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Sample records for evolutional approach proven

  1. A proven approach for more effective software development and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Hall, Dana; Sinclair, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Modern space flight mission operations and associated ground data systems are increasingly dependent upon reliable, quality software. Critical functions such as command load preparation, health and status monitoring, communications link scheduling and conflict resolution, and transparent gateway protocol conversion are routinely performed by software. Given budget constraints and the ever increasing capabilities of processor technology, the next generation of control centers and data systems will be even more dependent upon software across all aspects of performance. A key challenge now is to implement improved engineering, management, and assurance processes for the development and maintenance of that software; processes that cost less, yield higher quality products, and that self-correct for continual improvement evolution. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has a unique experience base that can be readily tapped to help solve the software challenge. Over the past eighteen years, the Software Engineering Laboratory within the code 500 Flight Dynamics Division has evolved a software development and maintenance methodology that accommodates the unique characteristics of an organization while optimizing and continually improving the organization's software capabilities. This methodology relies upon measurement, analysis, and feedback much analogous to that of control loop systems. It is an approach with a time-tested track record proven through repeated applications across a broad range of operational software development and maintenance projects. This paper describes the software improvement methodology employed by the Software Engineering Laboratory, and how it has been exploited within the Flight Dynamics Division with GSFC Code 500. Examples of specific improvement in the software itself and its processes are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. Finally, the initial findings are given when this methodology was applied across the

  2. A proven knowledge-based approach to prioritizing process information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Many space-related processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect is rapid analysis of the changing process information. During a disturbance, this task can overwhelm humans as well as computers. Humans deal with this by applying heuristics in determining significant information. A simple, knowledge-based approach to prioritizing information is described. The approach models those heuristics that humans would use in similar circumstances. The approach described has received two patents and was implemented in the Alarm Filtering System (AFS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). AFS was first developed for application in a nuclear reactor control room. It has since been used in chemical processing applications, where it has had a significant impact on control room environments. The approach uses knowledge-based heuristics to analyze data from process instrumentation and respond to that data according to knowledge encapsulated in objects and rules. While AFS cannot perform the complete diagnosis and control task, it has proven to be extremely effective at filtering and prioritizing information. AFS was used for over two years as a first level of analysis for human diagnosticians. Given the approach's proven track record in a wide variety of practical applications, it should be useful in both ground- and space-based systems.

  3. Capturing Provenance, Evolution and Modification of Clinical Protocols via a Heterogeneous, Semantic Social Network.

    PubMed

    Portokallidis, Nick; Drosatos, George; Kaldoudi, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is largely based on medical best practices as in clinical protocols. Research so far has addressed the computerized execution of clinical protocols by developing a number of related representation languages, execution engines and integrated platforms to support real time execution. However, much less effort has been put into organizing clinical protocols for use and reuse. In this paper we propose a heterogeneous semantic social network to describe and organize clinical protocols based on their provenance, evolution and modifications. The proposed approach allows semantic tagging and enrichment of clinical protocols so that they can be used and re-used across platforms and also be linked directly to other relevant scientific information, e.g. published works in PubMed or personal health records, and other clinical information systems. PMID:27332270

  4. Provenance of the Spacewatch Small Earth--Approaching Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F., Jr.; Nolan, M. C.; Melosh, H. J.; Vickery, A. M.; Greenberg, R.

    Recent discoveries of small Earth-approaching asteroids by the 0.9 m Spacewatch telescope (referred to here as S-SEAs) reveal 16 objects which have diameters $D \\sim 50$ m or smaller. Approximately half of these objects lie in a region where few large near Earth asteroids are found; they have the following orbital parameters: perihelia ($q$) and aphelia ($Q$) near 1 AU, $e < 0.35$, and $i$ from $0°$ to $\\sim 30°$. Given these size and dynamical constraints, we assess the possible origins for these objects by tracking the orbital evolution of test bodies from several possible source regions using an Öpik-type Monte-Carlo dynamical evolution code. We have modified this code to include (a) impact disruption, based on a map in orbital space of collision probabilities and mean impact velocities determined using actual main-belt and near-Earth asteroid orbits, (b) fragmentation, and (c) observational selection effects. We find that Amor asteroid fragments evolving from low eccentricity Mars-crossing orbits beyond the $q=1$ AU line provide the best fit to S-SEA orbital data. Planetary ejecta from Mars is only consistent with low and moderately inclined S-SEA orbits. Asteroidal fragments from the main-belt via the 3:1 or chaotic resonance zones rarely achieve low-$e$ orbits before planetary impacts, comminution, or ejection remove them from the system. This source could produce the observed moderate-to-high eccentricity S-SEAs. Planetary ejecta from the Earth-Moon system and Venus, are only consistent with low-inclination S-SEA orbits.

  5. Provenance of Des Moines lobe till records ice-stream catchment evolution during Laurentide deglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusardi, B.A.; Jennings, C.E.; Harris, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and analysis of deposits of the Des Moines lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, active after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), reveal several texturally and lithologically distinct tills within what had been considered to be a homogeneous deposit. Although the differences between tills are subtle, minor distinctions are predictable and mappable, and till sheets within the area covered by the lobe can be correlated for hundreds of kilometres parallel to ice flow. Lateral till-sheet contacts are abrupt or overlap in a narrow zone, coincident with a geomorphic discontinuity interpreted to be a shear margin. Till sheets 10 to 20m thick show mixing in their lower 2 to 3m. We suggest that: (i) lithologically distinct till sheets correspond to unique ice-stream source areas; (ii) the sequence of tills deposited by the Des Moines lobe was the result of the evolution and varying dominance of nearby and competing ice streams and their tributaries; and (iii) in at least one instance, more than one ice stream simultaneously contributed to the lobe. Therefore the complex sequence of tills of subtly different provenances, and the unconformities between them record the evolution of an ice-catchment area during Laurentide Ice Sheet drawdown. Till provenance data suggest that, after till is created in the ice-stream source area, the subglacial conditions required for transporting till decline and incorporation of new material is limited. ?? 2011 The Authors. Boreas ?? 2011 The Boreas Collegium.

  6. Multiobjective Optimization Using a Pareto Differential Evolution Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary algorithm that has proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult single-objective optimization problems. In this paper, the Differential Evolution algorithm is extended to multiobjective optimization problems by using a Pareto-based approach. The algorithm performs well when applied to several test optimization problems from the literature.

  7. Provenance record of Paleogene exhumation and Laramide basin evolution along the southern Rocky Mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, M. A.; Horton, B. K.; Murphy, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Sangre de Cristo and Nacimiento uplifts of the southern Rocky Mountains formed key parts of a major Paleogene topographic boundary separating the Cordilleran orogenic system from the North American plate interior. This barrier largely isolated interior Laramide basins from a broad Laramide foreland with fluvial systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, and thereby played a critical role in the evolution of continental-scale paleodrainage patterns. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance analyses of Cretaceous-Paleogene siliciclastic strata in the Raton, Galisteo-El Rito, and San Juan basins record the partitioning of the broad Cordilleran (Sevier) foreland basin by Laramide basement uplifts. These trends are recognized both in provenance signals and depositional styles corresponding to cratonward (eastward) propagation of the Laramide deformation front and resultant advance of flexural depocenters in the North American interior. Along the eastern flank of the deformation front, the Raton basin shows a mix of Cordilleran, Appalachian, and Grenville age zircons restricted to the Cretaceous Dakota and Vermejo formations, marine units of the Western Interior Seaway. Upsection, the Cordilleran age peaks are absent from Paleocene-Eocene units, consistent with significant Laramide drainage reorganization and isolation from Cordilleran sources to the west. In the Galisteo-El Rito basin system, a shift to dominantly Mazatzal-Yavapai basement ages is recognized in the Paleocene El Rito and Oligocene Ritito formations. The heavy mineral results show a corresponding shift to less mature, dominantly metamorphic source compositions. These new datasets bear upon Cretaceous-Cenozoic reconstructions of North American paleodrainage and have implications for potential linkages between major fluvial systems of the southern Rocky Mountains and Paleogene deepwater reservoir units in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

  8. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Common sediment fingerprinting techniques use either (1) extensive analytical datasets, sometimes nearly complete with respect to accessible characterization techniques; they are processed by multidimensional statistics based on certain statistical assumptions on distribution functions of analytical results and conservativeness/additivity of some components, or (2) analytically demanding characteristics such as isotope ratios assumed to be unequivocal "labels" on the parent material unaltered by any catchment process. The inherent problem of the approach ad (1) is that interpretation of statistical components ("sources") is done ex post and remains purely formal. The problem of the approach ad (2) is that catchment processes (weathering, transport, deposition) can modify most geochemical parameters of soils and sediments, in other words, that the idea that some geochemistry parameters are "conservative" may be idealistic. Grain-size effects and sediment provenance have a joint influence on chemical composition of fluvial sediments that is indeed not easy to distinguish. Attempts to separate those two main components using only statistics seem risky and equivocal, because grain-size dependence of element composition is nearly individual for each element and reflects sediment maturity and catchment-specific formation transport processes. We suppose that the use of less extensive datasets of analytical results and their interpretation respecting fundamental principles should be more robust than only statistic tools applied to overwhelming datasets. We examined sediment composition, both published by other researchers and gathered by us, and we found some general principles, which are in our opinion relevant for fingerprinting: (1) Concentrations of all elements are grain-size sensitive, i.e. there are no "conservative" elements in conventional sense of provenance- or transport-pathways tracing, (2) fractionation by catchment processes and fluvial transport changes

  9. Gulf coastal plain evolution in West Louisiana: Heavy mineral provenance and Pleistocene alluvial chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mange, Maria A.; Otvos, Ervin G.

    2005-12-01

    High Resolution Heavy Mineral Analysis (HRHMA) of late Pleistocene terrace samples, their Tertiary source rocks, and modern river sediments provided an effective tool for reconstructing sediment provenance and mapping heavy mineral provinces in southwest Louisiana. Each province, linked to a discrete source region, represents Pleistocene fluvial channel belts within which depositional activity was controlled by periods of climate, sediment supply, and sea level changes. Four coastal heavy mineral provinces have been identified. The Northern Province (NP), drained by the lower reaches of the Sabine and Calcasieu Rivers underlies level mid- and late Pleistocene coastal terrace surfaces and is distinguished by high-grade metamorphic assemblages (kyanite, staurolite, sillimanite) and abundant zircon, probably of Ouachita Mts. derivation. Transporting eroded Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Pleistocene coastal plain deposits, the modern Calcasieu and Sabine River sands in west-central and southwest Louisiana and east Texas, display identical heavy mineral composition to that of the NP. Level Late Pleistocene coastal terrace areas in the east represent the Red River Province (RRP) with dominant epidote, tourmaline, garnet, and zircon. Its mineralogy is influenced significantly by Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary units that frame the drainage basin upstream. Modern Red River sands differ in their spectra both from Red River Pleistocene coastal terrace and valley terrace deposits, interpreted by temporal fluctuations in sediment supply initiating a variable contribution of detritus from different sources. Tributaries that drain formations with high concentrations of high-grade metamorphic minerals also affected Red River valley Pleistocene terrace deposits in west-central Louisiana, enriching them in kyanite and staurolite. The Mississippi Province (MP) occupies the eastern-southeastern area of the low, flat, gently seaward-sloping Prairie coastal terrace. Whereas modern

  10. Provenance Constraints on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Queen Charlotte Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J.; Haggart, J. W.; Kimbrough, D.; Grove, M.

    2007-05-01

    The medial Cretaceous magmatic arc system of western North America was flanked by a series of forearc basins extending from Mexico to Alaska. Cretaceous strata in the Queen Charlotte Islands of northwest British Columbia are unique in this series of basins, as these strata have been displaced from the arc system by formation of the extensional Queen Charlotte basin in Cenozoic time. This displacement complicates reconstruction of the forearc basin, and makes it difficult to evaluate the controls on basin evolution. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and detrital zircon analyses of forearc strata represented by the Valanginian- Campanian Queen Charlotte Group (QCG) constrain basin evolution and provide a framework for an interpretation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Queen Charlotte Islands region. Basin subsidence initiated in Valanginian time with a marine transgression over irregular topography consisting of extensional fault blocks of pre-Cretaceous strata. Locally derived conglomerates at the base of the Longarm Formation are overlain by shallow marine shelf deposits that represent a westward-deepening, fining-upward transgressive succession with an eastern depositional edge that migrated eastward during Valanginian to Aptian time. West-directed paleocurrents and a unimodal detrital zircon population of 120-175 Ma grains provide the first linkage between the Cretaceous QCG and unroofed Jura-Cretaceous plutons of the Coast Plutonic Complex to the east. This initial transgressive sequence is superseded by a second pulse of clastic detritus in early Albian time, characterized by an easterly-derived, fossiliferous shallow-shelf sandstone (Haida Formation), fine-grained, outer shelf to upper slope strata (Bearskin Bay Formation), and mass-sediment gravity flows (Skidegate Formation). The unimodal zircon population (ca 140-175 Ma) in the lower Haida Formation is interpreted to reflect renewed uplift of Jura-Cretaceous arc plutons by contractional

  11. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages from Sarawak: Changes in Provenance Reflecting the Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Galin, T.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. Five sedimentary basins are distinguished with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic of the Sadong-Kuching Basin and were sourced by a Carnian to Norian volcanic arc and erosion of Cathaysian rocks containing zircons of Paleoproterozoic age. Sandstones of the Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Bau-Pedawan Basin have distinctive zircon populations indicating a major change of tectonic setting, including initiation of subduction below present-day West Sarawak in the Late Jurassic. A wide range of inherited zircon ages indicates various Cathaysian fragments as major source areas and the arrival of the SW Borneo Block following subduction beneath the Schwaner Mountains in the early Late Cretaceous. After collision of the SW Borneo Block and the microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension were responsible for basin development on land from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a strike-slip setting. The first episode formed the Kayan Basin in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Early Paleocene, and the second formed the Ketungau Basin and the Penrissen Sandstone in the Middle to Late Eocene. Zircons indicate nearby volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo. Inherited zircon ages indicate an alternation between Borneo and Tin Belt source rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, formed north of the Lupar Line fault. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they are of similar age and provenance as the contemporaneous terrestrial sediments to the south suggesting a narrow steep continental Sundaland margin at the

  12. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-06-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution teaching can be particularly challenging for student teachers who are just beginning to gain pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge related to evolution teaching and who seek approval from university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Science teacher educators need to know how to best support student teachers as they broach the sometimes daunting task of teaching evolution within student teaching placements. This multiple case study report documents how three student teachers approached evolution instruction and what influenced their approaches. Data sources included student teacher interviews, field note observations for 4-5 days of evolution instruction, and evolution instructional artifacts. Data were analyzed using grounded theory approaches to develop individual cases and a cross-case analysis. Seven influences (state exams and standards, cooperating teacher, ideas about teaching and learning, concerns about evolution controversy, personal commitment to evolution, knowledge and preparation for teaching evolution, and own evolution learning experiences) were identified and compared across cases. Implications for science teacher preparation and future research are provided.

  13. A Multi-technique Approach for Provenance Studies of Mesozoic Clastic Rocks in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Zimmermann, U.; Støle, L.; Ruud, C.; Mostafa, E.; Andò, S.; Borromeo, L.; Magnaghi, M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments of Mesozoic age deposited in the Arctic Hammerfest and Tromsø basins (southern Barents Sea) are the focus of a comprehensive provenance study which forms part of ongoing work by the LoCrA consortium (Lower Cretaceous Basin Studies in the Arctic). Jurassic (Stø, Fuglen, Hekkingen) and Cretaceous (Knurr, Kolje, Kolmule) formations were sampled from seven wells. Analytical methods include petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, heavy mineral (HM) analysis and U-Pb on detrital zircons. HM concentration is <1%, with an ultrastable HM assemblage of zircon, rutile, tourmaline, spinel, apatite, garnet, chloritoid and common authigenic heavy minerals and opaques. Cretaceous sedimentary rocks show geochemical variations that reflect an unrecycled Upper Continental Crust signature, whereas Jurassic detritus tends to show more evidence of recycling with a relatively low input of mafic material. Kolmule Formation whole-rock geochemistry indicates sediment recycling from a major Sc-depleted but intermediate to mafic source and hence suggests input of rift detritus from the syn-depositional opening of the Atlantic Ocean. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons for Cretaceous sandstones show age groups of 200-500 Ma, 1200-1800 Ma, and 2100-2800 Ma, indicating potential source regions in the Urals/Novaya Zemlya, the Caledonides, Grenvillian/Sveconorwegian, and Palaeoproterozoic and Archean sources. Provenance data via geochemistry and HM analysis indicate different sources in the same formation basin-wide, with a significant change in provenance and sediment composition from Jurassic to Cretaceous and between the Knurr and Kolmule formations. These differences in composition need to be compared to detailed single grain studies and may only be explained in terms of basin dynamics, or even on a smaller scale, in terms of facies distributions. If so, this case study raises concerns about the use of single samples for provenance models on a larger scale.

  14. Detrital zircon provenance analysis of the Great Valley Group, California: Evolution of an arc-forearc system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Graham, S.A.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    The improved resolution of sediment provenance from detrital zircon analysis of Great Valley stratigraphy enables recognition of previously undocumented arc magmatism and the evolution of regional drainage systems within the Cretaceous arc-forearc system related to uplift, magmatism, and structure in the arc. Great Valley detrital zircon age data confirm previous studies that indicate that the locus of the sediment source in the southern Sierra Nevada arc migrated east with the active volcanic front and suggest rapid rates of uplift and unroofing of the southern arc. Sacramento Valley detrital zircon age data indicate a more complex history of drainage in the northern Klamath-Sierran arc than previously documented. Detrital zircon age distributions from the Cache Creek section of the Great Valley Group broaden through time from nearly unimodal age distributions to signatures with multiple age peaks. This transition to more broadly distributed detrital zircon age spectra likely results from a combination of (1) expanding subaerial drainage systems from highly localized to more broadly distributed catchments; (2) changing shelf and submarine-canyon morphology with rising sea level and/or basin subsidence; (3) increased degree of dissection of the Klamath-Sierran arc; and (4) potential drainage capture and redirection within the arc. Sacramento Valley detrital zircon age data also record a pulse of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatism in the northwestern Sierra Nevada arc, an age of Cordilleran magmatism and deformation represented by limited exposure in the modern Sierra Nevada. These results offer significant new insights into the evolution of a well-studied arc-forearc system.

  15. An Approach to Evaluate Scientist Support in Abstract Workflows and Provenance Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Salayandia, Leonardo; Gates, Ann Q.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02

    Abstract workflows are useful to bridge the gap between scientists and technologists towards using computer systems to carry out scientific processes. Provenance traces provide evidence required to validate results and support their reuse. Assuming both technologies are based on formal semantics, a knowledge-based system that consistently merges both technologies is useful for scientists that produce data to document their data collecting and transformation processes; it is also useful for scientists that reuse data to assess scientific processes and resulting datasets produced by others. While evaluation of each technology is necessary for a given application, this work discusses their combined evaluation. The claim is that both technologies should complement each other and align consistently to a scientist’s perspective in order to be effective for science. Evaluation criteria are proposed based on lessons learned and exemplified for discussion.

  16. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  17. Provenance evolution of the Western foreland basin and its relationship to the exhumation of source rocks during arc-continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, S.; Fellin, M. G.; Castelltort, S.; Willett, S. D.; Mouthereau, F.; Lin, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    Late Miocene to Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Western foreland basin of Taiwan record the evolution of an orogenic wedge during oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the Chinese passive margin. Our stratigraphic record reaches back to pre-collisional sediments of the Late Miocene to Pliocene, which were deposited on the Chinese passive margin. A dramatic change is observed in the Pliocene, as the depositional center shifts to a collisional basin developing on the passive margin due to the obliquely colliding Luzon Arc and input of sediment from the approaching accretionary wedge. Synorogenic sedimentation continues into the Pleistocene providing a history of material being eroded from the growing mountains to the east. We apply standard provenance analysis techniques on several stratigraphic profiles along the strike of the orogen to relate the sediments to their source and reconstruct possible distribution pathways to further enhance a paleogeographic reconstruction of the area. Unmetamorphosed mudstones within our sedimentary record contain abundant detrital illite, chlorite and zircons. The Illite Crystallinity Index (IC) and the fission-track dating of detrital zircons provides robust information about the thermal history of source terrains, and we combine these methods to infer the timing of exhumation of metamorphic rocks in the Central Range of Taiwan. The initial input of illite minerals with high crystallinity and of zircons with reset ages (younger than 10 Ma) is recorded in the Yutengping fm. and Chinsui Shale, around 3.5 Ma in the north and around 2.5 Ma in the South, contemporaneously with a deepening and widening of the depositional basin. This is the time of deposition of the mud-dominated Chinshui shale, interpreted as the "underfilled" stage of the foreland basin. This clearly marks accelerated subsidence caused by the approach of the growing orogen. In the south, the illite crystallinity and the frequency of

  18. Middle-Late Mesozoic sedimentary provenances of the Luxi and Jiaolai areas: Implications for tectonic evolution of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Provenances of sedimentary rocks may provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the North China Block (NCB). Previous studies have demonstrated that the northern NCB (NNCB) and the Xing-Meng orogenic belt (XMOB) supplied massive detritus southward into the hinterland of the NCB during the Jurassic. In order to study the evolution of sedimentary provenance during the Middle-Late Mesozoic, U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic geochemistry of detrital zircon grains and chemical compositions of detrital garnets from sandstones in the Luxi and Jiaolai areas, eastern NCB, were analyzed in combination with published data on the Jurassic sandstones. The Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic (367-139 Ma) zircons in the lowermost Cretaceous Mengyin Formation samples from the Luxi area show εHf(t) values of -15.3 to -3.2 and +1.3 to +10.0, which are very similar to the results of analyses of the Jurassic formations. Further, the increased amount of Mesozoic zircons and granulite-derived garnets in the Mengyin Formation samples, compared to those in the Jurassic samples, indicates there was more detritus supply from the NNCB than from the XMOB. In the overlying Qingshan Formation samples, zircon grains do not exhibit Paleozoic ages, but most of them have Early Cretaceous ages and negative εHf(t) values, which are similar to the zircon grains extracted from the widespread Early Cretaceous igneous rocks in the NCB. This suggests that the provenance might have changed to a locally derived source. In contrast, the zircon population of the Early Cretaceous sandstones from the Jiaolai basin is dominated by grains of mid-Neoproterozoic age (700-900 Ma) which signifies contribution from the Sulu orogen. Moreover, the detrital garnet assemblages of sandstones in the Luxi area are not consistent with those from representative metamorphic rocks in the Sulu orogen. The above results seem to confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary provenance of the Luxi area had no evident connection with

  19. Insights from heavy minerals and zircon U-Pb ages into the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution of the Yinggehai Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Licheng; Xie, Xinong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xushen; Zhang, Yingzhao; Zhang, Daojun; Sun, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The well-preserved Cenozoic sedimentary record in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea, is suitable to explore the tectonic and climatic evolution of SE Asia. Red River, a large-scale fluvial system in this region, was previously regarded as the major sediment source for the basin. Here we combine heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb dating to shed new light on the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution at a basin scale. The results clearly reveal potential source areas additional to the Red River. Sediments have been delivered to the proximal areas from Hainan Island, as indicated by the high zircon content and the Yanshanian U-Pb ages in the southern segment of the Yingdong Slope. A provenance from Central Vietnam is explicitly discerned in the upper Miocene of the Central Depression, where sediments are characterized by few metamorphic heavy minerals and the U-Pb age pattern peaking at around 250 Ma and 440 Ma. Coeval large-scale relative sea-level fall and rapid exhumation along the Vietnamese margin together may have facilitated this long-distance sediment transport. Provenance of sediments from the Red River seems to change over time. Song Lo River, on the north side of the main stream, probably flowed from the NE and carried Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic zircons to the Yinggehai Basin during the middle Miocene. Since the late Miocene, rocks along the Red River Fault Zone have become the dominant source. Subsequently, widespread metamorphic minerals in the Central Depression of the Yinggehai Basin, combined with the strong river incision and high offshore sedimentation rates, indicate an increased sediment supply from the Red River in the Pliocene.

  20. Sedimentological and stratigraphic evolution of the southern part of the Barberton greenstone belt: A case of changing provenance and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The sedimentological and stratigraphic evolution of the 3.5 to 3.3 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt can be divided into three principal stages: (1) the volcanic platform stage during which at least 8 km of mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks, minor felsic volcanic units, and thin sedimentary layers (Onverwacht Group) accumulated under generally anorogenic conditions; (2) a transitional stage of developing instability during which widespread dacitic volcanism and associated pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sedimentation was punctuated by the deposition of terrigenous debris derived by uplift and shallow erosion of the belt itself (Fig Tree Group); (3) an orogenic stage involving cessation of active volcanism, extensive thrust faulting, and widespread deposition of clastic sediments representing deep erosion of the greenstone belt sequence as well as sources outside of the belt (Moodies Group).

  1. Combined heavy mineral and biomarker analysis in silt: a novel approach for provenance studies (Indus Fan, IODP Expedition 355)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Bratenkov, Sophia; Hahn, Annette; George, Simon; Clift, Peter D.; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution mineralogical study of Indus Fan turbiditic sediments cored during IODP Expedition 355 (Arabian Sea Monsoon) in the Laxmi Basin was carried out to investigate and quantify the different compositional signatures encoded in the sand, silt, and clay fractions. The turbidite deposits recovered at IODP Sites U1456 and U1457 in sedimentological Unit II were chosen as the best candidate for such a study. The integrated dataset presented here was obtained by coupling traditional and innovative bulk-sediment to single-grain analytical techniques, including bulk petrography, heavy-mineral and biomarker analyses on the same samples. Reliable quantitative results even in the medium to fine silt classes, which represent the dominant sediment sizes encountered in the recovered cores, were obtained by point-counting under the microscope, assisted by Micro-Raman spectroscopy (Andò et al., 2011; 2014). Preliminary data from the studied turbidites document rich and diverse heavy mineral assemblages in both the sand and silty-sand fractions. Heavy-mineral concentrations, as well as the number of mineral species, reach a maximum in sand and tend to decrease with grain size, becoming minimal in the clay fraction. Conversely, the biomarker analysis is generally focused on the finer sediment fractions and clay, where better preservation of biomarker compounds are obtained. The two approaches are thus complementary. Because biomarkers tend to be depleted in sand and heavy minerals in clay, the medium silt fraction represents the most suitable size window for the joint application of these two techniques. Comparing heavy-mineral assemblages with biomarkers allows us to evaluate both continental and marine inputs in turbidites and the hemipelagic deposits of the Indus Fan. This new methodological approach plays a key role in the identification of the effects of climate change on marine depositional environments and helps us to differentiate among the diverse Himalayan

  2. New opportunities and proven approaches in complementary and alternative medicine research at the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Harlan, W R

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes some of the issues that arise when applying the clinical-trial approach of conventional medicine to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities. Conventional medicine has been making the evolution to using an evidence base and to making recommendations only when the evidence is strong. The National Center for Complementary Medicine (NCCAM), one of twenty-five Institutes or Centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is working to hold CAM to the same high standards, not by rejecting previous CAM research, but by building on that strong evidence base of what works and what is safe. The process for conventional drug and device development follows an orderly process of preclinical studies (usually on animals), phase I, phase II, and phase III studies (with the large human clinical trial phase taking place in phase III). Today, the randomized controlled trial is recognized as providing the highest level of scientific evidence. This conventional medicine approach to development is now being used to develop complementary and alternative therapies. For instance, the discovery and development of Taxol (Bristol-Meyers Squibb, New York, NY), an extract from the bark of the Pacific yew tree that is now a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, followed the conventional pathway to approval and marketing. But for most CAM products, the pathway is not so straightforward. Most CAM therapies are traditional therapies or new products that are already available to the public. Most of what is known about these therapies is of an anecdotal nature. There has been little isolation of the active principals from the crude product and there has usually been no preclinical testing. This presentation details various approaches and programs that address how to plan and conduct a rigorous clinical trial of a CAM product. And, while it takes a good deal of persistence and a strong focus on what are the critical principals in a trial, I conclude that

  3. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution…

  4. Zircon U-Pb ages and O-Nd isotopic composition of basement rocks in the North Qinling Terrain, central China: evidence for provenance and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing-Xiang; Qi, Yue; Wang, Wei; Siebel, Wolfgang; Zhu, Xi-Yan; Nie, Hu; He, Jian-Feng; Chen, Fukun

    2013-11-01

    The Qinling Group was previously interpreted as the oldest Precambrian basement unit of the North Qinling Terrain, recording its formation and early crustal evolution. The Qinling Group consists predominantly of gneisses, amphibolites, and marbles, which underwent multi-phase deformation and metamorphism. In order to better constrain the provenance and tectonic setting of this group and the evolution of the North Qinling orogenic belt, in situ U-Pb dating and oxygen isotopic analysis of zircons in combination with whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope analysis was performed on the two dominant rock types, amphibolite and felsic gneiss. Felsic gneisses exhibit enrichment of LREEs and LILEs (Rb, Ba, Th, K, Pb), negative Eu anomalies and depletion of HFSEs (Nb, Ta, P, Ti). The rocks have slightly elevated δ18O values (6.5-9.3 ‰) and initial ɛ Nd values of -4.6 corresponding to two-stage Nd model age of 1.99 Ga. Amphibolites are also enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in Nb and Ta and have homogeneous δ18O values (5.0-6.0 ‰), but higher initial ɛ Nd values (2.8-3.3) and younger two-stage Nd model ages (1.29-1.24 Ga) compared to the gneisses. The zircon age record indicates that the gneisses and amphibolites were formed in a ~960 Ma volcanic arc environment rather than in a rift setting as previously suggested. A major metamorphic event took place during the Early Paleozoic. Based on the age spectrum of detrital zircons, the Qinling Group is interpreted as an autonomous geological unit, which was mainly derived mostly from 1,000 to 900 Ma old granitoid rocks. The North Qinling Terrain can be regarded as a remnant of the Grenville orogenic belt with an early Neoproterozoic evolution different from that of the North and South China blocks.

  5. Provenance and tectonic-paleogeographic evolution: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic deposits in the northern Sichuan basin, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tongbin; Cheng, Nanfei; Song, Maoshuang

    2016-09-01

    U-Pb ages of 290 new detrital zircons from five Late Triassic-Early Jurassic sandstone samples in the northern Sichuan basin, along with other geological data, are used to constrain the sediment provenance and evaluate tectonic-paleogeographic evolution for the adjacent orogens through/from which these sediments were potentially derived. The Upper Triassic depocenter was located at the front of the Longmen Shan belt, and sediments in the western, southern and eastern Sichuan basin shared the southern North China block (NCB) and Qinling belt with the eastern Songpan-Ganzi terrane of Middle-Upper Triassic via the Longmen Shan belt, whereas the northern part of the basin was fed by dominant South Qinling belt (SQB) and northern Yangtze block and possibly subordinate southern NCB. Also, the youngest population in the northern Sichuan basin has a slightly younger age peak (∼235 Ma) than those (∼270 Ma) in other parts of the basin. During the Early Jurassic, the depocenter was still at the front of the Longmen Shan belt but only northern regions (e.g., SQB and northern Yangtze block) fed the basin. The northern Sichuan basin received less sediments from the southern NCB and more from the SQB and northern Yangtze block during the Early Jurassic than during the Late Triassic. The middle Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, which likely originated from the North Qinling belt and northern Yangtze block where rocks with these zircons may be unexposed, occur more widely in the Lower Jurassic than in the Upper Triassic. These facts suggest that from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, it was increasingly difficult for sediments to transport from the NCB into the northern Sichuan basin and the provenance transferred progressively from the southern NCB to both the SQB and northern Yangtze block, implying the continuous South China block-NCB collision during that time.

  6. Clay mineral contribution from various provenances in the northern South China Sea over the past 400 kyr: implications for the East Asian monsoon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Xie, Xin; Kissel, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Clay mineralogy of Core MD12-3432 taken at 2125 m water depth (CIRCEA cruise on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne, IPEV) in the northern South China Sea was investigated in order to understand the time series contribution of terrigenous sediments from various provenances. With calibration of a low-resolution analysis on carbonate concentration and major elements, we converted the XRF core scanned calcium data into a high-resolution carbonate content records. Through referring to the well-dated carbonate record of nearby Core MD05-2904, we established a reliable age model, indicating about 400 kyr ago at the bottom of Core MD12-3432. The clay mineral assemblage is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). The time series variation of clay mineral assemblages indicates strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity. In general, the variation in smectite content is similar to that of carbonate concentration, with higher values during interglacials than during glacials, while illite and chlorite contents showing opposite patterns. The change in kaolinite content shows an independent pattern with high values during glacials, corresponding well with the illite crystallinity variation. The provenance analysis of these clay minerals suggests three end-member sources: all smectites derive from Luzon, all kaolinites originate from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite are coming from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. Using the linear separation method of illite crystallinity, a time series of the clay mineral contribution from the three major provenances to the northern South China Sea was reconstructed. Combined with spectral analyses, we suggest the clay mineral contribution from Pearl River was mainly influenced by sea level change, while the East Asian summer monsoon controlled the contribution from Luzon. The strong precipitation rate related to intensive East Asian summer monsoon would have enhanced the denudation and

  7. Evolution of the western East African Rift System reflected in provenance changes of Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments (Albertine Rift, Uganda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Sandra; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments in the Albertine Graben reflect the complex geodynamic evolution in the Western branch of the East African Rift System. In this study we focus on the provenance of these siliciclastic deposits to identify sediment sources and supply paths with the ultimate goal to reconstruct the exhumation history of different tectonic blocks during prolonged rifting, with specific focus on the uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda. We present framework and heavy mineral petrographic data combined with varietal studies of detrital garnet and rutile, based on logged sediment sections on the Ugandan side of Lake Albert (Kisegi-Nyabusosi area). The analyzed sedimentary units have a feldspatho-quartzose composition and distinct variations in heavy mineral assemblages and mineral chemical composition indicating two provenance changes. The Miocene part of the stratigraphy is dominated by garnet, zircon, tourmaline and rutile, whereas Pliocene to Pleistocene sediment yields high amounts of less stable amphibole and epidote. An abrupt switch in heavy mineral assemblages occurs during the early Pliocene ( 5.5-5.0 Ma) and clearly postdates the formation of Palaeolake Obweruka at 8 Ma. Provenance signatures point to major sediment supply from the northeast and subsequently from the southeast. We interpret this first shift as transition from the pre-rift to the syn-rift stage. In this scenario, formation of Palaeolake Obweruka is due to higher humidity in the upper Miocene, rather than forced rifting. A second change of sediment composition is documented by mineral geochemistry and coincides with fragmentation of Palaeolake Obweruka starting at 2.5 Ma. Detrital garnet in sediment of Miocene to Pliocene age is rich in pyrope and almandine and calculated Zr-in-rutile temperatures range between 550 and 950 °C. In contrast, garnet occurring in Pleistocene sediment (Nyabusosi Formation) has a higher spessartine component and rutile thermometry is

  8. The QCD evolution of TMD in the covariant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, A. V.; Teryaev, O. V.; Zavada, P.

    2016-02-01

    The procedure for calculation of the QCD evolution of transverse momentum dependent distributions within the covariant approach is suggested. The standard collinear QCD evolution together with the requirements of relativistic invariance and rotational symmetry of the nucleon in its rest frame represent the basic ingredients of our approach. The obtained results are compared with the predictions of some other approaches.

  9. Sediment provenance and paleoenvironmental change since 35 ka in the western North America: Constrained by the mineral evolution in the Tulare Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Pyles, C. G.; Negrini, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Tulare Lake is a natural laboratory for the study of late Quaternary paleoclimate change in the western North America. In this study we reconstructed the evolution of mineral assemblages of the bulk and clay-size fraction in Cores TL05-4A and TL05-1B retrieved from the Tulare Lake. Composite clay is the dominant composition in the bulk fraction with average contents of ~ 48% followed by quartz, feldspar, and calcite. Smectite dominates the clay mineral compositions, with average contents above ~ 60%. Mineral assemblages since 35 ka are related to changes in sediment provenance and paleoenvironment. Abrupt increase in clay and illite+chlorite content occurred about 14,500 cal BP, which correlates to the end of of the last glacial maximum in California (i.e., the Tioga). Clay content and illite+chlorite increased during post-glaciation whereas quartz+feldspars and smectite decreased. During post-glaciation, melted glaciers increased water supply and sediment discharge to the Tulare Lake. Increase of water supply raised the lake level leading to transgression so that relatively more fine clays deposited in the post-glaciation strata. More illite+chlorite-rich sediments from the Sierra Nevada Mountains diluted the smectite-rich sediments supplied from the near local area to the Tulare Lake. The content ratio fluctuation of smectite versus illite+chlorite during post-glaciation may be useful as a proxy for the precipitation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  10. [Technological approach to insect anatomy and evolution].

    PubMed

    Fedoseeva, E B

    2008-01-01

    Principal disadvantage of most of the recent approaches to reconstructions of the insect evolution is due to comparison of the species by formal character sets with unknown functional relations. This leads to ignorance of the systemic nature of differences caused by integrity of the living beings. Under consideration is an alternative approach to description of the insect body construction based on A.M. Ugolev's concept of natural technologies. According to it, a morphological structure is a device designed for fulfilment of certain tasks. Therefore, a structure's characteristics have to fulfill the tasks' conditions. This approach is considered as applied to the systems of muscles and sclerits providing for vitally significant functions such as feeding, locomotion, communication, protection etc. Any such skeletal-muscle system is arranged hierarchically. A muscle together with its supporting sclerits is considered as a skeletal-muscle complex (SMC) capable for a mechanic action. Such SMCs, after respective muscle activations, are integrated into blocks responsible for the elementary tasks of the lower level of the motoric process. Each block can be formed by both a particular active SMC and by a group of biomechanical elements. Each block is considered mono-functional, unlike multifunctional SMCs, as it accomplishes a particular elementary task, namely displacement of a particular sclerit. Various compositions of blocks form subsystems corresponding to the higher level tasks. An aggregation of SMCs constituting the blocks accomplishing elementary actions is defined as the technological system designed for the motoric process. Organismic SMCs being compositionally constant, control over their activity serves as a mechanism of combining biomechanical elements. This mechanism is responsible for creation of a wide spectrum of motoric systems. SMCs' composition is changed in the course of evolution which is reflected into motoric parameters. Thus, certain

  11. [Technological approach to insect anatomy and evolution].

    PubMed

    Fedoseeva, E B

    2008-01-01

    Principal disadvantage of most of the recent approaches to reconstructions of the insect evolution is due to comparison of the species by formal character sets with unknown functional relations. This leads to ignorance of the systemic nature of differences caused by integrity of the living beings. Under consideration is an alternative approach to description of the insect body construction based on A.M. Ugolev's concept of natural technologies. According to it, a morphological structure is a device designed for fulfilment of certain tasks. Therefore, a structure's characteristics have to fulfill the tasks' conditions. This approach is considered as applied to the systems of muscles and sclerits providing for vitally significant functions such as feeding, locomotion, communication, protection etc. Any such skeletal-muscle system is arranged hierarchically. A muscle together with its supporting sclerits is considered as a skeletal-muscle complex (SMC) capable for a mechanic action. Such SMCs, after respective muscle activations, are integrated into blocks responsible for the elementary tasks of the lower level of the motoric process. Each block can be formed by both a particular active SMC and by a group of biomechanical elements. Each block is considered mono-functional, unlike multifunctional SMCs, as it accomplishes a particular elementary task, namely displacement of a particular sclerit. Various compositions of blocks form subsystems corresponding to the higher level tasks. An aggregation of SMCs constituting the blocks accomplishing elementary actions is defined as the technological system designed for the motoric process. Organismic SMCs being compositionally constant, control over their activity serves as a mechanism of combining biomechanical elements. This mechanism is responsible for creation of a wide spectrum of motoric systems. SMCs' composition is changed in the course of evolution which is reflected into motoric parameters. Thus, certain

  12. A phylogenomic approach to microbial evolution.

    PubMed

    Sicheritz-Pontén, T; Andersson, S G

    2001-01-15

    To study the origin and evolution of biochemical pathways in microorganisms, we have developed methods and software for automatic, large-scale reconstructions of phylogenetic relationships. We define the complete set of phylogenetic trees derived from the proteome of an organism as the phylome and introduce the term phylogenetic connection as a concept that describes the relative relationships between taxa in a tree. A query system has been incorporated into the system so as to allow searches for defined categories of trees within the phylome. As a complement, we have developed the pyphy system for visualising the results of complex queries on phylogenetic connections, genomic locations and functional assignments in a graphical format. Our phylogenomics approach, which links phylogenetic information to the flow of biochemical pathways within and among microbial species, has been used to examine more than 8000 phylogenetic trees from seven microbial genomes. The results have revealed a rich web of phylogenetic connections. However, the separation of Bacteria and Archaea into two separate domains remains robust.

  13. A Proven Way to Incorporate Catholic Social Thought in Business School Curricula: Teaching Two Approaches to Management in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Widespread agreement suggests that it is appropriate and desirable to develop and teach business theory and practice consistent with Catholic social teaching (CST) in Catholic business schools. Such a curriculum would cover the same mainstream material taught in other business schools, but then offer a CST approach to business that can be…

  14. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  15. New approach to the differentiation of marble samples using thermal analysis and chemometrics in order to identify provenance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The possibility of applying a novel chemometric approach which could allow the differentiation of marble samples, all from different quarries located in the Mediterranean basin and frequently used in ancient times for artistic purposes, was investigated. By suggesting tentative or allowing to rule out unlikely attributions, this kind of differentiation could, indeed, be of valuable support to restorers and other professionals in the field of cultural heritage. Experimental data were obtained only using thermal analytical techniques: Thermogravimetry (TG), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Results The extraction of kinetic parameters from the curves obtained using these thermal analytical techniques allowed Activation Energy values to be evaluated together with the logarithm of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor of the main TG-DTG process. The main data thus obtained after subsequent chemometric evaluation (using Principal Components Analysis) have already proved useful in the identification the original quarry of a small number of archaeological marble finds. Conclusion One of the most evident advantages of the thermoanalytical – chemometric approach adopted seems to be that it allows the certain identification of an unknown find composed of a marble known to be present among the reference samples considered, that is, contained in the reference file. On the other hand with equal certainty it prevents the occurrence of erroneous or highly uncertain identification if the find being tested does not belong to the reference file considered. PMID:24982691

  16. Evolution of a Teaching Approach for Beginning Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rakhi; Subramaniam, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article reports aspects of the evolution of a teaching approach over repeated trials for beginning symbolic algebra. The teaching approach emphasized the structural similarity between arithmetic and algebraic expressions and aimed at supporting students in making a transition from arithmetic to beginning algebra. The study was conducted with…

  17. Differential Evolution approach to detect recent admixture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of human populations is extraordinarily complex and of fundamental importance to studies of anthropology, evolution, and medicine. As increasingly many individuals are of mixed origin, there is an unmet need for tools that can infer multiple origins. Misclassification of such individuals can lead to incorrect and costly misinterpretations of genomic data, primarily in disease studies and drug trials. We present an advanced tool to infer ancestry that can identify the biogeographic origins of highly mixed individuals. reAdmix can incorporate individual's knowledge of ancestors (e.g. having some ancestors from Turkey or a Scottish grandmother). reAdmix is an online tool available at http://chcb.saban-chla.usc.edu/reAdmix/. PMID:26111206

  18. Thermal force approach to molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Braun, Dieter; Libchaber, Albert

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments are discussed where temperature gradients across mesoscopic pores are shown to provide essential mechanisms for autonomous molecular evolution. On the one hand, laminar thermal convection can drive DNA replication as the molecules are continuously cycled between hot and cold regions of a chamber. On the other hand, thermophoresis can accumulate charged biopolymers in similar convection settings. The experiments show that temperature differences analogous to those across porous rocks present a robust nonequilibrium boundary condition to feed the replication and accumulation of evolving molecules. It is speculated that similar nonequilibrium conditions near porous submarine hydrothermal mounds could have triggered the origin of life. In such a scenario, the encapsulation of cells with membranes would be a later development. It is expected that detailed studies of mesoscopic boundary conditions under nonequilibrium conditions will reveal new connecting pieces in the fascinating puzzle of the origins of life. PMID:16204812

  19. Experimental approaches to studying cumulative cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Christine A.; Atkinson, Mark; Renner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In humans, cultural traditions often change in ways which increase efficiency and functionality. This process, widely referred to as cumulative cultural evolution, sees beneficial traits preferentially retained, and it is so pervasive that we may be inclined to take it for granted. However, directional change of this kind appears to distinguish human cultural traditions from behavioural traditions that have been documented in other animals. Cumulative culture is therefore attracting an increasing amount of attention within psychology, and researchers have begun to develop methods of studying this phenomenon under controlled conditions. These studies have now addressed a number of different questions, including which learning mechanisms may be implicated, and how the resulting behaviours may be influenced by factors such as population structure. The current article provides a synopsis of some of these studies, and highlights some of the unresolved issues in this field. PMID:27397972

  20. Evolution, Physics, and Cancer: Disrupting Traditional Approache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert

    Physicists who were recruited to try and assist with the stubbornly constant mortality rates of cancer world-wide over the past 100 years have basically had the invitation withdrawn by the oncology community. The oncologists became annoyed with the independence of thought and the skepticism of some physicists with continuation of the present paradigm of the cancer genome as the rosette stone as the key to cancer. To quote a recent letter in Physics Today: ``Curing cancer is a complex biological problem to be solved by biologists''. Apparently our mission as minions is is to be high-level technicians. But I think that is wrong and will lead to continuation of the string of failures and deceptions foisted on the public at large by the Medical Industrial Complex, I think we really need to re-think cancer as a phenomena which is driven by evolution and may be desired by the organism and be a product of both the aging of the proteome and the genome. Further, searching for mutations (The Cancer Genome) may be completely the wrong direction, searching for protected genes may be as important as looking for mutated genes. I'll try to present the case that physicists should not have been kicked out of the Medical Industrial Complex that keeps the cancer business humming and profitable.

  1. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  2. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  3. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  4. Tectonomagmatic setting and provenance of the Santa Marta Schists, northern Colombia: Insights on the growth and approach of Cretaceous Caribbean oceanic terranes to the South American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; García-Casco, A.; Ojeda, G.; Ruiz, J.; Saldarriaga, M.; Weber, M.

    2010-10-01

    Metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks accreted to the northern South American continental margin are major vestiges of the Caribbean oceanic plate evolution and its interactions with the continent. Selected whole rock geochemistry, Nd-Sr isotopes and detrital zircon geochronology were obtained in metabasic and metasedimentary rocks from the Santa Marta and San Lorenzo Schists in northernmost Colombia. Trace element patterns are characterized by primitive island arc and MORB signatures. Similarly initial 87Sr/ 86Sr-ɛ Nd isotopic relations correlate with oceanic arcs and MORB reservoirs, suggesting that the protoliths were formed within a back-arc setting or at the transition between the inta-oceanic arc and the Caribbean oceanic crust. Trace element trends from associated metasedimentary rocks show that the provenance was controlled by a volcanic arc and a sialic continental domain, whereas detrital U/Pb zircons from the Santa Marta Schists and adjacent southeastern metamorphic units show Late Cretaceous and older Mesozoic, Late Paleozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources. Comparison with continental inland basins suggests that this arc-basin is allocthonous to its current position, and was still active by ca. 82 Ma. The geological features are comparable to other arc remnants found in northeastern Colombia and the Netherland Antilles. The geochemical and U/Pb detrital signatures from the metasedimentary rocks suggest that this tectonic domain was already in proximity to the continental margin, in a configuration similar to the modern Antilles or the Kermadec arc in the Pacific. The older continental detritus were derived from the ongoing Andean uplift feeding the intra-oceanic tectonic environment. Cross-cutting relations with granitoids and metamorphic ages suggest that metamorphism was completed by ca. 65 Ma.

  5. Evolution of biomedical ontologies and mappings: Overview of recent approaches.

    PubMed

    Groß, Anika; Pruski, Cédric; Rahm, Erhard

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies are heavily used to annotate data, and different ontologies are often interlinked by ontology mappings. These ontology-based mappings and annotations are used in many applications and analysis tasks. Since biomedical ontologies are continuously updated dependent artifacts can become outdated and need to undergo evolution as well. Hence there is a need for largely automated approaches to keep ontology-based mappings up-to-date in the presence of evolving ontologies. In this article, we survey current approaches and novel directions in the context of ontology and mapping evolution. We will discuss requirements for mapping adaptation and provide a comprehensive overview on existing approaches. We will further identify open challenges and outline ideas for future developments. PMID:27642503

  6. Depositional and provenance record of the Paleogene transition from foreland to hinterland basin evolution during Andean orogenesis, northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Christopher J.; Horton, Brian K.; Caballero, Victor; Mora, Andrés; Parra, Mauricio; Sierra, Jair

    2011-10-01

    The Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera of the northern Andes form the topographic flanks of the north-trending Magdalena Valley Basin. Constraining the growth of these ranges and intervening basin has implications for Andean shortening and the transformation from a foreland to hinterland basin configuration. We present sedimentological, paleocurrent, and sandstone petrographic results from Cenozoic type localities to provide insights into the tectonic history of the northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin of Colombia. In the Nuevo Mundo Syncline, the mid-Paleocene transition from marine to nonmarine deposystems of the Lisama Formation corresponds with a paleocurrent shift from northward to eastward transport. These changes match detrital geochronological evidence for a contemporaneous shift from cratonic (Amazonian) to orogenic (Andean) provenance, suggesting initial shortening-related uplift of the Central Cordillera and foreland basin generation in the Magdalena Valley by mid-Paleocene time. Subsequent establishment of a meandering fluvial system is recorded in lower-middle Eocene strata of the lower La Paz Formation. Eastward paleocurrents in mid-Paleocene through uppermost Eocene fluvial deposits indicate a continuous influence of western sediment source areas. However, at the upper middle Eocene (˜40 Ma) boundary between the lower and upper La Paz Formation, sandstone compositions show a drastic decrease in lithic content, particularly lithic volcanic fragments. This change is accompanied by a facies shift from mixed channel and overbank facies to thick, amalgamated braided fluvial deposits of possible fluvial megafans, reflecting changes in both the composition and proximity of western sediment sources. We attribute these modifications to the growing influence of exhumed La Cira-Infantas paleohighs in the axial Magdalena Valley, features presently buried beneath upper Eocene-Quaternary basin fill along the western flank of the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. In

  7. Late Cretaceous protolith age and provenance of the Pelona and Orocopia Schists, southern California: Implications for evolution of the Cordilleran margin

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, C.E.; Barth, A.P.; Grove, M.

    2000-03-01

    The Pelona and Orocopia Schists are southern members of a eugeoclinal terrane that structurally underlies a large part of southwestern North America. Ion-microprobe U-Pb ages of >100 detrital zircons from three widely spaced samples of these two units indicate that deposition occurred after 70--80 Ma. Moreover, the distribution of zircon ages, including a significant peak centered ca. 1.7 Ga, implies a major contribution f detritus from the Mojave Desert and Transverse Ranges of southern California. Recrystallization of the schists at depths of 20--35 km occurred within 10--15 m.y. of deposition, which requires underthrusting at minimum rates of {approximately}4--12 mm/yr for reasonable thrust dips. Considering that similar processes formed the more northern Rand Schist at somewhat earlier times, results indicate a southward progression in timing of deformation for the schists' protoliths. This result is at odds with northward migration of deformation implied by the Baja British Columbia hypothesis. The age and provenance of the schist's protoliths are consistent with models that derive the schists from either the Franciscan Complex or Great Valley Group.

  8. Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety — Evolution and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for the detection of oxygen in industrial safety applications has historically been met by electrochemical technologies based on the consumption of metal anodes. Products using this approach have been technically and commercially successful for more than three decades. However, a combination of new requirements is driving the development of alternative approaches offering fresh opportunities and challenges. This paper reviews some key aspects in the evolution of consumable anode products and highlights recent developments in alternative technologies aimed at meeting current and anticipated future needs in this important application. PMID:24681673

  9. Provenance of metasedimentary rocks of the Western Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain: Contribution to understand the crustal evolution of southern Borborema Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Rodrigo Fabiano da; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Accioly, Ana Cláudia de Aguiar

    2014-12-01

    The Borborema Province is a complex neoproterozoic orogen in northeastern Brazil, made of a mosaic of fault-bounded terrains and several metassedimentary sequences. In the present work, new zircon U-Pb provenance data for metasedimentary rocks in the Western Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain, southern part of the Province, are reported. Detrital zircon ages range from Archean to Neoproterozoic. Three samples of the Cabrobó Complex were investigated: (i) sillimanite-kyanite-garnet-biotite schist, which presented mostly Ediacaran and Cryogenian detrital zircon ages (youngest zircon at ca. 554 Ma) indicating erosion of neoproterozoic sources, (ii) garnet-biotite schist, which has a dominant Tonian/Stenian population, a less abundant Cryogenian (youngest zircon age at ca. 643 Ma) as well as Paleoproterozoic and Archean zircon grains, and (iii) tourmaline-muscovite quartzite, which contains detrital zircon varying in age between ca. 2.08 Ga and 1.57 Ga, and an abundant population close to the Meso/Paleoproterozoic boundary, possibly associated with the erosion of rocks formed during the Statherian taphrogenesis, known in the central part of the São Francisco Craton as well as in other areas of the Borborema Province. Two samples of the Riacho Seco Metasedimentary Complex were also investigated: (i) a biotite schist with a dominant population presenting ages mostly between 2.3 and 2.7 Ga (youngest zircon age at ca. 2023 Ma) and (ii) a magnetite-biotite-muscovite quartzite, having detrital zircon grains with ages ranging between ca. 1.9 and 2.7 Ga. The sedimentary rocks of the Riacho Seco Complex may have their origin related to the erosion of sources within the São Francisco Craton. The data for the Riacho Seco metasedimentary rocks, however, are not conclusive with respect to the depositional age of the original sedimentary rocks. The sequence might represent exposure of an old (Paleoproterozoic) sedimentary pile or, alternatively, it comprises a neoproterozoic passive

  10. Multi-Model approach to reconstruct the Mediterranean Freshwater Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Dirk; Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Lunt, Dan; Hilgen, Frits; Meijer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Today the Mediterranean Sea is isolated from the global ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar. This restricted nature causes the Mediterranean basin to react more sensitively to climatic and tectonic related phenomena than the global ocean. Not just eustatic sea-level and regional river run-off, but also gateway tectonics and connectivity between sub-basins are leaving an enhanced fingerprint in its geological record. To understand its evolution, it is crucial to understand how these different effects are coupled. The Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record of the Mediterranean shows alternations in composition and colour and has been astronomically tuned. Around the Miocene-Pliocene Boundary the most extreme changes occur in the Mediterranean Sea. About 6% of the salt in the global ocean deposited in the Mediterranean Region, forming an approximately 2 km thick salt layer, which is still present today. This extreme event is named the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33 Ma). The gateway and climate evolution is not well constrained for this time, which makes it difficult to distinguish which of the above mentioned drivers might have triggered the MSC. We, therefore, decided to tackle this problem via a multi-model approach: (1) We calculate the Mediterranean freshwater evolution via 30 atmosphere-ocean-vegetation simulations (using HadCM3L), to which we fitted to a function, using a regression model. This allows us to directly relate the orbital curves to evaporation, precipitation and run off. The resulting freshwater evolution can be directly correlated to other sedimentary and proxy records in the late Miocene. (2) By feeding the new freshwater evolution curve into a box/budget model we can predict the salinity and strontium evolution of the Mediterranean for a certain Atlantic-Mediterranean gateway. (3) By comparing these results to the known salinity thresholds of gypsum and halite saturation of sea water, but also to the late Miocene Mediterranean strontium

  11. Innocent Until Proven Guilty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Catherine; Whitaker, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this…

  12. The provenance of rutile.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    Most coarse detrital rutile is derived from high-grade metamorphic rocks. Contrary to a conventional assumption, independent rutile grains are particularly rare in igneous rocks except alkalic rocks. The use of rutile in the zircon-tourmaline-rutile index of mineralogic maturity is only partially valid, owing to its restricted provenance. -Author

  13. Sandstone provenance and tectonic evolution of the Xiukang Mélange from Neotethyan subduction to India-Asia collision (Yarlung-Zangbo suture, south Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Wei; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Xiukang Mélange of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone in south Tibet documents low efficiency of accretion along the southern active margin of Asia during Cretaceous Neotethyan subduction, followed by final development during the early Paleogene stages of the India-Asia collision. Here we investigate four transverses in the Xigaze area (Jiding, Cuola Pass, Riwuqi and Saga), inquiry the composition in each transverse, and present integrated petrologic, U-Pb detrital-zircon geochronology and Hf isotope data on sandstone blocks. In fault contact with the Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite to the north and the Tethyan Himalaya to the south, the Xiukang mélange can be divided into three types: serpentinite-matrix mélange composed by broken Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite, thrust-sheets consisting mainly chert, quartzose or limestone sheets(>100m) with little intervening marix, and mudstone-matrix mélange displaying typical blocks-in-matrix texture. While serpentinite-matrix mélange is exposed adjacent to the ophiolite, distributions of thrust-sheets and blocks in mudstone-matrix mélange show along-strike diversities. For example, Jiding transverse is dominant by chert sheets and basalt blocks with scarcely sandstone blocks, while Cuola Pass and Saga transverses expose large amounts of limestone/quartzarenite sheets in the north and volcaniclastic blocks in the south. However, turbidite sheets and volcaniclastic blocks are outcropped in the north Riwuqi transverse with quartzarenite blocks preserved in the south. Three groups of sandstone blocks/sheets with different provenance and depositional setting are distinguished by their petrographic, geochronological and isotopic fingerprints. Sheets of turbiditic quartzarenite originally sourced from the Indian continent were deposited in pre-Cretaceous time on the northernmost edge of the Indian passive margin and eventually involved into the mélange at the early stage of the India-Asia collision. Two distinct groups of volcaniclastic

  14. Estimating evolution of temporal sequence changes: a practical approach to inferring ancestral developmental sequences and sequence heterochrony.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Luke B; Larsson, Hans C E

    2008-06-01

    Developmental biology often yields data in a temporal context. Temporal data in phylogenetic systematics has important uses in the field of evolutionary developmental biology and, in general, comparative biology. The evolution of temporal sequences, specifically developmental sequences, has proven difficult to examine due to the highly variable temporal progression of development. Issues concerning the analysis of temporal sequences and problems with current methods of analysis are discussed. We present here an algorithm to infer ancestral temporal sequences, quantify sequence heterochronies, and estimate pseudoreplicate consensus support for sequence changes using Parsimov-based genetic inference [PGi]. Real temporal developmental sequence data sets are used to compare PGi with currently used approaches, and PGi is shown to be the most efficient, accurate, and practical method to examine biological data and infer ancestral states on a phylogeny. The method is also expandable to address further issues in developmental evolution, namely modularity. PMID:18570033

  15. Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N

    2011-03-01

    Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law. PMID:21055440

  16. Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N

    2011-03-01

    Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.

  17. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  18. Sm-Nd isotopic study of Precambrian/Cambrian sedimentary provenance in the Great Basin and implications for the tectonic evolution of the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nd isotopic compositions and Sm-Nd model ages were determined for 14 Precambrian to Cambrian clastic miogeoclinal and 2 Lower Paleozoic eugeoclinal metasedimentary rocks in the Great Basin to determine the sediment source regions and constrain the tectonic evolution of the western margin of the continental US Upper Precambrian (McCoy Creek Group-MCG) and Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal sandstones and shales have homogeneous 147SM/144Nd values (.110 to .119) but show a regional variation in measured element of/sub Nd/, from values of -18 and -26 (T/sub DM/=1.9 and 2.5Ga) in the Pilot and Ruby Ranges in N. Nevada, to values clustering at -11 and -18 (T/sub DM/=1.3 and 1.9Ga) in the Deep Creek and Schell Creek Ranges in the east-central Great Basin. The isotopic variations in the MCG correspond spatially to changes in the element of/sub ND/(0) and T/sub DM/ Precambrian basement adjacent to the miogeocline, suggesting that the MCG were derived from these crustal terranes and were deposited close to the paleocontinental margin of the western US. An element of/sub Nd/(0)=22.14 (T/sub DM/=2.1 Ga) for deeper water miogeoclinal sediment in the southern Great Basin (Wyman Fm-White Mountains, California) requires a source either in nearby T/sub DM/=2.2Ga crust in the S. Sierra Nevada (Bennett and DePaolo, 1984), or in T/sub DM/>2.0Ga crustal terranes to the north, with the sediment having been transported southward via Precambrian longshore currents. Feldspathic sandstone of the Cambrian Harmony Formation in north-central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-25.22 (T/sub DM/=2.4Ga), consistent with a northerly source in Archean crust of present-day Idaho, while Ordovician shale of the Vinini Fm. in central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-17.6, identical to values for the MCG exposed directly to the east.

  19. Quaternary coastal evolution of Oman (Arabian Peninsula) - a quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, G.; Rupprechter, M.; Roepert, A.; Quraishi, K. Al; Balushi, N. Al; Grützner, C.; Reicherter, K.

    2012-04-01

    The paper reviews the Quaternary coastal evolution of Oman. Emphasise is put on quantifying the different forcing factors. The plate tectonic setting, the Quaternary climate evolution, the sea-level history and the impact of natural hazards are identified as key factors of coastal evolution. The Arabian Plate is characterized by a northward movement forming a continent-continent collision zone in the west and the Makran Subduction Zone in the east. As a result differential land movement is observable in Oman. The Quaternary climate evolution is well understood. Besides other proxies notably spelothems and aeolian deposits allow to draw a consistent picture. It is understood that changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone result in intensity-changes of the summer monsoon. These changes are related to global atmospheric circulation patterns. Data on the sea-level history are sparse; despite general assumptions of a sea-level lowstand, correlating with the last glacial maximum, resulting in terrestrial conditions within the Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, a mid-Holocene sea level highstand in the range of +2m is documented in several locations. The coastlines of Oman are affected by tsunami and hurricanes. However, almost no instrumental or historical data on the impact of such natural hazards are available due to the isolation of the country in the past. Several Quaternary deposits have been investigated in a reconnaissance survey. There is sound geological evidence for a tsunami to have affected the coastline in 1945, with the possibility of older tsunami events being also recorded in the geological record. There is strong evidence of differential land movement along the coastline; locally indicated by marine terraces in elevations of up to 400m (Rupprechter at al. 2012). By quantifying the differential land movement for numerous sites, the sea-level history will be revealed. Ultimately the data will be utilized to form the base of a modeling approach

  20. The evolution of chemoreception in squamate reptiles: a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, K

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of squamate reptile chemoreception have been paralleled by the growth and preeminence of cladistics in the field of systematics, but for the most part, workers in the former have failed to incorporate the conceptual and informational advances of the latter. In this paper, I attempt a preliminary rapprochement by combining the methods of phylogenetic systematics and current hypotheses of squamate relationships with an overview of squamate chemosensory biology. This purely phylogenetic approach leads to a number of falsifiable generalizations about the evolution of chemoreception in squamates: 1) Evolution of this system is conservative rather than plastic, reflecting to a large extent suprafamilial attributes rather than adaptation to local conditions; 2) Anguimorphs are highly chemosensory and teiids show convergence with this group; 3) Tongue-flicking, a bifurcated tongue tip, a vomeronasal (VNO) mushroom body, and a complete circular muscle system in the tongue are a correlated character complex associated with the attainment, in squamates, of a direct VNO-oral connection and the loss of a VNO-nasal connection; 4) There is little support for a visual-chemosensory dichotomy within Squamata; 5) Gekkotans are allied with Autarchoglossa, both phylogenetically and in terms of chemosensory biology; 6) Iguania are highly variable in chemosensory development; iguanids represent the primitive iguanian condition, while agamids and chamaeleonids have secondarily reduced or lost their chemosensory abilities; 7) Apparent contradictions in chemosensory behavior among iguanids probably represent intrafamilial divergence; 8) Ecological correlates within Iguanidae and other taxa might be spurious, resulting from historical factors unrelated to the adaptations in question; 9) The mechanical demands of lingual food prehension have constrained chemosensory evolution in Iguania; chemosensory evolution within Scleroglossa was permitted by the liberation of

  1. Analytical Approach to Eigen-Emittance Evolution in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Boaz; /SLAC

    2006-05-16

    This dissertation develops the subject of beam evolution in storage rings with nearly uncoupled symplectic linear dynamics. Linear coupling and dissipative/diffusive processes are treated perturbatively. The beam distribution is assumed Gaussian and a function of the invariants. The development requires two pieces: the global invariants and the local stochastic processes which change the emittances, or averages of the invariants. A map based perturbation theory is described, providing explicit expressions for the invariants near each linear resonance, where small perturbations can have a large effect. Emittance evolution is determined by the damping and diffusion coefficients. The discussion is divided into the cases of uniform and non-uniform stochasticity, synchrotron radiation an example of the former and intrabeam scattering the latter. For the uniform case, the beam dynamics is captured by a global diffusion coefficient and damping decrement for each eigen-invariant. Explicit expressions for these quantities near coupling resonances are given. In many cases, they are simply related to the uncoupled values. Near a sum resonance, it is found that one of the damping decrements becomes negative, indicating an anti-damping instability. The formalism is applied to a number of examples, including synchrobetatron coupling caused by a crab cavity, a case of current interest where there is concern about operation near half integer {nu}{sub x}. In the non-uniform case, the moment evolution is computed directly, which is illustrated through the example of intrabeam scattering. Our approach to intrabeam scattering damping and diffusion has the advantage of not requiring a loosely-defined Coulomb Logarithm. It is found that in some situations there is a small difference between our results and the standard approaches such as Bjorken-Mtingwa, which is illustrated by comparison of the two approaches and with a measurement of Au evolution in RHIC. Finally, in combining IBS

  2. Evolution of altruistic behavior by kin selection: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Engels, W R

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of altruistic and selfish behavior by kin selection has been analyzed previously by asking which types of behavior are favored by natural selection. A type of behavior is defined as a given cost/benefit ratio, c/b, in terms of Darwinian fitness. An alternative approach is to consider c/b itself as a quantitative character subject to natural selection and evolving toward an equilibrium. This approach allows consideration of a continuum of behavioral options as opposed to just two alternatives as in the previous work. Environmental restrictions on the availability of opportunities for fitness transactions are imposed so that the total benefit an individual can provide for or take from his relatives increases with his c/b ratio. General conditions for stable equilibria are derived. These depend only on the coefficient of relationship between donor and recipient (r) and the function describing the availability of benefit. They are independent of the heritability and variance in the population. Under weak selection, the equilibrium c/b ratio will be r/2 for altruistic behavior and 1/(2r) for selfish behavior. By contrast, standard theory predicts that all altruistic acts with c/b ratios less than r will be favored, and no equilibrium can be predicted except under certain special conditions where only two behavioral options are available. In general, these results show that evolution of the donor's behavior (altruism) tends to maximize the quantity rb--c, and evolution of the recipient (selfish behavior) maximizes b--rc. PMID:6572904

  3. Time Evolution of Pulsar Magnetosphere - An Implicit Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, Sushilkumar; Schlegel, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Magnetosphere for a pulsar plays a very significant role in its evolution and is regarded as an ideal site for high energy emission. Understanding the structure, dynamics and evolution of the magnetosphere is important. Contopoulos et al. (CKF, 1999) were able to demonstrate numerically the importance of current sheets (CS) along with the Goldreich-Julian charge density (1969). In addition, Spitkovsky (2006) was also able to numerically solve the time dependent hyperbolic system of equations and validate the existence of CS within the Alfvén radius and beyond. However the explicitnature of the numerical approach restricts the size of the time step, which results in an unresolved current sheet. Currently the CKF type magnetosphere is the new benchmark in pulsar modelling and hence CS and its distribution plays a key role. Its contribution in pulsar spin down mechanism, high energy emissions, flux outflow, reconnection events, acceleration mechanisms and locations is currently not understood and as a result resolution of the CS is critical. It is with this motivation that our group has decided to develop a computationally challenging implicit code under the force-free electrodynamics. With implicit approach the Courant number can be sufficiently large which will not only help to resolve the CS and spatial resolution but will also guide us within the high conductivity limit of resistive solutions, where the traditional explicit method becomes too expensive.

  4. Preparing Biology Teachers to Teach Evolution in a Project-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle; Park Rogers, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a project-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching evolution to inform efforts in teacher preparation. Data analysis of a secondary biology educator teaching evolution through a PBL approach illuminated: (1) active student voice, which allowed students to reflect on their positioning on evolution and consider multiple…

  5. Relational Neural Evolution Approach to Bank Failure Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Abudu, Bolanle; Markose, Sheri

    2007-12-26

    Relational neural networks as a concept offers a unique opportunity for improving classification accuracy by exploiting relational structure in data. The premise is that a relational classification technique, which uses information implicit in relationships, should classify more accurately than techniques that only examine objects in isolation. In this paper, we study the use of relational neural networks for predicting bank failure. Alongside classical financial ratios normally used as predictor variables, we introduced new relational variables for the network. The relational neural network structure, specified as a combination of feed forward and recurrent neural networks, is determined by bank data through neuro-evolution. We discuss empirical results comparing performance of the relational approach to standard propositional methods used for bank failure prediction.

  6. A systemic approach for modeling biological evolution using Parallel DEVS.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Daniel; Sanz, Victorino; Urquia, Alfonso; Sandín, Máximo

    2015-08-01

    A new model for studying the evolution of living organisms is proposed in this manuscript. The proposed model is based on a non-neodarwinian systemic approach. The model is focused on considering several controversies and open discussions about modern evolutionary biology. Additionally, a simplification of the proposed model, named EvoDEVS, has been mathematically described using the Parallel DEVS formalism and implemented as a computer program using the DEVSLib Modelica library. EvoDEVS serves as an experimental platform to study different conditions and scenarios by means of computer simulations. Two preliminary case studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model and validate its results. EvoDEVS is freely available at http://www.euclides.dia.uned.es. PMID:26116878

  7. Towards a Model-Driven Approach to Information System Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulsamh, Mohammed; Davies, Jim

    Models have always played an important role in information systems (IS) design: typically, entity-relationship diagrams or object models have been used to describe data structures and the relationships between them. Model transformation and code generation technologies have given models an even more important role: as part of the source code for the system. This "model-driven" approach, however, has application beyond initial implementation. This chapter shows how subsequent changes to a design, captured as an "evolution model", can be used to generate the data transformations required for the migration of data between different versions of the same system. The intention is to facilitate the adaptation of systems to changing requirements, using model-driven technologies for the rapid development of new versions, by reducing the cost and increasing the reliability of each migration step.

  8. A systemic approach for modeling biological evolution using Parallel DEVS.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Daniel; Sanz, Victorino; Urquia, Alfonso; Sandín, Máximo

    2015-08-01

    A new model for studying the evolution of living organisms is proposed in this manuscript. The proposed model is based on a non-neodarwinian systemic approach. The model is focused on considering several controversies and open discussions about modern evolutionary biology. Additionally, a simplification of the proposed model, named EvoDEVS, has been mathematically described using the Parallel DEVS formalism and implemented as a computer program using the DEVSLib Modelica library. EvoDEVS serves as an experimental platform to study different conditions and scenarios by means of computer simulations. Two preliminary case studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model and validate its results. EvoDEVS is freely available at http://www.euclides.dia.uned.es.

  9. Evolution of cyanobacterial morphotypes: Taxa required for improved phylogenomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E; Anisimova, Maria; Antonelli, Alexandre; Bagheri, Homayoun C

    2011-07-01

    Within prokaryotes cyanobacteria represent one of the oldest and morphologically most diverse phyla on Earth. The rise of oxygen levels in the atmosphere 2.32-2.45 billion years ago is assigned to the photosynthetic activity of ancestors from this phylum. Subsequently cyanobacteria were able to adapt to various habitats evolving a comprehensive set of different morphotypes. In a recent study we showed that this evolution is not a gradual transition from simple unicellular to more complex multicellular forms as often assumed. Instead complexity was lost several times and regained at least once. An understanding of the genetic basis of these transitions would be further strengthened by phylogenomic approaches. However, considering that new methods for phylogenomic analyses are emerging, it is unfortunate that genomes available today are comprised of an unbalanced sampling of taxa. We propose avenues to remedy this by identifying taxa that would improve the representation of phylogenetic diversity in this phylum. PMID:21966561

  10. Relational Neural Evolution Approach to Bank Failure Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudu, Bolanle; Markose, Sheri

    2007-12-01

    Relational neural networks as a concept offers a unique opportunity for improving classification accuracy by exploiting relational structure in data. The premise is that a relational classification technique, which uses information implicit in relationships, should classify more accurately than techniques that only examine objects in isolation. In this paper, we study the use of relational neural networks for predicting bank failure. Alongside classical financial ratios normally used as predictor variables, we introduced new relational variables for the network. The relational neural network structure, specified as a combination of feed forward and recurrent neural networks, is determined by bank data through neuro-evolution. We discuss empirical results comparing performance of the relational approach to standard propositional methods used for bank failure prediction.

  11. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of Permo-Carboniferous sandstones in central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for provenance and tectonic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Yu, Haifei; Wu, Tairan

    2016-03-01

    The tectonic setting of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) during the Late Paleozoic has been debated for many years. Provenance analysis of Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks can effectively address this issue. In this study, eight sandstone samples were collected for zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses combined with petrographic analysis. Framework petrography and zircon morphology suggest that the samples were from recycled orogen of an igneous origin. Carboniferous rocks, with a significant age peak at 432 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 9.0 to 13.6, were mainly derived from Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic rocks and deposited in a piedmont zone, namely, the margin of an inland sea. Permian rocks, mostly with age peaks at 445 Ma and/or 280 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 25.2 to 11.4, dominantly originated from a pre-existing Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic arc and Late Paleozoic igneous rocks. These rocks formed in restricted basins of the piedmont and intermountain zones. Based on zircon spectral discrimination, sedimentary environmental analysis, and previous studies, this study supports the interpretation that the southeastern CAOB entered stages of extension and rifting during the Late Paleozoic. In the end, this study proposes a tectonic-paleogeographic reconstruction to explain the tectonic evolution of the southeastern CAOB and the exhumation-transportation-deposition processes between the basins and ranges developed in this orogen.

  12. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Sanjiang Basin in NE China: Provenance record of an abrupt tectonic switch in the mode and nature of the NE Asian continental margin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Batt, Geoffrey E.; Dilek, Yildirim; A, Min-Na; Sun, Ming-Dao; Yang, Shu-Feng; Meng, Qi-An; Zhao, Xue-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The age spectra obtained from 505 spots of detrital zircon U-Pb ages of five representative sandstone samples from the Sanjiang Basin in NE China point to a significant change in its provenance during the Coniacian-Santonian. The predominant detrital source for the Sanjiang Basin during the early Cretaceous was the Zhangguangcai Range magmatic belt and Jiamusi Block along its western and southern periphery, whereas it changed in the late Cretaceous to its eastern periphery. The timing of these inferred changes in the detrital source regions and drainage patterns nearly coincide with the age of a regional unconformity in and across the basin. The time interval of non-deposition and unconformity development was coeval with a transitional period between an extensional tectonic regime in the early Cretaceous and a contractional deformation episode in the late Cretaceous. The Sanjiang Basin evolved during this time window from a backarc to a foreland basin. The migration of the coastal orogenic belt and the fold and thrust belt development farther inland during the late Cretaceous marked the onset of regional-scale shortening and surface uplift in the upper plate of a flat (or very shallow-dipping) subduction zone. The stratigraphic record, the detrital source and geochronology of the basinal strata, and the internal structure of the Sanjiang Basin present, therefore, an important record of a tectonic switch in the nature of continental margin evolution of Northeast Asia during the late Mesozoic.

  13. Mass balance approaches to understanding evolution of dripwater chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, I. J.; Baker, A.; Andersen, M. S.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Forward and inverse modelling of dripwater chemistry is a fast-developing area in speleothem science. Such approaches can incorporate theoretical, parameterized or observed relationships between forcing factors and water composition, but at the heart is mass balance: a fundamental principle that provides important constraints. Mass balance has been used in speleothem studies to trace the evolution of dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon isotopes from soil to cave, and to characterize the existence and quantification of prior calcite precipitation (PCP) based on ratios of Mg and Sr to Ca. PCP effects can dominate slow drips, whereas fast drips are more likely to show a residual variability linked to soil-biomass processes. A possible configuration of a more complete mass balance model is illustrated in the figure. Even in humid temperate climates, evapotranspiration can be 50% of total atmospheric precipitation leading to substantially raised salt contents and there can be significant exchange with biomass. In more arid settings, at least seasonal soil storage of salts is likely. Golgotha Cave in SW Australia is in a Mediterranean climate with a strong summer soil moisture deficit. The land surface is forested leading to large ion fluxes related to vegetation. There are also periodic disturbances related to fire. Mass balance approaches have been applied to an 8-year monitoring record. Inter-annual trends of elements coprecipitated in speleothems from fast drips are predicted to be dominated by biomass effects.

  14. A quantitative approach to evolution of music and philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Travieso, Gonzalo; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    The development of new statistical and computational methods is increasingly making it possible to bridge the gap between hard sciences and humanities. In this study, we propose an approach based on a quantitative evaluation of attributes of objects in fields of humanities, from which concepts such as dialectics and opposition are formally defined mathematically. As case studies, we analyzed the temporal evolution of classical music and philosophy by obtaining data for 8 features characterizing the corresponding fields for 7 well-known composers and philosophers, which were treated with multivariate statistics and pattern recognition methods. A bootstrap method was applied to avoid statistical bias caused by the small sample data set, with which hundreds of artificial composers and philosophers were generated, influenced by the 7 names originally chosen. Upon defining indices for opposition, skewness and counter-dialectics, we confirmed the intuitive analysis of historians in that classical music evolved according to a master-apprentice tradition, while in philosophy changes were driven by opposition. Though these case studies were meant only to show the possibility of treating phenomena in humanities quantitatively, including a quantitative measure of concepts such as dialectics and opposition, the results are encouraging for further application of the approach presented here to many other areas, since it is entirely generic.

  15. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  16. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    PubMed

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    researchers, are also critically analysed and further categorised into four different classes, namely, optical aberrations based, sensor camera fingerprints based, processing statistics based and processing regularities based, to present a classification. Furthermore, this paper aims to investigate the challenging problems, and the proposed strategies of such schemes based on the suggested taxonomy to plot an evolution of the source camera attribution approaches with respect to the subjective optimisation criteria over the last decade. The optimisation criteria were determined based on the strategies proposed to increase the detection accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency of source camera brand, model or device attribution.

  17. An evolution of image source camera attribution approaches.

    PubMed

    Jahanirad, Mehdi; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-05-01

    researchers, are also critically analysed and further categorised into four different classes, namely, optical aberrations based, sensor camera fingerprints based, processing statistics based and processing regularities based, to present a classification. Furthermore, this paper aims to investigate the challenging problems, and the proposed strategies of such schemes based on the suggested taxonomy to plot an evolution of the source camera attribution approaches with respect to the subjective optimisation criteria over the last decade. The optimisation criteria were determined based on the strategies proposed to increase the detection accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency of source camera brand, model or device attribution. PMID:27060542

  18. Tracking Provenance of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.

  19. Interpreting Evidence: An Approach to Teaching Human Evolution in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilva, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Paleoanthropology, which is the study of human evolution through fossil records, can be used as a tool for teaching human evolution in the classrooms. An updated approach to teaching human evolution and a model for explaining what is science and how it is done, is presented.

  20. Star clusters evolution simulation on basement of linguo- combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatyev, Mikhail B.

    2015-08-01

    Each of the clusters of star systems can be described using linguo- combinatorial approach through a formula that determines the number of arbitrary factors in the structure of equivalent equations as the number of combinations of n by m + 1, where n - number of stars in the cluster, m - number of constraints imposed on the stars cluster(M.Ignatyev “The linguo- combinatorial simulation in modern physics”\\\\ J. of Modern Physics,USA, 2012, Vol.1, No 1, p.7-11). Such clusters can be multiple, they can be combined into larger clusters or clusters can decay based on the effect of the collective. For example, if we have two clusters are characterized by the number of arbitrary coefficients S1 and S2, wherem1 + 1 m2 + 1S1 = C S2 = Cn1 n2then by imposing general restrictions mcol we will havem1 + m2 + mcol +1Scol = Cn1 + n2At the same time, depending on the specific parameters can be Scol > S1 + S2, when the union in collective increases the adaptive capabilities, and can be Scol < S1 + S2, where adaptive capacity of less than the sum of the collective adaptation a possibly initial clusters. In the first case, we can observe the effect of the formation of new large clusters, in the second case - the collapse of large clusters into smaller ones. The report deals with the simulation of the evolution of star clusters on the basement of linguo- combinatorial approach.

  1. Evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo: A landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Devès, Maud H; King, Geoffrey C P; Bailey, Geoffrey N; Inglis, Robyn H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The notion of the physical landscape as an arena of ecological interaction and human evolution is a powerful one, but its implementation at larger geographical and temporal scales is hampered by the challenges of reconstructing physical landscape settings in the geologically active regions where the earliest evidence is concentrated. We argue that the inherently dynamic nature of these unstable landscapes has made them important agents of biological change, creating complex topographies capable of selecting for, stimulating, obstructing or accelerating the latent and emerging properties of the human evolutionary trajectory. We use this approach, drawing on the concepts and methods of active tectonics, to develop a new perspective on the origins and dispersal of the Homo genus. We show how complex topography provides an easy evolutionary pathway to full terrestrialisation in the African context, and would have further equipped members of the genus Homo with a suite of adaptive characteristics that facilitated wide-ranging dispersal across ecological and climatic boundaries into Europe and Asia by following pathways of complex topography. We compare this hypothesis with alternative explanations for hominin dispersal, and evaluate it by mapping the distribution of topographic features at varying scales, and comparing the distribution of early Homo sites with the resulting maps and with other environmental variables. PMID:26235482

  2. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  3. Evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo: A landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Winder, Isabelle C; Devès, Maud H; King, Geoffrey C P; Bailey, Geoffrey N; Inglis, Robyn H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The notion of the physical landscape as an arena of ecological interaction and human evolution is a powerful one, but its implementation at larger geographical and temporal scales is hampered by the challenges of reconstructing physical landscape settings in the geologically active regions where the earliest evidence is concentrated. We argue that the inherently dynamic nature of these unstable landscapes has made them important agents of biological change, creating complex topographies capable of selecting for, stimulating, obstructing or accelerating the latent and emerging properties of the human evolutionary trajectory. We use this approach, drawing on the concepts and methods of active tectonics, to develop a new perspective on the origins and dispersal of the Homo genus. We show how complex topography provides an easy evolutionary pathway to full terrestrialisation in the African context, and would have further equipped members of the genus Homo with a suite of adaptive characteristics that facilitated wide-ranging dispersal across ecological and climatic boundaries into Europe and Asia by following pathways of complex topography. We compare this hypothesis with alternative explanations for hominin dispersal, and evaluate it by mapping the distribution of topographic features at varying scales, and comparing the distribution of early Homo sites with the resulting maps and with other environmental variables.

  4. A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature, validate scientific process, and associate trust value with data and results. Traditional approaches to provenance management have focused on only partial sections of the translational research life cycle and they do not incorporate "domain semantics", which is essential to support domain-specific querying and analysis by scientists. Results We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF), underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata: (a) Provenance collection - during data generation (b) Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics (c) Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications (d) Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applications We apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE) and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR) project, to demonstrate its effectiveness. Conclusions The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance of translational

  5. Provenance through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reproduce scientific results is a cornerstone of the scientific method, and access to the data upon which the results are based is essential to reproducibility. Access to the data alone is not enough though, and research communities have recognized the importance of metadata (data documentation) to enable discovery and data access, and facilitate interpretation and accurate reuse. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was first funded in late 2006 by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biology and Chemistry Sections to help ensure that data generated during NSF OCE funded research would be preserved and available for future use. The BCO-DMO was formed by combining the formerly independent data management offices of two marine research programs: the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS) and the US GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics (US GLOBEC) program. Since the US JGOFS and US GLOBEC programs were both active (1990s) there have been significant changes in all aspects of the research data life cycle, and the staff at BCO-DMO has modified the way in which we manage data contributed to the office. The supporting documentation that describes each dataset was originally displayed as a human-readable text file retrievable via a Web browser. BCO-DMO still offers that form because our primary audience is marine researchers using Web browser clients; however we are seeing an increased demand to support machine client access. Metadata records from the BCO-DMO data system are now extracted and published out in a variety of formats. The system supports ISO 19115, FGDC, GCMD DIF, schema.org Dataset extension, formal publication with a DOI, and RDF with semantic markup including PROV-O, FOAF and more. In the 1990s, data documentation helped researchers locate data of interest and understand the provenance sufficiently to determine fitness for purpose. Today, providing data

  6. Analysis Traceability and Provenance for HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Kovács, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the use of the CRISTAL software in the N4U project. CRISTAL was used to create a set of provenance aware analysis tools for the Neuroscience domain. This paper advocates that the approach taken in N4U to build the analysis suite is sufficiently generic to be able to be applied to the HEP domain. A mapping to the PROV model for provenance interoperability is also presented and how this can be applied to the HEP domain for the interoperability of HEP analyses.

  7. A Scientific Approach to Teaching about Evolution and Special Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson that addresses the scientific aspects of the evolution versus special creation controversy by having students gather evidence from the fossil record and analyze that evidence using critical-thinking skills. Contains 13 references. (WRM)

  8. Formation and evolution of galaxies: Analytical and numerical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2001-08-01

    The effects of viscosity and clumpiness are investigated in the context of the formation and the dynamical evolution of galaxies by analytical models and numerical simulations. The major motivation of this investigation is to study how these two factors can alter the angular momentum behavior of the galaxies formed in the bottom-up formation scenario as indicated by the hierarchical CDM cosmology. We analytically modify the standard disk formation model to incorporate the effect of viscous evolution. We derive generic analytic solutions for the disk-halo system after adiabatic compression of the dark halo, with free choice of the input virialized dark halo density profile and of the specific angular momentum distribution. We derive limits on the final density profile of the halo in the central regions due to the condensation of gas. The viscous evolution can redistribute angular momentum distribution by driving material inwards to form a proto- bulge which can be formed by the bar instability in the proto-disk, and by spreading gas to large radius to form pure exponential stellar disk if the viscous evolution timescale and star formation timescale are similar. The `disk-halo' conspiracy is found to be formed better by the disk-halo interaction during the viscous evolution of disk. We investigate the relationship between the assumed initial conditions, such as halo `formation', or assembly, redshift zf, spin parameter λ, baryonic fraction F, and final disk properties such as global star formation timescale, gas fraction, and bulge-to-disk ratio. We find that the present properties of disks, such as the scale length, are compatible with a higher initial formation redshift if the re-distribution by viscous evolution is included than if it is ignored. The numerical simulations confirm many results derived in the analytical model. Further it is found that pure viscous evolution can be unstable. Possibly feedback from star formation is required to maintain a stable

  9. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  10. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    This book explores the development of creoles and other new languages, highlighting conceptual and methodological issues for genetic linguistics and discussing the significance of ecologies that influence language evolution. It presents examples of changes in the structure, function, and vitality of languages, suggesting that similar ecologies…

  11. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  12. Predicting Thermal Conductivity Evolution of Polycrystalline Materials Under Irradiation Using Multiscale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-03-01

    A multiscale methodology was developed to predict the evolution of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline fuel under irradiation. In the mesoscale level, phase field model was used to predict the evolution of gas bubble microstructure. Generation of gas atoms and vacancies were taken into consideration. In the macroscopic scale, a statistical continuum mechanics model was applied to predict the anisotropic thermal conductivity evolution during irradiation. Microstructure predicted by phase field model was fed into statistical continuum mechanics model to predict properties and behavior. Influence of irradiation intensity, exposition time and morphology were investigated. This approach provides a deep understanding on microstructure evolution and property prediction from a basic scientific viewpoint.

  13. Biological evolution of replicator systems: towards a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Osmel; Horvath, J E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study the features of a simple replicator chemical model of the relation between kinetic stability and entropy production under the action of external perturbations. We quantitatively explore the different paths leading to evolution in a toy model where two independent replicators compete for the same substrate. To do that, the same scenario described originally by Pross (J Phys Org Chem 17:312-316, 2004) is revised and new criteria to define the kinetic stability are proposed. Our results suggest that fast replicator populations are continually favored by the effects of strong stochastic environmental fluctuations capable to determine the global population, the former assumed to be the only acting evolution force. We demonstrate that the process is continually driven by strong perturbations only, and that population crashes may be useful proxies for these catastrophic environmental fluctuations. As expected, such behavior is particularly enhanced under very large scale perturbations, suggesting a likely dynamical footprint in the recovery patterns of new species after mass extinction events in the Earth's geological past. Furthermore, the hypothesis that natural selection always favors the faster processes may give theoretical support to different studies that claim the applicability of maximum principles like the Maximum Metabolic Flux (MMF) or Maximum Entropy Productions Principle (MEPP), seen as the main goal of biological evolution.

  14. Unravelling the evolution of autumn colours: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Döring, Thomas F; Hagen, Snorre B; Hughes, Nicole M; Leather, Simon R; Lee, David W; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Manetas, Yiannis; Ougham, Helen J; Schaberg, Paul G; Thomas, Howard

    2009-03-01

    Leaf colour change is commonly observed in temperate deciduous forests in autumn. This is not simply a side effect of leaf senescence, and, in the past decade, several hypotheses have emerged to explain the evolution of autumn colours. Yet a lack of crosstalk between plant physiologists and evolutionary ecologists has resulted in slow progress, and so the adaptive value of this colour change remains a mystery. Here we provide an interdisciplinary summary of the current body of knowledge on autumn colours, and discuss unresolved issues and future avenues of research that might help reveal the evolutionary meaning of this spectacle of nature.

  15. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    SciTech Connect

    Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-06-06

    Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.

  16. An anthropometric approach to the study of evolution.

    PubMed

    van Vark, G N

    1987-01-01

    The study of human evolution has always been a major issue in physical anthropology. Since computers became available this study became a new dimension in that it became feasible to apply advanced mathematical multivariate methods which make use of morphometric data. However, looking back on what has been achieved so far with these methods, it must be admitted that the results obtained are often unsatisfactory. This has led to a certain lack of acceptance of these methods. In the present paper it is argued that very useful results may be obtained by applying more sophisticated multivariate methods which are specifically designed for the anthropological problems at issue. Three examples are given. The first deals with the controversy between "Creationism" on the one hand and "Evolutionism" on the other. Our results strongly support the Evolutionists' point of view. The second example deals with the reconstruction of human phylogeny. An investigation is discussed which has led to a startling new hypothesis concerning the evolution of man. The last example concerns a preliminary investigation of trends in human sexual dimorphism. The results obtained so far seem to support the opinion expressed by other workers that tendencies exist in our modern society which lead to changes in the present dimorphism. PMID:3132813

  17. Genomic approaches to typing, taxonomy and evolution of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, V; Mayall, B C

    2001-01-01

    The current literature on bacterial taxonomy, typing and evolution will be critically examined from the perspective of whole-genome structure, function and organization. The following three categories of DNA band pattern studies will be reviewed: (i) random whole-genome analysis; (ii) specific gene variation and (iii) mobile genetic elements. (i) The use of RAPD, PFGE and AFLP to analyse the whole genome will provide a skeleton of polymorphic sites with exact genomic positions as whole-genome sequence data become available. (ii) Different genes provide different levels of evolutionary information for determining isolate relatedness depending on whether they are highly variable (prone to recombination events and horizontal transfer), housekeeping genes with only a small number of single nucleotide differences between isolates or part of the rrn multigene family that is prone to intragenomic recombination and concerted evolution. Comparative analyses of these different gene classes can provide enhanced information about isolate relatedness. (iii) Mobile genetic elements such as insertion sequences, transposons, plasmids and bacteriophages integrate into the bacterial genome at specific (e.g. tRNA genes) or non-specific sites to alter band patterns produced by PFGE, RAPD or AFLP. From the literature it is not clear what level of genetic element duplication constitutes non-relatedness of isolates. A model is presented that incorporates all of the above genomic characteristics for the determination of isolate relatedness in taxonomic, typing and evolutionary studies.

  18. The evolution of anisogamy: a game-theoretic approach.

    PubMed

    Bulmer, M G; Parker, G A

    2002-11-22

    A popular theory has proposed that anisogamy originated through disruptive selection acting on an ancestral isogamous population, though recent work has emphasized the importance of other factors in its evolution. We re-examine the disruptive selection theory, starting from an isogamous population with two mating types and taking into account the functional relationship, g(m), between the fitness of a gamete and its size, m, as well as the relationship, f(S), between the fitness of a zygote and its size, S. Evolutionary game theory is used to determine the existence and continuous stability of isogamous and anisogamous strategies for the two mating types under various models for the two functions g(m) and f(S). In the ancestral unicellular state, these two functions are likely to have been similar; this leads to isogamy whether they are sigmoidal or concave, though in the latter case allowance must be made for a minimal gamete size. The development of multicellularity may leave g(m) relatively unchanged while f(S) moves to the right, leading to the evolution of anisogamy. Thus, the disruptive selection theory provides a powerful explanation of the origin of anisogamy, though other selective forces may have been involved in the subsequent specialization of micro- and macrogametes.

  19. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  20. Density evolution in systems with slow approach to equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin Taylor

    This dissertation investigates the evolution of probability densities under the Frobenius-Perron operator U in chaotic iterated-map systems that are slow to reach equilibrium. It first concentrates on one-dimensional maps that are slow to reach equilibrium because they feature intermittent chaos due to the presence of a marginal fixed point. Using the method of shift states and coherent states under U, certain results are obtained concerning the spectrum of U in various functional spaces, using as the main example the cusp map f( x) = 1 - ∣1-2x . Those results are applied to obtain corrections to the well-known leading 1/t form of the x-x autocorrelation function C(t). The symbolic dynamics of one-dimensional maps are then investigated, with particular emphasis on the implications of the existence of intermittent chaos and with applications to topological conjugation. Next, the statistics of extreme values in one-dimensional maps are investigated. Fn(x) is defined as the probability that a point chosen from an initial probability distribution and its first n - 1 iterates under a particular map are all less than x; the properties of F n(x) are derived analytically for a wide variety of one-dimensional maps, and the conclusions are confirmed numerically. Finally, higher-dimensional area-preserving maps are investigated. The technique of local spectral decomposition for U, in which approximate right and left eigenstates for U are constructed localized on unstable periodic points, is used to study density evolution and correlation of observables over time.

  1. Random Matrix Approach to Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulatov, Alexei; Smelyanskiy, Vadier N.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the power of quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms (Q-QA) for solving random NP-hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on the random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of the driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that the failure mechanism of the QAA is due to the interaction of the ground state with the "cloud" formed by all the excited states, confirming that in the driven RMT models. the Landau-Zener mechanism of dissipation is not important. We show that the QAEA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters. implying the polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAEA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the Gaussian Unitary RMT ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. However, the driven RMT model always leads to the exponential complexity of the algorithm due to the presence of the long-range intertemporal correlations of the eigenvalues. Our results indicate that the weakness of effective transitions is the leading effect that can make the Markovian type QAEA successful.

  2. Computational Approaches to Viral Evolution and Rational Vaccine Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2006-10-01

    Viral pandemics, including HIV, are a major health concern across the world. Experimental techniques available today have uncovered a great wealth of information about how these viruses infect, grow, and cause disease; as well as how our body attempts to defend itself against them. Nevertheless, due to the high variability and fast evolution of many of these viruses, the traditional method of developing vaccines by presenting a heuristically chosen strain to the body fails and an effective intervention strategy still eludes us. A large amount of carefully curated genomic data on a number of these viruses are now available, often annotated with disease and immunological context. The availability of parallel computers has now made it possible to carry out a systematic analysis of this data within an evolutionary framework. I will describe, as an example, how computations on such data has allowed us to understand the origins and diversification of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS. On the practical side, computations on the same data is now being used to inform choice or defign of optimal vaccine strains.

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux: natural evolution, diagnostic approach and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Badriul; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a normal physiologic process occurring several times per day in healthy infants. Regurgitation is defined as the passage of refluxed gastric contents into the pharynx or mouth, sometimes with expulsion out of the mouth. There are only a few studies that have been performed to determine the prevalence of regurgitation and its natural course in infants, and some of them were cross-sectional and retrospective. However, evaluation of the natural evolution of GER becomes difficult, since the emergence of widespread self-treatment and/or therapeutic interventions. It is important to determine which children have GER disease to offer optimal treatment and to avoid costly and potentially invasive diagnostic testing. Symptoms due to GER are troublesome when they have an adverse effect on the well-being of the pediatric patient. In regurgitating infants, decreasing the amount of regurgitation is often seen by the parents as the most welcomed intervention that physicians can provide. Many medications have been attempted to overcome GER in infants, each with their own advantages and limitations.

  4. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We analyze and compare PAV with related approaches, namely Provenance Vocabulary (PRV), DC Terms and BIBFRAME. We identify similarities and analyze differences between those vocabularies and PAV, outlining strengths and weaknesses of our proposed model. We specify SKOS mappings that align PAV with DC Terms. We conclude the paper with general remarks on the applicability of PAV. PMID:24267948

  5. Random matrix approach to quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Boulatov, A.; Smelyanskiy, V.N.

    2005-05-15

    We analyze the power of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm (QAA) for solving random computationally hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that nonadiabatic corrections in the QAA are due to the interaction of the ground state with the 'cloud' formed by most of the excited states, confirming that in driven RMT models, the Landau-Zener scenario of pairwise level repulsions is not relevant for the description of nonadiabatic corrections. We show that the QAA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters, implying a polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the RMT Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. For this reason, the driven GUE model can also lead to polynomial complexity of the QAA. The main contribution to the failure probability of the QAA comes from the nonadiabatic corrections to the eigenstates, which only depend on the absolute values of the transition amplitudes. Due to the mapping between the two models, these absolute values are the same in both cases. Our results indicate that this 'phase irrelevance' is the leading effect that can make both the Markovian- and GUE-type QAAs successful.

  6. Bridging Inter- and Intraspecific Trait Evolution with a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach.

    PubMed

    Kostikova, Anna; Silvestro, Daniele; Pearman, Peter B; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of organisms is crucially dependent on the evolution of intraspecific variation. Its interactions with selective agents in the biotic and abiotic environments underlie many processes, such as intraspecific competition, resource partitioning and, eventually, species formation. Nevertheless, comparative models of trait evolution neither allow explicit testing of hypotheses related to the evolution of intraspecific variation nor do they simultaneously estimate rates of trait evolution by accounting for both trait mean and variance. Here, we present a model of phenotypic trait evolution using a hierarchical Bayesian approach that simultaneously incorporates interspecific and intraspecific variation. We assume that species-specific trait means evolve under a simple Brownian motion process, whereas species-specific trait variances are modeled with Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. After evaluating the power of the method through simulations, we examine whether life-history traits impact evolution of intraspecific variation in the Eriogonoideae (buckwheat family, Polygonaceae). Our model is readily extendible to more complex scenarios of the evolution of inter- and intraspecific variation and presents a step toward more comprehensive comparative models for macroevolutionary studies. PMID:26911152

  7. Scapular dyskinesia: evolution towards a systems-based approach.

    PubMed

    Willmore, Elaine G; Smith, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Historically, scapular dyskinesia has been used to describe an isolated clinical entity whereby an abnormality in positioning, movement or function of the scapula is present. Based upon this, treatment approaches have focused on addressing local isolated muscle activity. Recently, however, there has been a progressive move towards viewing the scapula as being part of a wider system of movement that is regulated and controlled by multiple factors, including the wider kinetic chain and individual patient-centred requirements. We therefore propose a paradigm shift whereby scapular dyskinesia is seen not in isolation but is considered within the broader context of patient-centred care and an entire neuromuscular system. PMID:27583003

  8. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems.

    PubMed

    Arpağ, Göker; Erzan, Ayşe

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be nonadaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness.

  9. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems.

    PubMed

    Arpağ, Göker; Erzan, Ayşe

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be nonadaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and transcriptional gene regulation networks, where a major part of the topological properties can be accounted for by mere combinatorics. A discussion of ensemble approaches to biological systems and measures of complexity is presented, and a connection is established between complexity and fitness. PMID:24736159

  10. Scapular dyskinesia: evolution towards a systems-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Historically, scapular dyskinesia has been used to describe an isolated clinical entity whereby an abnormality in positioning, movement or function of the scapula is present. Based upon this, treatment approaches have focused on addressing local isolated muscle activity. Recently, however, there has been a progressive move towards viewing the scapula as being part of a wider system of movement that is regulated and controlled by multiple factors, including the wider kinetic chain and individual patient-centred requirements. We therefore propose a paradigm shift whereby scapular dyskinesia is seen not in isolation but is considered within the broader context of patient-centred care and an entire neuromuscular system. PMID:27583003

  11. [Modern evolutional developmental biology: mechanical and molecular genetic or phenotypic approaches?].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, É I

    2010-01-01

    Heightened interest in the evolutionary problems of developmental biology in the 1980s was due to the success of molecular genetics and disappointment in the synthetic theory of evolution, where the chapters of embryology and developmental biology seem to have been left out. Modern evo-devo, which turned out to be antipodean to the methodology of the synthetic theory of evolution, propagandized in the development of evolutionary problems only the mechanical and molecular genetic approach to the evolution of ontogenesis, based on cellular and intercellular interactions. The phonotypical approach to the evaluation of evolutionary occurrences in ontogenesis, which aids in the joining of the genetic and epigenetic levels of research, the theory of natural selection, the nomogenetic conception, and the problem of the wholeness of the organism in onto- and phylogenesis may be against this. The phenotypic approach to ontogenesis is methodologically the most perspective for evolutionary developmental biology.

  12. A variational approach to understanding white dwarf evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    A variational approach is used to map out the effects that uncertainties in the theoretical model parameters have upon the derived ages near the observed cutoff in the white dwarf luminosity function. Two representative sequences are assessed, simulating a white dwarf with a 50/50 C/O mixture in the core and an outer helium layer and a white dwarf with a C/O convective overshooting profile. The differential effects that the variation of selected model input quantities has on the ages are reported, and it is concluded that internal theoretical uncertainties are small and getting smaller with time, and the results underscore the power of using the observed white dwarf luminosity function for studying the history of star formation in the Galaxy.

  13. Spectral approach to axisymmetric evolution of Einstein's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, Christian; Rinne, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    We present a new formulation of Einstein's equations for an axisymmetric spacetime with vanishing twist in vacuum. We propose a fully constrained scheme and use spherical polar coordinates. A general problem for this choice is the occurrence of coordinate singularities on the axis of symmetry and at the origin. Spherical harmonics are manifestly regular on the axis and hence take care of that issue automatically. In addition a spectral approach has computational advantages when the equations are implemented. Therefore we spectrally decompose all the variables in the appropriate harmonics. A central point in the formulation is the gauge choice. One of our results is that the commonly used maximal- isothermal gauge turns out to be incompatible with tensor harmonic expansions, and we introduce a new gauge that is better suited. We also address the regularisation of the coordinate singularity at the origin.

  14. Time evolution of two-dimensional quadratic Hamiltonians: A Lie algebraic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Santana, J. C.; Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Cardoso, J. L.; Kunold, A.

    2016-04-01

    We develop a Lie algebraic approach to systematically calculate the evolution operator of a system described by a generalized two-dimensional quadratic Hamiltonian with time-dependent coefficients. Although the development of the Lie algebraic approach presented here is mainly motivated by the two-dimensional quadratic Hamiltonian, it may be applied to investigate the evolution operators of any Hamiltonian having a dynamical algebra with a large number of elements. We illustrate the method by finding the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators for a two-dimensional charge subject to uniform and constant electro-magnetic fields.

  15. Evolution of Minimally Invasive Approaches to the Sella and Parasellar Region

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Robert G.; Eisenberg, Amy; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester; Kelly, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Given advancements in endoscopic image quality, instrumentation, surgical navigation, skull base closure techniques, and anatomical understanding, the endonasal endoscopic approach has rapidly evolved into a widely utilized technique for removal of sellar and parasellar tumors. Although pituitary adenomas and Rathke cleft cysts constitute the majority of lesions removed via this route, craniopharyngiomas, clival chordomas, parasellar meningiomas, and other lesions are increasingly removed using this approach. Paralleling the evolution of the endonasal route to the parasellar region, the supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy has also been increasingly used as an alternative minimally invasive approach to reach this skull base region. Similar to the endonasal route, the supraorbital route has been greatly facilitated by advances in endoscopy, along with development of more refined, low-profile instrumentation and surgical navigation technology. Objectives This review, encompassing both transcranial and transsphenoidal routes, will recount the high points and advances that have made minimally invasive approaches to the sellar region possible, the evolution of these approaches, and their relative indications and technical nuances. Data Synthesis The literature is reviewed regarding the evolution of surgical approaches to the sellar region beginning with the earliest attempts and emphasizing technological advances, which have allowed the evolution of the modern technique. The surgical techniques for both endoscopic transsphenoidal and supraorbital approaches are described in detail. The relative indications for each approach are highlighted using case illustrations. Conclusions Although tremendous advances have been made in transitioning toward minimally invasive transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to the sella, further work remains to be done. Together, the endonasal endoscopic and the supraorbital endoscope-assisted approaches are complementary

  16. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I.

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  17. Surge-tectonic evolution of southeastern Asia: a geohydrodynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The repeated need for ad hoc modifications in plate-tectonic models to explain the evolution of southeastern Asia reveals their inability to fully explain the complex features and dynamics of this region. As one example, the hypothesis does not provide a mechanism to explain the 180° turns and twists along the strike of several foldbelts and island arcs in the region (e.g. Banda arc). Convection-cell configuration renders such 180° contortions and Rayleigh-Bénard-type convection impossible. However, during the last 10 years, new data bearing on the convection-cell problem have become available in the form of seismotomographic images of the earth's interior. These images show that (i) mantle diapirs as proposed by traditional plate-tectonic models do not exist; (ii) there is no discernible pattern of upper or lower mantle convection, and thus no longer an adequate mechanism to move plates; and (iii) the lithosphere above a depth of about 80 km is permeated by an interconnected network of low-velocity channels. Seismic-reflection studies of the low-velocity channels discovered on the seismotomographic images reveal that these channels have walls with a 7.1-7.8 km s -1 P-wave velocity. Commonly, the interiors of the channels are acoustically transparent, with much slower P-wave velocities, in places as low as 5.4 km s -1. The author and co-workers have interpreted the low velocities as evidence for the presence of partial melt in the channels, and they postulated that this melt moves preferentially eastward as a result of the earth's rotation. They named these channels "surge channels" and their new hypothesis for earth dynamics "surge tectonics". Surge channels underlie every type of tectonic belt, which includes mid-ocean ridges, aseismic ridges, continental rifts, strike-slip fracture zones, and foldbelts. In southeastern Asia, surge channels—mainly foldbelts—lie between all platform and cratonic massifs. These massifs, platforms, and tectonics belts

  18. Surge-tectonic evolution of southeastern Asia: a geohydrodynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The repeated need for ad hoc modifications in plate-tectonic models to explain the evolution of southeastern Asia reveals their inability to fully explain the complex features and dynamics of this region. As one example, the hypothesis does not provide a mechanism to explain the 180° turns and twists along the strike of several foldbelts and island arcs in the region (e.g. Banda arc). Convection-cell configuration renders such 180° contortions and Rayleigh-Bénard-type convection impossible. However, during the last 10 years, new data bearing on the convection-cell problem have become available in the form of seismotomographic images of the earth's interior. These images show that (i) mantle diapirs as proposed by traditional plate-tectonic models do not exist; (ii) there is no discernible pattern of upper or lower mantle convection, and thus no longer an adequate mechanism to move plates; and (iii) the lithosphere above a depth of about 80 km is permeated by an interconnected network of low-velocity channels. Seismic-reflection studies of the low-velocity channels discovered on the seismotomographic images reveal that these channels have walls with a 7.1-7.8 km s -1 P-wave velocity. Commonly, the interiors of the channels are acoustically transparent, with much slower P-wave velocities, in places as low as 5.4 km s -1. The author and co-workers have interpreted the low velocities as evidence for the presence of partial melt in the channels, and they postulated that this melt moves preferentially eastward as a result of the earth's rotation. They named these channels "surge channels" and their new hypothesis for earth dynamics "surge tectonics". Surge channels underlie every type of tectonic belt, which includes mid-ocean ridges, aseismic ridges, continental rifts, strike-slip fracture zones, and foldbelts. In southeastern Asia, surge channels—mainly foldbelts—lie between all platform and cratonic massifs. These massifs, platforms, and tectonics belts

  19. Objective 3D face recognition: Evolution, approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Clement, John Gerald

    2010-09-10

    Face recognition is a natural human ability and a widely accepted identification and authentication method. In modern legal settings, a lot of credence is placed on identifications made by eyewitnesses. Consequently these are based on human perception which is often flawed and can lead to situations where identity is disputed. Therefore, there is a clear need to secure identifications in an objective way based on anthropometric measures. Anthropometry has existed for many years and has evolved with each advent of new technology and computing power. As a result of this, face recognition methodology has shifted from a purely 2D image-based approach to the use of 3D facial shape. However, one of the main challenges still remaining is the non-rigid structure of the face, which can change permanently over varying time-scales and briefly with facial expressions. The majority of face recognition methods have been developed by scientists with a very technical background such as biometry, pattern recognition and computer vision. This article strives to bridge the gap between these communities and the forensic science end-users. A concise review of face recognition using 3D shape is given. Methods using 3D shape applied to data embodying facial expressions are tabulated for reference. From this list a categorization of different strategies to deal with expressions is presented. The underlying concepts and practical issues relating to the application of each strategy are given, without going into technical details. The discussion clearly articulates the justification to establish archival, reference databases to compare and evaluate different strategies. PMID:20395086

  20. Objective 3D face recognition: Evolution, approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Clement, John Gerald

    2010-09-10

    Face recognition is a natural human ability and a widely accepted identification and authentication method. In modern legal settings, a lot of credence is placed on identifications made by eyewitnesses. Consequently these are based on human perception which is often flawed and can lead to situations where identity is disputed. Therefore, there is a clear need to secure identifications in an objective way based on anthropometric measures. Anthropometry has existed for many years and has evolved with each advent of new technology and computing power. As a result of this, face recognition methodology has shifted from a purely 2D image-based approach to the use of 3D facial shape. However, one of the main challenges still remaining is the non-rigid structure of the face, which can change permanently over varying time-scales and briefly with facial expressions. The majority of face recognition methods have been developed by scientists with a very technical background such as biometry, pattern recognition and computer vision. This article strives to bridge the gap between these communities and the forensic science end-users. A concise review of face recognition using 3D shape is given. Methods using 3D shape applied to data embodying facial expressions are tabulated for reference. From this list a categorization of different strategies to deal with expressions is presented. The underlying concepts and practical issues relating to the application of each strategy are given, without going into technical details. The discussion clearly articulates the justification to establish archival, reference databases to compare and evaluate different strategies.

  1. How can a multimodal approach to primate communication help us understand the evolution of communication?

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Liebal, Katja; Burrows, Anne M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2013-07-18

    Scientists studying the communication of non-human animals are often aiming to better understand the evolution of human communication, including human language. Some scientists take a phylogenetic perspective, where the goal is to trace the evolutionary history of communicative traits, while others take a functional perspective, where the goal is to understand the selection pressures underpinning specific traits. Both perspectives are necessary to fully understand the evolution of communication, but it is important to understand how the two perspectives differ and what they can and cannot tell us. Here, we suggest that integrating phylogenetic and functional questions can be fruitful in better understanding the evolution of communication. We also suggest that adopting a multimodal approach to communication might help to integrate phylogenetic and functional questions, and provide an interesting avenue for research into language evolution.

  2. The Natural Selection: Identifying Student Misconceptions through an Inquiry-Based, Critical Approach to Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Roy, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    We invited 141 non-science major undergraduates to share and then challenge their preconceptions about evolution in a four-lesson inquiry lab unit that integrated diverse topics with rigorous assessment. Our experience suggests that an inquiring approach to evolutionary theory can be highly persuasive.

  3. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  4. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for fourteen different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution while polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities while others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today. PMID:21140466

  5. Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskirk, Allen; Baradaran, Hediyeh

    2009-05-01

    "Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?" generated spirited responses from its reviewers. The reviews were approximately evenly divided, and all were of very high quality. The authors agreed with the editor’s proposal that the reviewers convert their reviews into rebuttals or affirmations of the authors’ position for publication along with the article, which has been revised based on the reviews. Most agreed to such a process and their comments appear here. We hope that publication of this paper and well-reasoned rebuttals such as those provided here will initiate a wide-ranging discussion. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. Our hope is that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Reviewer Comments: Brown Lewis Yoon Wade

  6. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  7. Data Provenance in Photogrammetry Through Documentation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, N.; Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; de Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Suma, R.

    2016-06-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogrammetric workflow. We propose this pipeline, with descriptors to track all phases of digital product creation in order to assure data provenance and enable the validation of the operations from an analytic and production perspective. The approach aims to support adopters of the workflow to define procedures with a long term perspective. The conceptual schema we present is founded on an analysis of information and actor exchanges in the digitisation process. The metadata were defined through the synthesis of previous proposals in this area and were tested on a case study. We performed the digitisation of a set of cultural heritage artefacts from an Iron Age burial in Ilmendorf, Germany. The objects were captured and processed using different techniques, including a comparison of different imaging tools and algorithms. This augmented the complexity of the process allowing us to test the flexibility of the schema for documenting complex scenarios. Although we have only presented a photogrammetry digitisation scenario, we claim that our schema is easily applicable to a multitude of 3D documentation processes.

  8. Understanding the Evolution of Mammalian Brain Structures; the Need for a (New) Cerebrotype Approach

    PubMed Central

    Willemet, Romain

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian brain varies in size by a factor of 100,000 and is composed of anatomically and functionally distinct structures. Theoretically, the manner in which brain composition can evolve is limited, ranging from highly modular (“mosaic evolution”) to coordinated changes in brain structure size (“concerted evolution”) or anything between these two extremes. There is a debate about the relative importance of these distinct evolutionary trends. It is shown here that the presence of taxa-specific allometric relationships between brain structures makes a taxa-specific approach obligatory. In some taxa, the evolution of the size of brain structures follows a unique, coordinated pattern, which, in addition to other characteristics at different anatomical levels, defines what has been called here a “taxon cerebrotype”. In other taxa, no clear pattern is found, reflecting heterogeneity of the species’ lifestyles. These results suggest that the evolution of brain size and composition depends on the complex interplay between selection pressures and constraints that have changed constantly during mammalian evolution. Therefore the variability in brain composition between species should not be considered as deviations from the normal, concerted mammalian trend, but in taxa and species-specific versions of the mammalian brain. Because it forms homogenous groups of species within this complex “space” of constraints and selection pressures, the cerebrotype approach developed here could constitute an adequate level of analysis for evo-devo studies, and by extension, for a wide range of disciplines related to brain evolution. PMID:24962772

  9. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    more formally in data journals. Use of the SPARQL 1.1 standard allows queries to be federated across these endpoints to create a distributed network of provenance documents. Future research directions will add further nodes to the federated network of oceanographic research cruise provenance to determine the true scalability of this approach, and will involve analysis of and possible evolution of the data release lifecycle ontology. References Nitin Arora et al., 2006. Information object design pattern for modeling domain specific knowledge. 1st ECOOP Workshop on Domain-Specific Program Development. Simon Cox, 2015. Pitfalls in alignment of observation models resolved using PROV as an upper ontology. Abstract IN33F-07 presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 14-18 December, San Francisco. Adam Leadbetter & Justin Buck, 2015. Where did my data layer come from?" The semantics of data release. Geophysical Research Abstracts 17, EGU2015-3746-1. Xiaogang Ma et al., 2014. Ontology engineering in provenance enablement for the National Climate Assessment. Environmental Modelling & Software 61, 191-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.08.002

  10. From Back-arc Drifting to Arc Accretion: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Guerrero Terrane Recorded by a Major Provenance Change in Sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios Garcia, N. B.; Martini, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Guerrero terrane composed of Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous arc assemblages, were drifted from the North American continental mainland during lower Early Cretaceous spreading in the Arperos back arc basin, and subsequently accreted back to the continental margin in the late Aptian. Although the accretion of the Guerrero terrane represents one of the major tectonic processes that shaped the southern North American Pacific margin, the stratigraphic record related to such a regional event was not yet recognized in central Mexico. Due to the Sierra de los Cuarzos is located just 50 km east of the Guerrero terrane suture belt, its stratigraphic record should be highly sensitive to first order tectonic changes and would record a syn-tectonic deposits related to this major event. In that study area, were identified two main Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic units. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation represents the lowermost exposed stratigraphic record. Sedimentary structures, sandstones composition, and U-Pb detrital zircon ages document that the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation reflects a vigorous mass wasting along the margin of the North American continental mainland, representing the eastern side of the Arperos back arc basin. Sandstones of the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation are free from detrital contributions related to the Guerrero terrane juvenile sources, indicating that the Arperos Basin acted like an efficient sedimentological barrier that inhibited the influence of the arc massifs on the continental mainland deposits. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation is overlain by submarine slope deposits of the Pelones formation, which mark a sudden change in the depositional conditions. Provenance analysis documents that sandstones from the Pelones formation were fed by the mafic to intermediate arc assemblages of the Guerrero terrane, as well as by quartz-rich sources of the continental mainland, suggesting that, by the time of deposition of the Pelones

  11. Provenance of the terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1994-01-01

    Earlier work on the simultaneous accumulation of the asteroid belt and the terrestrial planets is extended to investigate the relative contribution to the final planets made by material from different heliocentric distances. As before, stochastic variations intrinsic to the accumulation processes lead to a variety of final planetary configurations, but include systems having a number of features similar to our solar system. Fifty-nine new simulations are presented, from which thirteen are selected as more similar to our solar system than the others. It is found that the concept of "local feeding zones" for each final terrestrial planet has no validity for this model. Instead, the final terrestrial planets receive major contributions from bodies ranging from 0.5 to at least 2.5 AU, and often to greater distances. Nevertheless, there is a correlation between the final heliocentric distance of a planet and its average provenance. Together with the effect of stochastic fluctuations, this permits variation in the composition of the terrestrial planets, such as the difference in the decompressed density of Earth and Mars. Biologically important light elements, derived from the asteroidal region, are likely to have been significant constituents of the Earth during its formation.

  12. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B.; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-01-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data. PMID:27570843

  13. Orbiting binary black hole evolutions with a multipatch high order finite-difference approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pazos, Enrique; Tiglio, Manuel; Duez, Matthew D.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2009-07-15

    We present numerical simulations of orbiting black holes for around 12 cycles, using a high order multipatch approach. Unlike some other approaches, the computational speed scales almost perfectly for thousands of processors. Multipatch methods are an alternative to adaptive mesh refinement, with benefits of simplicity and better scaling for improving the resolution in the wave zone. The results presented here pave the way for multipatch evolutions of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries, where high resolution grids are needed to resolve details of the matter flow.

  14. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  15. Quantitative models of sediment generation and provenance: State of the art and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltje, Gert Jan

    2012-12-01

    An overview of quantitative approaches to analysis and modelling of sediment generation and provenance is presented, with an emphasis on major framework components as determined by means of petrographic techniques. Conceptual models of sediment provenance are shown to be consistent with two classes of numerical-statistical models, i.e. linear mixing models and compositional linear models. These cannot be placed within a common mathematical framework, because the former requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of proportions, whereas the latter requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of log-ratios of proportions. Additivity of proportions, a fundamental assumption in linear mixing models, cannot be readily expressed in log-ratio terms. Linear mixing models may be used to describe compositional variability in terms of physical and conceptual (un)mixing. Models of physical (un)mixing are appropriate for describing compositional variation within transport-invariant subpopulations of grains as a result of varying rates of supply of detritus from multiple sources. Conceptual (un)mixing governs the relations among chemical, mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of sediments, which represent different descriptive levels within a compositional hierarchy. Compositional linear process models may be used to describe compositional and/or textural evolution resulting from selective modifications induced by sediment transport, as well as chemical and mechanical weathering. Current approaches to modelling of surface processes treat the coupled evolution of source areas and sedimentary basins in terms of bulk mass transfer only, and do not take into account compositional and textural sediment properties. Moving from the inverse modelling approach embodied in provenance research to process-based forward models of sediment generation which provide detailed predictions of sediment properties meets with considerable (albeit not insurmountable

  16. A comparison of directed evolution approaches using the beta-glucuronidase model system.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Lori A; Geddie, Melissa L; Alexander, Omar B; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2003-09-26

    Protein engineers can alter the properties of enzymes by directing their evolution in vitro. Many methods to generate molecular diversity and to identify improved clones have been developed, but experimental evolution remains as much an art as a science. We previously used DNA shuffling (sexual recombination) and a histochemical screen to direct the evolution of Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) variants with improved beta-galactosidase (BGAL) activity. Here, we employ the same model evolutionary system to test the efficiencies of several other techniques: recursive random mutagenesis (asexual), combinatorial cassette mutagenesis (high-frequency recombination) and a versatile high-throughput microplate screen. GUS variants with altered specificity evolved in each trial, but different combinations of mutagenesis and screening techniques effected the fixation of different beneficial mutations. The new microplate screen identified a broader set of mutations than the previously employed X-gal colony screen. Recursive random mutagenesis produced essentially asexual populations, within which beneficial mutations drove each other into extinction (clonal interference); DNA shuffling and combinatorial cassette mutagenesis led instead to the accumulation of beneficial mutations within a single allele. These results explain why recombinational approaches generally increase the efficiency of laboratory evolution. PMID:12972256

  17. Anatomical diversity and regressive evolution in trichomanoid filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae): a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Hennequin, Sabine; Bary, Sophie; Ebihara, Atsushi; Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie

    2011-12-01

    To infer the anatomical evolution of the Hymenophyllaceae (filmy ferns) and to test previously suggested scenarios of regressive evolution, we performed an exhaustive investigation of stem anatomy in the most variable lineage of the family, the trichomanoids, using a representative sampling of 50 species. The evolution of qualitative and quantitative anatomical characters and possibly related growth-forms was analyzed using a maximum likelihood approach. Potential correlations between selected characters were then statistically tested using a phylogenetic comparative method. Our investigations support the anatomical homogeneity of this family at the generic and sub-generic levels. Reduced and sub-collateral/collateral steles likely derived from an ancestral massive protostele, and sub-collateral/collateral types appear to be related to stem thickness reduction and root apparatus regression. These results corroborate the hypothesis of regressive evolution in the lineage, in terms of morphology as well as anatomy. In addition, a heterogeneous cortex, which is derived in the lineage, appears to be related to a colonial strategy and likely to a climbing phenotype. The evolutionary hypotheses proposed in this study lay the ground for further evolutionary analyses that take into account trichomanoid habitats and accurate ecological preferences.

  18. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  19. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  20. Addressing controversies in science education: a pragmatic approach to evolution education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-09-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is ethically sensitive and intellectually responsible? Drawing in part on pragmatic philosopher John Dewey, our solution is politically proactive, philosophically pragmatic, and grounded in research. Central to our proposal is (1) steps toward creating a philosophical “total attitude” that is democratic, imaginative, and hypothetical; (2) a deeper understanding of how scientific theories can be pragmatically true; and (3) an assessment of differing pedagogical approaches for teaching evolution in the classroom.

  1. A Monte Carlo approach to evolution of the far-infrared luminosity function with BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Gaelen; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Patanchon, Guillaume; Scott, Douglas; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.

    2011-10-01

    We constrain the evolution of the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) luminosity function out to high redshift, by combining several pieces of complementary information provided by the deep Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope surveys at 250, 350 and 500 μm, as well as other FIR and millimetre data. Unlike most other phenomenological models, we characterize the uncertainties in our fitted parameters using Monte Carlo Markov Chains. We use a bivariate local luminosity function that depends only on FIR luminosity and 60-to-100 μm colour, along with a single library of galaxy spectral energy distributions indexed by colour, and apply simple luminosity and density evolution. We use the surface density of sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) measurements and redshift distributions of bright sources, for which identifications have been made, to constrain this model. The precise evolution of the FIR luminosity function across this crucial range has eluded studies at longer wavelengths (e.g. using SCUBA and MAMBO) and at shorter wavelengths (e.g. with Spitzer), and should provide a key piece of information required for the study of galaxy evolution. Our adoption of Monte Carlo methods enables us not only to find the best-fitting evolution model, but also to explore correlations between the fitted parameters. Our model-fitting approach allows us to focus on sources of tension coming from the combination of data sets. We specifically find that our choice of parametrization has difficulty fitting the combination of CIB measurements and redshift distribution of sources near 1 mm. Existing and future data sets will be able to dramatically improve the fits, as well as break strong degeneracies among the models. Two particular examples that we find to be crucial are: obtaining robust information on redshift distributions and placing tighter constraints on the range of spectral shapes for low-luminosity (LFIR < 1010 L⊙) sources.

  2. Evolution of syncarpy and other morphological characters in African Annonaceae: a posterior mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, T L P; Richardson, J E; Sosef, M S M; Erkens, R H J; Chatrou, L W

    2008-04-01

    The congenital fusion of carpels, or syncarpy, is considered a key innovation as it is found in more than 80% of angiosperms. Within the magnoliids however, syncarpy has rarely evolved. Two alternative evolutionary origins of syncarpy were suggested in order to explain the evolution of this feature: multiplication of a single carpel vs. fusion of a moderate number of carpels. The magnoliid family Annonaceae provides an ideal situation to test these hypotheses as two African genera, Isolona and Monodora, are syncarpous in an otherwise apocarpous family with multicarpellate and unicarpellate genera. In addition to syncarpy, the evolution of six other morphological characters was studied. Well-supported phylogenetic relationships of African Annonaceae and in particular those of Isolona and Monodora were reconstructed. Six plastid regions were sequenced and analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. The Bayesian posterior mapping approach to study character evolution was used as it accounts for both mapping and phylogenetic uncertainty, and also allows multiple state changes along the branches. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered a fully resolved clade comprising twelve genera endemic to Africa, including Isolona and Monodora, which was nested within the so-called long-branch clade. This is the largest and most species-rich clade of African genera identified to date within Annonaceae. The two syncarpous genera were inferred with maximum support to be sister to a clade characterized by genera with multicarpellate apocarpous gynoecia, supporting the hypothesis that syncarpy arose by fusion of a moderate number of carpels. This hypothesis was also favoured when studying the floral anatomy of both genera. Annonaceae provide the only case of a clear evolution of syncarpy within an otherwise apocarpous magnoliid family. The results presented here offer a better understanding of the evolution of syncarpy in Annonaceae and within angiosperms in general.

  3. Special Issue: The First Provenance Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Altintas, Ilkay; Barga, Roger S.; Bowers, Shawn; Callahan, Steven P.; Chin, George; Clifford, Ben; Cohen, Shirley; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Davidson, Susan; Deelman, Ewa; digiampietri, Luciano; Foster, Ian T.; Freire, Juliana; Frew, James; Futrelle, Joe; Gibson, Tara D.; Gil, Yolanda; Goble, Carole; Golbeck, Jennifer; Groth, Paul; Holland, David A.; Jiang, Sheng; Kim, Jihie; Koop, David; Krenek, Ales; McPhillips, Timothy; Mehta, Gaurang; Miles, Simon; Metzger, Dominic; Munroe, Steve; Myers, James D.; Plale, Beth A.; Podhorszki, norbert; Ratnakar, Varun; Emanuele , Santos; scheidegger, Carlos E.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Seltzer, Margo I.; Simmhan, Yogesh L.; Claudio, Silva T.; Slaughter, Peter; Stephan, Eric G.; Stevens, Robert; Turi, Daniele; Vo, Huy T.; Wilde, Mike J.; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2008-04-01

    The first Provenance Challenge was set up in order to provide a forum for the community to help understand the capabilities of different provenance systems and the expressiveness of their provenance representations. To this end, a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging workflow was defined, which participants had to either simulate or run in order to produce some provenance representation, from which a set of identified queries had to be implemented and executed. Sixteen teams responded to the challenge, and submitted their inputs. In this paper, we present the challenge workflow and queries, and summarise the participants contributions.

  4. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its “culture-bound” status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:26538854

  5. Quantum hydrodynamics approach to the research of quantum effects and vorticity evolution in spin quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanova, M., Iv.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we explain a magneto quantum hydrodynamics (MQHD) method for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of spinning fermions in an external electromagnetic field. The fundamental equations of microscopic quantum hydrodynamics (the momentum balance equation and the magnetic moment density equation) are derived from the many-particle microscopic Schrödinger equation with a spin-spin and Coulomb modified Hamiltonian. Using the developed approach, an extended vorticity evolution equation for the quantum spinning plasma is derived. The effects of the new spin forces and spin-spin interaction contributions on the motion of fermions, the evolution of the magnetic moment density, and vorticity generation are predicted. The influence of the intrinsic spin of electrons on whistler mode turbulence is investigated. The results can be used for theoretical studies of spinning many-particle systems, especially dense quantum plasmas in compact astrophysical objects, plasmas in semiconductors, and micro-mechanical systems, in quantum X-ray free-electron lasers.

  6. Episodic chromosomal evolution in Planipapillus (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae): a phylogenetic approach to evolutionary dynamics and speciation.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Matthew V; Rowell, David M

    2002-01-01

    Planipapillus, a clade of onychophorans from southeastern Australia, exhibits substantial chromosomal variation. In the context of a robust phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data, we evaluate models of chromosomal evolution and speciation that differ in the roles assigned to selection, mutation, and drift. Permutation tests suggest that all chromosome rearrangements in the clade have been centric fusions and, on the basis of parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods with independent estimates of branch lengths, we conclude that at least 31 centric fusions have been fixed in Planipapillus. A likelihood-ratio test approach, which is independent of our point estimates of ancestral states, rejects an evolutionary model in which the mutation rate is constant and centric fusions are effectively neutral. In contrast to the nucleotide sequence data, which are consistent with neutrality and rate constancy, centric fusions in Planipapillus are underdominant, spontaneous fusion rates vary among lineages, or both. We predict an inverse relationship between rates of chromosomal evolution and historical population size. Chromosomal evolution may play a role in speciation in Planipapillus, both by interactions between centric fusions with monobrachial homology and by the accumulation of multiple weakly underdominant fusions.

  7. Evolution of cometary perihelion distances in Oort cloud - Another statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, B.; Cazenave, A.

    1983-01-01

    A statistical approach is used to study the evolution of the Oort cloud's perihelion distance distribution over the age of the solar system, under gravitational perturbations of random passing stars which are accounted for by means of an empirical relation between cometary perihelion distance and the closest approach comet-star distance. Perihelion distances initially smaller and greater than 2500 AU are considered, together with distant star-comet encounters. Estimates are given of the number of new comets entering into the planetary region, the number of comets escaping the sun's sphere of influence or lost by hyperbolic ejection, and the percentage of comet loss over the age of the solar system. Current and original cloud populations are deduced from these quantities, together with the corresponding cloud mass, for two formation scenarios.

  8. Effects of extrinsic mortality on the evolution of aging: a stochastic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Johnson, Adiv Adam

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary theories of aging are useful for gaining insights into the complex mechanisms underlying senescence. Classical theories argue that high levels of extrinsic mortality should select for the evolution of shorter lifespans and earlier peak fertility. Non-classical theories, in contrast, posit that an increase in extrinsic mortality could select for the evolution of longer lifespans. Although numerous studies support the classical paradigm, recent data challenge classical predictions, finding that high extrinsic mortality can select for the evolution of longer lifespans. To further elucidate the role of extrinsic mortality in the evolution of aging, we implemented a stochastic, agent-based, computational model. We used a simulated annealing optimization approach to predict which model parameters predispose populations to evolve longer or shorter lifespans in response to increased levels of predation. We report that longer lifespans evolved in the presence of rising predation if the cost of mating is relatively high and if energy is available in excess. Conversely, we found that dramatically shorter lifespans evolved when mating costs were relatively low and food was relatively scarce. We also analyzed the effects of increased predation on various parameters related to density dependence and energy allocation. Longer and shorter lifespans were accompanied by increased and decreased investments of energy into somatic maintenance, respectively. Similarly, earlier and later maturation ages were accompanied by increased and decreased energetic investments into early fecundity, respectively. Higher predation significantly decreased the total population size, enlarged the shared resource pool, and redistributed energy reserves for mature individuals. These results both corroborate and refine classical predictions, demonstrating a population-level trade-off between longevity and fecundity and identifying conditions that produce both classical and non

  9. Bedform genesis and evolution in bedrock substrates: a new experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Yin, N.; Peakall, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms have focused on aggradational bedforms within cohesionless sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform genesis and evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. The study presented here details experiments that involve the genesis and formation of erosional bedform features within natural (soft clay) cohesive sediment beds and analogue bedrock substrates by modelling clay under the effect of both open-channel plain water flows, and sediment-laden flows. A new approach without using plaster-of-Paris or real bedrock developed provides a feasible method to simulate the genesis and evolution of the erosional bedforms in cohesive sediment beds and sculpted forms in bedrock channels on relatively short time-scales in the laboratory by using a realistic substrate substitute.A series of flume experiments are presented herein where the undrained shear strength of two different kinds of substrate material is systematically varied under constant flow conditions. Experiments using plain water flow indicated that erosive bedforms in cohesive sediment substrate cannot be produced only under the effect of sediment-free flow. Particulate-laden flows do form erosional bedforms in both kinds of clay beds and the shear strength of the bed material plays a key role in determining the diversity of erosional features forming on such substrates. Optimisation of modelling clay beds has enabled us to successfully replicate a suite of bedrock bedforms, including potholes, flutes, longitudinal furrows, etc., that have clear equivalents to those observed in bedrock rivers and contributed to investigate the genesis and evolution process of them and explore the flow structures within and above them in experimental analogue bedrock substrate for the first time.

  10. General-relativistic approach to the nonlinear evolution of collisionless matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Pantano, O. ); Saez, D. )

    1993-02-15

    A new general-relativistic algorithm is developed to study the nonlinear evolution of scalar (density) perturbations of an irrotational collisionless fluid up to shell crossing, under the approximation of neglecting the interaction with tensor (gravitational-wave) perturbations. The dynamics of each fluid element is separately followed in its own inertial rest frame by a system of twelve coupled first-order ordinary differential equations, which can be further reduced to six under very general conditions. Initial conditions are obtained in a cosmological framework, from linear theory, in terms of a single gauge-invariant potential. Physical observables, which are expressed in the Lagrangian form at different times, can be traced back to the Eulerian picture by solving supplementary first-order differential equations for the relative position vectors of neighboring fluid elements. Similarly to the Zel'dovich approximation, in our approach the evolution of each fluid element is completely determined by the local initial conditions and can be independently followed up to the time when it enters a multistream region. Unlike the Zel'dovich approximation, however, our approach is correct also in three dimensions (except for the possible role of gravitational waves). The accuracy of our numerical procedure is tested by integrating the nonlinear evolution of a spherical perturbation in an otherwise spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and comparing the results with the exact Tolman-Bondi solution for the same initial profile. An exact solution for the planar symmetric case is also given, which turns out to be locally identical to the Zel'dovich solution.

  11. A combined NLP-differential evolution algorithm approach for the optimization of looped water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feifei; Simpson, Angus R.; Zecchin, Aaron C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization approach for the least cost design of looped water distribution systems (WDSs). Three distinct steps are involved in the proposed optimization approach. In the first step, the shortest-distance tree within the looped network is identified using the Dijkstra graph theory algorithm, for which an extension is proposed to find the shortest-distance tree for multisource WDSs. In the second step, a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver is employed to optimize the pipe diameters for the shortest-distance tree (chords of the shortest-distance tree are allocated the minimum allowable pipe sizes). Finally, in the third step, the original looped water network is optimized using a differential evolution (DE) algorithm seeded with diameters in the proximity of the continuous pipe sizes obtained in step two. As such, the proposed optimization approach combines the traditional deterministic optimization technique of NLP with the emerging evolutionary algorithm DE via the proposed network decomposition. The proposed methodology has been tested on four looped WDSs with the number of decision variables ranging from 21 to 454. Results obtained show the proposed approach is able to find optimal solutions with significantly less computational effort than other optimization techniques.

  12. Constructive Approaches for Understanding the Origin of Self-Replication and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-07-13

    The mystery of the origin of life can be divided into two parts. The first part is the origin of biomolecules: under what physicochemical conditions did biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleotides, and their polymers arise? The second part of the mystery is the origin of life-specific functions such as the replication of genetic information, the reproduction of cellular structures, metabolism, and evolution. These functions require the coordination of many different kinds of biological molecules. A direct strategy to approach the second part of the mystery is the constructive approach, in which life-specific functions are recreated in a test tube from specific biological molecules. Using this approach, we are able to employ design principles to reproduce life-specific functions, and the knowledge gained through the reproduction process provides clues as to their origins. In this mini-review, we introduce recent insights gained using this approach, and propose important future directions for advancing our understanding of the origins of life.

  13. Constructive Approaches for Understanding the Origin of Self-Replication and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The mystery of the origin of life can be divided into two parts. The first part is the origin of biomolecules: under what physicochemical conditions did biomolecules such as amino acids, nucleotides, and their polymers arise? The second part of the mystery is the origin of life-specific functions such as the replication of genetic information, the reproduction of cellular structures, metabolism, and evolution. These functions require the coordination of many different kinds of biological molecules. A direct strategy to approach the second part of the mystery is the constructive approach, in which life-specific functions are recreated in a test tube from specific biological molecules. Using this approach, we are able to employ design principles to reproduce life-specific functions, and the knowledge gained through the reproduction process provides clues as to their origins. In this mini-review, we introduce recent insights gained using this approach, and propose important future directions for advancing our understanding of the origins of life. PMID:27420098

  14. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the Leo Pargil range dominates the detrital zircon signal. Finally, there is a shift in the sandstone composition from unmetamorphosed sedimentary lithic fragments and extrusive felsic volcanic fragments in the lower part of the Zhada formation to metasedimentary and metaigneous fragments in the upper part of the Zhada formation. This is likely linked either to unroofing of the source terrain or a change to another source terrain. Based on the palaeocurrent and detrital zircon data, a change to another source terrain is favoured. This combination of evidence suggests that the Zhada basin evolved from a through-going fluvial plain to a dammed lake primarily due to uplift of the Leo Pargil range. This uplift would have dammed and ponded the river, and exposed higher grade metamorphic rocks at the surface for incorporation into Zhada formation sandstones. It also would have introduced a new source for detrital zircons. Uplift of the Leo Pargil range along a low angle normal fault would also have evacuated portions of the mid-crust, providing a mechanism for subsidence in the Zhada region. Lacustrine sedimentation would have coincided with progradation of marginal alluvial fans and would have continued until the basin was filled in to the level of a new spill point. At this time incision and re- establishment of the Sutlej River would have occurred.

  15. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  16. A population memetics approach to cultural evolution in chaffinch song: meme diversity within populations.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A; Baker, A J

    1993-04-01

    We investigated cultural evolution in populations of common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) in the Atlantic islands (Azores, Madeira, Canaries) and neighboring continental regions (Morocco, Iberia) by employing a population memetics approach. To quantify variability within populations, we used the concept of a song meme, defined as a single syllable or a series of linked syllables capable of being transmitted. The frequency distribution of memes within populations generally fit a neutral model in which there is an equilibrium between mutation, migration, and drift, which suggests that memes are functionally equivalent. The diversity of memes of single syllables is significantly greater in the Azores compared to all other regions, consistent with higher population densities of chaffinches there. On the other hand, memes of two to five syllables have greater diversity in Atlantic island and Moroccan populations compared to their Iberian counterparts. This higher diversity emanates from a looser syntax and increased recombination in songs, presumably because of relaxed selection for distinctive songs in these peripheral and depauperate avifaunas. We urge comparative population memetic studies of other species of songbirds and predict that they will lead to a formulation of a general theory for the cultural evolution of bird song analogous to population genetics theory for biological traits. PMID:19426000

  17. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    PubMed

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. PMID:24329934

  18. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    PubMed

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes.

  19. The chemodynamical evolution of the Milky Way disc - A new modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchev, Ivan; Chiappini, Cristina; Martig, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent advancements in the field of galaxy formation and evolution, fully self-consistent simulations are still unable to make the detailed predictions necessary for the planned and ongoing large spectroscopic and photometric surveys of the Milky Way disc. These difficulties arise from the very uncertain nature of sub-grid physical energy feedback within models, affecting both star formation rates and chemical enrichment. To avoid these problems, we have introduced a new approach which consists of fusing disc chemical evolution models with compatible numerical simulations. We demonstrate the power of this method by showing that a range of observational results can be explained by our new model. We show that due to radial migration from mergers at high redshift and the central bar at later times, a sizable fraction of old metal-poor, high-[α/Fe] stars can reach the solar vicinity. This naturally accounts for a number of recent observations related to both the thin and thick discs, despite the fact that we use thin-disc chemistry only. Within the framework of our model, the MW thick disc has emerged naturally from (i) stars born with high velocity dispersions at high redshift, (ii) stars migrating from the inner disc very early on due to strong merger activity, and (iii) further radial migration driven by the bar and spirals at later times. A significant fraction of old stars with thick-disc characteristics could have been born near the solar radius.

  20. Trickle-down evolution: an approach to getting major evolutionary adaptive changes into textbooks and curricula.

    PubMed

    Padian, Kevin

    2008-08-01

    Although contemporary high school and college textbooks of biology generally cover the principles and data of microevolution (genetic and populational change) and speciation rather well, coverage of what is known of the major changes in evolution (macroevolution), and how the evidence is understood is generally poor to nonexistent. It is critical to improve this because acceptance of evolution by the American public rests on the understanding of how we know what we know about the emergence of major new taxonomic groups, and about their adaptations, behaviors, and ecologies in geologic time. An efficient approach to this problem is to improve the illustrations in college textbooks to show the consilience of different lines of fossil, morphological, and molecular evidence mapped on phylogenies. Such "evograms" will markedly improve traditional illustrations of phylogenies, "menageries," and "companatomies." If "evograms" are installed at the college level, the basic principles and evidence of macroevolution will be more likely taught in K-12, thus providing an essential missing piece in biological education. PMID:21669782

  1. MODEL OF THE FIELD LINE RANDOM WALK EVOLUTION AND APPROACH TO ASYMPTOTIC DIFFUSION IN MAGNETIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Snodin, A. P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th

    2013-01-01

    The turbulent random walk of magnetic field lines plays an important role in the transport of plasmas and energetic particles in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, but most theoretical work has concentrated on determination of the asymptotic field line diffusion coefficient. Here we consider the evolution with distance of the field line random walk using a general ordinary differential equation (ODE), which for most cases of interest in astrophysics describes a transition from free streaming to asymptotic diffusion. By challenging theories of asymptotic diffusion to also describe the evolution, one gains insight on how accurately they describe the random walk process. Previous theoretical work has effectively involved closure of the ODE, often by assuming Corrsin's hypothesis and a Gaussian displacement distribution. Approaches that use quasilinear theory and prescribe the mean squared displacement ({Delta}x {sup 2}) according to free streaming (random ballistic decorrelation, RBD) or asymptotic diffusion (diffusive decorrelation, DD) can match computer simulation results, but only over specific parameter ranges, with no obvious 'marker' of the range of validity. Here we make use of a unified description in which the ODE determines ({Delta}x {sup 2}) self-consistently, providing a natural transition between the assumptions of RBD and DD. We find that the minimum kurtosis of the displacement distribution provides a good indicator of whether the self-consistent ODE is applicable, i.e., inaccuracy of the self-consistent ODE is associated with non-Gaussian displacement distributions.

  2. Classification tree methods provide a multifactorial approach to predicting insular body size evolution in rodents.

    PubMed

    Durst, Paul A P; Roth, V Louise

    2012-04-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain size changes in insular mammals, but no single variable suffices to explain the diversity of responses, particularly within Rodentia. Here in a data set on insular rodents, we observe strong consistency in the direction of size change within islands and within species but (outside of Heteromyidae) little consistency at broader taxonomic scales. Using traits of islands and of species in a classification tree analysis, we find the most important factor predicting direction of change to be mainland body mass (large rodents decrease, small ones increase); other variables (island climate, number of rodent species, and area) were significant, although their roles as revealed by the classification tree were context dependent. Ecological interactions appear relatively uninformative, and on any given island, the largest and smallest rodent species converged or diverged in size with equal frequency. Our approach provides a promising framework for continuing examination of insular body size evolution. PMID:22437183

  3. Assessment of the bacterial diversity in soils: Evolution of approaches and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'Skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Pankratov, T. A.; Lysak, L. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2009-10-01

    This review analyzes the publications of Russian and foreign microbiologists presenting new approaches and methods for assessing the bacterial diversity of soils in the last twenty years. Using the example of peat soils, it is shown how the concepts of the diversity of the bacterial communities changed in conformity with the evolution of the analytical methods—from the traditional cultural to the molecular-biological ones. The data on the new phylotypes, genera, and species of bacteria adapted to growth in the acid medium and low temperatures characteristic of bog ecosystems are presented. Presently, one of the principal problems of soil microbiology is the necessity of the transfer from the databases on the microbial diversity constructed on the basis of molecular-biological methods to the analysis of the ecological functions of soil microorganisms. The prospects of the ecological evaluation of the bacterial diversity in soils based on the integration of different methods are discussed.

  4. Understanding Student Approaches to Learning Evolution in the Context of their Perceptions of the Relationship between Science and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Mancy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates a range of positions that learners take on the relationship between science and religion and the potential for these positions to explain student approaches when learning about evolution. A phenomenographic study based on interviews with nine students studying in Christian high schools in Thailand led to the identification of five distinct positions on the relationship between science and religion. Each position was associated with a characteristic pattern of learning about evolution that could be explained as an attempt by the students to align their particular learning approach with their position. Three of the positions have the potential to support scientifically valid understandings of evolution while avoiding emotional conflict. We suggest that knowledge of the range of positions and associated learning approaches can help educators to focus on the form and timing of support of benefit to those holding different viewpoints.

  5. An R package for statistical provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces provenance, a software package within the statistical programming environment R, which aims to facilitate the visualisation and interpretation of large amounts of sedimentary provenance data, including mineralogical, petrographic, chemical and isotopic provenance proxies, or any combination of these. provenance comprises functions to: (a) calculate the sample size required to achieve a given detection limit; (b) plot distributional data such as detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra as Cumulative Age Distributions (CADs) or adaptive Kernel Density Estimates (KDEs); (c) plot compositional data as pie charts or ternary diagrams; (d) correct the effects of hydraulic sorting on sandstone petrography and heavy mineral composition; (e) assess the settling equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition; (f) quantify the dissimilarity between distributional data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Sircombe-Hazelton distances, or between compositional data using the Aitchison and Bray-Curtis distances; (e) interpret multi-sample datasets by means of (classical and nonmetric) Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA); and (f) simplify the interpretation of multi-method datasets by means of Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA) and 3-way MDS. All these tools can be accessed through an intuitive query-based user interface, which does not require knowledge of the R programming language. provenance is free software released under the GPL-2 licence and will be further expanded based on user feedback.

  6. A holomorph approach to xiphosuran evolution--a case study on the ontogeny of Euproops.

    PubMed

    Haug, Carolin; Van Roy, Peter; Leipner, Angelika; Funch, Peter; Rudkin, David M; Schöllmann, Lothar; Haug, Joachim T

    2012-09-01

    Specimens of Euproops sp. (Xiphosura, Chelicerata) from the Carboniferous Piesberg quarry near Osnabrück, Germany, represent a relatively complete growth series of 10 stages. Based on this growth sequence, morphological changes throughout the ontogeny can be identified. The major change affects the shape of the epimera of the opisthosoma. In earlier stages, they appear very spine-like, whereas in later stages the bases of these spine-like structures become broader; the broadened bases are then successively drawn out distally. In the most mature stage known, the epimera are of trapezoidal shape and approach each other closely to form a complete flange around the thoracetron (=fused tergites of the opisthosoma). These ontogenetic changes question the taxonomic status of different species of Euproops, as the latter appear to correspond to different stages of the ontogenetic series reconstructed from the Piesberg specimens. This means that supposed separate species could, in fact, represent different growth stages of a single species. It could alternatively indicate that heterochrony (=evolutionary change of developmental timing) plays an important role in the evolution of Xiphosura. We propose a holomorph approach, i.e., reconstructing ontogenetic sequences for fossil and extant species as a sound basis for a taxonomic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary discussion of Xiphosura. PMID:22915218

  7. A mutualistic approach to morality: the evolution of fairness by partner choice.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; André, Jean-Baptiste; Sperber, Dan

    2013-02-01

    What makes humans moral beings? This question can be understood either as a proximate “how” question or as an ultimate “why” question. The “how” question is about the mental and social mechanisms that produce moral judgments and interactions, and has been investigated by psychologists and social scientists. The “why” question is about the fitness consequences that explain why humans have morality, and has been discussed by evolutionary biologists in the context of the evolution of cooperation. Our goal here is to contribute to a fruitful articulation of such proximate and ultimate explanations of human morality. We develop an approach to morality as an adaptation to an environment in which individuals were in competition to be chosen and recruited in mutually advantageous cooperative interactions. In this environment, the best strategy is to treat others with impartiality and to share the costs and benefits of cooperation equally. Those who offer less than others will be left out of cooperation; conversely, those who offer more will be exploited by their partners. In line with this mutualistic approach, the study of a range of economic games involving property rights, collective actions, mutual help and punishment shows that participants’ distributions aim at sharing the costs and benefits of interactions in an impartial way. In particular, the distribution of resources is influenced by effort and talent, and the perception of each participant’s rights on the resources to be distributed.

  8. Flame-based processing as a practical approach for manufacturing hydrogen evolution electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Justin; Renner, Julie; Yu, Haoran; Capuano, Chris; Kwak, Tony; Wang, Yang; Carter, C. Barry; Ayers, Kathy; Mustain, William E.; Maric, Radenka

    2014-12-01

    Catalyst structure and morphology are inevitably dictated by the synthesis route, which in-turn dictates catalyst activity, stability and utilization in the electrode. Reactive spray deposition technology (RSDT) is a promising synthesis route for electrode manufacturing because of the potential to achieve high-throughput processing under a diverse range of process configurations. This work investigates several unique approaches to Pt catalyst deposition using jet-flame synthesis for water electrolysis electrodes. Direct application of the catalyst film onto Nafion 117 and carbon paper is explored along with approaches to dispersing the Pt onto carbon or TinO2n-1. Operational challenges relating to the harsh conditions of H2 evolution and electrode adhesion are addressed by adding binder and catalyst support to the electrode structure. The RSDT technology produces an electrode, coated directly onto Nafion 117®, with a 20-fold reduction in Pt loading while maintaining high in-cell performance (2.1 V at 2 A cm-2) compared to an industry-level baseline. Durability testing at 1.8 A cm-2, 400 psi differential pressure and a temperature of 50 °C yields a consistent potential of ∼2.2 V for over 1100 h without failure. The same electrode applied directly to carbon paper resulted in a voltage of ∼2.1 V for ∼600 h without failure.

  9. An innovative approach to predict technology evolution for the desoldering of printed circuit boards: A perspective from China and America.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Wu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Ling; Luo, Chun-Jing

    2016-06-01

    The printed circuit boards basis of electronic equipment have seen a rapid growth in recent years and played a significant role in modern life. Nowadays, the fact that electronic devices upgrade quickly necessitates a proper management of waste printed circuit boards. Non-destructive desoldering of waste printed circuit boards becomes the first and the most crucial step towards recycling electronic components. Owing to the diversity of materials and components, the separation process is difficult, which results in complex and expensive recovery of precious materials and electronic components from waste printed circuit boards. To cope with this problem, we proposed an innovative approach integrating Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) evolution theory and technology maturity mapping system to forecast the evolution trends of desoldering technology of waste printed circuit boards. This approach can be applied to analyse the technology evolution, as well as desoldering technology evolution, then research and development strategy and evolution laws can be recommended. As an example, the maturity of desoldering technology is analysed with a technology maturity mapping system model. What is more, desoldering methods in different stages are analysed and compared. According to the analysis, the technological evolution trends are predicted to be 'the law of energy conductivity' and 'increasing the degree of idealisation'. And the potential technology and evolutionary state of waste printed circuit boards are predicted, offering reference for future waste printed circuit boards recycling. PMID:27067430

  10. An innovative approach to predict technology evolution for the desoldering of printed circuit boards: A perspective from China and America.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Wu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Ling; Luo, Chun-Jing

    2016-06-01

    The printed circuit boards basis of electronic equipment have seen a rapid growth in recent years and played a significant role in modern life. Nowadays, the fact that electronic devices upgrade quickly necessitates a proper management of waste printed circuit boards. Non-destructive desoldering of waste printed circuit boards becomes the first and the most crucial step towards recycling electronic components. Owing to the diversity of materials and components, the separation process is difficult, which results in complex and expensive recovery of precious materials and electronic components from waste printed circuit boards. To cope with this problem, we proposed an innovative approach integrating Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) evolution theory and technology maturity mapping system to forecast the evolution trends of desoldering technology of waste printed circuit boards. This approach can be applied to analyse the technology evolution, as well as desoldering technology evolution, then research and development strategy and evolution laws can be recommended. As an example, the maturity of desoldering technology is analysed with a technology maturity mapping system model. What is more, desoldering methods in different stages are analysed and compared. According to the analysis, the technological evolution trends are predicted to be 'the law of energy conductivity' and 'increasing the degree of idealisation'. And the potential technology and evolutionary state of waste printed circuit boards are predicted, offering reference for future waste printed circuit boards recycling.

  11. Testing palaeotectonic models for the Internal Hellenides with sediment provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Internal Hellenides of Greece are a result of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. The relationships between different pre-Alpine crustal fragments of the Internal Hellenides are now masked by younger (Mesozoic to Cenozoic) complex structural and metamorphic events. This, together with the scarcity of biostratigraphic, geochronological and palaeomagnetic data, has given rise to equivocal palaeotectonic models and interpretations. However, the age and origin of pre-Alpine basement units in the Internal Hellenides has important implications for our in-depth understanding of the evolution of North Gondwana-derived terranes and consequently for alternative palaeotectonic reconstructions for the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. A multidisciplinary sediment provenance study was undertaken since sedimentary rocks can provide information about rock lithologies in the source area, which have often been destroyed and recycled during ancient plate tectonic processes. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks from key areas of the Internal Hellenides were analysed using whole-rock major- and trace-element geochemistry (XRF, ICPMS), detrital chrome spinel, garnet, white mica and rutile chemistry (EMP), detrital zircon geochronology (SHRIMP, LA-ICPMS) and biostratigraphic analysis. These new data are used to constrain terrane accretion processes and the provenance of crustal sources for sediments during Palaeozoic and Mesozoic times and thus will test palaeotectonic models for the Internal Hellenides. This is expected to shed light on the Palaeo- and Neotethyan evolution in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  12. Coloring RDF Triples to Capture Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flouris, Giorgos; Fundulaki, Irini; Pediaditis, Panagiotis; Theoharis, Yannis; Christophides, Vassilis

    Recently, the W3C Linking Open Data effort has boosted the publication and inter-linkage of large amounts of RDF datasets on the Semantic Web. Various ontologies and knowledge bases with millions of RDF triples from Wikipedia and other sources, mostly in e-science, have been created and are publicly available. Recording provenance information of RDF triples aggregated from different heterogeneous sources is crucial in order to effectively support trust mechanisms, digital rights and privacy policies. Managing provenance becomes even more important when we consider not only explicitly stated but also implicit triples (through RDFS inference rules) in conjunction with declarative languages for querying and updating RDF graphs. In this paper we rely on colored RDF triples represented as quadruples to capture and manipulate explicit provenance information.

  13. Sediment generation and provenance: processes and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, L.; Garzanti, E.; von Eynatten, H.; Weltje, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to trace sediments from their sources to sedimentary basins is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of Earth-surface dynamics. The comparatively recent revival of sedimentary provenance analysis goes hand-in-hand with the ever expanding range of analytical tools available for quantifying sediment properties (isotopic, mineral, chemical, and petrographic composition, grain-size and shape distributions, age spectra, etc.), and for interpreting such data in paleo-geographic, -tectonic and -climatic terms. The breakdown of sediment budgets into source-specific contributions - one of the most important tasks of provenance analysis - permits quantification of rates of surface processes in the geological past ("deep time"), even in cases where the source areas themselves have been destroyed by global tectonics. Quantitative sedimentary provenance analysis is therefore crucial to the reconstruction of ancient sediment-routing systems, the fundamental units of mass transfer at the Earth's surface.

  14. Chemo-Dynamical Evolution of Disk Galaxies, Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berczik, P.

    In this paper I present, the new Chemo-Dynamical code, incorporated to the standard Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (CD-SPH). This code used to modelling the complex evolution of disk galaxy systems. The more detailed description of SPH code and the Star Formation (SF) and Super Novae (SN) algorithms you can find in our earlier work Berczik P. & Kravchuk S.G., 1996, ApSpSci, 245, 27. The galaxy presented via tree component system. The Dark Matter Halo described as an external gravitational potential with distribution of Dark Matter density (Burkert A. 1995, ApJ, 447, L25): ρDM (r) = frac ρ0 (1 + r / r0) cdot (1 + r / r0)2. The total mass of Dark Matter Halo is 1012 Modot. The second component is a hot coronal gas, with Thot ~106 K. This component presented as a uniformly distributed SPH gas with initial solid body rotation and with additisional random velocity component Δ V ~100 km/sec. The total mass of this component is 5 cdot 1010 Modot. The last component is a cold gas (Tcold ~104 K). This component presented also as a uniformly distributed SPH gas with initial solid body rotation and with additional random velocity component Δ V ~10 km/sec. The total mass of this component also is 5 cdot 1010 Modot. In the paper presented a more complex and may be more realistic incorporation of SF & SN in the SPH code. The presented calculation is clearly show, what the some interestiong and important properties of isolated disk galaxies we can explain using this simple, tree component "collapsing" model. In the frame of this approach we are able to reproduce the presently observed kinematics of star and gaseous components as well as their distributions and heavy element abundances. The developed model provide the realystic description of dynamics and chemical evolution of typical disk galaxies over the Hubble timescale.

  15. Non-linear power law approach for spatial and temporal pattern analysis of salt marsh evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Cornacchia, L.; Valentini, E.; Bozzeda, F.

    2013-11-01

    Many complex systems on the Earth surface show non-equilibrium fluctuations, often determining the spontaneous evolution towards a critical state. In this context salt marshes are characterized by complex patterns both in geomorphological and ecological features, which often appear to be strongly correlated. A striking feature in salt marshes is vegetation distribution, which can self-organize in patterns over time and space. Self-organized patchiness of vegetation can often give rise to power law relationships in the frequency distribution of patch sizes. In cases where the whole distribution does not follow a power law, the variance of scale in its tail may often be disregarded. To this end, the research aims at how changes in the main climatic and hydrodynamic variables may influence such non-linearity, and how numerical thresholds can describe this. Since it would be difficult to simultaneously monitor the presence and typology of vegetation and channel sinuosity through in situ data, and even harder to analyze them over medium to large time-space scales, remote sensing offers the ability to analyze the scale invariance of patchiness distributions. Here, we focus on a densely vegetated and channelized salt marsh (Scheldt estuary Belgium-the Netherlands) by means of the sub-pixel analysis on satellite images to calculate the non-linearity in the values of the power law exponents due to the variance of scale. The deviation from power laws represents stochastic conditions under climate drivers that can be hybridized on the basis of a fuzzy Bayesian generative algorithm. The results show that the hybrid approach is able to simulate the non-linearity inherent to the system and clearly show the existence of a link between the autocorrelation level of the target variable (i.e. size of vegetation patches), due to its self-organization properties, and the influence exerted on it by the external drivers (i.e. climate and hydrology). Considering the results of the

  16. Simulating mesoscale coastal evolution for decadal coastal management: A new framework integrating multiple, complementary modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; Barkwith, Andrew; Bonaldo, Davide; Burningham, Helene; Brad Murray, A.; Payo, Andres; Sutherland, James; Thornhill, Gillian; Townend, Ian H.; van der Wegen, Mick; Walkden, Mike J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to consider morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales, especially that related to climate change and sea-level rise. This requires the development of morphological models operating at a mesoscale, defined by time and length scales of the order 101 to 102 years and 101 to 102 km. So-called 'reduced complexity' models that represent critical processes at scales not much smaller than the primary scale of interest, and are regulated by capturing the critical feedbacks that govern landform behaviour, are proving effective as a means of exploring emergent coastal behaviour at a landscape scale. Such models tend to be computationally efficient and are thus easily applied within a probabilistic framework. At the same time, reductionist models, built upon a more detailed description of hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, are capable of application at increasingly broad spatial and temporal scales. More qualitative modelling approaches are also emerging that can guide the development and deployment of quantitative models, and these can be supplemented by varied data-driven modelling approaches that can achieve new explanatory insights from observational datasets. Such disparate approaches have hitherto been pursued largely in isolation by mutually exclusive modelling communities. Brought together, they have the potential to facilitate a step change in our ability to simulate the evolution of coastal morphology at scales that are most relevant to managing erosion and flood risk. Here, we advocate and outline a new integrated modelling framework that deploys coupled mesoscale reduced complexity models, reductionist coastal area models, data-driven approaches, and qualitative conceptual models. Integration of these heterogeneous approaches gives rise to model compositions that can potentially resolve decadal- to centennial-scale behaviour of diverse coupled open coast, estuary and inner

  17. Modeling for Matrix Multicracking Evolution of Cross-ply Ceramic-Matrix Composites Using Energy Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    The matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) has been investigated using energy balance approach. The multicracking of cross-ply CMCs was classified into five modes, i.e., (1) mode 1: transverse multicracking; (2) mode 2: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; (3) mode 3: transverse multicracking and matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding; (4) mode 4: matrix multicracking with perfect fiber/matrix interface bonding; and (5) mode 5: matrix multicracking with fiber/matrix interface debonding. The stress distributions of four cracking modes, i.e., mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, are analysed using shear-lag model. The matrix multicracking evolution of mode 1, mode 2, mode 3 and mode 5, has been determined using energy balance approach. The effects of ply thickness and fiber volume fraction on matrix multicracking evolution of cross-ply CMCs have been investigated.

  18. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed. PMID:26975238

  19. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed.

  20. Understanding Student Approaches to Learning Evolution in the Context of Their Perceptions of the Relationship between Science and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Mancy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates a range of positions that learners take on the relationship between science and religion and the potential for these positions to explain student approaches when learning about evolution. A phenomenographic study based on interviews with nine students studying in Christian high schools in Thailand led to the identification…

  1. Applying Content Management to Automated Provenance Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Gibson, Tara D.; Stephan, Eric G.; Chin, George

    2008-04-10

    Workflows and data pipelines are becoming increasingly valuable in both computational and experimen-tal sciences. These automated systems are capable of generating significantly more data within the same amount of time than their manual counterparts. Automatically capturing and recording data prove-nance and annotation as part of these workflows is critical for data management, verification, and dis-semination. Our goal in addressing the provenance challenge was to develop and end-to-end system that demonstrates real-time capture, persistent content management, and ad-hoc searches of both provenance and metadata using open source software and standard protocols. We describe our prototype, which extends the Kepler workflow tools for the execution environment, the Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) content management software for data services, and an existing HTTP-based query protocol. Our implementation offers several unique capabilities, and through the use of standards, is able to pro-vide access to the provenance record to a variety of commonly available client tools.

  2. Time-dependent evolution of rock slopes by a multi-modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzano, F.; Della Seta, M.; Martino, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-modelling approach that incorporates contributions from morpho-evolutionary modelling, detailed engineering-geological modelling and time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling to analyse the rheological evolution of a river valley slope over approximately 102 kyr. The slope is located in a transient, tectonically active landscape in southwestern Tyrrhenian Calabria (Italy), where gravitational processes drive failures in rock slopes. Constraints on the valley profile development were provided by a morpho-evolutionary model based on the correlation of marine and river strath terraces. Rock mass classes were identified through geomechanical parameters that were derived from engineering-geological surveys and outputs of a multi-sensor slope monitoring system. The rock mass classes were associated to lithotechnical units to obtain a high-resolution engineering-geological model along a cross section of the valley. Time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling reproduced the main morpho-evolutionary stages of the valley slopes. The findings demonstrate that a complex combination of eustatism, uplift and Mass Rock Creep (MRC) deformations can lead to first-time failures of rock slopes when unstable conditions are encountered up to the generation of stress-controlled shear zones. The multi-modelling approach enabled us to determine that such complex combinations may have been sufficient for the first-time failure of the S. Giovanni slope at approximately 140 ka (MIS 7), even without invoking any trigger. Conversely, further reactivations of the landslide must be related to triggers such as earthquakes, rainfall and anthropogenic activities. This failure involved a portion of the slope where a plasticity zone resulted from mass rock creep that evolved with a maximum strain rate of 40% per thousand years, after the formation of a river strath terrace. This study demonstrates that the multi-modelling approach presented herein is a useful

  3. Molecular evolution and phylogeny of the buzzatii complex (Drosophila repleta group): a maximum-likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Trelles, F; Alarcón, L; Fontdevila, A

    2000-07-01

    The buzzatii complex of the mulleri subgroup (Drosophila repleta group) consists of three clusters of species whose evolutionary relationships are poorly known. We analyzed 2,085 coding nucleotides from the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH:) gene in the 10 available species of the complex and Drosophila mulleri and Drosophila hydei. We adopted a statistical model-fitting approach within the maximum-likelihood (ML) framework of phylogenetic inference. We first modeled the process of nucleotide substitution using a tree topology which was reasonably accurate. Then we used the most satisfactory description so attained to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships in the buzzatii complex. We found that a minimally realistic description of the substitution process of XDH: should allow six substitution types and different substitution rates for codon positions. Using this description we obtained a strongly supported, fully resolved tree which is congruent with the already-known (yet few) relationships. We also analyzed published data from three mitochondrial cytochrome oxidases (CO I, II, and III). In our analyses, these relatively short DNA sequences failed to discriminate statistically among alternative phylogenies. When the data of these three gene regions are combined with the XDH: sequences, the phylogenetic signal emerging from XDH: becomes reinforced. All four of the gene regions evolve faster in the buzzatii and martensis clusters than in the stalkeri cluster, paralleling the amount of chromosomal evolution.

  4. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    PubMed

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung.

  5. The chemical evolution & physical properties of organic aerosol: A molecular structure based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yiyi; Cao, Tingting; Thompson, Jonathan E.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality are affected by tropospheric particulate matter. Recent measurements suggest organic compounds present in this haze comprise roughly half of total aerosol fine mass concentration globally. Unlike the well-constrained processes which result in formation of nitrate or sulfate aerosol, the oxidation of volatile organics in the atmosphere can lead to thousands of stable compounds in the aerosol phase. Development of a tractable framework to consider the chemical and physical evolution of the organic aerosol is crucial for modeling its effect on global climate. Here we show coupling a 3-dimensional coordinate system defined by the molecular descriptors of molecular weight, heteroatom mass, and double bond equivalents (D.B.E.) with high-resolution molecular mass spectrometry is a powerful approach for describing key properties of the organic aerosol. The scheme is conceptually simple, yet maintains sufficient complexity to be compatible with quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) used to predict chemical and physical properties that govern aerosol behavior. From available data, both ambient organic aerosol and laboratory generated organic aerosol frequently occupy the region characterized by <10 D.B.E. <600 M.W. and <200 heteroatom mass. A QSPR analysis conducted illustrates spatial trends within the 3D space for volatility and Henry's law constants for 31,000 organic compounds considered.

  6. Lead isotopes in Southern Ocean marine sediments: implications for paleoclimatic provenance and seawater studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. P.; Martin, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes in detrital marine sediments and authigenic oxide coatings have proven useful in reconstructing past changes in continental weathering of glaciated continents and ocean circulation. This approach is under-utilised in the Southern Ocean, despite uncertainties about the evolution of Antarctica's ice sheets and oceanographic changes in this region throughout the Cenozoic. Lead isotopes in sediments are controlled by the mineralogy and age of their bedrock sources, making them an ideal tool to trace changes in Southern Ocean sediment provenance associated with onland erosion patterns (and ice sheet variability), and ocean circulation. However, core-top mapping of Pb isotope signatures of detrital marine sediments in this region is non-existent. We present new Pb isotope data for acid-digested <63µm and bulk Late Holocene sediments from 40 cores located in the East Antarctic sector of Southern Ocean. Results demonstrate that, similar to existing Nd and Sr core-top surveys, distinct provenance sectors can be seen in sediments proximal to the continent, due to the geological characteristics of bedrock sources along the margin. A striking N-S trend is also evident, with distal sediments characterised by less radiogenic isotopic signatures, likely associated with a decrease in radiogenic Pb-bearing minerals with increasing distance from the continental margin. This pattern suggests that Pb isotopes in marine sediments may be useful in reconstructing past provenance trends associated with ice sheet change, and migrations of Southern Ocean frontal positions. In addition, we will present new seawater Pb isotope data from reductive leaching of authigenic coatings of these same sediments, permitting for Late Holocene Pb isotope seawater mapping of the Southern Ocean. To ensure we measured the true seawater signal, we adapted established sequential leaching procedures to minimise detrital contamination, and monitored leachate compositions with Nd isotopes, and

  7. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses revealed highly

  8. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier’s Scopus database over the period 1980–2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980–1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990–1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010–2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980–1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995–1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses

  9. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Eric D; Endert, Alex; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research.

  10. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance informationmore » and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research« less

  11. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research

  12. Identifying provenance-specific features of detrital heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Andrew C.; Hallsworth, Claire

    1994-05-01

    The composition of heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones may be heavily influenced by processes operating during transport, deposition and diagenesis. As a consequence, conventional heavy mineral data may not be a reliable guide to the nature of sediment source material. Certain features of heavy mineral suites, however, are inherited directly from the source area without significant modification, such as the varietal characteristics of individual mineral species. This paper describes an alternative approach to varietal studies that concentrates on relative abundances of minerals that are stable during diagenesis and have similar hydraulic behaviour. Ratios of apatite to tourmaline, TiO 2 minerals to zircon, monazite to zircon, and chrome spinel to zircon provide a good reflection of the source rock characteristics, because they are comparatively immune to alteration during the sedimentary cycle. These ratios are described as index values (ATi, RZi, MZi and CZi, respectively). This approach avoids some of the practical problems associated with varietal studies, such as the need to make subjective decisions about mineral properties or to use advanced analytical techniques that may not be accessible to the analyst. It also makes use of more components of the heavy mineral suite and thus provides a more balanced view of provenance characteristics. The use of these ratios is illustrated with examples from Upper Jurassic sandstones in the Outer Moray Firth area of the UK continental shelf and Triassic sandstones from onshore and offshore UK. Heavy mineral indices, notably ATi and MZi, show marked variations in Upper Jurassic Piper sandstones of the Outer Moray Firth. Main Piper sandstones have lower ATi and MZi values compared with Supra Piper sandstones, indicating significant stratigraphic evolution of provenance. The UK Triassic shows major regional variations in a number of index values, including ATi, MZi and CZi, demonstrating that sediment was supplied from

  13. The stones and historic mortars of the Santissima Trinità di Saccargia Romanesque Basilica (Sardinia, Italy): a multi-analytical techniques' approach for the study of their features and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    A research project devoted to the study of building materials of the Romanesque churches in Sardinia is currently underway. One of the objectives of the project is to focus the mineral, chemical-physical and petrographic characterisation of the construction materials, as well as the alteration processes. To make a contribution to the preservation of Sardinian monuments, we suggests a new approach to define the different alteration-modes of rocks in function of their local exposure to the weather, studying: 1) the changes of physical properties on surface of stone (porosity, water absorption, micro-morphology) determined through laboratory tests and photogrammetry observations, 2) the alteration phases present on surface (e.g., secondary minerals, soluble salts) determined by mineralogical and chemical investigations. This methodological approach will allow to select appropriate, suitable and compatible materials for replacing the original altered one's, and to plan appropriate strategies devoted to the restoration work. In this paper the geomaterials used for construct the Santissima Trinità di Saccargia Basilica have been investigated. The church, finished in 1116 over the ruins of a pre-existing monastery, is the most important Romanesque site in the island. Have been studied the chemical alterations and physical decay of two different stones, as volcanic rocks (i.e., basalt) and sedimentary rocks (i.e., limestones) used in bichromy on the Basilica. The main purpose is to observe the different modes of alteration of these two lithologies with different petrophysical characteristics, placed in the same conditions of weathering. Macroscopic evidences show that the limestones, while not having a high porosity, they were strongly affected by alteration phenomena, especially in the outer surface of ashlars, due to the solubilization of the carbonate matrix. The basalt rocks show no obvious physical alteration. Occasionally, in some ashlar located in basal zone of the

  14. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  15. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research. PMID:12186565

  16. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research.

  17. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  18. Phenotypic evolution of human craniofacial morphology after admixture: a geometric morphometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; González-José, Rolando; González-Martín, Antonio; Van der Molen, Silvina; Talavera, Arturo; Hernández, Patricia; Hernández, Miquel

    2006-03-01

    An evolutionary, diachronic approach to the phenotypic craniofacial pattern arisen in a human population after high levels of admixture and gene flow was achieved by means of geometric morphometrics. Admixture has long been studied after molecular data. Nevertheless, few efforts have been made to explain the morphological outcome in human craniofacial samples. The Spanish-Amerindian contact can be considered a good scenario for such an analysis. Here we present a comparative analysis of craniofacial shape changes observed between two putative ancestor groups, Spanish and precontact Aztecs, and two diachronic admixed groups, corresponding to early and late colonial periods from the Mexico's Central Valley. Quantitative shape comparisons of Amerindian, Spanish, and admixed groups were used to test the expectations of quantitative genetics for admixture events. In its simplest form, this prediction states that an admixed group will present phenotypic values falling between those of both parental groups. Results show that, in general terms, although the human skull is a complex, integrated structure, the craniofacial morphology observed fits the theoretical expectations of quantitative genetics. Thus, it is predictive of population structure and history. In fact, results obtained after the craniofacial analysis are in accordance with previous molecular and historical interpretations, providing evidence that admixture is a main microevolutionary agent influencing modern Mexican gene pool. However, expectations are not straightforward when moderate shape changes are considered. Deviations detected at localized structures, such as the upper and lower face, highlight the evolution of a craniofacial pattern exclusively inherent to the admixed groups, indicating that quantitative characters might respond to admixture in a complicated, nondirectional way. PMID:16323202

  19. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to characterize the role of genetic recombination in mycobacterial evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silvia E; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Dardenne, Caitlin N; Harpending, Henry H; Martin, Darren P; Beiko, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium encompasses over one hundred named species of environmental and pathogenic organisms, including the causative agents of devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The success of these human pathogens is due in part to their ability to rapidly adapt to their changing environment and host. Recombination is the fastest way for bacterial genomes to acquire genetic material, but conflicting results about the extent of recombination in the genus Mycobacterium have been reported. We examined a data set comprising 18 distinct strains from 13 named species for evidence of recombination. Genomic regions common to all strains (accounting for 10% to 22% of the full genomes of all examined species) were aligned and concatenated in the chromosomal order of one mycobacterial reference species. The concatenated sequence was screened for evidence of recombination using a variety of statistical methods, with each proposed event evaluated by comparing maximum-likelihood phylogenies of the recombinant section with the non-recombinant portion of the dataset. Incongruent phylogenies were identified by comparing the site-wise log-likelihoods of each tree using multiple tests. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify genes that may have been acquired through horizontal transfer from non-mycobacterial sources. The most frequent associated lineages (and potential gene transfer partners) in the Mycobacterium lineage-restricted gene trees are other members of suborder Corynebacterinae, but more-distant partners were identified as well. In two examined cases of potentially frequent and habitat-directed transfer (M. abscessus to Segniliparus and M. smegmatis to Streptomyces), observed sequence distances were small and consistent with a hypothesis of transfer, while in a third case (M. vanbaalenii to Streptomyces) distances were larger. The analyses described here indicate that whereas evidence of recombination in core regions within the genus is

  20. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    PubMed

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung. PMID:27193553

  1. DNA DSB measurements and modelling approaches based on gamma-H2AX foci time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Campa, Alessandro; Antonelli, Francesca; Mariotti, Luca; Belli, Mauro; Giardullo, Paola; Simone, Giustina; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionising radiation are considered the main dam-age related to the deleterious consequences in the cells. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DSBs can cause mutations or loss of chromosome regions which can eventually lead to cell death or neo-plastic transformation. Quantification of the number and complexity of DSBs induced by low doses of radiation remains a complex problem. About ten years ago Rogakou et al. proposed an immunofluorescent technique able to detect even a single DSB per cell. This approach is based on the serine 139 phosphorylation of many molecules (up to 2000) of histone H2AX (γg-H2AX) following the induction of a DSB in the DNA. DSB can be visualized as foci by immunofluores-cence by using phospho-specific antibodies, so that enumeration of foci can be used to measure DSB induction and processing. It is still not completely clear how γ-H2AX dephosphorylation takes place; however it has been related with DSB repair, in particular with the efficiency of DSB repair. In this work we analyse the H2AX phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics after irradiation of primary human fibroblasts (AG1522 cell line) with radiation of differing quality, that is γ-rays and α-particles (125 keV/µm), with the aim of comparing the time evolution of γ-H2AX foci. Our results show that, after a dose of 0.5 Gy, both γ-rays and α-particles induce the maximum number of γ-H2AX foci within 30 minutes from irradiation, that this number depends on the radiation type and is consistent with the number of track traversal in α-irradiated nuclei, that the dephosphorylation kinetics are very different, being the α-induced foci rate of disappearence slower than that of γ-induced foci. In this work a modellistic approach to estimate the number of DSB induced by γ-rays detectable by using the γ-H2AX assay is presented. The competing processes of appearance and disappearance of visible foci will be modeled taking into account the

  2. A Bayesian Approach to the Evolution of Metabolic Networks on a Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mithani, Aziz; Preston, Gail M.; Hein, Jotun

    2010-01-01

    The availability of genomes of many closely related bacteria with diverse metabolic capabilities offers the possibility of tracing metabolic evolution on a phylogeny relating the genomes to understand the evolutionary processes and constraints that affect the evolution of metabolic networks. Using simple (independent loss/gain of reactions) or complex (incorporating dependencies among reactions) stochastic models of metabolic evolution, it is possible to study how metabolic networks evolve over time. Here, we describe a model that takes the reaction neighborhood into account when modeling metabolic evolution. The model also allows estimation of the strength of the neighborhood effect during the course of evolution. We present Gibbs samplers for sampling networks at the internal node of a phylogeny and for estimating the parameters of evolution over a phylogeny without exploring the whole search space by iteratively sampling from the conditional distributions of the internal networks and parameters. The samplers are used to estimate the parameters of evolution of metabolic networks of bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas and to infer the metabolic networks of the ancestral pseudomonads. The results suggest that pathway maps that are conserved across the Pseudomonas phylogeny have a stronger neighborhood structure than those which have a variable distribution of reactions across the phylogeny, and that some Pseudomonas lineages are going through genome reduction resulting in the loss of a number of reactions from their metabolic networks. PMID:20700467

  3. Multi-scale Science: Supporting Emerging Practice with Semantically Derived Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, James D.; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Lansing, Carina S.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Ashish, N., Goble, C

    2003-10-20

    Scientific progress is becoming increasingly dependent of our ability to study phenomena at multiple scales and from multiple perspectives. The ability to recontextualize third party data within the semantic and syntactic framework of a given research project is increasingly seen as a primary barrier in multi-scale science. Within the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Science (CMCS) project, we are developing a general-purpose informatics-based approach that emphasizes ''on-demand'' metadata creation, configurable data translations, and semantic mapping to support the rapidly increasing and continually evolving requirements for managing data, metadata, and data relationships in such projects. A concrete example of this approach is the design of the CMCS provenance subsystem. The concept of provenance varies across communities, and multiple independent applications contribute to and use provenance. In CMCS, we have developed generic tools for viewing provenance relationships and for using them to, for example, scope notifications and searches. These tools rely on a configurable concept of provenance defined in terms of other relationships. The result is a very flexible mechanism capable of tracking data provenance across many disciplines and supporting multiple uses of provenance information.

  4. From static to dynamic provenance analysis-Sedimentary petrology upgraded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The classical approach to sandstone petrology, established in the golden years of plate tectonics and based on the axiom that "detrital modes of sandstone suites primarily reflect the different tectonic settings of provenance terranes," has represented a benchmark for decades. The composition of sand and sandstone, however, simply provides us with a distorted image of the lithological structure of source terranes and gives us little clue whether they are allochthonous or autochthonous, orogenic or anorogenic, young or old. What we may able to see reflected in detrital modes is the nature of source terranes (continental, arc, oceanic) and the tectonostratigraphic level reached by erosion in space and time. The proposed new approach to the petrology of sand and sandstone (1) starts with a simple classification scheme circulated since the 1960s, which is purely descriptive, objective, and free of ill-defined ambiguous terms and (2) focuses on the nature and tectonostratigraphic level of source terranes. Further steps are essential to upgrade provenance analysis. Acquiring knowledge from modern settings is needed to properly identify and wherever possible correct for physical and chemical processes introducing environmental and diagenetic bias and thus address nature's complexities with adequate conceptual tools. Equally important is the integration of multiple techniques, ideally including bulk-sediment, multi-mineral, and single-mineral methods. Bulk-sediment petrography remains the fundamental approach that allows us to capture the most precious source of direct provenance information, represented by the mineralogy and texture of rock fragments. Bulk-sediment geochemistry, applicable also to silt and clay carried in suspension, is a superior method to check for hydraulic sorting, chemical weathering, and fertility of detrital minerals in different sediment sources. Detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and isotope geochemistry reveal the diverse time structures

  5. Quantitative genetics approaches to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology; a perspective from research on the evolution of resistance.

    PubMed

    Klerks, Paul L; Xie, Lingtian; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative genetic approaches are often used to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology. This paper focuses on the evolution of resistance to environmental contaminants-an important evolutionary process in ecotoxicology. Three approaches are commonly employed to study the evolution of resistance: (1) Assessing whether a contaminant-exposed population has an increased resistance relative to a control population, using either spatial or temporal comparisons. (2) Estimating a population's heritability of resistance. (3) Investigating responses in a laboratory selection experiment. All three approaches provide valuable information on the potential for contaminants to affect a population's evolutionary trajectory via natural selection. However, all three approaches have inherent limitations, including difficulty in separating the various genetic and environmental variance components, responses being dependent on specific population and testing conditions, and inability to fully capture natural conditions in the laboratory. In order to maximize insights into the long-term consequences of adaptation, it is important to not just look at resistance itself, but also at the fitness consequences and at correlated responses in characteristics other than resistance. The rapid development of molecular genetics has yielded alternatives to the "black box" approach of quantitative genetics, but the presence of different limitations and strengths in the two fields means that they should be viewed as complementary rather than exchangeable. Quantitative genetics is benefiting from the incorporation of molecular tools and remains an important field for studying evolutionary toxicology.

  6. Fast side chain replacement in proteins using a coarse-grained approach for evaluating the effects of mutation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Grahnen, Johan A; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2011-08-01

    For high-throughput structural genomic and evolutionary bioinformatics approaches, there is a clear need for fast methods to evaluate substitutions structurally. Coarse-grained methods are both powerful and fast, and a coarse-grained approach to position the substituted side chains is presented. Through the application of a coarse-grained method, a speed-up on the single- residue replacement, of at least sevenfold is achieved compared with modern all-atom approaches. At the same time, this approach maintains a small median RMSD from the leading all-atom approach (as measured in coarse-grained space), and predicts the conformation of point mutants with similar accuracy and generates biologically realistic side chain angles. This method is also substantially more predictable in its run time, making it useful for high-throughput studies of protein structural evolution. To demonstrate the utility of this method, it has been implemented in a forward simulation of sequences threaded through the SH2 domains, with selective pressures to fold and bind specifically. The relative substitution rates across the protein structure and at the binding interface are reflective of those observed in SH2 domain evolution. The algorithm has been implemented in C++, with the source code and binaries (currently supported for Linux systems) freely available as SARA at http://www.wyomingbioinformatics.org/LiberlesGroup/SARA .

  7. Functions and possible provenance of primordial proteins.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andrei P; Miyake, Norimune; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Narlikar, Jayant V; Al-Mufti, Shirwan

    2004-01-01

    Nanobacteria or living nanovesicles are of great interest to the scientific community because of their dual nature: on the one hand, they appear as primal biosystems originating life; on the other hand, they can cause severe diseases. Their survival as well as their pathogenic potential is apparently linked to a self-synthesized protein-based slime, rich in calcium and phosphate (when available). Here, we provide challenging evidence for the occurrence of nanobacteria in the stratosphere, reflecting a possibly primordial provenance of the slime. An analysis of the slime's biological functions may lead to novel strategies suitable to block adhesion modalities in modern bacterial populations. PMID:15595742

  8. An event-driven approach for studying gene block evolution in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ream, David C.; Bankapur, Asma R.; Friedberg, Iddo

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Gene blocks are genes co-located on the chromosome. In many cases, gene blocks are conserved between bacterial species, sometimes as operons, when genes are co-transcribed. The conservation is rarely absolute: gene loss, gain, duplication, block splitting and block fusion are frequently observed. An open question in bacterial molecular evolution is that of the formation and breakup of gene blocks, for which several models have been proposed. These models, however, are not generally applicable to all types of gene blocks, and consequently cannot be used to broadly compare and study gene block evolution. To address this problem, we introduce an event-based method for tracking gene block evolution in bacteria. Results: We show here that the evolution of gene blocks in proteobacteria can be described by a small set of events. Those include the insertion of genes into, or the splitting of genes out of a gene block, gene loss, and gene duplication. We show how the event-based method of gene block evolution allows us to determine the evolutionary rateand may be used to trace the ancestral states of their formation. We conclude that the event-based method can be used to help us understand the formation of these important bacterial genomic structures. Availability and implementation: The software is available under GPLv3 license on http://github.com/reamdc1/gene_block_evolution.git. Supplementary online material: http://iddo-friedberg.net/operon-evolution Contact: i.friedberg@miamioh.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25717195

  9. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport.

  10. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport. PMID:10736270

  11. A Markov random field approach for modeling spatio-temporal evolution of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Pinar; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2016-10-01

    The following problem is addressed: ‘Can one synthesize microstructure evolution over a large area given experimental movies measured over smaller regions?’ Our input is a movie of microstructure evolution over a small sample window. A Markov random field (MRF) algorithm is developed that uses this data to estimate the evolution of microstructure over a larger region. Unlike the standard microstructure reconstruction problem based on stationary images, the present algorithm is also able to reconstruct time-evolving phenomena such as grain growth. Such an algorithm would decrease the cost of full-scale microstructure measurements by coupling mathematical estimation with targeted small-scale spatiotemporal measurements. The grain size, shape and orientation distribution statistics of synthesized polycrystalline microstructures at different times are compared with the original movie to verify the method.

  12. An ecological and behavioural approach to hominin evolution during the Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Gabriele A.

    2014-07-01

    The study considers the turnover in hominins, together with carnivorans and other primates, at 3.5 Ma against an environmental backdrop. Communalities are identified between evolving guilds that may directly inform hominin evolution. These are the evolution of (a) dietary generalists and (b) evidence for sociality in carnivores, baboons and hominins. Sociality and behavioural flexibility are regarded advantageous for the procurement of resources while, at the same time, reducing intraspecific competition; in primates it may initially also have served to reduce predation risk. Behavioural flexibility explains the evolutionary success of Panthera leo, Papio and Homo. Viewed within a wider palaeoecological and environmental context, it is possible that sociality in hominins, including allocare, were triggered by abiotic changes at about 3.5 Ma. If confirmed in future studies, this would mark the beginning of hominin life history evolution.

  13. Experimental approaches to evaluate the contributions of candidate cis-regulatory mutations to phenotypic evolution.

    PubMed

    Rebeiz, Mark; Williams, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular bases by which phenotypic traits have evolved provides a glimpse into the past, allowing the characterization of genetic changes that cumulatively contribute to evolutionary innovations. Historically, much of the experimental attention has been focused on changes in protein-coding regions that can readily be identified by the genetic code for translating gene coding sequences into proteins. Resultantly, the role of noncoding sequences in trait evolution has remained more mysterious. In recent years, several studies have reached an unprecedented level of detail in describing how noncoding mutations in gene cis-regulatory elements contribute to morphological evolution. Based on these and other studies, we describe an experimental framework and some of the genetic and molecular methods to connect a particular cis-regulatory mutation to the evolution of any phenotypic trait. PMID:22065449

  14. Multi-Input Single Output SSSC based damping controller design by a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution-Pattern Search approach.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sidhartha; Yegireddy, Narendra Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution and Pattern Search (hIDEPS) approach is proposed for the design of a PI-Type Multi-Input Single Output (MISO) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller. The improvement in Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is introduced by a simple but effective scheme of changing two of its most important control parameters i.e. step size and crossover probability with an objective of achieving improved performance. Pattern Search (PS) is subsequently employed to fine tune the best solution provided by modified DE algorithm. The superiority of a proposed hIDEPS technique over DE and improved DE has also been demonstrated. At the outset, this concept is applied to a SSSC connected in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system and then extended to a multi-machine power system. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimized Single Input Single Output (SISO) SSSC based damping controllers. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some approaches available in the literature. PMID:25864132

  15. Multi-Input Single Output SSSC based damping controller design by a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution-Pattern Search approach.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sidhartha; Yegireddy, Narendra Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution and Pattern Search (hIDEPS) approach is proposed for the design of a PI-Type Multi-Input Single Output (MISO) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller. The improvement in Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is introduced by a simple but effective scheme of changing two of its most important control parameters i.e. step size and crossover probability with an objective of achieving improved performance. Pattern Search (PS) is subsequently employed to fine tune the best solution provided by modified DE algorithm. The superiority of a proposed hIDEPS technique over DE and improved DE has also been demonstrated. At the outset, this concept is applied to a SSSC connected in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system and then extended to a multi-machine power system. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimized Single Input Single Output (SISO) SSSC based damping controllers. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some approaches available in the literature.

  16. Insights into the Diversity of Attitudes Concerning Evolution and Creation: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konneman, Christiane; Asshoff, Roman; Hammann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to describe high school students' attitudes concerning evolution and creation, with a focus on (1) attitudes toward evolutionary theory, (2) attitudes toward the Biblical accounts of creation, (3) creationist beliefs, and (4) scientistic beliefs. Latent class analyses revealed seven attitude profiles in a sample of…

  17. Cognitive Approaches to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Evolution of Multirepresentational Theorizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgleish, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of multirepresentational cognitive theorizing in psychopathology is illustrated by detailed discussion and analysis of a number of prototypical models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Network and schema theories, which focus on a single, explicit aspect/format of mental representation, are compared with theories that focus on…

  18. A Genomic Approach to Examine the Complex Evolution of Laurasiatherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hallström, Björn M.; Schneider, Adrian; Zoller, Stefan; Janke, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenomic studies have failed to conclusively resolve certain branches of the placental mammalian tree, despite the evolutionary analysis of genomic data from 32 species. Previous analyses of single genes and retroposon insertion data yielded support for different phylogenetic scenarios for the most basal divergences. The results indicated that some mammalian divergences were best interpreted not as a single bifurcating tree, but as an evolutionary network. In these studies the relationships among some orders of the super-clade Laurasiatheria were poorly supported, albeit not studied in detail. Therefore, 4775 protein-coding genes (6,196,263 nucleotides) were collected and aligned in order to analyze the evolution of this clade. Additionally, over 200,000 introns were screened in silico, resulting in 32 phylogenetically informative long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) insertion events. The present study shows that the genome evolution of Laurasiatheria may best be understood as an evolutionary network. Thus, contrary to the common expectation to resolve major evolutionary events as a bifurcating tree, genome analyses unveil complex speciation processes even in deep mammalian divergences. We exemplify this on a subset of 1159 suitable genes that have individual histories, most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting or introgression, processes that can make the genealogy of mammalian genomes complex. These unexpected results have major implications for the understanding of evolution in general, because the evolution of even some higher level taxa such as mammalian orders may sometimes not be interpreted as a simple bifurcating pattern. PMID:22164244

  19. Computers in Biological Education: Simulation Approaches. Genetics and Evolution. CAL Research Group Technical Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, P. J.

    Three examples of genetics and evolution simulation concerning Mendelian inheritance, genetic mapping, and natural selection are used to illustrate the use of simulations in modeling scientific/natural processes. First described is the HERED series, which illustrates such phenomena as incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, lethal alleles,…

  20. Evolution of conformational changes in the dynamics of small biological molecules: a hybrid MD/RRK approach.

    PubMed

    Segev, Elad; Grumbach, Mikael; Gerber, Robert Benny

    2006-11-14

    The dynamics of long timescale evolution of conformational changes in small biological molecules is described by a hybrid molecular dynamics/RRK algorithm. The approach employs classical trajectories for transitions between adjacent structures separated by a low barrier, and the classical statistical RRK approximation when the barrier involved is high. In determining the long-time dynamics from an initial structure to a final structure of interest, an algorithm is introduced for determining the most efficient pathways (sequence of the intermediate conformers). This method uses the Dijkstra algorithm for finding optimal paths on networks. Three applications of the method using an AMBER force field are presented: a detailed study of conformational transitions in a blocked valine dipeptide; a multiple reaction path study of the blocked valine tripeptide; and the evolution in time from the beta hairpin to alpha helix structure of a blocked alanine hexapeptide. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed in light of the results. PMID:17066182

  1. Titian: Data Provenance Support in Spark

    PubMed Central

    Interlandi, Matteo; Shah, Kshitij; Tetali, Sai Deep; Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Miryung; Millstein, Todd; Condie, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Debugging data processing logic in Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems is a difficult and time consuming effort. Today’s DISC systems offer very little tooling for debugging programs, and as a result programmers spend countless hours collecting evidence (e.g., from log files) and performing trial and error debugging. To aid this effort, we built Titian, a library that enables data provenance—tracking data through transformations—in Apache Spark. Data scientists using the Titian Spark extension will be able to quickly identify the input data at the root cause of a potential bug or outlier result. Titian is built directly into the Spark platform and offers data provenance support at interactive speeds—orders-of-magnitude faster than alternative solutions—while minimally impacting Spark job performance; observed overheads for capturing data lineage rarely exceed 30% above the baseline job execution time. PMID:26726305

  2. Standardized wellheads proven economical for subsea operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, C.C.; Silva Paulo, C.A. )

    1994-05-02

    A standardization program for subsea wellheads and completion equipment has made development of Brazil's offshore fields more economical and efficient. The resulting operational flexibility associated with the use of field-proven equipment and procedures saves rig time and can reduce production loss during workovers. Additionally, investments can be rationalized economically by installing part of the completion equipment at the end of the drilling job and then delaying purchase and installation of the christmas tree and the flow lines until installation of the production platform. Savings are also realized from the reduction in the number of spare parts and tools. Moreover, the savings related to improved operations exceed considerably those from equipment acquisition and storage. Thus, the greatest benefit is the operational flexibility. The paper discusses initial standards, the subsea programs, philosophy, implementation, diver-assisted trees, diverless trees, and economics.

  3. An interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm for a class of integer bilevel programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Li; Jiao, Yong-Chang

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm to solve a class of integer bilevel programming problems, in which integer decision variables are controlled by an upper-level decision maker and real-value or continuous decision variables are controlled by a lower-level decision maker. Using the Karush--Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions in the lower-level programming, the original discrete bilevel formulation can be converted into a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem with the complementarity constraints, and then the smoothing technique is applied to deal with the complementarity constraints. Finally, a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem is obtained, and solved by an interactive approach. In each iteration, for each given upper-level discrete variable, a system of nonlinear equations including the lower-level variables and Lagrange multipliers is solved first, and then a discrete nonlinear programming problem only with inequality constraints is handled by using a discrete differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Adaptive cluster expansion approach for predicting the structure evolution of graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xi-Bo; Guo, Pan; Wang, D.; Liu, Li-Min; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2014-12-14

    An adaptive cluster expansion (CE) method is used to explore surface adsorption and growth processes. Unlike the traditional CE method, suitable effective cluster interaction (ECI) parameters are determined, and then the selected fixed number of ECIs is continually optimized to predict the stable configurations with gradual increase of adatom coverage. Comparing with traditional CE method, the efficiency of the adaptive CE method could be greatly enhanced. As an application, the adsorption and growth of oxygen atoms on one side of pristine graphene was carefully investigated using this method in combination with first-principles calculations. The calculated results successfully uncover the structural evolution of graphene oxide for the different numbers of oxygen adatoms on graphene. The aggregation behavior of the stable configurations for different oxygen adatom coverages is revealed for increasing coverages of oxygen atoms. As a targeted method, adaptive CE can also be applied to understand the evolution of other surface adsorption and growth processes.

  5. Future of DAQ Frameworks and Approaches, and Their Evolution towards the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Niko

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, a DAQ system is a complex network of processors, sensors and many other active devices. Historically, providing a framework for DAQ has been a very important role of host institutes of experiments. Reviewing evolution of such DAQ frameworks is a very interesting subject of the conference. “Internet of Things” is a recent buzz word but a DAQ framework could be a good example of IoT.

  6. Galactic evolution of rapid neutron capture process abundances: the inhomogeneous approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehmeyer, B.; Pignatari, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2015-09-01

    For the origin of heavy rapid neutron capture process (r-process) elements, different sources have been proposed, e.g. core-collapse supernovae or neutron star mergers. Old metal-poor stars carry the signature of the astrophysical source(s). Among the elements dominantly made by the r-process, europium (Eu) is relatively easy to observe. In this work we simulate the evolution of Eu in our Galaxy with the inhomogeneous chemical evolution (ICE) model, and compare our results with spectroscopic observations. We test the most important parameters affecting the chemical evolution of Eu: (a) for neutron star mergers the coalescence time-scale of the merger (tcoal) and the probability to experience a neutron star merger event after two supernova explosions occurred and formed a double neutron star system (PNSM) and (b) for the subclass of magnetorotationally driven supernovae (`Jet-SNe'), their occurrence rate compared to standard supernovae (PJet-SN). We find that the observed [Eu/Fe] pattern in the Galaxy can be reproduced by a combination of neutron star mergers and Jet-SNe as r-process sources. While neutron star mergers alone seem to set in at too high metallicities, Jet-SNe provide a cure for this deficiency at low metallicities. Furthermore, we confirm that local inhomogeneities can explain the observed large spread in the Eu abundances at low metallicities. We also predict the evolution of [O/Fe] to test whether the spread in α-elements for inhomogeneous models agrees with observations and whether this provides constraints on supernova explosion models and their nucleosynthesis.

  7. Time evolution of non-lethal infectious diseases: a semi-continuous approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noviello, A.; Romeo, F.; de Luca, R.

    2006-04-01

    A model describing the dynamics related to the spreading of non-lethal infectious diseases in a fixed-size population is proposed. The model consists of a non-linear delay-differential equation describing the time evolution of the increment in the number of infectious individuals and depends upon a limited number of parameters. Predictions are in good qualitative agreement with data on influenza, which is taken to be a representative type of non-lethal infectious disease.

  8. The Evolution of Galaxies. III - From Simple Approaches to Self-Consistent Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensler, G.; Stasińska, G.; Harfst, S.; Kroupa, P.; Theis, Chr.

    2003-07-01

    Galaxies have a history. This has become clear from recent sky surveys which have shown that distant galaxies, formed early in the life of the Universe, differ from the nearby ones. New observational windows at ultraviolet, infrared and millimetric wavelengths (provided by ROSAT, IRAM, IUE, IRAS, ISO) have revealed that galaxies contain a wealth of components: very hot gas, atomic hydrogen, molecules, dust, dark matter...A significant advance is expected from the results of new instruments (VLT, FIRST, XMM) which will=0D=0Aallow one to explore the most distant Universe. Three Euroconferences were planned to punctuate this new epoch in galactic research, bringing together specialists in various fields of Astronomy. The first one, held in Granada (Spain) in May 2000, addressed the observational clues. The second one took place in October 2001 in St. Denis de la Réunion (France) and reviewed the basic building blocks and small-scale processes in galaxy evolution. The third conference was held in Kiel (Germany) in July 2002 and addressed the appropriate modelling of galaxy evolution from their cosmological formation to their presently observable structures. This book contains the proceedings of the third conference and presents the actual state-of-the-art of modelling galaxy evolution. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1182-2

  9. Leveraging The Open Provenance Model as a Multi-Tier Model for Global Climate Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Halter, Todd D.; Ermold, Brian D.

    2010-12-08

    Global climate researchers rely upon many forms of sensor data and analytical methods to help profile subtle changes in climate conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program provides researchers with curated Value Added Products (VAPs) resulting from continuous sensor data streams, data fusion, and modeling. The ARM operations staff and software development teams (data producers) rely upon a number of techniques to ensure strict quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) standards are maintained. Climate researchers (data consumers) are highly interested in obtaining as much provenance (data quality, data pedigree) as possible to establish data trustworthiness. Currently all the provenance is not easily attainable or identifiable without significant efforts to extract and piece together information from configuration files, log files, codes, and status information from ARM databases. The need for a formalized approach to managing provenance became paramount with the planned addition of 120 new instruments, new data products, and data collection scaling to half a terabyte daily. Last year our research identified the need for a multi-tier provenance model to enable the data consumer easy access to the provenance for their data. This year we are leveraging the Open Provenance Model as a foundational construct that serves the needs of both the VAP producers and consumers, we are organizing the provenance in different tiers of granularity to model VAP lineage, causality at the component level within a VAP, and the causality for each time step as samples are being assembled within the VAP. This paper shares our implementation strategy and how the ARM operations staff and the climate research community can greatly benefit from this approach to more effectively assess and quantify VAP provenance.

  10. Scientific Workflows + Provenance = Better (Meta-)Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    The origin and processing history of an artifact is known as its provenance. Data provenance is an important form of metadata that explains how a particular data product came about, e.g., how and when it was derived in a computational process, which parameter settings and input data were used, etc. Provenance information provides transparency and helps to explain and interpret data products. Other common uses and applications of provenance include quality control, data curation, result debugging, and more generally, 'reproducible science'. Scientific workflow systems (e.g. Kepler, Taverna, VisTrails, and others) provide controlled environments for developing computational pipelines with built-in provenance support. Workflow results can then be explained in terms of workflow steps, parameter settings, input data, etc. using provenance that is automatically captured by the system. Scientific workflows themselves provide a user-friendly abstraction of the computational process and are thus a form of ('prospective') provenance in their own right. The full potential of provenance information is realized when combining workflow-level information (prospective provenance) with trace-level information (retrospective provenance). To this end, the DataONE Provenance Working Group (ProvWG) has developed an extension of the W3C PROV standard, called D-PROV. Whereas PROV provides a 'least common denominator' for exchanging and integrating provenance information, D-PROV adds new 'observables' that described workflow-level information (e.g., the functional steps in a pipeline), as well as workflow-specific trace-level information ( timestamps for each workflow step executed, the inputs and outputs used, etc.) Using examples, we will demonstrate how the combination of prospective and retrospective provenance provides added value in managing scientific data. The DataONE ProvWG is also developing tools based on D-PROV that allow scientists to get more mileage from provenance metadata

  11. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling 'Darwinian' and 'Spencerian' evolutionary approaches in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2011-04-12

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of 'Spencerian' cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader 'Darwinian' framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  12. A practical approach to calculate the time evolutions of magnetic field effects on photochemical reactions in nano-structured materials.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tomoaki; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2015-04-21

    A practical method to calculate time evolutions of magnetic field effects (MFEs) on photochemical reactions involving radical pairs is developed on the basis of the theory of the chemically induced dynamic spin polarization proposed by Pedersen and Freed. In theory, the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE), including the spin Hamiltonian, diffusion motions of the radical pair, chemical reactions, and spin relaxations, is solved by using the Laplace and the inverse Laplace transformation technique. In our practical approach, time evolutions of the MFEs are successfully calculated by applying the Miller-Guy method instead of the final value theorem to the inverse Laplace transformation process. Especially, the SLE calculations are completed in a short time when the radical pair dynamics can be described by the chemical kinetics consisting of diffusions, reactions and spin relaxations. The SLE analysis with a short calculation time enables one to examine the various parameter sets for fitting the experimental date. Our study demonstrates that simultaneous fitting of the time evolution of the MFE and of the magnetic field dependence of the MFE provides valuable information on the diffusion motions of the radical pairs in nano-structured materials such as micelles where the lifetimes of radical pairs are longer than hundreds of nano-seconds and the magnetic field dependence of the spin relaxations play a major role for the generation of the MFE.

  13. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling 'Darwinian' and 'Spencerian' evolutionary approaches in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2011-04-12

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of 'Spencerian' cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader 'Darwinian' framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification.

  14. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  15. Coastline evolution of Portuguese low-lying sandy coast in the last 50 years: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte Lira, Cristina; Nobre Silva, Ana; Taborda, Rui; Freire de Andrade, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    Regional/national-scale information on coastline rates of change and trends is extremely valuable, but these studies are scarce. A widely accepted standardized methodology for analysing long-term coastline change has been difficult to achieve, but it is essential to conduct an integrated and holistic approach to coastline evolution and hence support coastal management actions. Additionally, databases providing knowledge on coastline evolution are of key importance to support both coastal management experts and users.The main objective of this work is to present the first systematic, national-scale and consistent long-term coastline evolution data of Portuguese mainland low-lying sandy coasts.The methodology used quantifies coastline evolution using a unique and robust coastline indicator (the foredune toe), which is independent of short-term changes.The dataset presented comprises (1) two polyline sets, mapping the 1958 and 2010 sandy beach-dune system coastline, both optimized for working at 1 : 50 000 scale or smaller; (2) one polyline set representing long-term change rates between 1958 and 2010, each estimated at 250 m; and (3) a table with minimum, maximum and mean of evolution rates for sandy beach-dune system coastline. All science data produced here are openly accessible at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.859136 and can be used in other studies.Results show beach erosion as the dominant trend, with a mean change rate of -0.24 ± 0.01 m year-1 for all mainland Portuguese beach-dune systems. Although erosion is dominant, this evolution is variable in signal and magnitude in different coastal sediment cells and also within each cell. The most relevant beach erosion issues were found in the coastal stretches of Espinho-Torreira and Costa Nova-Praia de Mira, Cova da Gala-Leirosa, and Cova do Vapor-Costa da Caparica. The coastal segments Minho River-Nazaré and Costa da Caparica

  16. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  17. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  18. Managing the Evolution of an Enterprise Architecture using a MAS-Product-Line Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pena, Joaquin; Hinchey, Michael G.; Resinas, manuel; Sterritt, Roy; Rash, James L.

    2006-01-01

    We view an evolutionary system ns being n software product line. The core architecture is the unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system may be viewed as a product from the product line. Each "product" may be described as the core architecture with sonre agent-based additions. The result is a multiagent system software product line. We describe an approach to such n Software Product Line-based approach using the MaCMAS Agent-Oriented nzethoclology. The approach scales to enterprise nrchitectures as a multiagent system is an approprinre means of representing a changing enterprise nrchitectclre nnd the inferaction between components in it.

  19. Hydrochemical evolution and groundwater flow processes in the Galilee and Eromanga basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia: a multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Moya, Claudio E; Raiber, Matthias; Taulis, Mauricio; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-03-01

    The Galilee and Eromanga basins are sub-basins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). In this study, a multivariate statistical approach (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis) is carried out to identify hydrochemical patterns and assess the processes that control hydrochemical evolution within key aquifers of the GAB in these basins. The results of the hydrochemical assessment are integrated into a 3D geological model (previously developed) to support the analysis of spatial patterns of hydrochemistry, and to identify the hydrochemical and hydrological processes that control hydrochemical variability. In this area of the GAB, the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater is dominated by evapotranspiration near the recharge area resulting in a dominance of the Na-Cl water types. This is shown conceptually using two selected cross-sections which represent discrete groundwater flow paths from the recharge areas to the deeper parts of the basins. With increasing distance from the recharge area, a shift towards a dominance of carbonate (e.g. Na-HCO3 water type) has been observed. The assessment of hydrochemical changes along groundwater flow paths highlights how aquifers are separated in some areas, and how mixing between groundwater from different aquifers occurs elsewhere controlled by geological structures, including between GAB aquifers and coal bearing strata of the Galilee Basin. The results of this study suggest that distinct hydrochemical differences can be observed within the previously defined Early Cretaceous-Jurassic aquifer sequence of the GAB. A revision of the two previously recognised hydrochemical sequences is being proposed, resulting in three hydrochemical sequences based on systematic differences in hydrochemistry, salinity and dominant hydrochemical processes. The integrated approach presented in this study which combines different complementary multivariate statistical techniques with a detailed assessment of the

  20. Hydrochemical evolution and groundwater flow processes in the Galilee and Eromanga basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia: a multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Moya, Claudio E; Raiber, Matthias; Taulis, Mauricio; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-03-01

    The Galilee and Eromanga basins are sub-basins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). In this study, a multivariate statistical approach (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis) is carried out to identify hydrochemical patterns and assess the processes that control hydrochemical evolution within key aquifers of the GAB in these basins. The results of the hydrochemical assessment are integrated into a 3D geological model (previously developed) to support the analysis of spatial patterns of hydrochemistry, and to identify the hydrochemical and hydrological processes that control hydrochemical variability. In this area of the GAB, the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater is dominated by evapotranspiration near the recharge area resulting in a dominance of the Na-Cl water types. This is shown conceptually using two selected cross-sections which represent discrete groundwater flow paths from the recharge areas to the deeper parts of the basins. With increasing distance from the recharge area, a shift towards a dominance of carbonate (e.g. Na-HCO3 water type) has been observed. The assessment of hydrochemical changes along groundwater flow paths highlights how aquifers are separated in some areas, and how mixing between groundwater from different aquifers occurs elsewhere controlled by geological structures, including between GAB aquifers and coal bearing strata of the Galilee Basin. The results of this study suggest that distinct hydrochemical differences can be observed within the previously defined Early Cretaceous-Jurassic aquifer sequence of the GAB. A revision of the two previously recognised hydrochemical sequences is being proposed, resulting in three hydrochemical sequences based on systematic differences in hydrochemistry, salinity and dominant hydrochemical processes. The integrated approach presented in this study which combines different complementary multivariate statistical techniques with a detailed assessment of the

  1. Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study. PMID:25538686

  2. Controversy in Biology Classrooms—Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Yoho, Rachel A.; Vanmali, Binaben H.

    2016-01-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to “hot topics” of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047604

  3. Controversy in Biology Classrooms-Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions.

    PubMed

    Yoho, Rachel A; Vanmali, Binaben H

    2016-03-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to "hot topics" of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  4. Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K

    2014-01-01

    The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study.

  5. Controversy in Biology Classrooms-Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions.

    PubMed

    Yoho, Rachel A; Vanmali, Binaben H

    2016-03-01

    The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to "hot topics" of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047604

  6. A phylomedicine approach to understanding the evolution of auditory sensory perception and disease in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, John D; Bekaert, Michaël; Commins, Jennifer M; Davies, Kalina T J; Rossiter, Stephen J; Teeling, Emma C

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary deafness affects 0.1% of individuals globally and is considered as one of the most debilitating diseases of man. Despite recent advances, the molecular basis of normal auditory function is not fully understood and little is known about the contribution of single-nucleotide variations to the disease. Using cross-species comparisons of 11 ‘deafness’ genes (Myo15, Ush1 g, Strc, Tecta, Tectb, Otog, Col11a2, Gjb2, Cldn14, Kcnq4, Pou3f4) across 69 evolutionary and ecologically divergent mammals, we elucidated whether there was evidence for: (i) adaptive evolution acting on these genes across mammals with similar hearing capabilities; and, (ii) regions of long-term evolutionary conservation within which we predict disease-associated mutations should occur. We find evidence of adaptive evolution acting on the eutherian mammals in Myo15, Otog and Tecta. Examination of selection pressures in Tecta and Pou3f4 across a taxonomic sample that included a wide representation of auditory specialists, the bats, did not uncover any evidence for a role in echolocation. We generated ‘conservation indices’ based on selection estimates at nucleotide sites and found that known disease mutations fall within sites of high evolutionary conservation. We suggest that methods such as this, derived from estimates of evolutionary conservation using phylogenetically divergent taxa, will help to differentiate between deleterious and benign mutations. PMID:23745134

  7. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qian

    2008-01-01

    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  8. Data Provenance Architecture for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The pace at which geoscientific insights inform societal development quickens with time and these insights drive decisions and actions of ever-increasing human and economic significance. Until recently academic, commercial and government bodies have maintained distinct bodies of knowledge to support scientific enquiry as well as societal development. However, it has become clear that the curation of the body of data is an activity of equal or higher social and commercial value. We address the community challenges in the curation of, access to, and analysis of scientific data including: the tensions between creators, providers and users; incentives and barriers to sharing; ownership and crediting. We also discuss the technical and financial challenges in maximising the return on the effort made in generating geoscientific data. To illustrate how these challenges might be addressed in the broader geoscientific domain, we describe the high-level data governance and analytical architecture in the upstream Oil Industry. This domain is heavily dependent on costly and highly diverse geodatasets collected and assimilated over timeframes varying from seconds to decades. These data must support both operational decisions at the minute-hour timefame and strategic and economic decisions of enterprise or national scale, and yet be sufficiently robust to last the life of a producing field. We develop three themes around data provenance, data ownership and business models for data curation. 1/ The overarching aspiration is to ensure that data provenance and quality is maintained along the analytical workflow. Hence if data on which a publication or report changes, the report and its publishers can be notified and we describe a mechanism by which dependent knowledge products can be flagged. 2/ From a cost and management point of view we look at who "owns" data especially in cases where the cost of curation and stewardship is significant compared to the cost of acquiring the data

  9. Modern high spatial resolution approaches to crustal evolution studies - pitfalls and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Developments in analytical techniques for in situ geochronology and isotope geochemistry over the past few decades have contributed greatly to our understanding of the processes of Precambrian crustal evolution, plate tectonics, the development of Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere and conditions for the development of life on Earth. The further back in time we go, however, the more complex the geology, requiring that we unravel and/or try to see through multiple phases of disturbance. Such geological complexity complicates interpretation and can lead to conflicting viewpoints on such key questions as when plate tectonics began on Earth, when it evolved to a process essentially similar to that of today and the nature and habitability of a potentially pre-plate tectonic Earth in the Hadean. This presentation will review, with case studies, some of the crucial aspects of applying and interpreting high spatial resolution in situ methods and some of the potential pitfalls. Obtaining accurate and precise geochronology is an essential first step in any study of Precambrian geology, whether it is the primary goal or provides a supporting framework to other diverse applications. To this end, high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation inductiively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), typically combined with relevant imaging methods such as cathode luminescence (CL) are widely used to investigate the U-Pb systematics of complex zircon. In general precision is merely an analytical hurdle that we are good (and continually getting better) at clearing, but accuracy commonly contains not just an analytical element (e.g. calibration of standards) but also a considerable subjective element in order to unravel the commonly polyphase evolution of early Precambrian zircon. Examples of such problematic interpretations from the Neoarchean Lewisian Complex of northwest Scotland and the Paleoarchean Napier Complex of Antarctica will be

  10. Molecular Corridor Based Approach for Description of Evolution of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y., Sr.; Poeschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and its major component is secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Formation and evolution of SOA is a complex process involving coupled chemical reactions and mass transport in the gas and particle phases (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Current air quality models do not embody the full spectrum of reaction and transport processes, nor do they identify the dominant rate-limiting steps in SOA formation, resulting in the significant underprediction of observed SOA concentrations, which precludes reliable quantitative predictions of aerosols and their environmental impacts. Recently, it has been suggested that the SOA chemical evolution can be represented well by "molecular corridor" with a tight inverse correlation between molar mass and volatility of SOA oxidation products (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Here we further analyzed the structure, molar mass and volatility of 31,000 unique organic compounds. These compounds include oxygenated organic compounds as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics such as amines, organonitrates, and organosulfates. Results show that most of those compounds fall into this two-dimensional (2-D) space, which is constrained by two boundary lines corresponding to the volatility of n -alkanes CnH2n+2 and sugar alcohols CnH2n+2On. A method to predict the volatility of nitrogen- and sulfur- containing compounds is developed based on those 31,000 organic compounds. It is shown that the volatility can be well predicted as a function of chemical composition numbers, providing a way to apply this 2-D space to organic compounds observed in real atmosphere. A comprehensive set of observation data from laboratory experiments, field campaigns and indoor measurements is mapped to the molecular corridor. This 2-D space can successfully grasp the properties of organic compounds formed in different atmospheric conditions. The molecular corridor represents a new framework in which chemical and physical properties as

  11. Deciphering the brittle evolution of SW Norway through a combined structural, mineralogical and geochronological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Zwingmann, Horst; Wilkinson, Camilla Maya; Ganerød, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    SW Norway has experienced a complex brittle history after cessation of the Caledonian orogeny, and the recent discoveries of major hydrocarbon reserves in heavily fractured and weathered basement offshore SW Norway has triggered a renewed interest in understanding this complex tectonic evolution. In this contribution we present results from a multidisciplinary study combining lineament analysis, field work, paleo-stress inversion, mineralogical characterization and radiometric dating in the Bømlo area of SW Norway in order to develop a tectonic model for the brittle evolution of this important region. The study area mainly consists of the Rolvsnes granodiorite (U-Pb zircon age of ca. 466 Ma), which is devoid of penetrative ductile deformation features. The first identified brittle faults are muscovite-bearing top-to-the-NNW thrusts and E-W striking dextral strike-slip faults decorated with stretched biotite. These are mechanically compatible and are assigned to the same NNW-SSE transpressional regime. Ar-Ar muscovite and biotite dates of ca. 450 Ma (Late Ordovician) indicate fault activity in the course of a Taconian-equivalent orogenic event. During the subsequent Silurian Laurentia-Baltica collision variably oriented, lower-grade chlorite and epidote-coated faults formed in response to a ENE-WSW compressional stress regime. A large number of mainly N-S striking normal faults consist of variably thick fault gouge cores with illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and epidote mineralizations, accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges and zones of altered granodiorite constrain deformation ranging from the Permian to the Late Jurassic, indicating a long history of crustal extension where faults were repeatedly activated. In addition, a set of ca. SW-NE striking faults associated with alteration zones give Cretaceous dates, either representing a young phase of NW-SE extension or reactivation of previously formed

  12. Evolution of a transdisciplinary "One Medicine-One Health" approach to global health education at the University of California, Davis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Patricia A; Mazet, Jonna A; Clifford, Deana; Scott, Cheryl; Wilkes, Michael

    2009-12-01

    In today's world health events in one nation or geographic area often have repercussions for the health and well-being of populations beyond that region; sometimes even globally. In recent years many factors, most notably concern about emerging infectious diseases, have contributed to an increasing appreciation of the interdependency of human, animal and ecosystem health worldwide. Integrated global approaches to improve the health of humans, animals and their shared environments are proving to be in the best interest of many countries. A special symposium and award were established in memoriam to the internationally renowned epidemiologist, Dr. Calvin W. Schwabe, who (while at the University of California, Davis) was a significant advocate of the "One Medicine" approach to public health, calling upon all health professionals, including veterinarians, to work collaboratively and comparatively to improve human health. This paper discusses the evolution of the "One Medicine" concept into a global "One Health" approach to research, training capacity and service infrastructure, focused not only on disease, but also on health at the individual, population, and ecosystem levels. Projects involving UCD faculty which attempt to integrate a One Health approach include the Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) Project in Tanzania, Envirovet Summer Institute, Avian Flu School and Newcastle Immunization Program in Africa, a web-based virtual global health training program, and the Calvin Schwabe One Health Project.

  13. Key Provenance of Earth Science Observational Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Plale, B.; Aktas, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Purohit, P.; Jensen, S.; Graves, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the sheer volume of data increases, particularly evidenced in the earth and environmental sciences, local arrangements for sharing data need to be replaced with reliable records about the what, who, how, and where of a data set or collection. This is frequently called the provenance of a data set. While observational data processing systems in the earth sciences have a long history of capturing metadata about the processing pipeline, current processes are limited in both what is captured and how it is disseminated to the science community. Provenance capture plays a role in scientific data preservation and stewardship precisely because it can automatically capture and represent a coherent picture of the what, how and who of a particular scientific collection. It reflects the transformations that a data collection underwent prior to its current form and the sequence of tasks that were executed and data products applied to generate a new product. In the NASA-funded Instant Karma project, we examine provenance capture in earth science applications, specifically the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Science Investigator-led Processing system (SIPS). The project is integrating the Karma provenance collection and representation tool into the AMSR-E SIPS production environment, with an initial focus on Sea Ice. This presentation will describe capture and representation of provenance that is guided by the Open Provenance Model (OPM). Several things have become clear during the course of the project to date. One is that core OPM entities and relationships are not adequate for expressing the kinds of provenance that is of interest in the science domain. OPM supports name-value pair annotations that can be used to augment what is known about the provenance entities and relationships, but in Karma, annotations cannot be added during capture, but only after the fact. This limits the capture system's ability to record something it

  14. Co-Evolution of Opinion and Strategy in Persuasion Dynamics:. AN Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun; Li, Yong

    In this paper, a new model of opinion formation within the framework of evolutionary game theory is presented. The model simulates strategic situations when people are in opinion discussion. Heterogeneous agents adjust their behaviors to the environment during discussions, and their interacting strategies evolve together with opinions. In the proposed game, we take into account payoff discount to join a discussion, and the situation that people might drop out of an unpromising game. Analytical and emulational results show that evolution of opinion and strategy always tend to converge, with utility threshold, memory length, and decision uncertainty parameters influencing the convergence time. The model displays different dynamical regimes when we set differently the rule when people are at a loss in strategy.

  15. Dynamical evolution of the Oort cloud. I. A Monte Carlo simulation. II. A theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Remy, F.; Mignard, F.

    1985-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model is used to trace the dynamical evolution of the Oort cloud of comets to its ultimate end. After a review of previous simulations, the necessity of considering perturbations of the aphelion distance because of passing stars, the density of passing stars, and the three-body problem of sun-star-comet is discussed. For convenience, the solar gravitation is assumed to be zero as a star passes. It is also assumed that the initial cometary distribution had a perihelion near the orbits of Uranus-Neptune. Six orbital elements are calculated to obtain orbital distributions for the population in the Oort cloud. The cloud is estimated to contain 10 trillion comets, which would satisfy the present apparition rate of new comets. 34 references.

  16. Functional evolution and structural conservation in chimeric cytochromes p450: calibrating a structure-guided approach.

    PubMed

    Otey, Christopher R; Silberg, Jonathan J; Voigt, Christopher A; Endelman, Jeffrey B; Bandara, Geethani; Arnold, Frances H

    2004-03-01

    Recombination generates chimeric proteins whose ability to fold depends on minimizing structural perturbations that result when portions of the sequence are inherited from different parents. These chimeric sequences can display functional properties characteristic of the parents or acquire entirely new functions. Seventeen chimeras were generated from two CYP102 members of the functionally diverse cytochrome p450 family. Chimeras predicted to have limited structural disruption, as defined by the SCHEMA algorithm, displayed CO binding spectra characteristic of folded p450s. Even this small population exhibited significant functional diversity: chimeras displayed altered substrate specificities, a wide range in thermostabilities, up to a 40-fold increase in peroxidase activity, and ability to hydroxylate a substrate toward which neither parent heme domain shows detectable activity. These results suggest that SCHEMA-guided recombination can be used to generate diverse p450s for exploring function evolution within the p450 structural framework. PMID:15123260

  17. Organisms, organizations and interactions: an information theory approach to biocultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R; Wallace, R G

    1999-08-01

    The language metaphor of theoretical biology, proposed by Waddington in 1972, provides a basis for the formal examination of how different self-reproducing structures interact in an extended evolutionary context. Such interactions have become central objects of study in fields ranging from human evolution-genes and culture-to economics-firms, markets and technology. Here we use the Shannon-McMillan Theorem, one of the fundamental asymptotic relations of probability theory, to study the 'weakest' and hence most universal, forms of interaction between generalized languages. We propose that the co-evolving gene-culture structure that permits human ultra-sociality emerged in a singular coagulation of genetic and cultural 'languages', in the general sense of the word. Human populations have since hosted series of culture-only speciations and coagulations, events that, in this formulation, do not become mired in the 'meme' concept.

  18. Evolution of symbiosis in the Vibrionaceae: a combined approach using molecules and physiology.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Michele K; Nair, Vinod S

    2003-11-01

    The family Vibrionaceae is considered to be one of the most diverse and well-studied groups of bacteria. Here, evolution is assessed within the Vibrionaceae to determine whether multiple origins of eukaryotic associations have occurred within this diverse group of bacteria. Analyses were based on a large molecular dataset, along with a matrix that consisted of 100 biochemical and restriction digest characters. By using direct optimization methods to analyse both datasets individually and in combination, a total-evidence cladogram has been produced, which supports the hypothesis that several important symbionts (both mutualistic and pathogenic) within the Vibrionaceae are not monophyletic. This leads us to consider that symbiosis (and subsequently, associations with Eukarya) has evolved multiple times within the Vibrionaceae lineage.

  19. The evolution of cosmic-ray-mediated magnetohydrodynamic shocks: A two-fluid approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Byung-Il; Clarke, David A.; Norman, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    We study the shock structure and acceleration efficiency of cosmic-ray mediated Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks both analytically and numerically by using a two-fluid model. Our model includes the dynamical effect of magnetic fields and cosmic rays on a background thermal fluid. The steady state solution is derived by following the technique of Drury & Voelk (1981) and compared to numerical results. We explore the time evolution of plane-perpendicular, piston-driven shocks. From the results of analytical and numerical studies, we conclude that the mean magnetic field plays an important role in the structure and acceleration efficiency of cosmic-ray mediated MHD shocks. The acceleration of cosmic-ray particles becomes less efficient in the presence of strong magnetic pressure since the field makes the shock less compressive. This feature is more prominent at low Mach numbers than at high Mach numbers.

  20. The evolution of stable magnetic fields in stars: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestel, Leon; Moss, David

    2010-07-01

    The absence of a rigorous proof of the existence of dynamically stable, large-scale magnetic fields in radiative stars has been for many years a missing element in the fossil field theory for the magnetic Ap/Bp stars. Recent numerical simulations, by Braithwaite & Spruit and Braithwaite & Nordlund, have largely filled this gap, demonstrating convincingly that coherent global scale fields can survive for times of the order of the main-sequence lifetimes of A stars. These dynamically stable configurations take the form of magnetic tori, with linked poloidal and toroidal fields, that slowly rise towards the stellar surface. This paper studies a simple analytical model of such a torus, designed to elucidate the physical processes that govern its evolution. It is found that one-dimensional numerical calculations reproduce some key features of the numerical simulations, with radiative heat transfer, Archimedes' principle, Lorentz force and Ohmic decay all playing significant roles.

  1. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  2. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  3. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms.

  4. Automatic Provenance Recording for Scientific Data using Trident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmhan, Y.; Barga, R.; van Ingen, C.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance is increasingly recognized as being critical to the understanding and reuse of scientific datasets. Given the rapid generation of scientific data from sensors and computational model results, it is not practical to manually record provenance for data and automated techniques for provenance capture are essential. Scientific workflows provide a framework for representing computational models and complex transformations of scientific data, and present a means for tracking the operations performed to derive a dataset. The Trident Scientific Workbench is a workflow system that natively incorporates provenance capture of data derived as part of the workflow execution. The applications used as part of a Trident workflow can execute on a remote computational cluster, such as a supercomputing center on in the Cloud, or on the local desktop of the researcher, and provenance on data derived by the applications is seamlessly captured. Scientists also have the option to annotate the provenance metadata using domain specific tags such as, for example, GCMD keywords. The provenance records thus captured can be exported in the Open Provenance Model* XML format that is emerging as a provenance standard in the eScience community or visualized as a graph of data and applications. The Trident workflow system and provenance recorded by it has been successfully applied in the Neptune oceanography project and is presently being tested in the Pan-STARRS astronomy project. *http://twiki.ipaw.info/bin/view/Challenge/OPM

  5. Convergence and dissonance: evolution in private-sector approaches to disease management and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Au, Melanie; Claxton, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Disease management (DM) approaches survived the 1990s backlash against managed care because of their potential for consumer-friendly cost containment, but purchasers have been cautious about investing heavily in them because of uncertainty about return on investment. This study examines how private-sector approaches to DM have evolved over the past two years in the midst of the movement toward consumer-driven health care. Findings indicate that these programs have become standard features of health plan design, despite a thin evidence base concerning their effectiveness. Uncertainties remain regarding how well these programs will function within benefit designs that require higher consumer cost sharing.

  6. Comparative embryology without a microscope: using genomic approaches to understand the evolution of development

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, David A; Wray, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, understanding developmental conservation and change has relied on embryological comparisons and analyses of single genes. Several studies, including one recently published in BMC Biology, have now taken a genomic approach to this classical problem, providing insights into how selection operates differentially across the life cycle. PMID:19664180

  7. The Evolution of a Contextual Approach to Therapy: From Comprehensive Distancing to ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the developmental history of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) from its beginning as comprehensive distancing to its current form and status. It is maintained that technical differences between the two approaches are overshadowed by ones of conceptualization. Comprehensive distancing emerged from efforts to extend Skinner's…

  8. From Microactions to Macrostructure and Back: A Structurational Approach to the Evolution of Organizational Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbred, Robert; Fonti, Fabio; Steglich, Christian; Contractor, Noshir

    2011-01-01

    Structuration theory (ST) and network analysis are promising approaches for studying the emergence of communication networks. We offer a model that integrates the conceptual richness of structuration with the precision of relevant concepts and mechanisms offered from communication network research. We leverage methodological advancements (i.e.,…

  9. Matrix operator approach to the quantum evolution operator and the geometric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Jewan; Soh, Kwang Sup

    2013-11-01

    The Moody-Shapere-Wilczek's adiabatic effective Hamiltonian and Lagrangian method is developed further into the matrix effective Hamiltonian (MEH) and Lagrangian (MEL) approach to a parameter-dependent quantum system. The matrix-operator approach formulated in the product integral (PI) provides not only a method to find the wave function efficiently in the MEH approach but also higher order corrections to the effective action systematically in the MEL approach, a la the Magnus expansion and the Kubo cumulant expansion. A coupled quantum system of a light particle of a harmonic oscillator is worked out, and as a by-product, a new kind of gauge potential (Berry's connection) is found even for nondegenerate cases (real eigenfunctions). Moreover, in the PI formulation the holonomy of the induced gauge potential is related to Schlesinger's exact formula for the gauge field tensor. A superadiabatic expansion is also constructed, and a generalized Dykhne formula, depending on the contour integrals of the homotopy class of complex degenerate points, is rephrased in the PI formulation.

  10. The Evolution of a Contextual Approach to Therapy: From Comprehensive Distancing to ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettle, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the developmental history of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) from its beginning as comprehensive distancing to its current form and status. It is maintained that technical differences between the two approaches are overshadowed by ones of conceptualization. Comprehensive distancing emerged from efforts to extend Skinner's…

  11. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  12. Tracing the evolution within nearby galaxy groups: a multi-wavelength approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Plana, Henri; Rosado, Margarita; Galletta, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Paola; Bianchi, Luciana; Buson, Lucio M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia; Gabbasov, Ruslan

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary scenarios suggest that several mechanisms (from inner secular evolution to accretion/merging) may transform galaxy members, driving groups from an active star forming phase to a more passive, typical of dense environments. We are investigating this transition in a nearby group sample, designed to cover a wide range of properties (see also Marino et al. (2010), Bettoni et al. (2011) and Marino et al. (2012)). We study two groups, USGC U268 and USGC U376 located in different regions of the Leo cloud, through a photometric and kinematic characterization of their member galaxies. We revisit the group membership, using results from recent red-shift surveys, and we investigate their substructures. U268, composed of 10 catalogued members and 11 new added members, has a small fraction (~24%) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). U376 has 16 plus 8 new added members, with ~38% of ETGs. We find the significant substructuring in both groups suggesting that they are likely accreting galaxies. U268 is located in a more loose environment than U376. For each member galaxy, broad band integrated and surface photometry have been obtained in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) with GALEX, and in u, g, r, i, z (SDSS) bands. Hα imaging and 2D high resolution kinematical data have been obtained using PUMA Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.12 m telescope in San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México). We improved the galaxy classification and we detected morphological and kinematical distortions that may be connected to either on-going and/or past interaction/accretion events or environmental induced secular evolution. U268 appears more active than U376, with a large fraction of galaxies showing interaction signatures (60% vs. 13%). The presence of bars among late-type galaxies is ~10% in U268 and 29% in U376. The cumulative distribution of (FUV - NUV) colors of galaxies in U268 is significantly different (bluer) than that of U376's galaxies. Most (80%) of the early

  13. Multitechnique characterization of lapis lazuli for provenance study.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Olivero, Paolo; Pratesi, Giovanni; Albonico, Maria; Conz, Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest precious stone, being used for glyptic as early as 7,000 years ago: jewels, amulets, seals, and inlays are examples of objects produced using this material. Only a few sources of lapis lazuli exist in the world due to the low probability of geological conditions in which it can form, so that the possibility to associate the raw material to man-made objects helps to reconstruct trade routes. Since art objects produced using lapis lazuli are valuable, only nondestructive investigations can be carried out to identify the provenance of the raw materials. Ionoluminescence (IL) is a good candidate for this task. Similar to cathodoluminescence (CL), IL consists in the collection of luminescence spectra induced by megaelectronvolt ion (usually protons) irradiation. The main advantage of IL consists in the possibility of working in air while measuring simultaneously the composition of major and trace elements by means of complementary ion beam analysis techniques like particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). In the present work, a systematic study of the luminescence properties of lapis lazuli under charged particle irradiation is reported. In the first phase, a multitechnique approach was adopted (CL, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, micro-Raman) to characterize luminescent minerals. This characterization was propaedeutic for IL/PIXE/PIGE measurements carried out on significant areas selected on the basis of results obtained previously. Criteria to identify provenance of lapis lazuli from four of the main sources (Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, Chile, and Siberia) were proposed. PMID:19705108

  14. Multitechnique characterization of lapis lazuli for provenance study.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Olivero, Paolo; Pratesi, Giovanni; Albonico, Maria; Conz, Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest precious stone, being used for glyptic as early as 7,000 years ago: jewels, amulets, seals, and inlays are examples of objects produced using this material. Only a few sources of lapis lazuli exist in the world due to the low probability of geological conditions in which it can form, so that the possibility to associate the raw material to man-made objects helps to reconstruct trade routes. Since art objects produced using lapis lazuli are valuable, only nondestructive investigations can be carried out to identify the provenance of the raw materials. Ionoluminescence (IL) is a good candidate for this task. Similar to cathodoluminescence (CL), IL consists in the collection of luminescence spectra induced by megaelectronvolt ion (usually protons) irradiation. The main advantage of IL consists in the possibility of working in air while measuring simultaneously the composition of major and trace elements by means of complementary ion beam analysis techniques like particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). In the present work, a systematic study of the luminescence properties of lapis lazuli under charged particle irradiation is reported. In the first phase, a multitechnique approach was adopted (CL, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, micro-Raman) to characterize luminescent minerals. This characterization was propaedeutic for IL/PIXE/PIGE measurements carried out on significant areas selected on the basis of results obtained previously. Criteria to identify provenance of lapis lazuli from four of the main sources (Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, Chile, and Siberia) were proposed.

  15. Provenance In Sensor Data Management: A Cohesive, Independent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In today's information-driven workplaces, data is constantly undergoing transformations and being moved around. The typical business-as-usual approach is to use email attachments, shared network locations, databases, and now, the cloud. More often than not, there are multiple versions of the data sitting in different locations and users of this data are confounded by the lack of metadata describing its provenance, or in other words, its lineage. Our project is aimed to solve this issue in the context of sensor data. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Building Technologies Research and Integration Center has reconfigurable commercial buildings deployed on the Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). These FRPs are instrumented with a large number of sensors which measure a number of variables such as HVAC efficiency, relative humidity, and temperature gradients across doors, windows, and walls. Sub-minute resolution data from hundreds of channels is acquired. This sensor data, traditionally, was saved to a shared network location which was accessible to a number of scientists for performing complicated simulation and analysis tasks. The sensor data also participates in elaborate quality assurance exercises as a result of inherent faults. Sometimes, faults are induced to observe building behavior. It became apparent that proper scientific controls required not just managing the data acquisition and delivery, but to also manage the metadata associated with temporal subsets of the sensor data. We built a system named ProvDMS, or Provenance Data Management System for the FRPs, which would both allow researchers to retrieve data of interest as well as trace data lineage. This provides researchers a one-stop shop for comprehensive views of various data transformation allowing researchers to effectively trace their data to its source so that experiments, and derivations of experiments, may be reused and reproduced without much overhead of the repeatability of experiments that

  16. Organization and evolution of Gorilla centromeric DNA from old strategies to new approaches

    PubMed Central

    Catacchio, C. R.; Ragone, R.; Chiatante, G.; Ventura, M.

    2015-01-01

    The centromere/kinetochore interaction is responsible for the pairing and segregation of replicated chromosomes in eukaryotes. Centromere DNA is portrayed as scarcely conserved, repetitive in nature, quickly evolving and protein-binding competent. Among primates, the major class of centromeric DNA is the pancentromeric α-satellite, made of arrays of 171 bp monomers, repeated in a head-to-tail pattern. α-satellite sequences can either form tandem heterogeneous monomeric arrays or assemble in higher-order repeats (HORs). Gorilla centromere DNA has barely been characterized, and data are mainly based on hybridizations of human alphoid sequences. We isolated and finely characterized gorilla α-satellite sequences and revealed relevant structure and chromosomal distribution similarities with other great apes as well as gorilla-specific features, such as the uniquely octameric structure of the suprachromosomal family-2 (SF2). We demonstrated for the first time the orthologous localization of alphoid suprachromosomal families-1 and −2 (SF1 and SF2) between human and gorilla in contrast to chimpanzee centromeres. Finally, the discovery of a new 189 bp monomer type in gorilla centromeres unravels clues to the role of the centromere protein B, paving the way to solve the significance of the centromere DNA’s essential repetitive nature in association with its function and the peculiar evolution of the α-satellite sequence. PMID:26387916

  17. Organization and evolution of Gorilla centromeric DNA from old strategies to new approaches.

    PubMed

    Catacchio, C R; Ragone, R; Chiatante, G; Ventura, M

    2015-09-21

    The centromere/kinetochore interaction is responsible for the pairing and segregation of replicated chromosomes in eukaryotes. Centromere DNA is portrayed as scarcely conserved, repetitive in nature, quickly evolving and protein-binding competent. Among primates, the major class of centromeric DNA is the pancentromeric α-satellite, made of arrays of 171 bp monomers, repeated in a head-to-tail pattern. α-satellite sequences can either form tandem heterogeneous monomeric arrays or assemble in higher-order repeats (HORs). Gorilla centromere DNA has barely been characterized, and data are mainly based on hybridizations of human alphoid sequences. We isolated and finely characterized gorilla α-satellite sequences and revealed relevant structure and chromosomal distribution similarities with other great apes as well as gorilla-specific features, such as the uniquely octameric structure of the suprachromosomal family-2 (SF2). We demonstrated for the first time the orthologous localization of alphoid suprachromosomal families-1 and -2 (SF1 and SF2) between human and gorilla in contrast to chimpanzee centromeres. Finally, the discovery of a new 189 bp monomer type in gorilla centromeres unravels clues to the role of the centromere protein B, paving the way to solve the significance of the centromere DNA's essential repetitive nature in association with its function and the peculiar evolution of the α-satellite sequence.

  18. A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jimenez-Sanchez, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Stoll, H.; Aranburu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the oldest speleothems in the North Cantabrian Coast (Spain) are reported for the first time in this work. Pindal Cave is developed at 24 m above sea level, in a karstic massif reaching its highest surface in a marine terrace (rasa) located at 50-64 m above the present sea level. Several phases of evolution were previously recognized into the cave, including block collapse of the roof, episodic flooding and detrital sedimentation, and chemical precipitation of at least four speleothem generations over both alluvial and collapse deposits. Three of these speleothem generations have been dated by U/Th. The first generation yielded ages from 124,2 ?? 1, 5 ka BP to 73,1 ?? 0,9 ka BP, giving a minimum age for the main detritic sediments in the cave. The second one is not dated. The third generation gives an age of 3,71 ?? 0,4 ka BP (mathematically corrected to 2.7 ?? 0.5 ka BP), while for the youngest generation, with actively growing stalagmites in the cave, basal ages of 200 years BP are estimated by counting annual laminae. The data suggest a tentative maximum elevation rate close to 0, 2 mm/yr for the Cantabrian Margin in this area, although further chronological studies will be needed to check this hypothesis. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  19. A phenomenological numerical approach for investigating grain size evolution in ductiley deforming rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew J.; Ellis, Susan; Prior, David J.

    2015-07-01

    The sizes of recrystallised grains in exhumed ductile shear zones are often used to infer conditions of deformation (i.e. stress, strain rate and temperature). Here we present a simple numerical method of calculating the dynamic evolution of grain size during ductile deformation. Our phenomenological method is based on the fact that the dynamic competition between grain growth and recrystallisation will drive grains towards a steady-state size. At each time increment, grain growth and reduction contributions are calculated, with magnitudes which depend on the difference between the current grain size and a desired steady-state grain size. In our models we use a recrystallised grain size piezometer to calculate the steady-state grain size for a given stress. Our numerical routine is incorporated into the SULEC finite element package, allowing us to explore spatial and temporal changes in grain size. As a test, we compare model results to measured grain sizes in quartz layers thinned and recrystallised around rigid garnet porphyroclasts under simple shear dominated deformation in the Alpine Fault Zone of New Zealand. Numerical models are able to replicate observed grain size variations, with boundary conditions consistent with those constrained for the central Alpine Fault Zone.

  20. The evolution of the DGR approach to model electron density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicella, S. M.; Leitinger, R.

    The paper describes the evolution of the "profiler" proposed by Di Giovanni and Radicella (1990) to calculate the electron density distribution with height up to the F2 peak based on the Epstein layer introduced originally by Rawer. Such model uses ionospheric characteristics routinely scaled from ionograms or models of such characteristics. Radicella and Zhang (1995) presented an improved version of the profiler able to give the electron density distribution on both the bottom and topside of the ionosphere and the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) by introducing a constant shape factor for the semi-Epstein layer above the F2 peak. This version of the DGR model was adopted by the European COST 238 action as the basis for its regional model of the ionosphere. Further efforts were made to improve the topside part of the profiler by taking into account the contribution of the plasmaspherie electron density. The three separate solutions that have been implemented are described. One of them was adopted by the European COST 251 as basis for its regional ionospheric model. Another one developed partially with European Space Agency (ESA) support has been adopted in the ESA European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System project ionospheric specifications. A modified version of this profiler has been implemented to forecast TEC values over Europe as a joint effort with the CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom and the Geophysical Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria.

  1. A comparative genomics approach to the evolution of eukaryotes and their mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lang, B F; Seif, E; Gray, M W; O'Kelly, C J; Burger, G

    1999-01-01

    The Organelle Genome Megasequencing Program (OGMP) investigates mitochondrial genome diversity and evolution by systematically determining the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of a phylogenetically broad selection of protists. The mtDNAs of lower fungi and choanoflagellates are being analyzed by the Fungal Mitochondrial Genome Project (FMGP), a sister project to the OGMP. Some of the most interesting protists include the jakobid flagellates Reclinomonas americana, Malawimonas jakobiformis, and Jakoba libera, which share ultrastructural similarities with amitochondriate retortamonads, and harbor mitochondrial genes not seen before in mtDNAs of other organisms. In R. americana and J. libera, gene clusters are found that resemble, to an unprecedented degree, the contiguous ribosomal protein operons str, S10, spc, and alpha of eubacteria. In addition, their mtDNAs code for an RNase P RNA that displays all the elements of a bacterial minimum consensus structure. This structure has been instrumental in detecting the rnpB gene in additional protists. Gene repertoire and gene order comparisons as well as multiple-gene phylogenies support the view of a single endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria, whose closest extant relatives are Rickettsia-type alpha-Proteobacteria.

  2. DNA barcoding in plants: evolution and applications of in silico approaches and resources.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Mili; Sharma, Ashok

    2013-06-01

    Bioinformatics has played an important role in the analysis of DNA barcoding data. The process of DNA barcoding initially involves the available data collection from the existing databases. Many databases have been developed in recent years, e.g. MMDBD [Medicinal Materials DNA Barcode Database], BioBarcode, etc. In case of non-availability of sequences, sequencing has to be done in vitro for which a recently developed software ecoPrimers can be helpful. This is followed by multiple sequence alignment. Further, basic sequence statistics computation and phylogenetic analysis can be performed by MEGA and PHYLIP/PAUP tools respectively. Some of the recent tools for in silico and statistical analysis specifically designed for barcoding viz. CAOS (Character Based DNA Barcoding), BRONX (DNA Barcode Sequence Identification Incorporating Taxonomic Hierarchy and within Taxon Variability), Spider (Analysis of species identity and evolution, particularly DNA barcoding), jMOTU and Taxonerator (Turning DNA Barcode Sequences into Annotated OTUs), OTUbase (Analysis of OTU data and taxonomic data), SAP (Statistical Assignment Package), etc. have been discussed and analysed in this review. The paper presents a comprehensive overview of the various in silico methods, tools, softwares and databases used for DNA barcoding of plants. PMID:23500333

  3. Morphological changes in pedal phalanges through ornithopod dinosaur evolution: a biomechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Carrano, Matthew T; Snyder, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of ornithopod dinosaurs provides a well-documented example of the transition from digitigrady to subunguligrady. During this transition, the ornithopod pes was drastically altered from the plesiomorphic dinosaurian morphology (four digits, claw-shaped unguals, strongly concavo-convex joints, phalanges longer than wide, excavated collateral ligament fossae, presence of sagittal ridge, and prominent processes for the attachment of tendons) to a more derived condition (tridactyly, modification of the unguals into hooves, phalanges wider and thinner than long, lack of collateral ligament fossae, loss of sagittal ridge and tendon attachment processes, relatively flattened articular surfaces). These changes are particularly noteworthy given the overall conservatism in pedal morphology seen across Dinosauria. But what are the functional consequences of these specific morphological transitions? To study them, we examine a wide range of pedal morphologies in four non-avian dinosaurs and two birds. Our analyses of the external morphology, two-dimensional models (using Finite Element Analysis), and internal bone structure demonstrate that this evolutionary shift was accompanied by a loss of digit mobility and flexibility. In addition, pedal posture was modified to better align the pes with the main direction of the ground reaction force, thus becoming well suited to support high loads. These conclusions can be applied to other, parallel evolutionary changes (in both dinosaurs and mammals) that involved similar transitions to a subunguligrade posture. PMID:17146773

  4. Evolution of a Unified, Stereodivergent Approach to the Synthesis of Communesin F and Perophoramidine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Expedient synthetic approaches to the highly functionalized polycyclic alkaloids communesin F and perophoramidine are described using a unified approach featuring a key decarboxylative allylic alkylation to access a crucial and highly congested 3,3-disubstituted oxindole. Described are two distinct, stereoselective alkylations that produce structures in divergent diastereomeric series possessing the critical vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers needed for each synthesis. Synthetic studies toward these challenging core structures have revealed a number of unanticipated modes of reactivity inherent to these complex alkaloid scaffolds. Additionally, several novel and interesting intermediates en route to the target natural products, such as an intriguing propellane hexacyclic oxindole encountered in the communesin F sequence, are disclosed. Indeed, such unanticipated structures may prove to be convenient strategic intermediates in future syntheses. PMID:25402459

  5. Evolutions in fragment-based drug design: the deconstruction-reconstruction approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Xiaobin; Wang, Ailan; Zheng, Yunquan; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of molecular recognition and protein-ligand interactions have facilitated rapid development of potent and selective ligands for therapeutically relevant targets. Over the past two decades, a variety of useful approaches and emerging techniques have been developed to promote the identification and optimization of leads that have high potential for generating new therapeutic agents. Intriguingly, the innovation of a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach has enabled rapid and efficient progress in drug discovery. In this critical review, we focus on the construction of fragment libraries and the advantages and disadvantages of various fragment-based screening (FBS) for constructing such libraries. We also highlight the deconstruction-reconstruction strategy by utilizing privileged fragments of reported ligands. PMID:25263697

  6. Evolutions in fragment-based drug design: the deconstruction–reconstruction approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Zhou, Xiaobin; Wang, Ailan; Zheng, Yunquan; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of molecular recognition and protein–ligand interactions have facilitated rapid development of potent and selective ligands for therapeutically relevant targets. Over the past two decades, a variety of useful approaches and emerging techniques have been developed to promote the identification and optimization of leads that have high potential for generating new therapeutic agents. Intriguingly, the innovation of a fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach has enabled rapid and efficient progress in drug discovery. In this critical review, we focus on the construction of fragment libraries and the advantages and disadvantages of various fragment-based screening (FBS) for constructing such libraries. We also highlight the deconstruction–reconstruction strategy by utilizing privileged fragments of reported ligands. PMID:25263697

  7. Siliciclastic Ordovician to Silurian units of the Argentine Precordillera: Constraints on provenance and tectonic setting in the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abre, P.; Cingolani, C. A.; Cairncross, B.; Chemale, F.

    2012-12-01

    A combination of petrography, geochemistry, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and U-Pb detrital zircon dating provide constraints to the provenance of Middle Ordovician to Early Silurian clastic sequences of the Precordillera s.s. as a part of the Cuyania terrane in western-central Argentina. The uniformity shown by the provenance proxies indicate that there were no important changes in the provenance within these units. A dominant upper crustal component is evident as well as a subordinate mafic input. Nd isotopes indicate ɛNd of -5.4, ƒSm/Nd -0.34 and TDM 1.57 Ga in average for all the units studied. Pb-isotope ratios display average values for 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb of 19.37, 15.86 and 39.43 respectively. Detrital zircon dating further constraints the input as being dominantly of Mesoproterozoic age (51-83%), but with contributions from Neoproterozoic-Lower Cambrian (9-31%), Middle Cambrian to Ordovician grains (recorded up to 7%), and Palaeoproterozoic (2-7%) sources. The combination of the different provenance approaches applied indicates that the Mesoproterozoic Cuyania terrane basement, and partially the Pampia terrane were the main sources. The new information provided for the Ordovician to Silurian clastic sequences permitted enhanced the known geochemical and isotopic dataset to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Cuyania terrane. The interpretation of the obtained data supports that the terrane accretion to the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana probably occurred during Middle to early Upper Ordovician.

  8. Compositing Methods for Proba-V and Sentinel-3: Critical Assessment of Current Approaches and Potential Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, Fabrizio; Goryl, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of different compositing methods for Proba-V surface reflectance products is presented in this paper. The goal is to test the performances of the current approach and to investigate on potential evolutions, in particular in the frame of Sentinel-3 SYN-VGT products baseline definition. Methods based on the Max NDVI [1], which represent the current baseline, are compared to statistical methods, which make best use of the information coming from all clouds free pixels acquired during the compositing period, as the Mean Compositing method [2]. Performances indicators for the different approaches are analysed, in particular the image texture and quality, the spatial noise, the observation geometry distribution as well as the presence of artefacts in the image. As already observed in the literature and confirmed within this analysis, the Max NDVI approaches have clear limitations due to the presence of directional effects in the images, while statistically based methods seem to be the best alternative for implementation in Sentinel-3 SYN-VGT processing.

  9. Detrital shocked minerals: microstructural provenance indicators of impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of detrital shocked minerals (DSMs) merges planetary science, sedimentology, mineralogy/crystallography, accessory mineral geochemistry, and geochronology, with the goal of identifying and determining provenance of shock metamorphosed sand grains. Diagnostic high-pressure impact-generated microstructures (planar fractures, planar deformation features) are readily identified on external grain surfaces using standard SEM imaging methods (BSE), and when found, unambiguously confirm an impact origin for a given sand grain. DSMs, including quartz, zircon, monazite, and apatite, have thus far been documented at the Vredefort Dome [1,2,3], Sudbury [4], Rock Elm [5], and Santa Fe [6,7] impact structures. DSMs have been identified in alluvium, colluvium, beach sand, and glacial deposits. Two main processes are recognized that imply the global siliciclastic record contains DSMs: they survive extreme distal transport, and they survive 'deep time' lithification. Distal transport: In South Africa, shocked minerals are preserved in alluvium from the Vaal River >750 km downstream from the Vredefort impact; SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology has confirmed the origin of detrital shocked zircon and monazite from shocked Vredefort bedrock [2]. Vredefort-derived shocked zircons have also been found at the mouth of the Orange River on the Atlantic coast, having travelled ~2000 km downriver from Vredefort [8]. Deep time preservation: Vredefort-derived shocked zircon and quartz has been documented in glacial diamictite from the 300 Myr-old Dwyka Group in South Africa. Shocked minerals were thus entrained and transported in Paleozoic ice sheets that passed over Vredefort [9]. An impact crater can thus be viewed as a unique 'point source', in some cases for billions of years [2,4]; DSMs thus have applications in studying eroded impact craters, sedimentary provenance, landscape evolution, and long-term sediment transport processes throughout the geologic record. This work was supported by

  10. Pathways to Provenance: "DACS" and Creator Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    "Describing Archives: A Content Standard" breaks important ground for American archivists in its distinction between creator descriptions and archival material descriptions. Implementations of creator descriptions, many using Encoded Archival Context (EAC), are found internationally. "DACS"'s optional approach of describing creators in authority…

  11. Application of Named Graphs Towards Custom Provenance Views

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2009-02-10

    Provenance capture as applied to execution oriented and interactive workflows is designed to record minute detail needed to support a "modify and restart" paradigm as well as re-execution of past workflows. In our experience, provenance also plays an important role in human-centered verification, results tracking, and knowledge sharing. To enable this we must overcome the low level of detail received from most provenance capture mechanisms and pre-sent it in a user oriented view. In this paper, we present a design which leverages named graphs to create and man-age views as a server-side function, simplifying user presentation of provenance data.

  12. A comparative approach to testing hypotheses for the evolution of sex-biased dispersal in bean beetles.

    PubMed

    Downey, Michelle H; Searle, Rebecca; Bellur, Sunil; Geiger, Adam; Maitner, Brian S; Ohm, Johanna R; Tuda, Midori; Miller, Tom E X

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the selective forces that shape dispersal strategies is a fundamental goal of evolutionary ecology and is increasingly important in changing, human-altered environments. Sex-biased dispersal (SBD) is common in dioecious taxa, and understanding variation in the direction and magnitude of SBD across taxa has been a persistent challenge. We took a comparative, laboratory-based approach using 16 groups (species or strains) of bean beetles (genera Acanthoscelides, Callosobruchus, and Zabrotes, including 10 strains of one species) to test two predictions that emerge from dominant hypotheses for the evolution of SBD: (1) groups that suffer greater costs of inbreeding should exhibit greater SBD in favor of either sex (inbreeding avoidance hypothesis) and (2) groups with stronger local mate competition should exhibit greater male bias in dispersal (kin competition avoidance hypothesis). We used laboratory experiments to quantify SBD in crawling dispersal, the fitness effects of inbreeding, and the degree of polygyny (number of female mates per male), a proxy for local mate competition. While we found that both polygyny and male-biased dispersal were common across bean beetle groups, consistent with the kin competition avoidance hypothesis, quantitative relationships between trait values did not support the predictions. Across groups, there was no significant association between SBD and effects of inbreeding nor SBD and degree of polygyny, using either raw values or phylogenetically independent contrasts. We discuss possible limitations of our experimental approach for detecting the predicted relationships, as well as reasons why single-factor hypotheses may be too simplistic to explain the evolution of SBD.

  13. Evolution of the human hand: approaches to acquiring, analysing and interpreting the anatomical evidence

    PubMed Central

    MARZKE, MARY W.; MARZKE, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of fossil hand bones from an early human ancestor at Olduvai Gorge in 1960, at the same level as primitive stone tools, generated a debate about the role of tools in the evolution of the human hand that has raged to the present day. Could the Olduvai hand have made the tools? Did the human hand evolve as an adaptation to tool making and tool use? The debate has been fueled by anatomical studies comparing living and fossil human and nonhuman primate hands, and by experimental observations. These have assessed the relative abilities of apes and humans to manufacture the Oldowan tools, but consensus has been hampered by disagreements about how to translate experimental data from living species into quantitative models for predicting the performance of fossil hands. Such models are now beginning to take shape as new techniques are applied to the capture, management and analysis of data on kinetic and kinematic variables ranging from hand joint structure, muscle mechanics, and the distribution and density of bone to joint movements and muscle recruitment during manipulative behaviour. The systematic comparative studies are highlighting a functional complex of features in the human hand facilitating a distinctive repertoire of grips that are apparently more effective for stone tool making than grips characterising various nonhuman primate species. The new techniques are identifying skeletal variables whose form may provide clues to the potential of fossil hominid hands for one-handed firm precision grips and fine precision manoeuvering movements, both of which are essential for habitual and effective tool making and tool use. PMID:10999274

  14. An Evolution-Based Approach to De Novo Protein Design and Case Study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Czajka, Jeff; Marsh, David; Gray, Felicia; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Computational protein design is a reverse procedure of protein folding and structure prediction, where constructing structures from evolutionarily related proteins has been demonstrated to be the most reliable method for protein 3-dimensional structure prediction. Following this spirit, we developed a novel method to design new protein sequences based on evolutionarily related protein families. For a given target structure, a set of proteins having similar fold are identified from the PDB library by structural alignments. A structural profile is then constructed from the protein templates and used to guide the conformational search of amino acid sequence space, where physicochemical packing is accommodated by single-sequence based solvation, torsion angle, and secondary structure predictions. The method was tested on a computational folding experiment based on a large set of 87 protein structures covering different fold classes, which showed that the evolution-based design significantly enhances the foldability and biological functionality of the designed sequences compared to the traditional physics-based force field methods. Without using homologous proteins, the designed sequences can be folded with an average root-mean-square-deviation of 2.1 Å to the target. As a case study, the method is extended to redesign all 243 structurally resolved proteins in the pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease. On a smaller scale, five sequences were randomly selected from the design pool and subjected to experimental validation. The results showed that all the designed proteins are soluble with distinct secondary structure and three have well ordered tertiary structure, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Together, these results demonstrate a new avenue in computational protein design that uses knowledge of evolutionary conservation from protein structural families to engineer

  15. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  16. a Statistical Dynamic Approach to Structural Evolution of Complex Capital Market Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiao; Chai, Li H.

    As an important part of modern financial systems, capital market has played a crucial role on diverse social resource allocations and economical exchanges. Beyond traditional models and/or theories based on neoclassical economics, considering capital markets as typical complex open systems, this paper attempts to develop a new approach to overcome some shortcomings of the available researches. By defining the generalized entropy of capital market systems, a theoretical model and nonlinear dynamic equation on the operations of capital market are proposed from statistical dynamic perspectives. The US security market from 1995 to 2001 is then simulated and analyzed as a typical case. Some instructive results are discussed and summarized.

  17. Provenance and sediment fluxes in the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Limonta, Mara

    2016-04-01

    .5 and 2.0 Ga (Limonta et al., 2016). Forward mixing calculations based on integrated petrographic and heavy-mineral data (Garzanti et al., 2012) indicate that 60±10% of the total sediment flux is supplied by the Chindwin River and that upper Irrawaddy sand is supplied mainly by the Nmai headwater branch but also significantly from the Mali branch and left-bank tributaries sourced in the northern Shan Plateau. CITED REFERENCES Garzanti E., Resentini A., Vezzoli G., Andò S., Malusà M., Padoan M. 2012. Forward compositional modelling of Alpine orogenic sediments. Sedimentary Geology 280:149-164. Garzanti E., Limonta M., Resentini A., Bandopadhyay P. C., Najman Y., Andò S., Vezzoli G. 2013. Sediment recycling at convergent plate margins (Indo-Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge). Earth-Science Reviews 123:113-132. Limonta M., Resentini A., Carter A., Bandopadhyay P.C., Garzanti E. 2016. Provenance of Oligocene Andaman Sandstones (Andaman-Nicobar islands): Ganga-Brahmaputra or Irrawaddy derived? In: Bandyopadhyay P., Carter A. (Eds.). The Andaman-Nicobar accretionary ridge geology, tectonics and hazards, Geological Society of London Memoir, in review. Robinson R.A.J., Bird M.I., Oo N.W., Hoey T.B., Aye M.M., Higgitt D.L., Lu X.X., Swe A., Tun T., Win S. L. 2007. The Irrawaddy River sediment flux to the Indian Ocean: the original nineteenth-century data revisited. The Journal of Geology 115:629-640. Wang J.G., Wu F.Y., Tan X.C., Liu C.Z. 2014. Magmatic evolution of the Western Myanmar Arc documented by U-Pb and Hf isotopes in detrital zircon. Tectonophysics 612:97-105.

  18. The Evolution of a More Rigorous Approach to Benefit Transfer: Benefit Function Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1992-03-01

    The desire for economic values of recreation for unstudied recreation resources dates back to the water resource development benefit-cost analyses of the early 1960s. Rather than simply applying existing estimates of benefits per trip to the study site, a fairly rigorous approach was developed by a number of economists. This approach involves application of travel cost demand equations and contingent valuation benefit functions from existing sites to the new site. In this way the spatial market of the new site (i.e., its differing own price, substitute prices and population distribution) is accounted for in the new estimate of total recreation benefits. The assumptions of benefit transfer from recreation sites in one state to another state for the same recreation activity is empirically tested. The equality of demand coefficients for ocean sport salmon fishing in Oregon versus Washington and for freshwater steelhead fishing in Oregon versus Idaho is rejected. Thus transfer of either demand equations or average benefits per trip are likely to be in error. Using the Oregon steelhead equation, benefit transfers to rivers within the state are shown to be accurate to within 5-15%.

  19. Geodynamic evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land: research highlights from an international geological-geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Ehlburg, Marlina; Laeufer, Andreas; Clark, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Andersen, Tom; Mieth, Matthias; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole; Estrada, Solveig; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    East Antarctica formed by amalgamation of a number of cratons along distinct Ediacaran mobile belts, including the ca. 600-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO) and the Kuunga Orogen that apparently converge in Dronning Maud Land (DML). In central DML, the major Forster Magnetic Anomaly separates rocks with Grenville-age protolith ages of ca. 1130-1000 Ma to the W, from rocks with Early Neoproterozic protolith ages, c. 1000-930 Ma, to the East. The Forster Magnetic Anomaly is therefore interpreted as a suture. New field-work during two recent international expeditions, Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica (GEA) I + II, and first geoscientic results reveal a complex tectonic architecture between Sør Rondane and central DML. East of the Forster anomaly, the magnetic anomaly pattern changes significantly and typical Maud type crust is not present any longer. GEA II targeted a range of nunataks between Sør Rondane and central DML that had never been visited previously (from Blåklettane and Bergekongen in the E to Urna and Sørsteinen in the W). These nunataks are dominated by medium- to high-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of possibly Neoproterozoic age, including abundant marble and graphite schists. Sør Rondane in eastern DML, is dominated by two distinct blocks separated by the dextral Main Shear Zone. The northwestern block appears as part of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen, where new SHRIMP zircon data from metamorphic rims provide ages of ca. 560 Ma. The southeastern block is made up of a TTG terrane, which provides 12 new zircon crystallistation ages ranging from 1000-930 Ma. The TTG terrane has predominantly oceanic affinities and the wide range of ages might indicate long-lasting accretionary tectonics. The TTG terrane shows in part limited tectonic overprint and could be the southeastern foreland of the EAAO or the Kuunga Orogen. Close to the contact of the two blocks, grey geisses and augen-gneisses gave zircon crystallization ages of

  20. The evolution of ecomorphological traits within the Abrothrichini (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae): a Bayesian phylogenetics approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Palma, R Eduardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2008-08-01

    The generally accepted hypothesis regarding the origin of fossorial mammals proposes adaptive convergence from open environments towards the use of subterranean environments. We evaluated this hypothesis for South American mole-mice using conventional and Bayesian frameworks, with independent evidence. By using a molecular approach based on Cytochrome b and IRBP sequences, we evaluated phylogenetic relationships, time of origin, the ancestral trait of fossoriality, and ancestral distributions of species belonging to the Andean Clade (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae). Our results indicate that the Andean Clade is highly sustained; with one clade grouping all fossorial forms and another grouping all cursorial species. We hypothesized that fossoriality originated in the Miocene/Pliocene transition, in the Temperate Forests of southern South America. We conclude that the origin of fossorial ecomorphological traits did not necessarily occur under a general model of open environments, the origin of these traits depends on the ecological-historical relationship of the taxon with the environment.

  1. FINDSITE: a combined evolution/structure-based approach to protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, Michal

    2009-01-01

    A key challenge of the post-genomic era is the identification of the function(s) of all the molecules in a given organism. Here, we review the status of sequence and structure-based approaches to protein function inference and ligand screening that can provide functional insights for a significant fraction of the ∼50% of ORFs of unassigned function in an average proteome. We then describe FINDSITE, a recently developed algorithm for ligand binding site prediction, ligand screening and molecular function prediction, which is based on binding site conservation across evolutionary distant proteins identified by threading. Importantly, FINDSITE gives comparable results when high-resolution experimental structures as well as predicted protein models are used. PMID:19324930

  2. Understanding the formation and evolution of interstellar ices: a Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Makrymallis, Antonios; Viti, Serena

    2014-10-10

    Understanding the physical conditions of dark molecular clouds and star-forming regions is an inverse problem subject to complicated chemistry that varies nonlinearly with both time and the physical environment. In this paper, we apply a Bayesian approach based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for solving the nonlinear inverse problems encountered in astrochemical modeling. We use observations for ice and gas species in dark molecular clouds and a time-dependent, gas-grain chemical model to infer the values of the physical and chemical parameters that characterize quiescent regions of molecular clouds. We show evidence that in high-dimensional problems, MCMC algorithms provide a more efficient and complete solution than more classical strategies. The results of our MCMC method enable us to derive statistical estimates and uncertainties for the physical parameters of interest as a result of the Bayesian treatment.

  3. Symmetry Based Automatic Evolution of Clusters: A New Approach to Data Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Vijendra, Singh; Laxman, Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    We present a multiobjective genetic clustering approach, in which data points are assigned to clusters based on new line symmetry distance. The proposed algorithm is called multiobjective line symmetry based genetic clustering (MOLGC). Two objective functions, first the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index and second the line symmetry distance based objective functions, are used. The proposed algorithm evolves near-optimal clustering solutions using multiple clustering criteria, without a priori knowledge of the actual number of clusters. The multiple randomized K dimensional (Kd) trees based nearest neighbor search is used to reduce the complexity of finding the closest symmetric points. Experimental results based on several artificial and real data sets show that proposed clustering algorithm can obtain optimal clustering solutions in terms of different cluster quality measures in comparison to existing SBKM and MOCK clustering algorithms. PMID:26339233

  4. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Iberia-Newfoundland margin: A quantitative modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, Garry; Johnson, Christopher; Mohn, Geoffroy; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2013-04-01

    Passive margins develop by extension and rupture of continental lithosphere. In general, the structure of a passive margin depends on a number of fundamental parameters, including the inherited rheology, rheological evolution during extension, magmatism, relative plate motions and the thermal properties of the continental crust and mantle before, during, and after rifting. These parameters determine the style, distribution and rate of extension, as well as the amount of syn- and post-rift accommodation and magmatism. In this presentation, we will investigate the paleo-water depths developed during hyper-extension of the Iberian-Newfoundland margin lithosphere by applying a process-oriented integration procedure that simulates the preserved margin stratigraphy using a model for deformation of the lithosphere and flexural isostasy. Seismic reflection and refraction data, gravity, and ODP drilling of the Iberian-Newfoundland margin are used as constraints. Manatschal et al., (2007) structurally reconstructed the Iberia margin to a 6-8 km pre-rift crustal thickness capped by shallow water Tithonian carbonates, suggesting an initial relief near sea-level. For reasonable crustal and mantle densities, this is difficult to achieve isostatically. Re-examining the evidence for shallow water sediments from Well 1069A (Leg 173 1069A16R3 127-130) suggests an environment of deposition consistent with a slope setting. The large organic content within the 1069A samples is dominated by woody and coaly particles, suggesting that this depositional package is part of a debris flow rapidly deposited in water depths of 500-1000 m from the laterally adjacent, shallow Galicia Bank to the north. We have applied the Quantitative Basin Analysis (QBA) to integrate seismic stratigraphic interpretations of two representative sections across the northern and southern Iberian margin and Newfoundland margin (Sutra & Manatschal, in press) to model the thinning of the lithosphere and the respective

  5. Aging as Evolution-Facilitating Program and a Biochemical Approach to Switch It Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    A concept is presented considering aging of living organisms as a final step of their ontogenetic program. It is assumed that such an aging program was invented by biological evolution to facilitate the evolutionary process. Indications are summarized suggesting that controlled production of toxic forms of oxygen (so called reactive oxygen species) by respiring intracellular organelles (mitochondria) is an obligatory component of the aging program. First results of a research project devoted to an attempt to interrupt aging program by antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been described. Within the framework of the project, antioxidants of a new type (SkQ) were synthesized. SkQs are composed of (i) plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), (ii) a penetrating cation, and (iii) a decane or pentane linker. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membranes, we selected SkQ derivatives of the highest penetrability, namely plastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl decyl rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyl decyl triphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested in isolated mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cationic quinones are found to be very strong prooxidants, but in the lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they display antioxidant activity which decreases in the series SkQ1 = SkQR1 > SkQ3 > MitoQ. Thus, the window between the anti- and prooxidant effects is the smallest for MitoQ and the largest for SkQ1 and SkQR1. SkQ1 is rapidly reduced by complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 and SkQR1 completely arrest the H2O2-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells (for SkQ1, C 1/2 = 8 · 10-9M). Higher concentrations of SkQ1 are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, SkQ1

  6. The metallic contamination of the Loire River Basin (France): Spatial and temporal evolution with a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Curie, Florence; Moatar, Florentina; Meybeck, Michel; Bourrain, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 19th century, important agricultural, mining and industrial development has been active in Western Europe. The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp) presents a long history of human pressures, reflecting temporal evolution of technological and urban activities (Grosbois et al, 2012). Hence, sediments of the Loire River and its tributaries have recorded partially and/or totally organic, nutrients and trace element contamination. Nowadays, can we determine history of metallic emissions in sediment records and what is the part of these past inputs relative to the actual contamination? Can we point out historical sources of contamination? To answer these questions, two approaches were used in this study. Firstly, in four coring sites in the Loire River Basin, a temporal re-enacting of metallic contamination trapped in sediments was carried out. Based on age-model and inter-element correlations in each core, trace element signals were deconvoluted and compared to actual and specific chemical signatures of anthropogenic inputs (300 bed sediment samples collected downstream of former and current industrial sites like mines, smelters, planting/coating plants, glassware and car industries, metal recycling plants and waste water treatment plants). The second approach was at a larger basin scale, comparing location of these former and actual contamination sources with explanatory factors such as geology, evolution of population density, of industrial activities and of land use. This was done in the main stream of the Loire River and its major tributaries and locally at a smaller scale (0-500 km²). All these approaches emphasized three temporal periods of metallic contamination: (i) the first period begins with the 20th century until 1950, it corresponds to the first increase of major contaminants like Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn; some trace elements like Hg and Sn seem to be present in the Loire sediments much earlier as they

  7. Endometriosis: a new cellular and molecular genetic approach for understanding the pathogenesis and evolutivity.

    PubMed

    Bouquet De Jolinière, Jean; Ayoubi, Jean Marc Bernard; Gianaroli, Luca; Dubuisson, Jean Bernard; Gogusev, Jean; Feki, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign disease with high prevalence in women of reproductive age estimated between 10 and 15% and is associated with considerable morbidity. Its etiology and pathogenesis are controversial but it is believed to involve multiple genetic, environmental, immunological, angiogenic, and endocrine processes. Altered expressions of growth factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and enzymes for estrogen synthesis and metabolism have been frequently observed in this condition. The possibility of genetic basis of endometriosis is demonstrated in studies of familial disease, in which the incidence of endometriosis is higher for first-degree relatives of probands as compared to controls. This review describes mainly the cellular, cytochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features of endometriotic lesions and cultured endometriotic cells. In attempts to identify candidate gene (s) involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, a tissue-based approaches including conventional cytogenetics (RHG-banding), loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were employed. In addition to the karyotypic anomalies, consistent chromosome instability was confirmed by CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The nature and significance of the molecular genetic aberrations in relation to the locations and function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will be discussed. At last, a possible pathogenic role of embryonic duct remnants was observed in seven female fetal reproductive tract in endometriosis and may induce a discussion about the beginning of ovarian tumors and malignant proliferations. PMID:25593940

  8. Endometriosis: A New Cellular and Molecular Genetic Approach for Understanding the Pathogenesis and Evolutivity

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet De Jolinière, Jean; Ayoubi, Jean Marc Bernard; Gianaroli, Luca; Dubuisson, Jean Bernard; Gogusev, Jean; Feki, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign disease with high prevalence in women of reproductive age estimated between 10 and 15% and is associated with considerable morbidity. Its etiology and pathogenesis are controversial but it is believed to involve multiple genetic, environmental, immunological, angiogenic, and endocrine processes. Altered expressions of growth factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and enzymes for estrogen synthesis and metabolism have been frequently observed in this condition. The possibility of genetic basis of endometriosis is demonstrated in studies of familial disease, in which the incidence of endometriosis is higher for first-degree relatives of probands as compared to controls. This review describes mainly the cellular, cytochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features of endometriotic lesions and cultured endometriotic cells. In attempts to identify candidate gene (s) involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, a tissue-based approaches including conventional cytogenetics (RHG-banding), loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were employed. In addition to the karyotypic anomalies, consistent chromosome instability was confirmed by CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The nature and significance of the molecular genetic aberrations in relation to the locations and function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will be discussed. At last, a possible pathogenic role of embryonic duct remnants was observed in seven female fetal reproductive tract in endometriosis and may induce a discussion about the beginning of ovarian tumors and malignant proliferations. PMID:25593940

  9. A neurophylogenetic approach provides new insight to the evolution of Scaphopoda.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Schrödl, Michael; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Lindberg, David R; Heß, Martin; Brennan, Gerard P; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The position of scaphopods in molluscan phylogeny remains singularly contentious, with several sister relationships supported by morphological and phylogenomic data: Scaphopoda + Bivalvia (Diasoma), Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda (Variopoda), and Scaphopoda + Gastropoda. Nervous system architecture has contributed significant insights to reconstructing phylogeny in the Mollusca and other invertebrate groups, but a modern neurophylogenetic approach has not been applied to molluscs, hampered by a lack of clearly defined homologous characters that can be unequivocally compared across the radical body plan disparity among the living clades. We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior nervous system of a scaphopod, Rhabdus rectius, using histological tomography. We also describe a new putative sensory organ, a paired and pigmented sensory mantle slit. This structure is restricted to our study species and not a general feature of scaphopods, but it forms an integral part of the description of the nervous system in R. rectius. It also highlights the potential utility of neuro-anatomical characters for multiple levels of phylogenetic inference beyond this study. This potential has not previously been exploited for the thorny problem of molluscan phylogeny. The neuroanatomy of scaphopods demonstrates a highly derived architecture that shares a number of key characters with the cephalopod nervous system, and supports a Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda grouping. PMID:26487042

  10. A Modern Approach to Disinfection, as Old as the Evolution of Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Migliarina, Franco; Ferro, Sergio

    2014-12-19

    The immune system of vertebrates "naturally" produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to fight against bacteria and pathogens. A patented electrochemical technology mirrors the above defense system, allowing the synthesis of HOCl solutions through the electrolysis of water enriched in salts, at the level of a few grams per liter. The system allows for the careful control of the pH of produced solutions, with consequent optimization of their activity. Once the HOCl is introduced into the water system; it is able to remove the biofilm from pipe network; significantly decreasing the level of Legionella colonization; within 8-10 weeks from the beginning of the disinfection approach. The technology has been applied in a variety of healthcare facilities, both in Italy and in neighboring European countries. In the present paper, two successful case studies are briefly presented: Data were obtained from experiences in two different healthcare facilities, one in Italy and the other in Germany. Destruction of biofilm was indirectly testified by an increase of total organic carbon content of water; as a consequence, and because of the dosing of the disinfecting agent, some μg/L of total halomethanes were also formed. However, both compositional features were only observed during the initial stages of the disinfection treatment.

  11. A Modern Approach to Disinfection, as Old as the Evolution of Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Migliarina, Franco; Ferro, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of vertebrates “naturally” produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to fight against bacteria and pathogens. A patented electrochemical technology mirrors the above defense system, allowing the synthesis of HOCl solutions through the electrolysis of water enriched in salts, at the level of a few grams per liter. The system allows for the careful control of the pH of produced solutions, with consequent optimization of their activity. Once the HOCl is introduced into the water system; it is able to remove the biofilm from pipe network; significantly decreasing the level of Legionella colonization; within 8–10 weeks from the beginning of the disinfection approach. The technology has been applied in a variety of healthcare facilities, both in Italy and in neighboring European countries. In the present paper, two successful case studies are briefly presented: Data were obtained from experiences in two different healthcare facilities, one in Italy and the other in Germany. Destruction of biofilm was indirectly testified by an increase of total organic carbon content of water; as a consequence, and because of the dosing of the disinfecting agent, some μg/L of total halomethanes were also formed. However, both compositional features were only observed during the initial stages of the disinfection treatment. PMID:27429291

  12. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process.

  13. Sediment transport process and East Asian monsoon evolution during the last 410 kyr in the northern South China Sea: a multi-proxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    change either in the direction or in the intensity of the bottom current. The clay mineral assemblage is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor contribution of chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). The provenance analysis suggests three end-member sources: smectite derives from Luzon, kaolinite originates from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite are coming from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. Using the linear separation method of illite crystallinity, a time series of the clay mineral contribution from the three major provenances to the northern South China Sea was reconstructed. By synthesizing all these proxies, we find that the clay minerals and element ratios contain information about provenance supply and transport process. The provenance supply could be a proxy to reconstruct the East Asian Monsoon evolution. To achieve detailed provenance supply information, the terrigenous flux and the analyses of magnetic minerals and grain-size will be also presented.

  14. Siderophore production and the evolution of investment in a public good: An adaptive dynamics approach to kin selection.

    PubMed

    Lee, William; van Baalen, Minus; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2016-01-01

    Like many other bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequesters iron from the environment through the secretion, and subsequent uptake, of iron-binding molecules. As these molecules can be taken up by other bacteria in the population than those who secreted them, this is a form of cooperation through a public good. Traditionally, this problem has been studied by comparing the relative fitnesses of siderophore-producing and non-producing strains, but this gives no information about the fate of strains that do produce intermediate amounts of siderophores. Here, we investigate theoretically how the amount invested in this form of cooperation evolves. We use a mechanistic description of the laboratory protocols used in experimental evolution studies to describe the competition and cooperation of the bacteria. From this dynamical model we derive the fitness following the adaptive dynamics method. The results show how selection is driven by local siderophore production and local competition. Because siderophore production reduces the growth rate, local competition decreases with the degree of relatedness (which is a dynamical variable in our model). Our model is not restricted to the analysis of small phenotypic differences and allows for theoretical exploration of the effects of large phenotypic differences between cooperators and cheats. We predict that an intermediate ESS level of cooperation (molecule production) should exist. The adaptive dynamics approach allows us to assess evolutionary stability, which is often not possible in other kin-selection models. We found that selection can lead to an intermediate strategy which in our model is always evolutionarily stable, yet can allow invasion of strategies that are much more cooperative. Our model describes the evolution of a public good in the context of the ecology of the microorganism, which allows us to relate the extent of production of the public good to the details of the interactions. PMID:26471069

  15. A NeuroEvolution Approach to Reconstructing Missing Daily Precipitation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, K. A.; Boyce, S. A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    The Caribbean region consists of several Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Many of these islands are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change including sea level rise, changes in rainfall regimes and increasing day and night-time temperatures. In addition, the region is extremely susceptible to natural disasters, the most frequent of which is flooding. As part of its disaster management and mitigation strategy several Caribbean SIDS are developing a parametric insurance policy for flooding. The insurance mechanism is contingent on an adequate precipitation data set. However, missing data within the precipitation time series is one of the issues that is ubiquitous within the region, presenting a challenge to the implementation of such a rainfall-triggered insurance policy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the plausibility of using a class of Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms known as a Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for evolving a near-optimal Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reconstruct missing daily precipitation data. The structure of the artificial neural network used for rainfall imputation in this study has a feedforward Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) architecture. The predictive capability of this novel hybrid ANN-GA precipitation data infilling technique is tested by degrading 10%, 20% and 30% of a daily precipitation data set, from the period 1997-2000, in a stochastic manner and estimating the missing observations. Tests performed using the proposed approach show the method predicts the randomly selected missing precipitation data with reasonable reliability for a rain gauge in Region 3, Guyana. Research is currently on going to assess the efficacy of the artificial neural network technique for longer time series, which is required to support climate change impact on the Caribbean region.

  16. The Evolution of Cooperation in Managed Groundwater Systems: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Human interactions with groundwater systems often exhibit complex features that hinder the sustainable management of the resource. This leads to costly and persistent conflicts over groundwater at the catchment scale. One possible way to address these conflicts is by gaining a better understanding of how social and groundwater dynamics coevolve using agent-based models (ABM). Such models allow exploring 'bottom-up' solutions (i.e., self-organised governance systems), where the behaviour of individual agents (e.g., farmers) results in the emergence of mutual cooperation among groundwater users. There is significant empirical evidence indicating that this kind of 'bottom-up' approach may lead to more enduring and sustainable outcomes, compared to conventional 'top-down' strategies such as centralized control and water right schemes (Ostrom 1990). New modelling tools are needed to study these concepts systematically and efficiently. Our model uses a conceptual framework to study cooperation and the emergence of social norms as initially proposed by Axelrod (1986), which we adapted to groundwater management. We developed an ABM that integrates social mechanisms and the physics of subsurface flow. The model explicitly represents feedback between groundwater conditions and social dynamics, capturing the spatial structure of these interactions and the potential effects on cooperation levels in an agricultural setting. Using this model, we investigate a series of mechanisms that may trigger norms supporting cooperative strategies, which can be sustained and become stable over time. For example, farmers in a self-monitoring community can be more efficient at achieving the objective of sustainable groundwater use than government-imposed regulation. Our coupled model thus offers a platform for testing new schemes promoting cooperation and improved resource use, which can be used as a basis for policy design. Importantly, we hope to raise awareness of agent-based modelling as

  17. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  18. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  19. Evolution of an operational hydrological model: from global to semi-distributed approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, Federico; Le Lay, Matthieu; Gottardi, Frédéric; Garçon, Rémy

    2016-04-01

    MORDOR is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in Électricité de France (EDF, French electric utility company) for operational applications: (i) hydrological forecasting, (ii) flood risk assessment, (iii) water balance and (iv) climate change studies. In its historical version, hereafter called MORDOR1996, this is a lumped, reservoir, elevation based model with hourly or daily areal rainfall and air temperature as the driving input data. The principal hydrological processes represented are evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, ground water, snow and ice accumulation and melt, routing. The model has been intensively used at EDF for more than 25 years, in particular for modeling French mountainous watersheds. In order to consider the spatial heterogeneity of the input data (rainfall and air temperature) and the hydrological characteristics within a basin, the structure of model has been updated. The new version of the model, named MORDOR SD, is a semi-distributed hydrological model driven by elevation. The basin is spitted into several elevation bands on which a simple global MORDOR model is implemented; i.e. only evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, snow and ice accumulation and melt are computed. However ground water and routing processes remain global. The primary purpose of this study is to present MORDOR SD model through a comparison with the historical version. The first result of this comparative study is that the new version provides better calibration-validation performances. Moreover the semi-distributed approach both allows to simplify the model structure (i.e. less degrees of freedom) and to reduce the equifinality problem in the calibration process. The model's parameters are calibrated at daily timestep with a genetic algorithm that uses a composed objective function. This complex function quantifies the good agreement between the simulated and observed runoff focusing on four different runoff samples: (i) time

  20. Cervical cysts: cancer until proven otherwise?

    PubMed

    Cinberg, J Z; Silver, C E; Molnar, J J; Vogl, S E

    1982-01-01

    A cystic neck mass can be either malignant or benign; 22% of patients (4/18) admitted with the tentative diagnosis of branchial cyst in a recent 2-year period (1977-1979) had metastatic carcinoma: epidermoid, thyroid or salivary gland. Preoperative fine needle aspiration was diagnostic in 1 instance and unhelpful in 2. Frozen section analysis of the gross specimen invariably provided the correct diagnosis. All patients with malignancies had subclinical primary disease and in 1 instance random biopsies identified its origin. The prudent surgeon will avoid untoward results if he approaches a neck cyst in an adult as if it were malignant. Guidelines he can follow to prevent the inadvertent removal of a metastasis under the misapprehension that it is a benign neck cyst include: 1. Prior to operation, perform a thorough head and neck examination to identify a primary carcinoma; 2. Do a fine needle aspiration of the mass for cytology. A negative report must be considered inconclusive; 3. Make a gross examination in the operating room of the opened cyst and frozen section processing of suspicious areas; 4. Follow with a panendoscopy and random biopsies of appropriate areas and complete the neck dissection on the involved side, after a metastatic deposit has been recognized. The preoperative procurement of contingency consent for these procedures is understood.

  1. New Tools and the Road to Quantitative Models in Sedimentary Provenance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2010-05-01

    Sedimentary provenance analysis is one of the major techniques to link source area geology, climate evolution, and basin dynamics to the compositional characteristics of the clastic basin fill. The high potential of sediments for precise chronostratigraphic calibration in combination with state-of-the-art provenance analysis allows for detailed reconstruction of source area evolution in space and time. A wealth of new and/or refined analytical techniques has been developed in the last decade, especially regarding high-precision single-grain geochemical and geochronological techniques. Accordingly, ultrastable heavy minerals such as rutile or zircon provide inert mineral tracers in sedimentary systems and their analysis yield precise information on source rock petrology and chronology. In terms of quantitative provenance analysis there is, however, a strong need for connecting these detailed information on specific source rocks to the bulk mass transfer and sediment modification from source to sink. Such quantitative provenance models are still in their infancy for a number of reasons, among them (1) the overall complexity of the processes involved including multiple feedback mechanisms, (2) the heterogeneity of data bases with respect to large-scale basin-wide studies, and (3) the lack of tailor-made and user-friendly statistical-numerical models allowing for both forward and inverse modelling that consider the compositional nature of most bulk sediment data. First steps towards fully quantitative models include (i) development of algorithms relating petrographic-mineralogic and geochemical data to sediment grain size, (ii) quantifying chemical, physical, and biological processes and their impact on sediment production and modification, (iii) compositional mixture models, and (iv) verifying these analytical modules in large-scale modern systems, followed by (v) similar ancient systems that are even more complicated due to diagenetic processes.

  2. Integrated provenance analysis of a convergent retroarc foreland system: U-Pb ages, heavy minerals, Nd isotopes, and sandstone compositions of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, northern Andes, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Horton, Brian K.; Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Mange, Maria; Garzione, Carmala N.; Basu, Asish; Moreno, Christopher J.; Caballero, Victor; Parra, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Sediment provenance analysis remains a powerful method for testing hypotheses on the temporal and spatial evolution of uplifted source regions, but issues such as recycling, nonunique sources, and pre- and post-depositional modifications may complicate interpretation of results from individual provenance techniques. Convergent retroarc systems commonly contain sediment sources that are sufficiently diverse (continental magmatic arc, fold-thrust belt, and stable craton) to enable explicit provenance assessments. In this paper, we combine detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral identification, Nd isotopic analyses, conventional sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements to reconstruct the clastic provenance history of a long-lived sedimentary basin now exposed in an intermontane zone of the northern Andean hinterland of Colombia. The Middle Magdalena Valley basin, situated between the Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera, contains a 5-10 km-thick succession of Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary fill. The integrated techniques show a pronounced change in provenance during the Paleocene transition from the lower to upper Lisama Formation. We interpret this as a shift from an eastern cratonic source to a western Andean source composed of magmatic-arc rocks uplifted during initial shortening of the Central Cordillera. The appearance of detrital chloritoid and a shift to more negative ɛ Nd(t=0) values in middle Eocene strata of the middle La Paz Formation are attributed to shortening-related exhumation of a continental basement block (La Cira-Infantas paleohigh), now buried, along the axis of the Magdalena Valley. The diverse provenance proxies also show distinct changes during middle to late Eocene deposition of the Esmeraldas Formation that likely reflect initial rock uplift and exhumation of the fold-thrust belt defining the Eastern Cordillera. Upsection, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblages for Oligocene and younger clastic

  3. Development of a State Machine Sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: Evolution, Development and Lessons Learned using a CASE Tool Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rede, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathon; Summer, Kellee

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tool approach. The main purpose of the sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Hare1 finite state machine, software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORB A, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  4. Development of a state machine sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: evolution, development, and lessons learned using a CASE tool approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathan; Summers, Kellee R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool approach. The main purpose of the Interferometer Sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations to be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Harel finite state machine software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real-time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORBA, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  5. Dynamical Evolution of the Inner Heliosphere Approaching Solar Activity Maximum: Interpreting Ulysses Observations Using a Global MHD Model. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we describe a series of MHD simulations covering the time period from 12 January 1999 to 19 September 2001 (Carrington Rotation 1945 to 1980). This interval coincided with: (1) the Sun s approach toward solar maximum; and (2) Ulysses second descent to the southern polar regions, rapid latitude scan, and arrival into the northern polar regions. We focus on the evolution of several key parameters during this time, including the photospheric magnetic field, the computed coronal hole boundaries, the computed velocity profile near the Sun, and the plasma and magnetic field parameters at the location of Ulysses. The model results provide a global context for interpreting the often complex in situ measurements. We also present a heuristic explanation of stream dynamics to describe the morphology of interaction regions at solar maximum and contrast it with the picture that resulted from Ulysses first orbit, which occurred during more quiescent solar conditions. The simulation results described here are available at: http://sun.saic.com.

  6. The Symbiotic Relationship between Scientific Workflow and Provenance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the symbiotic nature of scientific workflows and provenance. We will also discuss the current trends and real world challenges facing these two distinct research areas. Although motivated differently, the needs of the international science communities are the glue that binds this relationship together. Understanding and articulating the science drivers to these communities is paramount as these technologies evolve and mature. Originally conceived for managing business processes, workflows are now becoming invaluable assets in both computational and experimental sciences. These reconfigurable, automated systems provide essential technology to perform complex analyses by coupling together geographically distributed disparate data sources and applications. As a result, workflows are capable of higher throughput in a shorter amount of time than performing the steps manually. Today many different workflow products exist; these could include Kepler and Taverna or similar products like MeDICI, developed at PNNL, that are standardized on the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Provenance, originating from the French term Provenir “to come from”, is used to describe the curation process of artwork as art is passed from owner to owner. The concept of provenance was adopted by digital libraries as a means to track the lineage of documents while standards such as the DublinCore began to emerge. In recent years the systems science community has increasingly expressed the need to expand the concept of provenance to formally articulate the history of scientific data. Communities such as the International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW) have formalized a provenance data model. The Open Provenance Model, and the W3C is hosting a provenance incubator group featuring the Proof Markup Language. Although both workflows and provenance have risen from different communities and operate independently, their mutual

  7. DataONE: A Data Federation with Provenance Support

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yang; Jones, Christopher; Cuevas-Vicenttin, Victor; Jones, Matthew B.; Ludascher, Bertram; McPhillips, Timothy; Missier, Paolo; Schwalm, Christopher; Slaughter, Peter; Vieglais, Dave; Walker, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    DataONE is a federated data network focusing on earth and environmental science data. We present the provenance and search features of DataONE by means of an example involving three earth scientists who interact through a DataONE Member Node. DataONE provenance systems enable reproducible research and facilitate proper attribution of scientific results transitively across generations of derived data products.

  8. Automatic run-time provenance capture for scientific dataset generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, J.; Slaughter, P.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance---the directed graph of a dataset's processing history---is difficult to capture effectively. Human- generated provenance, as narrative metadata, is labor-intensive and thus often incorrect, incomplete, or simply not recorded. Workflow systems capture some provenance implicitly in workflow specifications, but these systems are not ubiquitous or standardized, and a workflow specification may not capture all of the factors involved in a dataset's production. System audit trails capture potentially all processing activities, but not the relationships between them. We describe a system that transparently (i.e., without any modification to science codes) and automatically (i.e. without any human intervention) captures the low-level interactions (files read/written, parameters accessed, etc.) between scientific processes, and then synthesizes these relationships into a provenance graph. This system---the Earth System Science Server (ES3)---is sufficiently general that it can accommodate any combination of stand-alone programs, interpreted codes (e.g. IDL), and command- language scripts. Provenance in ES3 can be published in well-defined XML formats (including formats suitable for graphical visualization), and queried to determine the ancestors or descendants of any specific data file or process invocation. We demonstrate how ES3 can be used to capture the provenance of a large operational ocean color dataset.

  9. Computer-Aided Protein Directed Evolution: a Review of Web Servers, Databases and other Computational Tools for Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajni; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Roccatano, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    The combination of computational and directed evolution methods has proven a winning strategy for protein engineering. We refer to this approach as computer-aided protein directed evolution (CAPDE) and the review summarizes the recent developments in this rapidly growing field. We will restrict ourselves to overview the availability, usability and limitations of web servers, databases and other computational tools proposed in the last five years. The goal of this review is to provide concise information about currently available computational resources to assist the design of directed evolution based protein engineering experiment.

  10. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Shen, S.; Prados, A.; Fox, P.; Yang, W.; Min, M.; Holloway, D.; Enloe, Y.

    2008-12-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This implies a need for deeper data interoperability than we have now. Many efforts (e.g. OPeNDAP, Open Geospatial Consortium) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross- calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must determine how to match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the exact nature of the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, exact location in space-time, or the quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, the results can be meaningless or even lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace back to how the data came to be: sensors, processing, and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio-temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences and/or calibration issues. This provenance information must therefore be captured in a semantic framework that allows sophisticated data inter-use tools to incorporate it, and eventually aid in the interpretation of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representations, and data quality representation in a well-structured, machine- readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance- related distinctions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance

  11. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been provEn effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. Several approaches that have proven effective for other evolutionary algorithms are modified and implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for standard test optimization problems and for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  12. Provenance and diagenesis of Oligocene sandstones, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    Oligocene Vedder sandstones and correlatives from the southern San Joaquin basin provide an opportunity to compare diagenesis resulting from variable provenance, depositional environment, and burial or tectonic history. Sandstones were examined from 15 cores in this basin-wide petrographic survey. Oligocene sandstones typically are fine to medium grained, moderately sorted, subangular, and quartzofeldspathic, although sandstones from the western and east-central basin are enriched in potassium feldspar and intermediate volcanic rock fragments, respectively. Detrital compositions are transitional between uplifted continental block and undissected to dissected magmatic arc on provenance diagrams. Sediment provenance included the granodioritic Sierra Nevada-Tehachapi Mountain magmatic arc complex and perhaps granitic terranes to the west. Volcanic detritus was shed from southern and eastern sources. Diagenesis varies within the basin, partly reflecting local pore-fluid evolution and detrital composition. The effects of variable geothermal gradients, sedimentation rate, and tectonism on diagenesis await evaluation. In the composite basin-wide paragenetic sequence, calcite, dolomite, siderite, and chlorite-smectite are earliest authigenic phases. Variable cement and compaction relationships indicate nonuniform depth and timing of cementation. Early cements inhibited subsequent diagenesis and compaction. With deeper burial, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, and carbonates dissolved, pore-filling kaolinite precipitated, plagioclase was albitized and zeolitized, and late-stage carbonates crystallized. Further geochemical analyses will better define composition and origin of authigenic phases and document reaction progress. Cement zones and sources may be identified and spatially and temporally linked in an attempt to constrain scales and rates of mass transfer of calcium basin wide.

  13. Quantitative Genetic Interaction Mapping Using the E-MAP Approach

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sean R.; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic interactions represent the degree to which the presence of one mutation modulates the phenotype of a second mutation. In recent years, approaches for measuring genetic interactions systematically and quantitatively have proven to be effective tools for unbiased characterization of gene function and have provided valuable data for analyses of evolution. Here, we present protocols for systematic measurement of genetic interactions with respect to organismal growth rate for two yeast species. PMID:20946812

  14. Provenance through the limit: integrated provenance from the Devonian sedimentary and basement rocks from the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Lotero, Andrea; Villafañez, Yohana; Augustsson, Carita; Bayona, German; Ibañez, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    The provenance record of sedimentary rocks is sometimes the only available archive of the geological evolution in continuously active continental margins where continuous exhumation, erosion and along strike fragmentation of continental margins destroy geological evidences. New integrated provenance constraints from segmented exposures of Devonian rocks of the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia are used to reconstruct overimposed Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleogeographic scenarios of the northern Andes. Sandstones from deltaic to platform environments are characterized by very high quartz contents, stable to ultrastable heavy minerals and mostly angular fragments. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology reveals prominent Silurian to Ordovician and Mesoproterozoic (Grenvillian) age populations with minor Devonian zircons. Tourmaline geochemistry and detrital quarz characterization suggest prominent low grade metamorphic sources. These provenance fingerprints can be related to the erosion of the older metasedimentary basement exposed in the same region and record the transition from a terrane collisional event to the formation of a new subduction zone before the final Late Paleozoic events that end in the agglutination of Pangea. The U-Pb detrital record of the Devonian and basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera are also comparable with Early to Middle Paleozic Paleozoic rocks form the Northern segment of the eastern Peruvian Andes re-inforcing the view of along strike terrane thousand of kilometer transport along the Mesozoic proto-Andean margin. Petrographic and heavy mineral petrofacies and stratigraphic correlation between Devonian localities are also used as piercing points to document Cenozoic ten of kilometers strike slip displacements along the northern termination of the Eastern Cordillera.

  15. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. PMID:27187913

  16. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact.

  17. Evaluating fossil calibrations for dating phylogenies in light of rates of molecular evolution: a comparison of three approaches.

    PubMed

    Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Scott Keogh, J; Avise, John C

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary and biogeographic studies increasingly rely on calibrated molecular clocks to date key events. Although there has been significant recent progress in development of the techniques used for molecular dating, many issues remain. In particular, controversies abound over the appropriate use and placement of fossils for calibrating molecular clocks. Several methods have been proposed for evaluating candidate fossils; however, few studies have compared the results obtained by different approaches. Moreover, no previous study has incorporated the effects of nucleotide saturation from different data types in the evaluation of candidate fossils. In order to address these issues, we compared three approaches for evaluating fossil calibrations: the single-fossil cross-validation method of Near, Meylan, and Shaffer (2005. Assessing concordance of fossil calibration points in molecular clock studies: an example using turtles. Am. Nat. 165:137-146), the empirical fossil coverage method of Marshall (2008. A simple method for bracketing absolute divergence times on molecular phylogenies using multiple fossil calibration points. Am. Nat. 171:726-742), and the Bayesian multicalibration method of Sanders and Lee (2007. Evaluating molecular clock calibrations using Bayesian analyses with soft and hard bounds. Biol. Lett. 3:275-279) and explicitly incorporate the effects of data type (nuclear vs. mitochondrial DNA) for identifying the most reliable or congruent fossil calibrations. We used advanced (Caenophidian) snakes as a case study; however, our results are applicable to any taxonomic group with multiple candidate fossils, provided appropriate taxon sampling and sufficient molecular sequence data are available. We found that data type strongly influenced which fossil calibrations were identified as outliers, regardless of which method was used. Despite the use of complex partitioned models of sequence evolution and multiple calibrations throughout the tree, saturation

  18. ISO TC211 standards on Provenance for Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Deng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Data provenance, also called lineage, records the derivation history of a data product. The history could include the algorithms used, the process steps taken, the computing environment run, data sources input to the processes, the organization/person responsible for the product, etc. Provenance provides important information to data users for them to determine the usability and reliability of the product. In the science domain, the data provenance is especially important since scientists need to use the information to determine the scientific validity of a data product and to decide if such a product can be used as the basis for further scientific analysis. Provenance is a kind of metadata. In Earth science domain, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 211 (ISO TC 211) have set geospatial metadata standards for geospatial data, including ISO 19115:2003-Metadata, ISO 19115-2:2009-Metadata-Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data, and ISO 19115-1:2014 - Metadata -- Part 1: Fundamentals. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define the fundamental metadata for documenting geospatial data products, and ISO 19115-2 provides additional metadata classes for imagery and gridded data. ISO 19115-1:2014 is the revised version of ISO 19115:2003. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define fundamental lineage information classes and subclasses. They miss some key information classes needed for documenting the provenance in the Web service environment, such as the running environment, the algorithms, and software executables. However, ISO 19115-2 extends the lineage model in ISO 19115 and provides additional metadata classes needed for documenting provenance information. The combination of lineage models in ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-2 provides a comprehensive provenance information model needed for the web service environment. Currently the ISO Provence standard is not compatible with W3C Prov standard. The revision of ISO 19115-2 will be started in

  19. Provenance Usage in the OceanLink Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Jones, M.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve thedissemination of scientific research. The OceanLink project, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is utilizing semantic technologies tointegrate geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Provenance is a vital componentin meeting both the scientific and engineering requirements of OceanLink. Provenance plays a key role in justification and understanding when presenting users with results aggregated from multiple sources. In the engineering sense, provenance enables the identification of new data and the ability to determine which data sources to query. Additionally, OceanLink will leverage human and machine computation for crowdsourcing, text mining, and co-reference resolution. The results of these computations, and their associated provenance, will be folded back into the constituent systems to continually enhance precision and utility. We will touch on the various roles provenance is playing in OceanLink as well as present our use of the PROV Ontology and associated Ontology Design Patterns.

  20. Linked data and provenance in biological data webs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Miles, Alistair; Klyne, Graham; Shotton, David

    2009-03-01

    The Web is now being used as a platform for publishing and linking life science data. The Web's linking architecture can be exploited to join heterogeneous data from multiple sources. However, as data are frequently being updated in a decentralized environment, provenance information becomes critical to providing reliable and trustworthy services to scientists. This article presents design patterns for representing and querying provenance information relating to mapping links between heterogeneous data from sources in the domain of functional genomics. We illustrate the use of named resource description framework (RDF) graphs at different levels of granularity to make provenance assertions about linked data, and demonstrate that these assertions are sufficient to support requirements including data currency, integrity, evidential support and historical queries.

  1. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Cheng, H. S.; Lin, J. W.; Yang, F. J.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE.

  2. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Berrick, Steve; Shen, Suhung; Prados, Ana; Fox, Peter; Yang, Wenli; Min, Min; Holloway, Dan; Enloe, Yonsook

    2008-01-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This requires a deeper data interoperability than we have now. Efforts such as Open Geospatial Consortium and OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross-calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, location in space-time or quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, results can be meaningless or lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace to how the data came to be: sensors, processing and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio- temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences or calibration issues. Provenance information must be captured in a semantic framework that allows data inter-use tools to incorporate it and aid in the intervention of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representation, and data quality attributes in a well-structured, machine-readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance-related distrintions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance. Provenance may be either embedded within the data payload, or transmitted

  3. Origin and evolution of groundwater collected by a desalination plant (Tordera, Spain): A multi-isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Soler, A.; Corp, R. M.; Mas-Pla, J.; Garcia-Solsona, E.; Masqué, P.

    2011-01-01

    SummaryThe Tordera Desalination Plant located in Blanes (NE Spain) has seawater intake through 10 beach wells located a few meters inland on the shoreline at the Tordera River Delta. Between October 2002 and October 2003, the extracted groundwater showed a decrease in conductivity, especially in the wells located in the northern area, prompting the present study. A multi-isotopic approach (δD, δ 18OO, 3H, δ 34S, 87Sr/ 86Sr and 228Ra/ 226Ra) coupled with chemical data was applied in order to assess the origin of the water collected for the desalination plant and to quantify the extent of freshwater collection from the Tordera aquifer, when applicable. Three multi-piezometers located in the Tordera aquifer were also sampled in order to characterize the freshwater end-member. A seasonal survey was performed in order to assess the evolution of mixed freshwater-seawater intake. Tritium isotopes showed values ranging from 0.6 to 2.5 TU indicating recent origin of the collected waters. This was further confirmed using radium isotopes ( 226Ra and 228Ra), as the 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratio (AR) indicated a continuous input of seawater on a yearly time scale. The water extracted from the beach wells was at least 95% seawater, except for wells 8-10. The latter two were extracting up to 15% of freshwater from the Tordera aquifer system. From a methodological point of view, while δ 34S of dissolved sulphate and the ratio 87Sr/ 86Sr are good tracers of seawater mixing with freshwaters, the isotopic composition of water (δD and δ 18OO) and the Cl -/Br - ratio are conservative tracers that allow for quantifying the contribution of freshwater to the extracted water. Although slight variations linked to seasonality were observed in all wells during the 3-year study period (November 2003 to December 2006), wells 1 and 7 showed an increase in freshwater contribution from 4% to 11% and well 10 a decrease from 15% to 10% over this period.

  4. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Epidemics are favored by rainfall and high humidity. A provenance collection of ~950 pecan trees from 19 locations representing the native range of the species is located in Byron, Georgia...

  5. A Discussion of Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tehshik

    2009-05-01

    This review responds to the Commentary article " Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven? " and continues the discussion engendered by that piece. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. We hope that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Other Reviewer Comments: Brown Lewis Wade

  6. A Discussion of Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Theodore L.

    2009-05-01

    This review responds to the Commentary article " Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven? " and continues the discussion engendered by that piece. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. We hope that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Other Reviewer Comments: Lewis Yoon Wade

  7. A Discussion of Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, David E.

    2009-05-01

    This review responds to the Commentary article " Can Reaction Mechanisms Be Proven? " and continues the discussion engendered by that piece. JCE will provide an online forum for further discussion of the issue. We hope that both faculty and students will contribute their opinions and ideas to this discussion. See Other Reviewer Comments: Brown Yoon Wade

  8. An extensible framework for provenance in human terrain visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rick; Slingsby, Aiden; Dykes, Jason; Xu, Kai; Wood, Jo; Nguyen, Phong H; Stephens, Derek; Wong, B L William; Zheng, Yongjun

    2013-12-01

    We describe and demonstrate an extensible framework that supports data exploration and provenance in the context of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA). Working closely with defence analysts we extract requirements and a list of features that characterise data analysed at the end of the HTA chain. From these, we select an appropriate non-classified data source with analogous features, and model it as a set of facets. We develop ProveML, an XML-based extension of the Open Provenance Model, using these facets and augment it with the structures necessary to record the provenance of data, analytical process and interpretations. Through an iterative process, we develop and refine a prototype system for Human Terrain Visual Analytics (HTVA), and demonstrate means of storing, browsing and recalling analytical provenance and process through analytic bookmarks in ProveML. We show how these bookmarks can be combined to form narratives that link back to the live data. Throughout the process, we demonstrate that through structured workshops, rapid prototyping and structured communication with intelligence analysts we are able to establish requirements, and design schema, techniques and tools that meet the requirements of the intelligence community. We use the needs and reactions of defence analysts in defining and steering the methods to validate the framework.

  9. From above or below: the controversy and historical evolution of tuberculum sellae meningioma resection from open to endoscopic skull base approaches.

    PubMed

    Soni, Resha S; Patel, Smruti K; Husain, Qasim; Dahodwala, Mufaddal Q; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2014-04-01

    In the early 20th century, the first successful surgical removal of a tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) was performed and described by Harvey Cushing. It soon became recognized that TSM pose a formidable challenge for skull base surgeons because of their deep and sensitive location, proximity to critical neurovascular elements, and often dense and fibrous nature. Because of this, over the next several decades controversy transpired regarding their optimal method of resection. Early attempts involved utilization of open transcranial routes. This included classic bilateral and unilateral frontal approaches, followed by pterional or frontotemporal approaches, which have evolved to incorporate skull base modifications, such as the supraorbital, orbitozygomatic, and orbitopterional approaches. Minimally invasive supraorbital keyhole approaches through eyebrow incisions have also been adopted. Over the past 25 years, the microsurgical transsphenoidal approach, classically used for pituitary and parasellar tumors, was modified to resect suprasesllar TSM via the extended transsphenoidal approach. More recently, with the evolution of endoscopic techniques, resection of TSM has been achieved using purely endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approaches. Although each of these techniques has been successfully described for the treatment of TSM, the question still remains: is it better to access and operate on these lesions via a traditional, transcranial avenue, or are they better treated via endoscopic endonasal techniques? We outline the surgical management of TSM through history, from early transcranial and transsphenoidal approaches to modern extended endoscopic endonasal procedures. We briefly explore the arguments favoring each of the methods and the advancements which have emerged to further optimize surgical resection. PMID:24231561

  10. Representing annotation compositionality and provenance for the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though the annotation of digital artifacts with metadata has a long history, the bulk of that work focuses on the association of single terms or concepts to single targets. As annotation efforts expand to capture more complex information, annotations will need to be able to refer to knowledge structures formally defined in terms of more atomic knowledge structures. Existing provenance efforts in the Semantic Web domain primarily focus on tracking provenance at the level of whole triples and do not provide enough detail to track how individual triple elements of annotations were derived from triple elements of other annotations. Results We present a task- and domain-independent ontological model for capturing annotations and their linkage to their denoted knowledge representations, which can be singular concepts or more complex sets of assertions. We have implemented this model as an extension of the Information Artifact Ontology in OWL and made it freely available, and we show how it can be integrated with several prominent annotation and provenance models. We present several application areas for the model, ranging from linguistic annotation of text to the annotation of disease-associations in genome sequences. Conclusions With this model, progressively more complex annotations can be composed from other annotations, and the provenance of compositional annotations can be represented at the annotation level or at the level of individual elements of the RDF triples composing the annotations. This in turn allows for progressively richer annotations to be constructed from previous annotation efforts, the precise provenance recording of which facilitates evidence-based inference and error tracking. PMID:24268021

  11. EVOLUTION OF ANTENNA PERFORMANCE FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL MEDICNE

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, P.R.; Maccarini, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of electromagnetic heating technology that has proven useful in clinical applications of hyperthermia therapy for cancer. Several RF and microwave antenna designs are illustrated which highlight the evolution of technology from simple waveguide antennas to spatially and temporally adjustable multiple antenna phased arrays for deep heating, conformal arrays for superficial heating, and compatible approaches for radiometric and magnetic resonance image based non-invasive thermal monitoring. Examples of heating capabilities for several recently developed applicators demonstrate highly adjustable power deposition that has not been possible in the past. PMID:23487445

  12. EVOLUTION OF ANTENNA PERFORMANCE FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL MEDICNE.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, P R; Maccarini, P F

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of electromagnetic heating technology that has proven useful in clinical applications of hyperthermia therapy for cancer. Several RF and microwave antenna designs are illustrated which highlight the evolution of technology from simple waveguide antennas to spatially and temporally adjustable multiple antenna phased arrays for deep heating, conformal arrays for superficial heating, and compatible approaches for radiometric and magnetic resonance image based non-invasive thermal monitoring. Examples of heating capabilities for several recently developed applicators demonstrate highly adjustable power deposition that has not been possible in the past.

  13. Long term modeling of the links between economics, technical progress and environment: Evolution of approaches and new trends

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines the evolution of modeling on greenhouse as emissions. The paper briefly highlights the origins and early efforts to model greenhouse gas emissions, efforts subsequent to 1988, and the shape of the next generation of greenhouse gas emissions models. Particular emphasis is placed on the author's own contributions, including the Edmonds-Reilly Model and the second generation model.

  14. Long term modeling of the links between economics, technical progress and environment: Evolution of approaches and new trends

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines the evolution of modeling on greenhouse as emissions. The paper briefly highlights the origins and early efforts to model greenhouse gas emissions, efforts subsequent to 1988, and the shape of the next generation of greenhouse gas emissions models. Particular emphasis is placed on the author`s own contributions, including the Edmonds-Reilly Model and the second generation model.

  15. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  16. Soil geomorphology and morphometric analysis to approach denudation rates and geomorphological evolution of Limnopolar basin; Byers Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Susana del Carmen; De Pablo, Miguel Angel; Otero, Xose Luis; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Limnopolar Lake is located in Byers Peninsula Plateau at 85-100m a.s.l. in maritime Antarctic environment. The peninsula, in the western end of Livingston Island, (latitude 62°34'35" S, longitude 61°13'07" W) has more favourable environmental conditions for soil development than other Antarctic regions. Finished the glacial climate conditions in the area began the weathering and edaphic processes. There are several attempts to date the Domo's Roctch cap melting in Byers peninsula based on limnological records studies giving dates of 9.5, 8.3, 6.0 and 5.0 Ka BP while was dated in 6.3 Ka BP in the basis of neotectonic approach. Nevertheless some authors have documented a period of glacial re-advance in the South Shetland Islands from around 7.0 Ka BP, persisting even until 5.0 Ka BP. During cup ice melting mainly isostatic but also tectonic (4%) uplift of the area free of ice started. Based on the date of marine terrace system (70, 55 and 24 m a.s.l.) developed in free of ice coast of the Livingstone Inland a rate of uplift of 0.4 m/Ka was stablished. General speaking that the melting of the ice cap resulted in the establishment of a lacustrine system spread all over Byers peninsula. At a first stage of evolution waters from the ice melting flooded preexisting topographic depressions lead lakes, while an incipient river networks were developing. Nevertheless, hypsometric integral of Limnopolar watershed shows the existence of at least three downcutting steps into Byers Plateau and the lake is located over the last step above the nick point of the river which is incised into glacial deposit. The base of the sedimentary record of the lake was found at 234 cm of deep and dated at about 8.3 Ka BP but corresponds to glacial sediments. In the same core sample, the change to lacustrine characteristics was found at about 211 cm and dated in 6.7 Ka BP. On the other hand, shore of the lake is excavated at 20 m from the upper part of the basin and the transversal profile of

  17. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  18. Sensor Data Management, Validation, Correction, and Provenance for Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Rossiter, Jeffrey S; Hensley, Zachary; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts research on technologies that use a wide range of sensors to develop and characterize building energy performance. The management of high-resolution sensor data, analysis, and tracing lineage of such activities is challenging. Missing or corrupt data due to sensor failure, fouling, drifting, calibration error, or data logger failure is another issue. This paper focuses on sensor data management, validation, correction, and provenance to combat these issues, ensuring complete and accurate sensor datasets for building technologies applications and research. The design and development of two integrated software products are discussed: Sensor Data Validation and Correction (SensorDVC) and the Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS) platform.

  19. Provenance Tracking for Earth Science Data and Its Metadata Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2007-12-01

    In many cases Earth science data production involves long and complex chains of processes that accept files as input and create new files. It can be demonstrated that these chains form a mathematical graph in which the files and processes are the vertices and the relations between the files and vertices form the edges. There are four types of edges, which can be represented by the relations "this file was produced by that process," "this file is used by those processes," "this process needs these files for input," and "this process produces those files as output." Because Earth science data production often involves using previous data for statistical quality control, provenance graphs can be very large. For example, if previous data are used to develop statistics of clear sky radiances, a particular file may depend on statistics collected on many months of data. For EOS data or for the upcoming NPP and NPOESS missions, the number of files being ingested per day can be in the range of 10,000 to 100,000. As a result, the number of vertices and links can easily be in the millions to hundreds of millions of objects. This suggests that routine inclusion of complete provenance graphs in single files may be prohibitively voluminous, although the increasingly stringent requirements for provenance tracking require maintenance of the information from which the graph can be reliably constructed. The fact that provenance tracking requires traversal of the vertices and edges of the graph makes it difficult to uniquely fit into eXtensible Markup Language (XML). It also makes the construction of the graph difficult to do in standard Structured Query Language (SQL) because the tables for representing the graph require recursive queries. Both of these difficulties require care in constructing the data structures and the software that stores and makes the metadata accessible. This paper will then discuss the representation of this structure in metadata, including the possibilities

  20. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  1. Examining the Prospective Scuba Diver: Which Exclusions are Proven?

    PubMed

    Beauprie, I

    1989-08-01

    Who can safely dive? All prospective divers in Canada must have a physician's approval to start training. Many review articles and typical check-list medical forms, however, imply exclusions that are not well proven. The author critically analyzes current diving and diving accident statistics and discusses the physiology of risk. He also discusses diving morbidity and mortality from pressure changes, illness caused by immersion only, hypothermia, and diving during pregnancy.

  2. Examining the Prospective Scuba Diver: Which Exclusions are Proven?

    PubMed Central

    Beauprie, Ian

    1989-01-01

    Who can safely dive? All prospective divers in Canada must have a physician's approval to start training. Many review articles and typical check-list medical forms, however, imply exclusions that are not well proven. The author critically analyzes current diving and diving accident statistics and discusses the physiology of risk. He also discusses diving morbidity and mortality from pressure changes, illness caused by immersion only, hypothermia, and diving during pregnancy. PMID:21248872

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  4. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  5. Rate of occult specimen provenance complications in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, John D; Liu, Jingxia

    2013-01-01

    Occult specimen provenance complications (SPCs), which occur when there is an absence of any direct or indirect indication that a specimen switch or contamination may have occurred, constitute a significant patient safety and medical-legal problem because they can lead to misdiagnosis. However, the rate at which occult SPCs occur is unknown because, by definition, this category of errors is not identified by standard laboratory practices. In this study, we evaluated a data set comprising almost 13,000 prostate biopsies that were prospectively tested for specimen provenance errors as part of routine clinical practice. The frequency of occult type 1 errors (a complete transposition between patients) and type 2 errors (contamination of the patient's tissue with 1 or more unrelated patients) was 0.26% and 0.67%, respectively; every urology practice setting and surgical pathology laboratory type with a representative sample size experienced at least 1 type 1 and 1 type 2 error during the study period. Overall, the mean frequency of SPCs across practice settings was 0.22% for type 1 errors and 1.69% for type 2 errors. The type 1 rate showed no correlation with a surgical pathology laboratory setting or urologic practice group setting; the type 2 rate correlated solely with a surgical pathology laboratory setting. The occult SPC rate in this limited data set provides an estimate of the scope of the problem of potential misdiagnosis as a result of occult specimen provenance errors in routine clinical practice.

  6. A population genetics-based and phylogenetic approach to understanding the evolution of virulence in the genus Listeria.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Bundrant, Brittany N; Fortes, Esther D; Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-09-01

    The genus Listeria includes (i) the opportunistic pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, (ii) the saprotrophs L. innocua, L. marthii, and L. welshimeri, and (iii) L. seeligeri, an apparent saprotroph that nevertheless typically contains the prfA virulence gene cluster. A novel 10-loci multilocus sequence typing scheme was developed and used to characterize 67 isolates representing six Listeria spp. (excluding L. grayi) in order to (i) provide an improved understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Listeria and (ii) use Listeria as a model to study the evolution of pathogenicity in opportunistic environmental pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses identified six well-supported Listeria species that group into two main subdivisions, with each subdivision containing strains with and without the prfA virulence gene cluster. Stochastic character mapping and phylogenetic analysis of hly, a gene in the prfA cluster, suggest that the common ancestor of the genus Listeria contained the prfA virulence gene cluster and that this cluster was lost at least five times during the evolution of Listeria, yielding multiple distinct saprotrophic clades. L. welshimeri, which appears to represent the most ancient clade that arose from an ancestor with a prfA cluster deletion, shows a considerably lower average sequence divergence than other Listeria species, suggesting a population bottleneck and a putatively different ecology than other saprotrophic Listeria species. Overall, our data suggest that, for some pathogens, loss of virulence genes may represent a selective advantage, possibly by facilitating adaptation to a specific ecological niche. PMID:20656873

  7. A Population Genetics-Based and Phylogenetic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence in the Genus Listeria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    den Bakker, Henk C.; Bundrant, Brittany N.; Fortes, Esther D.; Orsi, Renato H.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The genus Listeria includes (i) the opportunistic pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, (ii) the saprotrophs L. innocua, L. marthii, and L. welshimeri, and (iii) L. seeligeri, an apparent saprotroph that nevertheless typically contains the prfA virulence gene cluster. A novel 10-loci multilocus sequence typing scheme was developed and used to characterize 67 isolates representing six Listeria spp. (excluding L. grayi) in order to (i) provide an improved understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Listeria and (ii) use Listeria as a model to study the evolution of pathogenicity in opportunistic environmental pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses identified six well-supported Listeria species that group into two main subdivisions, with each subdivision containing strains with and without the prfA virulence gene cluster. Stochastic character mapping and phylogenetic analysis of hly, a gene in the prfA cluster, suggest that the common ancestor of the genus Listeria contained the prfA virulence gene cluster and that this cluster was lost at least five times during the evolution of Listeria, yielding multiple distinct saprotrophic clades. L. welshimeri, which appears to represent the most ancient clade that arose from an ancestor with a prfA cluster deletion, shows a considerably lower average sequence divergence than other Listeria species, suggesting a population bottleneck and a putatively different ecology than other saprotrophic Listeria species. Overall, our data suggest that, for some pathogens, loss of virulence genes may represent a selective advantage, possibly by facilitating adaptation to a specific ecological niche. PMID:20656873

  8. A population genetics-based and phylogenetic approach to understanding the evolution of virulence in the genus Listeria.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Bundrant, Brittany N; Fortes, Esther D; Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-09-01

    The genus Listeria includes (i) the opportunistic pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, (ii) the saprotrophs L. innocua, L. marthii, and L. welshimeri, and (iii) L. seeligeri, an apparent saprotroph that nevertheless typically contains the prfA virulence gene cluster. A novel 10-loci multilocus sequence typing scheme was developed and used to characterize 67 isolates representing six Listeria spp. (excluding L. grayi) in order to (i) provide an improved understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Listeria and (ii) use Listeria as a model to study the evolution of pathogenicity in opportunistic environmental pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses identified six well-supported Listeria species that group into two main subdivisions, with each subdivision containing strains with and without the prfA virulence gene cluster. Stochastic character mapping and phylogenetic analysis of hly, a gene in the prfA cluster, suggest that the common ancestor of the genus Listeria contained the prfA virulence gene cluster and that this cluster was lost at least five times during the evolution of Listeria, yielding multiple distinct saprotrophic clades. L. welshimeri, which appears to represent the most ancient clade that arose from an ancestor with a prfA cluster deletion, shows a considerably lower average sequence divergence than other Listeria species, suggesting a population bottleneck and a putatively different ecology than other saprotrophic Listeria species. Overall, our data suggest that, for some pathogens, loss of virulence genes may represent a selective advantage, possibly by facilitating adaptation to a specific ecological niche.

  9. How much can history constrain adaptive evolution? A real-time evolutionary approach of inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Fragata, I; Lopes-Cunha, M; Bárbaro, M; Kellen, B; Lima, M; Santos, M A; Faria, G S; Santos, M; Matos, M; Simões, P

    2014-12-01

    Chromosomal inversions are present in a wide range of animals and plants, having an important role in adaptation and speciation. Although empirical evidence of their adaptive value is abundant, the role of different processes underlying evolution of chromosomal polymorphisms is not fully understood. History and selection are likely to shape inversion polymorphism variation to an extent yet largely unknown. Here, we perform a real-time evolution study addressing the role of historical constraints and selection in the evolution of these polymorphisms. We founded laboratory populations of Drosophila subobscura derived from three locations along the European cline and followed the evolutionary dynamics of inversion polymorphisms throughout the first 40 generations. At the beginning, populations were highly differentiated and remained so throughout generations. We report evidence of positive selection for some inversions, variable between foundations. Signs of negative selection were more frequent, in particular for most cold-climate standard inversions across the three foundations. We found that previously observed convergence at the phenotypic level in these populations was not associated with convergence in inversion frequencies. In conclusion, our study shows that selection has shaped the evolutionary dynamics of inversion frequencies, but doing so within the constraints imposed by previous history. Both history and selection are therefore fundamental to predict the evolutionary potential of different populations to respond to global environmental changes.

  10. Geochemical indicators of provenance and tectonic setting of Mississippian pelites of the Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.W. ); Blatt, H.; Weaver, B.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions of the southern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic are inconclusive. Numerous conflicting models have been proposed for the opening and closing of the Iapetus Ocean and the subsequent deposition and deformation of the Ouachita System. Considerable confusion also exists concerning the provenance of the Carboniferous flysch deposits of the Ouachitas. Trace element geochemistry of shales from the Stanley Group constrain both the provenance of the sediments and the plate tectonic setting during the Mississippian evolution of the southern continental margin. Th/Sc and Cr/Th ratios support a cratonic source for the majority of samples analyzed. However, in several samples the Th/Sc ratio decreases and the Cr/Th ratio increases, suggesting a contribution from a more mafic source. Using element ratio-ratio diagrams, all of the samples plot along a curve consistent with a two-component mixing model between a felsic and a mafic source. Both a tantalum-niobium trough and a strongly negative strontium anomaly are seen in upper-crust-normalized trace element spiderdiagrams. These anomalies are also present in interbedded volcaniclastics within the Stanley. The Stanley shales also exhibit a positive vanadium-chromium-nickel anomaly. The pervasive occurrence of these anomalies is interpreted as inherited from their source, and not from diagenetic alteration or sedimentary processes.

  11. A Provenance Model for Real-Time Water Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Bai, Q.; Zednik, S.; Taylor, P.; Fox, P. A.; Taylor, K.; Kloppers, C.; Peters, C.; Terhorst, A.; West, P.; Compton, M.; Shu, Y.; Provenance Management Team

    2010-12-01

    Generating hydrological data products, such as flow forecasts, involves complex interactions among instruments, data simulation models, computational facilities and data providers. Correct interpretation of the data produced at various stages requires good understanding of how data was generated or processed. Provenance describes the lineage of a data product. Making provenance information accessible to hydrologists and decision makers not only helps to determine the data’s value, accuracy and authorship, but also enables users to determine the trustworthiness of the data product. In the water domain, WaterML2 [1] is an emerging standard which describes an information model and format for the publication of water observations data in XML. The W3C semantic sensor network incubator group (SSN-XG) [3] is producing ontologies for the description of sensor configurations. By integrating domain knowledge of this kind into the provenance information model, the integrated information model will enable water domain researchers and water resource managers to better analyse how observations and derived data products were generated. We first introduce the Proof Mark Language (PML2) [2], WaterML2 and the SSN-XG sensor ontology as the proposed provenance representation formalism. Then we describe some initial implementations how these standards could be integrated to represent the lineage of water information products. Finally we will highlight how the provenance model for a distributed real-time water information system assists the interpretation of the data product and establishing trust. Reference [1] Taylor, P., Walker, G., Valentine, D., Cox, Simon: WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observation data. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 12. [2] da Silva, P.P., McGuinness, D.L., Fikes, R.: A proof markup language for semantic web services. Inf. Syst. 31(4) (2006), 381-395. [3] W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator

  12. Provenance-Enabled Integration of Sensor Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ontology design in support of sensor networks requires deep scientific and technical knowledge. For instance, sensor network ontologies may define concepts rich enough to describe the selection of sensor locations that are driven by both scientific use cases, such as proximity to a physical entity, and technical requirements, such as wireless coverage. Our work in collaboration with IBM and the FUND for Lake George is set within the context of the Jefferson Project that aims to monitor, analyze, and understand observation and simulation data in support of decision making concerning the ecosystem of Lake George, NY. We have designed a Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology (HASNet-O) that we believe is broadly reusable. We will highlight its contributions, describe its relationships to well used ontologies, and demonstrate it in action in the Jefferson Project. The ontology leverages best in class foundational ontologies including OBOE, VSTO, and PROV. One of the reasons HASNet-O is reusable is because it uses a provenance perspective to generalize what initially looked like sensor-specific terms that can be more accurately viewed as provenance terms. For example, we observe that the Activity concept from the PROV language, a W3C provenance standard, can be used to explain complete sensor lifecycles by describing how a network operates including how human interventions may interfere with the quality of the sensor network data, even for highly automated networks. We further observe that Observation activities, which are at the core of most sensor network ontologies, are not described in terms of deployments. In fact, Deployment activities are rarely documented in sensor data/metadata although Observation instances can only occur during the lifetime of Deployment instances. Our analysis of network ontologies in light of provenance knowledge includes a discussion about relationships. For instance, relationships between sensors and data are well-established provenance

  13. Making Sense of 'Big Data' in Provenance Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2014-12-01

    Huge online databases can be 'mined' to reveal previously hidden trends and relationships in society. One could argue that sedimentary geology has entered a similar era of 'Big Data', as modern provenance studies routinely apply multiple proxies to dozens of samples. Just like the Internet, sedimentary geology now requires specialised statistical tools to interpret such large datasets. These can be organised on three levels of progressively higher order:A single sample: The most effective way to reveal the provenance information contained in a representative sample of detrital zircon U-Pb ages are probability density estimators such as histograms and kernel density estimates. The widely popular 'probability density plots' implemented in IsoPlot and AgeDisplay compound analytical uncertainty with geological scatter and are therefore invalid.Several samples: Multi-panel diagrams comprising many detrital age distributions or compositional pie charts quickly become unwieldy and uninterpretable. For example, if there are N samples in a study, then the number of pairwise comparisons between samples increases quadratically as N(N-1)/2. This is simply too much information for the human eye to process. To solve this problem, it is necessary to (a) express the 'distance' between two samples as a simple scalar and (b) combine all N(N-1)/2 such values in a single two-dimensional 'map', grouping similar and pulling apart dissimilar samples. This can be easily achieved using simple statistics-based dissimilarity measures and a standard statistical method called Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).Several methods: Suppose that we use four provenance proxies: bulk petrography, chemistry, heavy minerals and detrital geochronology. This will result in four MDS maps, each of which likely show slightly different trends and patterns. To deal with such cases, it may be useful to use a related technique called 'three way multidimensional scaling'. This results in two graphical outputs: an MDS

  14. µ-XRF Analysis of Trace Elements in Lapis Lazuli-Forming Minerals for a Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Angelici, Debora; Borghi, Alessandro; Chiarelli, Fabrizia; Cossio, Roberto; Gariani, Gianluca; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Pratesi, Giovanni; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents new developments on the provenance study of lapis lazuli started by our group in 2008: during the years a multi-technique approach has been exploited to obtain minero-petrographic characterization and creation of a database considering only rock samples of known provenance. Since the final aim of the study is to develop a method to analyze archeological findings and artworks made with lapis lazuli in a completely non-invasive way, ion beam analysis techniques were employed to trace the provenance of the raw material used for the production of artifacts. Continuing this goal and focusing the analysis on determination of more significant minero-chemical markers for the provenance study of trace elements in different minerals, the method was extended with the use of micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), to test the potential of the technique for this application. The analyzes were focused on diopside and pyrite in lapis lazuli samples of known provenance (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Siberia). In addition, µ-XRF data were compared with micro proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) results to verify the agreement between the two databases and to compare the analytical performance of both techniques for this application. PMID:25782348

  15. µ-XRF Analysis of Trace Elements in Lapis Lazuli-Forming Minerals for a Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Angelici, Debora; Borghi, Alessandro; Chiarelli, Fabrizia; Cossio, Roberto; Gariani, Gianluca; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Pratesi, Giovanni; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents new developments on the provenance study of lapis lazuli started by our group in 2008: during the years a multi-technique approach has been exploited to obtain minero-petrographic characterization and creation of a database considering only rock samples of known provenance. Since the final aim of the study is to develop a method to analyze archeological findings and artworks made with lapis lazuli in a completely non-invasive way, ion beam analysis techniques were employed to trace the provenance of the raw material used for the production of artifacts. Continuing this goal and focusing the analysis on determination of more significant minero-chemical markers for the provenance study of trace elements in different minerals, the method was extended with the use of micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), to test the potential of the technique for this application. The analyzes were focused on diopside and pyrite in lapis lazuli samples of known provenance (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Siberia). In addition, µ-XRF data were compared with micro proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) results to verify the agreement between the two databases and to compare the analytical performance of both techniques for this application.

  16. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling ‘Darwinian’ and ‘Spencerian’ evolutionary approaches in anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of ‘Spencerian’ cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader ‘Darwinian’ framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  17. A Global/Local Finite Element Approach for Predicting Interlaminar and Intralaminar Damage Evolution in Composite Stiffened Panels Under Compressive Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropaoli, Elisa; Riccio, Aniello

    2011-04-01

    This paper addresses the prediction of intralaminar and interlaminar damage onset and evolution in composite structures through the use of a finite element based procedure. This procedure joins methodologies whose credibility has been already assessed in literature such as the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (for delamination) and the ply discount approach (for matrix/fiber failures). In order to establish the reliability of the procedure developed, comparisons with literature experimental results on a stiffened panel with an embedded delamination are illustrated. The methodology proposed, implemented in ANSYS as post-processing routines, is combined with a finite element model of the panel, built by adopting both shell and solid elements within the frame of an embedded global/local approach to connect differently modelled substructures.

  18. Testing the evolution of the DB white dwarf GD 358: first results of a new approach using asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Pérez, J. M.; Metcalfe, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: We present a new method that investigates the evolutionary history of the pulsating DB white dwarf GD 358 using asteroseismology. This is done considering the internal C/O profile, which describes the relative abundances of carbon and oxygen from the core of the star to its surface. Different evolutionary channels lead to the generation of different C/O profiles, and these affect the pulsation periods. Methods: We used the C/O profiles associated with white dwarfs that evolved through binary evolution channels where the progenitor experienced one or two episodes of mass loss during one or two common envelope (CE) phases, and two profiles from single-star evolution. We computed models using these different profiles and used a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the search in the parameter space for the best fit to the observed pulsation periods. We used three-parameter models, adjusting the stellar mass (Mstar), the effective temperature (T_eff), and the helium mass of the external layer (M_He). Results: Our results suggest that binary evolution profiles may provide a better match to the pulsation periods of GD 358. The best fit to the observations is obtained using a profile related to an evolutionary history where two episodes of mass loss happen during two CE phases, the first during the RGB (red giant branch) stage. The values obtained are T_eff = 24300 K, Mstar = 0.585 M⊙, and log (M_He/Mstar) = -5.66. The best-fit model has a mass close to the mean mass for DB white dwarfs found in various works and a temperature consistent with UV spectra obtained with the IUE satellite.

  19. Complex response in size-related traits of bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini) under elevated thermal conditions - an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Plesnar-Bielak, Agata; Jawor, Anna; Kramarz, Paulina E

    2013-12-15

    Temperature is a key environmental factor affecting almost all aspects of life history in ectotherms. Theory predicts that they grow faster, reach smaller sizes and produce smaller offspring when temperature increases. In addition, temperature changes, through their effects on metabolism, may also influence the expression of alternative reproductive phenotypes (ARPs) in ectotherms. Although many studies have investigated the phenotypic plasticity of life history traits in relation to temperature change, little is known about how those traits and phenotypic plasticity may evolve together. In our study we subjected bulb mites (non-model, soil organisms that normally experience rather stable thermal conditions) to experimental evolution in two temperature treatments: control (24°C) and elevated (28°C). After 18 generations, we measured adult body size, egg size and development time of both treatments at control as well as at elevated temperatures (test temperatures). Thus, we were able to detect genetic changes (the effects of selection temperature) and environmental effects (the effects of test temperature). We also observed the ARP expression throughout the experimental evolution. Our results revealed quite complex patterns of life history in traits response to temperature. Mites developed faster and reached smaller sizes at increased temperature, but evolutionary responses to increased temperature were not always parallel to the observed phenotypic plasticity. Additionally, despite smaller body sizes, females laid larger eggs at higher temperature. This effect was more pronounced in animals evolving at elevated temperature. Evolution at increased temperature also affected ARP expression, with the proportion of armored fighters decreasing from generation to generation. We propose that this could be the consequence of temperature sensitivity of the cost-to-benefits ratio of expressing ARPs.

  20. Evolution of neck vertebral shape and neck retraction at the transition to modern turtles: an integrated geometric morphometric approach.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Wilson, Laura A B; Parr, William C H; Joyce, Walter G

    2015-03-01

    The unique ability of modern turtles to retract their head and neck into the shell through a side-necked (pleurodiran) or hidden-necked (cryptodiran) motion is thought to have evolved independently in crown turtles. The anatomical changes that led to the vertebral shapes of modern turtles, however, are still poorly understood. Here we present comprehensive geometric morphometric analyses that trace turtle vertebral evolution and reconstruct disparity across phylogeny. Disparity of vertebral shape was high at the dawn of turtle evolution and decreased after the modern groups evolved, reflecting a stabilization of morphotypes that correspond to the two retraction modes. Stem turtles, which had a very simple mode of retraction, the lateral head tuck, show increasing flexibility of the neck through evolution towards a pleurodiran-like morphotype. The latter was the precondition for evolving pleurodiran and cryptodiran vertebrae. There is no correlation between the construction of formed articulations in the cervical centra and neck mobility. An increasing mobility between vertebrae, associated with changes in vertebral shape, resulted in a more advanced ability to retract the neck. In this regard, we hypothesize that the lateral tucking retraction of stem turtles was not only the precondition for pleurodiran but also of cryptodiran retraction. For the former, a kink in the middle third of the neck needed to be acquired, whereas for the latter modification was necessary between the eighth cervical vertebra and first thoracic vertebra. Our paper highlights the utility of 3D shape data, analyzed in a phylogenetic framework, to examine the magnitude and mode of evolutionary modifications to vertebral morphology. By reconstructing and visualizing ancestral anatomical shapes, we provide insight into the anatomical features underlying neck retraction mode, which is a salient component of extant turtle classification.

  1. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  2. Selection of a T7 promoter mutant with enhanced in vitro activity by a novel multi-copy bead display approach for in vitro evolution.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siddhartha; Stang, Alexander; Lennartz, Klaus; Tenbusch, Matthias; Überla, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro evolution of nucleic acids and proteins is a powerful strategy to optimize their biological and physical properties. To select proteins with the desired phenotype from large gene libraries, the proteins need to be linked to the gene they are encoded by. To facilitate selection of the desired phenotype and isolation of the encoding DNA, a novel bead display approach was developed, in which each member of a library of beads is first linked to multiple copies of a clonal gene variant by emulsion polymerase chain reaction. Beads are transferred to a second emulsion for an in vitro transcription-translation reaction, in which the protein encoded by each bead's amplicon covalently binds to the bead present in the same picoliter reactor. The beads then contain multiple copies of a clonal gene variant and multiple molecules of the protein encoded by the bead's gene variant and serve as the unit of selection. As a proof of concept, we screened a randomized library of the T7 promoter for high expression levels by flow cytometry and identified a T7 promoter variant with an ~10-fold higher in vitro transcriptional activity, confirming that the multi-copy bead display approach can be efficiently applied to in vitro evolution.

  3. Dust input to the South Atlantic: provenance and paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recasens, Cristina; Goldstein, Steven L.; Winckler, Gisela; Kaplan, Michael R.; Anderson, Robert F.; Cai, Yue; Bolge, Louise L.

    2015-04-01

    Wind-blown dust can be used to trace past and present atmospheric circulation patterns, through the study of its geographical provenance, its spatial distribution and temporal variability. Antarctic and marine records indicate that Patagonia has been a principal source of dust for the southern latitudes, particularly during glacial times. To improve our understanding of dust provenance and transport mechanisms downstream from South America and part-way to Antarctica, we analyzed an extensive set of samples from the 12.76-m piston core TN057-6, located at 3751 m water depth on the Agulhas Ridge in the Southeast Atlantic, north of the present-day position of the Subantarctic Front and South of the Subtropical Convergence Zone. From the core's location downwind from South America and its depth above the abyssal plain the major source of terrigenous sediment is wind-blown dust material originating in South America, and temporal changes in the dust composition can be used to trace changes in the dust source regions. To fingerprint better the terrigenous detritus, we measured the chemical compositions and Sr-Nd-Pb-He-Th isotope ratios in the fine (<5 μm) fraction terrigenous material, in samples ranging in age from MIS 6 to present-day. Additionally we analyzed fine fraction material from potential dust source areas in different locations around Patagonia to refine their individual geochemical signatures, improve knowledge of spatial variability, and compare them to the Southern Ocean samples. Our results show that the glacial and interglacial samples have different provenances. While the glacial dust compositions are consistent with purely Patagonian sources, the material deposited during interglacial periods presents more radiogenic Sr and Pb values and more negative ɛNd suggesting the contribution of a different lithogenic source, with possible mixing with the Patagonian sources.

  4. Indus Basin sediment provenance constrained using garnet geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Still, John

    2016-08-01

    The chemical and mineralogical diversity of western Himalayan rivers is the result of each of them draining different tectonic and lithologic units, whose character is partly transferred to the sediments carried by those rivers. Garnet geochemistry was employed to discriminate provenance in the Indus River system. We characterized the geochemistry of garnet sediment grains from the modern Indus and all its major tributaries, as well as the related but ephemeral Ghaggar-Hakra River and dune sand from the Thar Desert. Garnet geochemistry displays a unique signature for the Himalayan rivers on the east of the Indus drainage compared to those in the western drainage. The trunk Indus remains distinct because of the dominant arc-type pyrope-garnet derived from Kohistan and the Karakoram. The Jhellum, which lies just east of the modern Indus has modest concentrations of arc-type pyrope garnets, which are more depleted in the other eastern tributaries. Their presence in the Jhellum reflects recycling of trunk Indus garnets through the Miocene Siwalik Group foreland sedimentary rocks. The Thar Desert dune sample contains significant numbers of grains similar to those in the trunk Indus, likely reworked by monsoon winds from the SW. Our data further indicate the presence of a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. Sands from this channel cannot be distinguished from the Indus on the basis of their garnet geochemistry alone but we favour their sedimentation from an Indus channel rather than reworking of desert sands by another stream. The garnet geochemistry shows some potential as a provenance tool, but cannot be used alone to uniquely discriminate Indus Basin provenance.

  5. Provenance-Powered Automatic Workflow Generation and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Lee, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, scientists have learned how to codify tools into reusable software modules that can be chained into multi-step executable workflows. Existing scientific workflow tools, created by computer scientists, require domain scientists to meticulously design their multi-step experiments before analyzing data. However, this is oftentimes contradictory to a domain scientist's daily routine of conducting research and exploration. We hope to resolve this dispute. Imagine this: An Earth scientist starts her day applying NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) published climate data processing algorithms over ARGO deep ocean temperature and AMSRE sea surface temperature datasets. Throughout the day, she tunes the algorithm parameters to study various aspects of the data. Suddenly, she notices some interesting results. She then turns to a computer scientist and asks, "can you reproduce my results?" By tracking and reverse engineering her activities, the computer scientist creates a workflow. The Earth scientist can now rerun the workflow to validate her findings, modify the workflow to discover further variations, or publish the workflow to share the knowledge. In this way, we aim to revolutionize computer-supported Earth science. We have developed a prototyping system to realize the aforementioned vision, in the context of service-oriented science. We have studied how Earth scientists conduct service-oriented data analytics research in their daily work, developed a provenance model to record their activities, and developed a technology to automatically generate workflow starting from user behavior and adaptability and reuse of these workflows for replicating/improving scientific studies. A data-centric repository infrastructure is established to catch richer provenance to further facilitate collaboration in the science community. We have also established a Petri nets-based verification instrument for provenance-based automatic workflow generation and recommendation.

  6. Histologically Proven, Low-grade Brainstem Gliomas in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Laack, Nadia N.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Orme, Nicholas M.; Wetjen, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate long-term overall survival (OS), progression- free survival (PFS), and outcomes in pathologically proven brainstem low-grade gliomas (BS-LGG) in children. Methods The Mayo Clinic tumor registry identified 48 consecutive children (≤20 y, 52% female) with biopsy-proven BS-LGG treated at Mayo Clinic between January 1971 and December 2004. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. For analysis, patients were censored at the time of recurrence, death, or last follow-up. Results The median age at diagnosis was 12 years with a median follow-up of 6.0 years. The majority of tumors were grade I (69%) and pathology was consistent with an astrocytoma in the majority of patients (98%). Gross total resection was obtained in 4, subtotal in 17, and 27 patients were biopsied only. Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) was used in 29 patients. Median OS for the entire group was 14.8 years with a 1-, 5-, and 10-year OS of 85%, 67% and 59%, respectively. Median PFS for the entire group was 7.3 years. Improved survival was associated with undergoing resection versus biopsy-only with 5-year OS rates of 85% and 50% (P = 0.002), respectively. A high proportion of patients (42%) had diffuse tumors and 13 patients (27%) had diffuse pontine gliomas (DPGs). DPGs had an OS of 1.8 years with a worse median PFS than non-DPGs (1.8 vs. 11.1 y; P = 0.009). RT was used preferentially in patients with poor prognosis such as those who had a biopsy-only procedure (19/27) and DPGs (9/13). Conclusions OS in this single institution retrospective study in pathologically proven BS-LGG with extensive follow-up displayed favorable long-term outcomes. Improved outcomes were associated with nondiffuse classification. PMID:23357966

  7. Capturing, Harmonizing and Delivering Data and Quality Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have proven to be vital for various scientific and applications needs. However, the usability of these data depends not only on the data values but also on the ability of data users to assess and understand the quality of these data for various applications and for comparison or inter-usage of data from different sensors and models. In this paper, we describe some aspects of capturing, harmonizing and delivering this information to users in the framework of distributed web-based data tools.

  8. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

    PubMed Central

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identical to prostate cancer preventive measures, especially in regard to aggressive disease. Thus, apart from lifestyle measures that can encourage optimal heart and prostate health there are potentially several dietary supplements that need to be avoided in healthy men because they may also increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, there are also several low-cost, generic, safe in the appropriate individuals, and naturally derived agents that could reduce prostate cancer risk, and these can be discussed and remembered utilizing the acronym S.A.M. (statins, aspirin, and/or metformin). PMID:26112486

  9. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identical to prostate cancer preventive measures, especially in regard to aggressive disease. Thus, apart from lifestyle measures that can encourage optimal heart and prostate health there are potentially several dietary supplements that need to be avoided in healthy men because they may also increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, there are also several low-cost, generic, safe in the appropriate individuals, and naturally derived agents that could reduce prostate cancer risk, and these can be discussed and remembered utilizing the acronym S.A.M. (statins, aspirin, and/or metformin).

  10. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  11. Triangulating the provenance of African elephants using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yasuko; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Hondo, Tomoko; Roca, Alfred L

    2013-01-01

    African elephant mitochondrial (mt) DNA follows a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. As females do not migrate between elephant herds, mtDNA exhibits low geographic dispersal. We therefore examined the effectiveness of mtDNA for assigning the provenance of African elephants (or their ivory). For 653 savanna and forest elephants from 22 localities in 13 countries, 4258 bp of mtDNA was sequenced. We detected eight mtDNA subclades, of which seven had regionally restricted distributions. Among 108 unique haplotypes identified, 72% were found at only one locality and 84% were country specific, while 44% of individuals carried a haplotype detected only at their sampling locality. We combined 316 bp of our control region sequences with those generated by previous trans-national surveys of African elephants. Among 101 unique control region haplotypes detected in African elephants across 81 locations in 22 countries, 62% were present in only a single country. Applying our mtDNA results to a previous microsatellite-based assignment study would improve estimates of the provenance of elephants in 115 of 122 mis-assigned cases. Nuclear partitioning followed species boundaries and not mtDNA subclade boundaries. For taxa such as elephants in which nuclear and mtDNA markers differ in phylogeography, combining the two markers can triangulate the origins of confiscated wildlife products. PMID:23798975

  12. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  13. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identical to prostate cancer preventive measures, especially in regard to aggressive disease. Thus, apart from lifestyle measures that can encourage optimal heart and prostate health there are potentially several dietary supplements that need to be avoided in healthy men because they may also increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, there are also several low-cost, generic, safe in the appropriate individuals, and naturally derived agents that could reduce prostate cancer risk, and these can be discussed and remembered utilizing the acronym S.A.M. (statins, aspirin, and/or metformin). PMID:26112486

  14. Formation and evolution of strike-slip faults, rifts, and basins during the India-Asia collision - An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, Gilles; Tapponnier, Paul

    1988-12-01

    The processes which have governed the formation and evolution of large tertiary strike-slip faults during the penetration of India into eastern Asia are investigated by plane strain indentation experiments on layered plasticine models. The results show the influence of boundary conditions as well as that of the internal structure of the plasticine model on the faulting sequence. The ubiquity of strain softening in experimental deformation of a variety of rocks, as well as the widespread occurrence of shear zones in nature, suggest that long-term deformation of the continental lithosphere may also be primarily influenced by the geometry of large faults which rapidly develop with increasing strain. The deformation and faulting sequence observed in the plasticine indentation experiments may thus be compared to collision-induced strike-slip faulting in Asia, particularly to total offsets and rates of movements on the faults. The experiments also illustrate mechanisms for the formation of extension basins near active continental margins.

  15. Has Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) co-evolved with Dothistroma septosporum in Scotland? Evidence for spatial heterogeneity in the susceptibility of native provenances.

    PubMed

    Perry, Annika; Brown, Anna V; Cavers, Stephen; Cottrell, Joan E; Ennos, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in pathogen pressure leads to genetic variation in, and evolution of, disease-related traits among host populations. In contrast, hosts are expected to be highly susceptible to exotic pathogens as there has been no evolution of defence responses. Host response to pathogens can therefore be an indicator of a novel or endemic pathosystem. Currently, the most significant threat to native British Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests is Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) caused by the foliar pathogen Dothistroma septosporum which is presumed to be exotic. A progeny-provenance trial of 6-year-old Scots pine, comprising eight native provenances each with four families in six blocks, was translocated in April 2013 to a clear-fell site in Galloway adjacent to a DNB-infected forest. Susceptibility to D. septosporum, measured as DNB severity (estimated percentage nongreen current-year needles), was assessed visually over 2 years (2013-2014 and 2014-2015; two assessments per year). There were highly significant differences in susceptibility among provenances but not among families for each annual assessment. Provenance mean susceptibility to D. septosporum was negatively and significantly associated with water-related variables at site of origin, potentially due to the evolution of low susceptibility in the host in response to high historical pathogen pressure. PMID:27606006

  16. Disentangling the Circularity in Sen's Capability Approach: An Analysis of the Co-Evolution of Functioning Achievement and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin; Coad, Alex

    2011-01-01

    There is an ambiguity in Amartya Sen's capability approach as to what constitutes an individual's resources, conversion factors and valuable functionings. What we here call the "circularity problem" points to the fact that all three concepts seem to be mutually endogenous and interdependent. To econometrically account for this entanglement we…

  17. Determining the Provenance of Late Paleozoic Loess Using Radiogenic Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, M. R.; Aciego, S.; Soreghan, G. S.; Bailey, A.; Heavens, N. G.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Loess deposits in the sedimentary record of the Late Paleozoic tropics are anomalous because Quaternary loess is commonly glaciogenic, and thus confined to mid-high latitudes. The only loess in the tropics today is associated with mountain glaciation. Given the icehouse conditions of the Late Paleozoic, tropical loess could perhaps reflect sourcing from glaciogenic weathering in the Central Pangaean Mountains. Our goals are to constrain spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric "dustiness" and loess/dust provenance. To test the glacial weathering hypothesis and evaluate loess provenance, we collected preliminary data from two intervals (Moscovian or middle Pennsylvanian) of the Copacabana Formation, Madre de Dios Basin (Bolivia). Two 15-m sections representing carbonate inner platform environments were processed to separate the fine-grained silicate mineral fraction (SMF). Given the proximity to arc volcanism, ash fall could complicate the wind-blown weathering signal; initial work is aimed at assessing the volcanic versus continental inputs to the basin. Visual inspection and initial physical - chemical measurements of the dust-loess size fraction indicates discrete differences between the two sections, as well as between ash-rich and ash-poor intervals. The lower section has intervals with up to 72% suspected ash and SMF (non-ash) of 1-7%. The suspected ash layers in the lower section have higher grain sizes (20-40 µm) and distinct 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd = -3.5, -3.8) compared to the ash-poor intervals (8 µm, ɛNd = -5.0 to -8.8). The upper section, free of visible ash layers, has high SMF (mean 4-7% up to 41%) with similar size distributions (6-11 µm) and ɛNd (-7.4 to -7.7) to the lower section, but more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr compositions (0.797 versus 0.71 - 0.75). The distinct physical and isotopic characteristics of the ash and SMF in the sections and sub-intervals suggests that deconvolving ash and loess/dust inputs will be possible

  18. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  19. Cathodoluminescence of quartz and feldspar in provenance research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustsson, Carita; Reker, Annalena; Scholonek, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Quartz often dominates in siliciclastic sandstone and feldspar mostly is present. Despite this, the use of quartz and feldspar in provenance research is limited. Feldspar is less stable than both quartz and many other minerals that are used to trace sources rocks, such as zircon and rutile. Nevertheless, particularly quartz and zircon may survive many sedimentary recycling phases. Therefore they do not necessarily give information about first-cycle sources. Hence, the wide occurrence of feldspar and quartz in sedimentary rocks is an excellent condition to trace both first-cycle and multi-cycle sediment sources. The cathodoluminescence (CL) technique enables the consideration of both minerals. We analysed ca. 1000 quartz crystals and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals in ca. 60 samples each for their CL colour spectra to investigate their provenance potential. They originate from different plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic rocks. The CL colours of quartz vary from red over violet to different shades of blue and brown. They are due to lattice defects and trace element contents that are caused by different crystallisation conditions and later lattice reorganisation. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by two apparent intensity peaks at 470-490 nm (blue) and at 600-640 nm (red). Distinctive relative intensity differences in these two peaks occur for (1) quartz of volcanic origin, (2) felsic plutonic and high-temperature metamorphic quartz, and (3) low-temperature metamorphic quartz. Feldspar often luminesces in different shades of blue, green, yellow, and red due to substitution elements. Alkali feldspar usually has a bright blue colour and plagioclase often is green. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 420-500 nm (blue), 540-570 nm (green) and 690-760 nm (red to infrared). The CL is particularly useful for the distinction of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. Here, a dominance of the peak in green over the peak

  20. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi.

    PubMed

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M T; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  1. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M.T.; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  2. Temporal and spectral evolution of a storage ring FEL source: Experimental results on Super-ACO and new theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Couprie, M.E. ||

    1995-12-31

    The Super-ACO FEL source in UV is now used for applications like a time-resolved fluorescence in biology and two colors experiments coupling FEL and Synchrotron Radiation, which are naturally synchronized. The stability of the FEL is then a critical issue for the users. Detailed experimental studies conducted on the temporal characteristics of the laser micropulse showed various phenomena, such as a longitudinal micropulse jitter and a deformation of a longitudinal micropulse distribution. A similar analysis has been performed on the laser spectral evolution with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer, showing a spectrum narrowing, and a wavelength drift. A longitudinal feedback system developed after the first user experiment, allowed to reduce significantly the longitudinal jitter, the intensity fluctuation and the spectral drift. Nevertheless, the stability of the FEL is very dependent on any perturbation, and the observed phenomena can not be described by former models like super-mode assuming a stationary regime. A new theoretical model has then been developed, in order to simulate dynamic behaviors. A simple iterative method is employed to obtain the laser spectrum. The access to the temporal distribution requires additional complexity, because the Fourier transformation has to be performed for each pass. The comparison between the experimental data and the simulation results will be given.

  3. An extended model for the evolution of prebiotic homochirality: a bottom-up approach to the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-08-01

    A generalized autocatalytic model for chiral polymerization is investigated in detail. Apart from enantiomeric cross-inhibition, the model allows for the autogenic (non-catalytic) formation of left and right-handed monomers from a substrate with reaction rates epsilon L and epsilon R, respectively. The spatiotemporal evolution of the net chiral asymmetry is studied for models with several values of the maximum polymer length, N. For N = 2, we study the validity of the adiabatic approximation often cited in the literature. We show that the approximation obtains the correct equilibrium values of the net chirality, but fails to reproduce the short time behavior. We show also that the autogenic term in the full N = 2 model behaves as a control parameter in a chiral symmetry-breaking phase transition leading to full homochirality from racemic initial conditions. We study the dynamics of the N--> infinity model with symmetric (epsilon L = epsilon R) autogenic formation, showing that it only achieves homochirality for epsilon > epsilon c, where epsilon c is an N-dependent critical value. For epsilon

  4. Histopathologically Proven Autoimmune Pancreatitis Mimicking Neuroendocrine Tumor or Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Shinji; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Kanehira, Masaru; Fujioka, Shuichi; Harada, Tohru; Hano, Hiroshi; Fukunaga, Masaharu; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer. We report a case of histopathologically proven AIP mimicking neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or pancreatic cancer in a 53-year-old man. He was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a pancreatic mass detected on ultrasonography at a medical check-up. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a 15-mm hypoechoic mass located in the pancreatic body. Computed tomography revealed a tumor without any contrast enhancement, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the mass to be hyperintense on diffusion-weighted image. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed slight dilatation of a branch of the pancreatic duct without stricture of the main pancreatic duct. The common bile duct seemed intact. Under suspicion of a non-functioning NET or malignant neoplasm, laparotomy was performed. At laparotomy, an elastic firm and well-circumscribed mass was found suggestive of a non-functioning NET, thus enucleation was performed. Histopathologically, the lesion corresponded to AIP. PMID:22423237

  5. Functional Requirements for Information Resource Provenance on the Web

    SciTech Connect

    McCusker, James P.; Lebo, Timothy; Graves, Alvaro; Difranzo, Dominic; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2012-06-19

    We provide a means to formally explain the relationship between HTTP URLs and the representations returned when they are requested. According to existing World Wide Web architecture, the URL serves as an identier for a semiotic referent while the document returned via HTTP serves as a representation of the same referent. This begins with two sides of a semiotic triangle; the third side is the relationship between the URL and the representation received. We complete this description by extending the library science resource model Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Resources (FRBR) with cryptographic message and content digests to create a Functional Requirements for Information Resources (FRIR). We show how applying the FRIR model to HTTP GET and POST transactions disambiguates the many relationships between a given URL and all representations received from its request, provides fine-grained explanations that are complementary to existing explanations of web resources, and integrates easily into the emerging W3C provenance standard.

  6. Provenance of Apollo 15 deep drill core sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Modal analysis and electron probe microanalysis were performed on polished thin sections prepared from Apollo 15 deep drill core soils in an effort to characterize their provenance. The particles were in the 0.25-1.00 mm size range. The particles were classified into mineral fragments, agglutinates, glasses, rock fragments, and breccias. The results show that highland and mare material occur in the core in an approximately 60:40 ratio, with mare component generally increasing from bottom to top in the core. Quartz-normative basalts are nearly twice as abundant as olivine basalts. Nonmare sources include KREEP basalt flow units from some depth in the crust, excavated by cratering events and supplied to the site as 'rays'.

  7. A Multi-Tier Provenance Model for Global Climate Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Halter, Todd D.; Gibson, Tara D.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2009-08-19

    Global climate researchers rely upon many forms of sensor data and analytical methods to help profile subtle changes in climate conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program provides researchers with curated products called Value Added Products (VAPs) resulting from continuous instrumentation streams, data fusion, and analytical profiling. To provide these projects the ARM operations and research teams rely upon a number of techniques to ensure strict quality control and quality assurance codes are maintained. End users in the climate research community are highly interested in obtaining as much causal evidence as possible and currently either not all the evidence are easily attainable or easily identifiable without significant effort. Our research interests are to identify a provenance model that serves both the producers and consumers of the VAP maintaining the quality assurance/quality control standards and tailored to meeting the individual researcher’s needs.

  8. EFVs' effectiveness proven on new residential service lines

    SciTech Connect

    Oleksa, P.E. )

    1991-12-01

    East Ohio Gas Company's experience with excess flow valves (EFV) has proven to be effective on new and renewed single-meter residential service lines with 10 psig or higher operating pressure. This paper reports that over a 15-year period, East Ohio has installed more than 200,000 such valves. The company's positive experience shows that EFVs can be an important part of service line design. However, each gas company should consider the applicability of excess flow valves to their own piping system. EFVs should be used only where the company determines they are appropriate. Installation of these valves should not be forced into locations where they would be counter-productive instead of contributing to pipe line safety.

  9. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  10. Multi-Method Provenance Analysis of Namibian Desert Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.; Garzanti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological provenance proxies each have their own strengths and weaknesses: a. Bulk geochemistry, framework petrography and heavy mineral compositions can differentiate between source areas characterised by different lithologies, but are sensitive to hydraulic sorting and chemical alteration. b. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology is insensitive to winnowing effects, but is 'blind' to lithologies devoid of zircon and cannot differentiate between first cycle and recycled sediments. c. Cosmogenic neon isotopes can be used to identify different generations of surface exposure while simultaneously tracking different magmatic sources. The challenge is then to combine these different proxies into a self consistent story, and do so in as objective a manner as possible. We here present a case study of Namibia's Namib Sand Sea and Skeleton Coast ergs, in which all the aforementioned methods have been combined using a three-way multidimensional scaling (aka INDividual Differences SCALing or INDSCAL) analysis: 1. Each of the datasets was represented by a 'dissimilarity matrix' of pairwise distances between samples. 2. The set of these matrices was fed into the INDSCAL algorithm, which produces two pieces of graphical output: the 'group configuration', which is a scatter plot or 'map' in which similar samples plot close together and dissimilar samples plot far apart, and the 'proxy weights', in which not the samples but the proxies are plotted according to the weight they attached to the 'group configuration' axes. The INDSCAL map of the Namibia dataset indicates that (a) long-shore drift of Orange River sediments dominates the coastal sediment compositions all along the Namibian coast until Angola, and (b) that light and heavy minerals tell complementary parts of the provenance story.

  11. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  12. Eastern Equatorial Pacific Dust Provenance on Deglacial Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, R.; Marcantonio, F.

    2008-12-01

    Changing patterns of eolian dust deposition preserved in deep-sea sediments have the potential to provide us with a better understanding of changes in past atmospheric circulation. One way in which to determine the provenance of dust in deep-sea sediments is to use radiogenic isotopic tracers which can fingerprint potential dust sources. Models (e.g., [1]) suggest that sources of dust to the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) are from areas as diverse as Asia, North, Central, and South America, and, perhaps, even Africa. Here, we investigate spatial and temporal changes in the provenance of the eolian component in the EEP by measuring Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios in dust extracted from sediments along a transect at 110oW from 7oN to 3oS (ODP sites 853 - 848). In this region, although fluxes of dust were higher during the last glacial maximum (LGM) than those in the Holocene by up to 100%, the glacial flux of dust displayed a shallower meridional gradient [2]. However, it is unclear whether this shallower gradient is due to a mean southerly displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Most of the dust trying to pass through the ITCZ will be scavenged and rained out at the ITCZ. Along the meridional gradient, therefore, temporal variations in the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic fingerprints of the distinct dust sources will determine the extent to which the position of the ITCZ changes on deglacial timescales. [1] Mahowald et al., 2005, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19, GB4025. [2] McGee et al., 2007, EPSL 257, 215-230.

  13. Speeding up evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter

    Proteins and cells offer great opportunities for green chemistry and renewable energy. However, few of these possible applications have been put into practice because of details that turn out to be major barriers to cost-efficient implementation and that prove difficult to solve by genetic engineering. A better understanding of molecular evolution promises a novel approach to addressing these important challenges. While major advances have been made, major gaps remain in understanding the evolution of proteins. Different approaches to accelerating molecular evolution into targeted directions will be discussed, including recent progress on evolution in non-homogeneous environments.

  14. The chemical evolution of Kurnub Group palcowater in the Sinai-Negev province - A mass balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenthal, E.; Jones, B.F.; Weinberger, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the Kurnub Group paleowater was studied starting from rainwater in recharge areas of the Sinai and along groundwater flowpaths leading to the natural outlets of this regional aquifer. This was achieved by investigating the chemical composition of groundwater, ionic ratios, degrees of saturation with common mineral species, normative analysis of dissolved salts and by modeling of rock/water interaction and mixing processes occurring along groundwater flow paths. The initial groundwater composition used is from the Nakhel well in Sinai. It evolves from desert rainwater percolating through typical Kurnub Group lithology in Sinai. This rainwater dissolves mainly gypsum, halite and dolomite together with smaller amounts of marine aerosol and K-feldspar. At the same time it precipitates calcite, SiO2, smectite and degasses CO2. Between the area of Nakhel and the northern Negev the chemistry of Kurnub Group waters is influenced by dissolution of halite and lesser amounts of gypsum of surficial origin in recharge areas, small amounts of feldspars and of dolomite cement in sandstones eroded from the Arabo-Nubian igneous massif of Sinai and organic degradation-derived CO2. Concomitantly, there is precipitation of calcite, smectite, SiO2 and probably analcime characteristic of sediments in continental closed basins. North of the Negev, the Kurnub Group fluids are diluted and altered by mixing with Judea Group aquifer groundwaters. On the E there is mixing with residual brines from the water body ancestral to the Dead Sea, prior to discharge into the Arava valley. Rock/water interaction indicated by NETPATH and PHREEQC modeling is in agreement with lithology and facies changes previously observed in the Kurnub Group sequence.

  15. Animal lectins as self/non-self recognition molecules. Biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding their biological roles and evolution.

    PubMed

    Vasta, G R; Ahmed, H; Fink, N E; Elola, M T; Marsh, A G; Snowden, A; Odom, E W

    1994-04-15

    In recent years, the significant contributions from molecular research studies on animal lectins have elucidated structural aspects and provided clues not only to their evolution but also to their multiple biological functions. The experimental evidence has suggested that distinct, and probably unrelated, groups of molecules are included under the term "lectin." Within the invertebrate taxa, major groups of lectins can be identified: One group would include lectins that show significant homology to membrane-integrated or soluble vertebrate C-type lectins. The second would include those beta-galactosyl-specific lectins homologous to the S-type vertebrate lectins. The third group would be constituted by lectins that show homology to vertebrate pentraxins that exhibit lectin-like properties, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Finally, there are examples that do not exhibit similarities to any of the aforementioned categories. Moreover, the vast majority of invertebrate lectins described so far cannot yet be placed in one or another group because of the lack of information regarding their primary structure. (See Table 1.) Animal lectins do not express a recombinatorial diversity like that of antibodies, but a limited diversity in recognition capabilities would be accomplished by the occurrence of multiple lectins with distinct specificities, the presence of more than one binding site, specific for different carbohydrates in a single molecule, and by certain "flexibility" of the binding sites that would allow the recognition of a range of structurally related carbohydrates. In order to identify the lectins' "natural" ligands, we have investigated the interactions between those proteins and the putative endogenous or exogenous glycosylated substances or cells that may be relevant to their biological function. Results from these studies, together with information on the biochemical properties of invertebrate and vertebrate lectins, including their structural

  16. A Semianalytic Model for Supercritical Core Collapse: Self-Similar Evolution and the Approach to Protostar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Shantanu

    1997-08-01

    We use a semianalytic model to examine the collapse of supercritical cores (i.e., cores with a mass-to-flux ratio exceeding a critical value). Recent numerical simulations of the formation and contraction of supercritical cores show that the inner solution tends toward self-similar evolution. We use this feature to develop analytic expressions for quantities such as the density, angular velocity, and magnetic field. All forces involved in the problem (gravitational, magnetic, thermal, and centrifugal) can be calculated analytically in the thin-disk geometry of the problem. The role of each force during the contraction is analyzed. We identify the key role of ambipolar diffusion in producing a departure from an exact similarity solution. The slow leakage of magnetic flux during the supercritical phase is enough to significantly accelerate an otherwise near-quasi-static contraction. This leads to dynamic collapse with supersonic infall speeds in the innermost region of the core by the time of protostar formation. We find a time-dependent semianalytic solution for the late supercritical phase, and asymptotic forms are obtained for important profiles at the moment that a central protostar is formed. We obtain estimates for the rotational velocity, infall velocity, and mass accretion rate at this moment. The mass accretion rate is significantly greater than the canonical C3/G (where C is the isothermal sound speed and G is the universal gravitational constant) at the moment of protostar formation, although we argue that it is time-dependent and will eventually decrease. Comparisons are made with the predictions of existing spherical similarity solutions.

  17. An extended model for the evolution of prebiotic homochirality: a bottom-up approach to the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-08-01

    A generalized autocatalytic model for chiral polymerization is investigated in detail. Apart from enantiomeric cross-inhibition, the model allows for the autogenic (non-catalytic) formation of left and right-handed monomers from a substrate with reaction rates epsilon L and epsilon R, respectively. The spatiotemporal evolution of the net chiral asymmetry is studied for models with several values of the maximum polymer length, N. For N = 2, we study the validity of the adiabatic approximation often cited in the literature. We show that the approximation obtains the correct equilibrium values of the net chirality, but fails to reproduce the short time behavior. We show also that the autogenic term in the full N = 2 model behaves as a control parameter in a chiral symmetry-breaking phase transition leading to full homochirality from racemic initial conditions. We study the dynamics of the N--> infinity model with symmetric (epsilon L = epsilon R) autogenic formation, showing that it only achieves homochirality for epsilon > epsilon c, where epsilon c is an N-dependent critical value. For epsilon

  18. Embracing the comparative approach: how robust phylogenies and broader developmental sampling impacts the understanding of nervous system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hejnol, Andreas; Lowe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies. A growing body of literature representing the development of a wider range of metazoan neural architectures demonstrates that patterning gene network complexity is maintained in animals with more modest levels of neural complexity. Furthermore, a robust phylogenetic framework that provides the basis for testing the congruence of these homology hypotheses has been lacking since the advent of the field of ‘evo-devo’. Recent progress in molecular phylogenetics is refining the necessary framework to test previous homology statements that span large evolutionary distances. In this review, we describe recent advances in animal phylogeny and exemplify for two neural characters—the partitioned brain of arthropods and the ventral centralized nerve cords of annelids—a test for congruence using this framework. The sequential sister taxa at the base of Ecdysozoa and Spiralia comprise small, interstitial groups. This topology is not consistent with the hypothesis of homology of tripartitioned brain of arthropods and vertebrates as well as the ventral arthropod and rope-like ladder nervous system of annelids. There can be exquisite conservation of gene regulatory networks between distantly related groups with contrasting levels of nervous system centralization and complexity. Consequently, the utility of molecular characters to reconstruct ancestral neural organization in deep time is limited. PMID:26554039

  19. The mid- to late-Holocene environmental evolution at the marsh of Vravron (Attiki, SE Greece): a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Kouli, K.; Tsourou, T.; Koukousioura, O.; Pavlopoulos, K.; Dermitzakis, M. D.

    2009-04-01

    The Vravron bay, in the vicinity of the homonym archaeological site is a marshy area located on the eastern coast of Attiki peninsula (eastern Greece). Vravron was inhabited already since the Early/ Middle Neolithic, although it's mainly known from the famous Archaic and Classical sanctuary of Vravronia Artemis. A sediment core from the marshy deposits of Vravron was submitted to detailed palynological, micropaleontological and sedimentological analyses, in order to investigate the environmental evolution of the area since approx. 3000 BC (AMS 14C). Benthic foraminifera and ostracoda assemblages were used to trace the depositional environment of the sequence: open shallow marine conditions with constant input of fresh water due to the influx of Erasinos River are recorded until 400BC, confirming the existence of the natural port known from a Mycenaean legend, while repeated flooding events recorded between 400BC and 50 AD should be linked with the destruction of the famous sanctuary of Artemis and the abandonment of the area. Around 50 AD the ongoing progression of Erasinos River resulted in the gradual development of lagoonal environment that after 1300AD got isolated from the sea becoming progressively a fresh water marsh. Pollen assemblages included representatives from all modern phytogeographic zones, indicating the complexity of the plant communities in the area and outlined the vegetation development since the Early Bronze Age. Even if human presence has been continuously recorded, its impact on natural environment appears profound only during the Mycenaean times, when cereal cultivation seems to be the main rural activity and after 1300AD, when a remarkable rise in like ploughing and herding evidence marks the introduction of the Arvanites population in the area. The establishment of the Vravronia Artemis sanctuary during the Geometric times coincides with a turnover in agricultural activities, as cereal cultivation is neglected and olive groves are

  20. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    PubMed Central

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  1. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  2. Geochemistry of Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous deposits in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan: implication of factor analysis to sorting effects and provenance signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    One of the intractable problems in provenance analysis is the hydraulic sorting effect and resultant mineralogical heterogeneity in coarse- and fine-grained sediments which conceals provenance characteristics. The present study uses factor analysis to address geochemical responses to the sorting effect and provenance of Late Mesozoic sediments in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan. Factor analysis has proven useful for comprehending geochemical gradients between coarse- and fine-grained sediments. In the present example, compositional differences are based on varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, chrome spinel, authigenic minerals and phyllosilicates. The contrasting behaviors of these minerals during the depositional stage resulted in the systematic fractionation of SiO 2/Al 2O 3, Na 2O/K 2O and Cr/Ba. Sandstones and mudstones exhibit an array of compositions in SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O and SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagrams, the ranges of which reflect compositional variations due to the sorting effect. Sediments of different provenance exhibit distinctive mineral arrays and can be discriminated simply by reading the gradients of the continua. Therefore, this kind of data management concurrently quantifies the sorting effect and allows an estimation of the original source material. The SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O diagram is particularly useful for scrutinizing igneous and mature continental provenances, while the SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagram ascertains contributions from mafic sources. This investigative approach delineates a systematic provenance transition within the Nagato Basin: a serpentinite melange provenance in the early Early Jurassic, a magmatic arc in the late Early to middle Middle Jurassic and a continental interior in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous. The provenance changed by the direct input of mature continental material into the Nagato Basin, which resulted from dissection of the volcanic arc.

  3. Lowering the Barriers to Integrative Aquatic Ecosystem Science: Semantic Provenance, Open Linked Data, and Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Utz, R.; Deelman, E.; Hanson, P. C.; Szekely, P.; Villamizar, S. R.; Knoblock, C.; Guo, Q.; Crichton, D. J.; McCann, M. P.; Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental cyber-observatory (ECO) planning and implementation has been ongoing for more than a decade now, and several major efforts have recently come online or will soon. Some investigators in the relevant research communities will use ECO data, traditionally by developing their own client-side services to acquire data and then manually create custom tools to integrate and analyze it. However, a significant portion of the aquatic ecosystem science community will need more custom services to manage locally collected data. The latter group represents enormous intellectual capacity when one envisions thousands of ecosystems scientists supplementing ECO baseline data by sharing their own locally intensive observational efforts. This poster summarizes the outcomes of the June 2011 Workshop for Aquatic Ecosystem Sustainability (WAES) which focused on the needs of aquatic ecosystem research on inland waters and oceans. Here we advocate new approaches to support scientists to model, integrate, and analyze data based on: 1) a new breed of software tools in which semantic provenance is automatically created and used by the system, 2) the use of open standards based on RDF and Linked Data Principles to facilitate sharing of data and provenance annotations, 3) the use of workflows to represent explicitly all data preparation, integration, and processing steps in a way that is automatically repeatable. Aquatic ecosystems workflow exemplars are provided and discussed in terms of their potential broaden data sharing, analysis and synthesis thereby increasing the impact of aquatic ecosystem research.

  4. Syn-Uralian orogenic heavy mineral provenance analysis from southeastern Taimyr, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.; Scott, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Taimyr peninsula is on the northern margin of the Siberian craton and divides into the southern, central and northern NE - SW trending domains. The southern Taimyr domain represents the passive margin of Siberia and is dominated by a Paleozoic, extending into the early Mesozoic, succession. The central Taimyr domain accreted to the southern domain during Late Precambrian time, followed by collision with the northern Taimyr domain of Baltican affinity during the Late Paleozoic as part of Uralian orogenesis. The Carboniferous - Permian sedimentary succession, which was deposited during the later stage of Uralian Orogeny, can provide crucial information about the extent of contemporaneous Uralian orogensis and its influence on the tectonic evolution of southern Taimyr. Three Carboniferous - Permian samples from southeastern Taimyr were analyzed for petrography and heavy mineral analysis to define their sedimentary and provenance characteristics. The Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian sample (VP10-25, Turuzovskya Formation, C2-P1tr), the Lower Permian sample (VP10-14, Sokolinskaya Formation, P1sk) and the Upper Permian sample (VP10-12, Baykurskaya Formation, P2bk)) classify as subarkose, lithic arkose and feldspathic litharenite, respectively- they record decreasing sediment maturity through time. While all the samples represent a 'recycled orogen' source based on QtFL plots, the C2-P1tr sample represents a recycled quartzite, while the P1sk sample plots within the mixed field, and the P2bk sample is transitional on QmFLt plots. According to the heavy mineral analysis results, the C2-P1tr sample and P1sk sample show great similarity in heavy mineral assemblage, dominated by zircon, apatite and rutile. The P2bk sample shows distinct differences, containing apatite, tourmaline, garnet and zircon. The prominent increase of garnet suggests a metamorphic source. These similarities and variations among the three samples are also shown in other discrimination diagrams

  5. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  6. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new

  7. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  8. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T; Binde, M; Hine, M; Johnsen, S; Lillehaug, A; Olesen, N J; Purvis, N; Scarfe, A D; Wright, B

    2008-04-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation and regulations of some countries, and those being initiated by industries themselves. The determination of disease status in different epidemiological units (from a farm to a nation), appropriate approaches for preventing the introduction of disease and developing contingencies for disease control and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy initiatives. PMID:18666484

  9. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T; Binde, M; Hine, M; Johnsen, S; Lillehaug, A; Olesen, N J; Purvis, N; Scarfe, A D; Wright, B

    2008-04-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation and regulations of some countries, and those being initiated by industries themselves. The determination of disease status in different epidemiological units (from a farm to a nation), appropriate approaches for preventing the introduction of disease and developing contingencies for disease control and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy initiatives.

  10. Geochemical Signatures as a Tool for Vermiculite Provenance Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Carl D. Palmer

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight samples of known origin (China, Libby MT, South Africa, South Carolina) and 6 vermiculite product samples of unknown origin were analyzed for major and trace elements, including rare earth elements to determine the feasibility of distinguishing the provenance of the samples based upon a geochemical signature. Probability plots suggest that two of the four groups (Libby, South Carolina) were comprised of two subgroups. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis are highly sensitive to the linkage method chosen. Ward’s method is the most useful for this data and suggests that there are five groups within the data set (South African samples, two subsets of the Libby samples, a subset of the South Carolina samples, and a second subset of the South Carolina samples combined with the China samples). Similar results were obtained using k-cluster analysis. Neither clustering method was able to distinguish samples from China from the South Carolina samples. Discriminant analysis was used on a four-category model comprised of the original four groups and on a six-category model comprised of the five categories identified from the cluster analysis but with the China samples grouped into a sixth category. The discriminant/classification model was able to distinguish all of the groups including the China samples from one another for both the four- and six-category models with 100% of the samples properly classified. The 6 unknown product samples were classified with a probability of consistency of 99%. Both discriminant models were also run with a subset of our analyte set to be consistent with the smaller Gunter et al., (2005) analyte set. Twenty vermiculite samples (nine of known origin and eleven of unknown origin) from their study were classified based on our discriminant models with the reduced set of analytes. Of the twenty samples, Gunter et al. (2005) was able to classify 16 with cluster analysis while our 4-category discriminant analysis model allowed us

  11. Project 1: Microbial Genomes: A Genomic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence. Project 2: From Genomes to Life: Drosophilia Development in Space and Time

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeSalle

    2004-09-10

    This project seeks to use the genomes of two close relatives, A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, to understand the evolutionary changes that take place in a genome to make it more or less virulent. Our primary specific aim of this project was to sequence, annotate, and analyze the genomes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (CU1000, serotype f) and Haemophilus aphrophilus. With these genome sequences we have then compared the whole genome sequences to each other and to the current Aa (HK1651 www.genome.ou.edu) genome project sequence along with other fully sequenced Pasteurellaceae to determine inter and intra species differences that may account for the differences and similarities in disease. We also propose to create and curate a comprehensive database where sequence information and analysis for the Pasteurellaceae (family that includes the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus) are readily accessible. And finally we have proposed to develop phylogenetic techniques that can be used to efficiently and accurately examine the evolution of genomes. Below we report on progress we have made on these major specific aims. Progress on the specific aims is reported below under two major headings--experimental approaches and bioinformatics and systematic biology approaches.

  12. A quantitative geomorphological approach to constraining the volcanic and tectonic evolution of the active Dabbahu rift segment, Afar, Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphaël; Burnard, Peter; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Blard, Pierre-Henri; France, Lydéric; Dumont, Stéphanie; Grandin, Raphaël; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Benedetti, Lucilla; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn

    2013-04-01

    In the Afar depression (Ethiopia), extension is organised along rift segments that morphologically resemble oceanic rifts. Segmentation results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed during the well-documented 2005 rifting event on the Dabbahu rift segment. This tectono-volcanic crisis was observed in detail via remote sensing techniques, providing invaluable information on the present-day tectonic - magmatic interplay during a sequence of dyke intrusions. However, lack of data remains on timescales of 1 to 100 kyr, the period over which the main morphology of the rift is acquired. The Dabbahu rift segment represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of rift morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences. We use cosmogenic nuclides (3He and 36Cl) to determine the ages of young (<100 kyr) lava flows and to date the initiation and movement of fault scarps, which cut the lavas. Where possible, we analysed vertical profiles along fault scarps, in an attempt to distinguish individual tectonic events that offset the scarp, estimate their amplitudes and date the recurrence intervals. These geochronological constraints, combined with major & trace element compositions, field mapping and digital mapping (Landsat, ASTER and SPOT imagery), provide valuable insights on the magmatic and tectonic history of the segment. The results show that over the last 100 ka, the northern part of the Dabbahu segment was supplied by at least two different magma reservoirs, which can be identified from their distinctive chemistries. The main reservoir is located beneath Dabbahu volcano at the northern tip of the rift segment, and has been supplied with magma for at least 72 ka. The second reservoir is located further south on the rift axis and corresponds to the current mid-segment magma chamber, which was responsible for the 2005 rifting episode. Two magmatic cycles linked to the Dabbahu magma chamber were recorded, lasting 20-30 kyr

  13. Fossil pollen analysis of U-Pb-dated speleothems: a new approach to understanding Pliocene terrestrial climate evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniderman, K.; Woodhead, J. D.; Porch, N.

    2013-12-01

    the Miocene/Pliocene boundary (at c. 5.5 Ma) was dominated by Gyrostemonaceae and Casuarinaceae. We interpret this transition from earliest Pliocene to mid-late Pliocene vegetation as an increase in biological productivity, from possibly very sparse woodland to forest, presumably in response to increased effective moisture in the mid-late Pliocene. Hence climate evolution within the Pliocene was substantial enough to drive complete biome turnover. Explanations of the mechanisms that drove Pliocene warmth thus need to explain not only why the Pliocene warm interval was terminated by Pleistocene cooling, but also why the mid-late Pliocene differed substantially from the earliest Pliocene. Our novel use of U/Pb dating of speleothem pollen records demonstrates that previous syntheses of 'mid-Pliocene' vegetation may, in regions with poor age control, have conflated biomes growing within different climatic regimes during different stages within the Pliocene.

  14. Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Selgrade, MaryJane K

    2009-08-01

    A safety assessment process exists for genetically engineered crops that includes the evaluation of the expressed protein for allergenic potential. The objectives of this evaluation are twofold: (1) to protect allergic consumers from exposure to known allergenic or cross-reactive proteins, and (2) protect the general population from risks associated with the introduction of genes encoding proteins that are likely to become food allergens. The first systematic approach to address these concerns was formulated by Metcalfe et al. [Metcalfe, D.D., Astwood, J.D., Townsend, R., Sampson, H.A., Taylor, S.L., and Fuchs, R.L. 1996. Assessment of the allergenic potential of foods from genetically engineered crop plants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 36(5), 165-186.] and subsequently Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) [FAO/WHO, 2001. Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified foods. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology. January 22-25, 2001. Rome, Italy]. More recently, Codex [Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2003. Alinorm 03/34: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Twenty-Fifth Session, Rome, Italy, 30 June-5 July, 2003. Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity. pp. 47-60], noting that no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity, suggested a weight of evidence approach be conducted that takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential. These various recommendations are based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; amino acid sequence identity to human allergens; stability to pepsin digestion in vitro; protein abundance in the crop and

  15. Aero-gravity Assisted Manoeuvers within Preliminary Interplanetary Mission Design: a Multi-objective Evolutive Algorithm Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoleri, A.; Lavagna, M.; Finzi, A. E.

    The paper presents a new approach to deal with the preliminary space mission analysis design of particularly complex trajectories focused on interplanetary targets. According to an optimisation approach, a multi-objective strategy is selected on a mixed continuous and discrete state variables domain in order to deal with possible multi-gravity assist manoeuvres (GAM) as further degrees of freedom of the problem, in terms of both number and planets sequence selection to minimize both the ?v expense and the time trip time span. A further added value to the proposed algorithm stays in that, according to planets having an atmosphere, aero-gravity assist manoeuvres (AGAM) are considered too within the overall mission design optimisation, and the consequent optimal control problem related to the aerodynamic angles history, is solved. According to the target planet different capture strategies are managed by the algorithm, the aerocapture manoeuvre too, whenever possible (e.g. Venus, Mars target planets). In order not to be trapped in local solution the Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) have been selected to solve such a complex problem. Simulations and comparison with already designed space missions showed the ability of the proposed architecture in correctly selecting both the sequences and the planets type of either GAMs or AGAMs to optimise the selected criteria vector, in a multidisciplinary environment, switching on the optimal control problem whenever the atmospheric interaction is involved in the optimisation by the search process. Symbols δ = semi-angular deviation for GAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] φ = Angular deviation for AGAM between the v∞ -, v∞ + inoutcoming vectors [rad] ρ = Atmospheric density [kgm-3 ] γ = Flight path angle [rad] µ = Bank angle [rad] δ?ttransf j = j-th heliocentric transfer time variation with respect to the linked conics solution ?|v∞| = Relative velocity losses because of drag [ms-1 ] ωI = i

  16. Evolution in agriculture: the application of evolutionary approaches to the management of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Oakeshott, John G; Fitt, Gary; Southerton, Simon; Burdon, Jeremy J; Sheppard, Andy; Russell, Robyn J; Zalucki, Myron; Heino, Mikko; Ford Denison, R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts increasingly drive ecological and evolutionary processes at many spatio-temporal scales, demanding greater capacity to predict and manage their consequences. This is particularly true for agro-ecosystems, which not only comprise a significant proportion of land use, but which also involve conflicting imperatives to expand or intensify production while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. These imperatives reinforce the likelihood of further major changes in agriculture over the next 30–40 years. Key transformations include genetic technologies as well as changes in land use. The use of evolutionary principles is not new in agriculture (e.g. crop breeding, domestication of animals, management of selection for pest resistance), but given land-use trends and other transformative processes in production landscapes, ecological and evolutionary research in agro-ecosystems must consider such issues in a broader systems context. Here, we focus on biotic interactions involving pests and pathogens as exemplars of situations where integration of agronomic, ecological and evolutionary perspectives has practical value. Although their presence in agro-ecosystems may be new, many traits involved in these associations evolved in natural settings. We advocate the use of predictive frameworks based on evolutionary models as pre-emptive management tools and identify some specific research opportunities to facilitate this. We conclude with a brief discussion of multidisciplinary approaches in applied evolutionary problems. PMID:25567968

  17. Central pancreatectomy: The Dagradi Serio Iacono operation. Evolution of a surgical technique from the pioneers to the robotic approach

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Calogero; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Bortolasi, Luca; Guglielmi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Central pancreatectomy (CP) is a parenchyma-sparing surgical procedure. The aims are to clarify the history and the development of CP and to give credits to those from whom it came. Ehrhardt, in 1908, described segmental neck resection (SNR) followed, in 1910, by Finney without reconstructive part. In 1950 Honjyo described two cases of SNR combined with gastrectomy for gastric cancer infiltrating the neck of the pancreas. Guillemin and Bessot (1957) and Letton and Wilson (1959) dealt only with the reconstructive aspect of CP. Dagradi and Serio, in 1982, performed the first CP including the resective and reconstructive aspects. Subsequently Iacono has validated it with functional endocrine and exocrine tests and popularized it worldwide. In 2003, Baca and Bokan performed laparoscopic CP and, In 2004, Giulianotti et al performed a robotic assisted CP. CP is performed worldwide either by open surgery or by using minimally-invasive or robotic approaches. This confirms that the operation does not belong to whom introduced it but to everyone who carries out it; however credit must be given to those from whom it came. PMID:25400451

  18. Evolution of classical and quantum phase-space distributions: A new trajectory approach for phase space hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, Corey J.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2003-10-01

    Recently, Donoso and Martens described a method for evolving both classical and quantum phase-space distribution functions, W(q,p,t), that involves the propagation of an ensemble of correlated trajectories. The trajectories are linked into a unified whole by spatial and momentum derivatives of density dependent terms in the equations of motion. On each time step, these nonlocal terms were evaluated by fitting the density around each trajectory to an assumed functional form. In the present study, we develop a different trajectory method for propagating phase-space distribution functions. A hierarchy of coupled analytic equations of motion are derived for the q and p derivatives of the density and a truncated set of these are integrated along each trajectory concurrently with the equation of motion for the density. The advantage of this approach is that individual trajectories can be propagated, one at a time, and function fitting is not required to evaluate the nonlocal terms. Regional nonlocality can be incorporated at various levels of approximation to "dress" what would otherwise be "thin" locally propagating trajectories. This derivative propagation method is used to obtain trajectory solutions for the Klein-Kramers equation, the Husimi equation, and for a smoothed version of the Caldeira-Leggett equation derived by the Diosi. Trajectory solutions are obtained for the relaxation of an oscillator in contact with a thermal bath and for the decay of a metastable state.

  19. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  20. Numerical analysis of sandstone composition, provenance, and paleogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Smosma, R.; Bruner, K.R.; Burns, A.

    1999-09-01

    Cretaceous deltaic sandstones of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska exhibit an extreme variability in their mineral makeup. A series of numerical techniques, however, provides some order to the petrographic characteristics of these complex rocks. Ten mineral constituents occur in the sandstones, including quartz, chert, feldspar, mica, and organic matter, plus rock fragments of volcanics, carbonates, shale, phyllite, and schist. A mixing coefficient quantities the degree of heterogeneity in each sample. Hierarchical cluster analysis then groups sandstones on the basis of similarities among all ten mineral components--in the Alaskan example, six groupings characterized mainly by the different rock fragments. Multidimensional scaling shows how the clusters relate to one another and arranges them along compositional gradients--two trends in Alaska based on varying proportions of metamorphic/volcanic and shale/carbonate rock fragments. The resulting sandstone clusters and petrographic gradients can be mapped across the study area and compared with the stratigraphic section. This study confirms the presence of three different source areas that provided diverse sediment to the Cretaceous deltas as well as the general transport directions and distances. In addition, the sand composition is shown to have changed over time, probably related to erosional unroofing in the source areas. This combination of multivariate-analysis techniques proves to be a powerful tool, revealing subtle spatial and temporal relationships among the sandstones and allowing one to enhance provenance and paleogeographic conclusions made from compositional data.

  1. LQCD workflow execution framework: Models, provenance and fault-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Dubey, Abhishek; Simone, James N.; Kowalkowlski, James B.

    2010-04-01

    Large computing clusters used for scientific processing suffer from systemic failures when operated over long continuous periods for executing workflows. Diagnosing job problems and faults leading to eventual failures in this complex environment is difficult, specifically when the success of an entire workflow might be affected by a single job failure. In this paper, we introduce a model-based, hierarchical, reliable execution framework that encompass workflow specification, data provenance, execution tracking and online monitoring of each workflow task, also referred to as participants. The sequence of participants is described in an abstract parameterized view, which is translated into a concrete data dependency based sequence of participants with defined arguments. As participants belonging to a workflow are mapped onto machines and executed, periodic and on-demand monitoring of vital health parameters on allocated nodes is enabled according to pre-specified rules. These rules specify conditions that must be true pre-execution, during execution and post-execution. Monitoring information for each participant is propagated upwards through the reflex and healing architecture, which consists of a hierarchical network of decentralized fault management entities, called reflex engines. They are instantiated as state machines or timed automatons that change state and initiate reflexive mitigation action(s) upon occurrence of certain faults. We describe how this cluster reliability framework is combined with the workflow execution framework using formal rules and actions specified within a structure of first order predicate logic that enables a dynamic management design that reduces manual administrative workload, and increases cluster-productivity.

  2. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

  3. Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Floss, C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Apollo 16 mission landed in the feldspathic lunar highlands, mass-balance models suggest that there is a 5-6% mare component in the mature soils collected at the site. Only one mare basalt greater than 1 cm was found and two surveys of 2-4 mm particles found that less than 1% of this size fraction is mare basalt. Similar surveys of the less than 1 mm size fraction of A16 soils found very little lithic mare basalt, but several percent of basaltic green, yellow, and orange glass. The green glass beads were identified as VLT picritic glass and the orange/yellow glass shards were a mix of high and low Ti mare-like glass, high-Al basaltic glass, and KREEPy glasses. Most previous studies of glasses in the A16 regolith were surveys that identified a high proportion of feldspathic glass because most of the glass is produced by local impacts. Because the number of mafic glasses found was low, few compositional groupings were identified. As part of our ongoing study of the mafic components of the Apollo 16 site, we specifically targeted mafic glasses from Apollo 16, selecting against the more feldspathic glasses. In this way we were able to identify over 300 mafic glasses (greater than 10 wt % FeO). We present here the major- and trace-element chemistry of the main glass groups and discuss the likely provenance of each group.

  4. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  5. Citation and Recognition of contributions using Semantic Provenance Knowledge Captured in the OPeNDAP Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Lebot, T.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Providing proper citation and attribution for published data, derived data products, and the software tools used to generate them, has always been an important aspect of scientific research. However, It is often the case that this type of detailed citation and attribution is lacking. This is in part because it often requires manual markup since dynamic generation of this type of provenance information is not typically done by the tools used to access, manipulate, transform, and visualize data. In addition, the tools themselves lack the information needed to be properly cited themselves. The OPeNDAP Hyrax Software Framework is a tool that provides access to and the ability to constrain, manipulate, and transform, different types of data from different data formats, into a common format, the DAP (Data Access Protocol), in order to derive new data products. A user, or another software client, specifies an HTTP URL in order to access a particular piece of data, and appropriately transform it to suit a specific purpose of use. The resulting data products, however, do not contain any information about what data was used to create it, or the software process used to generate it, let alone information that would allow the proper citing and attribution to down stream researchers and tool developers. We will present our approach to provenance capture in Hyrax including a mechanism that can be used to report back to the hosting site any derived products, such as publications and reports, using the W3C PROV recommendation pingback service. We will demonstrate our utilization of Semantic Web and Web standards, the development of an information model that extends the PROV model for provenance capture, and the development of the pingback service. We will present our findings, as well as our practices for providing provenance information, visualization of the provenance information, and the development of pingback services, to better enable scientists and tool developers to be

  6. A genetic optimization approach for isolating translational efficiency bias.

    PubMed

    Raiford, Douglas W; Krane, Dan E; Doom, Travis E W; Raymer, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The study of codon usage bias is an important research area that contributes to our understanding of molecular evolution, phylogenetic relationships, respiratory lifestyle, and other characteristics. Translational efficiency bias is perhaps the most well-studied codon usage bias, as it is frequently utilized to predict relative protein expression levels. We present a novel approach to isolating translational efficiency bias in microbial genomes. There are several existent methods for isolating translational efficiency bias. Previous approaches are susceptible to the confounding influences of other potentially dominant biases. Additionally, existing approaches to identifying translational efficiency bias generally require both genomic sequence information and prior knowledge of a set of highly expressed genes. This novel approach provides more accurate results from sequence information alone by resisting the confounding effects of other biases. We validate this increase in accuracy in isolating translational efficiency bias on 10 microbial genomes, five of which have proven particularly difficult for existing approaches due to the presence of strong confounding biases.

  7. Multiobjective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Pareto Differential Evolution and Generalized Response Surface Metamodels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary algorithm that has proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult single-objective optimization problems. The DE algorithm has been recently extended to multiobjective optimization problem by using a Pareto-based approach. In this paper, a Pareto DE algorithm is applied to multiobjective aerodynamic shape optimization problems that are characterized by computationally expensive objective function evaluations. To improve computational expensive the algorithm is coupled with generalized response surface meta-models based on artificial neural networks. Results are presented for some test optimization problems from the literature to demonstrate the capabilities of the method.

  8. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses of Indus Submarine Fan sediments sampled by IODP Expedition 355: implications for sediment provenance and palaeoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; George, Simon C.; Bendle, James; Liddy, Hannah; Clift, Peter D.; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Tiwari, Manish; Khim, Boo-Keun; Griffith, Elizabeth; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Lee, Jongmin; Newton, Kate; Tripathi, Shubham; Expedition 355 Scientific Party

    2016-04-01

    petrography and heavy mineral analysis, geochemical data, isotope composition, and biomarker analysis. Preliminary organic geochemistry data suggest an increase of terrigenous organic matter input into sediment starting around 10.5 Ma, with a strong decrease in the last 1 Ma. Moreover, the detailed analyses of the glyceryl dialkyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT) and alkenone lipids provide the first sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions in the region. These data indicate decreasing SST from the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum until today. This research provides an exceptional opportunity to apply a multiproxy approach to understand sediment provenance, erosional processes, and palaeoclimate evolution in the eastern Arabian Sea.

  9. Modelling sediment clasts transport during landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretier, Sébastien; Martinod, Pierre; Reich, Martin; Godderis, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over thousands to millions of years, the landscape evolution is predicted by models based on fluxes of eroded, transported and deposited material. The laws describing these fluxes, corresponding to averages over many years, are difficult to prove with the available data. On the other hand, sediment dynamics are often tackled by studying the distribution of certain grain properties in the field (e.g. heavy metals, detrital zircons, 10Be in gravel, magnetic tracers). There is a gap between landscape evolution models based on fluxes and these field data on individual clasts, which prevent the latter from being used to calibrate the former. Here we propose an algorithm coupling the landscape evolution with mobile clasts. Our landscape evolution model predicts local erosion, deposition and transfer fluxes resulting from hillslope and river processes. Clasts of any size are initially spread in the basement and are detached, moved and deposited according to probabilities using these fluxes. Several river and hillslope laws are studied. Although the resulting mean transport rate of the clasts does not depend on the time step or the model cell size, our approach is limited by the fact that their scattering rate is cell-size-dependent. Nevertheless, both their mean transport rate and the shape of the scattering-time curves fit the predictions. Different erosion-transport laws generate different clast movements. These differences show that studying the tracers in the field may provide a way to establish these laws on the hillslopes and in the rivers. Possible applications include the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclides in individual gravel deposits, provenance analyses, placers, sediment coarsening or fining, the relationship between magnetic tracers in rivers and the river planform, and the tracing of weathered sediment.

  10. A new model for the provenance of the Upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone (UORS) of southern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Meg; Meere, Pat; Timmerman, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The geology of Southern Ireland is dominated by the influence of both the Caledonian and Variscan orogenies which have shaped the landscape of today. The Old Red Sandstone (ORS) sequences of the Middle - Upper Devonian Munster Basin have traditionally been viewed as a post-orogenic molasse deposit sourced from the Caledonides (Friend et al. 2000 & references therein), which were subsequently deformed by the Late Carboniferous Variscan Orogeny. This model does not take into account the potential impact of the Acadian Orogeny, an Early to Mid Devonian transpressional tectonic event which culminated in Mid Emsian times and resulted in the deformation and inversion of Lower ORS (LORS) basins across Britain and Ireland (Soper & Woodcock 2003; Meere & Mulchrone 2006). Evidence of Acadian deformation in Southern Ireland is recorded in the LORS sequence of the Lower-Middle Devonian basin, the Dingle Basin. Meere & Mulchrone (2006) show that penetrative deformation visible in the LORS of the Dingle Basin has an Acadian signature and is not associated with Late Carboniferous Variscan compression (Parkin 1976; Todd 2000). The role of the Acadian Orogeny in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Southern Ireland has been analyzed in this study using a multidisciplinary approach. Petrographic analysis of both the LORS and Upper ORS (UORS) of southern Ireland suggests an alternative provenance model in which there is a direct genetic link between the two Devonian deposits. There is a fining-up relationship between the two basins and the volcanic lithic fragments - while extremely limited in occurrence in the Munster Basin - are strikingly similar in both units. The absence of conglomeratic units at the base of the Munster Basin provide further evidence that the UORS does not represent a classic molasse deposit. This is supported by EMPA data from both basins which indicates identical mica chemistries in both the LORS and UORS. A comparison with the white mica chemistries from a

  11. Infrared reflectance spectra: effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-10-01

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 - 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  12. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  13. Provenance of Mesozoic Sandstones in the Banda Arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, S.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz-rich sandstones in the Banda Arc islands of Tanimbar, Babar, Timor and Sumba are equivalent of Mesozoic sandstones on the Australian margin where they are important hydrocarbon reservoirs. They have been exposed by on-going collision providing an opportunity to study their provenance. Previous studies suggested that rivers draining Australia provided most input. New light mineral, heavy mineral and detrital zircon data provide information on sources of sediments and constraints on palaeogeographic models. Conventional light mineral plots of sandstones from the islands typically show a recycled orogen and continental block origin, consistent with an Australian source. However many of the sandstones are texturally immature. Many samples also contain volcanic quartz and volcanic lithic fragments. Heavy mineral assemblages of most samples contain material from acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, with few indications of mafic or ultramafic sources. Rounded ultrastable minerals are typical, but these are commonly mixed with angular grains. Detrital zircon (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages range from Archean to Mesozoic, but variations in age populations indicate differences in source areas along the Banda Arc in locality and time. We recognise distinctive Permo-Triassic, older Palaeozoic and Proterozoic ages characteristic of a Bird's Head, New Guinea, acid igneous source and this component diminishes from east to west. On Tanimbar and Babar, sediment came from both Australia and the Bird's Head. Sandstones in Timor have immature textures and show differences from east to west. They contain zircons derived from the Birds Head, as well as Precambrian zircons suggesting a northern Australian origin. In contrast, immature textures, heavy minerals and Cretaceous zircon ages in rocks from Sumba suggest that they were mainly derived from metamorphic sources. Mesozoic to Archean zircons indicate derivation from Australian crust that had collided in Sulawesi during the Cretaceous.

  14. Holocene regional gradients of dust provenance and flux between Talos Dome and Dome C, East Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, B.; Andersson, P. S.; Baroni, C.; Narcisi, B.; Petit, J. R.; Salvatore, M. C.; Albani, S.; Maggi, V.

    2012-04-01

    Aeolian sequences from Central East Antarctic ice cores provide climate and environmental information of hemispheric significance. Close to the margins of the ice sheet, high-elevation ice-free terrains protruding above the ice sheet surface can provide an additional input of fine dust particles to the atmosphere, making peripheral locations particularly interesting for the study of the regional climate evolution. In the Talos Dome area of East Antarctica, entrainment and transport of local mineral particles is merely influenced by local wind direction and strength, which in turn is tuned by regional climate changes. We investigate the spatial variability of modern and Holocene dust flux, grain size and isotopic (Sr-Nd) composition along a hypothetic transect from Talos Dome all through the interior of the ice sheet (Dome C/Vostok area), and compare the geochemical fingerprint of dust extracted from firn and ice cores to the equivalent size fraction of regolith and glacial deposits from high altitude Victoria Land sources. This study aims to better understand the environmental gradients of dust flux and provenance from the marginal Talos Dome site to the higher Dome C drainage area, with implications for the regional atmospheric circulation, while documenting the isotopic composition of local exposed sediments.

  15. On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2004-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. These approaches are implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.

  16. A maximum likelihood approach to generate hypotheses on the evolution and historical biogeography in the Lower Volga Valley regions (southwest Russia).

    PubMed

    Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Laktionov, Alexy P; Cellinese, Nico

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of the diverse flora in the Lower Volga Valley (LVV) (southwest Russia) is complex due to the composite geomorphology and tectonic history of the Caspian Sea and adjacent areas. In the absence of phylogenetic studies and temporal information, we implemented a maximum likelihood (ML) approach and stochastic character mapping reconstruction aiming at recovering historical signals from species occurrence data. A taxon-area matrix of 13 floristic areas and 1018 extant species was constructed and analyzed with RAxML and Mesquite. Additionally, we simulated scenarios with numbers of hypothetical extinct taxa from an unknown palaeoflora that occupied the areas before the dramatic transgression and regression events that have occurred from the Pleistocene to the present day. The flora occurring strictly along the river valley and delta appear to be younger than that of adjacent steppes and desert-like regions, regardless of the chronology of transgression and regression events that led to the geomorphological formation of the LVV. This result is also supported when hypothetical extinct taxa are included in the analyses. The history of each species was inferred by using a stochastic character mapping reconstruction method as implemented in Mesquite. Individual histories appear to be independent from one another and have been shaped by repeated dispersal and extinction events. These reconstructions provide testable hypotheses for more in-depth investigations of their population structure and dynamics. PMID:22957179

  17. A multi-analytical approach to gold in Ancient Egypt: Studies on provenance and corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, I.; Troalen, L. G.; Manso, M.; Ponting, M.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Barreiros, M. A.; Shaw, I.; Carvalho, M. L.; Guerra, M. F.

    2015-06-01

    Recent results from a three-year multi-disciplinary project on Ancient Egyptian gold jewellery revealed that items of jewellery from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom were manufactured using a variety of alluvial gold alloys. These alloys cover a wide range of colours and the majority contain Platinum Group Elements inclusions. However, in all the gold foils analysed, these inclusions were found to be absent. In this work a selection of gilded wood and leather items and gold foil fragments, all from the excavations by John Garstang at Abydos (primarily from Middle Kingdom graves), were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (μXRF), Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (μPIXE) and Double Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (D2XRF). The work allowed us to characterise the composition of the base-alloys and also to reveal the presence of Pt at trace levels, confirming the use of alluvial gold deposits. Corrosion products were also investigated in the foils where surface tarnish was visually observed. Results showed that the differences in the colour of corrosion observed for the foils are related not only to the thickness of the corrosion layer but also to a multi-layer structure containing the various corrosion products.

  18. Provenance-Based Approaches to Semantic Web Service Discovery and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narock, Thomas William

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium defines a Web Service as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network." Web Services have become increasingly important both within and across organizational boundaries. With the recent advent of the Semantic Web, web services have evolved into semantic…

  19. Provenance control on chemical indices of weathering (Taiwan river sands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Geochemical parameters obtained from the analysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks are widely used to infer weathering and paleo-weathering conditions in source areas. Chemical indices of weathering, however, may not reflect weathering only, or even principally. The concentration of chemical elements in terrigenous sediments is constrained by the original mineralogy of source rocks, and is thus provenance-dependent. Moreover, the mineralogy and consequently the geochemistry of sediments may undergo substantial modifications by diverse physical processes during transport and deposition, including recycling and hydraulic sorting by size, density or shape, and/or by chemical dissolution and precipitation during diagenesis. Around the island of Taiwan, temperature and rainfall are consistently high and relatively homogeneous, and no significant correlation is observed between geochemical and climatic parameters. Physical erosion, fostered by landslides induced by frequent earthquakes and typhoons, prevails because of high relief and extreme rates of tectonic uplift. In such a dynamic orogenic setting, all chemical indices of weathering are controlled principally by the geology of source terranes. Sedimentaclastic and metasedimentaclastic sands carried by western Taiwan rivers draining the pro-wedge display the strongest depletion in Na, Ca, Mg and Sr relative to average upper continental crust, and no depletion or even enrichment in K, Rb and Ba. Low WIP indices reflect erosion of phyllosilicate-dominated rocks in the Slate Belt and extensive recycling of clastic rocks exposed in the Western Foothills. Instead, metamorphiclastic sands carried by eastern Taiwan rivers draining the retro-wedge show no depletion or even enrichment in Mg and Ca, and low CIA and PIA, reflecting contributions from the Tailuko Belt and Coastal Range. Volcaniclastic sands have the same CIA values of their andesitic source rocks (47 ± 1 versus 47 ± 7), indicating that weathering is

  20. An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Bussell, John D; Hobbs, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ∼60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration. PMID:23919158

  1. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  2. Isotopic and magnetic provenance characterization of distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Galicia Interior Basin in NW Iberia Margin are of particular palaeoclimatic interest as they are located at the boundary where the climatic oscillations of the glacial interval were interrupted by extreme events such as Heinrich events. These events are well characterized in Northern North Atlantic areas, but little is known about their occurrence beyond the Ruddiman belt. This study presents a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal ice-rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred during the last glacial period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin. The last six Heinrich Layers were identified by their magneto-mineralogical and geochemical properties. Their Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicated that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the major source for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. However, the European ice sheets also influenced the initial development stages of HL1, HL2, HL4. HL3, HL6 and partially HL1, HL2 and HL4 were influenced by more juvenile provinces, such as Iceland/Faroes sheets and/or by the Fram Strait/East Greenland nearby areas. Separate provenance analyses of the coarse and fine fractions in the studied Heinrich Layers also indicated that IRDs and glacial flour sources might not always be the same. Our results shed unequivocal evidence that Canadian-sourced distal IRD are preceded by European-sourced IRD, at least from the H4. In our view, LIS and EIS instabilities registered in the Iberian Margin respond to the same climate forcing at different velocities.

  3. Geisinger's ProvenCare methodology: driving performance improvement within a shared governance structure.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Ruth; Wary, Andrea; King, Megan; Laam, Leslie A; Hallick, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Many performance improvement projects fail because they occur in parallel to the organization's shared governance structure. Leveraging the full potential of its nursing shared governance structure, Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare methodology harnessed the full potential of its staff nurses to create truly reliable workflows that benefit patients and that the team finds professionally satisfying. Using ProvenCare Perinatal and its smoking cessation education intervention and outcomes as an example, the authors describe the ProvenCare methodology.

  4. [Root architecture and phosphorus efficiency of different provenance Pinus massoniana under low phosphorous stress].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2012-09-01

    Taking four representative provenances of Pinus massoniana from Chun' an of Zhejiang, Wuping of Fujian, Cenxi of Guangxi, and Xinyi of Guangdong in East and South China as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their variations in root architecture and phosphorus (P) efficiency under heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress. Large variations were detected in the major growth traits and the indices of P efficiency among the P. massoniana provenances under both heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress. Under heterogeneous low P stress, the provenances from Xinyi of Guangdong and Wuping of Fujian exhibited higher P efficiency and greater dry matter accumulation, and their root architecture presented large adaptive changes, with the values of root parameters in P-rich soil surface layer being significantly higher than those of the P inefficient provenances from Chun'an of Zhejiang and Cenxi of Guangxi, which should be responsible for the higher P absorption efficiency and high P efficiency of the provenances from Xinyi and Wuping under heterogeneous low P condition. The root architecture parameters in P-rich soil surface layer and the plant dry matter accumulation of different provenance P. massoniana under heterogeneous low P stress had a correlation coefficient >0.95. Under homogeneous low P stress, the provenances with higher P efficiency had a significantly higher P uptake efficiency than the provenances with lower P efficiency, but the root parametres of the provenances with higher P efficiency had no significant correlation with the P efficiency of the provenances. There existed differences in the adaptive mechanism for the heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress among the the P. massoniana provenances, and thus, different strategies should be adopted in the selection of P-efficient provenances for different forest stands.

  5. Geisinger's ProvenCare methodology: driving performance improvement within a shared governance structure.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Ruth; Wary, Andrea; King, Megan; Laam, Leslie A; Hallick, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Many performance improvement projects fail because they occur in parallel to the organization's shared governance structure. Leveraging the full potential of its nursing shared governance structure, Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare methodology harnessed the full potential of its staff nurses to create truly reliable workflows that benefit patients and that the team finds professionally satisfying. Using ProvenCare Perinatal and its smoking cessation education intervention and outcomes as an example, the authors describe the ProvenCare methodology. PMID:21519209

  6. Geochemistry and provenance of the Carboniferous Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group, South Portuguese Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, R. C. G. S.; Fernandes, P.; Rodrigues, B.; Pereira, Z.; Oliveira, J. T.

    2013-02-01

    This work is focused on the turbiditic sediments from the Carboniferous Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (BAFG) in the South Portuguese Zone, an external zone of the Iberian Variscides. The aim of this work is to constrain the provenance and tectonic setting of these sediments in a context of a complex evolution of SW Iberian Variscides. For this purpose, we performed a systematic study of petrographical and geochemical signatures of greywackes and shales from the three BAFG formations: Mértola, Mira and Brejeira. Major and trace element composition and ratios suggest heterogeneous source area composition for BAFG shales and greywackes. For the oldest Mértola Formation greywackes, source area is dominated by granitoid rocks with minor mafic input. The latter becomes residual in the Mira Formation. The youngest Brejeira Formation greywackes show clear felsic affiliation associated with an increase in recycled components. The shales of all three BAFG formations denote a granodioritic affiliation. Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) values suggest moderate weathering in the source areas of Mértola and Mira formations. These indices, together with A-CN-K relations, point out to steady-state weathering conditions in the source areas of both formations. In contrast, both CIA and PIA values for the Brejeira Formation indicate variable conditions of palaeoweathering, from moderate to intense, as a consequence of non-steady-state conditions probably triggered by tectonic instability in the provenance area. Compared to the greywackes, the shales of all three BAFG formations exhibit higher CIA and PIA values, as well as low K2O/Al2O3 (~ 0.2) and index of compositional variability (< 1), reflecting the cumulative effect of multiple cycles of sedimentary recycling and prolonged chemical weathering history. Major and trace element distribution and upper continental crust-normalized multi-element plots suggest that the sediments of BAFG were

  7. Geochemically tracking provenance changes in marine sediment from the South Pacific Gyre throughout the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.; Harris, R. N.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific Gyre (SPG), characterized by extremely slow sedimentation rates, is the world's largest oceanic desert. The little eolian dust from continents in the Southern Hemisphere must traverse great distances to reach the SPG, and the ultra-oligotrophic waters minimize the biogenic flux of sediment to the seafloor. However sparse, the pelagic sediment that is ultimately found on the seafloor retains a chemical record that can be used to trace its origin. Using cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329, we trace downcore fluctuations in major, trace, and rare earth element (REE) composition and flux to yield clues to the geological, chemical, and biological evolution of the SPG throughout the Cenozoic. The shipboard scientific party generally described the completely oxic, brown pelagic clays recovered during Exp. 329 as zeolitic metalliferous clay. The homogenous, very fine-grained nature of these sediments speaks to the challenges we face in resolving eolian detrital material ("dust"), fine-grained ash (commonly altered), and authigenic aluminosilicates from one another. Based on ICP-ES and ICP-MS analyses followed by multivariate statistical treatments, we are developing chemical records from a number of sites located throughout the SPG. Building on earlier work at DSDP Site 596 (Zhou and Kyte, 1992, Paleocean., 7, 441-465), and based on backtrack paths from 100 Ma forward, we are working to construct a regionally and temporally continuous paleoclimatological history of the SPG. Preliminary La-Th-Sc concentrations from Sites U1367, U1368, and U1369 show a distinct authigenic influence, but several refractory elements retain their original provenance signature. Sediment ages are constrained using a constant-Co model, based on the geochemically similar work that Zhou and Kyte (1992) performed in the SPG. REE concentrations normalized to post-archean average shale (PAAS) reveal a negative Ce anomaly that becomes more pronounced closer to

  8. Innovations in Teaching Adults: Proven Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirstein, Kurt D., Ed.; Schieber, Craig E., Ed.; Flores, Kelly A., Ed.; Olswang, Steven G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing world of higher education, innovative approaches to teaching adults are needed to drive instructional practices for helping to prepare the professionals of the future. The papers collected in "Innovations in Teaching Adults" were originally presented at a conference at City University of Seattle. The authors of…

  9. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of an extensional basin revealed by a combined photo-geological and field-mapping approach. The Montefalco Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Francesco; Mirabella, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Active extensional basins are important since their sedimentary infills and bounding tectonic structures provide: i) sinks with preservation potential for sedimentary and fossil records of past changes in climate and sediment/water supply, ii) information on the growth, activity, decay and death of normal faults, iii) vast economic reserves of hydrocarbons, water and minerals. Unfortunately, quaternary extensional basins, especially if located in humid and temperate climate environments, are often characterized by extensively cultivated areas, homogeneous terrains and quite flat morphologies. Furthermore, they commonly host human settlements, together with roads, economic and industrial infrastructures, with a consequent limited availability of good outcrops. Such a limitation can (often severely) hamper an adequate mapping of the sedimentary infill. Therefore alternative methodological approaches (such as aerial photographs interpretation, API) are needed to integrate heterogeneous and incomplete datasets. This contribution presents an updated photo-geological map of a Quaternary extensional basin in Central Italy, the Montefalco Basin. This basin developed in a continental environment characterized by clayey-sandy lacustrine and fluvial sequences (late Pliocene - early Pleistocene) underlying more recent coarse grained deposits related to alluvial fan environment (early-to-late Pleistocene) and younger palustrine deposits (late Pleistocene). Since the late Pleistocene, regional uplift and local tectonics led to the end of deposition in the Montefalco basin, which experienced a diffuse incision and the modification of the drainage network, in response to the W-to-E migration of active faulting and tectonic subsidence. The new photo-geological map represents an important improvement compared to the existing data, since it provides unprecedented and spatially distributed information on the geometry of the continental deposits and on the tectonic structures affecting

  10. Space-time evolution of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and snow cover patterns in a dry alpine catchment: an interdisciplinary numerical and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Rist, Armin; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    The project Climate Change in South Tyrol aims to study the effects of climate change (CC) on the water balance and the consequences for the vegetation in a dry Alpine region, using an innovative multidisciplinary approach that combines modelling and experimentation. Regional climate scenarios predict a temperature increase and a summer precipitation decrease for the European Alps. This will likely lead to drier conditions, especially during the vegetation growth period. As this evolution will be more problematic in already dry regions, the inner Alpine continental Mazia Valley (South Tyrol, Italy) was chosen as study area in 2009 for long-term ecological research. As a preliminary case study, the extreme 2002-2003 water year was selected to simulate a retrospective water balance at catchment scale, using the hydrological model GEOtop. The model proved to simulate realistic values for the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, snow cover and runoff production, depending on soil properties, land cover, land use intensity and catchment morphology. In the study area of Mazia Valley 13 monitoring stations were installed in fall 2009 to continuously measure soil moisture, biomass production, as well as standard micrometeorological variables. The stations were distributed over the whole catchment to encompass its variability in elevation, slope aspect, soil properties, and land cover. Furthermore, snow depth and snow water equivalent were recorded at representative points throughout the catchment. In addition, the spatial distribution of the snow cover was determined by means of remote sensing and the discharge of the catchment was measured as integrating hydrological variable. The use of different types of data permits a multi-scale validation of the model, in order to close the water balance and accurately estimate the space-time evolution of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and snow cover both at the plot and at the catchment scale. A

  11. No difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native Trifolium provenances when grown with soil biota from their introduced and native ranges.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Natasha; Hulme, Philip E; van der Putten, Wim H; McGinn, Kevin J; Weser, Carolin; Duncan, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis could explain why some introduced plant species perform better outside their native ranges. The EICA hypothesis proposes that introduced plants escape specialist pathogens or herbivores leading to selection for resources to be reallocated away from defence and towards greater competitive ability. We tested the hypothesis that escape from soil-borne enemies has led to increased competitive ability in three non-agriculturalTrifolium(Fabaceae) species native to Europe that were introduced to New Zealand in the 19th century.Trifoliumperformance is intimately tied to rhizosphere biota. Thus, we grew plants from one introduced (New Zealand) and two native (Spain and the UK) provenances for each of three species in pots inoculated with soil microbiota collected from the rhizosphere beneath conspecifics in the introduced and native ranges. Plants were grown singly and in competition with conspecifics from a different provenance in order to compare competitive ability in the presence of different microbial communities. In contrast to the predictions of the EICA hypothesis, we found no difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native provenances when grown with soil microbiota from either the native or introduced range. Although plants from introduced provenances of two species grew more slowly than native provenances in native-range soils, as predicted by the EICA hypothesis, plants from the introduced provenance were no less competitive than native conspecifics. Overall, the growth rate of plants grown singly was a poor predictor of their competitive ability, highlighting the importance of directly quantifying plant performance in competitive scenarios, rather than relying on surrogate measures such as growth rate. PMID:26969431

  12. No difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native Trifolium provenances when grown with soil biota from their introduced and native ranges

    PubMed Central

    Shelby, Natasha; Hulme, Philip E.; van der Putten, Wim H.; McGinn, Kevin J.; Weser, Carolin; Duncan, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis could explain why some introduced plant species perform better outside their native ranges. The EICA hypothesis proposes that introduced plants escape specialist pathogens or herbivores leading to selection for resources to be reallocated away from defence and towards greater competitive ability. We tested the hypothesis that escape from soil-borne enemies has led to increased competitive ability in three non-agricultural Trifolium (Fabaceae) species native to Europe that were introduced to New Zealand in the 19th century. Trifolium performance is intimately tied to rhizosphere biota. Thus, we grew plants from one introduced (New Zealand) and two native (Spain and the UK) provenances for each of three species in pots inoculated with soil microbiota collected from the rhizosphere beneath conspecifics in the introduced and native ranges. Plants were grown singly and in competition with conspecifics from a different provenance in order to compare competitive ability in the presence of different microbial communities. In contrast to the predictions of the EICA hypothesis, we found no difference in the competitive ability of introduced and native provenances when grown with soil microbiota from either the native or introduced range. Although plants from introduced provenances of two species grew more slowly than native provenances in native-range soils, as predicted by the EICA hypothesis, plants from the introduced provenance were no less competitive than native conspecifics. Overall, the growth rate of plants grown singly was a poor predictor of their competitive ability, highlighting the importance of directly quantifying plant performance in competitive scenarios, rather than relying on surrogate measures such as growth rate. PMID:26969431

  13. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, A.; Angelici, D.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maupas, E.; Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Massi, M.; Borghi, A.; Gallo, L. M.; Pratesi, G.; Mandò, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification.

  14. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  15. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  16. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  17. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  18. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each