N

    2011-03-01

    Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.

  3. Cell line provenance.

    PubMed

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  4. Semantic Workflows and Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While sharing and disseminating data is widely practiced across scientific communities, we have yet to recognize the importance of sharing and disseminating the analytic processes that leads to published data. Data retrieved from shared repositories and archives is often hard to interpret because we lack documentation about those processes: what models were used, what assumptions were made, what calibrations were carried out, etc. This process documentation is also key to aggregate data in a meaningful way, whether aggregating shared third party data or aggregating shared data with local sensor data collected by individual investigators. We suggest that augmenting published data with process documentation would greatly enhance our ability to find, reuse, interpret, and aggregate data and therefore have a significant impact in the utility of data repositories and archives. We will show that semantic workflows and provenance provide key technologies for capturing process documentation. Semantic workflows describe the kinds of data transformation and analysis steps used to create new data products, and can include useful constraints about why specific models were selected or parameters chosen. Provenance records can be used to publish workflow descriptions in standard formats that can be reused to enable verification and reproducibility of data products.

  5. Laughter as an approach to vocal evolution: The bipedal theory.

    PubMed

    Provine, Robert R

    2017-02-01

    Laughter is a simple, stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that is ideal for the study of vocal evolution. The basic approach of describing the act of laughter and when we do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social, linguistic, and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, the punctuation effect (which describes the placement of laughter in conversation and indicates the dominance of speech over laughter), and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. Especially notable is the use of laughter to discover why humans can speak and other apes cannot. Quadrupeds, including our primate ancestors, have a 1:1 relation between breathing and stride because their thorax must absorb forelimb impacts during running. The direct link between breathing and locomotion limits vocalizations to short, simple utterances, such as the characteristic panting chimpanzee laugh (one sound per inward or outward breath). The evolution of bipedal locomotion freed the respiration system of its support function during running, permitting greater breath control and the selection for human-type laughter (a parsed exhalation), and subsequently the virtuosic, sustained, expiratory vocalization of speech. This is the basis of the bipedal theory of speech evolution.

  6. Analytical Approach to Eigen-Emittance Evolution in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Boaz; /SLAC

    2006-05-16

    This dissertation develops the subject of beam evolution in storage rings with nearly uncoupled symplectic linear dynamics. Linear coupling and dissipative/diffusive processes are treated perturbatively. The beam distribution is assumed Gaussian and a function of the invariants. The development requires two pieces: the global invariants and the local stochastic processes which change the emittances, or averages of the invariants. A map based perturbation theory is described, providing explicit expressions for the invariants near each linear resonance, where small perturbations can have a large effect. Emittance evolution is determined by the damping and diffusion coefficients. The discussion is divided into the cases of uniform and non-uniform stochasticity, synchrotron radiation an example of the former and intrabeam scattering the latter. For the uniform case, the beam dynamics is captured by a global diffusion coefficient and damping decrement for each eigen-invariant. Explicit expressions for these quantities near coupling resonances are given. In many cases, they are simply related to the uncoupled values. Near a sum resonance, it is found that one of the damping decrements becomes negative, indicating an anti-damping instability. The formalism is applied to a number of examples, including synchrobetatron coupling caused by a crab cavity, a case of current interest where there is concern about operation near half integer {nu}{sub x}. In the non-uniform case, the moment evolution is computed directly, which is illustrated through the example of intrabeam scattering. Our approach to intrabeam scattering damping and diffusion has the advantage of not requiring a loosely-defined Coulomb Logarithm. It is found that in some situations there is a small difference between our results and the standard approaches such as Bjorken-Mtingwa, which is illustrated by comparison of the two approaches and with a measurement of Au evolution in RHIC. Finally, in combining IBS

  7. A Systems Approach to Physiologic Evolution: From Micelles to Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Torday, John S; Miller, William B

    2017-01-23

    A systems approach to evolutionary biology offers the promise of an improved understanding of the fundamental principles of life through the effective integration of many biologic disciplines. It is presented that any critical integrative approach to evolutionary development involves a paradigmatic shift in perspective, more than just the engagement of a large number of disciplines. Critical to this differing viewpoint is the recognition that all biological processes originate from the unicellular state and remain permanently anchored to that phase throughout evolutionary development despite their macroscopic appearances. Multicellular eukaryotic development can therefore be viewed as a series of connected responses to epiphenomena that proceeds from that base in continuous iterative maintenance of collective cellular homeostatic equipoise juxtaposed against an ever-changing and challenging environment. By following this trajectory of multicellular eukaryotic evolution from within unicellular First Principles of Physiology forward, the mechanistic nature of complex physiology can be identified through a step-wise analysis of a continuous arc of vertebrate evolution based upon serial exaptations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Provenance Context Entity (PaCE): Scalable Provenance Tracking for Scientific RDF Data.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Bodenreider, Olivier; Hitzler, Pascal; Sheth, Amit; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) format is being used by a large number of scientific applications to store and disseminate their datasets. The provenance information, describing the source or lineage of the datasets, is playing an increasingly significant role in ensuring data quality, computing trust value of the datasets, and ranking query results. Current provenance tracking approaches using the RDF reification vocabulary suffer from a number of known issues, including lack of formal semantics, use of blank nodes, and application-dependent interpretation of reified RDF triples. In this paper, we introduce a new approach called Provenance Context Entity (PaCE) that uses the notion of provenance context to create provenance-aware RDF triples. We also define the formal semantics of PaCE through a simple extension of the existing RDF(S) semantics that ensures compatibility of PaCE with existing Semantic Web tools and implementations. We have implemented the PaCE approach in the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR) project at the US National Library of Medicine. The evaluations demonstrate a minimum of 49% reduction in total number of provenance-specific RDF triples generated using the PaCE approach as compared to RDF reification. In addition, performance for complex queries improves by three orders of magnitude and remains comparable to the RDF reification approach for simpler provenance queries.

  9. Preparing Biology Teachers to Teach Evolution in a Project-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle; Park Rogers, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a project-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching evolution to inform efforts in teacher preparation. Data analysis of a secondary biology educator teaching evolution through a PBL approach illuminated: (1) active student voice, which allowed students to reflect on their positioning on evolution and consider multiple…

  10. Melt inclusions in detrital spinel from the SE Alps (Italy-Slovenia): a new approach to provenance studies of sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaz, Davide; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Crawford, Anthony J.; Princivalle, Francesco

    Detrital spinel is a widespread heavy mineral in sandstones from the Maastrichtian-Middle Eocene sedimentary basins in the SE Alps. Chemistry of detrital spinels from the Claut/Clauzetto and Julian Basins (N Italy and NW Slovenia) is used to constrain petrological and geochemical affinities and tectonic provenance of the source rocks. In addition, we have analysed melt inclusion compositions in the detrital volcanic spinels to better constrain the nature of their parental magmas. This is the first study of melt inclusions in detrital spinels. Two principal compositional groups of detrital spinels are recognised based on their TiO2 and Fe2+/Fe3+; one derived from peridotites, the other from basaltic volcanics. Peridotitic spinels are more abundant and have TiO2<0.2wt% and high Cr/Cr+Al (40-90), characteristic of suprasubduction zone harzburgites. Significant chemical variations among volcanic spinels (TiO2 up to 3wt%, Al2O3 12-44wt%) suggest multiple sources, with geochemically distinct characteristics, including MORB-type and backarc basin basalts, subduction-related magmas and tholeiites produced during early continental rifting. Compositions of homogenised melt inclusions in spinels with TiO2>0.2 better distinguish the differences between the compositions of their host spinels and help to further clarify the geodynamic provenance of extrusive source rocks. Several compositional groups of melt inclusions have been recognised and represent diverse magmatism of marginal basins, including MORB- and subduction-related geochemical types, as well as magmas characteristic of early continental rifting. These results, combined with the data on regional ophiolitic complexes and tectonic reconstructions favour the Internal Dinarides of Yugoslavia as a possible source area for the SE Alps sediments.

  11. Chebyshev matrix product state approach for time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Kolley, Fabian; McCulloch, Ian P.

    2015-09-01

    We present and test a new algorithm for time-evolving quantum many-body systems initially proposed by Holzner et al. [Phys. Rev. B 83, 195115 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.195115]. The approach is based on merging the matrix product state (MPS) formalism with the method of expanding the time-evolution operator in Chebyshev polynomials. We calculate time-dependent observables of a system of hardcore bosons quenched under the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian on a one-dimensional lattice. We compare the new algorithm to more standard methods using the MPS architecture. We find that the Chebyshev method gives numerically exact results for small times. However, the reachable times are smaller than the ones obtained with the other state-of-the-art methods. We further extend the new method using a spectral-decomposition-based projective scheme that utilizes an effective bandwidth significantly smaller than the full bandwidth, leading to longer evolution times than the nonprojective method and more efficient information storage, data compression, and less computational effort.

  12. Time Evolution of Pulsar Magnetosphere: An Implicit Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, Sushilkumar; Schlegel, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    In this project we attempt to understand the structure of pulsar magnetosphere, its dynamics and evolution. This is done by developing a computationally intense implicit finite difference (FD) approach, under the approximation of force-free electrodynamics. Recent studies have suggested an important role of current sheets (CS) in pulsar spin down mechanisms. However, its contribution to high energy emissions, flux outflow, acceleration sites and mechanisms are not completely understood. A better resolution of CS will play a significant role in our understanding of local and global structure of the magnetosphere, which is the main objective of this work. In this first of a series of studies, we demonstrate and verify the existence of CS thereby supporting the Contopoulos et al. (CKF, 1999) type magnetosphere. This is important as CKF type magnetosphere is the new benchmark in pulsar modelling. The implementation of resistivity approach and its superiority over the traditional explicit approach will be addressed. The implicit formulation in the high conductivity limit will improve our understanding of the magnetosphere where copious amount of plasma is generated. Once a consistent global structure of the magnetosphere is addressed we will identify the local models and sites to understand the acceleration mechanisms responsible for high energy emission which dominates pulsar emission.

  13. Relational Neural Evolution Approach to Bank Failure Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Abudu, Bolanle; Markose, Sheri

    2007-12-26

    Relational neural networks as a concept offers a unique opportunity for improving classification accuracy by exploiting relational structure in data. The premise is that a relational classification technique, which uses information implicit in relationships, should classify more accurately than techniques that only examine objects in isolation. In this paper, we study the use of relational neural networks for predicting bank failure. Alongside classical financial ratios normally used as predictor variables, we introduced new relational variables for the network. The relational neural network structure, specified as a combination of feed forward and recurrent neural networks, is determined by bank data through neuro-evolution. We discuss empirical results comparing performance of the relational approach to standard propositional methods used for bank failure prediction.

  14. A systemic approach for modeling biological evolution using Parallel DEVS.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Daniel; Sanz, Victorino; Urquia, Alfonso; Sandín, Máximo

    2015-08-01

    A new model for studying the evolution of living organisms is proposed in this manuscript. The proposed model is based on a non-neodarwinian systemic approach. The model is focused on considering several controversies and open discussions about modern evolutionary biology. Additionally, a simplification of the proposed model, named EvoDEVS, has been mathematically described using the Parallel DEVS formalism and implemented as a computer program using the DEVSLib Modelica library. EvoDEVS serves as an experimental platform to study different conditions and scenarios by means of computer simulations. Two preliminary case studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model and validate its results. EvoDEVS is freely available at http://www.euclides.dia.uned.es.

  15. Relational Neural Evolution Approach to Bank Failure Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudu, Bolanle; Markose, Sheri

    2007-12-01

    Relational neural networks as a concept offers a unique opportunity for improving classification accuracy by exploiting relational structure in data. The premise is that a relational classification technique, which uses information implicit in relationships, should classify more accurately than techniques that only examine objects in isolation. In this paper, we study the use of relational neural networks for predicting bank failure. Alongside classical financial ratios normally used as predictor variables, we introduced new relational variables for the network. The relational neural network structure, specified as a combination of feed forward and recurrent neural networks, is determined by bank data through neuro-evolution. We discuss empirical results comparing performance of the relational approach to standard propositional methods used for bank failure prediction.

  16. Tracking fluvial response to climate change in the Pacific Northwest: a combined provenance approach using Ar and Nd isotopic systems on fine-grained sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLaningham, Sam; Duncan, Robert A.; Pisias, Nicklas G.; Graham, David W.

    2008-03-01

    Traditional provenance techniques (Nd isotopes and clay mineralogy) are combined with recently developed bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar radiometric methods to determine how the terrestrial sources of sediment to the Oregon continental margin have changed over the last 25,000 years. Both Pacific Northwest river-borne detritus, and sediment from piston coring site EW9504-17PC (2671 m water depth) offshore southern Oregon have been analyzed. Nd isotopic analyses of river silts show a range of 10 units in ɛNd. North of the core site, the Columbia River has ɛNd=-7.6, while the Coos River has a value of ɛNd=-10.8. Rivers proximal to the core site have more radiogenic values from north to south, of ɛNd=-5.0 (Umpqua River), ɛNd=-1.3 (Rogue River), ɛNd=-0.6 (Klamath River) and ɛNd=-3.0 (Eel River). Measured ɛNd in core sediments show subtle downcore changes, between ɛNd=-0.9 and -2.5. The bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar plateau ages show more notable downcore variation between 25 and 14 ka, ranging from 113.5 to 124.0 Ma, but are still within the range of bulk ages previously measured on river mouth sediments. The Nd isotopic analyses are combined with bulk sediment 40Ar- 39Ar plateau ages into a ternary mixing model to quantitatively assess the sources of terrigenous material. Mixtures are best described by three sources proximal to the core site (the Umpqua, Rogue+Klamath and Eel Rivers) from ˜14 ka to Present. Sediment deposited in the interval from 22 to 25 ka is not adequately described by the present-day rivers and requires an additional source. This additional source is best explained by an enhanced contribution from the interior Cascade volcanic arc, probably due to glaciation in the Cascade Range and the presence of pluvial Lake Modoc in the Upper Klamath Basin at this time. From 22 to 14 ka, the influence of Cascade Range sediment at the core site was overprinted by contemporaneous glaciation and sediment production in the Klamath Mountains, and possibly addition of

  17. Tracking Provenance of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.

  18. A quantitative approach to evolution of music and philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Travieso, Gonzalo; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    The development of new statistical and computational methods is increasingly making it possible to bridge the gap between hard sciences and humanities. In this study, we propose an approach based on a quantitative evaluation of attributes of objects in fields of humanities, from which concepts such as dialectics and opposition are formally defined mathematically. As case studies, we analyzed the temporal evolution of classical music and philosophy by obtaining data for 8 features characterizing the corresponding fields for 7 well-known composers and philosophers, which were treated with multivariate statistics and pattern recognition methods. A bootstrap method was applied to avoid statistical bias caused by the small sample data set, with which hundreds of artificial composers and philosophers were generated, influenced by the 7 names originally chosen. Upon defining indices for opposition, skewness and counter-dialectics, we confirmed the intuitive analysis of historians in that classical music evolved according to a master-apprentice tradition, while in philosophy changes were driven by opposition. Though these case studies were meant only to show the possibility of treating phenomena in humanities quantitatively, including a quantitative measure of concepts such as dialectics and opposition, the results are encouraging for further application of the approach presented here to many other areas, since it is entirely generic.

  19. Provenance through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reproduce scientific results is a cornerstone of the scientific method, and access to the data upon which the results are based is essential to reproducibility. Access to the data alone is not enough though, and research communities have recognized the importance of metadata (data documentation) to enable discovery and data access, and facilitate interpretation and accurate reuse. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was first funded in late 2006 by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biology and Chemistry Sections to help ensure that data generated during NSF OCE funded research would be preserved and available for future use. The BCO-DMO was formed by combining the formerly independent data management offices of two marine research programs: the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS) and the US GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics (US GLOBEC) program. Since the US JGOFS and US GLOBEC programs were both active (1990s) there have been significant changes in all aspects of the research data life cycle, and the staff at BCO-DMO has modified the way in which we manage data contributed to the office. The supporting documentation that describes each dataset was originally displayed as a human-readable text file retrievable via a Web browser. BCO-DMO still offers that form because our primary audience is marine researchers using Web browser clients; however we are seeing an increased demand to support machine client access. Metadata records from the BCO-DMO data system are now extracted and published out in a variety of formats. The system supports ISO 19115, FGDC, GCMD DIF, schema.org Dataset extension, formal publication with a DOI, and RDF with semantic markup including PROV-O, FOAF and more. In the 1990s, data documentation helped researchers locate data of interest and understand the provenance sufficiently to determine fitness for purpose. Today, providing data

  20. A Geochemical and Mineralogical Approach for the Identification of Provenance of Stone Implements and Tempers in Ceramics from the Area of Mirabello in East Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsikouras, B.; Dierckx, H. M. C.; Nodarou, E.; Papoutsa, A. D.; Hatzipanagiotou, K.

    2009-04-01

    , intermediate to acid plutonic rocks occur in several outcrops in the eastern and central parts of Crete. Amphibolites and amphibolite schists are sourced in three distinct nappes occurring in Crete: the Miamou Unit, which represents an ophiolite mélange, the Phyllite-Quartzite series that contains various low to medium grade metamorphic schists and phyllites and the Asteroussia Nappe which includes medium to high grade metamorphic rocks. Several rock-samples were collected for petrographic investigation and macroscopic comparison with the stone implements, as well as for mineralogical analysis. Numerous microanalyses were performed in certain key-minerals while X-ray diffractograms were also obtained from the intermediate to acid plutonic rocks. Our results show significant chemical differences among the various lithologies. Especially amphiboles and feldspars can serve as excellent mineral indicators for provenance analysis. Through the use of various compositional plots we managed to differentiate the sources of the raw materials used for the manufacture of stone tools and those of the tempers used for pottery manufacture. We believe that we created a powerful tool in order to investigate the raw material provenance for ground stone tools and the presence and range of interaction of the various pottery workshops operating in the area of Mirabello in East Crete over a period of almost two millennia.

  1. Provenance of the Miocene Alto Tunuyán Basin (33°40‧S, Argentina) and its implications for the evolution of the Andean Range: Insights from petrography and U-Pb LA-ICPMS zircon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, Hernán; Pinto, Luisa; Tunik, Maisa; Giambiagi, Laura; Deckart, Katja

    2016-10-01

    The Alto Tunuyán Foreland Basin in western Argentina is located immediately south of the flat-slab segment of the Central Andes and its evolution is directly related to the propagation of structures to the east. Petrographic and geochronologic studies have been performed to determine the provenance of syntectonic sediments in the basin in order to establish their relationship to the Andean orogenic activity. The analysed detrital and igneous zircons in contrast with previous data, allow us to restrict the basin age between ca. 15 and 6 Ma. Sandstones record two main contributions, one from andesitic volcanic rocks and the other from an acidic igneous source, the first probably corresponding to Miocene volcanic rocks from the Principal Cordillera (Farellones Formation) and the second to Permo-Triassic, acidic, igneous rocks from the Frontal Cordillera (Choiyoi Magmatic Province, CMP). Two secondary sources have been recorded, sedimentary and metamorphic; the first one is represented by Mesozoic rocks in the Principal Cordillera and the second by the Proterozoic/early Carboniferous Guarguaráz Complex (GC) in the Frontal Cordillera, respectively. Sandstones from the lower basin deposits (15-11 Ma) register supply pulses from the Farellones Formation reflecting the unroofing of the Principal Cordillera by uplift pulses during the middle Miocene. Sandstones from the upper basin deposits (ca. 11-9 Ma) record an increase in material derived from the CMP, reflecting important uplift of the Frontal Cordillera. A thick, ca. 9 Ma old ignimbrite within the basin indicates an eruption in the Frontal Cordillera. Detrital zircons from the CMP have been detected also in the lower basin deposits, suggesting either recycling of Mesozoic deposits containing CMP zircons or an early paleorelief of the Frontal Cordillera. The good correlation between the age of the detrital zircons of the CMP and the GC in the lower basin deposits supports recycling of Mesozoic sedimentary deposits.

  2. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    PubMed

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    researchers, are also critically analysed and further categorised into four different classes, namely, optical aberrations based, sensor camera fingerprints based, processing statistics based and processing regularities based, to present a classification. Furthermore, this paper aims to investigate the challenging problems, and the proposed strategies of such schemes based on the suggested taxonomy to plot an evolution of the source camera attribution approaches with respect to the subjective optimisation criteria over the last decade. The optimisation criteria were determined based on the strategies proposed to increase the detection accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency of source camera brand, model or device attribution.

  3. Interpreting Evidence: An Approach to Teaching Human Evolution in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilva, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Paleoanthropology, which is the study of human evolution through fossil records, can be used as a tool for teaching human evolution in the classrooms. An updated approach to teaching human evolution and a model for explaining what is science and how it is done, is presented.

  4. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  5. Evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo: A landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Devès, Maud H; King, Geoffrey C P; Bailey, Geoffrey N; Inglis, Robyn H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The notion of the physical landscape as an arena of ecological interaction and human evolution is a powerful one, but its implementation at larger geographical and temporal scales is hampered by the challenges of reconstructing physical landscape settings in the geologically active regions where the earliest evidence is concentrated. We argue that the inherently dynamic nature of these unstable landscapes has made them important agents of biological change, creating complex topographies capable of selecting for, stimulating, obstructing or accelerating the latent and emerging properties of the human evolutionary trajectory. We use this approach, drawing on the concepts and methods of active tectonics, to develop a new perspective on the origins and dispersal of the Homo genus. We show how complex topography provides an easy evolutionary pathway to full terrestrialisation in the African context, and would have further equipped members of the genus Homo with a suite of adaptive characteristics that facilitated wide-ranging dispersal across ecological and climatic boundaries into Europe and Asia by following pathways of complex topography. We compare this hypothesis with alternative explanations for hominin dispersal, and evaluate it by mapping the distribution of topographic features at varying scales, and comparing the distribution of early Homo sites with the resulting maps and with other environmental variables.

  6. A Novel Approach to Constraining Uncertain Stellar Evolution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Girardi, Leo; Dalcanton, Julianne; Johnson, L. C.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Bressan, Alessandro; Fouesneau, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Stellar evolution models are fundamental to nearly all studies in astrophysics. They are used to interpret spectral energy distributions of distant galaxies, to derive the star formation histories of nearby galaxies, and to understand fundamental parameters of exoplanets. Despite the success in using stellar evolution models, some important aspects of stellar evolution remain poorly constrained and their uncertainties rarely addressed. We present results using archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of 10 stellar clusters in the Magellanic Clouds to simultaneously constrain the values and uncertainties of the strength of core convective overshooting, metallicity, interstellar extinction, cluster distance, binary fraction, and age.

  7. A Scientific Approach to Teaching about Evolution and Special Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson that addresses the scientific aspects of the evolution versus special creation controversy by having students gather evidence from the fossil record and analyze that evidence using critical-thinking skills. Contains 13 references. (WRM)

  8. Formation and evolution of galaxies: Analytical and numerical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2001-08-01

    The effects of viscosity and clumpiness are investigated in the context of the formation and the dynamical evolution of galaxies by analytical models and numerical simulations. The major motivation of this investigation is to study how these two factors can alter the angular momentum behavior of the galaxies formed in the bottom-up formation scenario as indicated by the hierarchical CDM cosmology. We analytically modify the standard disk formation model to incorporate the effect of viscous evolution. We derive generic analytic solutions for the disk-halo system after adiabatic compression of the dark halo, with free choice of the input virialized dark halo density profile and of the specific angular momentum distribution. We derive limits on the final density profile of the halo in the central regions due to the condensation of gas. The viscous evolution can redistribute angular momentum distribution by driving material inwards to form a proto- bulge which can be formed by the bar instability in the proto-disk, and by spreading gas to large radius to form pure exponential stellar disk if the viscous evolution timescale and star formation timescale are similar. The `disk-halo' conspiracy is found to be formed better by the disk-halo interaction during the viscous evolution of disk. We investigate the relationship between the assumed initial conditions, such as halo `formation', or assembly, redshift zf, spin parameter λ, baryonic fraction F, and final disk properties such as global star formation timescale, gas fraction, and bulge-to-disk ratio. We find that the present properties of disks, such as the scale length, are compatible with a higher initial formation redshift if the re-distribution by viscous evolution is included than if it is ignored. The numerical simulations confirm many results derived in the analytical model. Further it is found that pure viscous evolution can be unstable. Possibly feedback from star formation is required to maintain a stable

  9. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  10. A Problem-Solving Approach To the Teaching of Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes a research program that provides insight into the nature of phylogenetic problems and problem-solving methods and how these might be applied to teaching evolution. Contains a new description of the nature of phylogenetic problems and factors contributing to their difficulty. (AIM)

  11. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  12. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    This book explores the development of creoles and other new languages, highlighting conceptual and methodological issues for genetic linguistics and discussing the significance of ecologies that influence language evolution. It presents examples of changes in the structure, function, and vitality of languages, suggesting that similar ecologies…

  13. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    SciTech Connect

    Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-06-06

    Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.

  14. Convergence of Galerkin approximations for operator Riccati equations: A nonlinear evolution equation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, I. G.

    1988-01-01

    An approximation and convergence theory was developed for Galerkin approximations to infinite dimensional operator Riccati differential equations formulated in the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators on a separable Hilbert space. The Riccati equation was treated as a nonlinear evolution equation with dynamics described by a nonlinear monotone perturbation of a strongly coercive linear operator. A generic approximation result was proven for quasi-autonomous nonlinear evolution system involving accretive operators which was then used to demonstrate the Hilbert-Schmidt norm convergence of Galerkin approximations to the solution of the Riccati equation. The application of the results was illustrated in the context of a linear quadratic optimal control problem for a one dimensional heat equation.

  15. Predicting Thermal Conductivity Evolution of Polycrystalline Materials Under Irradiation Using Multiscale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-03-01

    A multiscale methodology was developed to predict the evolution of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline fuel under irradiation. In the mesoscale level, phase field model was used to predict the evolution of gas bubble microstructure. Generation of gas atoms and vacancies were taken into consideration. In the macroscopic scale, a statistical continuum mechanics model was applied to predict the anisotropic thermal conductivity evolution during irradiation. Microstructure predicted by phase field model was fed into statistical continuum mechanics model to predict properties and behavior. Influence of irradiation intensity, exposition time and morphology were investigated. This approach provides a deep understanding on microstructure evolution and property prediction from a basic scientific viewpoint.

  16. Evolution of photosynthetic prokaryotes: a maximum-likelihood mapping approach.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Jason; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Gogarten, J Peter; Blankenship, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the early evolution of photosynthesis has been guided in part by the geological record, but the complexity and great antiquity of these early events require molecular genetic techniques as the primary tools of inference. Recent genome sequencing efforts have made whole genome data available from representatives of each of the five phyla of bacteria with photosynthetic members, allowing extensive phylogenetic comparisons of these organisms. Here, we have undertaken whole genome comparisons using maximum likelihood to compare 527 unique sets of orthologous genes from all five photosynthetic phyla. Substantiating recent whole genome analyses of other prokaryotes, our results indicate that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a significant part in the evolution of these organisms, resulting in genomes with mosaic evolutionary histories. A small plurality phylogenetic signal was observed, which may be a core of remnant genes not subject to HGT, or may result from a propensity for gene exchange between two or more of the photosynthetic organisms compared. PMID:12594930

  17. Approach of Complex-Systems Biology to Reproduction and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    Two basic issues in biology - the origin of life and evolution of phenotypes - are discussed on the basis of statistical physics and dynamical systems. In section "A Bridge Between Catalytic Reaction Networks and Reproducing Cells", we survey recent developments in the origin of reproducing cells from an ensemble of catalytic reactions. After surveying several models of catalytic reaction networks briefly, we provide possible answers to the following three questions: (1) How are nonequilibrium states sustained in catalytic reaction dynamics? (2) How is recursive production of a cell maintaining composition of a variety of chemicals possible? (3) How does a specific molecule species carry information for heredity? In section "Evolution", general relationships between plasticity, robustness, and evolvability are presented in terms of phenotypic fluctuations. First, proportionality between evolution speed, phenotypic plasticity, and isogenic phenotypic fluctuation is proposed by extending the fluctuation-response relationship in physics. We then derive a general proportionality relationship between the phenotypic fluctuations of epigenetic and genetic origin: the former is the variance of phenotype due to noise in the developmental process, and the latter due to genetic mutation. The relationship also suggests a link between robustness to noise and to mutation. These relationships are confirmed in models of gene expression dynamics, as well as in laboratory experiments, and then are explained by a theory based on an evolutionary stability hypothesis For both sections "A Bridge Between Catalytic Reaction Networks and Reproducing Cells" and "Evolution", consistency between two levels of hierarchy (i.e., molecular and cellular, or genetic and phenotypic levels) is stressed as a principle for complex-systems biology.

  18. Biological evolution of replicator systems: towards a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Osmel; Horvath, J E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study the features of a simple replicator chemical model of the relation between kinetic stability and entropy production under the action of external perturbations. We quantitatively explore the different paths leading to evolution in a toy model where two independent replicators compete for the same substrate. To do that, the same scenario described originally by Pross (J Phys Org Chem 17:312-316, 2004) is revised and new criteria to define the kinetic stability are proposed. Our results suggest that fast replicator populations are continually favored by the effects of strong stochastic environmental fluctuations capable to determine the global population, the former assumed to be the only acting evolution force. We demonstrate that the process is continually driven by strong perturbations only, and that population crashes may be useful proxies for these catastrophic environmental fluctuations. As expected, such behavior is particularly enhanced under very large scale perturbations, suggesting a likely dynamical footprint in the recovery patterns of new species after mass extinction events in the Earth's geological past. Furthermore, the hypothesis that natural selection always favors the faster processes may give theoretical support to different studies that claim the applicability of maximum principles like the Maximum Metabolic Flux (MMF) or Maximum Entropy Productions Principle (MEPP), seen as the main goal of biological evolution.

  19. Secure Location Provenance for Mobile Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    provenance records. The WORAL framework is based a secure asserted location proof protocol and location provenance preservation methods for generating...5 2.6 Secure Location Provenance Protocol ...6 Figure 2: Sequence diagram for WORAL protocol

  20. An approach of community evolution based on gravitational relationship refactoring in dynamic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guisheng; Chi, Kuo; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an approach of community evolution based on gravitational relationship refactoring between the nodes in a dynamic network is proposed, and it can be used to simulate the process of community evolution. A static community detection algorithm and a dynamic community evolution algorithm are included in the approach. At first, communities are initialized by constructing the core nodes chains, the nodes can be iteratively searched and divided into corresponding communities via the static community detection algorithm. For a dynamic network, an evolutionary process is divided into three phases, and behaviors of community evolution can be judged according to the changing situation of the core nodes chain in each community. Experiments show that the proposed approach can achieve accuracy and availability in the synthetic and real world networks.

  1. Understanding bias in provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Malusà, Marco; Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Innumerable pieces of information are stored in the sedimentary archive. Each single sediment layer contains billions of detrital grains, and every grain preserves imprints of its geological story. If we learn to read, compare, and combine these messages properly, through a deeper understanding of physical and chemical processes that modify sediment composition during the sedimentary cycle, provenance analysis may eventually enable us to reconstruct more accurately the geological processes that shaped the Earth's crust in the past. Interpreting detrital modes is not straightforward because provenance signals issued from source rocks become progressively blurred by multiple noises in the sedimentary environment ("environmental bias"; Komar, 2007), and finally during post-depositional history ("diagenetic bias"; Morton and Hallsworth, 2007). During transport and deposition, detrital minerals are segregated in different size fractions and environments according to their size, density and shape (Rubey, 1933; Garzanti et al., 2008). Heavy-mineral concentration can increase by an order of magnitude due to selective-entrainment effects, with potentially overwhelming impact on chemical composition and provenance estimates based on detrital-geochronology data (Garzanti et al., 2009). Conversely, heavy-mineral concentration is typically reduced by an order of magnitude in Alpine and Himalayan foreland-basin deposits older than the Pleistocene (Garzanti and Andò, 2007). Extensive chemical dissolution can occur even prior to deposition during weathering in hot humid climates (Velbel, 2007). Primary provenance signals can be isolated and assessed by studying first modern sediments in hyperarid settings (i.e., free from diagenetic and weathering bias). Next, weathering, hydraulic-sorting, and diagenetic effects can be singled out by analysing sediments of similar provenance produced in contrasting climatic conditions, sediments transported in diverse modes and deposited in

  2. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  3. Protein Engineering by Combined Computational and In Vitro Evolution Approaches.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lior; Heyne, Michael; Shifman, Julia M; Papo, Niv

    2016-05-01

    Two alternative strategies are commonly used to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and to engineer protein-based inhibitors. In one approach, binders are selected experimentally from combinatorial libraries of protein mutants that are displayed on a cell surface. In the other approach, computational modeling is used to explore an astronomically large number of protein sequences to select a small number of sequences for experimental testing. While both approaches have some limitations, their combination produces superior results in various protein engineering applications. Such applications include the design of novel binders and inhibitors, the enhancement of affinity and specificity, and the mapping of binding epitopes. The combination of these approaches also aids in the understanding of the specificity profiles of various PPIs.

  4. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We analyze and compare PAV with related approaches, namely Provenance Vocabulary (PRV), DC Terms and BIBFRAME. We identify similarities and analyze differences between those vocabularies and PAV, outlining strengths and weaknesses of our proposed model. We specify SKOS mappings that align PAV with DC Terms. We conclude the paper with general remarks on the applicability of PAV. PMID:24267948

  5. Provenance Data in Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    socialmedia-assam- migrants -idINDEE87K09120120821, accessed on Oct, 2012. 12http://www.w3.org/, accessed on May 25, 2012. 1.6. IN SEARCH OF PROVENANCE...NETWORK INFORMATION had the propagation started from them, it would have caused an information reception state similar to the one observed. Prakash et al...started from them, it would have caused an information reception state similar to the one observed. Although effectors are not necessarily the sources of

  6. Phylogenetic approach to the evolution of color term systems.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Hannah J; Bowern, Claire

    2016-11-29

    The naming of colors has long been a topic of interest in the study of human culture and cognition. Color term research has asked diverse questions about thought and communication, but no previous research has used an evolutionary framework. We show that there is broad support for the most influential theory of color term development (that most strongly represented by Berlin and Kay [Berlin B, Kay P (1969) (Univ of California Press, Berkeley, CA)]); however, we find extensive evidence for the loss (as well as gain) of color terms. We find alternative trajectories of color term evolution beyond those considered in the standard theories. These results not only refine our knowledge of how humans lexicalize the color space and how the systems change over time; they illustrate the promise of phylogenetic methods within the domain of cognitive science, and they show how language change interacts with human perception.

  7. Evolution of Cool Close Binaries - Approach to Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępień, K.

    2011-06-01

    As a part of a larger project, a set of 27 evolutionary models of cool close binaries was computed under the assumption that their evolution is influenced by the magnetized winds blowing from both components. Short period binaries with the initial periods of 1.5 d, 2.0 d and 2.5 d were considered. For each period three values of 1.3 Msun, 1.1 Msun and 0.9 Msun were taken as the initial masses of the more massive components. The initial masses of the less massive components were adjusted to avoid extreme mass ratios. Here the results of the computations of the first evolutionary phase are presented, which starts from the initial conditions and ends when the more massive component reaches its critical Roche lobe. In all considered cases this phase lasts for several Gyr. For binaries with the higher total mass and/or longer initial periods this time is equal to, or longer than the main sequence life time of the more massive component. For the remaining binaries it amounts to a substantial fraction of this life time. From the statistical analysis of models, the predicted period distribution of detached binaries with periods shorter than 2 d was obtained and compared to the observed distribution from the ASAS data. An excellent agreement was obtained under the assumption that the period distribution in this range is determined solely by magnetic braking (MB), i.e., the mass and angular momentum loss due to the magnetized winds, as considered in the present paper. This result indicates, in particular, that virtually all cool detached binaries with periods of a few tenths of a day, believed to be the immediate progenitors of W UMa-type stars, were formed from young detached systems with periods around 2-3 d. MB is the dominant formation mechanism of cool contact binaries. It operates on the time scale of several Gyr rendering them rather old, with age of 6-10 Gyr. The results of the present analysis will be used as input data to investigate the subsequent evolution of the

  8. The Open Provenance Model: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Freire, Juliana; Futrelle, Joe; McGrath, Robert E.; Myers, Jim; Paulson, Patrick R.

    2008-11-19

    The Open Provenance Model (OPM) is a model for provenance that is designed to meet the following requirements: { To allow provenance information to be exchanged between systems, by means of a compatibility layer based on a shared provenance model. { To allow developers to build and share tools that operate on such provenance model. { To dene the model in a precise, technology-agnostic manner. { To support a digital representation of provenance for any \\thing", whether produced by computer systems or not. { To dene a core set of rules that identify the valid inferences that can be made on provenance graphs.

  9. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I.

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  10. Random Matrix Approach to Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulatov, Alexei; Smelyanskiy, Vadier N.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the power of quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms (Q-QA) for solving random NP-hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on the random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of the driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that the failure mechanism of the QAA is due to the interaction of the ground state with the "cloud" formed by all the excited states, confirming that in the driven RMT models. the Landau-Zener mechanism of dissipation is not important. We show that the QAEA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters. implying the polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAEA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the Gaussian Unitary RMT ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. However, the driven RMT model always leads to the exponential complexity of the algorithm due to the presence of the long-range intertemporal correlations of the eigenvalues. Our results indicate that the weakness of effective transitions is the leading effect that can make the Markovian type QAEA successful.

  11. Computational Approaches to Viral Evolution and Rational Vaccine Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2006-10-01

    Viral pandemics, including HIV, are a major health concern across the world. Experimental techniques available today have uncovered a great wealth of information about how these viruses infect, grow, and cause disease; as well as how our body attempts to defend itself against them. Nevertheless, due to the high variability and fast evolution of many of these viruses, the traditional method of developing vaccines by presenting a heuristically chosen strain to the body fails and an effective intervention strategy still eludes us. A large amount of carefully curated genomic data on a number of these viruses are now available, often annotated with disease and immunological context. The availability of parallel computers has now made it possible to carry out a systematic analysis of this data within an evolutionary framework. I will describe, as an example, how computations on such data has allowed us to understand the origins and diversification of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS. On the practical side, computations on the same data is now being used to inform choice or defign of optimal vaccine strains.

  12. File level provenance tracking in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.D.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Riley, D.S.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2009-05-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimize the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  13. Bridging Inter- and Intraspecific Trait Evolution with a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach.

    PubMed

    Kostikova, Anna; Silvestro, Daniele; Pearman, Peter B; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of organisms is crucially dependent on the evolution of intraspecific variation. Its interactions with selective agents in the biotic and abiotic environments underlie many processes, such as intraspecific competition, resource partitioning and, eventually, species formation. Nevertheless, comparative models of trait evolution neither allow explicit testing of hypotheses related to the evolution of intraspecific variation nor do they simultaneously estimate rates of trait evolution by accounting for both trait mean and variance. Here, we present a model of phenotypic trait evolution using a hierarchical Bayesian approach that simultaneously incorporates interspecific and intraspecific variation. We assume that species-specific trait means evolve under a simple Brownian motion process, whereas species-specific trait variances are modeled with Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. After evaluating the power of the method through simulations, we examine whether life-history traits impact evolution of intraspecific variation in the Eriogonoideae (buckwheat family, Polygonaceae). Our model is readily extendible to more complex scenarios of the evolution of inter- and intraspecific variation and presents a step toward more comprehensive comparative models for macroevolutionary studies.

  14. [Modern evolutional developmental biology: mechanical and molecular genetic or phenotypic approaches?].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, É I

    2010-01-01

    Heightened interest in the evolutionary problems of developmental biology in the 1980s was due to the success of molecular genetics and disappointment in the synthetic theory of evolution, where the chapters of embryology and developmental biology seem to have been left out. Modern evo-devo, which turned out to be antipodean to the methodology of the synthetic theory of evolution, propagandized in the development of evolutionary problems only the mechanical and molecular genetic approach to the evolution of ontogenesis, based on cellular and intercellular interactions. The phonotypical approach to the evaluation of evolutionary occurrences in ontogenesis, which aids in the joining of the genetic and epigenetic levels of research, the theory of natural selection, the nomogenetic conception, and the problem of the wholeness of the organism in onto- and phylogenesis may be against this. The phenotypic approach to ontogenesis is methodologically the most perspective for evolutionary developmental biology.

  15. Random matrix approach to quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V.N.

    2005-05-15

    We analyze the power of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm (QAA) for solving random computationally hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that nonadiabatic corrections in the QAA are due to the interaction of the ground state with the 'cloud' formed by most of the excited states, confirming that in driven RMT models, the Landau-Zener scenario of pairwise level repulsions is not relevant for the description of nonadiabatic corrections. We show that the QAA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters, implying a polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the RMT Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. For this reason, the driven GUE model can also lead to polynomial complexity of the QAA. The main contribution to the failure probability of the QAA comes from the nonadiabatic corrections to the eigenstates, which only depend on the absolute values of the transition amplitudes. Due to the mapping between the two models, these absolute values are the same in both cases. Our results indicate that this 'phase irrelevance' is the leading effect that can make both the Markovian- and GUE-type QAAs successful.

  16. Phylogenomic Insights into Mouse Evolution Using a Pseudoreference Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sarver, Brice A.J.; Keeble, Sara; Cosart, Ted; Tucker, Priscilla K.; Dean, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies are now possible across a broad range of evolutionary timescales, but the generation and analysis of genomic data across many different species still present a number of challenges. The most sophisticated genotyping and down-stream analytical frameworks are still predominantly based on comparisons to high-quality reference genomes. However, established genomic resources are often limited within a given group of species, necessitating comparisons to divergent reference genomes that could restrict or bias comparisons across a phylogenetic sample. Here, we develop a scalable pseudoreference approach to iteratively incorporate sample-specific variation into a genome reference and reduce the effects of systematic mapping bias in downstream analyses. To characterize this framework, we used targeted capture to sequence whole exomes (∼54 Mbp) in 12 lineages (ten species) of mice spanning the Mus radiation. We generated whole exome pseudoreferences for all species and show that this iterative reference-based approach improved basic genomic analyses that depend on mapping accuracy while preserving the associated annotations of the mouse reference genome. We then use these pseudoreferences to resolve evolutionary relationships among these lineages while accounting for phylogenetic discordance across the genome, contributing an important resource for comparative studies in the mouse system. We also describe patterns of genomic introgression among lineages and compare our results to previous studies. Our general approach can be applied to whole or partitioned genomic data and is easily portable to any system with sufficient genomic resources, providing a useful framework for phylogenomic studies in mice and other taxa. PMID:28338821

  17. Scapular dyskinesia: evolution towards a systems-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Historically, scapular dyskinesia has been used to describe an isolated clinical entity whereby an abnormality in positioning, movement or function of the scapula is present. Based upon this, treatment approaches have focused on addressing local isolated muscle activity. Recently, however, there has been a progressive move towards viewing the scapula as being part of a wider system of movement that is regulated and controlled by multiple factors, including the wider kinetic chain and individual patient-centred requirements. We therefore propose a paradigm shift whereby scapular dyskinesia is seen not in isolation but is considered within the broader context of patient-centred care and an entire neuromuscular system. PMID:27583003

  18. Detrital zircon record of Paleozoic and Mesozoic meta-sedimentary strata in the eastern part of the Baoshan block: Implications of their provenance and the tectonic evolution of the southeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Chen, Yuelong; Hou, Kejun; Lu, Zhen; Cui, Di

    2015-06-01

    The Baoshan block is one of the important members in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Cambrian to Jurassic (meta-) sedimentary strata and their metamorphic counterparts were well preserved in the eastern part of the Baoshan block. Zircon U-Pb dating, trace elements, and Hf isotope data for both the Cambrian to Jurassic (meta-) sedimentary sequences and the Lincang granite were used to deduce the provenance of sediments and crustal affinity with eastern Gondwanaland. The Lincang granite outcropped in the Fengqing area is typical S-type, with crystallization age of ~ 230 Ma and narrow range of zircon εHf(t) values from - 15.5 to - 10. Detrital zircons from Paleozoic strata range in age from Archean to early Paleozoic, with age peaks at ~ 2.5, ~ 0.95, and ~ 0.6 Ga. Triassic age peak (~ 230 Ma) was also detected in the Jurassic strata. Detrital zircon εHf(t) values exhibit a wide range from negative to positive for each of the four major age groups, showing the host magma of zircons from these groups have diverse sources. The Baoshan block should be along the Indian margin as the Qiangtang, Tengchong and Simao-Indochina blocks in Early Paleozoic based on the provenance analyses. Sediment inputs eroded from both the Lincang granite and the coeval igneous rocks in the Baoshan and Gongshan blocks were the dominant contributions to the Jurassic strata after the amalgation of the Baoshan and Simao-Indochina blocks. Tectonic processes linking dispersion of the Baoshan-Sibumasu terrane from the Gondwana supercontinent to the collision with the Simao-Indochina block and the deposition of the Cambrian to Jurassic sedimentary sequences were reconstructed.

  19. Evolution of Minimally Invasive Approaches to the Sella and Parasellar Region

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Robert G.; Eisenberg, Amy; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester; Kelly, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Given advancements in endoscopic image quality, instrumentation, surgical navigation, skull base closure techniques, and anatomical understanding, the endonasal endoscopic approach has rapidly evolved into a widely utilized technique for removal of sellar and parasellar tumors. Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke cleft cysts constitute the majority of lesions removed via this route, craniopharyngiomas, clival chordomas, parasellar meningiomas, and other lesions are increasingly removed using this approach. Paralleling the evolution of the endonasal route to the parasellar region, the supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy has also been increasingly used as an alternative minimally invasive approach to reach this skull base region. Similar to the endonasal route, the supraorbital route has been greatly facilitated by advances in endoscopy, along with development of more refined, low-profile instrumentation and surgical navigation technology. Objectives This review, encompassing both transcranial and transsphenoidal routes, will recount the high points and advances that have made minimally invasive approaches to the sellar region possible, the evolution of these approaches, and their relative indications and technical nuances. Data Synthesis The literature is reviewed regarding the evolution of surgical approaches to the sellar region beginning with the earliest attempts and emphasizing technological advances, which have allowed the evolution of the modern technique. The surgical techniques for both endoscopic transsphenoidal and supraorbital approaches are described in detail. The relative indications for each approach are highlighted using case illustrations. Conclusions Although tremendous advances have been made in transitioning toward minimally invasive transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to the sella, further work remains to be done. Together, the endonasal endoscopic and the supraorbital endoscope-assisted approaches are complementary

  20. Preventing Exploits Against Software of Uncertain Provenance (PEASOUP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    results of the research and development of PEASOUP (Preventing Exploits Against Software of Uncertain Provenance), a technology that enables the safe...Preventing Exploits Against Software of Uncertain Provenance), a technology that enables the safe execution of software executables. PEASOUP...Products and Transferable Technology 5 2.2 Use of Third-Party COTS Products 7 2.3 Overview of the Technical Approach and Plan 8 2.4 2.4.1 The (Offline

  1. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  2. An interdisciplinary systems approach to study sperm physiology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Linda Z; Nascimento, Jaclyn; Botvinick, Elliot; Durrant, Barbara; Berns, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Optical trapping is a noninvasive biophotonic tool that has been developed to study the physiological and biomechanical properties of cells. The custom-designed optical system is built to direct near-infrared laser light into an inverted microscope to create a single-point three-dimensional gradient laser trap at the microscope focal point. A real-time automated tracking and trapping system (RATTS) is described that provides a remote user-friendly robotic interface. The combination of laser tweezers, fluorescent imaging, and RATTS can measure sperm swimming speed and swimming force simultaneously with mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The roles of two sources of adenosine triphosphate in sperm motility/energetics are studied: oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs in the mitochondria located in the sperm midpiece, and glycolysis, which occurs along the length of the sperm tail (flagellum). The effects of glucose, oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors, and glycolytic inhibitors on human sperm motility are studied. This combination of photonic physical and engineering tools has been used to examine the evolutionary effect of sperm competition in primates. The results demonstrate a correlation between mating type and sperm motility: sperm from polygamous (multi-partner) primate species swim faster and with greater force than sperm from polygynous (single partner) primate species. In summary, engineering and biological systems are combined to provide a powerful interdisciplinary approach to study the complex biological systems that drive the sperm toward the egg.

  3. How can a multimodal approach to primate communication help us understand the evolution of communication?

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Liebal, Katja; Burrows, Anne M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2013-07-18

    Scientists studying the communication of non-human animals are often aiming to better understand the evolution of human communication, including human language. Some scientists take a phylogenetic perspective, where the goal is to trace the evolutionary history of communicative traits, while others take a functional perspective, where the goal is to understand the selection pressures underpinning specific traits. Both perspectives are necessary to fully understand the evolution of communication, but it is important to understand how the two perspectives differ and what they can and cannot tell us. Here, we suggest that integrating phylogenetic and functional questions can be fruitful in better understanding the evolution of communication. We also suggest that adopting a multimodal approach to communication might help to integrate phylogenetic and functional questions, and provide an interesting avenue for research into language evolution.

  4. Data Provenance in Photogrammetry Through Documentation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, N.; Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; de Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Suma, R.

    2016-06-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogrammetric workflow. We propose this pipeline, with descriptors to track all phases of digital product creation in order to assure data provenance and enable the validation of the operations from an analytic and production perspective. The approach aims to support adopters of the workflow to define procedures with a long term perspective. The conceptual schema we present is founded on an analysis of information and actor exchanges in the digitisation process. The metadata were defined through the synthesis of previous proposals in this area and were tested on a case study. We performed the digitisation of a set of cultural heritage artefacts from an Iron Age burial in Ilmendorf, Germany. The objects were captured and processed using different techniques, including a comparison of different imaging tools and algorithms. This augmented the complexity of the process allowing us to test the flexibility of the schema for documenting complex scenarios. Although we have only presented a photogrammetry digitisation scenario, we claim that our schema is easily applicable to a multitude of 3D documentation processes.

  5. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  6. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Vallender, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies, the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for 14 different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior, and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution whereas polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities whereas others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era, the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today.

  7. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    more formally in data journals. Use of the SPARQL 1.1 standard allows queries to be federated across these endpoints to create a distributed network of provenance documents. Future research directions will add further nodes to the federated network of oceanographic research cruise provenance to determine the true scalability of this approach, and will involve analysis of and possible evolution of the data release lifecycle ontology. References Nitin Arora et al., 2006. Information object design pattern for modeling domain specific knowledge. 1st ECOOP Workshop on Domain-Specific Program Development. Simon Cox, 2015. Pitfalls in alignment of observation models resolved using PROV as an upper ontology. Abstract IN33F-07 presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 14-18 December, San Francisco. Adam Leadbetter & Justin Buck, 2015. Where did my data layer come from?" The semantics of data release. Geophysical Research Abstracts 17, EGU2015-3746-1. Xiaogang Ma et al., 2014. Ontology engineering in provenance enablement for the National Climate Assessment. Environmental Modelling & Software 61, 191-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.08.002

  8. From Back-arc Drifting to Arc Accretion: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Guerrero Terrane Recorded by a Major Provenance Change in Sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios Garcia, N. B.; Martini, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Guerrero terrane composed of Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous arc assemblages, were drifted from the North American continental mainland during lower Early Cretaceous spreading in the Arperos back arc basin, and subsequently accreted back to the continental margin in the late Aptian. Although the accretion of the Guerrero terrane represents one of the major tectonic processes that shaped the southern North American Pacific margin, the stratigraphic record related to such a regional event was not yet recognized in central Mexico. Due to the Sierra de los Cuarzos is located just 50 km east of the Guerrero terrane suture belt, its stratigraphic record should be highly sensitive to first order tectonic changes and would record a syn-tectonic deposits related to this major event. In that study area, were identified two main Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic units. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation represents the lowermost exposed stratigraphic record. Sedimentary structures, sandstones composition, and U-Pb detrital zircon ages document that the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation reflects a vigorous mass wasting along the margin of the North American continental mainland, representing the eastern side of the Arperos back arc basin. Sandstones of the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation are free from detrital contributions related to the Guerrero terrane juvenile sources, indicating that the Arperos Basin acted like an efficient sedimentological barrier that inhibited the influence of the arc massifs on the continental mainland deposits. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation is overlain by submarine slope deposits of the Pelones formation, which mark a sudden change in the depositional conditions. Provenance analysis documents that sandstones from the Pelones formation were fed by the mafic to intermediate arc assemblages of the Guerrero terrane, as well as by quartz-rich sources of the continental mainland, suggesting that, by the time of deposition of the Pelones

  9. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance.

    PubMed

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-03-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data.

  10. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B.; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-01-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data. PMID:27570843

  11. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  12. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  13. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  14. Orbiting binary black hole evolutions with a multipatch high order finite-difference approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pazos, Enrique; Tiglio, Manuel; Duez, Matthew D.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2009-07-15

    We present numerical simulations of orbiting black holes for around 12 cycles, using a high order multipatch approach. Unlike some other approaches, the computational speed scales almost perfectly for thousands of processors. Multipatch methods are an alternative to adaptive mesh refinement, with benefits of simplicity and better scaling for improving the resolution in the wave zone. The results presented here pave the way for multipatch evolutions of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries, where high resolution grids are needed to resolve details of the matter flow.

  15. Special Issue: The First Provenance Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Altintas, Ilkay; Barga, Roger S.; Bowers, Shawn; Callahan, Steven P.; Chin, George; Clifford, Ben; Cohen, Shirley; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Davidson, Susan; Deelman, Ewa; digiampietri, Luciano; Foster, Ian T.; Freire, Juliana; Frew, James; Futrelle, Joe; Gibson, Tara D.; Gil, Yolanda; Goble, Carole; Golbeck, Jennifer; Groth, Paul; Holland, David A.; Jiang, Sheng; Kim, Jihie; Koop, David; Krenek, Ales; McPhillips, Timothy; Mehta, Gaurang; Miles, Simon; Metzger, Dominic; Munroe, Steve; Myers, James D.; Plale, Beth A.; Podhorszki, norbert; Ratnakar, Varun; Emanuele , Santos; scheidegger, Carlos E.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Seltzer, Margo I.; Simmhan, Yogesh L.; Claudio, Silva T.; Slaughter, Peter; Stephan, Eric G.; Stevens, Robert; Turi, Daniele; Vo, Huy T.; Wilde, Mike J.; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2008-04-01

    The first Provenance Challenge was set up in order to provide a forum for the community to help understand the capabilities of different provenance systems and the expressiveness of their provenance representations. To this end, a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging workflow was defined, which participants had to either simulate or run in order to produce some provenance representation, from which a set of identified queries had to be implemented and executed. Sixteen teams responded to the challenge, and submitted their inputs. In this paper, we present the challenge workflow and queries, and summarise the participants contributions.

  16. Shuffled complex evolution approach for effective and efficient surface wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xianhai; Tang, Li; Lv, Xiaochun; Fang, Hongping; Gu, Hanming

    2012-05-01

    Inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves is challenging for most local-search methods due to its high nonlinearity and to its multimodality. In this paper, we proposed and tested a new Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion scheme called the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) approach, which is based on a synthesis of four global optimization strategies that have proved successful for global optimization: (a) combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches; (b) the strategy of clustering; (c) systematic evolution of a complex of points spanning the space, in the direction of global improvement; and (d) competitive evolution. Incorporating these four global optimization strategies into the inverse procedure greatly enhances the performance of the SCE method because these steps not only can effectively locate the promising areas in the solution space for a global minimum but also avoid its wandering near the global minimum in the final stage of search. The proposed inverse procedure was applied to nonlinear inversion of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves for near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. The calculation efficiency and stability of the inversion scheme are tested on four synthetic models and a real-world example from a waste disposal site in NE Italy. A comparative analysis with genetic algorithms (GA), marginal posterior probability density (MPPD) estimation, and simulated annealing (SA) is also made in the present study to further evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Results from both synthetic and actual field data demonstrate that shuffled complex evolution algorithm promises to be robust, effective, and efficient for high-frequency surface wave analysis.

  17. Anatomical diversity and regressive evolution in trichomanoid filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae): a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Hennequin, Sabine; Bary, Sophie; Ebihara, Atsushi; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie

    2011-12-01

    To infer the anatomical evolution of the Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns) and to test previously suggested scenarios of regressive evolution, we performed an exhaustive investigation of stem anatomy in the most variable lineage of the family, the trichomanoids, using a representative sampling of 50 species. The evolution of qualitative and quantitative anatomical characters and possibly related growth-forms was analyzed using a maximum likelihood approach. Potential correlations between selected characters were then statistically tested using a phylogenetic comparative method. Our investigations support the anatomical homogeneity of this family at the generic and sub-generic levels. Reduced and sub-collateral/collateral steles likely derived from an ancestral massive protostele, and sub-collateral/collateral types appear to be related to stem thickness reduction and root apparatus regression. These results corroborate the hypothesis of regressive evolution in the lineage, in terms of morphology as well as anatomy. In addition, a heterogeneous cortex, which is derived in the lineage, appears to be related to a colonial strategy and likely to a climbing phenotype. The evolutionary hypotheses proposed in this study lay the ground for further evolutionary analyses that take into account trichomanoid habitats and accurate ecological preferences.

  18. Intergranular Strain Evolution During Biaxial Loading: A Multiscale FE-FFT Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, M. V.; Capek, J.; Van Petegem, S.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2017-03-01

    Predicting the macroscopic and microscopic mechanical response of metals and alloys subjected to complex loading conditions necessarily requires a synergistic combination of multiscale material models and characterization techniques. This article focuses on the use of a multiscale approach to study the difference between intergranular lattice strain evolution for various grain families measured during in situ neutron diffraction on dog bone and cruciform 316L samples. At the macroscale, finite element simulations capture the complex coupling between applied forces and gauge stresses in cruciform geometries. The predicted gauge stresses are used as macroscopic boundary conditions to drive a mesoscale full-field elasto-viscoplastic fast Fourier transform crystal plasticity model. The results highlight the role of grain neighborhood on the intergranular strain evolution under uniaxial and equibiaxial loading.

  19. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its “culture-bound” status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:26538854

  20. Provenance Storage, Querying, and Visualization in PBase

    SciTech Connect

    Kianmajd, Parisa; Ludascher, Bertram; Missier, Paolo; Chirigati, Fernando; Wei, Yaxing; Koop, David; Dey, Saumen

    2015-01-01

    We present PBase, a repository for scientific workflows and their corresponding provenance information that facilitates the sharing of experiments among the scientific community. PBase is interoperable since it uses ProvONE, a standard provenance model for scientific workflows. Workflows and traces are stored in RDF, and with the support of SPARQL and the tree cover encoding, the repository provides a scalable infrastructure for querying the provenance data. Furthermore, through its user interface, it is possible to: visualize workflows and execution traces; visualize reachability relations within these traces; issue SPARQL queries; and visualize query results.

  1. Episodic chromosomal evolution in Planipapillus (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae): a phylogenetic approach to evolutionary dynamics and speciation.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Matthew V; Rowell, David M

    2002-01-01

    Planipapillus, a clade of onychophorans from southeastern Australia, exhibits substantial chromosomal variation. In the context of a robust phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data, we evaluate models of chromosomal evolution and speciation that differ in the roles assigned to selection, mutation, and drift. Permutation tests suggest that all chromosome rearrangements in the clade have been centric fusions and, on the basis of parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods with independent estimates of branch lengths, we conclude that at least 31 centric fusions have been fixed in Planipapillus. A likelihood-ratio test approach, which is independent of our point estimates of ancestral states, rejects an evolutionary model in which the mutation rate is constant and centric fusions are effectively neutral. In contrast to the nucleotide sequence data, which are consistent with neutrality and rate constancy, centric fusions in Planipapillus are underdominant, spontaneous fusion rates vary among lineages, or both. We predict an inverse relationship between rates of chromosomal evolution and historical population size. Chromosomal evolution may play a role in speciation in Planipapillus, both by interactions between centric fusions with monobrachial homology and by the accumulation of multiple weakly underdominant fusions.

  2. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the Leo Pargil range dominates the detrital zircon signal. Finally, there is a shift in the sandstone composition from unmetamorphosed sedimentary lithic fragments and extrusive felsic volcanic fragments in the lower part of the Zhada formation to metasedimentary and metaigneous fragments in the upper part of the Zhada formation. This is likely linked either to unroofing of the source terrain or a change to another source terrain. Based on the palaeocurrent and detrital zircon data, a change to another source terrain is favoured. This combination of evidence suggests that the Zhada basin evolved from a through-going fluvial plain to a dammed lake primarily due to uplift of the Leo Pargil range. This uplift would have dammed and ponded the river, and exposed higher grade metamorphic rocks at the surface for incorporation into Zhada formation sandstones. It also would have introduced a new source for detrital zircons. Uplift of the Leo Pargil range along a low angle normal fault would also have evacuated portions of the mid-crust, providing a mechanism for subsidence in the Zhada region. Lacustrine sedimentation would have coincided with progradation of marginal alluvial fans and would have continued until the basin was filled in to the level of a new spill point. At this time incision and re- establishment of the Sutlej River would have occurred.

  3. Volcanic evolution of Hecates Tholus, Mars: a multiple working hypothesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Lopez, I.; Martin, F.; Marquez, A.

    Hecates Tholus, Mars: a multiple working hypothesis approach M.A. de Pablo, I. López, F. Martín and A. Márquez Área de Geología. ESCET. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos. Madrid, Spain. (miguelangel.depablo@urjc.es) Hecates Tholus is a 180 x 150 km wide volcano located at the Elysium volcanic province in the Martian lowlands (32 N, 210 W). In addition to several nested calderas, the volcano shows several geological characteristics indicative of a complex volcanic evolution: (1) the volcano does not show a perfect conical shape, but topographic contours map shows an NW-SE oriented elliptical shape; (2) Western lower flank of Hecates Tholus is characterized by a large depression with a complex perimeter, including a semi-circular depression interpreted as the result of recent explosive volcanic activity. However, the main depression has not receive a clear explanation in relation with the evolution of the volcano; (3) North and Northeastern flanks of Hecates Tholus show sets of prominent concentric scarps eroded by fluvial channels; (4) the source of water of some channels is located at pits and pit chains; (5) Western flank of the volcano is covered by smooth and slightly cratered materials, which in some cases is filling channels and impact craters. This material is quite similar to the alleged glacial- related material filling the main depression of Hecates Tholus western lower flank. In order to study the geological evolution of Hecates Tholus we follow a multiple working hypotheses aproximation. The processes explored to explain the structural evolution of the volcano, include: (1) volcanic spreading, (2) lateral volcanic activity, (3) development of large landslides, (4) hydrothermal activity, and (5) regional tectonic deformation. We discuss these hypotheses and their implications, in order to establish the more feasible volcanic history of Hecates Tholus.

  4. Phylogenetic approach for inferring the origin and functional evolution of bacterial ADP-ribosylation superfamily.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Sakthishree, S; Bharathi, M

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases (BADPRTs) are extensively contributed to determine the strain-specific virulence state and pathogenesis in human hosts. Understanding molecular evolution and functional diversity of the BADPRTs is an important standpoint to describe the fundamental behind in the vaccine designing for bacterial infections. In the present study, we have evaluated the origin and functional evolution of conserved domains within the BADPRTs by analyzing their sequence-function relationship. To represent the evolution history of BADPRTs, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on their protein sequence, structure and conserved domains using different evolutionary programs. Sequence divergence and genetic diversity were studied herein to deduce the functional evolution of conserved domains across the family and superfamily. The results of sequence similarity search have shown that three hypothetical proteins (above 90%) were identical to the members of BADPRTs and their functions were annotated by phylogenetic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of this study has revealed the family members of BADPRTs were phylogenetically related to one another, functionally diverged within the same family, and dispersed into closely related bacteria. The presence of core substitution pattern in the conserved domains would determine the family-specific function of BADPRTs. Functional diversity of the BADPRTs was exclusively distinguished by Darwinian positive selection (diphtheria toxin C and pertussis toxin S) and neutral selection (arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase, enterotoxin A and binary toxin A) acting on the existing domains. Many of the family members were sharing their sequence-specific features from members in the arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase family. Conservative functions of members in the BADPRTs have shown to be expanded only within closely related families, and retained as such in pathogenic bacteria by evolutionary process (domain duplication or

  5. Bedform genesis and evolution in bedrock substrates: a new experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Yin, N.; Peakall, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms have focused on aggradational bedforms within cohesionless sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform genesis and evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. The study presented here details experiments that involve the genesis and formation of erosional bedform features within natural (soft clay) cohesive sediment beds and analogue bedrock substrates by modelling clay under the effect of both open-channel plain water flows, and sediment-laden flows. A new approach without using plaster-of-Paris or real bedrock developed provides a feasible method to simulate the genesis and evolution of the erosional bedforms in cohesive sediment beds and sculpted forms in bedrock channels on relatively short time-scales in the laboratory by using a realistic substrate substitute.A series of flume experiments are presented herein where the undrained shear strength of two different kinds of substrate material is systematically varied under constant flow conditions. Experiments using plain water flow indicated that erosive bedforms in cohesive sediment substrate cannot be produced only under the effect of sediment-free flow. Particulate-laden flows do form erosional bedforms in both kinds of clay beds and the shear strength of the bed material plays a key role in determining the diversity of erosional features forming on such substrates. Optimisation of modelling clay beds has enabled us to successfully replicate a suite of bedrock bedforms, including potholes, flutes, longitudinal furrows, etc., that have clear equivalents to those observed in bedrock rivers and contributed to investigate the genesis and evolution process of them and explore the flow structures within and above them in experimental analogue bedrock substrate for the first time.

  6. General-relativistic approach to the nonlinear evolution of collisionless matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Pantano, O. ); Saez, D. )

    1993-02-15

    A new general-relativistic algorithm is developed to study the nonlinear evolution of scalar (density) perturbations of an irrotational collisionless fluid up to shell crossing, under the approximation of neglecting the interaction with tensor (gravitational-wave) perturbations. The dynamics of each fluid element is separately followed in its own inertial rest frame by a system of twelve coupled first-order ordinary differential equations, which can be further reduced to six under very general conditions. Initial conditions are obtained in a cosmological framework, from linear theory, in terms of a single gauge-invariant potential. Physical observables, which are expressed in the Lagrangian form at different times, can be traced back to the Eulerian picture by solving supplementary first-order differential equations for the relative position vectors of neighboring fluid elements. Similarly to the Zel'dovich approximation, in our approach the evolution of each fluid element is completely determined by the local initial conditions and can be independently followed up to the time when it enters a multistream region. Unlike the Zel'dovich approximation, however, our approach is correct also in three dimensions (except for the possible role of gravitational waves). The accuracy of our numerical procedure is tested by integrating the nonlinear evolution of a spherical perturbation in an otherwise spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and comparing the results with the exact Tolman-Bondi solution for the same initial profile. An exact solution for the planar symmetric case is also given, which turns out to be locally identical to the Zel'dovich solution.

  7. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  8. Constructive Approaches for Understanding the Origin of Self-Replication and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The mystery of the origin of life can be divided into two parts. The first part is the origin of biomolecules: under what physicochemical conditions did biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleotides, and their polymers arise? The second part of the mystery is the origin of life-specific functions such as the replication of genetic information, the reproduction of cellular structures, metabolism, and evolution. These functions require the coordination of many different kinds of biological molecules. A direct strategy to approach the second part of the mystery is the constructive approach, in which life-specific functions are recreated in a test tube from specific biological molecules. Using this approach, we are able to employ design principles to reproduce life-specific functions, and the knowledge gained through the reproduction process provides clues as to their origins. In this mini-review, we introduce recent insights gained using this approach, and propose important future directions for advancing our understanding of the origins of life. PMID:27420098

  9. An R package for statistical provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces provenance, a software package within the statistical programming environment R, which aims to facilitate the visualisation and interpretation of large amounts of sedimentary provenance data, including mineralogical, petrographic, chemical and isotopic provenance proxies, or any combination of these. provenance comprises functions to: (a) calculate the sample size required to achieve a given detection limit; (b) plot distributional data such as detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra as Cumulative Age Distributions (CADs) or adaptive Kernel Density Estimates (KDEs); (c) plot compositional data as pie charts or ternary diagrams; (d) correct the effects of hydraulic sorting on sandstone petrography and heavy mineral composition; (e) assess the settling equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition; (f) quantify the dissimilarity between distributional data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Sircombe-Hazelton distances, or between compositional data using the Aitchison and Bray-Curtis distances; (e) interpret multi-sample datasets by means of (classical and nonmetric) Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA); and (f) simplify the interpretation of multi-method datasets by means of Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA) and 3-way MDS. All these tools can be accessed through an intuitive query-based user interface, which does not require knowledge of the R programming language. provenance is free software released under the GPL-2 licence and will be further expanded based on user feedback.

  10. Soft-computing approach to plasma evolution tracking in tokamak reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Francesco C.

    1997-10-01

    Qualitative information about the structure of a mapping can surely be of help in learning a mapping by a collection of input-output pairs. However, there are conditions in which time and some other constraints make guessing the only plausible means for interpreting data. In this paper, the problem of the plasma boundary reconstruction in 'Tokamak' nuclear fusion rectors is assessed. The problem is formulated as an inverse 'identification' problem and the mapping is derived by a properly generated database of simulated experiments. Real data coming from experiments are also available to validate both numerically generated data and extracted model. The identification problem is solved for two different databases by using neural networks and more conventional models. The introduction of techniques derived from soft computing is shown to improve the performance in various respects. Dynamic identification systems appear to be rather demanding also for such systems, for the need of rapidly interpreting real time data for discharge control. Soft computing approaches may yet yield some low cost ways to take decisions during plasma evolution. The approximate analysis of experimental data could also improve the knowledge on the particular problem allowing an evolution of the knowledge base. Experimental data related to ASDEX-Upgrade machine are presented in this work and preliminary processed. Soft computing techniques also allow to simply get ideas about two other interesting problems in plasma engineering, namely, the fault tolerance and the minimization of the number of sensors.

  11. MODEL OF THE FIELD LINE RANDOM WALK EVOLUTION AND APPROACH TO ASYMPTOTIC DIFFUSION IN MAGNETIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Snodin, A. P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th

    2013-01-01

    The turbulent random walk of magnetic field lines plays an important role in the transport of plasmas and energetic particles in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, but most theoretical work has concentrated on determination of the asymptotic field line diffusion coefficient. Here we consider the evolution with distance of the field line random walk using a general ordinary differential equation (ODE), which for most cases of interest in astrophysics describes a transition from free streaming to asymptotic diffusion. By challenging theories of asymptotic diffusion to also describe the evolution, one gains insight on how accurately they describe the random walk process. Previous theoretical work has effectively involved closure of the ODE, often by assuming Corrsin's hypothesis and a Gaussian displacement distribution. Approaches that use quasilinear theory and prescribe the mean squared displacement ({Delta}x {sup 2}) according to free streaming (random ballistic decorrelation, RBD) or asymptotic diffusion (diffusive decorrelation, DD) can match computer simulation results, but only over specific parameter ranges, with no obvious 'marker' of the range of validity. Here we make use of a unified description in which the ODE determines ({Delta}x {sup 2}) self-consistently, providing a natural transition between the assumptions of RBD and DD. We find that the minimum kurtosis of the displacement distribution provides a good indicator of whether the self-consistent ODE is applicable, i.e., inaccuracy of the self-consistent ODE is associated with non-Gaussian displacement distributions.

  12. A population memetics approach to cultural evolution in chaffinch song: meme diversity within populations.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A; Baker, A J

    1993-04-01

    We investigated cultural evolution in populations of common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) in the Atlantic islands (Azores, Madeira, Canaries) and neighboring continental regions (Morocco, Iberia) by employing a population memetics approach. To quantify variability within populations, we used the concept of a song meme, defined as a single syllable or a series of linked syllables capable of being transmitted. The frequency distribution of memes within populations generally fit a neutral model in which there is an equilibrium between mutation, migration, and drift, which suggests that memes are functionally equivalent. The diversity of memes of single syllables is significantly greater in the Azores compared to all other regions, consistent with higher population densities of chaffinches there. On the other hand, memes of two to five syllables have greater diversity in Atlantic island and Moroccan populations compared to their Iberian counterparts. This higher diversity emanates from a looser syntax and increased recombination in songs, presumably because of relaxed selection for distinctive songs in these peripheral and depauperate avifaunas. We urge comparative population memetic studies of other species of songbirds and predict that they will lead to a formulation of a general theory for the cultural evolution of bird song analogous to population genetics theory for biological traits.

  13. Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: A phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Jyotirmoy; Sarangi, Hrushikesh; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2017-02-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a new technology in the field of additive manufacturing, which builds metal parts in a layer by layer fashion directly from the powder bed. The process occurs within a very short time period with rapid solidification rate. Slight variations in the process parameters may cause enormous change in the final build parts. The physical and mechanical properties of the final build parts are dependent on the solidification rate which directly affects the microstructure of the material. Thus, the evolving of microstructure plays a vital role in the process parameters optimization. Nowadays, the increase in computational power allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. In this study, modeling of microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg powder in DMLS process was carried out by using a phase field approach. A MATLAB code was developed to solve the set of phase field equations, where simulation parameters include temperature gradient, laser scan speed and laser power. The effects of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution were studied and found that with increase in temperature gradient, the dendritic tip grows at a faster rate.

  14. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    PubMed

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes.

  15. The evolution of Harvey Cushing's surgical approach to pituitary tumors from transsphenoidal to transfrontal.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Laws, Edward R; Spencer, Dennis D; De Salles, Antonio A F

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of transsphenoidal surgery represents a special chapter in the progress of neurosurgery. Although Cushing initially advocated a transsphenoidal approach to pituitary tumors, he became disenchanted with this approach, ultimately favoring the subfrontal or "transfrontal" route late in his career. Other neurosurgeons followed Cushing's example, and the fate of transsphenoidal surgery entered a dark era in 1929. A review of Cushing's patients' records reveals that his abandonment of the transsphenoidal route was primarily related to the limitations of this approach in providing effective resection of large pituitary lesions-the symptomatic tumor recurrence rate after this procedure was substantial. Furthermore, given the preoperative uncertainty about the suprasellar extension of pituitary tumors prior to modern neuroimaging, the transfrontal route assured Cushing an adequate decompression of the optic chiasm. By 1927, Cushing's mastery of intracranial surgery was accompanied by the use of electrosurgical methods that enabled him to remove sellar lesions through the transfrontal route safely and with timely and effective restoration of visual loss. Transsphenoidal surgery remained relatively dormant, awaiting the efforts and enthusiasm of Norman Dott who bridged the gap between Cushing and Gerard Guiot, the surgeon who revitalized transsphenoidal adenomectomy for future generations of pituitary surgeons.

  16. A new design approach based on differential evolution algorithm for geometric optimization of magnetorheological brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Duc, Thang; Ho-Huu, Vinh; Nguyen-Thoi, Trung; Nguyen-Quoc, Hung

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, various types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs) have been proposed and optimized by different optimization algorithms that are integrated in commercial software such as ANSYS and Comsol Multiphysics. However, many of these optimization algorithms often possess some noteworthy shortcomings such as the trap of solutions at local extremes, or the limited number of design variables or the difficulty of dealing with discrete design variables. Thus, to overcome these limitations and develop an efficient computation tool for optimal design of the MRBs, an optimization procedure that combines differential evolution (DE), a gradient-free global optimization method with finite element analysis (FEA) is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach is then applied to the optimal design of MRBs with different configurations including conventional MRBs and MRBs with coils placed on the side housings. Moreover, to approach a real-life design, some necessary design variables of MRBs are considered as discrete variables in the optimization process. The obtained optimal design results are compared with those of available optimal designs in the literature. The results reveal that the proposed method outperforms some traditional approaches.

  17. Evolution of thrombectomy approaches and devices for acute stroke: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Chaudry, M Imran; Hui, Ferdinand K; Turner, Raymond D; Kellogg, Ryan T; Turk, Aquilla S

    2015-01-01

    While intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only FDA-approved treatment modality for acute ischemic stroke, many patients do not meet the criteria for intravenous tPA and are offered intra-arterial therapy. Rapid advances in devices and approaches have marked the evolution of thrombectomy over the past decade from rudimentary mechanical disruption, followed by intra-arterial thrombolytic infusions to increasingly effective thrombectomy devices. We review the critical advancements in thrombectomy technique that have evolved and the key anatomic and technical challenges they address, from first-generation Merci retrieval systems to second-generation Penumbra aspiration systems and third-generation stent retrievers, as well as nuances of their uses to maximize their effectiveness. We also highlight more recent advances that offer patients hope for more expedient vessel recanalization.

  18. Respiratory consequences of prematurity: evolution of a diagnosis and development of a comprehensive approach

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, Nathalie L.; Ballard, Roberta A.; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Greenberg, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common respiratory consequence of premature birth and contributes to significant short- and long-term morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. Initially defined as a radiographic, clinical, and histopathologic entity, the chronic lung disease known as BPD has evolved as obstetrical and neonatal care have improved the survival of lower gestational age infants. Now, definitions based on need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days and or 36 weeks provide a useful reference point in the NICU, but are no longer based on histopathologic findings, and are neither designed to predict longer-term respiratory consequences nor to study the evolution of a multifactorial disease. The aims of this review are to critically examine the evolution of the diagnosis of BPD and the challenges inherent to current classifications. We found that the increasing use of respiratory support strategies that administer ambient air without supplemental oxygen confounds oxygen-based definitions of BPD. Furthermore, lack of reproducible, genetic, biochemical, and physiologic biomarkers limits the ability to identify impending BPD for early intervention, quantify disease severity for standardized classification and approaches, and reliably predict the long-term outcomes. More comprehensive, multidisciplinary approaches to overcome these challenges involve longitudinal observation of extremely preterm infants, not only those with BPD, using genetic, environmental, physiologic and clinical data as well as large databases of patient samples. The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) will provide such a framework to address these challenges through high-resolution characterization of both NICU and post-NICU discharge outcomes. PMID:25811285

  19. Evaluation of filesystem provenance visualization tools.

    PubMed

    Borkin, Michelle A; Yeh, Chelsea S; Boyd, Madelaine; Macko, Peter; Gajos, Krzysztof Z; Seltzer, Margo; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2013-12-01

    Having effective visualizations of filesystem provenance data is valuable for understanding its complex hierarchical structure. The most common visual representation of provenance data is the node-link diagram. While effective for understanding local activity, the node-link diagram fails to offer a high-level summary of activity and inter-relationships within the data. We present a new tool, InProv, which displays filesystem provenance with an interactive radial-based tree layout. The tool also utilizes a new time-based hierarchical node grouping method for filesystem provenance data we developed to match the user's mental model and make data exploration more intuitive. We compared InProv to a conventional node-link based tool, Orbiter, in a quantitative evaluation with real users of filesystem provenance data including provenance data experts, IT professionals, and computational scientists. We also compared in the evaluation our new node grouping method to a conventional method. The results demonstrate that InProv results in higher accuracy in identifying system activity than Orbiter with large complex data sets. The results also show that our new time-based hierarchical node grouping method improves performance in both tools, and participants found both tools significantly easier to use with the new time-based node grouping method. Subjective measures show that participants found InProv to require less mental activity, less physical activity, less work, and is less stressful to use. Our study also reveals one of the first cases of gender differences in visualization; both genders had comparable performance with InProv, but women had a significantly lower average accuracy (56%) compared to men (70%) with Orbiter.

  20. Understanding Student Approaches to Learning Evolution in the Context of their Perceptions of the Relationship between Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Mancy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates a range of positions that learners take on the relationship between science and religion and the potential for these positions to explain student approaches when learning about evolution. A phenomenographic study based on interviews with nine students studying in Christian high schools in Thailand led to the identification of five distinct positions on the relationship between science and religion. Each position was associated with a characteristic pattern of learning about evolution that could be explained as an attempt by the students to align their particular learning approach with their position. Three of the positions have the potential to support scientifically valid understandings of evolution while avoiding emotional conflict. We suggest that knowledge of the range of positions and associated learning approaches can help educators to focus on the form and timing of support of benefit to those holding different viewpoints.

  1. Applying Content Management to Automated Provenance Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Gibson, Tara D.; Stephan, Eric G.; Chin, George

    2008-04-10

    Workflows and data pipelines are becoming increasingly valuable in both computational and experimen-tal sciences. These automated systems are capable of generating significantly more data within the same amount of time than their manual counterparts. Automatically capturing and recording data prove-nance and annotation as part of these workflows is critical for data management, verification, and dis-semination. Our goal in addressing the provenance challenge was to develop and end-to-end system that demonstrates real-time capture, persistent content management, and ad-hoc searches of both provenance and metadata using open source software and standard protocols. We describe our prototype, which extends the Kepler workflow tools for the execution environment, the Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) content management software for data services, and an existing HTTP-based query protocol. Our implementation offers several unique capabilities, and through the use of standards, is able to pro-vide access to the provenance record to a variety of commonly available client tools.

  2. Subgrouping patients with low back pain: evolution of a classification approach to physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Julie M; Cleland, Joshua A; Childs, John D

    2007-06-01

    The development of valid classification methods to assist the physical therapy management of patients with low back pain has been recognized as a research priority. There is also growing evidence that the use of a classification approach to physical therapy results in better clinical outcomes than the use of alternative management approaches. In 1995 Delitto and colleagues proposed a classification system intended to inform and direct the physical therapy management of patients with low back pain. The system described 4 classifications of patients with low back pain (manipulation, stabilization, specific exercise, and traction). Each classification could be identified by a unique set of examination criteria, and was associated with an intervention strategy believed to result in the best outcomes for the patient. The system was based on expert opinion and research evidence available at the time. A substantial amount of research has emerged in the years since the introduction of this classification system, including the development of clinical prediction rules, providing new evidence for the examination criteria used to place a patient into a classification and for the optimal intervention strategies for each classification. New evidence should continually be incorporated into existing classification systems. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review this classification system, its evolution and current status, and to discuss its implications for the classification of patients with low back pain.

  3. Variational B-spline level-set: a linear filtering approach for fast deformable model evolution.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Olivier; Friboulet, Denis; Thévenaz, Philippe; Unser, Michael

    2009-06-01

    In the field of image segmentation, most level-set-based active-contour approaches take advantage of a discrete representation of the associated implicit function. We present in this paper a different formulation where the implicit function is modeled as a continuous parametric function expressed on a B-spline basis. Starting from the active-contour energy functional, we show that this formulation allows us to compute the solution as a restriction of the variational problem on the space spanned by the B-splines. As a consequence, the minimization of the functional is directly obtained in terms of the B-spline coefficients. We also show that each step of this minimization may be expressed through a convolution operation. Because the B-spline functions are separable, this convolution may in turn be performed as a sequence of simple 1-D convolutions, which yields an efficient algorithm. As a further consequence, each step of the level-set evolution may be interpreted as a filtering operation with a B-spline kernel. Such filtering induces an intrinsic smoothing in the algorithm, which can be controlled explicitly via the degree and the scale of the chosen B-spline kernel. We illustrate the behavior of this approach on simulated as well as experimental images from various fields.

  4. Integrative Approaches for Studying Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genome Co-evolution in Oxidative Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sunnucks, Paul; Morales, Hernán E.; Lamb, Annika M.; Pavlova, Alexandra; Greening, Chris

    2017-01-01

    In animals, interactions among gene products of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes (mitonuclear interactions) are of profound fitness, evolutionary, and ecological significance. Most fundamentally, the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes responsible for cellular bioenergetics are formed by the direct interactions of 13 mitochondrial-encoded and ∼80 nuclear-encoded protein subunits in most animals. It is expected that organisms will develop genomic architecture that facilitates co-adaptation of these mitonuclear interactions and enhances biochemical efficiency of OXPHOS complexes. In this perspective, we present principles and approaches to understanding the co-evolution of these interactions, with a novel focus on how genomic architecture might facilitate it. We advocate that recent interdisciplinary advances assist in the consolidation of links between genotype and phenotype. For example, advances in genomics allow us to unravel signatures of selection in mitochondrial and nuclear OXPHOS genes at population-relevant scales, while newly published complete atomic-resolution structures of the OXPHOS machinery enable more robust predictions of how these genes interact epistatically and co-evolutionarily. We use three case studies to show how integrative approaches have improved the understanding of mitonuclear interactions in OXPHOS, namely those driving high-altitude adaptation in bar-headed geese, allopatric population divergence in Tigriopus californicus copepods, and the genome architecture of nuclear genes coding for mitochondrial functions in the eastern yellow robin. PMID:28316610

  5. Flame-based processing as a practical approach for manufacturing hydrogen evolution electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Justin; Renner, Julie; Yu, Haoran; Capuano, Chris; Kwak, Tony; Wang, Yang; Carter, C. Barry; Ayers, Kathy; Mustain, William E.; Maric, Radenka

    2014-12-01

    Catalyst structure and morphology are inevitably dictated by the synthesis route, which in-turn dictates catalyst activity, stability and utilization in the electrode. Reactive spray deposition technology (RSDT) is a promising synthesis route for electrode manufacturing because of the potential to achieve high-throughput processing under a diverse range of process configurations. This work investigates several unique approaches to Pt catalyst deposition using jet-flame synthesis for water electrolysis electrodes. Direct application of the catalyst film onto Nafion 117 and carbon paper is explored along with approaches to dispersing the Pt onto carbon or TinO2n-1. Operational challenges relating to the harsh conditions of H2 evolution and electrode adhesion are addressed by adding binder and catalyst support to the electrode structure. The RSDT technology produces an electrode, coated directly onto Nafion 117®, with a 20-fold reduction in Pt loading while maintaining high in-cell performance (2.1 V at 2 A cm-2) compared to an industry-level baseline. Durability testing at 1.8 A cm-2, 400 psi differential pressure and a temperature of 50 °C yields a consistent potential of ∼2.2 V for over 1100 h without failure. The same electrode applied directly to carbon paper resulted in a voltage of ∼2.1 V for ∼600 h without failure.

  6. An innovative approach to predict technology evolution for the desoldering of printed circuit boards: A perspective from China and America.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Wu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Ling; Luo, Chun-Jing

    2016-06-01

    The printed circuit boards basis of electronic equipment have seen a rapid growth in recent years and played a significant role in modern life. Nowadays, the fact that electronic devices upgrade quickly necessitates a proper management of waste printed circuit boards. Non-destructive desoldering of waste printed circuit boards becomes the first and the most crucial step towards recycling electronic components. Owing to the diversity of materials and components, the separation process is difficult, which results in complex and expensive recovery of precious materials and electronic components from waste printed circuit boards. To cope with this problem, we proposed an innovative approach integrating Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) evolution theory and technology maturity mapping system to forecast the evolution trends of desoldering technology of waste printed circuit boards. This approach can be applied to analyse the technology evolution, as well as desoldering technology evolution, then research and development strategy and evolution laws can be recommended. As an example, the maturity of desoldering technology is analysed with a technology maturity mapping system model. What is more, desoldering methods in different stages are analysed and compared. According to the analysis, the technological evolution trends are predicted to be 'the law of energy conductivity' and 'increasing the degree of idealisation'. And the potential technology and evolutionary state of waste printed circuit boards are predicted, offering reference for future waste printed circuit boards recycling.

  7. Macroscopic dielectric function within time-dependent density functional theory—Real time evolution versus the Casida approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Tobias; Kresse, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Linear optical properties can be calculated by solving the time-dependent density functional theory equations. Linearization of the equation of motion around the ground state orbitals results in the so-called Casida equation, which is formally very similar to the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Alternatively one can determine the spectral functions by applying an infinitely short electric field in time and then following the evolution of the electron orbitals and the evolution of the dipole moments. The long wavelength response function is then given by the Fourier transformation of the evolution of the dipole moments in time. In this work, we compare the results and performance of these two approaches for the projector augmented wave method. To allow for large time steps and still rely on a simple difference scheme to solve the differential equation, we correct for the errors in the frequency domain, using a simple analytic equation. In general, we find that both approaches yield virtually indistinguishable results. For standard density functionals, the time evolution approach is, with respect to the computational performance, clearly superior compared to the solution of the Casida equation. However, for functionals including nonlocal exchange, the direct solution of the Casida equation is usually much more efficient, even though it scales less beneficial with the system size. We relate this to the large computational prefactors in evaluating the nonlocal exchange, which renders the time evolution algorithm fairly inefficient.

  8. Nested modeling approach to quantify sediment transport pathways and temporal variability of barrier island evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, J. W.; Dalyander, S.; Sherwood, C. R.; Thompson, D. M.; Plant, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Chandeleur Islands, situated off the coast of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico, comprise a sand-starved barrier island system that has been disintegrating over the last decade. The persistent sediment transport in this area is predominantly directed alongshore but overwash and inundation during storm conditions has fragmented the island and reduced the subaerial extent by almost 75% since 2001. From 2010-2011 a sand berm was constructed along the Gulf side of the island adding 20 million cubic yards of sediment to this barrier island system. The redistribution of this sediment, particularly whether it remains in the active system and progrades the barrier island, has been evaluated using a series of numerical models and an extensive set of in situ and remote sensing observations. We have developed a coupled numerical modeling system capable of simulating morphologic evolution of the sand berm and barrier island using observations and predictions of regional and nearshore oceanographic processes. A nested approach provides large scale oceanographic information to force island evolution in a series of smaller grids, including two nearshore domains that are designed to simulate (1) the persistent alongshore sediment transport O(months-years) and (2) the overwash and breaching of the island/berm due to cross-shore forcing driven by winter cold fronts and tropical storms (O(hours-days)). The coupled model is evaluated using the observations of waves, water levels, currents, and topographic/morphologic change. Modeled processes are then used to identify the dominant sediment transport pathways and quantify the role of alongshore and cross-shore sediment transport in evolving the barrier island over a range of temporal scales.

  9. Simulating mesoscale coastal evolution for decadal coastal management: A new framework integrating multiple, complementary modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; Barkwith, Andrew; Bonaldo, Davide; Burningham, Helene; Brad Murray, A.; Payo, Andres; Sutherland, James; Thornhill, Gillian; Townend, Ian H.; van der Wegen, Mick; Walkden, Mike J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to consider morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales, especially that related to climate change and sea-level rise. This requires the development of morphological models operating at a mesoscale, defined by time and length scales of the order 101 to 102 years and 101 to 102 km. So-called 'reduced complexity' models that represent critical processes at scales not much smaller than the primary scale of interest, and are regulated by capturing the critical feedbacks that govern landform behaviour, are proving effective as a means of exploring emergent coastal behaviour at a landscape scale. Such models tend to be computationally efficient and are thus easily applied within a probabilistic framework. At the same time, reductionist models, built upon a more detailed description of hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, are capable of application at increasingly broad spatial and temporal scales. More qualitative modelling approaches are also emerging that can guide the development and deployment of quantitative models, and these can be supplemented by varied data-driven modelling approaches that can achieve new explanatory insights from observational datasets. Such disparate approaches have hitherto been pursued largely in isolation by mutually exclusive modelling communities. Brought together, they have the potential to facilitate a step change in our ability to simulate the evolution of coastal morphology at scales that are most relevant to managing erosion and flood risk. Here, we advocate and outline a new integrated modelling framework that deploys coupled mesoscale reduced complexity models, reductionist coastal area models, data-driven approaches, and qualitative conceptual models. Integration of these heterogeneous approaches gives rise to model compositions that can potentially resolve decadal- to centennial-scale behaviour of diverse coupled open coast, estuary and inner

  10. Modeling for Matrix Multicracking Evolution of Cross-ply Ceramic-Matrix Composites Using Energy Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    The matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated using energy balance approach. The multicracking of cross-ply CMCs was classified into five modes, i.e., (1) mode 1: transverse multicracking; (2) mode 2: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; (3) mode 3: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding; (4) mode 4: matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; and (5) mode 5: matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding. The stress distributions of four cracking modes, i.e., mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, are analysed using shear-lag model. The matrix multicracking evolution of mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, has been determined using energy balance approach. The effects of ply thickness and fiber volume fraction on matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply CMCs have been investigated.

  11. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research

  12. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    DOE PAGES

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; ...

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance informationmore » and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research« less

  13. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed.

  14. Understanding Student Approaches to Learning Evolution in the Context of Their Perceptions of the Relationship between Science and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Mancy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates a range of positions that learners take on the relationship between science and religion and the potential for these positions to explain student approaches when learning about evolution. A phenomenographic study based on interviews with nine students studying in Christian high schools in Thailand led to the identification…

  15. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  16. Titian: Data Provenance Support in Spark.

    PubMed

    Interlandi, Matteo; Shah, Kshitij; Tetali, Sai Deep; Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Miryung; Millstein, Todd; Condie, Tyson

    2015-11-01

    Debugging data processing logic in Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems is a difficult and time consuming effort. Today's DISC systems offer very little tooling for debugging programs, and as a result programmers spend countless hours collecting evidence (e.g., from log files) and performing trial and error debugging. To aid this effort, we built Titian, a library that enables data provenance-tracking data through transformations-in Apache Spark. Data scientists using the Titian Spark extension will be able to quickly identify the input data at the root cause of a potential bug or outlier result. Titian is built directly into the Spark platform and offers data provenance support at interactive speeds-orders-of-magnitude faster than alternative solutions-while minimally impacting Spark job performance; observed overheads for capturing data lineage rarely exceed 30% above the baseline job execution time.

  17. The stones and historic mortars of the Santissima Trinità di Saccargia Romanesque Basilica (Sardinia, Italy): a multi-analytical techniques' approach for the study of their features and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    A research project devoted to the study of building materials of the Romanesque churches in Sardinia is currently underway. One of the objectives of the project is to focus the mineral, chemical-physical and petrographic characterisation of the construction materials, as well as the alteration processes. To make a contribution to the preservation of Sardinian monuments, we suggests a new approach to define the different alteration-modes of rocks in function of their local exposure to the weather, studying: 1) the changes of physical properties on surface of stone (porosity, water absorption, micro-morphology) determined through laboratory tests and photogrammetry observations, 2) the alteration phases present on surface (e.g., secondary minerals, soluble salts) determined by mineralogical and chemical investigations. This methodological approach will allow to select appropriate, suitable and compatible materials for replacing the original altered one's, and to plan appropriate strategies devoted to the restoration work. In this paper the geomaterials used for construct the Santissima Trinità di Saccargia Basilica have been investigated. The church, finished in 1116 over the ruins of a pre-existing monastery, is the most important Romanesque site in the island. Have been studied the chemical alterations and physical decay of two different stones, as volcanic rocks (i.e., basalt) and sedimentary rocks (i.e., limestones) used in bichromy on the Basilica. The main purpose is to observe the different modes of alteration of these two lithologies with different petrophysical characteristics, placed in the same conditions of weathering. Macroscopic evidences show that the limestones, while not having a high porosity, they were strongly affected by alteration phenomena, especially in the outer surface of ashlars, due to the solubilization of the carbonate matrix. The basalt rocks show no obvious physical alteration. Occasionally, in some ashlar located in basal zone of the

  18. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research.

  19. Time-dependent evolution of rock slopes by a multi-modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Della Seta, M.; Martino, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-modelling approach that incorporates contributions from morpho-evolutionary modelling, detailed engineering-geological modelling and time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling to analyse the rheological evolution of a river valley slope over approximately 102 kyr. The slope is located in a transient, tectonically active landscape in southwestern Tyrrhenian Calabria (Italy), where gravitational processes drive failures in rock slopes. Constraints on the valley profile development were provided by a morpho-evolutionary model based on the correlation of marine and river strath terraces. Rock mass classes were identified through geomechanical parameters that were derived from engineering-geological surveys and outputs of a multi-sensor slope monitoring system. The rock mass classes were associated to lithotechnical units to obtain a high-resolution engineering-geological model along a cross section of the valley. Time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling reproduced the main morpho-evolutionary stages of the valley slopes. The findings demonstrate that a complex combination of eustatism, uplift and Mass Rock Creep (MRC) deformations can lead to first-time failures of rock slopes when unstable conditions are encountered up to the generation of stress-controlled shear zones. The multi-modelling approach enabled us to determine that such complex combinations may have been sufficient for the first-time failure of the S. Giovanni slope at approximately 140 ka (MIS 7), even without invoking any trigger. Conversely, further reactivations of the landslide must be related to triggers such as earthquakes, rainfall and anthropogenic activities. This failure involved a portion of the slope where a plasticity zone resulted from mass rock creep that evolved with a maximum strain rate of 40% per thousand years, after the formation of a river strath terrace. This study demonstrates that the multi-modelling approach presented herein is a useful

  20. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  1. Nonstationary porosity evolution in mixing zone in coastal carbonate aquifer using an alternative modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Laabidi, Ezzeddine; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2015-07-01

    In the last few decades, hydrogeochemical problems have benefited from the strong interest in numerical modeling. One of the most recognized hydrogeochemical problems is the dissolution of the calcite in the mixing zone below limestone coastal aquifer. In many works, this problem has been modeled using a coupling algorithm between a density-dependent flow model and a geochemical model. A related difficulty is that, because of the high nonlinearity of the coupled set of equations, high computational effort is needed. During calcite dissolution, an increase in permeability can be identified, which can induce an increase in the penetration of the seawater into the aquifer. The majority of the previous studies used a fully coupled reactive transport model in order to model such problem. Romanov and Dreybrodt (J Hydrol 329:661-673, 2006) have used an alternative approach to quantify the porosity evolution in mixing zone below coastal carbonate aquifer at steady state. This approach is based on the analytic solution presented by Phillips (1991) in his book Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, which shows that it is possible to decouple the complex set of equation. This equation is proportional to the square of the salinity gradient, which can be calculated using a density driven flow code and to the reaction rate that can be calculated using a geochemical code. In this work, this equation is used in nonstationary step-by-step regime. At each time step, the quantity of the dissolved calcite is quantified, the change of porosity is calculated, and the permeability is updated. The reaction rate, which is the second derivate of the calcium equilibrium concentration in the equation, is calculated using the PHREEQC code (Parkhurst and Apello 1999). This result is used in GEODENS (Bouhlila 1999; Bouhlila and Laabidi 2008) to calculate change of the porosity after calculating the salinity gradient. For the next time step, the same protocol is used but using the updated porosity

  2. A global approach for solving evolutive heat transfer for image denoising and inpainting.

    PubMed

    Auclair-Fortier, Marie-Flavie; Ziou, Djemel

    2006-09-01

    This paper proposes an alternative to partial differential equations (PDEs) for solving problems in computer vision based on evolutive heat transfer. Traditionally, the method for solving such physics-based problems is to discretize and solve a PDE by a purely mathematical process. Instead of using the PDE, we propose to use the global heat principle and to decompose it into basic laws. We show that some of these laws admit an exact global version since they arise from conservative principles. We also show that the assumptions made about the other basic Iaws can be made wisely, taking into account knowledge about the problem and the domain. The numerical scheme is derived in a straightforward way from the modeled problem, thus providing a physical explanation for each step in the solution. The advantage of such an approach is that it minimizes the approximations made during the whole process and it modularizes it, allowing changing the application to a great number of problems. We apply the scheme to two applications: image denoising and inpainting which are modeled with heat transfer. For denoising, we propose a new approximation for the conductivity coefficient and we add thin lines to the features in order to block diffusion.

  3. Physics and evolution of obscured X-ray sources: a multiwavelength approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, Marcella

    2004-06-01

    Observations at high energies yield important information on the structure and nature of AGN; when coupled with deep optical and near-infrared (photometric and spectroscopic) follow-up, they provide constraints on the mass of the growing black holes and, therefore, are essential to better understand the nature of the various components of the X-ray background light and can be used as test for the accretion paradigm. Conversely, optical and near-infrared surveys of galaxies are crucial to discriminate between different cosmological scenarios (e.g. hierarchical or monolithic growth of the structures) and, thus, to recover the galaxy evolution path. In this framework, in the first part of the thesis, I will discuss the main results from an extensive program of multiwavelength observations of hard X-ray selected sources serendipitously discovered in XMM-Newton fields over ~1 deg^2 (the HELLAS2XMM survey). With a complementary approach to that of hard X-ray surveys, in order to investigate the link between nuclear activity and the galaxy formation, in the second part of the thesis I will present XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of photometric and spectroscopically selected Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  4. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    PubMed

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung.

  5. SU(1,1) Lie algebraic approach for the evolution of the quantum inflationary universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-03-01

    Quantum behavior of scalar fields and vacuum energy density in the inflationary universe are investigated using SU(1,1) Lie algebraic approach. Wave functions describing the evolution of scalar fields that have been thought to have driven cosmic inflation are identified in several possible quantum states at the early stage of the universe, such as the Fock state, the Glauber coherent state, and the SU(1,1) coherent states. In particular, we focus in this research on two important classes of the SU(1,1) coherent states, which are the so-called even and odd coherent states and the Perelomov coherent state. It is shown in the spatially flat universe driven by a single scalar field that the probability densities in all these states have converged to the origin (ϕ = 0, where ϕ is the scalar field) as time goes by. This outcome implies that the vacuum energy density characterized by the scalar field dissipates with time. The probability density in the matter-dominated era converged more rapidly than that in the radiation-dominated era. Hence, we can confirm that the progress of dissipation for the vacuum energy density became faster as the matter era began after the end of the early dominance of radiation. This consequence is, indeed, in agreement with the results of our previous researches in cosmology (for example, see [Chin. Phys. C 35 (2011) 233] and references there in).

  6. A Molecular Approach to the Study of Green Algal Evolution and Early Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodner, R. B.; Summons, R. E.; Knoll, A. H.

    2004-12-01

    The biological nature of pre-land plant terrestrial ecosystems remains an enigmatic chapter of the history of life on earth due to lack of fossil evidence. Molecular phylogenies have shown that Charophycean green algae are the closest relatives of the bryophytes, which have been hypothesized to be the earliest divergent land plants. However, there is no fossil evidence to support this relationship nor is there a reliable fossil record of the earliest land plants. Microfossils representing the earliest land plants appear to have a bryophytes affinity based on limited morphological comparisons but this remains controversial. We are applying a biomolecular approach to study both green algal evolution and its relation to bryophytes using the resistant biopolymer algaenan and phytosterols as biological markers. Algaenan has been shown to have high preservation potential and may be the primary component of enigmatic microfossils assumed to be of algal origin. Algaenan and the green algal sterols, stigmasterol and sitosterol, may also be the precursors of n-alkanes and the hydrocarbon stigmastane that are major components of many Neoproterozoic bitumens. The biological nature and phylogenetic distribution of algaenan is still not well understood. Here we explore the presence and structure of algaenans in terrestrial green algae and bryophytes in relation to their phylogenetic distributions.

  7. [Migrant workers: evolution of the Israel health system approach to the new social issue].

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Alex; Berlowitz, Yitzhak; Chemtob, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    The immigration of workers from poor countries to Israel began in earnest in 1993, and by 2003 their number had reached 250,000, the majority without work permits. In this article we describe the evolution of the Israeli approach to providing health services to migrant workers, noting particularly the swings between exclusion and inclusion, ranging from providing only the most minimal services to providing a complete health services package. The National Insurance Institute was the first to provide benefits to documented migrant workers, mandating compensation benefits for those injured at work or in terrorist incidents. The health care sector provided an ever-increasing package of health benefits for documented migrant workers, culminating in the Foreign Workers Law of 2000 obligating employers to insure workers with a health package similar to that of Israeli citizens. The provision of health services to undocumented migrant workers and their families arose more gradually, but ultimately included the full range of mother and child preventive health services, school health services, provision of ambulatory medical care by volunteer physicians members of human rights organization, the possibility of enrolling their children at a reduced premium in Meuchedet Health Fund, free diagnostic and treatment services for tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, free antiretroviral treatment of HIV-positive pregnant women, and, finally, the ability to obtain gas masks for a token deposit prior to the Iraq War of 2003

  8. Mechanistic approach for nitride fuel evolution and fission product release under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgodvorov, A. P.; Ozrin, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    A model for describing uranium-plutonium mixed nitride fuel pellet burning was developed. Except fission products generating, the model includes impurities of oxygen and carbon. Nitrogen behaviour in nitride fuel was analysed and the nitrogen chemical potential in solid solution with uranium-plutonium nitride was constructed. The chemical program module was tested with the help of thermodynamic equilibrium phase distribution calculation. Results were compared with analogous data in literature, quite good agreement was achieved, especially for uranium sesquinitride, metallic species and some oxides. Calculation of a process of nitride fuel burning was also conducted. Used mechanistic approaches for fission product evolution give the opportunity to find fission gas release fractions and also volumes of intergranular secondary phases. Calculations present that the most massive secondary phases are the oxide and metallic phases. Oxide phase contain approximately 1 % wt of substance over all time of burning with slightly increasing of content. Metallic phase has considerable rising of mass and by the last stage of burning it contains about 0.6 % wt of substance. Intermetallic phase has less increasing rate than metallic phase and include from 0.1 to 0.2 % wt over all time of burning. The highest element fractions of released gaseous fission products correspond to caesium and iodide.

  9. High resolution remote sensing image segmentation based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, H. T.; Han, Y. S.; Gu, H. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Image segmentation is the foundation of further object-oriented image analysis, understanding and recognition. It is one of the key technologies in high resolution remote sensing applications. In this paper, a new fast image segmentation algorithm for high resolution remote sensing imagery is proposed, which is based on graph theory and fractal net evolution approach (FNEA). Firstly, an image is modelled as a weighted undirected graph, where nodes correspond to pixels, and edges connect adjacent pixels. An initial object layer can be obtained efficiently from graph-based segmentation, which runs in time nearly linear in the number of image pixels. Then FNEA starts with the initial object layer and a pairwise merge of its neighbour object with the aim to minimize the resulting summed heterogeneity. Furthermore, according to the character of different features in high resolution remote sensing image, three different merging criterions for image objects based on spectral and spatial information are adopted. Finally, compared with the commercial remote sensing software eCognition, the experimental results demonstrate that the efficiency of the algorithm has significantly improved, and the result can maintain good feature boundaries.

  10. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses revealed highly

  11. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier’s Scopus database over the period 1980–2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980–1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990–1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010–2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980–1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995–1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses

  12. Multi-scale Science: Supporting Emerging Practice with Semantically Derived Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, James D.; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Lansing, Carina S.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Ashish, N., Goble, C

    2003-10-20

    Scientific progress is becoming increasingly dependent of our ability to study phenomena at multiple scales and from multiple perspectives. The ability to recontextualize third party data within the semantic and syntactic framework of a given research project is increasingly seen as a primary barrier in multi-scale science. Within the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Science (CMCS) project, we are developing a general-purpose informatics-based approach that emphasizes ''on-demand'' metadata creation, configurable data translations, and semantic mapping to support the rapidly increasing and continually evolving requirements for managing data, metadata, and data relationships in such projects. A concrete example of this approach is the design of the CMCS provenance subsystem. The concept of provenance varies across communities, and multiple independent applications contribute to and use provenance. In CMCS, we have developed generic tools for viewing provenance relationships and for using them to, for example, scope notifications and searches. These tools rely on a configurable concept of provenance defined in terms of other relationships. The result is a very flexible mechanism capable of tracking data provenance across many disciplines and supporting multiple uses of provenance information.

  13. From static to dynamic provenance analysis-Sedimentary petrology upgraded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The classical approach to sandstone petrology, established in the golden years of plate tectonics and based on the axiom that "detrital modes of sandstone suites primarily reflect the different tectonic settings of provenance terranes," has represented a benchmark for decades. The composition of sand and sandstone, however, simply provides us with a distorted image of the lithological structure of source terranes and gives us little clue whether they are allochthonous or autochthonous, orogenic or anorogenic, young or old. What we may able to see reflected in detrital modes is the nature of source terranes (continental, arc, oceanic) and the tectonostratigraphic level reached by erosion in space and time. The proposed new approach to the petrology of sand and sandstone (1) starts with a simple classification scheme circulated since the 1960s, which is purely descriptive, objective, and free of ill-defined ambiguous terms and (2) focuses on the nature and tectonostratigraphic level of source terranes. Further steps are essential to upgrade provenance analysis. Acquiring knowledge from modern settings is needed to properly identify and wherever possible correct for physical and chemical processes introducing environmental and diagenetic bias and thus address nature's complexities with adequate conceptual tools. Equally important is the integration of multiple techniques, ideally including bulk-sediment, multi-mineral, and single-mineral methods. Bulk-sediment petrography remains the fundamental approach that allows us to capture the most precious source of direct provenance information, represented by the mineralogy and texture of rock fragments. Bulk-sediment geochemistry, applicable also to silt and clay carried in suspension, is a superior method to check for hydraulic sorting, chemical weathering, and fertility of detrital minerals in different sediment sources. Detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and isotope geochemistry reveal the diverse time structures

  14. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to characterize the role of genetic recombination in mycobacterial evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silvia E; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Dardenne, Caitlin N; Harpending, Henry H; Martin, Darren P; Beiko, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium encompasses over one hundred named species of environmental and pathogenic organisms, including the causative agents of devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The success of these human pathogens is due in part to their ability to rapidly adapt to their changing environment and host. Recombination is the fastest way for bacterial genomes to acquire genetic material, but conflicting results about the extent of recombination in the genus Mycobacterium have been reported. We examined a data set comprising 18 distinct strains from 13 named species for evidence of recombination. Genomic regions common to all strains (accounting for 10% to 22% of the full genomes of all examined species) were aligned and concatenated in the chromosomal order of one mycobacterial reference species. The concatenated sequence was screened for evidence of recombination using a variety of statistical methods, with each proposed event evaluated by comparing maximum-likelihood phylogenies of the recombinant section with the non-recombinant portion of the dataset. Incongruent phylogenies were identified by comparing the site-wise log-likelihoods of each tree using multiple tests. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify genes that may have been acquired through horizontal transfer from non-mycobacterial sources. The most frequent associated lineages (and potential gene transfer partners) in the Mycobacterium lineage-restricted gene trees are other members of suborder Corynebacterinae, but more-distant partners were identified as well. In two examined cases of potentially frequent and habitat-directed transfer (M. abscessus to Segniliparus and M. smegmatis to Streptomyces), observed sequence distances were small and consistent with a hypothesis of transfer, while in a third case (M. vanbaalenii to Streptomyces) distances were larger. The analyses described here indicate that whereas evidence of recombination in core regions within the genus is

  15. Thermodynamically consistent phase field approach to dislocation evolution at small and large strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Javanbakht, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    A thermodynamically consistent, large strain phase field approach to dislocation nucleation and evolution at the nanoscale is developed. Each dislocation is defined by an order parameter, which determines the magnitude of the Burgers vector for the given slip planes and directions. The kinematics is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic contributions. The relationship between the rates of the plastic deformation gradient and the order parameters is consistent with phenomenological crystal plasticity. Thermodynamic and stability conditions for homogeneous states are formulated and satisfied by the proper choice of the Helmholtz free energy and the order parameter dependence on the Burgers vector. They allow us to reproduce desired lattice instability conditions and a stress-order parameter curve, as well as to obtain a stress-independent equilibrium Burgers vector and to avoid artificial dissipation during elastic deformation. The Ginzburg-Landau equations are obtained as the linear kinetic relations between the rate of change of the order parameters and the conjugate thermodynamic driving forces. A crystalline energy coefficient for dislocations is defined as a periodic step-wise function of the coordinate along the normal to the slip plane, which provides an energy barrier normal to the slip plane and determines the desired, mesh-independent height of the dislocation bands for any slip system orientation. Gradient energy contains an additional term, which excludes the localization of a dislocation within a height smaller than the prescribed height, but it does not produce artificial interface energy. An additional energy term is introduced that penalizes the interaction of different dislocations at the same point. Non-periodic boundary conditions for dislocations are introduced which include the change of the surface energy due to the exit of dislocations from the crystal. Obtained kinematics, thermodynamics

  16. The Influence of Ecohydrologic Dynamics on Landscape Evolution: a Stochastic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, E.; Favre Pugin, A. C.; Botter, G.; Braun, J.

    2015-12-01

    The stream power incision model (SPIM) has a long history of use in modeling landscape evolution. Despite simplifications made in its formulation, it has emerged over the last 30 years as a powerful tool to interpret the histories of tectonically active landscapes and to understand how they evolve over millions of years. However, intense interest in the relationship between climate and erosion has revealed that the standard SPIM has some significant shortcomings. First, it fails to account for the role of erosion thresholds, which have been shown to be important and require an approach that addresses the variable or stochastic nature of erosion processes and drivers. Second, the standard SPIM does not address the influence of catchment hydrology, which modulates the incoming precipitation to produce discharge that in turn drives fluvial erosion. Hydrological processes alter in particular the frequency and magnitude of extreme events which are highly relevant for landscape erosion. To address these weaknesses we introduce a new analytical stochastic-threshold formulation of the stream power incision model that is driven by probabilistic hydrology. The hydrological model incorporates a stochastic description of soil moisture which takes into account the random nature of the rainfall forcing and the dynamics of the soil layer. The soil layer dynamics include infiltration and evapotranspiration which are both modelled as being dependent on the time varying soil moisture level (state dependent). The stochastic approach allows us to integrate these effects over long periods of time to understand their influence on the longterm average erosion rate without the need to explicitly model processes on the short timescales where they are relevant. Our model can therefore represent the role of soil properties (thickness, porosity) and vegetation (through evapotranspiration rates) in the longterm catchment-wide water balance, and in turn the longterm erosion rate. We identify

  17. DNA DSB measurements and modelling approaches based on gamma-H2AX foci time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Campa, Alessandro; Antonelli, Francesca; Mariotti, Luca; Belli, Mauro; Giardullo, Paola; Simone, Giustina; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionising radiation are considered the main dam-age related to the deleterious consequences in the cells. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DSBs can cause mutations or loss of chromosome regions which can eventually lead to cell death or neo-plastic transformation. Quantification of the number and complexity of DSBs induced by low doses of radiation remains a complex problem. About ten years ago Rogakou et al. proposed an immunofluorescent technique able to detect even a single DSB per cell. This approach is based on the serine 139 phosphorylation of many molecules (up to 2000) of histone H2AX (γg-H2AX) following the induction of a DSB in the DNA. DSB can be visualized as foci by immunofluores-cence by using phospho-specific antibodies, so that enumeration of foci can be used to measure DSB induction and processing. It is still not completely clear how γ-H2AX dephosphorylation takes place; however it has been related with DSB repair, in particular with the efficiency of DSB repair. In this work we analyse the H2AX phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics after irradiation of primary human fibroblasts (AG1522 cell line) with radiation of differing quality, that is γ-rays and α-particles (125 keV/µm), with the aim of comparing the time evolution of γ-H2AX foci. Our results show that, after a dose of 0.5 Gy, both γ-rays and α-particles induce the maximum number of γ-H2AX foci within 30 minutes from irradiation, that this number depends on the radiation type and is consistent with the number of track traversal in α-irradiated nuclei, that the dephosphorylation kinetics are very different, being the α-induced foci rate of disappearence slower than that of γ-induced foci. In this work a modellistic approach to estimate the number of DSB induced by γ-rays detectable by using the γ-H2AX assay is presented. The competing processes of appearance and disappearance of visible foci will be modeled taking into account the

  18. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport.

  19. RAPD profile variation amongst provenances of neem.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, N; Ranade, S A; Sane, P V

    1998-08-01

    Neem, described as a tree for solving global problems, is an evergreen, long-lived, multipurpose tree of the tropics with a wide distribution range in India. It is believed to be highly cross-pollinated. Inter-provenance variations have been reported in neem in case of morphological and physiological characters. Yet no reports about the genetic determinism for these variations are available to our knowledge. In order to have an idea about the extent and/or nature of genetic (DNA) variation in neem, the powerful RAPD technique has been employed. RAPD profiles of 34 accessions/provenances of neem were generated with 200 decamer random primers, of which the data from the 49 primers, that resulted in reproducible amplification products, were considered for analysis. Based on the presence/absence of bands, a similarity matrix was computed. Dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA method based on the pairwise similarities amongst the RAPD profiles. The similarities in RAPD profiles amongst the different DNAs was more than that expected due to the cross-pollinated nature of the tree and furthermore, these more-than-expected similarities were not due to random chance. These results suggest that neem may have a narrow genetic base.

  20. The Open Provenance Model core specification (v1.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Clifford, Ben; Freire, Juliana; Futrelle, Joe; Gil, Yolanda; Groth, Paul; Kwasnikowska, Natalia; Miles, Simon; Missier, Paolo; Myers, Jim; Plale, Beth; Simmhan, Yogesh; Stephan, Eric; den Bussche, Jan Van

    2011-06-01

    The Open Provenance Model is a model of provenance that is designed to meet the following requirements: (1) To allow provenance information to be ex- changed between systems, by means of a compatibility layer based on a shared provenance model. (2) To allow developers to build and share tools that operate on such a provenance model. (3) To deFIne provenance in a precise, technology- agnostic manner. (4) To support a digital representation of provenance for any “thing, whether produced by computer systems or not. (5) To allow multiple levels of description to coexist. (6) To deFIne a core set of rules that identify the valid inferences that can be made on provenance representation. This docu- ment contains the speciFIcation of the Open Provenance Model (v1.1) resulting from a commChallenge.

  1. Titian: Data Provenance Support in Spark

    PubMed Central

    Interlandi, Matteo; Shah, Kshitij; Tetali, Sai Deep; Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Miryung; Millstein, Todd; Condie, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Debugging data processing logic in Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems is a difficult and time consuming effort. Today’s DISC systems offer very little tooling for debugging programs, and as a result programmers spend countless hours collecting evidence (e.g., from log files) and performing trial and error debugging. To aid this effort, we built Titian, a library that enables data provenance—tracking data through transformations—in Apache Spark. Data scientists using the Titian Spark extension will be able to quickly identify the input data at the root cause of a potential bug or outlier result. Titian is built directly into the Spark platform and offers data provenance support at interactive speeds—orders-of-magnitude faster than alternative solutions—while minimally impacting Spark job performance; observed overheads for capturing data lineage rarely exceed 30% above the baseline job execution time. PMID:26726305

  2. Modeling the Provenance of Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya-Huei; Minton, David A.

    2014-11-01

    The cratering history of the Moon provides a way to study the violent early history of our early solar system. Nevertheless, we are still limited in our ability to interpret the lunar cratering history because the complex process of generation and subsequent transportation and destruction of impact melt products is relatively poorly understood. Here we describe a preliminary model for the transport of datable impact melt products by craters over Gy timescales on the lunar surface. We use a numerical model based on the Maxwell Z-model to model the exhumation and transport of ejecta material from within the excavation flow of a transient crater. We describe our algorithm for rapidly estimating the provenance of ejecta material for use in a Monte Carlo cratering code capable of simulating lunar cratering over Gy timescales.

  3. Standardized wellheads proven economical for subsea operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, C.C.; Silva Paulo, C.A. )

    1994-05-02

    A standardization program for subsea wellheads and completion equipment has made development of Brazil's offshore fields more economical and efficient. The resulting operational flexibility associated with the use of field-proven equipment and procedures saves rig time and can reduce production loss during workovers. Additionally, investments can be rationalized economically by installing part of the completion equipment at the end of the drilling job and then delaying purchase and installation of the christmas tree and the flow lines until installation of the production platform. Savings are also realized from the reduction in the number of spare parts and tools. Moreover, the savings related to improved operations exceed considerably those from equipment acquisition and storage. Thus, the greatest benefit is the operational flexibility. The paper discusses initial standards, the subsea programs, philosophy, implementation, diver-assisted trees, diverless trees, and economics.

  4. A Markov random field approach for modeling spatio-temporal evolution of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Pinar; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2016-10-01

    The following problem is addressed: ‘Can one synthesize microstructure evolution over a large area given experimental movies measured over smaller regions?’ Our input is a movie of microstructure evolution over a small sample window. A Markov random field (MRF) algorithm is developed that uses this data to estimate the evolution of microstructure over a larger region. Unlike the standard microstructure reconstruction problem based on stationary images, the present algorithm is also able to reconstruct time-evolving phenomena such as grain growth. Such an algorithm would decrease the cost of full-scale microstructure measurements by coupling mathematical estimation with targeted small-scale spatiotemporal measurements. The grain size, shape and orientation distribution statistics of synthesized polycrystalline microstructures at different times are compared with the original movie to verify the method.

  5. An ecological and behavioural approach to hominin evolution during the Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Gabriele A.

    2014-07-01

    The study considers the turnover in hominins, together with carnivorans and other primates, at 3.5 Ma against an environmental backdrop. Communalities are identified between evolving guilds that may directly inform hominin evolution. These are the evolution of (a) dietary generalists and (b) evidence for sociality in carnivores, baboons and hominins. Sociality and behavioural flexibility are regarded advantageous for the procurement of resources while, at the same time, reducing intraspecific competition; in primates it may initially also have served to reduce predation risk. Behavioural flexibility explains the evolutionary success of Panthera leo, Papio and Homo. Viewed within a wider palaeoecological and environmental context, it is possible that sociality in hominins, including allocare, were triggered by abiotic changes at about 3.5 Ma. If confirmed in future studies, this would mark the beginning of hominin life history evolution.

  6. Impact of time and space evolution of ion tracks in nonvolatile memory cells approaching nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2010-12-15

    Swift heavy ions impacting on matter lose energy through the creation of dense tracks of charges. The study of the space and time evolution of energy exchange allows understanding the single event effects behavior in advanced microelectronic devices. In particular, the shrinking of minimum feature size of most advanced memory devices makes them very interesting test vehicles to study these effects since the device and the track dimensions are comparable; hence, measured effects are directly correlated with the time and space evolution of the energy release. In this work we are studying the time and space evolution of ion tracks by using advanced non volatile memories and Monte Carlo simulations. Experimental results are very well explained by the theoretical calculations.

  7. Role of transcriptional regulation in the evolution of plant phenotype: A dynamic systems approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mega, Emiliano; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Gutierrez, Crisanto; García-Ponce, Berenice; Sánchez, María De La Paz; Zluhan-Martínez, Estephania; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana

    2015-03-02

    A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations in transcriptional regulation of genes involved in modulating development are an important part of phenotypic evolution, and this can be documented among species and within populations. While the effects of differential transcriptional regulation in organismal development have been preferentially studied in animal systems, this phenomenon has also been addressed in plants. In this review, we summarize evidence for cis-regulatory mutations, trans-regulatory changes and epigenetic modifications as molecular events underlying important phenotypic alterations, and thus shaping the evolution of plant development. We postulate that a mechanistic understanding of why such molecular alterations have a key role in development, morphology and evolution will have to rely on dynamic models of complex regulatory networks that consider the concerted action of genetic and nongenetic components, and that also incorporate the restrictions underlying the genotype to phenotype mapping process. Developmental Dynamics, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Hybrid Particle Swarm with Differential Evolution Operator Approach (DEPSO) for Linear Array Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soham; Das, Swagatam

    In recent years particle swarm optimization emerges as one of the most efficient global optimization tools. In this paper, a hybrid particle swarm with differential evolution operator, termed DEPSO, is applied for the synthesis of linear array geometry. Here, the minimum side lobe level and null control, both are obtained by optimizing the spacing between the array elements by this technique. Moreover, a statistical comparison is also provided to establish its performance against the results obtained by Genetic Algorithm (GA), classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA), Differential Evolution (DE) and Memetic Algorithm (MA).

  9. Scientific Workflows + Provenance = Better (Meta-)Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    The origin and processing history of an artifact is known as its provenance. Data provenance is an important form of metadata that explains how a particular data product came about, e.g., how and when it was derived in a computational process, which parameter settings and input data were used, etc. Provenance information provides transparency and helps to explain and interpret data products. Other common uses and applications of provenance include quality control, data curation, result debugging, and more generally, 'reproducible science'. Scientific workflow systems (e.g. Kepler, Taverna, VisTrails, and others) provide controlled environments for developing computational pipelines with built-in provenance support. Workflow results can then be explained in terms of workflow steps, parameter settings, input data, etc. using provenance that is automatically captured by the system. Scientific workflows themselves provide a user-friendly abstraction of the computational process and are thus a form of ('prospective') provenance in their own right. The full potential of provenance information is realized when combining workflow-level information (prospective provenance) with trace-level information (retrospective provenance). To this end, the DataONE Provenance Working Group (ProvWG) has developed an extension of the W3C PROV standard, called D-PROV. Whereas PROV provides a 'least common denominator' for exchanging and integrating provenance information, D-PROV adds new 'observables' that described workflow-level information (e.g., the functional steps in a pipeline), as well as workflow-specific trace-level information ( timestamps for each workflow step executed, the inputs and outputs used, etc.) Using examples, we will demonstrate how the combination of prospective and retrospective provenance provides added value in managing scientific data. The DataONE ProvWG is also developing tools based on D-PROV that allow scientists to get more mileage from provenance metadata

  10. Leveraging The Open Provenance Model as a Multi-Tier Model for Global Climate Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Halter, Todd D.; Ermold, Brian D.

    2010-12-08

    Global climate researchers rely upon many forms of sensor data and analytical methods to help profile subtle changes in climate conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program provides researchers with curated Value Added Products (VAPs) resulting from continuous sensor data streams, data fusion, and modeling. The ARM operations staff and software development teams (data producers) rely upon a number of techniques to ensure strict quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) standards are maintained. Climate researchers (data consumers) are highly interested in obtaining as much provenance (data quality, data pedigree) as possible to establish data trustworthiness. Currently all the provenance is not easily attainable or identifiable without significant efforts to extract and piece together information from configuration files, log files, codes, and status information from ARM databases. The need for a formalized approach to managing provenance became paramount with the planned addition of 120 new instruments, new data products, and data collection scaling to half a terabyte daily. Last year our research identified the need for a multi-tier provenance model to enable the data consumer easy access to the provenance for their data. This year we are leveraging the Open Provenance Model as a foundational construct that serves the needs of both the VAP producers and consumers, we are organizing the provenance in different tiers of granularity to model VAP lineage, causality at the component level within a VAP, and the causality for each time step as samples are being assembled within the VAP. This paper shares our implementation strategy and how the ARM operations staff and the climate research community can greatly benefit from this approach to more effectively assess and quantify VAP provenance.

  11. Computers in Biological Education: Simulation Approaches. Genetics and Evolution. CAL Research Group Technical Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, P. J.

    Three examples of genetics and evolution simulation concerning Mendelian inheritance, genetic mapping, and natural selection are used to illustrate the use of simulations in modeling scientific/natural processes. First described is the HERED series, which illustrates such phenomena as incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, lethal alleles,…

  12. A general patterning approach by manipulating the evolution of two-dimensional liquid foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhandong; Su, Meng; Yang, Qiang; Li, Zheng; Chen, Shuoran; Li, Yifan; Zhou, Xue; Li, Fengyu; Song, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of gas-liquid foams has been an attractive topic for more than half a century. However, it remains a challenge to manipulate the evolution of foams, which restricts the development of porous materials with excellent mechanical, thermal, catalytic, electrical or acoustic properties. Here we report a strategy to manipulate the evolution of two-dimensional (2D) liquid foams with a micropatterned surface. We demonstrate that 2D liquid foams can evolve beyond Ostwald ripening (large bubbles always consuming smaller ones). By varying the arrangement of pillars on the surface, we have prepared various patterns of foams in which the size, shape and position of the bubbles can be precisely controlled. Furthermore, these patterned bubbles can serve as a template for the assembly of functional materials, such as nanoparticles and conductive polymers, into desired 2D networks with nanoscale resolution. This methodology provides new insights in controlling curvature-driven evolution and opens a general route for the assembly of functional materials.

  13. A general patterning approach by manipulating the evolution of two-dimensional liquid foams

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhandong; Su, Meng; Yang, Qiang; Li, Zheng; Chen, Shuoran; Li, Yifan; Zhou, Xue; Li, Fengyu; Song, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of gas-liquid foams has been an attractive topic for more than half a century. However, it remains a challenge to manipulate the evolution of foams, which restricts the development of porous materials with excellent mechanical, thermal, catalytic, electrical or acoustic properties. Here we report a strategy to manipulate the evolution of two-dimensional (2D) liquid foams with a micropatterned surface. We demonstrate that 2D liquid foams can evolve beyond Ostwald ripening (large bubbles always consuming smaller ones). By varying the arrangement of pillars on the surface, we have prepared various patterns of foams in which the size, shape and position of the bubbles can be precisely controlled. Furthermore, these patterned bubbles can serve as a template for the assembly of functional materials, such as nanoparticles and conductive polymers, into desired 2D networks with nanoscale resolution. This methodology provides new insights in controlling curvature-driven evolution and opens a general route for the assembly of functional materials. PMID:28134337

  14. Insights into the Diversity of Attitudes Concerning Evolution and Creation: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konneman, Christiane; Asshoff, Roman; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to describe high school students' attitudes concerning evolution and creation, with a focus on (1) attitudes toward evolutionary theory, (2) attitudes toward the Biblical accounts of creation, (3) creationist beliefs, and (4) scientistic beliefs. Latent class analyses revealed seven attitude profiles in a sample of…

  15. Addressing Controversies in Science Education: A Pragmatic Approach to Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-01-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is…

  16. Analysing Coastal Evolution With EO Data: A Multi-Sensor Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Francesco; del Frate, Fabio; Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Latini, Daniele; Minchella, Andrea; Remondiere, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The new generation of satellite systems, featuring increased frequency of observations as well as better ground resolution compared to the past is opening new possibilities in support to coastal evolution monitoring. This paper provides some of the results obtained by a multidisciplinary team aiming to analyse the feasibility to use such data in support to coastal management studies.

  17. Evolution of conformational changes in the dynamics of small biological molecules: a hybrid MD/RRK approach.

    PubMed

    Segev, Elad; Grumbach, Mikael; Gerber, Robert Benny

    2006-11-14

    The dynamics of long timescale evolution of conformational changes in small biological molecules is described by a hybrid molecular dynamics/RRK algorithm. The approach employs classical trajectories for transitions between adjacent structures separated by a low barrier, and the classical statistical RRK approximation when the barrier involved is high. In determining the long-time dynamics from an initial structure to a final structure of interest, an algorithm is introduced for determining the most efficient pathways (sequence of the intermediate conformers). This method uses the Dijkstra algorithm for finding optimal paths on networks. Three applications of the method using an AMBER force field are presented: a detailed study of conformational transitions in a blocked valine dipeptide; a multiple reaction path study of the blocked valine tripeptide; and the evolution in time from the beta hairpin to alpha helix structure of a blocked alanine hexapeptide. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed in light of the results.

  18. Convergent evolution of the adaptive immune response in jawed vertebrates and cyclostomes: An evolutionary biology approach based study.

    PubMed

    Morales Poole, Jose Ricardo; Paganini, Julien; Pontarotti, Pierre

    2017-02-21

    Two different adaptive immune systems (AIS) are present in the two phyla of vertebrates (jawed vertebrates and cyclostomes). The jawed vertebrate system is based on IG/TCR/RAG/MHC while the cyclostome system is based on VLRCs and AID-like enzymes both systems using homologous Cell types (B-cell and B-cell Like, T-cell and T-cell like). We will present our current view of the evolution of these two AISs and present alternative hypotheses that could explain the apparent convergent evolution of the two systems. We will also discuss why comparative immunology analyses should be based on evolutionary biology approaches and not on the scale of progress one.

  19. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  1. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  2. An interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm for a class of integer bilevel programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Li; Jiao, Yong-Chang

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm to solve a class of integer bilevel programming problems, in which integer decision variables are controlled by an upper-level decision maker and real-value or continuous decision variables are controlled by a lower-level decision maker. Using the Karush--Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions in the lower-level programming, the original discrete bilevel formulation can be converted into a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem with the complementarity constraints, and then the smoothing technique is applied to deal with the complementarity constraints. Finally, a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem is obtained, and solved by an interactive approach. In each iteration, for each given upper-level discrete variable, a system of nonlinear equations including the lower-level variables and Lagrange multipliers is solved first, and then a discrete nonlinear programming problem only with inequality constraints is handled by using a discrete differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Evolution of Decision Rules Used for IT Portfolio Management: An Inductive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karhade, Prasanna P.; Shaw, Michael J.; Subramanyam, Ramanath

    IT portfolio management and the related planning decisions for IT-dependent initiatives are critical to organizational performance. Building on the logic of appropriateness theoretical framework, we define an important characteristic of decision rules used during IT portfolio planning; rule appropriateness with regards to the risk-taking criterion. We propose that rule appropriateness will be an important factor explaining the evolution of rules over time. Using an inductive learning methodology, we analyze a unique dataset of actual IT portfolio planning decisions spanning two consecutive years within one organization. We present systematic comparative analysis of the evolution of rules used in planning over two years to validate our research proposition. We find that rules that were inappropriate in the first year are being redefined to design appropriate rules for use in the second year. Our work provides empirical evidence demonstrating organizational learning and improvements in IT portfolio planning capabilities.

  4. Evolution of a lamellar system with diffusion and reaction: A scaling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, F. J.; Ottino, J. M.

    1989-07-01

    We study, by means of computer simulation and scaling analysis, the time evolution of one-dimensional arrays of reactive lamellae described by various initial striation thickness distributions. An infinitely fast reaction A+B-->2P occurs at the junctures of the lamellae. As the reaction proceeds thin striations are eaten by thick neighboring striations altering the distribution. The system converges toward a universal striation thickness distribution.

  5. Future of DAQ Frameworks and Approaches, and Their Evolution towards the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Niko

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, a DAQ system is a complex network of processors, sensors and many other active devices. Historically, providing a framework for DAQ has been a very important role of host institutes of experiments. Reviewing evolution of such DAQ frameworks is a very interesting subject of the conference. “Internet of Things” is a recent buzz word but a DAQ framework could be a good example of IoT.

  6. Spatial Autocatalytic Dynamics: An Approach to Modeling Prebiotic Evolution. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Colombano, Silvano P.; Lohn , Jason D.; Haith, Gary L.; Scargle, Jeffrey; Liang, Shoudan; Lee, T. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the origin of robust and evolvable metabolic functions, and the conditions under which it took place. We propose that spatial considerations, traditionally ignored, are essential to answering these important questions in prebiotic evolution. Our probabilistic cellular automaton model, based on work on autocatalytic metabolisms by Eigen, Kauffman, and others, has biologically interesting dynamical behavior that is missed if spatial extension is ignored.

  7. Data Provenance Architecture for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The pace at which geoscientific insights inform societal development quickens with time and these insights drive decisions and actions of ever-increasing human and economic significance. Until recently academic, commercial and government bodies have maintained distinct bodies of knowledge to support scientific enquiry as well as societal development. However, it has become clear that the curation of the body of data is an activity of equal or higher social and commercial value. We address the community challenges in the curation of, access to, and analysis of scientific data including: the tensions between creators, providers and users; incentives and barriers to sharing; ownership and crediting. We also discuss the technical and financial challenges in maximising the return on the effort made in generating geoscientific data. To illustrate how these challenges might be addressed in the broader geoscientific domain, we describe the high-level data governance and analytical architecture in the upstream Oil Industry. This domain is heavily dependent on costly and highly diverse geodatasets collected and assimilated over timeframes varying from seconds to decades. These data must support both operational decisions at the minute-hour timefame and strategic and economic decisions of enterprise or national scale, and yet be sufficiently robust to last the life of a producing field. We develop three themes around data provenance, data ownership and business models for data curation. 1/ The overarching aspiration is to ensure that data provenance and quality is maintained along the analytical workflow. Hence if data on which a publication or report changes, the report and its publishers can be notified and we describe a mechanism by which dependent knowledge products can be flagged. 2/ From a cost and management point of view we look at who "owns" data especially in cases where the cost of curation and stewardship is significant compared to the cost of acquiring the data

  8. Evolution of a Community-Based Participatory Approach in a Rural and Remote Dementia Care Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Debra; Crossley, Margaret; Stewart, Norma; Kirk, Andrew; Forbes, Dorothy; D’Arcy, Carl; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; McBain, Lesley; O’Connell, Megan; Bracken, Joanne; Kosteniuk, Julie; Cammer, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches are valuable strategies for addressing complex health and social problems and powerful tools to support effective transformation of social and health policy to better meet the needs of diverse stakeholders. Objectives Since 1997, our team has utilized CBPR approaches to improve health service delivery for persons with dementia and their caregivers in rural and remote settings. We describe the evolution of our approach, including benefits, challenges, and lessons learned over the last 15 years. Methods A multistage approach initiated an ongoing CBPR research program in rural dementia care and shaped its direction based on stakeholders’ recommendation to prioritize both community and facility-based care. Strategies to develop and foster collaborative partnerships have included travel to rural and remote regions, province-wide community meetings, stakeholder workshops, creation of a Decision-Maker Advisory Council to provide ongoing direction to the overall program, development of diverse project-specific advisory groups, and a highly successful and much anticipated annual knowledge exchange and team-building event. Lessons Learned Partnering with stakeholders in the full research process has enhanced the research quality, relevance, application, and sustainability. These benefits have supported the team’s evolution from a relatively traditional focus to an integrated approach guiding all aspects of our research. Conclusions Developing and sustaining the full range of stakeholder and decision-maker partnerships is resource-and time-intensive, but our experience shows that community-based participatory strategies are highly suited to health services research that is designed to support sustainable service delivery improvements. PMID:25435560

  9. GIS and paleoanthropology: incorporating new approaches from the geospatial sciences in the analysis of primate and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Anemone, R L; Conroy, G C; Emerson, C W

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of research tools and analytical approaches from the geospatial sciences is a welcome trend for the study of primate and human evolution. The use of remote sensing (RS) imagery and geographic information systems (GIS) allows vertebrate paleontologists, paleoanthropologists, and functional morphologists to study fossil localities, landscapes, and individual specimens in new and innovative ways that recognize and analyze the spatial nature of much paleoanthropological data. Whether one is interested in locating and mapping fossiliferous rock units in the field, creating a searchable and georeferenced database to catalog fossil localities and specimens, or studying the functional morphology of fossil teeth, bones, or artifacts, the new geospatial sciences provide an essential element in modern paleoanthropological inquiry. In this article we review recent successful applications of RS and GIS within paleoanthropology and related fields and argue for the importance of these methods for the study of human evolution in the twenty first century. We argue that the time has come for inclusion of geospatial specialists in all interdisciplinary field research in paleoanthropology, and suggest some promising areas of development and application of the methods of geospatial science to the science of human evolution.

  10. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling 'Darwinian' and 'Spencerian' evolutionary approaches in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2011-04-12

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of 'Spencerian' cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader 'Darwinian' framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification.

  11. Coastline evolution of Portuguese low-lying sandy coast in the last 50 years: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte Lira, Cristina; Nobre Silva, Ana; Taborda, Rui; Freire de Andrade, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    Regional/national-scale information on coastline rates of change and trends is extremely valuable, but these studies are scarce. A widely accepted standardized methodology for analysing long-term coastline change has been difficult to achieve, but it is essential to conduct an integrated and holistic approach to coastline evolution and hence support coastal management actions. Additionally, databases providing knowledge on coastline evolution are of key importance to support both coastal management experts and users.The main objective of this work is to present the first systematic, national-scale and consistent long-term coastline evolution data of Portuguese mainland low-lying sandy coasts.The methodology used quantifies coastline evolution using a unique and robust coastline indicator (the foredune toe), which is independent of short-term changes.The dataset presented comprises (1) two polyline sets, mapping the 1958 and 2010 sandy beach-dune system coastline, both optimized for working at 1 : 50 000 scale or smaller; (2) one polyline set representing long-term change rates between 1958 and 2010, each estimated at 250 m; and (3) a table with minimum, maximum and mean of evolution rates for sandy beach-dune system coastline. All science data produced here are openly accessible at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.859136 and can be used in other studies.Results show beach erosion as the dominant trend, with a mean change rate of -0.24 ± 0.01 m year-1 for all mainland Portuguese beach-dune systems. Although erosion is dominant, this evolution is variable in signal and magnitude in different coastal sediment cells and also within each cell. The most relevant beach erosion issues were found in the coastal stretches of Espinho-Torreira and Costa Nova-Praia de Mira, Cova da Gala-Leirosa, and Cova do Vapor-Costa da Caparica. The coastal segments Minho River-Nazaré and Costa da Caparica

  12. Iterative saturation mutagenesis: a powerful approach to engineer proteins by systematically simulating Darwinian evolution.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Hoebenreich, Sabrina; Reetz, Manfred T

    2014-01-01

    Iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) is a widely applicable and powerful strategy for the efficient directed evolution of enzymes. First, one or more amino acid positions from the chosen enzyme are assigned to multi-residue sites (i.e., groups of amino acids or "multisites"). Then, the residues in each multisite are mutated with a user-defined randomization scheme to all canonical amino acids or a reduced amino acid alphabet. Subsequently, the genes of chosen variants (usually the best but not necessarily) are used as templates for saturation mutagenesis at other multisites, and the process is repeated until the desired degree of biocatalyst improvement has been achieved. Addressing multisites iteratively results in a so-called ISM scheme or tree with various upward branches or pathways. The systematic character of ISM simulates in vitro the natural process of Darwinian evolution: variation (library creation), selection (library screening), and amplification (template chosen for the next round of randomization). However, the main feature of ISM that distinguishes it from other directed evolution methods is the systematic probing of a defined segment of the protein sequence space, as it has been shown that ISM is much more efficient in terms of biocatalyst optimization than random methods such as error-prone PCR. In addition, ISM trees have also shed light on the emergence of epistasis, thereby rationally improving the strategies for evolving better enzymes. ISM was developed to improve catalytic properties such as rate, substrate scope, stereo- and regioselectivity using the Combinatorial Active-site Saturation Test (CAST), as well as chemical and thermal stability employing the B-Factor Iterative Test (B-FIT). However, ISM can also be invoked to manipulate such protein properties as binding affinity among other possibilities, including protein-protein interactions. Herein, we provide general guidelines for ISM, using CAST as the case study in the quest to

  13. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  14. Hydrochemical evolution and groundwater flow processes in the Galilee and Eromanga basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia: a multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Moya, Claudio E; Raiber, Matthias; Taulis, Mauricio; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-03-01

    The Galilee and Eromanga basins are sub-basins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). In this study, a multivariate statistical approach (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis) is carried out to identify hydrochemical patterns and assess the processes that control hydrochemical evolution within key aquifers of the GAB in these basins. The results of the hydrochemical assessment are integrated into a 3D geological model (previously developed) to support the analysis of spatial patterns of hydrochemistry, and to identify the hydrochemical and hydrological processes that control hydrochemical variability. In this area of the GAB, the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater is dominated by evapotranspiration near the recharge area resulting in a dominance of the Na-Cl water types. This is shown conceptually using two selected cross-sections which represent discrete groundwater flow paths from the recharge areas to the deeper parts of the basins. With increasing distance from the recharge area, a shift towards a dominance of carbonate (e.g. Na-HCO3 water type) has been observed. The assessment of hydrochemical changes along groundwater flow paths highlights how aquifers are separated in some areas, and how mixing between groundwater from different aquifers occurs elsewhere controlled by geological structures, including between GAB aquifers and coal bearing strata of the Galilee Basin. The results of this study suggest that distinct hydrochemical differences can be observed within the previously defined Early Cretaceous-Jurassic aquifer sequence of the GAB. A revision of the two previously recognised hydrochemical sequences is being proposed, resulting in three hydrochemical sequences based on systematic differences in hydrochemistry, salinity and dominant hydrochemical processes. The integrated approach presented in this study which combines different complementary multivariate statistical techniques with a detailed assessment of the

  15. Managing the Evolution of an Enterprise Architecture using a MAS-Product-Line Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, Joaquin; Hinchey, Michael G.; Resinas, manuel; Sterritt, Roy; Rash, James L.

    2006-01-01

    We view an evolutionary system ns being n software product line. The core architecture is the unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system may be viewed as a product from the product line. Each "product" may be described as the core architecture with sonre agent-based additions. The result is a multiagent system software product line. We describe an approach to such n Software Product Line-based approach using the MaCMAS Agent-Oriented nzethoclology. The approach scales to enterprise nrchitectures as a multiagent system is an approprinre means of representing a changing enterprise nrchitectclre nnd the inferaction between components in it.

  16. Multitechnique characterization of lapis lazuli for provenance study.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Olivero, Paolo; Pratesi, Giovanni; Albonico, Maria; Conz, Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest precious stone, being used for glyptic as early as 7,000 years ago: jewels, amulets, seals, and inlays are examples of objects produced using this material. Only a few sources of lapis lazuli exist in the world due to the low probability of geological conditions in which it can form, so that the possibility to associate the raw material to man-made objects helps to reconstruct trade routes. Since art objects produced using lapis lazuli are valuable, only nondestructive investigations can be carried out to identify the provenance of the raw materials. Ionoluminescence (IL) is a good candidate for this task. Similar to cathodoluminescence (CL), IL consists in the collection of luminescence spectra induced by megaelectronvolt ion (usually protons) irradiation. The main advantage of IL consists in the possibility of working in air while measuring simultaneously the composition of major and trace elements by means of complementary ion beam analysis techniques like particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). In the present work, a systematic study of the luminescence properties of lapis lazuli under charged particle irradiation is reported. In the first phase, a multitechnique approach was adopted (CL, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, micro-Raman) to characterize luminescent minerals. This characterization was propaedeutic for IL/PIXE/PIGE measurements carried out on significant areas selected on the basis of results obtained previously. Criteria to identify provenance of lapis lazuli from four of the main sources (Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, Chile, and Siberia) were proposed.

  17. Provenance In Sensor Data Management: A Cohesive, Independent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In today's information-driven workplaces, data is constantly undergoing transformations and being moved around. The typical business-as-usual approach is to use email attachments, shared network locations, databases, and now, the cloud. More often than not, there are multiple versions of the data sitting in different locations and users of this data are confounded by the lack of metadata describing its provenance, or in other words, its lineage. Our project is aimed to solve this issue in the context of sensor data. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Building Technologies Research and Integration Center has reconfigurable commercial buildings deployed on the Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). These FRPs are instrumented with a large number of sensors which measure a number of variables such as HVAC efficiency, relative humidity, and temperature gradients across doors, windows, and walls. Sub-minute resolution data from hundreds of channels is acquired. This sensor data, traditionally, was saved to a shared network location which was accessible to a number of scientists for performing complicated simulation and analysis tasks. The sensor data also participates in elaborate quality assurance exercises as a result of inherent faults. Sometimes, faults are induced to observe building behavior. It became apparent that proper scientific controls required not just managing the data acquisition and delivery, but to also manage the metadata associated with temporal subsets of the sensor data. We built a system named ProvDMS, or Provenance Data Management System for the FRPs, which would both allow researchers to retrieve data of interest as well as trace data lineage. This provides researchers a one-stop shop for comprehensive views of various data transformation allowing researchers to effectively trace their data to its source so that experiments, and derivations of experiments, may be reused and reproduced without much overhead of the repeatability of experiments that

  18. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qian

    2008-01-01

    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  19. Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study. PMID:25538686

  20. Controversy in Biology Classrooms-Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions.

    PubMed

    Yoho, Rachel A; Vanmali, Binaben H

    2016-03-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to "hot topics" of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  1. Conceptual and empirical problems with game theoretic approaches to language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of game theoretic models to evolutionary theory has been in formulating elegant equations that specify the strategies to be played and the conditions to be satisfied for particular traits to evolve. These models, in conjunction with experimental tests of their predictions, have successfully described and explained the costs and benefits of varying strategies and the dynamics for establishing equilibria in a number of evolutionary scenarios, including especially cooperation, mating, and aggression. Over the past decade or so, game theory has been applied to model the evolution of language. In contrast to the aforementioned scenarios, however, we argue that these models are problematic due to conceptual confusions and empirical difficiences. In particular, these models conflate the comptutations and representations of our language faculty (mechanism) with its utility in communication (function); model languages as having different fitness functions for which there is no evidence; depend on assumptions for the starting state of the system, thereby begging the question of how these systems evolved; and to date, have generated no empirical studies at all. Game theoretic models of language evolution have therefore failed to advance how or why language evolved, or why it has the particular representations and computations that it does. We conclude with some brief suggestions for how this situation might be ameliorated, enabling this important theoretical tool to make substantive empirical contributions. PMID:24678305

  2. Controversy in Biology Classrooms—Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Yoho, Rachel A.; Vanmali, Binaben H.

    2016-01-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to “hot topics” of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047604

  3. A joint shape evolution approach to medical image segmentation using expectation-maximization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Farzinfar, Mahshid; Teoh, Eam Khwang; Xue, Zhong

    2011-11-01

    This study proposes an expectation-maximization (EM)-based curve evolution algorithm for segmentation of magnetic resonance brain images. In the proposed algorithm, the evolution curve is constrained not only by a shape-based statistical model but also by a hidden variable model from image observation. The hidden variable model herein is defined by the local voxel labeling, which is unknown and estimated by the expected likelihood function derived from the image data and prior anatomical knowledge. In the M-step, the shapes of the structures are estimated jointly by encoding the hidden variable model and the statistical prior model obtained from the training stage. In the E-step, the expected observation likelihood and the prior distribution of the hidden variables are estimated. In experiments, the proposed automatic segmentation algorithm is applied to multiple gray nuclei structures such as caudate, putamens and thalamus of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in volunteers and patients. As for the robustness and accuracy of the segmentation algorithm, the results of the proposed EM-joint shape-based algorithm outperformed those obtained using the statistical shape model-based techniques in the same framework and a current state-of-the-art region competition level set method.

  4. Pathways to Provenance: "DACS" and Creator Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    "Describing Archives: A Content Standard" breaks important ground for American archivists in its distinction between creator descriptions and archival material descriptions. Implementations of creator descriptions, many using Encoded Archival Context (EAC), are found internationally. "DACS"'s optional approach of describing…

  5. Detrital shocked minerals: microstructural provenance indicators of impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of detrital shocked minerals (DSMs) merges planetary science, sedimentology, mineralogy/crystallography, accessory mineral geochemistry, and geochronology, with the goal of identifying and determining provenance of shock metamorphosed sand grains. Diagnostic high-pressure impact-generated microstructures (planar fractures, planar deformation features) are readily identified on external grain surfaces using standard SEM imaging methods (BSE), and when found, unambiguously confirm an impact origin for a given sand grain. DSMs, including quartz, zircon, monazite, and apatite, have thus far been documented at the Vredefort Dome [1,2,3], Sudbury [4], Rock Elm [5], and Santa Fe [6,7] impact structures. DSMs have been identified in alluvium, colluvium, beach sand, and glacial deposits. Two main processes are recognized that imply the global siliciclastic record contains DSMs: they survive extreme distal transport, and they survive 'deep time' lithification. Distal transport: In South Africa, shocked minerals are preserved in alluvium from the Vaal River >750 km downstream from the Vredefort impact; SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology has confirmed the origin of detrital shocked zircon and monazite from shocked Vredefort bedrock [2]. Vredefort-derived shocked zircons have also been found at the mouth of the Orange River on the Atlantic coast, having travelled ~2000 km downriver from Vredefort [8]. Deep time preservation: Vredefort-derived shocked zircon and quartz has been documented in glacial diamictite from the 300 Myr-old Dwyka Group in South Africa. Shocked minerals were thus entrained and transported in Paleozoic ice sheets that passed over Vredefort [9]. An impact crater can thus be viewed as a unique 'point source', in some cases for billions of years [2,4]; DSMs thus have applications in studying eroded impact craters, sedimentary provenance, landscape evolution, and long-term sediment transport processes throughout the geologic record. This work was supported by

  6. Towards a common provenance model for research publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L.; Ma, X.; West, P.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness. In a research publication, provenance includes entities, activities and people involved in the process leading to the parts of the publication such as figures, tables, paragraphs etc. Such information is often desirable for the readers to correctly interpret publication content and enables them to evaluate the credibility of the reported results by digging into the software in use, source data and responsible agents or even reproducing the results themselves. In this presentation, we will describe our ontology designed to model the preparing process of research publications based on our experience from two projects, both focusing on provenance capturing for research publications. The first project is about capturing provenance information for a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), and the second about capturing provenance information for an Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC). Both projects base their provenance modeling on the W3C Provenance ontology (PROV-O), which proves to be an effective way to create models for provenance capturing. We will illustrate the commonalities and differences between use cases of these two projects and how we derive a common model from models specifically designed to capture provenance information for each of the projects.

  7. Molecular Corridor Based Approach for Description of Evolution of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y., Sr.; Poeschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and its major component is secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Formation and evolution of SOA is a complex process involving coupled chemical reactions and mass transport in the gas and particle phases (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Current air quality models do not embody the full spectrum of reaction and transport processes, nor do they identify the dominant rate-limiting steps in SOA formation, resulting in the significant underprediction of observed SOA concentrations, which precludes reliable quantitative predictions of aerosols and their environmental impacts. Recently, it has been suggested that the SOA chemical evolution can be represented well by "molecular corridor" with a tight inverse correlation between molar mass and volatility of SOA oxidation products (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Here we further analyzed the structure, molar mass and volatility of 31,000 unique organic compounds. These compounds include oxygenated organic compounds as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics such as amines, organonitrates, and organosulfates. Results show that most of those compounds fall into this two-dimensional (2-D) space, which is constrained by two boundary lines corresponding to the volatility of n -alkanes CnH2n+2 and sugar alcohols CnH2n+2On. A method to predict the volatility of nitrogen- and sulfur- containing compounds is developed based on those 31,000 organic compounds. It is shown that the volatility can be well predicted as a function of chemical composition numbers, providing a way to apply this 2-D space to organic compounds observed in real atmosphere. A comprehensive set of observation data from laboratory experiments, field campaigns and indoor measurements is mapped to the molecular corridor. This 2-D space can successfully grasp the properties of organic compounds formed in different atmospheric conditions. The molecular corridor represents a new framework in which chemical and physical properties as

  8. Deciphering the brittle evolution of SW Norway through a combined structural, mineralogical and geochronological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Zwingmann, Horst; Wilkinson, Camilla Maya; Ganerød, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    SW Norway has experienced a complex brittle history after cessation of the Caledonian orogeny, and the recent discoveries of major hydrocarbon reserves in heavily fractured and weathered basement offshore SW Norway has triggered a renewed interest in understanding this complex tectonic evolution. In this contribution we present results from a multidisciplinary study combining lineament analysis, field work, paleo-stress inversion, mineralogical characterization and radiometric dating in the Bømlo area of SW Norway in order to develop a tectonic model for the brittle evolution of this important region. The study area mainly consists of the Rolvsnes granodiorite (U-Pb zircon age of ca. 466 Ma), which is devoid of penetrative ductile deformation features. The first identified brittle faults are muscovite-bearing top-to-the-NNW thrusts and E-W striking dextral strike-slip faults decorated with stretched biotite. These are mechanically compatible and are assigned to the same NNW-SSE transpressional regime. Ar-Ar muscovite and biotite dates of ca. 450 Ma (Late Ordovician) indicate fault activity in the course of a Taconian-equivalent orogenic event. During the subsequent Silurian Laurentia-Baltica collision variably oriented, lower-grade chlorite and epidote-coated faults formed in response to a ENE-WSW compressional stress regime. A large number of mainly N-S striking normal faults consist of variably thick fault gouge cores with illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and epidote mineralizations, accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges and zones of altered granodiorite constrain deformation ranging from the Permian to the Late Jurassic, indicating a long history of crustal extension where faults were repeatedly activated. In addition, a set of ca. SW-NE striking faults associated with alteration zones give Cretaceous dates, either representing a young phase of NW-SE extension or reactivation of previously formed

  9. Stream-piracy impact on the long-term evolution of the Meuse basin. Physical approach "modeling with GOLEM"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaichouche, A.; Stab, O.; Cojan, I.; Brulhet, J.; Tijani, M.; Tessier, B.

    2012-04-01

    Landscape evolution results of antagonistic processes. In the Paris basin (France): tectonic uplift seems to be globally balanced by river incision. But the dynamic equilibrium of the relief can be disturbed by other processes and singularities may appear. A remarkable example is observed in the Meuse basin (NE of France), where the river is actually perched at more than +50m above the surrounding valleys: the Marne valley to the west and the Moselle valley to the east. This special morphology is the result of several stream piracies (at the expense of the Meuse) which has interested numerous researchers since a long time (Davis 1895, Blache 1943, Lesson-Quinif 2001 & Le Roux Harmand 1997-2009…). The most important ones of these piracies are: 1) the well-known capture of the Haute-Moselle by a tributary of the Meurthe near Toul; 2) at the north-west, the capture of the river Aire by the Aisne. On-going evolution suggests that similar events can be expected in the long-term future. Where and when next streams piracies could occur, what consequences may be expected? Our approach is to simulate the dynamic evolution of the landscape with an improved version of GOLEM (Geomorphic / Orogenic Landscape Evolution Model - LEM), software developed by Tucker & Slingerland in 1994 (http://csdms.colorado.edu/wiki/Model:GOLEM). The LEM characterizes erosion by incorporating diffusion and advection equations whose parameters must be fixed, according to local conditions. First simulations for next millions years with « detachment-limited » mode, let us locate several potential captures of the Meuse river by tributaries of the Moselle, therefore inducing a complete reorganization of the hydrographic network. The results of the localizations agree with local topography/geometry analysis. The first capture induces the propagation of a knickpoint and a significant lowering of the upstream part of the Meuse's basin. Downstream of the capture, the orientation of the abandoned valley

  10. A multiscale approach to defect evolution in tungsten under helium irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, G.; Cazalilla, A. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Prada, A.; Iglesias, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied He irradiation in tungsten from a multiscale point of view: Density Functional Theory (DFT) to obtain the binding energies of He to vacancy clusters, Binary Collision Approximation (BCA) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) to produce defect cascades and Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) to study their evolution in larger temporal and spatial scales. A comparison between BCA and MD cascades produced by PKA at different energies has been done at different temperatures: at high temperature and at high PKA energies the OKMC results clearly depend on the defect cascades. 625 keV pulsed He ion irradiation has been simulated with cascades obtained by means of BCA and MD. The results show that in the case of ion irradiation, BCA results can provide good OKMC results. However, in the case of neutron irradiation producing high energy PKAs, BCA cascades clearly overestimate the number of FPs, which may have a strong influence on the OKMC results.

  11. Co-Evolution of Opinion and Strategy in Persuasion Dynamics:. AN Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun; Li, Yong

    In this paper, a new model of opinion formation within the framework of evolutionary game theory is presented. The model simulates strategic situations when people are in opinion discussion. Heterogeneous agents adjust their behaviors to the environment during discussions, and their interacting strategies evolve together with opinions. In the proposed game, we take into account payoff discount to join a discussion, and the situation that people might drop out of an unpromising game. Analytical and emulational results show that evolution of opinion and strategy always tend to converge, with utility threshold, memory length, and decision uncertainty parameters influencing the convergence time. The model displays different dynamical regimes when we set differently the rule when people are at a loss in strategy.

  12. Organisms, organizations and interactions: an information theory approach to biocultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R; Wallace, R G

    1999-08-01

    The language metaphor of theoretical biology, proposed by Waddington in 1972, provides a basis for the formal examination of how different self-reproducing structures interact in an extended evolutionary context. Such interactions have become central objects of study in fields ranging from human evolution-genes and culture-to economics-firms, markets and technology. Here we use the Shannon-McMillan Theorem, one of the fundamental asymptotic relations of probability theory, to study the 'weakest' and hence most universal, forms of interaction between generalized languages. We propose that the co-evolving gene-culture structure that permits human ultra-sociality emerged in a singular coagulation of genetic and cultural 'languages', in the general sense of the word. Human populations have since hosted series of culture-only speciations and coagulations, events that, in this formulation, do not become mired in the 'meme' concept.

  13. A Knowledge-based Evolution Algorithm approach to political districting problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chung-I.

    2011-01-01

    The political districting problem is to study how to partition a comparatively large zone into many minor electoral districts. In our previously works, we have mapped this political problem onto a q-state Potts model system by using statistical physics methods. The political constraints (such as contiguity, population equality, etc.) are transformed to an energy function with interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Several optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing method and genetic algorithm have been applied to this problem. In this report, we will show how to apply the Knowledge-based Evolution Algorithm (KEA) to the problem. Our test objects include two real cities (Taipei and Kaohsiung) and the simulated cities. The results showed the KEA can reach the same minimum which has been found by using other methods in each test case.

  14. Dynamical evolution of the Oort cloud. I. A Monte Carlo simulation. II. A theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Remy, F.; Mignard, F.

    1985-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model is used to trace the dynamical evolution of the Oort cloud of comets to its ultimate end. After a review of previous simulations, the necessity of considering perturbations of the aphelion distance because of passing stars, the density of passing stars, and the three-body problem of sun-star-comet is discussed. For convenience, the solar gravitation is assumed to be zero as a star passes. It is also assumed that the initial cometary distribution had a perihelion near the orbits of Uranus-Neptune. Six orbital elements are calculated to obtain orbital distributions for the population in the Oort cloud. The cloud is estimated to contain 10 trillion comets, which would satisfy the present apparition rate of new comets. 34 references.

  15. Competition-colonization dynamics: An ecology approach to quasispecies dynamics and virulence evolution in RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Ojosnegros, Samuel; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Domingo, Esteban

    2010-07-01

    A single and purified clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus diversified in cell culture into two subpopulations that were genetically distinct. The subpopulation with higher virulence was a minority and was suppressed by the dominant but less virulent one. These two populations follow the competitioncolonization dynamics described in ecology. Virulent viruses can be regarded as colonizers because they killed the cells faster and they spread faster. The attenuated subpopulation resembles competitors because of its higher replication efficiency in coinfected cells. Our results suggest a new model for the evolution of virulence which is based on interactions between components of the quasispecies. Competition between viral mutants takes place at two levels, intracellular competition and competition for new cells. The two strategies are subjected to densitydependent selection.

  16. Evolution and Classification of Myosins, a Paneukaryotic Whole-Genome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Richards, Thomas A.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Myosins are key components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, providing motility for a broad diversity of cargoes. Therefore, understanding the origin and evolutionary history of myosin classes is crucial to address the evolution of eukaryote cell biology. Here, we revise the classification of myosins using an updated taxon sampling that includes newly or recently sequenced genomes and transcriptomes from key taxa. We performed a survey of eukaryotic genomes and phylogenetic analyses of the myosin gene family, reconstructing the myosin toolkit at different key nodes in the eukaryotic tree of life. We also identified the phylogenetic distribution of myosin diversity in terms of number of genes, associated protein domains and number of classes in each taxa. Our analyses show that new classes (i.e., paralogs) and domain architectures were continuously generated throughout eukaryote evolution, with a significant expansion of myosin abundance and domain architectural diversity at the stem of Holozoa, predating the origin of animal multicellularity. Indeed, single-celled holozoans have the most complex myosin complement among eukaryotes, with paralogs of most myosins previously considered animal specific. We recover a dynamic evolutionary history, with several lineage-specific expansions (e.g., the myosin III-like gene family diversification in choanoflagellates), convergence in protein domain architectures (e.g., fungal and animal chitin synthase myosins), and important secondary losses. Overall, our evolutionary scheme demonstrates that the ancestral eukaryote likely had a complex myosin repertoire that included six genes with different protein domain architectures. Finally, we provide an integrative and robust classification, useful for future genomic and functional studies on this crucial eukaryotic gene family. PMID:24443438

  17. Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Iberia and Newfoundland Rifted Margins: A Quantitative Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, G.; Karner, G. D.; Manatschal, G.; Johnson, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Rifted margins develop generally through polyphased extensional events leading eventually to break-up. We investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margin from its Permian post-orogenic stage to early Cretaceous break-up. We have applied Quantitative Basin Analysis to integrate seismic stratigraphic interpretations and drill hole data of representative sections across the Iberia-Newfoundland margins with kinematic models for the thinning of the lithosphere and subsequent isostatic readjustment. Our goal is to predict the distribution of extension and thinning, environments of deposition, crustal structure and subsidence history as functions of space and time. The first sediments deposited on the Iberian continental crust were in response to Permian lithospheric thinning, associated with magmatic underplating and subsequent thermal re-equilibration of the lithosphere. During late Triassic-early Jurassic rifting, a broadly distributed depth-independent lithospheric extension occurred, followed by late Jurassic rifting that increasingly focused with time and became depth-dependent during the early Cretaceous. However, there exists a temporality in the along-strike deformation of the Iberia-Newfoundland margin: significant Valanginian-Hauterivian deformation characterizes the northern Galicia Bank-Flemish Cap while the southern Iberian-Newfoundland region is characterized by Tithonian-early Berriasian extension. Deformation localized with time on both margins leading to late Aptian break-up. To match the distribution and magnitude of subsidence across the profiles requires significant thinning of middle/lower crustal level and subcontinental lithospheric mantle, leading to the formation of the hyper-extended domains. The late-stage deformation of both margins was characterized by a predominantly brittle deformation of the residual continental crust, leading to exhumation of subcontinental mantle and ultimately to seafloor

  18. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms.

  19. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  20. Convergence and dissonance: evolution in private-sector approaches to disease management and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Au, Melanie; Claxton, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Disease management (DM) approaches survived the 1990s backlash against managed care because of their potential for consumer-friendly cost containment, but purchasers have been cautious about investing heavily in them because of uncertainty about return on investment. This study examines how private-sector approaches to DM have evolved over the past two years in the midst of the movement toward consumer-driven health care. Findings indicate that these programs have become standard features of health plan design, despite a thin evidence base concerning their effectiveness. Uncertainties remain regarding how well these programs will function within benefit designs that require higher consumer cost sharing.

  1. Provenance and sediment fluxes in the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Limonta, Mara

    2016-04-01

    .5 and 2.0 Ga (Limonta et al., 2016). Forward mixing calculations based on integrated petrographic and heavy-mineral data (Garzanti et al., 2012) indicate that 60±10% of the total sediment flux is supplied by the Chindwin River and that upper Irrawaddy sand is supplied mainly by the Nmai headwater branch but also significantly from the Mali branch and left-bank tributaries sourced in the northern Shan Plateau. CITED REFERENCES Garzanti E., Resentini A., Vezzoli G., Andò S., Malusà M., Padoan M. 2012. Forward compositional modelling of Alpine orogenic sediments. Sedimentary Geology 280:149-164. Garzanti E., Limonta M., Resentini A., Bandopadhyay P. C., Najman Y., Andò S., Vezzoli G. 2013. Sediment recycling at convergent plate margins (Indo-Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge). Earth-Science Reviews 123:113-132. Limonta M., Resentini A., Carter A., Bandopadhyay P.C., Garzanti E. 2016. Provenance of Oligocene Andaman Sandstones (Andaman-Nicobar islands): Ganga-Brahmaputra or Irrawaddy derived? In: Bandyopadhyay P., Carter A. (Eds.). The Andaman-Nicobar accretionary ridge geology, tectonics and hazards, Geological Society of London Memoir, in review. Robinson R.A.J., Bird M.I., Oo N.W., Hoey T.B., Aye M.M., Higgitt D.L., Lu X.X., Swe A., Tun T., Win S. L. 2007. The Irrawaddy River sediment flux to the Indian Ocean: the original nineteenth-century data revisited. The Journal of Geology 115:629-640. Wang J.G., Wu F.Y., Tan X.C., Liu C.Z. 2014. Magmatic evolution of the Western Myanmar Arc documented by U-Pb and Hf isotopes in detrital zircon. Tectonophysics 612:97-105.

  2. The Evolution of a Contextual Approach to Therapy: From Comprehensive Distancing to ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the developmental history of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) from its beginning as comprehensive distancing to its current form and status. It is maintained that technical differences between the two approaches are overshadowed by ones of conceptualization. Comprehensive distancing emerged from efforts to extend Skinner's…

  3. The Evolution of a Contextual Approach to Therapy: From Comprehensive Distancing to ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettle, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the developmental history of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) from its beginning as comprehensive distancing to its current form and status. It is maintained that technical differences between the two approaches are overshadowed by ones of conceptualization. Comprehensive distancing emerged from efforts to extend Skinner's…

  4. From Microactions to Macrostructure and Back: A Structurational Approach to the Evolution of Organizational Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbred, Robert; Fonti, Fabio; Steglich, Christian; Contractor, Noshir

    2011-01-01

    Structuration theory (ST) and network analysis are promising approaches for studying the emergence of communication networks. We offer a model that integrates the conceptual richness of structuration with the precision of relevant concepts and mechanisms offered from communication network research. We leverage methodological advancements (i.e.,…

  5. Comparative embryology without a microscope: using genomic approaches to understand the evolution of development

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, David A; Wray, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, understanding developmental conservation and change has relied on embryological comparisons and analyses of single genes. Several studies, including one recently published in BMC Biology, have now taken a genomic approach to this classical problem, providing insights into how selection operates differentially across the life cycle. PMID:19664180

  6. Biogeomorphic evolution of new Missouri River wetlands: A remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, Curt Stanley

    The Great Flood of 1993 damaged the floodplain of the Lower Missouri River when over 500 levees failed. These levee failures created large scours and deposited massive amounts of sediment on the agricultural floodplain. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service acquired areas heavily damaged by the 1993 floods and incorporated them into the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge. One purpose of this refuge system is to restore the Missouri River system within the refuge from its highly engineered state to a more natural form. Analysis of a combination of remote sensing data, fieldwork, and finite element flow models was used to investigate the biogeomorphic evolution of one of these new wetlands refuges, the Lisbon Bottoms/Jameson Island Refuge. Four landcover mapping techniques were used to track changes with time: (1) geomorphic mapping, (2) maximum likelihood classification of Landsat TM data, (3) a linear spectral unmixing model using Landsat TM data, and (4) polarimetric and minimum distance classification of AIRSAR radar scattering data. Research showed that a biogeomorphic feedback loop in which the flow field, geomorphology, sediment, and vegetation interactions controlled the rapid evolution of the refuge after 1993. The 1993 flood first entered the area through levee breaks, forming scour zones, sweeping away most non-woody vegetation, and leaving behind a largely uniform, sand-covered floodplain. Field and remote sensing data showed that xeric sparse vegetation species encroached on high, dry sands, whereas mesic species populated lower, wetter scours. Smaller floods after 1993 entered the levee breaks, extended the scours into chutes, and draped silt and clay over the sand, allowing vegetation to spread rapidly. Remnant levees protected most of the area from fast flows, allowing cottonwood and willow saplings to spread across the study area and dominate the landscape, except in floodplain chutes. Expansion of saplings and the absence of flooding in 1999

  7. A continuum approach to the modeling of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, Hashem M.

    Interest in microstructural evolution of polycrystalline materials stems from the multiplicity of interrelated phenomena that contribute to this evolution, and from the impact that such phenomena have on the performance and reliability of these materials, especially in applications such as microelectronic devices. In this work, a continuum field formulation developed to study this type of phenomena is presented. The formulation accounts fully for the coupling between mechanical behavior, self diffusion, electric effects and interface migration. Each phenomenon being modeled is treated as a coupled initial and boundary value problem, consisting of these four component problems. Atomic-level mechanisms are taken into consideration while developing the thermodynamic basis of the formulation, from which the constitutive relations are derived. The computational framework used to solve the resulting coupled field equations is described in detail. This framework is built around a staggered solution scheme in which the finite element method is used to solve each governing differential equation individually. Additional computational techniques utilized in the implementation are also discussed. Examples of these include the level set method, a least-squares projection/smoothing technique and a modified form of the Galerkin/least-squares stabilization method. To study the problem of void nucleation in polycrystals, the stability of the atom-vacancy system is examined closely. A thermodynamic instability which could lead to spinodal decomposition of this system is identified. The amplications of this result in the context of void nucleation are explored and its relation to classical nucleation theory is realized. All quantities needed to calculate void formation rates are obtained from the coupled field calculations in a consistent mannen As expected, the results indicate that a high tensile stress can lead to void nucleation in the presence of impurities. The problem of grain

  8. An Analytical Approach to the Evolution and Death of AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, Henry Alexander; Willson, Lee Anne M.; Marengo, Massimo; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.

    2017-01-01

    Pop. I and II stars have a significant amount of metals throughout their structure, In the final stages of their evolution, intermediate mass stars (between 0.7 and 2 solar masses) ascend the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). During their last few hundred thousand years on the AGB, these stars quickly lose their envelopes, recycling their metals as dust into the interstellar medium. The rate at which this happens consequently impacts the formation rate of stars, stellar systems, and the wider distribution of s-process isotopes.At the end of their life cycles, AGB stars experience a steep increase in mass loss rate. We can define the death line in two steps. First we define the critical mass loss rate to be where the mass loss rate equals the initial mass divided by the evolution time. Then the death line is where the rate of change of logMdot equals the rate of change of logL. Most of the stars we observe to be rapidly losing mass appear in the death zone between 0.1 and 10 times the critical mass loss rate.Assuming the mass loss rate increases exponentially with time, or, equivalently, the luminosity increases as a power of a characteristic exponent b, then the width of the death zone is the change in logL. This directly implies time is inversely proportional to b. This can be found for any mass-loss rate formula near the death line. By combining this with what we know about the initial-final mass relation and the core mass-luminosity relation, we can test for b with three observables — duration (width) of the death zone, the amplitude of mass loss variations (when L varies on an observable time scale such as a shell flash), and distributions of luminosity and pulsation period.By applying the initial mass function (IMF) and star formation rate (SFR) of an observed region, we can relate these observables to the characteristic exponent. We will need to look at nearby regions where we can see large numbers of AGB stars, such as the Magellanic clouds. We will show that

  9. Tracing the evolution within nearby galaxy groups: a multi-wavelength approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Plana, Henri; Rosado, Margarita; Galletta, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Paola; Bianchi, Luciana; Buson, Lucio M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia; Gabbasov, Ruslan

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary scenarios suggest that several mechanisms (from inner secular evolution to accretion/merging) may transform galaxy members, driving groups from an active star forming phase to a more passive, typical of dense environments. We are investigating this transition in a nearby group sample, designed to cover a wide range of properties (see also Marino et al. (2010), Bettoni et al. (2011) and Marino et al. (2012)). We study two groups, USGC U268 and USGC U376 located in different regions of the Leo cloud, through a photometric and kinematic characterization of their member galaxies. We revisit the group membership, using results from recent red-shift surveys, and we investigate their substructures. U268, composed of 10 catalogued members and 11 new added members, has a small fraction (~24%) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). U376 has 16 plus 8 new added members, with ~38% of ETGs. We find the significant substructuring in both groups suggesting that they are likely accreting galaxies. U268 is located in a more loose environment than U376. For each member galaxy, broad band integrated and surface photometry have been obtained in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) with GALEX, and in u, g, r, i, z (SDSS) bands. Hα imaging and 2D high resolution kinematical data have been obtained using PUMA Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.12 m telescope in San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México). We improved the galaxy classification and we detected morphological and kinematical distortions that may be connected to either on-going and/or past interaction/accretion events or environmental induced secular evolution. U268 appears more active than U376, with a large fraction of galaxies showing interaction signatures (60% vs. 13%). The presence of bars among late-type galaxies is ~10% in U268 and 29% in U376. The cumulative distribution of (FUV - NUV) colors of galaxies in U268 is significantly different (bluer) than that of U376's galaxies. Most (80%) of the early

  10. Origin of the cilium: novel approaches to examine a centriolar evolution hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Alliegro, Mark C; Satir, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a new hypothesis was proposed regarding the evolution of the cilium from an enveloped RNA virus (Satir et al., 2007, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 64, 906). The hypothesis predicts that there may be specific centriolar or basal body RNAs with sequences reminiscent of retroviruses, and/or that the nuclear genes for certain centriole-specific proteins would have viral origins. Four independent laboratories have reported the existence of centrosomal RNA (cnRNA). Methods for studying cnRNA are described. We analyzed evidence of relatedness of known full-length cnRNAs to extant viral molecules. Out of 14 cnRNAs studied, 12 have similarity to entries in viral databases, all but one of these with E-values of < or = 1e(-4). Some centrosomal, and possibly uniquely centriolar, proteins also have relatives in viral databases that meet the criteria accepted to indicate a relationship by descent. Nine general cytoskeleton proteins exhibited no significant similarity to viral proteins. The speculation that centrioles are invaders of RNA viral origin in the evolving eukaryotic cell is strengthened by these findings.

  11. Organization and evolution of Gorilla centromeric DNA from old strategies to new approaches.

    PubMed

    Catacchio, C R; Ragone, R; Chiatante, G; Ventura, M

    2015-09-21

    The centromere/kinetochore interaction is responsible for the pairing and segregation of replicated chromosomes in eukaryotes. Centromere DNA is portrayed as scarcely conserved, repetitive in nature, quickly evolving and protein-binding competent. Among primates, the major class of centromeric DNA is the pancentromeric α-satellite, made of arrays of 171 bp monomers, repeated in a head-to-tail pattern. α-satellite sequences can either form tandem heterogeneous monomeric arrays or assemble in higher-order repeats (HORs). Gorilla centromere DNA has barely been characterized, and data are mainly based on hybridizations of human alphoid sequences. We isolated and finely characterized gorilla α-satellite sequences and revealed relevant structure and chromosomal distribution similarities with other great apes as well as gorilla-specific features, such as the uniquely octameric structure of the suprachromosomal family-2 (SF2). We demonstrated for the first time the orthologous localization of alphoid suprachromosomal families-1 and -2 (SF1 and SF2) between human and gorilla in contrast to chimpanzee centromeres. Finally, the discovery of a new 189 bp monomer type in gorilla centromeres unravels clues to the role of the centromere protein B, paving the way to solve the significance of the centromere DNA's essential repetitive nature in association with its function and the peculiar evolution of the α-satellite sequence.

  12. The Evolution of Force Distributions in Granular Materials Approaching the Jamming Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich; Nagel, Sidney

    2004-03-01

    Jammed bead packs are capable of supporting a yield stress. Simulational studies [1,2] disagree about the behavior of the probability distribution of forces P(F) in bead packs near this yield stress. Using a photoelastic force measurement system we have investigated the force distribution in three-dimensional bead packs experiencing a range of shear stresses. We present data describing the evolution of P(F) as the shear stress is cycled from zero to values up to yield and back. We find a monotonic increase in the low force region (below the mean force) of P(F) with increasing shear stress below yield. We present additional data above yield in the flowing state and for packs cycled above yield and back. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of recent theoretical and simulational findings. [1] C.S. O'Hern, S.A. Langer, A.J. Liu, and S.R. Nagel, Phys. Rev. Lett. ,86 , 111 (2001). [2] A. Ferguson, B. Fisher, and B. Chakraborty, arXiv:cond-mat/0301201 (2003).

  13. Organization and evolution of Gorilla centromeric DNA from old strategies to new approaches

    PubMed Central

    Catacchio, C. R.; Ragone, R.; Chiatante, G.; Ventura, M.

    2015-01-01

    The centromere/kinetochore interaction is responsible for the pairing and segregation of replicated chromosomes in eukaryotes. Centromere DNA is portrayed as scarcely conserved, repetitive in nature, quickly evolving and protein-binding competent. Among primates, the major class of centromeric DNA is the pancentromeric α-satellite, made of arrays of 171 bp monomers, repeated in a head-to-tail pattern. α-satellite sequences can either form tandem heterogeneous monomeric arrays or assemble in higher-order repeats (HORs). Gorilla centromere DNA has barely been characterized, and data are mainly based on hybridizations of human alphoid sequences. We isolated and finely characterized gorilla α-satellite sequences and revealed relevant structure and chromosomal distribution similarities with other great apes as well as gorilla-specific features, such as the uniquely octameric structure of the suprachromosomal family-2 (SF2). We demonstrated for the first time the orthologous localization of alphoid suprachromosomal families-1 and −2 (SF1 and SF2) between human and gorilla in contrast to chimpanzee centromeres. Finally, the discovery of a new 189 bp monomer type in gorilla centromeres unravels clues to the role of the centromere protein B, paving the way to solve the significance of the centromere DNA’s essential repetitive nature in association with its function and the peculiar evolution of the α-satellite sequence. PMID:26387916

  14. A new approach to chromosomal evolution in the giant water bug (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Gallo, Raquel Bozini; Aguiar, Rachel Colauto Milanezi; Ricietto, Ana Paula Scaramal; Vilas-Boas, Laurival; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Ribeiro, José Ricardo Inacio; Da Rosa, Renata

    2016-12-06

    The genus Belostoma, known colloquially as 'giant water bugs', presents striking cytogenetic diversity and extensive chromosome variability. Notwithstanding, its karyotype evolution is not well understood. We analyzed eight species of Belostoma (77 samples). The meiotic analysis revealed 2n=14+XY for B. horvathi and B. candidulum; 2n=22+XY for B. cummings; 2n=26+X1X2Y for B. dentatum, B. elongatum, and B. discretum; and 2n=26+X1X2X3Y for B. testacopallidum and B. dilatatum. All species showed holokinetic chromosomes. Based on heterochromatin distribution patterns and 18S rDNA, the species of the genus Belostoma were separated into four groups. The analysis of C0t-1 DNA showed that the repetitive DNA, partly composed of microsatellite DNA, was absent on the Y chromosome. FISH using a microdissected X chromosome in species with simple sex system presents uniform hybridization in the nuclear region corresponding to the X chromosome. Species with multiple systems revealed discrete markings. The present data in conjunction with the existing literature led us to propose a new evolutionary hypothesis for the group, with an ancestral karyotype with a low diploid number, simple sex determination system, and Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs) on the sex chromosomes. That karyotype would have originated other karyotypes through agmatoploidy, simploidy, heterochromatinization, and movement of the 18S rDNA.

  15. A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jimenez-Sanchez, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Stoll, H.; Aranburu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the oldest speleothems in the North Cantabrian Coast (Spain) are reported for the first time in this work. Pindal Cave is developed at 24 m above sea level, in a karstic massif reaching its highest surface in a marine terrace (rasa) located at 50-64 m above the present sea level. Several phases of evolution were previously recognized into the cave, including block collapse of the roof, episodic flooding and detrital sedimentation, and chemical precipitation of at least four speleothem generations over both alluvial and collapse deposits. Three of these speleothem generations have been dated by U/Th. The first generation yielded ages from 124,2 ?? 1, 5 ka BP to 73,1 ?? 0,9 ka BP, giving a minimum age for the main detritic sediments in the cave. The second one is not dated. The third generation gives an age of 3,71 ?? 0,4 ka BP (mathematically corrected to 2.7 ?? 0.5 ka BP), while for the youngest generation, with actively growing stalagmites in the cave, basal ages of 200 years BP are estimated by counting annual laminae. The data suggest a tentative maximum elevation rate close to 0, 2 mm/yr for the Cantabrian Margin in this area, although further chronological studies will be needed to check this hypothesis. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  16. Evolutions in fragment-based drug design: the deconstruction–reconstruction approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Xiaobin; Wang, Ailan; Zheng, Yunquan; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of molecular recognition and protein–ligand interactions have facilitated rapid development of potent and selective ligands for therapeutically relevant targets. Over the past two decades, a variety of useful approaches and emerging techniques have been developed to promote the identification and optimization of leads that have high potential for generating new therapeutic agents. Intriguingly, the innovation of a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach has enabled rapid and efficient progress in drug discovery. In this critical review, we focus on the construction of fragment libraries and the advantages and disadvantages of various fragment-based screening (FBS) for constructing such libraries. We also highlight the deconstruction–reconstruction strategy by utilizing privileged fragments of reported ligands. PMID:25263697

  17. Evolution of a Unified, Stereodivergent Approach to the Synthesis of Communesin F and Perophoramidine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Expedient synthetic approaches to the highly functionalized polycyclic alkaloids communesin F and perophoramidine are described using a unified approach featuring a key decarboxylative allylic alkylation to access a crucial and highly congested 3,3-disubstituted oxindole. Described are two distinct, stereoselective alkylations that produce structures in divergent diastereomeric series possessing the critical vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers needed for each synthesis. Synthetic studies toward these challenging core structures have revealed a number of unanticipated modes of reactivity inherent to these complex alkaloid scaffolds. Additionally, several novel and interesting intermediates en route to the target natural products, such as an intriguing propellane hexacyclic oxindole encountered in the communesin F sequence, are disclosed. Indeed, such unanticipated structures may prove to be convenient strategic intermediates in future syntheses. PMID:25402459

  18. Classifying personality disorders: an evolution-based alternative to an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Millon, Theodore

    2011-06-01

    The study of personality disorders, no less psychology as a wole, remains divorced from broader spheres of scientific knowledge. Development of a conceptual schema for classifying personality disorders should include the examination of research limitations and inductive inconsistences that undermine the likely achievements of the evidential approach. An alternative course of action is outlined here, one that looks to evolutionary theory rather than evidence-based methods for classification guidance.

  19. A Lean Approach to Improving SE Visibility in Large Operational Systems Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    engineering activities in such instances. An initial generalization of pull concepts using a standard kanban approach was developed. During the development... Kanban -based Scheduling System (KSS) (Turner, Lane, et al. 2012). The second phase of this research is describing an implementation of the KSS concept...software and systems engineering tasks and the required capabilities. Because kanban concepts have been primarily used with single level value streams

  20. A comparative approach to testing hypotheses for the evolution of sex-biased dispersal in bean beetles.

    PubMed

    Downey, Michelle H; Searle, Rebecca; Bellur, Sunil; Geiger, Adam; Maitner, Brian S; Ohm, Johanna R; Tuda, Midori; Miller, Tom E X

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the selective forces that shape dispersal strategies is a fundamental goal of evolutionary ecology and is increasingly important in changing, human-altered environments. Sex-biased dispersal (SBD) is common in dioecious taxa, and understanding variation in the direction and magnitude of SBD across taxa has been a persistent challenge. We took a comparative, laboratory-based approach using 16 groups (species or strains) of bean beetles (genera Acanthoscelides, Callosobruchus, and Zabrotes, including 10 strains of one species) to test two predictions that emerge from dominant hypotheses for the evolution of SBD: (1) groups that suffer greater costs of inbreeding should exhibit greater SBD in favor of either sex (inbreeding avoidance hypothesis) and (2) groups with stronger local mate competition should exhibit greater male bias in dispersal (kin competition avoidance hypothesis). We used laboratory experiments to quantify SBD in crawling dispersal, the fitness effects of inbreeding, and the degree of polygyny (number of female mates per male), a proxy for local mate competition. While we found that both polygyny and male-biased dispersal were common across bean beetle groups, consistent with the kin competition avoidance hypothesis, quantitative relationships between trait values did not support the predictions. Across groups, there was no significant association between SBD and effects of inbreeding nor SBD and degree of polygyny, using either raw values or phylogenetically independent contrasts. We discuss possible limitations of our experimental approach for detecting the predicted relationships, as well as reasons why single-factor hypotheses may be too simplistic to explain the evolution of SBD.

  1. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process.

  2. Evolution of the human hand: approaches to acquiring, analysing and interpreting the anatomical evidence

    PubMed Central

    MARZKE, MARY W.; MARZKE, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of fossil hand bones from an early human ancestor at Olduvai Gorge in 1960, at the same level as primitive stone tools, generated a debate about the role of tools in the evolution of the human hand that has raged to the present day. Could the Olduvai hand have made the tools? Did the human hand evolve as an adaptation to tool making and tool use? The debate has been fueled by anatomical studies comparing living and fossil human and nonhuman primate hands, and by experimental observations. These have assessed the relative abilities of apes and humans to manufacture the Oldowan tools, but consensus has been hampered by disagreements about how to translate experimental data from living species into quantitative models for predicting the performance of fossil hands. Such models are now beginning to take shape as new techniques are applied to the capture, management and analysis of data on kinetic and kinematic variables ranging from hand joint structure, muscle mechanics, and the distribution and density of bone to joint movements and muscle recruitment during manipulative behaviour. The systematic comparative studies are highlighting a functional complex of features in the human hand facilitating a distinctive repertoire of grips that are apparently more effective for stone tool making than grips characterising various nonhuman primate species. The new techniques are identifying skeletal variables whose form may provide clues to the potential of fossil hominid hands for one-handed firm precision grips and fine precision manoeuvering movements, both of which are essential for habitual and effective tool making and tool use. PMID:10999274

  3. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Schneider, P.; Shrestha, J.; Wombacher, A.; Burlando, P.

    2010-11-01

    River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems, leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Up to now a lot of effort has therefore been dedicated worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming our deficiencies. At the same time very few attentions focused on illustrating the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by discussing the experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics). Therein, we study the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reaches of River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland), also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe and motivate the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations ranging from surface water to groundwater, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  4. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Schneider, P.; Shrestha, J.; Wombacher, A.; Burlando, P.

    2011-04-01

    River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics). Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland), also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  5. A systems biology approach to the evolution of plant-virus interactions.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Carrera, Javier; Rodrigo, Guillermo

    2011-08-01

    Omic approaches to the analysis of plant-virus interactions are becoming increasingly popular. These types of data, in combination with models of interaction networks, will aid in revealing not only host components that are important for the virus life cycle, but also general patterns about the way in which different viruses manipulate host regulation of gene expression for their own benefit and possible mechanisms by which viruses evade host defenses. Here, we review studies identifying host genes regulated by viruses and discuss how these genes integrate in host regulatory and interaction networks, with a particular focus on the physical properties of these networks.

  6. a Statistical Dynamic Approach to Structural Evolution of Complex Capital Market Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiao; Chai, Li H.

    As an important part of modern financial systems, capital market has played a crucial role on diverse social resource allocations and economical exchanges. Beyond traditional models and/or theories based on neoclassical economics, considering capital markets as typical complex open systems, this paper attempts to develop a new approach to overcome some shortcomings of the available researches. By defining the generalized entropy of capital market systems, a theoretical model and nonlinear dynamic equation on the operations of capital market are proposed from statistical dynamic perspectives. The US security market from 1995 to 2001 is then simulated and analyzed as a typical case. Some instructive results are discussed and summarized.

  7. Geodynamic evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land: research highlights from an international geological-geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Ehlburg, Marlina; Laeufer, Andreas; Clark, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Andersen, Tom; Mieth, Matthias; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole; Estrada, Solveig; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    East Antarctica formed by amalgamation of a number of cratons along distinct Ediacaran mobile belts, including the ca. 600-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO) and the Kuunga Orogen that apparently converge in Dronning Maud Land (DML). In central DML, the major Forster Magnetic Anomaly separates rocks with Grenville-age protolith ages of ca. 1130-1000 Ma to the W, from rocks with Early Neoproterozic protolith ages, c. 1000-930 Ma, to the East. The Forster Magnetic Anomaly is therefore interpreted as a suture. New field-work during two recent international expeditions, Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica (GEA) I + II, and first geoscientic results reveal a complex tectonic architecture between Sør Rondane and central DML. East of the Forster anomaly, the magnetic anomaly pattern changes significantly and typical Maud type crust is not present any longer. GEA II targeted a range of nunataks between Sør Rondane and central DML that had never been visited previously (from Blåklettane and Bergekongen in the E to Urna and Sørsteinen in the W). These nunataks are dominated by medium- to high-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of possibly Neoproterozoic age, including abundant marble and graphite schists. Sør Rondane in eastern DML, is dominated by two distinct blocks separated by the dextral Main Shear Zone. The northwestern block appears as part of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen, where new SHRIMP zircon data from metamorphic rims provide ages of ca. 560 Ma. The southeastern block is made up of a TTG terrane, which provides 12 new zircon crystallistation ages ranging from 1000-930 Ma. The TTG terrane has predominantly oceanic affinities and the wide range of ages might indicate long-lasting accretionary tectonics. The TTG terrane shows in part limited tectonic overprint and could be the southeastern foreland of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen. Close to the contact of the two blocks, grey geisses and augen-gneisses gave zircon crystallization ages of

  8. Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Pliocene Villarroya Lake, northern Spain. A multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anadón, P.; Burjachs, F.; Martín, M.; Rodriguez-Lázaro, J.; Robles, F.; Utrilla, R.; Vázquez, A.

    2002-04-01

    salinity do not correlate with climate, suggesting phases of significant saline inputs to the lake which were recorded in the lower first sequence and in the upper part of the second sequence. The lacustrine sequence of Villarroya record pronounced variations in climate and in the lacustrine environment. However, there are no consistent relationships between the climate conditions inferred from the pollen data and the sedimentary record of the environmental changes, showing that other factors, especially tectonics, have exerted an influence on the paleoenvironmental evolution, and on the sedimentary record of the Pliocene Villarroya lake.

  9. Diversity and Evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Moving to Whole-Genome-Based Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Stefan; Supply, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains has become a standard tool for epidemiological tracing and for the investigation of the local and global strain population structure. Of special importance is the analysis of the expansion of multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. Classical genotyping and, more recently, whole-genome sequencing have revealed that the strains of the MTBC are more diverse than previously anticipated. Globally, several phylogenetic lineages can be distinguished whose geographical distribution is markedly variable. Strains of particular (sub)lineages, such as Beijing, seem to be more virulent and associated with enhanced resistance levels and fitness, likely fueling their spread in certain world regions. The upcoming generalization of whole-genome sequencing approaches will expectedly provide more comprehensive insights into the molecular and epidemiological mechanisms involved and lead to better diagnostic and therapeutic tools. PMID:25190252

  10. FINDSITE: a combined evolution/structure-based approach to protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, Michal

    2009-01-01

    A key challenge of the post-genomic era is the identification of the function(s) of all the molecules in a given organism. Here, we review the status of sequence and structure-based approaches to protein function inference and ligand screening that can provide functional insights for a significant fraction of the ∼50% of ORFs of unassigned function in an average proteome. We then describe FINDSITE, a recently developed algorithm for ligand binding site prediction, ligand screening and molecular function prediction, which is based on binding site conservation across evolutionary distant proteins identified by threading. Importantly, FINDSITE gives comparable results when high-resolution experimental structures as well as predicted protein models are used. PMID:19324930

  11. Proven Force--Proof of Concept for the Composite Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-13

    AD- A24 9 881 NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, Rhode Island PROVEN FORCE - PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR THE COMPOSITE WING by J . Scott Norwood 4 Major, USAF M 3A 1...TITLE *Ki* secWAY C1=VkfcW4 Proven Force -- Proof of Concept (-z) 12. P1SIONAL AUTNOR3 Major J . Scott Norwood, USAF 13& TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TI*h...offum 1"-436.412 0102-LF-014-6602 1 PROVEN FORCE -- PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR THE COMPOSITE WING J . Scott Norwood Major, USAF IN BRIEF The lion’s share of

  12. Characterization of the Greenland Ice Sheet evolution in a changing climate using a multi-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Aubry, D.; Ben Dhia, H.

    2011-12-01

    Hybrid models that combine several ice flow approximations of varying order of complexity have the potential to improve continental-scale projections of ice sheet dynamics in a changing climate. Indeed, this approach allows the use of higher-order or full-Stokes models in critical areas, such as the vicinity of the grounding line, while being compatible with available computational resources as simpler models are employed in non-critical areas. Here, we use this approach to model the Greenland Ice Sheet and project its evolution for the next 500 years under different climate scenarios set up by the SeaRISE assessment. The model is initialized using data assimilation to constrain basal friction under the ice sheet and therefore starts from a configuration close to the present-day conditions. A set of experiments is then performed to assess the influence of changes in: 1) atmospheric conditions (air temperature and precipitation), 2) basal conditions (increase in basal lubrication due to enhanced melting) and 3) oceanic conditions (melting under ice shelves and at marine-terminated fronts). We employ the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM, http://issm.jpl.nasa.gov), a thermo-dynamic finite element model developed at JPL/UCI to perform these simulations. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, University of California Irvine and Ecole Centrale Paris under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  13. Engineering the properties of D-amino acid oxidases by a rational and a directed evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Sacchi, Silvia; Caldinelli, Laura; Boselli, Angelo; Pilone, Mirella S; Piubelli, Luciano; Molla, Gianluca

    2007-12-01

    D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is a FAD-containing flavoprotein that dehydrogenates the D-isomer of amino acids to the corresponding imino acids, coupled with the reduction of FAD. The cofactor then reoxidizes on molecular oxygen and the imino acid hydrolyzes spontaneously to the alpha-keto acid and ammonia. In vitro DAAO displays broad substrate specificity, acting on several neutral and basic D-amino acids: the most efficient substrates are amino acids with hydrophobic side chains. D-aspartic acid and D-glutamic acid are not substrates for DAAO. Through the years, it has been the subject of a number of structural, functional and kinetic investigations. The most recent advances are represented by site-directed mutagenesis studies and resolution of the 3D-structure of the enzymes from pig, human and yeast. The two approaches have given us a deeper understanding of the structure-function relationships and promoted a number of investigations aimed at the modulating the protein properties. By a rational and/or a directed evolution approach, DAAO variants with altered substrate specificity (e.g., active on acidic or on all D-amino acids), increased stability (e.g., stable up to 60 degrees C), modified interaction with the flavin cofactor, and altered oligomeric state were produced. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent research on the engineering of DAAOs to illustrate their new intriguing properties, which also have enabled us to pursue new biotechnological applications.

  14. The metallic contamination of the Loire River Basin (France): Spatial and temporal evolution with a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Curie, Florence; Moatar, Florentina; Meybeck, Michel; Bourrain, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 19th century, important agricultural, mining and industrial development has been active in Western Europe. The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp) presents a long history of human pressures, reflecting temporal evolution of technological and urban activities (Grosbois et al, 2012). Hence, sediments of the Loire River and its tributaries have recorded partially and/or totally organic, nutrients and trace element contamination. Nowadays, can we determine history of metallic emissions in sediment records and what is the part of these past inputs relative to the actual contamination? Can we point out historical sources of contamination? To answer these questions, two approaches were used in this study. Firstly, in four coring sites in the Loire River Basin, a temporal re-enacting of metallic contamination trapped in sediments was carried out. Based on age-model and inter-element correlations in each core, trace element signals were deconvoluted and compared to actual and specific chemical signatures of anthropogenic inputs (300 bed sediment samples collected downstream of former and current industrial sites like mines, smelters, planting/coating plants, glassware and car industries, metal recycling plants and waste water treatment plants). The second approach was at a larger basin scale, comparing location of these former and actual contamination sources with explanatory factors such as geology, evolution of population density, of industrial activities and of land use. This was done in the main stream of the Loire River and its major tributaries and locally at a smaller scale (0-500 km²). All these approaches emphasized three temporal periods of metallic contamination: (i) the first period begins with the 20th century until 1950, it corresponds to the first increase of major contaminants like Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn; some trace elements like Hg and Sn seem to be present in the Loire sediments much earlier as they

  15. Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    A concept is presented considering aging of living organisms as a final step of their ontogenetic program. It is assumed that such an aging program was invented by biological evolution to facilitate the evolutionary process. Indications are summarized suggesting that controlled production of toxic forms of oxygen (so called reactive oxygen species) by respiring intracellular organelles (mitochondria) is an obligatory component of the aging program. First results of a research project devoted to an attempt to interrupt aging program by antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been described. Within the framework of the project, antioxidants of a new type (SkQ) were synthesized. SkQs are composed of (i) plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), (ii) a penetrating cation, and (iii) a decane or pentane linker. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membranes, we selected SkQ derivatives of the highest penetrability, namely plastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl decyl rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested in isolated mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cationic quinones are found to be very strong prooxidants, but in the lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they display antioxidant activity which decreases in the series SkQ1 = SkQR1 > SkQ3 > MitoQ. Thus, the window between the anti- and prooxidant effects is the smallest for MitoQ and the largest for SkQ1 and SkQR1. SkQ1 is rapidly reduced by complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 and SkQR1 completely arrest the H2O2-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells (for SkQ1, C 1/2 = 8 · 10-9M). Higher concentrations of SkQ1 are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, SkQ1

  16. Integrated provenance analysis of a convergent retroarc foreland system: U-Pb ages, heavy minerals, Nd isotopes, and sandstone compositions of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, northern Andes, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Horton, Brian K.; Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Mange, Maria; Garzione, Carmala N.; Basu, Asish; Moreno, Christopher J.; Caballero, Victor; Parra, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Sediment provenance analysis remains a powerful method for testing hypotheses on the temporal and spatial evolution of uplifted source regions, but issues such as recycling, nonunique sources, and pre- and post-depositional modifications may complicate interpretation of results from individual provenance techniques. Convergent retroarc systems commonly contain sediment sources that are sufficiently diverse (continental magmatic arc, fold-thrust belt, and stable craton) to enable explicit provenance assessments. In this paper, we combine detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral identification, Nd isotopic analyses, conventional sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements to reconstruct the clastic provenance history of a long-lived sedimentary basin now exposed in an intermontane zone of the northern Andean hinterland of Colombia. The Middle Magdalena Valley basin, situated between the Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera, contains a 5-10 km-thick succession of Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary fill. The integrated techniques show a pronounced change in provenance during the Paleocene transition from the lower to upper Lisama Formation. We interpret this as a shift from an eastern cratonic source to a western Andean source composed of magmatic-arc rocks uplifted during initial shortening of the Central Cordillera. The appearance of detrital chloritoid and a shift to more negative ɛ Nd(t=0) values in middle Eocene strata of the middle La Paz Formation are attributed to shortening-related exhumation of a continental basement block (La Cira-Infantas paleohigh), now buried, along the axis of the Magdalena Valley. The diverse provenance proxies also show distinct changes during middle to late Eocene deposition of the Esmeraldas Formation that likely reflect initial rock uplift and exhumation of the fold-thrust belt defining the Eastern Cordillera. Upsection, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblages for Oligocene and younger clastic

  17. Sediment transport process and East Asian monsoon evolution during the last 410 kyr in the northern South China Sea: a multi-proxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    change either in the direction or in the intensity of the bottom current. The clay mineral assemblage is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor contribution of chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). The provenance analysis suggests three end-member sources: smectite derives from Luzon, kaolinite originates from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite are coming from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. Using the linear separation method of illite crystallinity, a time series of the clay mineral contribution from the three major provenances to the northern South China Sea was reconstructed. By synthesizing all these proxies, we find that the clay minerals and element ratios contain information about provenance supply and transport process. The provenance supply could be a proxy to reconstruct the East Asian Monsoon evolution. To achieve detailed provenance supply information, the terrigenous flux and the analyses of magnetic minerals and grain-size will be also presented.

  18. A Modern Approach to Disinfection, as Old as the Evolution of Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Migliarina, Franco; Ferro, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of vertebrates “naturally” produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to fight against bacteria and pathogens. A patented electrochemical technology mirrors the above defense system, allowing the synthesis of HOCl solutions through the electrolysis of water enriched in salts, at the level of a few grams per liter. The system allows for the careful control of the pH of produced solutions, with consequent optimization of their activity. Once the HOCl is introduced into the water system; it is able to remove the biofilm from pipe network; significantly decreasing the level of Legionella colonization; within 8–10 weeks from the beginning of the disinfection approach. The technology has been applied in a variety of healthcare facilities, both in Italy and in neighboring European countries. In the present paper, two successful case studies are briefly presented: Data were obtained from experiences in two different healthcare facilities, one in Italy and the other in Germany. Destruction of biofilm was indirectly testified by an increase of total organic carbon content of water; as a consequence, and because of the dosing of the disinfecting agent, some μg/L of total halomethanes were also formed. However, both compositional features were only observed during the initial stages of the disinfection treatment. PMID:27429291

  19. Approaching Equilibrium: The Evolution of CO2 in a Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Y.; Rothman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the microscopic mechanisms of mineral weathering rates has motivated studies of dissolution and precipitation for decades. Many applications, including the global carbon cycle and sub- surface carbon dioxide sequestration justify the importance of a full comprehension of the mechanism. The injection of carbon dioxide into a porous medium drives the system into far-from-equilibrium conditions where forces, surface phenomena, and other processes become crucial for the long-term stability of the system. A complete physical picture able to predict the pattern formation and the structure developing within the porous medium is lacking and cannot be associated only with empirical kinetic laws. Here we propose a theoretical model that couples transport, reaction, and the intricate geometry of the rock. The model concerns the different time scales when the system is far from equilibrium and when approaching a steady state. We use analytical theory and numerical simulations to study the short and the long term behavior of the carbon dioxide as it dissolves and precipitates in a fluid-rock system.

  20. The treatment of cavernous sinus meningiomas: evolution of a modern approach.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Daniel R; Flores, Bruno C; Lewis, Jeremy J; Barnett, Samuel L

    2013-12-01

    Cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSMs) are challenging lesions for the skull base neurosurgeon to manage given their close association with cranial nerves II-VI and the internal carotid artery. In the 1980s and early 1990s, with advancements in microsurgical techniques, increasing knowledge of the relevant microsurgical neuroanatomy, and the advent of advanced skull base surgical approaches, the treatment of CSMs involved attempts at gross-total resection (GTR). Initial fervor for a surgical cure waned, however, as skull base neurosurgeons demonstrated the limits of complete resection in this region, the ongoing issue of potential tumor recurrences, and the unacceptably high cranial nerve and vascular morbidity associated with this strategy. The advent of radiosurgery and its documented success for tumor growth control and limited morbidity in cavernous lesions has helped to shift the treatment goals for CSMs from GTR to tumor control and symptom relief while minimizing treatment- and lesion-associated morbidity. The authors review the relevant microanatomy of the cavernous sinus with anatomical and radiographic correlates, as well as the various treatment options. A modernized, multimodality treatment algorithm to guide management of these lesions is proposed.

  1. A Modern Approach to Disinfection, as Old as the Evolution of Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Migliarina, Franco; Ferro, Sergio

    2014-12-19

    The immune system of vertebrates "naturally" produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to fight against bacteria and pathogens. A patented electrochemical technology mirrors the above defense system, allowing the synthesis of HOCl solutions through the electrolysis of water enriched in salts, at the level of a few grams per liter. The system allows for the careful control of the pH of produced solutions, with consequent optimization of their activity. Once the HOCl is introduced into the water system; it is able to remove the biofilm from pipe network; significantly decreasing the level of Legionella colonization; within 8-10 weeks from the beginning of the disinfection approach. The technology has been applied in a variety of healthcare facilities, both in Italy and in neighboring European countries. In the present paper, two successful case studies are briefly presented: Data were obtained from experiences in two different healthcare facilities, one in Italy and the other in Germany. Destruction of biofilm was indirectly testified by an increase of total organic carbon content of water; as a consequence, and because of the dosing of the disinfecting agent, some μg/L of total halomethanes were also formed. However, both compositional features were only observed during the initial stages of the disinfection treatment.

  2. A neurophylogenetic approach provides new insight to the evolution of Scaphopoda.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Schrödl, Michael; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Lindberg, David R; Heß, Martin; Brennan, Gerard P; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The position of scaphopods in molluscan phylogeny remains singularly contentious, with several sister relationships supported by morphological and phylogenomic data: Scaphopoda + Bivalvia (Diasoma), Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda (Variopoda), and Scaphopoda + Gastropoda. Nervous system architecture has contributed significant insights to reconstructing phylogeny in the Mollusca and other invertebrate groups, but a modern neurophylogenetic approach has not been applied to molluscs, hampered by a lack of clearly defined homologous characters that can be unequivocally compared across the radical body plan disparity among the living clades. We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior nervous system of a scaphopod, Rhabdus rectius, using histological tomography. We also describe a new putative sensory organ, a paired and pigmented sensory mantle slit. This structure is restricted to our study species and not a general feature of scaphopods, but it forms an integral part of the description of the nervous system in R. rectius. It also highlights the potential utility of neuro-anatomical characters for multiple levels of phylogenetic inference beyond this study. This potential has not previously been exploited for the thorny problem of molluscan phylogeny. The neuroanatomy of scaphopods demonstrates a highly derived architecture that shares a number of key characters with the cephalopod nervous system, and supports a Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda grouping.

  3. Siderophore production and the evolution of investment in a public good: An adaptive dynamics approach to kin selection.

    PubMed

    Lee, William; van Baalen, Minus; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2016-01-07

    Like many other bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequesters iron from the environment through the secretion, and subsequent uptake, of iron-binding molecules. As these molecules can be taken up by other bacteria in the population than those who secreted them, this is a form of cooperation through a public good. Traditionally, this problem has been studied by comparing the relative fitnesses of siderophore-producing and non-producing strains, but this gives no information about the fate of strains that do produce intermediate amounts of siderophores. Here, we investigate theoretically how the amount invested in this form of cooperation evolves. We use a mechanistic description of the laboratory protocols used in experimental evolution studies to describe the competition and cooperation of the bacteria. From this dynamical model we derive the fitness following the adaptive dynamics method. The results show how selection is driven by local siderophore production and local competition. Because siderophore production reduces the growth rate, local competition decreases with the degree of relatedness (which is a dynamical variable in our model). Our model is not restricted to the analysis of small phenotypic differences and allows for theoretical exploration of the effects of large phenotypic differences between cooperators and cheats. We predict that an intermediate ESS level of cooperation (molecule production) should exist. The adaptive dynamics approach allows us to assess evolutionary stability, which is often not possible in other kin-selection models. We found that selection can lead to an intermediate strategy which in our model is always evolutionarily stable, yet can allow invasion of strategies that are much more cooperative. Our model describes the evolution of a public good in the context of the ecology of the microorganism, which allows us to relate the extent of production of the public good to the details of the interactions.

  4. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  5. Adaptive evolution of chloroplast genome structure inferred using a parametric bootstrap approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liying; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Wang, Li-San; Tang, Jijun; Rymarquis, Linda; Stern, David B; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2006-01-01

    Background Genome rearrangements influence gene order and configuration of gene clusters in all genomes. Most land plant chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) share a highly conserved gene content and with notable exceptions, a largely co-linear gene order. Conserved gene orders may reflect a slow intrinsic rate of neutral chromosomal rearrangements, or selective constraint. It is unknown to what extent observed changes in gene order are random or adaptive. We investigate the influence of natural selection on gene order in association with increased rate of chromosomal rearrangement. We use a novel parametric bootstrap approach to test if directional selection is responsible for the clustering of functionally related genes observed in the highly rearranged chloroplast genome of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, relative to ancestral chloroplast genomes. Results Ancestral gene orders were inferred and then subjected to simulated rearrangement events under the random breakage model with varying ratios of inversions and transpositions. We found that adjacent chloroplast genes in C. reinhardtii were located on the same strand much more frequently than in simulated genomes that were generated under a random rearrangement processes (increased sidedness; p < 0.0001). In addition, functionally related genes were found to be more clustered than those evolved under random rearrangements (p < 0.0001). We report evidence of co-transcription of neighboring genes, which may be responsible for the observed gene clusters in C. reinhardtii cpDNA. Conclusion Simulations and experimental evidence suggest that both selective maintenance and directional selection for gene clusters are determinants of chloroplast gene order. PMID:16469102

  6. A NeuroEvolution Approach to Reconstructing Missing Daily Precipitation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, K. A.; Boyce, S. A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    The Caribbean region consists of several Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Many of these islands are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change including sea level rise, changes in rainfall regimes and increasing day and night-time temperatures. In addition, the region is extremely susceptible to natural disasters, the most frequent of which is flooding. As part of its disaster management and mitigation strategy several Caribbean SIDS are developing a parametric insurance policy for flooding. The insurance mechanism is contingent on an adequate precipitation data set. However, missing data within the precipitation time series is one of the issues that is ubiquitous within the region, presenting a challenge to the implementation of such a rainfall-triggered insurance policy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the plausibility of using a class of Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms known as a Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for evolving a near-optimal Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reconstruct missing daily precipitation data. The structure of the artificial neural network used for rainfall imputation in this study has a feedforward Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) architecture. The predictive capability of this novel hybrid ANN-GA precipitation data infilling technique is tested by degrading 10%, 20% and 30% of a daily precipitation data set, from the period 1997-2000, in a stochastic manner and estimating the missing observations. Tests performed using the proposed approach show the method predicts the randomly selected missing precipitation data with reasonable reliability for a rain gauge in Region 3, Guyana. Research is currently on going to assess the efficacy of the artificial neural network technique for longer time series, which is required to support climate change impact on the Caribbean region.

  7. The Evolution of Cooperation in Managed Groundwater Systems: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Human interactions with groundwater systems often exhibit complex features that hinder the sustainable management of the resource. This leads to costly and persistent conflicts over groundwater at the catchment scale. One possible way to address these conflicts is by gaining a better understanding of how social and groundwater dynamics coevolve using agent-based models (ABM). Such models allow exploring 'bottom-up' solutions (i.e., self-organised governance systems), where the behaviour of individual agents (e.g., farmers) results in the emergence of mutual cooperation among groundwater users. There is significant empirical evidence indicating that this kind of 'bottom-up' approach may lead to more enduring and sustainable outcomes, compared to conventional 'top-down' strategies such as centralized control and water right schemes (Ostrom 1990). New modelling tools are needed to study these concepts systematically and efficiently. Our model uses a conceptual framework to study cooperation and the emergence of social norms as initially proposed by Axelrod (1986), which we adapted to groundwater management. We developed an ABM that integrates social mechanisms and the physics of subsurface flow. The model explicitly represents feedback between groundwater conditions and social dynamics, capturing the spatial structure of these interactions and the potential effects on cooperation levels in an agricultural setting. Using this model, we investigate a series of mechanisms that may trigger norms supporting cooperative strategies, which can be sustained and become stable over time. For example, farmers in a self-monitoring community can be more efficient at achieving the objective of sustainable groundwater use than government-imposed regulation. Our coupled model thus offers a platform for testing new schemes promoting cooperation and improved resource use, which can be used as a basis for policy design. Importantly, we hope to raise awareness of agent-based modelling as

  8. The Symbiotic Relationship between Scientific Workflow and Provenance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the symbiotic nature of scientific workflows and provenance. We will also discuss the current trends and real world challenges facing these two distinct research areas. Although motivated differently, the needs of the international science communities are the glue that binds this relationship together. Understanding and articulating the science drivers to these communities is paramount as these technologies evolve and mature. Originally conceived for managing business processes, workflows are now becoming invaluable assets in both computational and experimental sciences. These reconfigurable, automated systems provide essential technology to perform complex analyses by coupling together geographically distributed disparate data sources and applications. As a result, workflows are capable of higher throughput in a shorter amount of time than performing the steps manually. Today many different workflow products exist; these could include Kepler and Taverna or similar products like MeDICI, developed at PNNL, that are standardized on the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Provenance, originating from the French term Provenir “to come from”, is used to describe the curation process of artwork as art is passed from owner to owner. The concept of provenance was adopted by digital libraries as a means to track the lineage of documents while standards such as the DublinCore began to emerge. In recent years the systems science community has increasingly expressed the need to expand the concept of provenance to formally articulate the history of scientific data. Communities such as the International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW) have formalized a provenance data model. The Open Provenance Model, and the W3C is hosting a provenance incubator group featuring the Proof Markup Language. Although both workflows and provenance have risen from different communities and operate independently, their mutual

  9. Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper, developed for EPA's Engineering Forum, identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost.

  10. DataONE: A Data Federation with Provenance Support

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yang; Jones, Christopher; Cuevas-Vicenttin, Victor; Jones, Matthew B.; Ludascher, Bertram; McPhillips, Timothy; Missier, Paolo; Schwalm, Christopher; Slaughter, Peter; Vieglais, Dave; Walker, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    DataONE is a federated data network focusing on earth and environmental science data. We present the provenance and search features of DataONE by means of an example involving three earth scientists who interact through a DataONE Member Node. DataONE provenance systems enable reproducible research and facilitate proper attribution of scientific results transitively across generations of derived data products.

  11. Evolution of the basal ganglia: new perspectives through a comparative approach

    PubMed Central

    SMEETS, WILHELMUS J. A. J.; MARÍN, OSCAR; GONZÁLEZ, AGUSTÍN

    2000-01-01

    processing of the thalamic sensory information relayed to the BG of tetrapods. By using the comparative approach, new insights have been gained with respect to certain features of the BG of vertebrates in general, such as the segmental organisation of the midbrain dopaminergic cell groups, the occurrence of large numbers of dopaminergic cell bodies within the telencephalon itself and the variability in, among others, connectivity and chemoarchitecture. However, the intriguing question whether the basal forebrain organisation of nontetrapods differs essentially from that observed in tetrapods still needs to be answered. PMID:10923983

  12. Evolution of an operational hydrological model: from global to semi-distributed approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, Federico; Le Lay, Matthieu; Gottardi, Frédéric; Garçon, Rémy

    2016-04-01

    MORDOR is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in Électricité de France (EDF, French electric utility company) for operational applications: (i) hydrological forecasting, (ii) flood risk assessment, (iii) water balance and (iv) climate change studies. In its historical version, hereafter called MORDOR1996, this is a lumped, reservoir, elevation based model with hourly or daily areal rainfall and air temperature as the driving input data. The principal hydrological processes represented are evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, ground water, snow and ice accumulation and melt, routing. The model has been intensively used at EDF for more than 25 years, in particular for modeling French mountainous watersheds. In order to consider the spatial heterogeneity of the input data (rainfall and air temperature) and the hydrological characteristics within a basin, the structure of model has been updated. The new version of the model, named MORDOR SD, is a semi-distributed hydrological model driven by elevation. The basin is spitted into several elevation bands on which a simple global MORDOR model is implemented; i.e. only evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, snow and ice accumulation and melt are computed. However ground water and routing processes remain global. The primary purpose of this study is to present MORDOR SD model through a comparison with the historical version. The first result of this comparative study is that the new version provides better calibration-validation performances. Moreover the semi-distributed approach both allows to simplify the model structure (i.e. less degrees of freedom) and to reduce the equifinality problem in the calibration process. The model's parameters are calibrated at daily timestep with a genetic algorithm that uses a composed objective function. This complex function quantifies the good agreement between the simulated and observed runoff focusing on four different runoff samples: (i) time

  13. Using 1-to-3D modeling approach to constrain thermomechanical evolution of the Dead Sea Transform region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, Alexey G.; Meneses Rioseco, Ernesto; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2010-05-01

    Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system is a part of the Syrian-African rift system dividing African and Arabian plates, that accommodated more than 100 km of left-lateral transform displacement. Despite the area of the DST is tectonically active during at least last 17 Myr (Krienitz et al., G3, 2009), heat flow lower than 50mW/m2 is reported for the area. The value of 50mW/m2 is consistent with the thickness of the lithosphere of more than 120 km while observed thickness of the lithosphere at the DST area is 70-80 km, according to seismic data (Mohsen et al., G.J.Int.2005). This discrepancy means that lithosphere around DST was thinned in the past and related high heat flow had not enough time to reach the surface. However, it remains unclear which thickness had the lithosphere before the thinning and when the thinning has occurred. To find the appropriate values for the parameters, we use a gradual complication approach. At the initial stage we solve a number of 1D thermal transient problem. Resulting transient geotherms in combination with additional constraints allow us to constrain magnitude and time of lithospheric reduction to 50-70 km and 15-22 Ma, respectively. At the second stage we use 2.5D thermomechanical modeling technique by Sobolev S.V. et all.( EPSL 2005) to model thermal evolution and deformation at the 1000 km transsection of the lithosphere from Mediterranean to Arabian platform, crossing the DST near the Dead Sea. As an initial setup we use simplified geometry of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric structure according to available geophysical data. The lithospheric thickness is reduced within the 300 km -wide domain beneath the DST. The ranges for the time of and magnitude of the lithosphere thinning are given by the 1D model. The 2.5D model allows to use additional constraints for the model such as evolution of a surface topography and rheological patterns beneath the DST fault. In addition we use the brittle brick stretching

  14. Development of a state machine sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: evolution, development, and lessons learned using a CASE tool approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathan; Summers, Kellee R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool approach. The main purpose of the Interferometer Sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations to be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Harel finite state machine software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real-time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORBA, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  15. Engineering of a target site-specific recombinase by a combined evolution- and structure-guided approach

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Ghanem, Josephine; Chusainow, Janet; Karimova, Madina; Spiegel, Christopher; Hofmann-Sieber, Helga; Hauber, Joachim; Buchholz, Frank; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) can perform DNA rearrangements, including deletions, inversions and translocations when their naive target sequences are placed strategically into the genome of an organism. Hence, in order to employ SSRs in heterologous hosts, their target sites have to be introduced into the genome of an organism before the enzyme can be practically employed. Engineered SSRs hold great promise for biotechnology and advanced biomedical applications, as they promise to extend the usefulness of SSRs to allow efficient and specific recombination of pre-existing, natural genomic sequences. However, the generation of enzymes with desired properties remains challenging. Here, we use substrate-linked directed evolution in combination with molecular modeling to rationally engineer an efficient and specific recombinase (sTre) that readily and specifically recombines a sequence present in the HIV-1 genome. We elucidate the role of key residues implicated in the molecular recognition mechanism and we present a rationale for sTre’s enhanced specificity. Combining evolutionary and rational approaches should help in accelerating the generation of enzymes with desired properties for use in biotechnology and biomedicine. PMID:23275541

  16. Development of a State Machine Sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: Evolution, Development and Lessons Learned using a CASE Tool Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rede, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathon; Summer, Kellee

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tool approach. The main purpose of the sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Hare1 finite state machine, software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORB A, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  17. A novel combinatorial approach for understanding microstructural evolution and its relationship to mechanical properties in metallic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Banerjee, R; Fraser, H L

    2007-05-01

    The new generation of metallic biomaterials for prosthesis implantation (orthopedic and dental) typically have a Ti base with fully biocompatible alloying additions such as Nb, Ta, Zr, Mo, Fe and Sn. While the binary Ti-Ta and the ternary Ti-Nb-Ta systems are promising, the large composition space afforded by these systems offers tremendous scope in terms of alloy design via optimization of alloy composition and thermomechanical treatment. In the present paper a novel combinatorial approach has been developed for rapidly exploring the microstructural evolution and microstructure-microhardness (or elastic modulus) relationships in these systems. Using directed laser deposition, compositionally graded alloy samples have been fabricated and subsequently heat-treated to affect different microstructures in terms of the volume fraction and distribution of the alpha phase in the beta matrix as a function of composition. Subsequently, composition-specific indentation-based hardness and modulus information has been obtained from these graded samples, and the resulting data have been used to develop relationships between the composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. Such rapid combinatorial assessments can be very useful in optimizing not only the alloy composition but also the desired microstructure for achieving the best combination of properties for specific orthopedic or dental applications.

  18. A new approach predicting the evolution of laminated nanostructures—martensite in NiTi as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersmann, M.; Antretter, T.; Waitz, T.; Fischer, F. D.

    2017-04-01

    A model for laminated nanostructures, combining classical energy minimization with full-field finite element calculations in a computationally fully automated manner, is set up and used to quantitatively analyse the interaction of grains via self-accommodation of their transformation strains. The well known Koistinenwell established B2–B19’ martensitic phase transformation in nanocrystalline NiTi is treated as an exemplary case to demonstrate our new framework. A systematic search for an optimal energy minimizing transformation path is employed within a full-field model, including crystallographic transformation strains and fully anisotropic elastic constants, by using the Python scripting language. The microstructure is updated based on previous calculation results. The underlying incremental free energy minimization criterion naturally reproduces the transformation kinetics. The sequence of grains subjected to transformation as well as the selection of martensitic variants within the grains are obtained yielding the evolution of the total interface energy as well as the strain energy, dominating our approach.

  19. Dynamical Evolution of the Inner Heliosphere Approaching Solar Activity Maximum: Interpreting Ulysses Observations Using a Global MHD Model. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we describe a series of MHD simulations covering the time period from 12 January 1999 to 19 September 2001 (Carrington Rotation 1945 to 1980). This interval coincided with: (1) the Sun s approach toward solar maximum; and (2) Ulysses second descent to the southern polar regions, rapid latitude scan, and arrival into the northern polar regions. We focus on the evolution of several key parameters during this time, including the photospheric magnetic field, the computed coronal hole boundaries, the computed velocity profile near the Sun, and the plasma and magnetic field parameters at the location of Ulysses. The model results provide a global context for interpreting the often complex in situ measurements. We also present a heuristic explanation of stream dynamics to describe the morphology of interaction regions at solar maximum and contrast it with the picture that resulted from Ulysses first orbit, which occurred during more quiescent solar conditions. The simulation results described here are available at: http://sun.saic.com.

  20. Insight: Semantic Provenance and Analysis Platform for Multi-center Neurology Healthcare Research

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Priya; Wei, Annan; Welter, Elisabeth; Bamps, Yvan; Stoll, Shelley; Bukach, Ashley; Sajatovic, Martha; Sahoo, Satya S.

    2016-01-01

    Insight is a Semantic Web technology-based platform to support large-scale secondary analysis of healthcare data for neurology clinical research. Insight features the novel use of: (1) provenance metadata, which describes the history or origin of patient data, in clinical research analysis, and (2) support for patient cohort queries across multiple institutions conducting research in epilepsy, which is the one of the most common neurological disorders affecting 50 million persons worldwide. Insight is being developed as a healthcare informatics infrastructure to support a national network of eight epilepsy research centers across the U.S. funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This paper describes the use of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) PROV recommendation for provenance metadata that allows researchers to create patient cohorts based on the provenance of the research studies. In addition, the paper describes the use of descriptive logic-based OWL2 epilepsy ontology for cohort queries with “expansion of query expression” using ontology reasoning. Finally, the evaluation results for the data integration and query performance are described using data from three research studies with 180 epilepsy patients. The experiment results demonstrate that Insight is a scalable approach to use Semantic provenance metadata for context-based data analysis in healthcare informatics. PMID:27069752

  1. Provenance through the limit: integrated provenance from the Devonian sedimentary and basement rocks from the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Lotero, Andrea; Villafañez, Yohana; Augustsson, Carita; Bayona, German; Ibañez, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    The provenance record of sedimentary rocks is sometimes the only available archive of the geological evolution in continuously active continental margins where continuous exhumation, erosion and along strike fragmentation of continental margins destroy geological evidences. New integrated provenance constraints from segmented exposures of Devonian rocks of the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia are used to reconstruct overimposed Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleogeographic scenarios of the northern Andes. Sandstones from deltaic to platform environments are characterized by very high quartz contents, stable to ultrastable heavy minerals and mostly angular fragments. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology reveals prominent Silurian to Ordovician and Mesoproterozoic (Grenvillian) age populations with minor Devonian zircons. Tourmaline geochemistry and detrital quarz characterization suggest prominent low grade metamorphic sources. These provenance fingerprints can be related to the erosion of the older metasedimentary basement exposed in the same region and record the transition from a terrane collisional event to the formation of a new subduction zone before the final Late Paleozoic events that end in the agglutination of Pangea. The U-Pb detrital record of the Devonian and basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera are also comparable with Early to Middle Paleozic Paleozoic rocks form the Northern segment of the eastern Peruvian Andes re-inforcing the view of along strike terrane thousand of kilometer transport along the Mesozoic proto-Andean margin. Petrographic and heavy mineral petrofacies and stratigraphic correlation between Devonian localities are also used as piercing points to document Cenozoic ten of kilometers strike slip displacements along the northern termination of the Eastern Cordillera.

  2. ISO TC211 standards on Provenance for Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Deng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Data provenance, also called lineage, records the derivation history of a data product. The history could include the algorithms used, the process steps taken, the computing environment run, data sources input to the processes, the organization/person responsible for the product, etc. Provenance provides important information to data users for them to determine the usability and reliability of the product. In the science domain, the data provenance is especially important since scientists need to use the information to determine the scientific validity of a data product and to decide if such a product can be used as the basis for further scientific analysis. Provenance is a kind of metadata. In Earth science domain, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 211 (ISO TC 211) have set geospatial metadata standards for geospatial data, including ISO 19115:2003-Metadata, ISO 19115-2:2009-Metadata-Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data, and ISO 19115-1:2014 - Metadata -- Part 1: Fundamentals. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define the fundamental metadata for documenting geospatial data products, and ISO 19115-2 provides additional metadata classes for imagery and gridded data. ISO 19115-1:2014 is the revised version of ISO 19115:2003. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define fundamental lineage information classes and subclasses. They miss some key information classes needed for documenting the provenance in the Web service environment, such as the running environment, the algorithms, and software executables. However, ISO 19115-2 extends the lineage model in ISO 19115 and provides additional metadata classes needed for documenting provenance information. The combination of lineage models in ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-2 provides a comprehensive provenance information model needed for the web service environment. Currently the ISO Provence standard is not compatible with W3C Prov standard. The revision of ISO 19115-2 will be started in

  3. Provenance Usage in the OceanLink Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Jones, M.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve thedissemination of scientific research. The OceanLink project, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is utilizing semantic technologies tointegrate geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Provenance is a vital componentin meeting both the scientific and engineering requirements of OceanLink. Provenance plays a key role in justification and understanding when presenting users with results aggregated from multiple sources. In the engineering sense, provenance enables the identification of new data and the ability to determine which data sources to query. Additionally, OceanLink will leverage human and machine computation for crowdsourcing, text mining, and co-reference resolution. The results of these computations, and their associated provenance, will be folded back into the constituent systems to continually enhance precision and utility. We will touch on the various roles provenance is playing in OceanLink as well as present our use of the PROV Ontology and associated Ontology Design Patterns.

  4. A multi-technique approach for characterizing the geomorphological evolution of a Villerville-Cricqueboeuf coastal landslide (Normandy, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissak Borges, Candide; Maquaire, Olivier; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Gomez, Christopher; Lavigne, Franck

    2010-05-01

    The Villerville and Cricqueboeuf coastal landslides (Calvados, Normandy, North-West France) have occurred in marly, sandy and chalky formations. The slope instability probably started during the last Quaternary period and is still active over the recent historic period. Since 1982, the slope is affected by a permanent activity (following the Varnes classification) with an annual average displacement of 5-10 cm.y-1 depending on the season. Three major events occurred in 1988, 1995 and 2001 and are controlled by the hydro-climatic conditions. These events induced pluri-decimetres to pluri-meters displacements (e.g. 5m horizontal displacements have been observed in 2001 at Cricqueboeuf) and generated economical and physical damage to buildings and roads. The landslide morphology is characterized by multi-metres scarps, reverse slopes caused by the tilting of landslide blocks and evolving cracks. The objective of this paper is to present the methodology used to characterize the recent historical (since 1808) geomorphological evolution of the landslides, and to discuss the spatio-temporal pattern of observed displacements. A multi-technique research approach has been applied and consisted in historical research, geomorphological mapping, geodetic monitoring and engineering geotechnical investigation. Information gained from different documents and techniques has been combined to propose a conceptual model of landslide evolution: - a retrospective study on landslide events inventoried in the historic period (archive investigation, newspapers); - a multi-temporal (1955-2006) analysis of aerial photographs (image processing, traditional stereoscopic techniques and image orthorectification), ancient maps and cadastres; - the creation of a detailed geomorphological map in 2009; - an analysis of recent displacements monitored since 1985 with traditional geodetic techniques (tacheometry, dGPS, micro-levelling) - geophysical investigation by ground-penetrating radar along the

  5. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been provEn effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. Several approaches that have proven effective for other evolutionary algorithms are modified and implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for standard test optimization problems and for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  6. Quantitative Genetic Interaction Mapping Using the E-MAP Approach

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sean R.; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic interactions represent the degree to which the presence of one mutation modulates the phenotype of a second mutation. In recent years, approaches for measuring genetic interactions systematically and quantitatively have proven to be effective tools for unbiased characterization of gene function and have provided valuable data for analyses of evolution. Here, we present protocols for systematic measurement of genetic interactions with respect to organismal growth rate for two yeast species. PMID:20946812

  7. Risk of stroke in imaging-proven subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xia; Bai, Harrison Xiao; Wang, Zhili; Yang, Li

    2017-03-31

    To determine the risk of stroke in patients with subclavian steal syndrome (SSS). We identified 165 patients with imaging-provenSSS from two hospitals. Demographic, clinical and imaging data were retrospectively collected. Patients were followed up for stroke events. Stroke occurred in 43 patients with a median follow-up of 28months. Seven of these cases were identified prospectively and 36 cases retrospectively. On multivariate analysis, presence of symptoms at presentation (p=0.029) was a significant predictor of stroke. Presence of symptoms at presentation predicted stroke in imaging-proven SSS.

  8. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Berrick, Steve; Shen, Suhung; Prados, Ana; Fox, Peter; Yang, Wenli; Min, Min; Holloway, Dan; Enloe, Yonsook

    2008-01-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This requires a deeper data interoperability than we have now. Efforts such as Open Geospatial Consortium and OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross-calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, location in space-time or quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, results can be meaningless or lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace to how the data came to be: sensors, processing and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio- temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences or calibration issues. Provenance information must be captured in a semantic framework that allows data inter-use tools to incorporate it and aid in the intervention of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representation, and data quality attributes in a well-structured, machine-readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance-related distrintions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance. Provenance may be either embedded within the data payload, or transmitted

  9. A Provenance-based Trust Model for Delay Tolerant Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-21

    data derivation, and data annotation [10]. Since then, OPM has been widely adopted and extended by various research groups [8]. Freire et al. [5...VLDB Workshop on Secure Data Management, LNCS, vol. 5159, pp. 82–98, Auckland, New Zealand, Aug. 24, 2008. 5. J. Freire , D. Koop, E. Santos, and C.T... Freire , J. Futrelle, R.E. McGrath, J. Myers, and P. Paulson, “The open provenance model: an overview,” Int’l Provenance and Annotation Workshop, Salt Lake

  10. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact.

  11. Evaluating fossil calibrations for dating phylogenies in light of rates of molecular evolution: a comparison of three approaches.

    PubMed

    Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Scott Keogh, J; Avise, John C

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary and biogeographic studies increasingly rely on calibrated molecular clocks to date key events. Although there has been significant recent progress in development of the techniques used for molecular dating, many issues remain. In particular, controversies abound over the appropriate use and placement of fossils for calibrating molecular clocks. Several methods have been proposed for evaluating candidate fossils; however, few studies have compared the results obtained by different approaches. Moreover, no previous study has incorporated the effects of nucleotide saturation from different data types in the evaluation of candidate fossils. In order to address these issues, we compared three approaches for evaluating fossil calibrations: the single-fossil cross-validation method of Near, Meylan, and Shaffer (2005. Assessing concordance of fossil calibration points in molecular clock studies: an example using turtles. Am. Nat. 165:137-146), the empirical fossil coverage method of Marshall (2008. A simple method for bracketing absolute divergence times on molecular phylogenies using multiple fossil calibration points. Am. Nat. 171:726-742), and the Bayesian multicalibration method of Sanders and Lee (2007. Evaluating molecular clock calibrations using Bayesian analyses with soft and hard bounds. Biol. Lett. 3:275-279) and explicitly incorporate the effects of data type (nuclear vs. mitochondrial DNA) for identifying the most reliable or congruent fossil calibrations. We used advanced (Caenophidian) snakes as a case study; however, our results are applicable to any taxonomic group with multiple candidate fossils, provided appropriate taxon sampling and sufficient molecular sequence data are available. We found that data type strongly influenced which fossil calibrations were identified as outliers, regardless of which method was used. Despite the use of complex partitioned models of sequence evolution and multiple calibrations throughout the tree, saturation

  12. Using provenance to manage knowledge of in silico experiments.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robert; Zhao, Jun; Goble, Carole

    2007-05-01

    This article offers a briefing in one of the knowledge management issues of in silico experimentation in bioinformatics. Recording of the provenance of an experiment-what was done; where, how and why, etc. is an important aspect of scientific best practice that should be extended to in silico experimentation. We will do this in the context of eScience which has been part of the move of bioinformatics towards an industrial setting. Despite the computational nature of bioinformatics, these analyses are scientific and thus necessitate their own versions of typical scientific rigour. Just as recording who, what, why, when, where and how of an experiment is central to the scientific process in laboratory science, so it should be in silico science. The generation and recording of these aspects, or provenance, of an experiment are necessary knowledge management goals if we are to introduce scientific rigour into routine bioinformatics. In Silico experimental protocols should themselves be a form of managing the knowledge of how to perform bioinformatics analyses. Several systems now exist that offer support for the generation and collection of provenance information about how a particular in silico experiment was run, what results were generated, how they were generated, etc. In reviewing provenance support, we will review one of the important knowledge management issues in bioinformatics.

  13. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Epidemics are favored by rainfall and high humidity. A provenance collection of ~950 pecan trees from 19 locations representing the native range of the species is located in Byron, Georgia...

  14. Evolution of porosity in the saltwater freshwater mixing zone of coastal carbonate aquifers: An alternative modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Douchko; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    presented by Rezaei et al. [Rezaei, M., Sanz, E., Raeisi, E., Ayora, C. Vazquez-Sune, E., Carrera, J., 2005. Reactive transport modeling of calcite dissolution in the fresh-saltwater mixing zone. Journal of Hydrology, 311, 1-4, 282-298]. Our results exhibit a sharper dissolution zone close to the freshwater side of the domain, which is caused by the properties of the second derivative of ceq( s). Recently, Singurindy et al. [Water Resources Research, 40, 2004, and correction in Water Resources Research, 41, 2005] performed dissolution experiments in a saltwater-freshwater mixing zone in a sandbox. The results from our model simulations are in good agreement to their experimental data. Finally, the modelling approach is employed to porosity evolution in homogeneous and heterogeneous carbonate islands. The results are in general agreement to earlier work. Due to the properties of the second derivative, however, the regions of active dissolution are restricted to more narrow regions.

  15. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.

    2010-12-01

    The notion of sharing scientific data has only recently begun to gain ground in science, where data is still considered a private asset. There is growing evidence, however, that the benefits of scientific collaboration through early data sharing during the course of a science project may outgrow the risk of losing exclusive ownership of the data. As exemplar success stories are making the headlines[1], principles of effective information sharing have become the subject of e-science research. In particular, any piece of published data should be self-describing, to the extent necessary for consumers to determine its suitability for reuse in their own projects. This is accomplished by associating a body of formally specified and machine-processable metadata to the data. When data is produced and reused by independent groups, however, metadata interoperability issues emerge. This is the case for provenance, a form of metadata that describes the history of a data product, Y. Provenance is typically expressed as a graph-structured set of dependencies that account for the sequence of computational or interactive steps that led to Y, often starting from some primary, observational data. Traversing dependency graphs is one of the mechanisms used to answer questions on data reliability. In the context of the NSF DataONE project[2], we have been studying issues of provenance interoperability in scientific collaboration scenarios. Consider a first scientist, Alice, who publishes a data product X along with its provenance, and a second scientist who further transforms X into a new product Y, also along with its provenance. A third scientist, who is interested in Y, expects to be able to trace Y's history up to the inputs used by Alice. This is only possible, however, if provenance accumulates into a single, uniform graph that can be seamlessly traversed. This becomes problematic when provenance is captured using different tools and computational models (i.e. workflow systems

  16. EVOLUTION OF ANTENNA PERFORMANCE FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL MEDICNE

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, P.R.; Maccarini, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of electromagnetic heating technology that has proven useful in clinical applications of hyperthermia therapy for cancer. Several RF and microwave antenna designs are illustrated which highlight the evolution of technology from simple waveguide antennas to spatially and temporally adjustable multiple antenna phased arrays for deep heating, conformal arrays for superficial heating, and compatible approaches for radiometric and magnetic resonance image based non-invasive thermal monitoring. Examples of heating capabilities for several recently developed applicators demonstrate highly adjustable power deposition that has not been possible in the past. PMID:23487445

  17. EVOLUTION OF ANTENNA PERFORMANCE FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL MEDICNE.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, P R; Maccarini, P F

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of electromagnetic heating technology that has proven useful in clinical applications of hyperthermia therapy for cancer. Several RF and microwave antenna designs are illustrated which highlight the evolution of technology from simple waveguide antennas to spatially and temporally adjustable multiple antenna phased arrays for deep heating, conformal arrays for superficial heating, and compatible approaches for radiometric and magnetic resonance image based non-invasive thermal monitoring. Examples of heating capabilities for several recently developed applicators demonstrate highly adjustable power deposition that has not been possible in the past.

  18. Influence of sea level change on sediment provenance variations since the last glaciation in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwarungrueangkul, T.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clay mineralogy and grain size of 170 sediment samples from Core MD05-2893 located near the Molengraaff paleo-river mouth on the upper Sunda slope in the southern South China Sea were investigated to assess the effect of sea level change on sediment provenance variations. The clay mineral results show high contents of smectite (35-55%), moderate contents of illite (16-31%), kaolinite (11-29%), and chlorite (8-15%). Due to distinction of clay mineral assemblages from each sediment provenance, the Indonesian Archipelago is the majority of smectite source, whereas North Boneo mainly provides illite to the southern South China Sea. Therefore, the smectite/illite ratio is applied to determine the sediment provenance variations. Both the mineralogical ratio and median grain size show consistent sediment source and dynamic variations since the last glaciation, in which case the response of sediment provenance change due to the sea level rise is expected. Our study suggests a three-stage evolution of the sediment provenance variation on the Sunda slope in the southern South China Sea: (1) during the low sea level stand of the last glaciation, the high content of smectite implies that the Indonesian Archipelago provided the majority of sediments to this area through the Molengraaff paleo-river system; (2) during the sea level rise of the deglaciation, the decreasing of smectite content but the increasing of illite indicates that the Indonesian Archipelago reduced in sediments supply due to regression of coastline, whereas North Boneo increased sediment supply; (3) during the high sea level stand of Holocene, the smectite content increases again, implying that the Indonesian Archipelago provides sediments to this area again through the ocean circulation. Consequently, the sea level rise mainly results in sediment provenance change in the southern South China Sea since the last deglaciation.

  19. From above or below: the controversy and historical evolution of tuberculum sellae meningioma resection from open to endoscopic skull base approaches.

    PubMed

    Soni, Resha S; Patel, Smruti K; Husain, Qasim; Dahodwala, Mufaddal Q; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2014-04-01

    In the early 20th century, the first successful surgical removal of a tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) was performed and described by Harvey Cushing. It soon became recognized that TSM pose a formidable challenge for skull base surgeons because of their deep and sensitive location, proximity to critical neurovascular elements, and often dense and fibrous nature. Because of this, over the next several decades controversy transpired regarding their optimal method of resection. Early attempts involved utilization of open transcranial routes. This included classic bilateral and unilateral frontal approaches, followed by pterional or frontotemporal approaches, which have evolved to incorporate skull base modifications, such as the supraorbital, orbitozygomatic, and orbitopterional approaches. Minimally invasive supraorbital keyhole approaches through eyebrow incisions have also been adopted. Over the past 25 years, the microsurgical transsphenoidal approach, classically used for pituitary and parasellar tumors, was modified to resect suprasesllar TSM via the extended transsphenoidal approach. More recently, with the evolution of endoscopic techniques, resection of TSM has been achieved using purely endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approaches. Although each of these techniques has been successfully described for the treatment of TSM, the question still remains: is it better to access and operate on these lesions via a traditional, transcranial avenue, or are they better treated via endoscopic endonasal techniques? We outline the surgical management of TSM through history, from early transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to modern extended endoscopic endonasal procedures. We briefly explore the arguments favoring each of the methods and the advancements which have emerged to further optimize surgical resection.

  20. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  1. Molecular phylogenetic approach for studying life-history evolution: the ambiguous example of the genus Medicago L.

    PubMed Central

    Bena, G; Lejeune, B; Prosperi, J M; Olivieri, I

    1998-01-01

    We present a molecular phylogeny including most species of the genus Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Based on the consensus of the 48 most parsimonious trees, life-history and mating-system characters are mapped, and a putative history of the genus is suggested. The most parsimonious reconstruction suggests an ancestral annual and selfing state, and recurrent evolution towards perenniality and outcrossing. Based on theoretical predictions and classical hypotheses of the history of the genus, different assumptions about the ancestral state and different weighting schemes of evolution between the character states are made. Assuming an outcrossing, perennial ancestral state (partly supported by morphological features) does not fundamentally change the reconstruction. To meet theoretical expectations, various weighting schemes favouring evolution towards annuality and selfing are applied. Influence and validity of such weighting schemes are discussed with regard to other studies. PMID:9684377

  2. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  3. General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  5. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  6. Making Sense of 'Big Data' in Provenance Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2014-12-01

    Huge online databases can be 'mined' to reveal previously hidden trends and relationships in society. One could argue that sedimentary geology has entered a similar era of 'Big Data', as modern provenance studies routinely apply multiple proxies to dozens of samples. Just like the Internet, sedimentary geology now requires specialised statistical tools to interpret such large datasets. These can be organised on three levels of progressively higher order:A single sample: The most effective way to reveal the provenance information contained in a representative sample of detrital zircon U-Pb ages are probability density estimators such as histograms and kernel density estimates. The widely popular 'probability density plots' implemented in IsoPlot and AgeDisplay compound analytical uncertainty with geological scatter and are therefore invalid.Several samples: Multi-panel diagrams comprising many detrital age distributions or compositional pie charts quickly become unwieldy and uninterpretable. For example, if there are N samples in a study, then the number of pairwise comparisons between samples increases quadratically as N(N-1)/2. This is simply too much information for the human eye to process. To solve this problem, it is necessary to (a) express the 'distance' between two samples as a simple scalar and (b) combine all N(N-1)/2 such values in a single two-dimensional 'map', grouping similar and pulling apart dissimilar samples. This can be easily achieved using simple statistics-based dissimilarity measures and a standard statistical method called Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).Several methods: Suppose that we use four provenance proxies: bulk petrography, chemistry, heavy minerals and detrital geochronology. This will result in four MDS maps, each of which likely show slightly different trends and patterns. To deal with such cases, it may be useful to use a related technique called 'three way multidimensional scaling'. This results in two graphical outputs: an MDS

  7. A Provenance Model for Real-Time Water Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Bai, Q.; Zednik, S.; Taylor, P.; Fox, P. A.; Taylor, K.; Kloppers, C.; Peters, C.; Terhorst, A.; West, P.; Compton, M.; Shu, Y.; Provenance Management Team

    2010-12-01

    Generating hydrological data products, such as flow forecasts, involves complex interactions among instruments, data simulation models, computational facilities and data providers. Correct interpretation of the data produced at various stages requires good understanding of how data was generated or processed. Provenance describes the lineage of a data product. Making provenance information accessible to hydrologists and decision makers not only helps to determine the data’s value, accuracy and authorship, but also enables users to determine the trustworthiness of the data product. In the water domain, WaterML2 [1] is an emerging standard which describes an information model and format for the publication of water observations data in XML. The W3C semantic sensor network incubator group (SSN-XG) [3] is producing ontologies for the description of sensor configurations. By integrating domain knowledge of this kind into the provenance information model, the integrated information model will enable water domain researchers and water resource managers to better analyse how observations and derived data products were generated. We first introduce the Proof Mark Language (PML2) [2], WaterML2 and the SSN-XG sensor ontology as the proposed provenance representation formalism. Then we describe some initial implementations how these standards could be integrated to represent the lineage of water information products. Finally we will highlight how the provenance model for a distributed real-time water information system assists the interpretation of the data product and establishing trust. Reference [1] Taylor, P., Walker, G., Valentine, D., Cox, Simon: WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observation data. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 12. [2] da Silva, P.P., McGuinness, D.L., Fikes, R.: A proof markup language for semantic web services. Inf. Syst. 31(4) (2006), 381-395. [3] W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator

  8. Geochemical indicators of provenance and tectonic setting of Mississippian pelites of the Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.W. ); Blatt, H.; Weaver, B.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions of the southern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic are inconclusive. Numerous conflicting models have been proposed for the opening and closing of the Iapetus Ocean and the subsequent deposition and deformation of the Ouachita System. Considerable confusion also exists concerning the provenance of the Carboniferous flysch deposits of the Ouachitas. Trace element geochemistry of shales from the Stanley Group constrain both the provenance of the sediments and the plate tectonic setting during the Mississippian evolution of the southern continental margin. Th/Sc and Cr/Th ratios support a cratonic source for the majority of samples analyzed. However, in several samples the Th/Sc ratio decreases and the Cr/Th ratio increases, suggesting a contribution from a more mafic source. Using element ratio-ratio diagrams, all of the samples plot along a curve consistent with a two-component mixing model between a felsic and a mafic source. Both a tantalum-niobium trough and a strongly negative strontium anomaly are seen in upper-crust-normalized trace element spiderdiagrams. These anomalies are also present in interbedded volcaniclastics within the Stanley. The Stanley shales also exhibit a positive vanadium-chromium-nickel anomaly. The pervasive occurrence of these anomalies is interpreted as inherited from their source, and not from diagenetic alteration or sedimentary processes.

  9. Long term modeling of the links between economics, technical progress and environment: Evolution of approaches and new trends

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines the evolution of modeling on greenhouse as emissions. The paper briefly highlights the origins and early efforts to model greenhouse gas emissions, efforts subsequent to 1988, and the shape of the next generation of greenhouse gas emissions models. Particular emphasis is placed on the author`s own contributions, including the Edmonds-Reilly Model and the second generation model.

  10. Long term modeling of the links between economics, technical progress and environment: Evolution of approaches and new trends

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines the evolution of modeling on greenhouse as emissions. The paper briefly highlights the origins and early efforts to model greenhouse gas emissions, efforts subsequent to 1988, and the shape of the next generation of greenhouse gas emissions models. Particular emphasis is placed on the author's own contributions, including the Edmonds-Reilly Model and the second generation model.

  11. Günther's formalism (κ-symplectic formalism) in classical field theory: Skinner-Rusk approach and the evolution operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Angel M.; Román-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto

    2005-05-01

    The first aim of this paper is to extend the Skinner-Rusk formalism on classical mechanics for first-order field theories. The second is to generalize the definition and properties of the evolution K-operator on classical mechanics for first-order field theories using in both cases Günther's formalism (k-symplectic formalism).

  12. Soil geomorphology and morphometric analysis to approach denudation rates and geomorphological evolution of Limnopolar basin; Byers Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Susana del Carmen; De Pablo, Miguel Angel; Otero, Xose Luis; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Limnopolar Lake is located in Byers Peninsula Plateau at 85-100m a.s.l. in maritime Antarctic environment. The peninsula, in the western end of Livingston Island, (latitude 62°34'35" S, longitude 61°13'07" W) has more favourable environmental conditions for soil development than other Antarctic regions. Finished the glacial climate conditions in the area began the weathering and edaphic processes. There are several attempts to date the Domo's Roctch cap melting in Byers peninsula based on limnological records studies giving dates of 9.5, 8.3, 6.0 and 5.0 Ka BP while was dated in 6.3 Ka BP in the basis of neotectonic approach. Nevertheless some authors have documented a period of glacial re-advance in the South Shetland Islands from around 7.0 Ka BP, persisting even until 5.0 Ka BP. During cup ice melting mainly isostatic but also tectonic (4%) uplift of the area free of ice started. Based on the date of marine terrace system (70, 55 and 24 m a.s.l.) developed in free of ice coast of the Livingstone Inland a rate of uplift of 0.4 m/Ka was stablished. General speaking that the melting of the ice cap resulted in the establishment of a lacustrine system spread all over Byers peninsula. At a first stage of evolution waters from the ice melting flooded preexisting topographic depressions lead lakes, while an incipient river networks were developing. Nevertheless, hypsometric integral of Limnopolar watershed shows the existence of at least three downcutting steps into Byers Plateau and the lake is located over the last step above the nick point of the river which is incised into glacial deposit. The base of the sedimentary record of the lake was found at 234 cm of deep and dated at about 8.3 Ka BP but corresponds to glacial sediments. In the same core sample, the change to lacustrine characteristics was found at about 211 cm and dated in 6.7 Ka BP. On the other hand, shore of the lake is excavated at 20 m from the upper part of the basin and the transversal profile of

  13. µ-XRF Analysis of Trace Elements in Lapis Lazuli-Forming Minerals for a Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Angelici, Debora; Borghi, Alessandro; Chiarelli, Fabrizia; Cossio, Roberto; Gariani, Gianluca; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Pratesi, Giovanni; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents new developments on the provenance study of lapis lazuli started by our group in 2008: during the years a multi-technique approach has been exploited to obtain minero-petrographic characterization and creation of a database considering only rock samples of known provenance. Since the final aim of the study is to develop a method to analyze archeological findings and artworks made with lapis lazuli in a completely non-invasive way, ion beam analysis techniques were employed to trace the provenance of the raw material used for the production of artifacts. Continuing this goal and focusing the analysis on determination of more significant minero-chemical markers for the provenance study of trace elements in different minerals, the method was extended with the use of micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), to test the potential of the technique for this application. The analyzes were focused on diopside and pyrite in lapis lazuli samples of known provenance (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Siberia). In addition, µ-XRF data were compared with micro proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) results to verify the agreement between the two databases and to compare the analytical performance of both techniques for this application.

  14. Provenance-Powered Automatic Workflow Generation and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Lee, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, scientists have learned how to codify tools into reusable software modules that can be chained into multi-step executable workflows. Existing scientific workflow tools, created by computer scientists, require domain scientists to meticulously design their multi-step experiments before analyzing data. However, this is oftentimes contradictory to a domain scientist's daily routine of conducting research and exploration. We hope to resolve this dispute. Imagine this: An Earth scientist starts her day applying NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) published climate data processing algorithms over ARGO deep ocean temperature and AMSRE sea surface temperature datasets. Throughout the day, she tunes the algorithm parameters to study various aspects of the data. Suddenly, she notices some interesting results. She then turns to a computer scientist and asks, "can you reproduce my results?" By tracking and reverse engineering her activities, the computer scientist creates a workflow. The Earth scientist can now rerun the workflow to validate her findings, modify the workflow to discover further variations, or publish the workflow to share the knowledge. In this way, we aim to revolutionize computer-supported Earth science. We have developed a prototyping system to realize the aforementioned vision, in the context of service-oriented science. We have studied how Earth scientists conduct service-oriented data analytics research in their daily work, developed a provenance model to record their activities, and developed a technology to automatically generate workflow starting from user behavior and adaptability and reuse of these workflows for replicating/improving scientific studies. A data-centric repository infrastructure is established to catch richer provenance to further facilitate collaboration in the science community. We have also established a Petri nets-based verification instrument for provenance-based automatic workflow generation and recommendation.

  15. Indus Basin sediment provenance constrained using garnet geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Still, John

    2016-08-01

    The chemical and mineralogical diversity of western Himalayan rivers is the result of each of them draining different tectonic and lithologic units, whose character is partly transferred to the sediments carried by those rivers. Garnet geochemistry was employed to discriminate provenance in the Indus River system. We characterized the geochemistry of garnet sediment grains from the modern Indus and all its major tributaries, as well as the related but ephemeral Ghaggar-Hakra River and dune sand from the Thar Desert. Garnet geochemistry displays a unique signature for the Himalayan rivers on the east of the Indus drainage compared to those in the western drainage. The trunk Indus remains distinct because of the dominant arc-type pyrope-garnet derived from Kohistan and the Karakoram. The Jhellum, which lies just east of the modern Indus has modest concentrations of arc-type pyrope garnets, which are more depleted in the other eastern tributaries. Their presence in the Jhellum reflects recycling of trunk Indus garnets through the Miocene Siwalik Group foreland sedimentary rocks. The Thar Desert dune sample contains significant numbers of grains similar to those in the trunk Indus, likely reworked by monsoon winds from the SW. Our data further indicate the presence of a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. Sands from this channel cannot be distinguished from the Indus on the basis of their garnet geochemistry alone but we favour their sedimentation from an Indus channel rather than reworking of desert sands by another stream. The garnet geochemistry shows some potential as a provenance tool, but cannot be used alone to uniquely discriminate Indus Basin provenance.

  16. A combined approach to predict spatial temperature evolution and its consequences during FIB processing of soft matter.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Roland; Fröch, Johannes E; Orthacker, Angelina; Hobisch, Josephine; Trimmel, Gregor; Plank, Harald

    2014-04-07

    Accessing local temperatures and their evolution during focused ion beam (FIB) processing is of particular importance in the context of polymers or biomaterials as they tend to undergo severe chemical and morphological damage due to the high temperatures arising. In this study we present a combination of ion trajectory simulations and thermal spike model based calculations, which allows predicting local temperatures, lateral distributions and evolution during FIB patterning. Simulations and calculations have been done without any approximation or correction factors and lead to results in very good agreement with experiments on polymers taking into account their thermal behaviour. Finally, the model is applied to different scanning strategies which demonstrate how classically applied patterning strategies lead to massive temperature increases which can be the knock out criteria for low melting materials.

  17. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  18. Capturing, Harmonizing and Delivering Data and Quality Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have proven to be vital for various scientific and applications needs. However, the usability of these data depends not only on the data values but also on the ability of data users to assess and understand the quality of these data for various applications and for comparison or inter-usage of data from different sensors and models. In this paper, we describe some aspects of capturing, harmonizing and delivering this information to users in the framework of distributed web-based data tools.

  19. CT imaging signs of surgically proven bowel trauma.

    PubMed

    LeBedis, Christina A; Anderson, Stephan W; Bates, David D B; Khalil, Ramy; Matherly, David; Wing, Heidi; Burke, Peter A; Soto, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and interobserver agreement of individual CT findings as well as the bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) in surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was IRB approved and consent was waived. All patients 14 years or older who sustained surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2015 were included. Admission trauma MDCT scans were independently interpreted by two abdominal fellowship-trained radiologists who recorded the following CT findings: intraperitoneal fluid, mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding, bowel wall thickening/hematoma, active intravenous contrast extravasation, free intraperitoneal air, bowel wall discontinuity, and focal bowel hypoenhancement. Subsequently, the electronic medical records of the included patients, admission abdominal physical exam results, admission white blood cell count, and findings at exploratory laparotomy of the included patients were recorded. Thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence and interobserver agreement of the CT findings were as follows: intraperitoneal fluid 93.9 %, kappa = 0.784 (good); mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding 84.8 %, kappa = 0.718 (good); bowel wall thickening/hematoma 42.4 %, kappa = 0.491 (moderate); active IV contrast extravasation 36.3 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); free intraperitoneal air 21.2 %, kappa = 0.904 (very good), bowel wall discontinuity 6.1 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); and focal bowel hypoenhancement 6.1 %, kappa = 0.468 (moderate). An absence of the specified CT findings was encountered in 9.1 % with surgically proven bowel injuries (kappa = 1.00, perfect). In our study, 9/16 patients or 56.3 % had a bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) of 2 or more as defined by McNutt et al. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg 78(1):105-111, 2014). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid and

  20. How much can history constrain adaptive evolution? A real-time evolutionary approach of inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Fragata, I; Lopes-Cunha, M; Bárbaro, M; Kellen, B; Lima, M; Santos, M A; Faria, G S; Santos, M; Matos, M; Simões, P

    2014-12-01

    Chromosomal inversions are present in a wide range of animals and plants, having an important role in adaptation and speciation. Although empirical evidence of their adaptive value is abundant, the role of different processes underlying evolution of chromosomal polymorphisms is not fully understood. History and selection are likely to shape inversion polymorphism variation to an extent yet largely unknown. Here, we perform a real-time evolution study addressing the role of historical constraints and selection in the evolution of these polymorphisms. We founded laboratory populations of Drosophila subobscura derived from three locations along the European cline and followed the evolutionary dynamics of inversion polymorphisms throughout the first 40 generations. At the beginning, populations were highly differentiated and remained so throughout generations. We report evidence of positive selection for some inversions, variable between foundations. Signs of negative selection were more frequent, in particular for most cold-climate standard inversions across the three foundations. We found that previously observed convergence at the phenotypic level in these populations was not associated with convergence in inversion frequencies. In conclusion, our study shows that selection has shaped the evolutionary dynamics of inversion frequencies, but doing so within the constraints imposed by previous history. Both history and selection are therefore fundamental to predict the evolutionary potential of different populations to respond to global environmental changes.

  1. A population genetics-based and phylogenetic approach to understanding the evolution of virulence in the genus Listeria.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Bundrant, Brittany N; Fortes, Esther D; Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-09-01

    The genus Listeria includes (i) the opportunistic pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, (ii) the saprotrophs L. innocua, L. marthii, and L. welshimeri, and (iii) L. seeligeri, an apparent saprotroph that nevertheless typically contains the prfA virulence gene cluster. A novel 10-loci multilocus sequence typing scheme was developed and used to characterize 67 isolates representing six Listeria spp. (excluding L. grayi) in order to (i) provide an improved understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Listeria and (ii) use Listeria as a model to study the evolution of pathogenicity in opportunistic environmental pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses identified six well-supported Listeria species that group into two main subdivisions, with each subdivision containing strains with and without the prfA virulence gene cluster. Stochastic character mapping and phylogenetic analysis of hly, a gene in the prfA cluster, suggest that the common ancestor of the genus Listeria contained the prfA virulence gene cluster and that this cluster was lost at least five times during the evolution of Listeria, yielding multiple distinct saprotrophic clades. L. welshimeri, which appears to represent the most ancient clade that arose from an ancestor with a prfA cluster deletion, shows a considerably lower average sequence divergence than other Listeria species, suggesting a population bottleneck and a putatively different ecology than other saprotrophic Listeria species. Overall, our data suggest that, for some pathogens, loss of virulence genes may represent a selective advantage, possibly by facilitating adaptation to a specific ecological niche.

  2. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling ‘Darwinian’ and ‘Spencerian’ evolutionary approaches in anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of ‘Spencerian’ cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader ‘Darwinian’ framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  3. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  4. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  5. General Relativity Theory -- Well Proven and Also Incomplete?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    With a few arguments (half a page) it is proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments (one page) it is proven that these contradictions are resolved by expanding general relativity. The other situation: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years. My public question: Are relativists - on account of their many famous results - unable to admit imperfections of general relativity? General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle).

  6. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-02-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800 100 b.c.) using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Mössbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Mössbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  7. Identifying redundancy and exposing provenance in crowdsourced data analysis.

    PubMed

    Willett, Wesley; Ginosar, Shiry; Steinitz, Avital; Hartmann, Björn; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2013-12-01

    We present a system that lets analysts use paid crowd workers to explore data sets and helps analysts interactively examine and build upon workers' insights. We take advantage of the fact that, for many types of data, independent crowd workers can readily perform basic analysis tasks like examining views and generating explanations for trends and patterns. However, workers operating in parallel can often generate redundant explanations. Moreover, because workers have different competencies and domain knowledge, some responses are likely to be more plausible than others. To efficiently utilize the crowd's work, analysts must be able to quickly identify and consolidate redundant responses and determine which explanations are the most plausible. In this paper, we demonstrate several crowd-assisted techniques to help analysts make better use of crowdsourced explanations: (1) We explore crowd-assisted strategies that utilize multiple workers to detect redundant explanations. We introduce color clustering with representative selection--a strategy in which multiple workers cluster explanations and we automatically select the most-representative result--and show that it generates clusterings that are as good as those produced by experts. (2) We capture explanation provenance by introducing highlighting tasks and capturing workers' browsing behavior via an embedded web browser, and refine that provenance information via source-review tasks. We expose this information in an explanation-management interface that allows analysts to interactively filter and sort responses, select the most plausible explanations, and decide which to explore further.

  8. Triangulating the provenance of African elephants using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yasuko; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Hondo, Tomoko; Roca, Alfred L

    2013-01-01

    African elephant mitochondrial (mt) DNA follows a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. As females do not migrate between elephant herds, mtDNA exhibits low geographic dispersal. We therefore examined the effectiveness of mtDNA for assigning the provenance of African elephants (or their ivory). For 653 savanna and forest elephants from 22 localities in 13 countries, 4258 bp of mtDNA was sequenced. We detected eight mtDNA subclades, of which seven had regionally restricted distributions. Among 108 unique haplotypes identified, 72% were found at only one locality and 84% were country specific, while 44% of individuals carried a haplotype detected only at their sampling locality. We combined 316 bp of our control region sequences with those generated by previous trans-national surveys of African elephants. Among 101 unique control region haplotypes detected in African elephants across 81 locations in 22 countries, 62% were present in only a single country. Applying our mtDNA results to a previous microsatellite-based assignment study would improve estimates of the provenance of elephants in 115 of 122 mis-assigned cases. Nuclear partitioning followed species boundaries and not mtDNA subclade boundaries. For taxa such as elephants in which nuclear and mtDNA markers differ in phylogeography, combining the two markers can triangulate the origins of confiscated wildlife products. PMID:23798975

  9. Evolution of neck vertebral shape and neck retraction at the transition to modern turtles: an integrated geometric morphometric approach.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Wilson, Laura A B; Parr, William C H; Joyce, Walter G

    2015-03-01

    The unique ability of modern turtles to retract their head and neck into the shell through a side-necked (pleurodiran) or hidden-necked (cryptodiran) motion is thought to have evolved independently in crown turtles. The anatomical changes that led to the vertebral shapes of modern turtles, however, are still poorly understood. Here we present comprehensive geometric morphometric analyses that trace turtle vertebral evolution and reconstruct disparity across phylogeny. Disparity of vertebral shape was high at the dawn of turtle evolution and decreased after the modern groups evolved, reflecting a stabilization of morphotypes that correspond to the two retraction modes. Stem turtles, which had a very simple mode of retraction, the lateral head tuck, show increasing flexibility of the neck through evolution towards a pleurodiran-like morphotype. The latter was the precondition for evolving pleurodiran and cryptodiran vertebrae. There is no correlation between the construction of formed articulations in the cervical centra and neck mobility. An increasing mobility between vertebrae, associated with changes in vertebral shape, resulted in a more advanced ability to retract the neck. In this regard, we hypothesize that the lateral tucking retraction of stem turtles was not only the precondition for pleurodiran but also of cryptodiran retraction. For the former, a kink in the middle third of the neck needed to be acquired, whereas for the latter modification was necessary between the eighth cervical vertebra and first thoracic vertebra. Our paper highlights the utility of 3D shape data, analyzed in a phylogenetic framework, to examine the magnitude and mode of evolutionary modifications to vertebral morphology. By reconstructing and visualizing ancestral anatomical shapes, we provide insight into the anatomical features underlying neck retraction mode, which is a salient component of extant turtle classification.

  10. Testing the evolution of the DB white dwarf GD 358: first results of a new approach using asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Pérez, J. M.; Metcalfe, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: We present a new method that investigates the evolutionary history of the pulsating DB white dwarf GD 358 using asteroseismology. This is done considering the internal C/O profile, which describes the relative abundances of carbon and oxygen from the core of the star to its surface. Different evolutionary channels lead to the generation of different C/O profiles, and these affect the pulsation periods. Methods: We used the C/O profiles associated with white dwarfs that evolved through binary evolution channels where the progenitor experienced one or two episodes of mass loss during one or two common envelope (CE) phases, and two profiles from single-star evolution. We computed models using these different profiles and used a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the search in the parameter space for the best fit to the observed pulsation periods. We used three-parameter models, adjusting the stellar mass (Mstar), the effective temperature (T_eff), and the helium mass of the external layer (M_He). Results: Our results suggest that binary evolution profiles may provide a better match to the pulsation periods of GD 358. The best fit to the observations is obtained using a profile related to an evolutionary history where two episodes of mass loss happen during two CE phases, the first during the RGB (red giant branch) stage. The values obtained are T_eff = 24300 K, Mstar = 0.585 M⊙, and log (M_He/Mstar) = -5.66. The best-fit model has a mass close to the mean mass for DB white dwarfs found in various works and a temperature consistent with UV spectra obtained with the IUE satellite.

  11. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  12. Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Simon; Cornish, Hannah; Smith, Kenny

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an experimental paradigm for studying the cumulative cultural evolution of language. In doing so we provide the first experimental validation for the idea that cultural transmission can lead to the appearance of design without a designer. Our experiments involve the iterated learning of artificial languages by human participants. We show that languages transmitted culturally evolve in such a way as to maximize their own transmissibility: over time, the languages in our experiments become easier to learn and increasingly structured. Furthermore, this structure emerges purely as a consequence of the transmission of language over generations, without any intentional design on the part of individual language learners. Previous computational and mathematical models suggest that iterated learning provides an explanation for the structure of human language and link particular aspects of linguistic structure with particular constraints acting on language during its transmission. The experimental work presented here shows that the predictions of these models, and models of cultural evolution more generally, can be tested in the laboratory. PMID:18667697

  13. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  14. Provenance Capture in Data Access and Data Manipulation Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.; Gallagher, J. H.; Holloway, D.; Potter, N.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing need to trace back the origins of data products, whether images or charts in a report, data obtained from a sensor on an instrument, a generated dataset referenced in a research paper, in government reports on the environment, or in a publication or poster presentation. Yet, most software applications that perform data access and manipulation keep only limited history of the data, i.e. the provenance. Imagine the following scenario: There is a figure in a report showing multiple graphs and plots related to global climate, the report is being drafted for a government agency. The graphs and plots are generated using an algorithm from an iPython Notebook, developed by a researcher who is using a particular data portal, where the algorithm pulls data from four data sets from that portal. That data is aggregated together over the time dimension, constrained to a few parameters, accessed using a particular piece of data access software, and converted from one datatype to another datatype; All the processing on the data sets was conducted by three different researchers from a public university, on a project funded by the same government agency requesting the report, with one Principal Investigator and two Co-Investigators. In this scenario, today we're lucky to get a blob of text under the figure that might say a couple things about the figure with a reference to a publication that was written a few years ago. Data citation, data publishing information, licensing information, and provenance are all lacking in the derived data products. What we really want is to be able to trace the figure all the way back to the original datasets, including what was done to those datasets; and to see information about the researchers, the project, the agency funding, the award, and the organizations collaborating on the project. In this paper we discuss the need for such information and traceback features, as well as new technologies and standards that can help us

  15. The Paro Formation Provenance and its Tectonometamorphic History, Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobgay, T.; McQuarrie, N.; Hollister, L.; Long, S.; Gehrels, G.

    2008-12-01

    In western Bhutan, a unique package of rocks that comprises garnetiferous mica schist, quartzites, marbles, calc-silicates, and slivers of ortho-gneiss locally known as Paro Formation has posed an intriguing question on its lithostratigraphic correlation. The lithostratigraphic correlation of Paro Formation either to Greater Himalaya Sequence, Lesser Himalayan Sequence, or Tethyan sediments is important to define its contact with the surrounding rocks. Recent mapping in conjunction with U-Pb ages of detrital zircons, whole rock Nd isotopes, and petrologic study re-defines its stratigraphy and allows for provenance interpretation, lithostratigraphic correlation, and metamorphic history. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons show a strong peak at ~1.8 Ga while whole rock ɛNd isotopes are less negative and range from -9 to -12.5. The presence of much older (>1.6 Ga) detrital zircons in PF strongly suggests that the PF is LHS. However, an average ɛNd value of -10.8 requires the PF to contain young detritus. A 440 Ma crystallization age of ortho-gneiss within the PF requires PF to be older than Silurian. The mineral assemblages show that PF has attained upper green-schist to amphibolite facies metamorphism. The occurrence of sillimanite as kyanite pseudomorph suggests that rocks of PF have undergone metamorphism at temperature/pressure conditions in the sillimanite field but below the second sillimanite isograd. The metamorphic grade and thickness of the PF is significantly greater than what is documented immediately below the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in eastern Bhutan (~500 m of upper green-schist facies rocks). Metamorphism in the PF is as high as that identified in portions of the MCT Zone in Nepal and India but is significantly thicker. The combined provenance and metamorphic data may suggest that PF has a LH provenance and has been subjected to pressures and temperatures typical of GH rocks. Also, a preliminary balanced cross-section and the sequential restoration puts

  16. Archaeometric researches on the provenance of Mediterranean Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery.

    PubMed

    Amadori, M L; Del Vais, C; Fermo, P; Pallante, P

    2016-06-23

    The aim of this study is to setup a first chemical database that could represent the starting point for a reliable classification method to discriminate between Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery on the base of their chemical data. This database up to now can discriminate between several different areas of production and provenance and can be applied also to unknown ceramic samples of comparable age and production areas. More than 100 ceramic fragments were involved in this research, coming from various archaeological sites having a crucial importance in the context of the Phoenician and Punic settlement in central and western Mediterranean: Carthage (Tunisia), Toscanos (South Andalusia, Spain), Sulci, Monte Sirai, Othoca, Tharros (Sardinia, Italy) and Pithecusa (Campania, Italy). Since long-time archaeologists hypothesised that Mediterranean Archaic Phoenician and Punic pottery had mainly a local or just a regional diffusion, with the exception of some particular class like transport amphorae. To verify the pottery provenance, statistical analyses were carried out to define the existence of different ceramic compositional groups characterised by a local origin or imported from other sites. The existing literature data are now supplemented by new archaeometric investigations both on Archaic Phoenician ceramics and clayey raw materials from Sardinia. Therefore, diffractometric analyses, optical microscopy observations and X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed to identify the mineralogical and chemical composition of Othoca ceramics and clayey raw material. The obtained results were then compared with own literature data concerning Phoenician and Punic pottery in order to find features related to the different ceramic productions and their provenance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also performed on the chemical compositional data in order to discriminate ceramic groups. A very complex situation was found

  17. Functional Requirements for Information Resource Provenance on the Web

    SciTech Connect

    McCusker, James P.; Lebo, Timothy; Graves, Alvaro; Difranzo, Dominic; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2012-06-19

    We provide a means to formally explain the relationship between HTTP URLs and the representations returned when they are requested. According to existing World Wide Web architecture, the URL serves as an identier for a semiotic referent while the document returned via HTTP serves as a representation of the same referent. This begins with two sides of a semiotic triangle; the third side is the relationship between the URL and the representation received. We complete this description by extending the library science resource model Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Resources (FRBR) with cryptographic message and content digests to create a Functional Requirements for Information Resources (FRIR). We show how applying the FRIR model to HTTP GET and POST transactions disambiguates the many relationships between a given URL and all representations received from its request, provides fine-grained explanations that are complementary to existing explanations of web resources, and integrates easily into the emerging W3C provenance standard.

  18. Multi-Method Provenance Analysis of Namibian Desert Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.; Garzanti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological provenance proxies each have their own strengths and weaknesses: a. Bulk geochemistry, framework petrography and heavy mineral compositions can differentiate between source areas characterised by different lithologies, but are sensitive to hydraulic sorting and chemical alteration. b. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology is insensitive to winnowing effects, but is 'blind' to lithologies devoid of zircon and cannot differentiate between first cycle and recycled sediments. c. Cosmogenic neon isotopes can be used to identify different generations of surface exposure while simultaneously tracking different magmatic sources. The challenge is then to combine these different proxies into a self consistent story, and do so in as objective a manner as possible. We here present a case study of Namibia's Namib Sand Sea and Skeleton Coast ergs, in which all the aforementioned methods have been combined using a three-way multidimensional scaling (aka INDividual Differences SCALing or INDSCAL) analysis: 1. Each of the datasets was represented by a 'dissimilarity matrix' of pairwise distances between samples. 2. The set of these matrices was fed into the INDSCAL algorithm, which produces two pieces of graphical output: the 'group configuration', which is a scatter plot or 'map' in which similar samples plot close together and dissimilar samples plot far apart, and the 'proxy weights', in which not the samples but the proxies are plotted according to the weight they attached to the 'group configuration' axes. The INDSCAL map of the Namibia dataset indicates that (a) long-shore drift of Orange River sediments dominates the coastal sediment compositions all along the Namibian coast until Angola, and (b) that light and heavy minerals tell complementary parts of the provenance story.

  19. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  20. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  1. Offspring mortality was a determinant factor in the evolution of paternal investment in humans: An evolutionary game approach.

    PubMed

    López Alonso, Diego; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Isabel M

    2017-04-21

    Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs. Payoffs were computed as reproductive successes by a model based on trivial probabilities, implemented within the Barreto's Population Dynamics Toolbox (2014). The evolution of the parent conflict was simulated by a game with two players (the woman and the man). First, a simple game was assayed with two strategies, 'desert-unfaithful' and 'care-faithful'. Then, the game was played with a third mixed strategy, 'care-unfaithful'. The two-strategy game results were mainly determined by the offspring survival rate (s) and the non-paternity rate (z), with remaining factors playing a secondary role. Starting from two empirical estimates for both rates (s = 0.617 and z = 0.033) and decreasing the offspring mortality from near 0.4 to 0.1, the results were consistent with a win for the 'care-faithful' strategy. The 'desert-unfaithful' strategy only won at unrealistically high non-paternity rates (z>0.2). When three-strategy games were played, the mixed strategy of 'care-unfaithful' man could win the game in some less frequent cases. Regardless of the number of game strategies, 'care' fathers always won. These results strongly suggest that offspring mortality was the key factor in the evolution of paternal investment within the Homo branch. The 'care-faithful' strategy would have been the main strategy in human evolution but 'care-unfaithful' men did evolve at a lesser frequency. It can therefore be

  2. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Iberia and Newfoundland hyper-extended rifted margins: A quantitative modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Geoffroy; Karner, Garry; Manatschal, Gianreto; Johnson, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Rifted margins develop through polyphased extensional events leading eventually to break-up. Of particular interests are the stratigraphic and subsidence evolutions of these polyphased rift events. In this contribution, we investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Iberia-Newfoundland rift system from the Permian, post-orogenic development of European crust to early Cretaceous break-up on the continental lithosphere between Iberia and Newfoundland. Based on seismic reflection and refraction and ODP drill data combined with a kinematic and flexural model for the deformation of the lithosphere, we explore the general tectono-stratigraphic evolution of Iberia-Newfoundland rift system and its relationship to repeated lithospheric thinning events. Our results emphasize the kinematic and isostatic interactions engendered by the distinct distribution, amplitude and depth-partitioning of extensional events that allowed the formation of the Iberia-Newfoundland rift system. The initial stratigraphic record is controlled by Permian, post-orogenic topographic erosion, lithospheric thinning, and its subsequent thermal re-equilibration that lead to a regional subsidence characterized by non-marine to marine sedimentation. During late Triassic and early Jurassic time, extensional deformation was characterized by broadly-distributed depth uniform thinning related to minor thinning of the crust. From the Late Jurassic onward, extensional deformation was progressively localized and associated with depth-dependent thinning that finally lead to the formation of hyper-extended domains pre-dating the Late Aptian/Early Albian break-up of the Iberia-Newfoundland continental lithosphere. In particular, extension was diachronous, propagating in severity from south to north - while the southern Iberian margin was undergoing significant thinning in the Tithonian-early Berriasian, the northern margin (i.e., Galicia Bank) had yet to start rifting. Break-up is likewise diachronous

  3. A Multi-Wavelength Approach to Quasar Variability: New Insights Into Their Physics, Evolution, and Selection Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav

    Quasars and other active galactic nuclei play a key role in our understanding of the physical universe and its major constituents. They are interesting astrophysical phenomena in their own right, and a probe of relativistic physics. They co-evolve with their host galaxies, and trace the evolution of cosmic structure. Our insights into their physics and evolution keep improving, thanks in large part to systematic surveys, spanning a broad range of wavelengths, both from the ground and from space. Variability of quasars is one of their key observable characteristics, and it is present at all wavelengths and at all time scales probed so far. It reflects directly the physics of their fueling and beaming, and can thus be used to provide unique observational constraints to theoretical models. The field is being transformed by the availability of massive data sets from synoptic sky surveys, both from the ground and space that cover a large portion of the sky repeatedly, over a broad range of time baselines. Some of the recent results include: "A discovery of a characteristic time scale for a stochastic variability of quasars that anticorrelates with their luminosity, and thus the physics of their accretion disks, which is still not fully understood. "A discovery of periodic variability in quasar light curves (for approx. 1 in 3,000 objects) as a likely signature of close binary supermassive black holes (SMBH) en route to a merger. With the estimated milliparsec separations, these binaries are spatially unresolvable by any anticipated technology, and variability represents the only way of probing this population. These are the progenitors of the expected sources of long-wavelength gravitational wave bursts that should result from such SMBH mergers, one of the key predictions of the models of their hierarchical assembly and evolution. The current sample favors a population of an uneven mass ratio (q=0.01) binaries, with the presence of gas which would speed up the final

  4. The heart and heart conducting system in the kingdom of animals: A comparative approach to its evolution

    PubMed Central

    Šolc, David

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the heart and its conducting system is surveyed in the present study, as well as its parallels with ontogeny. A concise review of its evolution in the main taxonomic groups is presented. The aim is to inform physicians on evolutionary connections to the physiology of the human heart conducting system. Furthermore, some unanswered questions in terms of the developmental biology of the heart are offered. It is assumed that some supraventricular arrhythmias are based on remnants of embryonic structures of the pacemaking or conducting tissues; atrial flutter could re-entry through a survived embryonic sinoatrial ring. Some cases of atrial fibrillation could be initiated from remnant embryonic pacemaking cells settled in pulmonary veins. PMID:18650991

  5. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  6. Associating uncertainty with datasets using Linked Data and allowing propagation via provenance chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Fitch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    With earth-science datasets increasingly being published to enable re-use in projects disassociated from the original data acquisition or generation, there is an urgent need for associated metadata to be connected, in order to guide their application. In particular, provenance traces should support the evaluation of data quality and reliability. However, while standards for describing provenance are emerging (e.g. PROV-O), these do not include the necessary statistical descriptors and confidence assessments. UncertML has a mature conceptual model that may be used to record uncertainty metadata. However, by itself UncertML does not support the representation of uncertainty of multi-part datasets, and provides no direct way of associating the uncertainty information - metadata in relation to a dataset - with dataset objects.We present a method to address both these issues by combining UncertML with PROV-O, and delivering resulting uncertainty-enriched provenance traces through the Linked Data API. UncertProv extends the PROV-O provenance ontology with an RDF formulation of the UncertML conceptual model elements, adds further elements to support uncertainty representation without a conceptual model and the integration of UncertML through links to documents. The Linked ID API provides a systematic way of navigating from dataset objects to their UncertProv metadata and back again. The Linked Data API's 'views' capability enables access to UncertML and non-UncertML uncertainty metadata representations for a dataset. With this approach, it is possible to access and navigate the uncertainty metadata associated with a published dataset using standard semantic web tools, such as SPARQL queries. Where the uncertainty data follows the UncertML model it can be automatically interpreted and may also support automatic uncertainty propagation . Repositories wishing to enable uncertainty propagation for all datasets must ensure that all elements that are associated with uncertainty

  7. Syn-Uralian orogenic heavy mineral provenance analysis from southeastern Taimyr, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.; Scott, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Taimyr peninsula is on the northern margin of the Siberian craton and divides into the southern, central and northern NE - SW trending domains. The southern Taimyr domain represents the passive margin of Siberia and is dominated by a Paleozoic, extending into the early Mesozoic, succession. The central Taimyr domain accreted to the southern domain during Late Precambrian time, followed by collision with the northern Taimyr domain of Baltican affinity during the Late Paleozoic as part of Uralian orogenesis. The Carboniferous - Permian sedimentary succession, which was deposited during the later stage of Uralian Orogeny, can provide crucial information about the extent of contemporaneous Uralian orogensis and its influence on the tectonic evolution of southern Taimyr. Three Carboniferous - Permian samples from southeastern Taimyr were analyzed for petrography and heavy mineral analysis to define their sedimentary and provenance characteristics. The Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian sample (VP10-25, Turuzovskya Formation, C2-P1tr), the Lower Permian sample (VP10-14, Sokolinskaya Formation, P1sk) and the Upper Permian sample (VP10-12, Baykurskaya Formation, P2bk)) classify as subarkose, lithic arkose and feldspathic litharenite, respectively- they record decreasing sediment maturity through time. While all the samples represent a 'recycled orogen' source based on QtFL plots, the C2-P1tr sample represents a recycled quartzite, while the P1sk sample plots within the mixed field, and the P2bk sample is transitional on QmFLt plots. According to the heavy mineral analysis results, the C2-P1tr sample and P1sk sample show great similarity in heavy mineral assemblage, dominated by zircon, apatite and rutile. The P2bk sample shows distinct differences, containing apatite, tourmaline, garnet and zircon. The prominent increase of garnet suggests a metamorphic source. These similarities and variations among the three samples are also shown in other discrimination diagrams

  8. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  9. Disentangling the Circularity in Sen's Capability Approach: An Analysis of the Co-Evolution of Functioning Achievement and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin; Coad, Alex

    2011-01-01

    There is an ambiguity in Amartya Sen's capability approach as to what constitutes an individual's resources, conversion factors and valuable functionings. What we here call the "circularity problem" points to the fact that all three concepts seem to be mutually endogenous and interdependent. To econometrically account for this…

  10. Geochemistry of Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous deposits in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan: implication of factor analysis to sorting effects and provenance signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    One of the intractable problems in provenance analysis is the hydraulic sorting effect and resultant mineralogical heterogeneity in coarse- and fine-grained sediments which conceals provenance characteristics. The present study uses factor analysis to address geochemical responses to the sorting effect and provenance of Late Mesozoic sediments in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan. Factor analysis has proven useful for comprehending geochemical gradients between coarse- and fine-grained sediments. In the present example, compositional differences are based on varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, chrome spinel, authigenic minerals and phyllosilicates. The contrasting behaviors of these minerals during the depositional stage resulted in the systematic fractionation of SiO 2/Al 2O 3, Na 2O/K 2O and Cr/Ba. Sandstones and mudstones exhibit an array of compositions in SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O and SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagrams, the ranges of which reflect compositional variations due to the sorting effect. Sediments of different provenance exhibit distinctive mineral arrays and can be discriminated simply by reading the gradients of the continua. Therefore, this kind of data management concurrently quantifies the sorting effect and allows an estimation of the original source material. The SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O diagram is particularly useful for scrutinizing igneous and mature continental provenances, while the SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagram ascertains contributions from mafic sources. This investigative approach delineates a systematic provenance transition within the Nagato Basin: a serpentinite melange provenance in the early Early Jurassic, a magmatic arc in the late Early to middle Middle Jurassic and a continental interior in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous. The provenance changed by the direct input of mature continental material into the Nagato Basin, which resulted from dissection of the volcanic arc.

  11. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M.T.; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  12. Speeding up evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter

    Proteins and cells offer great opportunities for green chemistry and renewable energy. However, few of these possible applications have been put into practice because of details that turn out to be major barriers to cost-efficient implementation and that prove difficult to solve by genetic engineering. A better understanding of molecular evolution promises a novel approach to addressing these important challenges. While major advances have been made, major gaps remain in understanding the evolution of proteins. Different approaches to accelerating molecular evolution into targeted directions will be discussed, including recent progress on evolution in non-homogeneous environments.

  13. Geochemical Signatures as a Tool for Vermiculite Provenance Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Carl D. Palmer

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight samples of known origin (China, Libby MT, South Africa, South Carolina) and 6 vermiculite product samples of unknown origin were analyzed for major and trace elements, including rare earth elements to determine the feasibility of distinguishing the provenance of the samples based upon a geochemical signature. Probability plots suggest that two of the four groups (Libby, South Carolina) were comprised of two subgroups. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis are highly sensitive to the linkage method chosen. Ward’s method is the most useful for this data and suggests that there are five groups within the data set (South African samples, two subsets of the Libby samples, a subset of the South Carolina samples, and a second subset of the South Carolina samples combined with the China samples). Similar results were obtained using k-cluster analysis. Neither clustering method was able to distinguish samples from China from the South Carolina samples. Discriminant analysis was used on a four-category model comprised of the original four groups and on a six-category model comprised of the five categories identified from the cluster analysis but with the China samples grouped into a sixth category. The discriminant/classification model was able to distinguish all of the groups including the China samples from one another for both the four- and six-category models with 100% of the samples properly classified. The 6 unknown product samples were classified with a probability of consistency of 99%. Both discriminant models were also run with a subset of our analyte set to be consistent with the smaller Gunter et al., (2005) analyte set. Twenty vermiculite samples (nine of known origin and eleven of unknown origin) from their study were classified based on our discriminant models with the reduced set of analytes. Of the twenty samples, Gunter et al. (2005) was able to classify 16 with cluster analysis while our 4-category discriminant analysis model allowed us

  14. Temporal and spectral evolution of a storage ring FEL source: Experimental results on Super-ACO and new theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Couprie, M.E. ||

    1995-12-31

    The Super-ACO FEL source in UV is now used for applications like a time-resolved fluorescence in biology and two colors experiments coupling FEL and Synchrotron Radiation, which are naturally synchronized. The stability of the FEL is then a critical issue for the users. Detailed experimental studies conducted on the temporal characteristics of the laser micropulse showed various phenomena, such as a longitudinal micropulse jitter and a deformation of a longitudinal micropulse distribution. A similar analysis has been performed on the laser spectral evolution with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer, showing a spectrum narrowing, and a wavelength drift. A longitudinal feedback system developed after the first user experiment, allowed to reduce significantly the longitudinal jitter, the intensity fluctuation and the spectral drift. Nevertheless, the stability of the FEL is very dependent on any perturbation, and the observed phenomena can not be described by former models like super-mode assuming a stationary regime. A new theoretical model has then been developed, in order to simulate dynamic behaviors. A simple iterative method is employed to obtain the laser spectrum. The access to the temporal distribution requires additional complexity, because the Fourier transformation has to be performed for each pass. The comparison between the experimental data and the simulation results will be given.

  15. Application of a mathematical model and Differential Evolution algorithm approach to optimization of bacteriocin production by Lactococcus lactis C7.

    PubMed

    Moonchai, Sompop; Madlhoo, Weeranuch; Jariyachavalit, Kanidtha; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki; Chauvatcharin, Somchai

    2005-11-01

    The effect of pH and temperature on cell growth and bacteriocin production in Lactococcus lactis C7 was investigated in order to optimize the production of bacteriocin. The study showed that the bacteriocin production was growth-associated, but declined after reaching the maximum titer. The decrease of bacteriocin was caused by a cell-bound protease. Maximum bacteriocin titer was obtained at pH 5.5 and at 22 degrees C. In order to obtain a global optimized solution for production of bacteriocin, the optimal temperature for bacteriocin production was further studied. Mathematical models were developed for cell growth, substrate consumption, lactic acid production and bacteriocin production. A Differential Evolution algorithm was used both to estimate the model parameters from the experimental data and to compute a temperature profile for maximizing the final bacteriocin titer and bacteriocin productivity. This simulation showed that maximum bacteriocin production was obtained at the optimal temperature profile, starting at 30 degrees C and terminating at 22 degrees C, which was validated by experiment. This temperature profile yielded 20% higher maximum bacteriocin productivity than that obtained at a constant temperature of 22 degrees C, although the total amount of bacteriocin obtained was slightly decreased.

  16. A numerical method based on the Fourier-Fourier transform approach for modeling 1-D electron plasma evolution. [in earth bow shock region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for studying one-dimensional electron plasma evolution under typical interplanetary conditions. The method applies the Fourier-Fourier transform approach to a plasma model that is a generalization of the electrostatic Vlasov-Poisson system of equations. Conservation laws that are modified to include the plasma model generalization and also the boundary effects of nonperiodic solutions are given. A new conservation law for entropy in the transformed space is then introduced. These conservation laws are used to verify the numerical solutions. A discretization error analysis is presented. Two numerical instabilities and the methods used for their suppression are treated. It is shown that in interplanetary plasma conditions, the bump-on-tail instability produces significant excitation of plasma oscillations at the Bohm-Gross frequency and its second harmonic. An explanation of the second harmonic excitation is given in terms of wave-wave coupling during the growth phase of the instability.

  17. Diverse approaches to analysing the history of human and pathogen evolution: how to tell the story of the past 70 000 years

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, D. M.; Balloux, F.; Boyton, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The meeting ‘Human evolution, migration and history revealed by genetics, immunity and infection’, along with the follow-on satellite meeting at the Kavli Centre over the subsequent two days, brought together diverse talents. The aim was to see if new insights could be gained by bringing together those who have interests in the past 50–100 000 years of human history, overlaying the perspectives of palaeogeneticists, anthropologists, human geneticists, pathogen geneticists, immunologists, disease modellers, linguists, immunogeneticists, historians and archaeologists. It rapidly became clear that while all may agree on the broad brush-strokes including ‘out-of-Africa’ and the general approximations of timelines, diverse approaches may often suggest somewhat different ways of telling the story. PMID:22312043

  18. Evolution of the structure and composition of house mouse satellite DNA sequences in the subgenus Mus (Rodentia: Muridea): a cytogenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Cazaux, B; Catalan, J; Justy, F; Escudé, C; Desmarais, E; Britton-Davidian, J

    2013-06-01

    The composition and orientation of the house mouse satellite DNA sequences (minor, major, TLC) were investigated by a FISH and CO-FISH approach in 11 taxa belonging to three clades of the subgenus Mus. Using a phylogenetic framework, our results highlighted two distribution patterns. The TLC satellite, the most recently discovered satellite, was present in all clades but varied quantitatively among species. This distribution supported its appearance in the ancestor of the subgenus followed by independent evolution in species of each clade. In contrast, the minor and major satellites occurred in only two clades of the subgenus indicating the simultaneous and recent amplification of these sequences. In addition, although qualitative differences in the composition and orientation of the satellite sequences were observed among the taxa, none of the features studied were unique to the house mouse and could account for the extensive chromosomal plasticity evidenced in Mus musculus domesticus.

  19. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new

  20. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  1. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors and dialysis dependent acute kidney injury, just a few days after treatment of a respiratory tract infection with moxifloxacin. The renal biopsy revealed dense infiltrates mainly composed of eosinophils and severe interstitial edema. A course of oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) was commenced and rapidly tapered to zero within three weeks. The renal function improved, and the patient was discharged with a creatinine of 107 μmol/l. Conclusion This case illustrates that pharmacovigilance is important to early detect rare side effects, such as AIN, even in drugs with a favourable risk/benefit ratio such as moxifloxacin. PMID:20731847

  2. Descartes Mountains and Cayley Plains - Composition and provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace element compositions of petrographically characterized 2-4 mm lithic fragments from Apollo 16 soil samples are used to calculate initial REE concentrations in liquids in equilibrium with lunar anorthosites and to discuss the provenance of the Cayley Formation. Lithic fragments may be subdivided into four groups: (1) ANT rocks, (2) K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks, (3) poikiloblastic rocks, and (4) (spinel) troctolites. Model liquids in equilibrium with essentially monominerallic anorthosites have initial REE concentrations 5-8 times those of chondrites. The REE contents of K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks and poikiloblastic rocks are dominated by the mesostasis phases. ANT rocks appear to be more abundant in the Descartes Mountains, while poikiloblastic rocks appear to be more abundant in the Cayley Plains. Poikiloblastic rocks have intermediate to high LIL-element concentrations yet the low gamma-ray activity of Mare Orientale implies low LIL-element concentrations. Consequently, it is unlikely that the Cayley Formation is Orientale ejecta. A local origin as ejecta from smaller impacts is a more plausible model for the deposition of the Cayley Formation.

  3. LQCD workflow execution framework: Models, provenance and fault-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Dubey, Abhishek; Simone, James N.; Kowalkowlski, James B.

    2010-04-01

    Large computing clusters used for scientific processing suffer from systemic failures when operated over long continuous periods for executing workflows. Diagnosing job problems and faults leading to eventual failures in this complex environment is difficult, specifically when the success of an entire workflow might be affected by a single job failure. In this paper, we introduce a model-based, hierarchical, reliable execution framework that encompass workflow specification, data provenance, execution tracking and online monitoring of each workflow task, also referred to as participants. The sequence of participants is described in an abstract parameterized view, which is translated into a concrete data dependency based sequence of participants with defined arguments. As participants belonging to a workflow are mapped onto machines and executed, periodic and on-demand monitoring of vital health parameters on allocated nodes is enabled according to pre-specified rules. These rules specify conditions that must be true pre-execution, during execution and post-execution. Monitoring information for each participant is propagated upwards through the reflex and healing architecture, which consists of a hierarchical network of decentralized fault management entities, called reflex engines. They are instantiated as state machines or timed automatons that change state and initiate reflexive mitigation action(s) upon occurrence of certain faults. We describe how this cluster reliability framework is combined with the workflow execution framework using formal rules and actions specified within a structure of first order predicate logic that enables a dynamic management design that reduces manual administrative workload, and increases cluster-productivity.

  4. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

  5. Experimental evaluation of job provenance in ATLAS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křenek, A.; Sitera, J.; Chudoba, J.; Dvořák, F.; Filipovič, J.; Kmuníček, J.; Matyska, L.; Mulaš, M.; Ruda, M.; Šustr, Z.; Campana, S.; Molinari, E.; Rebatto, D.

    2008-07-01

    Grid middleware stacks, including gLite, matured into the state of being able to process up to millions of jobs per day. Logging and Bookkeeping, the gLite job-tracking service, keeps pace with this rate; however, it is not designed to provide a long-term archive of information on executed jobs. ATLAS — representative of a large user community — addresses this issue with its own job catalogue (ProdDB). Development of such a customized service, not easily reusable, took considerable effort which is not affordable by smaller communities. On the contrary, Job Provenance (JP), a generic gLite service designed for long-term archiving of information on executed jobs focusing on scalability, extensibility, uniform data view, and configurability, allows more specialized catalogues to be easily built. We present the first results of an experimental JP deployment for the ATLAS production infrastructure where a JP installation was fed with a part of ATLAS jobs, and also stress tested with real production data. The main outcome of this work is a demonstration that JP can complement large-scale application-specific job catalogue services, while serving a similar purpose where there are none available.

  6. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  7. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  8. The chemical evolution of Kurnub Group palcowater in the Sinai-Negev province - A mass balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenthal, E.; Jones, B.F.; Weinberger, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the Kurnub Group paleowater was studied starting from rainwater in recharge areas of the Sinai and along groundwater flowpaths leading to the natural outlets of this regional aquifer. This was achieved by investigating the chemical composition of groundwater, ionic ratios, degrees of saturation with common mineral species, normative analysis of dissolved salts and by modeling of rock/water interaction and mixing processes occurring along groundwater flow paths. The initial groundwater composition used is from the Nakhel well in Sinai. It evolves from desert rainwater percolating through typical Kurnub Group lithology in Sinai. This rainwater dissolves mainly gypsum, halite and dolomite together with smaller amounts of marine aerosol and K-feldspar. At the same time it precipitates calcite, SiO2, smectite and degasses CO2. Between the area of Nakhel and the northern Negev the chemistry of Kurnub Group waters is influenced by dissolution of halite and lesser amounts of gypsum of surficial origin in recharge areas, small amounts of feldspars and of dolomite cement in sandstones eroded from the Arabo-Nubian igneous massif of Sinai and organic degradation-derived CO2. Concomitantly, there is precipitation of calcite, smectite, SiO2 and probably analcime characteristic of sediments in continental closed basins. North of the Negev, the Kurnub Group fluids are diluted and altered by mixing with Judea Group aquifer groundwaters. On the E there is mixing with residual brines from the water body ancestral to the Dead Sea, prior to discharge into the Arava valley. Rock/water interaction indicated by NETPATH and PHREEQC modeling is in agreement with lithology and facies changes previously observed in the Kurnub Group sequence.

  9. Embracing the comparative approach: how robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies. A growing body of literature representing the development of a wider range of metazoan neural architectures demonstrates that patterning gene network complexity is maintained in animals with more modest levels of neural complexity. Furthermore, a robust phylogenetic framework that provides the basis for testing the congruence of these homology hypotheses has been lacking since the advent of the field of ‘evo-devo’. Recent progress in molecular phylogenetics is refining the necessary framework to test previous homology statements that span large evolutionary distances. In this review, we describe recent advances in animal phylogeny and exemplify for two neural characters—the partitioned brain of arthropods and the ventral centralized nerve cords of annelids—a test for congruence using this framework. The sequential sister taxa at the base of Ecdysozoa and Spiralia comprise small, interstitial groups. This topology is not consistent with the hypothesis of homology of tripartitioned brain of arthropods and vertebrates as well as the ventral arthropod and rope-like ladder nervous system of annelids. There can be exquisite conservation of gene regulatory networks between distantly related groups with contrasting levels of nervous system centralization and complexity. Consequently, the utility of molecular characters to reconstruct ancestral neural organization in deep time is limited. PMID:26554039

  10. Compositional Trends of Cretaceous Conglomerate Provenance: Tracing The Evolving Nature of Tectonic Environments in the Northwestern Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, A. M.; Zapata, S.; Cardona, A.; Jaramillo, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The composition and provenance of the sedimentary record is a sensible marker of the evolving nature of source , basin paleogeography and tectonic assemblage. The Cretaceous geological evolution of the northern Andes is characterized by the succession of different tectonic environments that include: An early Cretaceous magmatic quiescence that follow former Jurassic arc magmatism, Albian-Aptian subduction resume and associated arc - back-arc formation and the late Cretaceous collision with an allocthonous oceanic arc that marks the beginning of the Andean orogeny. Such tectonic evolution had been mostly reconstructed from the magmatic record or the stratigraphic analysis of inland basin far from the arcs and suture zones. Along the western flank of the central cordillera outcrops two different stratigraphic units with notable differences in the provenance and timing of accumulation. The Abejorral Formation is the oldest sedimentary sequence (Albian-Aptian) that discordantly overlies the Triassic continental margin. this unit include two lithofacies clearly distinguishable, a lithofacies consist mostly of conglomerate, characterized by abundant quartz content , low compaction, rounded clasts and moderate sorting ; and the other is a interbedded of fine size sandstone, mudstone and chert; also with abundant quartz content further muscovite, containing basement and volcanic material . To the west, sedimentary rocks including within the Quebradagrande Formation conform a turbidite sequence with a well defined Bouma type succession that concordantly overlied a Campanian marine volcanic arc succession. The conglomerates associated to this unit are characterized by containing mainly sedimentary and volcanic rock fragments ,high compaction, subrounded clast, and low sorting. This sequence is overlying by the volcanic component in a concord contact. Whereas the Albian-Aptian record of the Abejorral Formation exhibit the unroofing of the continental basement and deepening of

  11. Citation and Recognition of contributions using Semantic Provenance Knowledge Captured in the OPeNDAP Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Lebot, T.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Providing proper citation and attribution for published data, derived data products, and the software tools used to generate them, has always been an important aspect of scientific research. However, It is often the case that this type of detailed citation and attribution is lacking. This is in part because it often requires manual markup since dynamic generation of this type of provenance information is not typically done by the tools used to access, manipulate, transform, and visualize data. In addition, the tools themselves lack the information needed to be properly cited themselves. The OPeNDAP Hyrax Software Framework is a tool that provides access to and the ability to constrain, manipulate, and transform, different types of data from different data formats, into a common format, the DAP (Data Access Protocol), in order to derive new data products. A user, or another software client, specifies an HTTP URL in order to access a particular piece of data, and appropriately transform it to suit a specific purpose of use. The resulting data products, however, do not contain any information about what data was used to create it, or the software process used to generate it, let alone information that would allow the proper citing and attribution to down stream researchers and tool developers. We will present our approach to provenance capture in Hyrax including a mechanism that can be used to report back to the hosting site any derived products, such as publications and reports, using the W3C PROV recommendation pingback service. We will demonstrate our utilization of Semantic Web and Web standards, the development of an information model that extends the PROV model for provenance capture, and the development of the pingback service. We will present our findings, as well as our practices for providing provenance information, visualization of the provenance information, and the development of pingback services, to better enable scientists and tool developers to be

  12. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    PubMed Central

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  13. Evolution of an innovative approach to the delivery of in-person training in the responsible conduct of research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case based discussion and in person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program director position. At an institutional level, this novel response to NIH-mandated training requirements increases access to a wide range of interactive RCR training programs and promotes interdisciplinary conversations on research ethics that involves investigators, trainees, and the research community at large. PMID:24842250

  14. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  15. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  16. Provenance of Ross Sea Till From Sand Petrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, J. R.; Swope, R.; Licht, K. J.

    2002-12-01

    The 125-2000 micron fraction of till samples from cores retrieved beneath the Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C in West Antarctica and samples collected proximal to four outlet glaciers in East Antarctica have distinct compositions. The sand fraction of East Antarctic till samples is dominantly composed of angular intermediate to mafic igneous lithic fragments, quartz-rich lithic fragments, rounded quartz grains, rounded carbonate lithic fragments, angular pyroxene grains, and rounded feldspar grains. The sand fraction of West Antarctic till is dominantly composed of rounded quartz grains, rounded feldspar grains, quartz-rich lithic fragments, and felsic igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar and phyllosillicates (biotite and chlorite). We also examined the 125-2000 micron fraction of several till samples from cores retrieved from the eastern Ross Sea. The samples are composed of (1) (25-40 %) rounded quartz grains; (2) (10-36 %) quartz-rich lithic fragments; (3) (8-20 %) quartzite fragments; (4) (5-15 %) felsic igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar, hornblende, and phyllosilicates (biotite and chlorite); (5) (5-10 %) intermediate igneous lithic fragments containing quartz, feldspar, pyroxene, and amphibole; (6) (<1 %) carbonate grains; and (7) (<1 %) feldspar grains. Compositional similarities in last glacial maximum till from the eastern Ross Sea and till collected from beneath ice streams in West Antarctica indicate the likelihood that eastern Ross Sea sediments were deposited by an advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Most notable are the compositional similarities in the quartz grain and quartz-rich sedimentary lithic fragment percentages, and felsic lithic fragment percentages and composition. Future work involves sampling numerous last glacial maximum till samples across the Ross Sea using sand petrography as a provenance tracer to determine paleo ice flow paths.

  17. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses of Indus Submarine Fan sediments sampled by IODP Expedition 355: implications for sediment provenance and palaeoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; George, Simon C.; Bendle, James; Liddy, Hannah; Clift, Peter D.; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Tiwari, Manish; Khim, Boo-Keun; Griffith, Elizabeth; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Lee, Jongmin; Newton, Kate; Tripathi, Shubham; Expedition 355 Scientific Party

    2016-04-01

    petrography and heavy mineral analysis, geochemical data, isotope composition, and biomarker analysis. Preliminary organic geochemistry data suggest an increase of terrigenous organic matter input into sediment starting around 10.5 Ma, with a strong decrease in the last 1 Ma. Moreover, the detailed analyses of the glyceryl dialkyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT) and alkenone lipids provide the first sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions in the region. These data indicate decreasing SST from the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum until today. This research provides an exceptional opportunity to apply a multiproxy approach to understand sediment provenance, erosional processes, and palaeoclimate evolution in the eastern Arabian Sea.

  18. A new model for the provenance of the Upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone (UORS) of southern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Meg; Meere, Pat; Timmerman, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The geology of Southern Ireland is dominated by the influence of both the Caledonian and Variscan orogenies which have shaped the landscape of today. The Old Red Sandstone (ORS) sequences of the Middle - Upper Devonian Munster Basin have traditionally been viewed as a post-orogenic molasse deposit sourced from the Caledonides (Friend et al. 2000 & references therein), which were subsequently deformed by the Late Carboniferous Variscan Orogeny. This model does not take into account the potential impact of the Acadian Orogeny, an Early to Mid Devonian transpressional tectonic event which culminated in Mid Emsian times and resulted in the deformation and inversion of Lower ORS (LORS) basins across Britain and Ireland (Soper & Woodcock 2003; Meere & Mulchrone 2006). Evidence of Acadian deformation in Southern Ireland is recorded in the LORS sequence of the Lower-Middle Devonian basin, the Dingle Basin. Meere & Mulchrone (2006) show that penetrative deformation visible in the LORS of the Dingle Basin has an Acadian signature and is not associated with Late Carboniferous Variscan compression (Parkin 1976; Todd 2000). The role of the Acadian Orogeny in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Southern Ireland has been analyzed in this study using a multidisciplinary approach. Petrographic analysis of both the LORS and Upper ORS (UORS) of southern Ireland suggests an alternative provenance model in which there is a direct genetic link between the two Devonian deposits. There is a fining-up relationship between the two basins and the volcanic lithic fragments - while extremely limited in occurrence in the Munster Basin - are strikingly similar in both units. The absence of conglomeratic units at the base of the Munster Basin provide further evidence that the UORS does not represent a classic molasse deposit. This is supported by EMPA data from both basins which indicates identical mica chemistries in both the LORS and UORS. A comparison with the white mica chemistries from a

  19. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.

    2009-04-01

    tectonostratigraphic level of source rocks are reflected by: a) increasing rank of metamorphic rock fragments (as indicated by progressive development of schistosity and growth of micas and other index minerals; MI index of Garzanti and Vezzoli, 2003); b) increasing feldspars; c) increasing heavy-mineral concentration (HMC index); d) increasing hornblende, changing progressively in color from blue/green to green/brown (HCI index); e) successive appearance of chloritoid, staurolite, kyanite, fibrolitic and prismatic sillimanite (MMI index; Garzanti and Andò, 2007). Dickinson W.R. 1985. Interpreting provenance relations from detrital modes of sandstones. In: Zuffa G.G. (ed.), Reidel, NATO ASI Series 148: 333-361. Dickinson W.R. and C.A. Suczek. 1979. Plate tectonics and sandstone composition. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull. 63: 2164-2172. Garzanti E. and S. Andò. 2007, Plate tectonics and heavy-mineral suites of modern sands. In: Mange M. and D. Wright (eds.), Elsevier, Developments in Sedimentology Series 58: 741-763. Garzanti E. and G. Vezzoli. 2003. A classification of metamorphic grains in sands based on their composition and grade. J. Sedimentary Res. 73: 830-837. Garzanti E., C. Doglioni, G. Vezzoli and S. Andò. 2007. Orogenic Belts and Orogenic Sediment Provenances. J. Geology 115: 315-334. Garzanti E., G. Vezzoli, S. Andó, C. France-Lanord, S.K. Singh and G. Foster. 2004. Sediment composition and focused erosion in collision orogens: the Brahmaputra case. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 220: 157-174. Najman Y. 2006. The detrital record of orogenesis: a review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth Sci. Rev. 74: 1-72.

  20. Project 1: Microbial Genomes: A Genomic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence. Project 2: From Genomes to Life: Drosophilia Development in Space and Time

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeSalle

    2004-09-10

    This project seeks to use the genomes of two close relatives, A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, to understand the evolutionary changes that take place in a genome to make it more or less virulent. Our primary specific aim of this project was to sequence, annotate, and analyze the genomes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (CU1000, serotype f) and Haemophilus aphrophilus. With these genome sequences we have then compared the whole genome sequences to each other and to the current Aa (HK1651 www.genome.ou.edu) genome project sequence along with other fully sequenced Pasteurellaceae to determine inter and intra species differences that may account for the differences and similarities in disease. We also propose to create and curate a comprehensive database where sequence information and analysis for the Pasteurellaceae (family that includes the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus) are readily accessible. And finally we have proposed to develop phylogenetic techniques that can be used to efficiently and accurately examine the evolution of genomes. Below we report on progress we have made on these major specific aims. Progress on the specific aims is reported below under two major headings--experimental approaches and bioinformatics and systematic biology approaches.

  1. Fossil pollen analysis of U-Pb-dated speleothems: a new approach to understanding Pliocene terrestrial climate evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniderman, K.; Woodhead, J. D.; Porch, N.

    2013-12-01

    the Miocene/Pliocene boundary (at c. 5.5 Ma) was dominated by Gyrostemonaceae and Casuarinaceae. We interpret this transition from earliest Pliocene to mid-late Pliocene vegetation as an increase in biological productivity, from possibly very sparse woodland to forest, presumably in response to increased effective moisture in the mid-late Pliocene. Hence climate evolution within the Pliocene was substantial enough to drive complete biome turnover. Explanations of the mechanisms that drove Pliocene warmth thus need to explain not only why the Pliocene warm interval was terminated by Pleistocene cooling, but also why the mid-late Pliocene differed substantially from the earliest Pliocene. Our novel use of U/Pb dating of speleothem pollen records demonstrates that previous syntheses of 'mid-Pliocene' vegetation may, in regions with poor age control, have conflated biomes growing within different climatic regimes during different stages within the Pliocene.

  2. Evolution of extraordinarily low and high temperature, precipitation and runoff periods over Germany since 1950 - A quantile regression approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Donner, R. V.

    2012-04-01

    Properly describing temporal changes in the occurrence of extreme high or low temperatures, precipitation and runoff is of key importance for properly assessing the potential local impacts of ongoing climatic changes and estimating possible future trends. Unfortunately, the applicability of traditional extreme value statistics to non-stationary climate data is often restricted by the available amount of data. As a possible alternative, quantile regression techniques allow estimating temporal trends in arbitrary quantiles of the distribution of the corresponding hydro-meteorological observables. Besides the basic linear variant, there are nonparametric approaches available that allow characterizing quantile trends without an explicit prescription of a certain functional form. In this work, we study observational records of German temperature and precipitation as well as runoff time series obtained using the hydrological model SWIM for the second half of the 20th century. Particularly, we compare trends in very high and low quantiles of the associated probability distribution functions and compare them to the outcome of classical extreme value statistics. Our results allow a detailed characterization of the regional patterns of quantile trends and their temporary increase and decrease.

  3. Evolution of classical and quantum phase-space distributions: A new trajectory approach for phase space hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, Corey J.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, Donoso and Martens described a method for evolving both classical and quantum phase-space distribution functions, W(q,p,t), that involves the propagation of an ensemble of correlated trajectories. The trajectories are linked into a unified whole by spatial and momentum derivatives of density dependent terms in the equations of motion. On each time step, these nonlocal terms were evaluated by fitting the density around each trajectory to an assumed functional form. In the present study, we develop a different trajectory method for propagating phase-space distribution functions. A hierarchy of coupled analytic equations of motion are derived for the q and p derivatives of the density and a truncated set of these are integrated along each trajectory concurrently with the equation of motion for the density. The advantage of this approach is that individual trajectories can be propagated, one at a time, and function fitting is not required to evaluate the nonlocal terms. Regional nonlocality can be incorporated at various levels of approximation to "dress" what would otherwise be "thin" locally propagating trajectories. This derivative propagation method is used to obtain trajectory solutions for the Klein-Kramers equation, the Husimi equation, and for a smoothed version of the Caldeira-Leggett equation derived by the Diosi. Trajectory solutions are obtained for the relaxation of an oscillator in contact with a thermal bath and for the decay of a metastable state.

  4. Evolution in agriculture: the application of evolutionary approaches to the management of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Oakeshott, John G; Fitt, Gary; Southerton, Simon; Burdon, Jeremy J; Sheppard, Andy; Russell, Robyn J; Zalucki, Myron; Heino, Mikko; Ford Denison, R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts increasingly drive ecological and evolutionary processes at many spatio-temporal scales, demanding greater capacity to predict and manage their consequences. This is particularly true for agro-ecosystems, which not only comprise a significant proportion of land use, but which also involve conflicting imperatives to expand or intensify production while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. These imperatives reinforce the likelihood of further major changes in agriculture over the next 30–40 years. Key transformations include genetic technologies as well as changes in land use. The use of evolutionary principles is not new in agriculture (e.g. crop breeding, domestication of animals, management of selection for pest resistance), but given land-use trends and other transformative processes in production landscapes, ecological and evolutionary research in agro-ecosystems must consider such issues in a broader systems context. Here, we focus on biotic interactions involving pests and pathogens as exemplars of situations where integration of agronomic, ecological and evolutionary perspectives has practical value. Although their presence in agro-ecosystems may be new, many traits involved in these associations evolved in natural settings. We advocate the use of predictive frameworks based on evolutionary models as pre-emptive management tools and identify some specific research opportunities to facilitate this. We conclude with a brief discussion of multidisciplinary approaches in applied evolutionary problems. PMID:25567968

  5. Central pancreatectomy: The Dagradi Serio Iacono operation. Evolution of a surgical technique from the pioneers to the robotic approach

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Calogero; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Bortolasi, Luca; Guglielmi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Central pancreatectomy (CP) is a parenchyma-sparing surgical procedure. The aims are to clarify the history and the development of CP and to give credits to those from whom it came. Ehrhardt, in 1908, described segmental neck resection (SNR) followed, in 1910, by Finney without reconstructive part. In 1950 Honjyo described two cases of SNR combined with gastrectomy for gastric cancer infiltrating the neck of the pancreas. Guillemin and Bessot (1957) and Letton and Wilson (1959) dealt only with the reconstructive aspect of CP. Dagradi and Serio, in 1982, performed the first CP including the resective and reconstructive aspects. Subsequently Iacono has validated it with functional endocrine and exocrine tests and popularized it worldwide. In 2003, Baca and Bokan performed laparoscopic CP and, In 2004, Giulianotti et al performed a robotic assisted CP. CP is performed worldwide either by open surgery or by using minimally-invasive or robotic approaches. This confirms that the operation does not belong to whom introduced it but to everyone who carries out it; however credit must be given to those from whom it came. PMID:25400451

  6. Modelling sediment clasts transport during landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretier, Sébastien; Martinod, Pierre; Reich, Martin; Godderis, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over thousands to millions of years, the landscape evolution is predicted by models based on fluxes of eroded, transported and deposited material. The laws describing these fluxes, corresponding to averages over many years, are difficult to prove with the available data. On the other hand, sediment dynamics are often tackled by studying the distribution of certain grain properties in the field (e.g. heavy metals, detrital zircons, 10Be in gravel, magnetic tracers). There is a gap between landscape evolution models based on fluxes and these field data on individual clasts, which prevent the latter from being used to calibrate the former. Here we propose an algorithm coupling the landscape evolution with mobile clasts. Our landscape evolution model predicts local erosion, deposition and transfer fluxes resulting from hillslope and river processes. Clasts of any size are initially spread in the basement and are detached, moved and deposited according to probabilities using these fluxes. Several river and hillslope laws are studied. Although the resulting mean transport rate of the clasts does not depend on the time step or the model cell size, our approach is limited by the fact that their scattering rate is cell-size-dependent. Nevertheless, both their mean transport rate and the shape of the scattering-time curves fit the predictions. Different erosion-transport laws generate different clast movements. These differences show that studying the tracers in the field may provide a way to establish these laws on the hillslopes and in the rivers. Possible applications include the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclides in individual gravel deposits, provenance analyses, placers, sediment coarsening or fining, the relationship between magnetic tracers in rivers and the river planform, and the tracing of weathered sediment.

  7. Provenance control on chemical indices of weathering (Taiwan river sands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Geochemical parameters obtained from the analysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks are widely used to infer weathering and paleo-weathering conditions in source areas. Chemical indices of weathering, however, may not reflect weathering only, or even principally. The concentration of chemical elements in terrigenous sediments is constrained by the original mineralogy of source rocks, and is thus provenance-dependent. Moreover, the mineralogy and consequently the geochemistry of sediments may undergo substantial modifications by diverse physical processes during transport and deposition, including recycling and hydraulic sorting by size, density or shape, and/or by chemical dissolution and precipitation during diagenesis. Around the island of Taiwan, temperature and rainfall are consistently high and relatively homogeneous, and no significant correlation is observed between geochemical and climatic parameters. Physical erosion, fostered by landslides induced by frequent earthquakes and typhoons, prevails because of high relief and extreme rates of tectonic uplift. In such a dynamic orogenic setting, all chemical indices of weathering are controlled principally by the geology of source terranes. Sedimentaclastic and metasedimentaclastic sands carried by western Taiwan rivers draining the pro-wedge display the strongest depletion in Na, Ca, Mg and Sr relative to average upper continental crust, and no depletion or even enrichment in K, Rb and Ba. Low WIP indices reflect erosion of phyllosilicate-dominated rocks in the Slate Belt and extensive recycling of clastic rocks exposed in the Western Foothills. Instead, metamorphiclastic sands carried by eastern Taiwan rivers draining the retro-wedge show no depletion or even enrichment in Mg and Ca, and low CIA and PIA, reflecting contributions from the Tailuko Belt and Coastal Range. Volcaniclastic sands have the same CIA values of their andesitic source rocks (47 ± 1 versus 47 ± 7), indicating that weathering is

  8. Provenance study conflict Miocene eolian deposit in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Stockli, D. F.; Li, J.; Song, C.

    2013-12-01

    The dispute of fine-grained Miocene sediments from Tianshui Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau as eolian loess-paleosol or neptunian mudflat/distal fan is an unresolved hot topic in Cenozoic palaeoclimatology , impacting further research of Asian monsoon and the mechanism of its variations. Tratigraphic correlation and constraining the sedimentary age with paleomagnetic method show that hundreds miles of foreland basin stratums occurred in north of West Qinling mountain belt in Miocene. The tratums are about 2000 m thick in the south foredeep range, thinning to less than 300 m thick in the north backbulge range. Similar heavy minerals composition and detrital ziron U/Pb ages distribution also show that the materials in the basin were from the same denuded regions. Such evidences conform that the Miocene sedimentary sections identified as loess in Tianshui basin could be distal fan and flood plain in the united foreland basin system. Comprehensive provenance techniques of heavy minerals and detrital zircon U/Pb ages show differences between Miocene Tianshui sediments and Pliocene- Quaternary loess- red clay from Chinese loess Plateau. Specifically, samples from Tianshui basin have more than 20% of Magnetite and 30% of Epidote, but Amphibole is lacking. Loess-red clay samples consist of 21% Amphibole on average. Classifying degree of correction of Amphibole proves that weathering erosion is not the reason for this dissimilarity. More Amphibole rich iginous rocks or matemorphoic rocks could exist widely in loess's source region. Most zircon U/Pb ages in this study fall into similar ranges, especially from 200Ma to 500Ma. There is a significant age peak from 200Ma to 250Ma in Tianshui sediments and modern river sands originating from West Qinling mountain belt, which is rare in loess-red clay samples. A part of zircons from loess and red clay contain very low U and Th elements, implying some of Mafic or intermediate rocks in eolian source area. Both Mafic and

  9. Collision-Orogen provenance: Modern sands from big Himalayan rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, E.; Vezzoli, G.; Andò, S.; France-Lanord, C.; Singh, S. K.; Clift, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen represents the most important source of terrigenous detritus on Earth. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system ranks first in terms of sediment load, and together with the Indus carried to the Indian Ocean ca 2 billion tons of sediments annually. Stored in the Bengal and Indus fans, the world's largest turbiditic cones by far, are ca 15*10^6km^3 of detritus derived from the Himalayas since the Paleogene. Nevertheless, petrographic and mineralogic composition of sediments transported by big Himalayan rivers has been poorly documented so far. This high-resolution actualistic study provides a key to interpret detrital modes of Tertiary foreland basin strata, and sheds light on diagnostic features of collision-orogen provenance. Composition of Himalayan-derived sands indicates dominant contribution from amphibolite-facies rocks exposed both south and north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture, reflecting extreme uplift and widespread exhumation of the deep roots of the orogen. Hornblende-dominated dense-mineral suites of both Indus and Brahmaputra sands are largely derived from Asian active-margin plutons. The Indus sands in particular reflect major supply from arc batholiths, widely exposed in Ladakh, Kohistan, and along the Karakorum and Hindukush belts. The Ganga sands are instead chiefly derived from High-Himalayan nappes with Tertiary metamorphism up to sillimanite-grade. Intermediate composition characterizes the Brahmaputra sands, shed largely from High Himalayan crystalline rocks subject to very rapid erosion around the Namche-Barwa syntaxis, and subordinately from Gangdese batholiths in the Tibetan tract and from plutonic rocks of the Mishmi hills farther downstream. Supply from sedimentary covers and recycling of accreted foreland-basin strata are significant, whereas volcanic and ophiolitic detritus is volumetrically negligible. Carbonate grains, common in the Indus sands and present in the Ganga sands, are negligible in the Brahmaputra sands

  10. The geochemistry and provenance of Apollo 16 mafic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Floss, Christine

    2006-12-01

    , alkali-rich, and moderately titaniferous; they are unlike any previously recognized lunar lithology or glass group. Their likely provenance is within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, but they are not found within the Apollo 16 ancient regolith breccias and therefore were likely deposited at the Apollo 16 site post-Imbrium. The basaltic-andesite glasses are the most ferroan variety of KREEP yet discovered.

  11. An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Bussell, John D; Hobbs, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ∼60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration. PMID:23919158

  12. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  13. Isotopic and magnetic provenance characterization of distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Galicia Interior Basin in NW Iberia Margin are of particular palaeoclimatic interest as they are located at the boundary where the climatic oscillations of the glacial interval were interrupted by extreme events such as Heinrich events. These events are well characterized in Northern North Atlantic areas, but little is known about their occurrence beyond the Ruddiman belt. This study presents a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal ice-rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred during the last glacial period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin. The last six Heinrich Layers were identified by their magneto-mineralogical and geochemical properties. Their Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicated that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the major source for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. However, the European ice sheets also influenced the initial development stages of HL1, HL2, HL4. HL3, HL6 and partially HL1, HL2 and HL4 were influenced by more juvenile provinces, such as Iceland/Faroes sheets and/or by the Fram Strait/East Greenland nearby areas. Separate provenance analyses of the coarse and fine fractions in the studied Heinrich Layers also indicated that IRDs and glacial flour sources might not always be the same. Our results shed unequivocal evidence that Canadian-sourced distal IRD are preceded by European-sourced IRD, at least from the H4. In our view, LIS and EIS instabilities registered in the Iberian Margin respond to the same climate forcing at different velocities.

  14. A multi-analytical approach to gold in Ancient Egypt: Studies on provenance and corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, I.; Troalen, L. G.; Manso, M.; Ponting, M.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Barreiros, M. A.; Shaw, I.; Carvalho, M. L.; Guerra, M. F.

    2015-06-01

    Recent results from a three-year multi-disciplinary project on Ancient Egyptian gold jewellery revealed that items of jewellery from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom were manufactured using a variety of alluvial gold alloys. These alloys cover a wide range of colours and the majority contain Platinum Group Elements inclusions. However, in all the gold foils analysed, these inclusions were found to be absent. In this work a selection of gilded wood and leather items and gold foil fragments, all from the excavations by John Garstang at Abydos (primarily from Middle Kingdom graves), were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (μXRF), Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (μPIXE) and Double Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (D2XRF). The work allowed us to characterise the composition of the base-alloys and also to reveal the presence of Pt at trace levels, confirming the use of alluvial gold deposits. Corrosion products were also investigated in the foils where surface tarnish was visually observed. Results showed that the differences in the colour of corrosion observed for the foils are related not only to the thickness of the corrosion layer but also to a multi-layer structure containing the various corrosion products.

  15. Provenance-Based Approaches to Semantic Web Service Discovery and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narock, Thomas William

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium defines a Web Service as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network." Web Services have become increasingly important both within and across organizational boundaries. With the recent advent of the Semantic Web, web services have evolved into semantic…

  16. Sustainable utility business continuity planning: a primer, an overview and a proven culture-based approach

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Edward M.

    2008-12-15

    Treat the creation of a robust business continuity planning program, its continuous improvement, and the ongoing activities that support preparedness as an exercise in change management. Obtain executive sponsorship, use it only to initiate dialogue, and then seek to engage the entire workforce. (author)

  17. Geisinger's ProvenCare methodology: driving performance improvement within a shared governance structure.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Ruth; Wary, Andrea; King, Megan; Laam, Leslie A; Hallick, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Many performance improvement projects fail because they occur in parallel to the organization's shared governance structure. Leveraging the full potential of its nursing shared governance structure, Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare methodology harnessed the full potential of its staff nurses to create truly reliable workflows that benefit patients and that the team finds professionally satisfying. Using ProvenCare Perinatal and its smoking cessation education intervention and outcomes as an example, the authors describe the ProvenCare methodology.

  18. Achieving Equity in Faculty Salaries: A Proven Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Don Noel

    2008-01-01

    The University of Houston-Victoria's (UHV) approach to addressing salary equity, which has been successfully implemented for a decade, employs a methodology that derives salary targets by field, rank, and seniority from the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources (CUPA-HR) national salary survey. Based primarily on a…

  19. Innovations in Teaching Adults: Proven Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirstein, Kurt D., Ed.; Schieber, Craig E., Ed.; Flores, Kelly A., Ed.; Olswang, Steven G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing world of higher education, innovative approaches to teaching adults are needed to drive instructional practices for helping to prepare the professionals of the future. The papers collected in "Innovations in Teaching Adults" were originally presented at a conference at City University of Seattle. The authors of…

  20. Geochemically tracking provenance changes in marine sediment from the South Pacific Gyre throughout the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.; Harris, R. N.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific Gyre (SPG), characterized by extremely slow sedimentation rates, is the world's largest oceanic desert. The little eolian dust from continents in the Southern Hemisphere must traverse great distances to reach the SPG, and the ultra-oligotrophic waters minimize the biogenic flux of sediment to the seafloor. However sparse, the pelagic sediment that is ultimately found on the seafloor retains a chemical record that can be used to trace its origin. Using cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329, we trace downcore fluctuations in major, trace, and rare earth element (REE) composition and flux to yield clues to the geological, chemical, and biological evolution of the SPG throughout the Cenozoic. The shipboard scientific party generally described the completely oxic, brown pelagic clays recovered during Exp. 329 as zeolitic metalliferous clay. The homogenous, very fine-grained nature of these sediments speaks to the challenges we face in resolving eolian detrital material ("dust"), fine-grained ash (commonly altered), and authigenic aluminosilicates from one another. Based on ICP-ES and ICP-MS analyses followed by multivariate statistical treatments, we are developing chemical records from a number of sites located throughout the SPG. Building on earlier work at DSDP Site 596 (Zhou and Kyte, 1992, Paleocean., 7, 441-465), and based on backtrack paths from 100 Ma forward, we are working to construct a regionally and temporally continuous paleoclimatological history of the SPG. Preliminary La-Th-Sc concentrations from Sites U1367, U1368, and U1369 show a distinct authigenic influence, but several refractory elements retain their original provenance signature. Sediment ages are constrained using a constant-Co model, based on the geochemically similar work that Zhou and Kyte (1992) performed in the SPG. REE concentrations normalized to post-archean average shale (PAAS) reveal a negative Ce anomaly that becomes more pronounced closer to

  1. Provenance analysis of Neogene sediments in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, B. R.; Wagreich, M.

    2009-04-01

    some Mesozoic and a small proportion of granite are dominant in the Ghiling, Dhakmar and Chaile sections, suggesting a province from the west and north. The conglomerates of the Tetang Formation comprise mostly Mesozoic rocks with an eastern provenance, consistent with the paleocurrent directions. Minerals from low to high grade metamorphic source rocks are reflected in the heavy mineral assemblages. The presence of chrome-spinel indicates the existence of ophiolitic complexes in the source area. References: Fort, M., Freytet, P., Colchen, M., 1982, Structural and sedimentological evolution of the Thakkhola Mustang Graben (Nepal Himalaya). Z. für Geomorph. Suppl. Bd 42, pp. 75-98. Yoshida, M., Igarashi, Y., Arita, K., Hayashi, D., Sharma, T., 1984. Magnetostratigraphy and pollen analytic studies of the Takmar series, Nepal Himalayas, Journal of Nepal Geol. Soc. pp. 101-120 (Special Issue).

  2. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. These approaches are implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  3. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, A.; Angelici, D.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maupas, E.; Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Massi, M.; Borghi, A.; Gallo, L. M.; Pratesi, G.; Mandò, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification.

  4. Evolution of the Theory of the Earth: A Contextualized Approach for Teaching the History of the Theory of Plate Tectonics to Ninth Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolphin, Glenn

    2009-04-01

    Current high school Earth Science curricula and textbooks organize scientific content into isolated “units” of knowledge. Within this structure, content is taught, but in the absence of the context of fundamental understandings or the process of how the science was actually done to reach the conclusions. These are two key facets of scientific literacy. I have developed curriculum from a historical perspective that addresses two particular units of study in Earth Science (“geologic time” and “plate tectonics”). The curriculum traces the evolution of the theory of plate tectonics. It includes contextualized experiences for students such as telling stories, utilizing original historical texts, narratives, and essential questions, to name a few. All of the strategies are utilized with the goal of building understanding around a small set of common themes. Exploring the historical models in this way allows students to analyze the models, while looking for limitations and misconceptions. This methodology is used to encourage students to develop more scientifically accurate understandings about the way in which the world and the process of scientific discovery work. Observations of high student engagement during the utilization of this contextualized approach has demonstrated that a positive effect on student understanding is promising.

  5. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  6. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  7. Provenance signatures of the Antarctic Ice Sheets in the Ross Embayment during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene: The ANDRILL AND-1B core record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talarico, F. M.; Sandroni, S.

    2009-11-01

    Significant down-core modal and compositional variations are described for granule- to cobble-sized clasts in the Early Pliocene to Middle/Late Miocene sedimentary cycles of the AND-1B drill core at the NW edge of the Ross Ice Shelf (McMurdo Sound). Long-term shifts in compositional patterns outline an evolving provenance which is interpreted as reflecting the combined effects and complex interactions among variations in ice volume, ice flow patterns and paleogeographic changes linked to the local tectonic and volcanic activity. High-frequency variations and the petrological features of the basement clast fraction provide direct information about the potential source regions during both glacial maxima and minima. Provenance of the more distal material is identified in the region between Ross Island and the Skelton-Mulock glacier area (South Victoria Land) (Plio-Late Miocene section) and in the Darwin Glacier catchment (Miocene section). The provenance shifts can be discussed for their implications on ice dynamic models for the glacial evolution recorded in the western Ross Embayment. Reconstructed ice flow directions are consistent with the glaciological models for the Last Glacial Maximum, and the provenance data corroborate the contributions of both the East and West Antarctic Ice Sheets in influencing the modifications of the ice flow pattern of grounded ice in the western Ross Embayment in Miocene to Pleistocene time.

  8. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of an extensional basin revealed by a combined photo-geological and field-mapping approach. The Montefalco Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Francesco; Mirabella, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Active extensional basins are important since their sedimentary infills and bounding tectonic structures provide: i) sinks with preservation potential for sedimentary and fossil records of past changes in climate and sediment/water supply, ii) information on the growth, activity, decay and death of normal faults, iii) vast economic reserves of hydrocarbons, water and minerals. Unfortunately, quaternary extensional basins, especially if located in humid and temperate climate environments, are often characterized by extensively cultivated areas, homogeneous terrains and quite flat morphologies. Furthermore, they commonly host human settlements, together with roads, economic and industrial infrastructures, with a consequent limited availability of good outcrops. Such a limitation can (often severely) hamper an adequate mapping of the sedimentary infill. Therefore alternative methodological approaches (such as aerial photographs interpretation, API) are needed to integrate heterogeneous and incomplete datasets. This contribution presents an updated photo-geological map of a Quaternary extensional basin in Central Italy, the Montefalco Basin. This basin developed in a continental environment characterized by clayey-sandy lacustrine and fluvial sequences (late Pliocene - early Pleistocene) underlying more recent coarse grained deposits related to alluvial fan environment (early-to-late Pleistocene) and younger palustrine deposits (late Pleistocene). Since the late Pleistocene, regional uplift and local tectonics led to the end of deposition in the Montefalco basin, which experienced a diffuse incision and the modification of the drainage network, in response to the W-to-E migration of active faulting and tectonic subsidence. The new photo-geological map represents an important improvement compared to the existing data, since it provides unprecedented and spatially distributed information on the geometry of the continental deposits and on the tectonic structures affecting

  9. Space-time evolution of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and snow cover patterns in a dry alpine catchment: an interdisciplinary numerical and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Rist, Armin; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    The project Climate Change in South Tyrol aims to study the effects of climate change (CC) on the water balance and the consequences for the vegetation in a dry Alpine region, using an innovative multidisciplinary approach that combines modelling and experimentation. Regional climate scenarios predict a temperature increase and a summer precipitation decrease for the European Alps. This will likely lead to drier conditions, especially during the vegetation growth period. As this evolution will be more problematic in already dry regions, the inner Alpine continental Mazia Valley (South Tyrol, Italy) was chosen as study area in 2009 for long-term ecological research. As a preliminary case study, the extreme 2002-2003 water year was selected to simulate a retrospective water balance at catchment scale, using the hydrological model GEOtop. The model proved to simulate realistic values for the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, snow cover and runoff production, depending on soil properties, land cover, land use intensity and catchment morphology. In the study area of Mazia Valley 13 monitoring stations were installed in fall 2009 to continuously measure soil moisture, biomass production, as well as standard micrometeorological variables. The stations were distributed over the whole catchment to encompass its variability in elevation, slope aspect, soil properties, and land cover. Furthermore, snow depth and snow water equivalent were recorded at representative points throughout the catchment. In addition, the spatial distribution of the snow cover was determined by means of remote sensing and the discharge of the catchment was measured as integrating hydrological variable. The use of different types of data permits a multi-scale validation of the model, in order to close the water balance and accurately estimate the space-time evolution of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and snow cover both at the plot and at the catchment scale. A

  10. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances

    PubMed Central

    Gülcü, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively. PMID:28133603

  11. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Bilir, Nebi

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  12. Composition and provenance of the Puente Formation (Miocene), Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Critelli, S. ); Rumelhart, P.E.; Ingersoll, R.V. )

    1994-04-01

    The Puente Formation (PFm) is a middle to upper Miocene clastic unit lying unconformably on the middle to lower Miocene El Modeno Volcanics and Topanga Group, within the Los Angeles basin (LAB). The PFm, about 3900m thick, is composed of sandstone, conglomerate, and mudrock deposited on a submarine fan at bathyal depths. Several intrabasinal discordances suggest active tectonics during deposition. The succession consists of two main upward thickening and coarsening megacycles reflecting submarine fan progradation. The PFm is characterized up-section by: (1) thin-bedded fine sandstone and shale (La Vida M.) grading to thick-bedded coarse sandstone an conglomerate (soquel M.); (2) thin-bedded siltstone, mudrock and sandstone (Yorba M.) grading to thick- to very thick-bedded coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate (Sycamore Canyon M.). Sandstones of the PFm are quartzofeldspathic and suggest a probable local provenance from the plutonic, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks of the San Gabriel Mountains. Petrological parameters, however, suggest variable contribution of these source rock units through time. Coarse-grained plutonic rock fragments are abundant for the entire succession and consist of plagioclase-rich plutonic rocks perhaps sourced from the Lowe granodiorite. Microlitic, lathwork to felsitic volcanic lithic grains are also present in the lower and middle part. In the Yorba M. there is a local increase of volcanic detritus (Lv/L - 0.80), represented by larger volcanic lithics and abundant volcaniclastic matrix. Metamorphic detritus is not very abundant; it is concentrated in the La Vida M. the PFm represents sedimentation during tectonically active time in the evolution of southern California.

  13. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.

  14. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled “Rigor and Reproducibility “ for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project. PMID:28269904

  15. Skeleton pruning by contour partitioning with discrete curve evolution.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan; Liu, Wen-Yu

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new skeleton pruning method based on contour partitioning. Any contour partition can be used, but the partitions obtained by Discrete Curve Evolution (DCE) yield excellent results. The theoretical properties and the experiments presented demonstrate that obtained skeletons are in accord with human visual perception and stable, even in the presence of significant noise and shape variations, and have the same topology as the original skeletons. In particular, we have proven that the proposed approach never produces spurious branches, which are common when using the known skeleton pruning methods. Moreover, the proposed pruning method does not displace the skeleton points. Consequently, all skeleton points are centers of maximal disks. Again, many existing methods displace skeleton points in order to produces pruned skeletons.

  16. Presenting Provenance Based on User Roles - Experiences from the ACOS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    One goal of provenance is to provide users an understanding of the steps a system took to generate data products. Here, the level of detail captured by provenance becomes an important consideration. As detail is added, more questions can be hypothetically addressed. However, presenting significant provenance detail may also overwhelm end users, for one of two reasons: (i) the detail presented is irrelevant to the objectives, or (ii) the detail requires background knowledge a user lacks. Both of these challenges are present for data generated by the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photometer-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into data products consumable by end users. To fully understand these sequences of steps, background knowledge corresponding to various areas (e.g., astronomy, digital imaging, and ACOS specific techniques) is required by end users. This makes reviewing provenance difficult for users outside the ACOS development team, where varying degrees of background may be expected (ranging from outside domain experts in Solar Physics to citizen scientists). Likewise, even when steps taken by ACOS are understandable, they may provide undesired detail to an end user if presented. The work with ACOS involved the development of a Semantic Web based framework to selectively present provenance detail for data products in ACOS. Here, provenance is captured according to two sets of ontologies, the Proof Markup Language, which is an ontology based domain-independent provenance model, and a step ontology, designed to capture hierarchies of provenance steps. Used in combination, these ontology sets enable the creation of multiple levels of provenance, ranging from coarse to fine grained detail. In this setting, users may choose to expand/collapse provenance steps to view desired details. However, the specific provenance details a user initially sees is defined through

  17. A global multidisciplinary approach to ETI research: a cyclic nonperiodic natural code guides the dynamical evolution of all real perceived structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinter, L.

    The conceptual and basic questions of experimental and theoretical ETI research are tackled starting from our present knowledge of star evolution in the Galaxy and envisageable kinds of very advanced civilizations focusing on two complementary ways to do research that advanced civilizations must possess. It is argued that all evolutionary processes can be dynamically and thermally based on a common concept of natural numbers, while temperature is shown to be an undefined concept; the underlying non-separability of dynamics from thermal physics leads to a global perception of a geometrical self- evolving structure of mass and space that doesn't need the concept of time. The intrinsic numerical classification of our perception of the world is discussed, and the 6 quantities on which the entire mathematics is based, i.e. e , , i , 0 , +1 , -1 , are put into evidence. Inconsistencies in definitions of periodic functions raise doubts as to the mathematical description of nature and suggest a new entirely dynamically evolving geometry for the real fields. Past and present ways to contain and transfer information unambiguously were analyzed in trying to answer the question why there are scientifically approachable and scientifically unapproachable fields. The analysis of primitive and non-primitive concepts necessary for a real , i.e. universal perception, shows the concepts of rigid body, motion and local space to be unreal , and the groundlessness of the concept of speed for the electromagnetic spectrum. As to the so called Man/Alien incommensurability problem, the possibility of a simple universal framework of understanding, i.e. of overcoming that problem, is contemplated; which possibility, as Carl Sagan has stated, would consist of a simple interstellar Rosetta stele , based on Mendeleev's elements table and on the assumption that natural laws are the same everywhere.

  18. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol.

  19. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange Proven Secure against Insider Dictionary Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. PMID:25309956

  20. Avoiding the Theory Trap When Discussing Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David

    2006-02-01

    Public opinion polls tell us that we are losing the battle to explain the nature of evolution and its central role in science. One problem, I believe, is letting the opponents of evolution frame the discussion to our disadvantage. Framing involves the selective use of language or context to trigger responses, either support or opposition. As a prime example, we undercut our communications efforts with many nonscientists by defending the `theory of evolution.' Theory is the wrong word to use in addressing the public. In the contemporary U.S., theory means a hunch or idea that has not been established by evidence. It is thus no surprise that polls show that nearly three quarters of U.S. people think that ``evolution is commonly referred to as the theory of evolution because it has not yet been proven scientifically.'' Those who advocate adding ``only a theory'' disclaimers in textbooks know that to call evolution a theory is sufficient to undermine its acceptance.

  1. Autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce plus tree progeny and trees of the local and transferred provenances in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hannerz, Mats; Westin, Johan

    2005-09-01

    Reforestation with provenances from locations remote from the planting site (transferred provenances) or the progeny of trees of local provenances selected for superior form and vigor (plus trees) offer alternative means to increase yield over that obtained by the use of seed from unselected trees of the local provenance. Under Swedish conditions, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of certain transferred provenances generally has an advantage in productivity relative to the local provenance comparable to that of progeny of plus trees. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which productivity gains achieved by provenance transfer or the use of plus tree progeny are associated with reductions in autumn frost hardiness, relative to that of trees of the local provenance. In a field trial with 19-year-old trees in central Sweden, bud hardiness was tested on four occasions during the autumn of 2002. Trees of the local provenance were compared with trees of a south Swedish provenance originating 3 degrees of latitude to the south, a Belarusian provenance and the progeny of plus trees of local origin. The Belarusian provenance was the least hardy and the local provenance the most hardy, with plus tree progeny and the south Swedish provenance being intermediate in hardiness. Both the Belarusian provenance and the plus tree progeny were significantly taller than trees of the other populations. Within provenances, tree height was negatively correlated with autumn frost hardiness. Among the plus tree progeny, however, no such correlation between tree height and autumn frost hardiness was found. It is concluded that although the gain in productivity achieved by provenance transfer from Belarus was comparable to that achieved by using the progeny of plus trees of the local provenance, the use of trees of the Belarus provenance involved an increased risk of autumn frost damage because of later hardening.

  2. Using Detrital Zircon, Rutile and White Mica Chronometry to Constrain Exhumation and Provenance of the Brahmaputra River in the Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracciali, L.; Parrish, R. R.; Najman, Y.; Carter, A.; Condon, D. J.; Horstwood, M. S.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    While geo- and thermo-chronology of detrital minerals from sedimentary basins are routinely applied to constrain sedimentary provenance and hinterland evolution, the importance of a multi-technique approach is not always recognized. Isotopic dating methods sensitive to different temperature ranges can be successfully applied to detrital mineral grains from the same sample in order to obtain a robust dataset capable of providing information on the various thermal events that affected the source terrains. We use three detrital minerals in this study (zircon, rutile and white mica) that are stable and widely distributed in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and which together retain source crystallisation and cooling information over the range down to ~200°C and thus record complex metamorphic histories. Similarly to zircon and other U-bearing minerals, rutile can be dated by the U-Pb method, however it has so far received less attention than zircon because of: lower U content which limits measurement quality by in situ methods, often a higher proportion of common (non radiogenic) lead, and a lack of widely available good quality reference materials. We have recently characterized (by high precision ID-TIMS, isotope dilution mass spectrometry, and by LA-MC-ICP-MS two natural rutiles (Sugluk-4 and PCA-S207) and used these as reference materials for LA U-Pb dating of detrital samples, Parrish et al., this meeting, and [1]). Compared to zircon, rutile is characterized by a lower closure T for Pb diffusion (~500°C), hence rutile U-Pb dates primarily indicate the time since the last significant cooling. As it adds an important lower temperature complement to zircon and allows a much more unique isotopic fingerprint of the source region, rutile has the potential to become a key provenance tracer. In order to boost the strength of the double U-Pb detrital chronometer, we apply 40Ar/39Ar dating and zircon fission track dating to detrital grains from the same sample

  3. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  4. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  5. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks. PMID:27630643

  6. Geochemical insights into the provenance of large scale North Atlantic turbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Millie; Hunt, James; Talling, Peter; Allin, Josh; Pope, Ed

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic margin has been subject to several very large (>100 km3) submarine landslides. Motion of some of these slides has been shown to generate damaging tsunamis, which travelled long distances across the ocean, such as that generated by the Storegga slide at 8.15 ka BP. If such a tsunami occurred again, it would pose a major hazard to northern European coastlines. Therefore identifying the source and age of past slide deposits is important to quantifying the risk to UK and the rest of coastal Europe. In this study we analyse the distal deposits of slides (turbidites) to assess their provenance. We present initial results from a new shallow piston core dataset from the Storegga slide, Trænadjupet slide, Lofoten Drift and basin, and the outer edge of the Voring plateau. Turbidite mudcaps were analysed using both the non-destructive, semi-quantitative Itrax micro-XRF core scanner at BOSCORF for major elements. In addition ICP-MS was used to determine the rare earth element (REE) abundances, allowing the relationship of distal turbidite deposits to be established. REEs are a good source discriminator due to the stability and immobility of lanthanide group elements, and the preservation of elemental ratios during transport. Due to hydraulic fractionation only the finest mud fraction was analysed to avoid the bias associated with heavy mineral concentrations . Clusters of distinct elemental ratios indicate different provenances for the distal turbidites, notably the Eu/Eu* anomaly and (Gd/Yb)N. The clusters demonstrate each deposit has a unique geochemical signature and provide insights into the history of past large-volume slides in the region and the influence of contour current-reworking of deep-water deposits. The Norwegian margin has a long record of large-scale landslides, which are commonly linked to glacial-interglacial transitions. This margin is also an important location of deep-water formation, with strong currents capable of transporting

  7. Diamond Provenance Through Shape, Colour, Surface Features and Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J.

    2002-05-01

    information may also be combined with the observational methods normally used to characterise diamonds during typical sorting procedures prior to sale. These procedures have well-defined and very specific categories such as gem/near gem, sawable/makeable and are linked particularly to diamond colour. By combining the geological techniques with that of diamond value, a very powerful means of defining diamond to a particular source, may be created. For the purpose of identifying conflict diamonds, such observational evidence may prove very useful. Identification would become more difficult if parcels are small or mixed in some way. A major drawback, however, both to the observational approach outline above and to any analytical techniques, is that there are no database of conflict diamonds against which to set the results.

  8. Diverging drought resistance of Scots pine provenances revealed by infrared thermography and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming and more frequent and severe drought events will alter the adaptedness and fitness of tree species. Especially, Scots pine forests have been affected above average by die-off events during the last decades. Assisted migration of adapted provenances might help alleviating impacts by recent climate change and successfully regenerating forests. However, the identification of suitable provenances based on established ecophysiological methods is time consuming, sometimes invasive, and data on provenance-specific mortality are lacking. We studied the performance, stress and survival of potted Scots pine seedlings from 12 European provenances grown in a greenhouse experiment with multiple drought and warming treatments. In this paper, we will present results of drought stress impacts monitored with four different thermal indices derived from infrared thermography imaging as well as an ample mortality study. Percent soil water deficit (PSWD) was shown to be the main driver of drought stress response in all thermal indices. In spite of wet and dry reference surfaces, however, fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly in terms of air temperature and humidity, altered the measured stress response. In linear mixed-effects models, besides PSWD and meteorological covariates, the factors provenance and provenance - PSWD interactions were included. The explanatory power of the models (R2) ranged between 0.51 to 0.83 and thus, provenance-specific responses to strong and moderate drought and subsequent recovery were revealed. However, obvious differences in the response magnitude of provenances to drought were difficult to explicitly link to general features such Mediterranean - continental type or climate at the provenances' origin. We conclude that seedlings' drought resistance may be linked to summer precipitation and their experienced stress levels are a.o. dependent on their above ground dimensions under given water supply. In respect to mortality, previous

  9. Proven high-reliability assembly methods applied to avionics fiber-optics high-speed transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn; Leduc, Lorrain; Bessette, Daniel; Bélanger, Nicolas; Larose, Robert; Dion, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Harsh environment avionics applications require operating temperature ranges that can extend to, and exceed -50 to 115°C. For obvious maintenance, management and cost arguments, product lifetimes as long as 20 years are also sought. This leads to mandatory long-term hermeticity that cannot be obtained with epoxy or silicone sealing; but only with glass seal or metal solder or brazing. A hermetic design can indirectly result in the required RF shielding of the component. For fiber-optics products, these specifications need to be compatible with the smallest possible size, weight and power consumption. The products also need to offer the best possible high-speed performances added to the known EMI immunity in the transmission lines. Fiber-optics transceivers with data rates per fiber channel up to 10Gbps are now starting to be offered on the market for avionics applications. Some of them are being developed by companies involved in the "normal environment" telecommunications market that are trying to ruggedize their products packaging in order to diversify their customer base. Another approach, for which we will present detailed results, is to go back to the drawing boards and design a new product that is adapted to proven MIL-PRF-38534 high-reliability packaging assembly methods. These methods will lead to the introduction of additional requirements at the components level; such as long-term high-temperature resistance for the fiber-optic cables. We will compare both approaches and demonstrate the latter, associated with the redesign, is the preferable one. The performance of the fiber-optic transceiver we have developed, in terms of qualification tests such as temperature cycling, constant acceleration, hermeticity, residual gaz analysis, operation under random vibration and mechanical shocks and accelerated lifetime tests will be presented. The tests are still under way, but so far, we have observed no performance degradation of such a product after more than

  10. A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

  11. A powerful toolkit for synthetic biology: Over 3.8 billion years of evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Lynn J

    2010-04-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested.

  12. Isotope provenance of Eastern Himalayan rivers draining to the south into India, Nepal and Bhutan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemignani, Lorenzo; Wijbrans, Jan; Najman, Yani; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The two syntaxis of the Himalaya (Eastern and western) are exhuming anomalously fast compared to the rest of Himalaya , and various hypothesis and models have been proposed to explain this, including coupled tectonic-erosion model of (Tectonic Aneurism)1-2 and ductile extrusion of weak lower crust from beneath Tibet by 'channel flow' 3 . The Namche Barwa metamorphic massif constitutes the eastern syntaxis of the belt and has experienced a complex history of uplift and deformation both influenced by intense fluvial erosion associated with the Yarlung-Tzangpo. Therefore, the Himalayas represent a unique natural laboratory where the interactions between the tectonics, erosion, climate and drainage evolution can be investigated. The purpose of the work is to understand in collaboration with other PhD students and European researchers collaborating in the iTECC Marie Curie Initial training Network the importance of processes involving the complex links and feedbacks between climate, tectonics and erosion. In this multi-disciplinary and multi-technique study the mains goals will be to assess the timing of rapid exhumation, to determine provenance source area exhumation of the syntaxis in relation to the big river capture event that has implicates the Yarlung-Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra, and the effect of the dilution of the syntaxis signal 's downstream. During the work the 40Ar/39Ar dating of single-grain detrital micas technique will be used to analyze smaller and younger grains using newly developed high sensitivity multi-collection noble gas mass spectrometry. Detrital zircon fission-track is perform to provides robust cooling age time of the sources terrains. Input from eastern syntaxis has been identified in the Brahmaputra sedimentary record by the appearance of very young grains (from 10 Ma to 6 Ma)4. To compare and to increase the previously collected data, fifteen samples from the Yarlung-Brahmaputra River system and from tributaries draining the Himalaya, the

  13. 77 FR 57637 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Place of Provenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Styles in Tibetan Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to... the exhibition ``The Place of Provenance--Regional Styles in Tibetan Painting,'' imported from...

  14. Data Provenance Hybridization Supporting Extreme-Scale Scientific WorkflowApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Elsethagen, Todd O.; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Schram, Malachi; Macduff, Matt C.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Kleese-Van Dam, Kerstin; Singh, Alok; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-11-21

    As high performance computing (HPC) infrastructures continue to grow in capability and complexity, so do the applications that they serve. HPC and distributed-area computing (DAC) (e.g. grid and cloud) users are looking increasingly toward workflow solutions to orchestrate their complex application coupling, pre- and post-processing needs To gain insight and a more quantitative understanding of a workflow’s performance our method includes not only the capture of traditional provenance information, but also the capture and integration of system environment metrics helping to give context and explanation for a workflow’s execution. In this paper, we describe IPPD’s provenance management solution (ProvEn) and its hybrid data store combining both of these data provenance perspectives.

  15. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin.

  16. Adding Semantics and OPM Ontology for the Provenance of Multi-sensor Merged Climate Data Records. Now What About Reproducibility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Pan, L.; Fetzer, E.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-decadal climate data records are critical to studying climate variability and change. These often also require merging data from multiple instruments such as those from NASA's A-Train that contain measurements covering a wide range of atmospheric conditions and phenomena. Multi-decadal climate data record of water vapor measurements from sensors on A-Train, operational weather, and other satellites are being assembled from existing data sources, or produced from well-established methods published in peer-reviewed literature. However, the immense volume and inhomogeneity of data often requires an "exploratory computing" approach to product generation where data is processed in a variety of different ways with varying algorithms, parameters, and code changes until an acceptable intermediate product is generated. This process is repeated until a desirable final merged product can be generated. Typically the production legacy is often lost due to the complexity of processing steps that were tried along the way. The data product information associated with source data, processing methods, parameters used, intermediate product outputs, and associated materials are often hidden in each of the trials and scattered throughout the processing system(s). We will discuss methods to help users better capture and explore the production legacy of the data, metadata, ancillary files, code, and computing environment changes used during the production of these merged and multi-sensor data products. By leveraging existing semantic and provenance tools, we can capture sufficient information to enable users to track, perform faceted searches, and visualize the provenance of the products and processing lineage. We will explore if sufficient provenance information can be captured to enable science reproducibility of these climate data records.

  17. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program

  18. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  19. The importance of XRD analysis in provenance and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Piedras de Afilar Formation, Neoproterozoic of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Poiré, D. G.; Gaucher, C.; Uriz, N.; Cingolani, C.; Frigeiro, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Piedras de Afilar Formation crops out in the southeast part of Uruguay, forming part of the Tandilia Terrane (sensu Bossi et al. 2005). Pamoukaghlian et al. (2006) and Gaucher et al. (2008) have published δ13C, δ18O and U/Pb SHRIMP results, which indicate a Neoproterozoic age for this formation. The palaeoenvironment has been defined as a shallow marine platform based on the presence of interference ripples, hummocky and mega-hummocky cross-stratification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses help to better constrain the palaeoenvironment: the presence of chlorite/smectite found in black shales, suggest a reducing environment, and abundant illite indicates a cold to temperate climate. Provenance studies have been undertaken that utilise a combination of detailed palaeocurrent measurements, petrographic descriptions, XRD analyses, and geochemical isotopic analyses, including U/Pb SHRIMP determinations. Mineral compositional diagrams for sandstones suggest a stable cratonic provenance. Palaeocurrents are mainly from the NNE, indicating a provenance from the cratonic areas of the Tandilia Terrane. The illite crystal index indicates diagenetic to low-metamorphic conditions for the sequence; this is important to confirm that the identified minerals are authigenic. Clay minerals identified by XRD analysis of sandstones from the siliciclastic member are illite (80 - 90%), kaolinite (5 - 10%), and chlorite (5 - 10%). This is consistent with a provenance from the cratonic areas (quartz-feldspar dominated rock types). Isotopic analyses have been undertaken to provide better constraints on the tectonic setting. U/Pb SHRIMP ages for the youngest zircons are 990 Ma (Gaucher et al. 2008), and the basal granite (Granito de la Paz) is 2056 ± 11 Ma (Hartmann et al. 2001), suggesting a provenance from the Archaean basement for the Piedras de Afilar Formation, like its counterparts in the Rio de la Plata Craton. References Bossi, J., Piñeyro, D., Cingolani, C. (2005). El l

  20. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  1. Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Carla A; Edwards, Nelson T; Walker, Ashley V; O'Hara, Keiran H; Campion, Christina M; Hanson, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Predicting forest responses to warming climates relies on assumptions about niche and temperature sensitivity that remain largely untested. Observational studies have related current and historical temperatures to phenological shifts, but experimental evidence is sparse, particularly for autumn responses. A five-year field experiment exposed four deciduous forest species from contrasting climates (Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Populus grandidentata, and Betula alleghaniensis) to air temperatures 2 and 4 C above ambient controls. Impacts of year-round warming on bud burst (BB), senescence and abscission were evaluated in relation to thermal provenance. Leaves emerged earlier in all species, by an average of 6-9 days at +2 and +4 C. Magnitude of advance varied with species and year, but was larger for the first 2 C increment than the second. The effect of warming increased with early BB, favoring Liquidambar, from the warmest climate, but even BB in northern species advanced, despite temperatures well beyond those of the realized niche. Treatment differences in BB were poorly explained by temperature sums, which increased with treatment. In autumn, chlorophyll was retained an average of 4 and 7 days longer in +2 and +4 C treatments, and abscission delayed by 8 and 13 days. Species differences in autumn responses were marginally significant. Growing seasons in the warmer atmospheres were 6 - 28 days longer, with the least impact in Quercus. Results are compared with a 16-year record of canopy onset and offset in a nearby upland deciduous forest, where BB showed similar responsiveness to spring temperatures (2 - 4 days C-1). Offset dates in the stand tracked August-September temperatures, except when late summer drought caused premature senescence. The common garden-like experimental approach provides evidence that warming alone extends the growing season, at both ends, even if stand-level impacts are complicated by other environmental factors.

  2. Magnetic properties contribution to the identification and provenance of marine sediments: distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal IRDs occurring during the Last Glacial Period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin (GIB). Six Heinrich layers (HL1-6) have been identified in the area in base to the detection of distinct populations of exotic magnetic mineral assemblages alien to the local/regional sedimentation environment. Their extension has been determined by Ca/Sr and Si/Sr ratios and their provenance by 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios and FORCs. The sedimentary expression of HL is characterized by the presence of distal Ice Rafted Detritus (IRD). Distal IRD magnetic signatures in the GIB consist of (i) an increase of one order of magnitude in the peak amplitude of magnetic susceptibility from background values, (ii) a general coarsening of the magnetic grain size in a mineral assemblage dominated by titano-magnetites, (iii) FORC distributions pushing towards the coarse MD or PSD component, and (iv) thermomagnetic curves depicting the occurrence of several magnetite phases. These four features are very different from the fine-grained biogenic magnetic assemblages characterized by the combination of lower MS and higher coercivity values that dominate the predominant mixtures of the non-interacting SSD and PSD components in the non-IRD influenced background sedimentation. Our results show that the last 70.000 yr of sedimentation in the GIB were controlled by the relative contribution of local detrital material derived from the Iberian Variscan Chain and IRD alien material from the iceberg melting during the Heinrich Events. They also show two main IRD provenance fields: Europe and Canada. And that the later is more important for for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. FORCs analysis complemented the isotopic information and provided a very unique information, indicating that glacial flour may not always have the same provenance as IRD and that

  3. Guiding Architects in Selecting Architectural Evolution Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Aksit, Mehmet

    2011-09-09

    Although there exist methods and tools to support architecture evolution, the derivation and evaluation of alternative evolution paths are realized manually. In this paper, we introduce an approach, where architecture specification is converted to a graph representation. Based on this representation, we automatically generate possible evolution paths, evalute quality attributes for different architecture configurations, and optimize the selection of a particular path accordingly. We illustrate our approach by modeling the software architecture evolution of a crisis management system.

  4. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer instrument and mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, P.; Martin, C.; Schiminovich, D.; Madore, B.; Bianchi, L.; Szalay, A.; Heckman, T.; Milliard, B.; Malina, R.; Siegmund, O.; Welsh, B.; Rich, M.

    1997-12-01

    In October 1997 NASA selected the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) to fly as a Small Explorer satellite in 2001 (see C. Martin, oral presentation, this meeting.) This poster will emphasize the technical approach to the instrument and mission. GALEX will use imaging and spectroscopic surveys to probe the causes of star formation and m