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Sample records for evolving self-rated health

  1. Revisiting Student Self-Rated Physical Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Terrance J.; Pevalin, David J.; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2000-01-01

    Presents a replication of a model of student self-rated health initially proposed by Vingilis, Wade and Adlaf (1998). The original model is tested by a series of nested regression equations and path analysis. The results add support for the original model and are notable given that many items used to build the underlying constructs differ across…

  2. Self-rated health among physicians.

    PubMed

    Baubinas, Algirdas; Gurevicius, Romualdas; Jankauskiene, Konstancija; Salyga, Jonas; Kairys, Jonas; Jurkstiene, Vilma; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze self-rated health among physicians depending on their sex, age, workplace (hospital or polyclinic), and specialty. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The studied group consisted of 377 26-70-year-old physicians randomly selected from various county hospitals and polyclinics of Lithuania. There were 85 men and 292 women. The inquiry was performed using the complemented (by the authors of the study) version of the WHO anonymous questionnaire of the quality of life (1995). Responses were evaluated based on physicians' evaluation of their own health, which was rated as very good, good, satisfactory, poor, and very poor. RESULTS. Only 8.2% of males and 5.8% of females evaluated their health as very good (P>0.05). More men, compared to women, evaluated their health as good (62.3% and 53.1%, respectively; P<0.05), whereas more females evaluated their health as satisfactory, compared to males (36.0% and 25.9%, respectively; P<0.05); 2.4% of males and 5.1% of females (p>0.05) stated that their health was poor. In most cases, physicians of different age groups presented equal evaluations of their health except for physicians in the age groups of 26-37 and 38-43 years - those who evaluated their health as very good comprised a significantly higher percentage (P<0.05), compared to other age groups. As expected, a higher percentage of older physicians evaluated their health as satisfactory. In addition to that, more hospital physicians, compared to those working in polyclinics, evaluated their health as good (12.8% and 1.8%, respectively; P<0.05) and vice versa - significantly more physicians working in polyclinics evaluated their health as satisfactory, compared to those working in hospitals (38.1% and 26.8%, respectively; P<0.05). A significantly higher percentage of surgeons, compared to general practitioners or therapists, evaluated their health as very good (15.8%, 4.5%, and 6.1%, respectively; P<0.05) and a significantly lower percentage - as

  3. Self-rated health: biological continuum or social discontinuity?

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Shelley, J M; Dennerstein, L

    1994-07-01

    Correlates of self-rated health among a randomly selected sample of 1863 Australian-born women 45-55 years of age were examined in two logistic regression analyses: one comparing a self-rated health of worse than one's peers with a self-rated health the same as one's peers; and, one comparing a self-rated health of better than one's peers with a self-rated health the same as one's peers. The final model for worse health was largely a reflection of the physical experience of ill health while that for better health was a more complex construct including not only the absence of illness but also markers of sociodemographic advantage and self-image. The two models had only three variables in common. Notably, the relationship between the outcome measures and one common variable, body mass index, differed markedly. It is suggested that previous analyses of self-rated health have had their power to adequately describe correlates and determinants of health status constrained. By assuming that the various self-rated health states are part of a continuum and employing statistical methods consistent with that assumption, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate the discontinuity among such states. In particular, it is suggested that self-rated health is at least in part a reflection of social role and as there is no basis for assuming that such roles form a continuum as the use of correlation-based analyses imply, then such analyses are inappropriate.

  4. Risk behaviours and self rated health in Russia 1998

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—As self rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and as risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes.
METHODS—The Taganrog household survey (1998) was conducted in the form of face to face interviews and included 1009 people and their families. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed.
RESULTS—In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in self rated health seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction from changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self rated "poor" health was especially common among those whose economic situation was worse in 1998 than 10 years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly.
CONCLUSIONS—Self rated health seems to be closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are probably important for the poor state of public health in Russia, but may be less sensitive to the economic aspects of the transition than is self rated health.


Keywords: self rated health; risk behaviours PMID:11604437

  5. Older Women and Lower Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Abdul Rashid, Sharifah Norazizan Syed

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have found that older women report lower self-rated health than men. However, it is not clear why older women are more likely to report poor self-rated health than older men. Data for this study came from a national cross-sectional survey, Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians (MHQoLOM). Included in the survey were…

  6. The Increasing Predictive Validity of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not. PMID:24465452

  7. The increasing predictive validity of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not.

  8. Family Support, Self-Rated Health, and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Annmarie; Scaturo, Douglas J.; Sprafkin, Robert P.; Lantinga, Larry J.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Brand, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive health care is becoming an important issue; however, little is known about the complex relationships between perceived family support, self-rated health, and psychological distress in mixed middle-aged/older primary care patient samples. Method: In this cross-sectional and predominantly male sample of 137 patients attending their appointments at a primary care clinic in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, participants completed several questionnaires including the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve; the General Health Questionnaire-12; the Symptom Checklist-10; and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screening questionnaire and interview. Data were collected in 1998. Eighteen percent of the participants were diagnosed with a mood disorder, and 15% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (PRIME-MD diagnoses). Results: Perceived family support and self-rated health were negatively associated with psychological symptoms and certain psychological disorders, while perceived family support and self-rated health were positively rated. In addition, the interaction between perceived family support and self-rated health was significant (p < .01) in relating to psychological symptoms such that psychological symptoms were most elevated in participants reporting dissatisfying family support combined with poor self-rated health. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study prevents causal conclusions from being made. Conclusions: Physicians and other health care professionals are encouraged to assess both the perceived family support and self-rated health in an effort to conceptualize their patients' problems in a more comprehensive manner. PMID:15154021

  9. The Aral Sea disaster and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Crighton, Eric J; Elliott, Susan J; Upshur, Ross; van der Meer, Joost; Small, Ian

    2003-06-01

    This study examined the effect of psychosocial factors and environmental perceptions on self-rated health in the environmentally devastated Aral Sea area of Karakalpakstan. Self-rated health was assessed using a questionnaire on 881 randomly selected individuals from three communities. Communities were chosen based on relative differences with regards to economic and ethnic characteristics, and distance from the sea coast. Consistent with mortality rates in the area, the prevalence of 'poor' self-rated health was high. Factors negatively associated with self-rated health include psychosocial impacts and reported environmental concern, as well as community of residence and age. These results demonstrate that the population has a poor perception of their own health, a significant finding given that self-rated health is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality. It is also clear that psychosocial health is strongly associated with health perceptions. Thus, to improve the overall health of this population, health remediation measures must address physical as well as psychosocial health problems.

  10. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  11. Mental health, pregnancy and self-rated health in antenatal women attending primary health clinics.

    PubMed

    Sonkusare, S; Adinegara; Hebbar, S

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the determinants of self rated health in the low-risk pregnant women of Melaka Tengah in Malaysia. A total of 387 subjects were analysed. The role of mental health, psychosocial stressors, support from husband, coping skills, socio-economic status and pregnancy characteristics in determining self- rated health were studied. Health items were taken from the Duke Health Profile. Bad obstetric history, poor mental health, stress from the family were found to be significantly associated with poor self - rated health whereas good support from the husband was related to good self - rated health.

  12. [Global self-rated health and mortality in older people].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ximena; Huerta, Martín; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between global self-rated health and mortality in older people. A systematic review was performed. The inclusion criteria were longitudinal studies that assessed self-rated health with a single general question and samples of community-dwelling persons aged 60 years or more. Electronic databases were searched and references were reviewed. We selected 18 studies published between 1993 and 2011. Six out of seven studies that analyzed men and women found a higher risk of dying among persons who rated their health as poor; the most frequent covariables were age, gender, chronic diseases, and functional status. Half of the studies that analyzed only men or women found a significant association. The effect of self-reported health on mortality was observed among people younger than 75 years. Results were not dependent on the length of follow-up. The results confirm previous findings suggesting that a negative self-rating of general health predicts mortality. The mechanisms through which this indicator may predict mortality among older people could differ in men and women and need to be elucidated. The role of depression should be investigated, considering that the effect of self-rated health on mortality was not present when depression was included. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Socioeconomic inequality in voting participation and self-rated health.

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, T A; Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that disparities in political participation across socioeconomic status affect health. Specifically, the association of voting inequality at the state level with individual self-rated health was examined. METHODS: A multilevel study of 279,066 respondents to the Current Population Survey (CPS) was conducted. State-level inequality in voting turnout by socioeconomic status (family income and educational attainment) was derived from November CPS data for 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. RESULTS: Individuals living in the states with the highest voting inequality had an odds ratio of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 1.68) compared with individuals living in the states with the lowest voting inequality. This odds ratio decreased to 1.34 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.56) when state income inequality was added and to 1.27 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.45) when state median income was included. The deleterious effect of low individual household income on self-rated health was most pronounced among states with the greatest voting and income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequality in political participation (as measured by voter turnout) is associated with poor self-rated health, independently of both income inequality and state median household income. PMID:11189832

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in voting participation and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Blakely, T A; Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I

    2001-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that disparities in political participation across socioeconomic status affect health. Specifically, the association of voting inequality at the state level with individual self-rated health was examined. A multilevel study of 279,066 respondents to the Current Population Survey (CPS) was conducted. State-level inequality in voting turnout by socioeconomic status (family income and educational attainment) was derived from November CPS data for 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. Individuals living in the states with the highest voting inequality had an odds ratio of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 1.68) compared with individuals living in the states with the lowest voting inequality. This odds ratio decreased to 1.34 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.56) when state income inequality was added and to 1.27 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.45) when state median income was included. The deleterious effect of low individual household income on self-rated health was most pronounced among states with the greatest voting and income inequality. Socioeconomic inequality in political participation (as measured by voter turnout) is associated with poor self-rated health, independently of both income inequality and state median household income.

  15. Differences between Older Men and Women in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine differences between older men and women: (a) in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality, (b) in the effect of different follow-up periods on the self-rated health mortality relationship, and (c) in the relative importance of self-rated health and self-rated change in health in…

  16. Association between cultural distance and migrant self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Detollenaere, Jens; Baert, Stijn; Willems, Sara

    2017-03-24

    We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ≥3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated with worse migrant health. This association is comparable in size with the negative association between health and female (compared with male) gender but less important than the association between health and education level. In addition, this association is less significant among second-generation than first-generation migrants.

  17. Self-rated health and ethnicity: focus on indigenous populations

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.; Bruce, Sharon G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) is a commonly used measure in surveys to assess general health status or health-related quality of life. Differences have been detected in how different ethnic groups and nationalities interpret the SRH measure and assess their health. This review summarizes the research conducted on SRH within and between ethnic groups, with a focus on indigenous groups. Study design and methods A search of published academic literature on SRH and ethnicity, including a comprehensive review of all relevant indigenous research, was conducted using PubMed and summarized. Results A wide variety of research on SRH within ethnic groups has been undertaken. SRH typically serves as an outcome measure. Minority respondents generally rated their health worse than the dominant population. Numerous culturally-specific determinants of SRH have been identified. Cross-national and cross-ethnicity comparisons of the associations of SRH have been conducted to assess the validity of SRH. While SRH is a valid measure within a variety of ethnicities, differences in how SRH is assessed by ethnicities have been detected. Research in indigenous groups remains generally under-represented in the SRH literature. Conclusions These results suggest that different ethnic groups and nationalities vary in SRH evaluations, interpretation of the SRH measure, and referents employed in rating health. To effectively assess and redress health disparities and establish culturally-relevant and effective health interventions, a greater understanding of SRH is required, particularly among indigenous groups, in which little research has been conducted. PMID:22663937

  18. Personality, self-rated health, and cognition in centenarians: Do personality and self-rated health relate to cognitive function in advanced age?

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Schechter, Clyde B.; Verghese, Joe; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Personality and self-rated health have been linked previously to cognitive outcome in late life. However, these associations have not been shown among the oldest old. This study examined relationships between personality, self-rated health, and cognitive function in a selected sample of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians (n = 68, 59% female) aged 95 to 106 who lived independently in the community. Personality was measured using the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS), a brief measure that was validated in this population. Self-rated health was assessed by participants’ subjective rating of their present health, and Mini-Mental Status Examination was used to determine cognitive function. Results showed positive associations of the Positive Attitude Towards Life domain of the POPS and self-rated health with participants’ current cognitive function. These associations remained significant even after adjusting for the effects of participants'age, gender, marital status, education, and history of medical illnesses. Further exploratory analysis using structural equations modeling showed significant associations among the three variables, but demonstrated a borderline significant level of mediating effect of personality on the relationship between self-rated health and cognition. These results reemphasized the independent roles of personality and self-rated health on centenarians’ cognitive outcomes. Future studies will further elucidate the impact of personality and self-rated health on cognitive outcomes in the oldest old. PMID:23524310

  19. Molecular genetic contributions to self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sarah E; Hagenaars, Saskia P; Davies, Gail; David Hill, W; Liewald, David C M; Ritchie, Stuart J; Marioni, Riccardo E; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; McIntosh, Andrew M; Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J

    2016-11-17

    Poorer self-rated health (SRH) predicts worse health outcomes, even when adjusted for objective measures of disease at time of rating. Twin studies indicate SRH has a heritability of up to 60% and that its genetic architecture may overlap with that of personality and cognition. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of SRH on 111 749 members of the UK Biobank sample. Univariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)-GREML analyses were used to estimate the proportion of variance explained by all common autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for SRH. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression and polygenic risk scoring, two complementary methods, were used to investigate pleiotropy between SRH in the UK Biobank and up to 21 health-related and personality and cognitive traits from published GWAS consortia. The GWAS identified 13 independent signals associated with SRH, including several in regions previously associated with diseases or disease-related traits. The strongest signal was on chromosome 2 (rs2360675, P = 1.77 x 10(-10)) close to KLF7 A second strong peak was identified on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility region (rs76380179, P = 6.15 x 10(-10)). The proportion of variance in SRH that was explained by all common genetic variants was 13%. Polygenic scores for the following traits and disorders were associated with SRH: cognitive ability, education, neuroticism, body mass index (BMI), longevity, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, lung function, blood pressure, coronary artery disease, large vessel disease stroke and type 2 diabetes. Individual differences in how people respond to a single item on SRH are partly explained by their genetic propensity to many common psychiatric and physical disorders and psychological traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Self-Rated Health Across Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration Status for US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allen, Chenoa D; McNeely, Clea A; Orme, John G

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities research seeks to understand and eliminate differences in health based on social status. Self-rated health is often used to document health disparities across racial/ethnic and immigrant groups, yet its validity for such comparative research has not been established. To be useful in disparities research, self-rated health must measure the same construct in all groups, that is, a given level of self-rated health should reflect the same level of mental and physical health in each group. This study asks, Is the relationship between self-rated health and four indicators of health status--body mass index, chronic conditions, functional limitations, and depressive symptoms--similar for adolescents and young adults of different races/ethnicities and immigrant generations? Ordinary least squares regression was used to examine associations of self-rated health with the four indicators of health status both cross-sectionally and longitudinally using four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Health indicators explained similar amounts of variance in self-rated health for all racial/ethnic and immigrant generation groups. The cross-sectional association between the health indicators and self-rated health did not vary across groups. The longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and chronic conditions and self-rated health also did not differ across groups. However, an increase in body mass index was associated more negatively with later self-rated health for Asians than for whites or blacks. Self-rated health is valid for disparities research in large, population-based surveys of US adolescents and young adults. In many of these surveys self-rated health is the only measure of health. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing effective professional bus driver health programs: an investigation of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Shih; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2011-11-01

    The health of professional bus drivers is a critical factor in their driving performance; any impairment may lead to undesired consequences. In an attempt to develop and prioritize health and wellness programs, this study investigates the factors significantly affecting the health conditions of professional bus drivers, as well as the strength of these factors. This study uses self-rated health as the examination measurement. This simple assessment is an inclusive measure of health status for judging health trajectory, and is highly associated with changes in functional ability, including perceived control over driving. This study evaluates driver responses of self-rated health with ordered response models that consider factors such as the driver reported health problems, physical and psychological conditions, demographic factors, driving experience, and working environment. Analysis of a sample of 785 drivers shows that age, body mass index, depression, daily working hours, perceived company safety culture, and health problems are the factors significantly affecting self-rated health. Depression has the greatest effect among all factors except health problems. Unlike the linear relationships for the other factors, the relationships between depression levels and perceived health are S-shaped. The results of ordered response models suggest that these influential factors have distinct effects on the self-rated health of individual drivers and on the different levels of self-rated health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social capital and self-rated health among older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung; Harris, Lesley Maradik

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate determinants of self-rated health and describe their association with social capital and socioeconomic characteristics among older Korean immigrants. A cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants (aged 60 years and older) was conducted in Los Angeles county. Independent variables included age, gender, marital status, income of the older Koreans, and social capital included social norms, trust, partnership with the community, information sharing, and political participation. Self-rated health was the dependent variable. Descriptive analyses were done to show group differences in self-rated health and logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of self-rated health. Gender (male), high income, and high levels of information sharing were significant determinants of high self-rated health status among older Korean immigrants. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that gender, income, and information sharing are directly associated with the self-rated health status of older Korean immigrants.

  3. Poorer self-rated health is associated with elevated inflammatory markers among older adults.

    PubMed

    Christian, Lisa M; Glaser, Ronald; Porter, Kyle; Malarkey, William B; Beversdorf, David; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2011-11-01

    Self-rated health is a strong independent predictor of mortality after accounting for objective health status, behavioral risk factors, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, mechanisms underlying this association are largely unexplained. Inflammation has been associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The current study aimed to: (1) examine associations between self-rated health and serum inflammatory markers in older adults; (2) examine the relative strength of these associations for self-rated health versus self-rated change in recent health; (3) examine components of self-rated health that may underlie the association between inflammation and global self-rated health. Self-rated health, as measured by the RAND health survey, and serum interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed among 250 generally healthy older adults (185 women, 65 men; average age=63.8±13.7 years). A series of linear regression analyses demonstrated that poorer self-rated health was significantly associated with higher IL-6 and CRP. These relationships remained after controlling for age, body mass index, gender, and objective health conditions. These associations also remained after controlling for depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived change in health over the past year, and health behaviors (smoking, sleep quality, and physical activity). Analyses of RAND component measures demonstrated that poorer physical functioning was significantly associated with IL-6; the relationship between global self-rated health and both IL-6 and CRP remained after accounting for perceived physical functioning. Poorer self-rated health is associated with elevated serum inflammatory markers among generally healthy older adults. The relationship of self-rated health with inflammatory markers is not secondary to depressive symptoms, neuroticism, or recent changes in perceived health. Subjective ratings of health provide important clinical information

  4. The association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Louise; Curtis, Tine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the joint association between self-reported physical activity as well as cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health among healthy women and men. Data from 10,416 participants in The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 which took part in 13 Danish municipalities were analyzed. Leisure time physical activity level and self-rated health were based on self-reported questionnaire data. Optimal self-rated health was defined as "very good" or "good" self-rated health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL O2·min(-1)·kg(-1)) was estimated from maximal power output in a maximal cycle exercise test. A strong dose-response relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health as well as between physical activity level and self-rated health among both women and men was found. Within categories of physical activity, odds ratios for optimal self-rated health increased with increasing categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, and vice versa. Hence, participants who were moderately/vigorously physically active and had a high cardiorespiratory fitness had the highest odds ratio for optimal self-rated health compared with sedentary participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness (odds ratio=12.2, 95% confidence interval: 9.3-16.1). Although reluctant to conclude on causality, this study suggests that an active lifestyle as well as good cardiorespiratory fitness probably increase self-rated health. © 2013.

  5. Family Structure and Fathers' Well-Being: Trajectories of Mental Health and Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sarah O.

    2009-01-01

    The association between marital status and health among men has been well documented, but few studies track health trajectories following family structure transitions among unmarried fathers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study this article examines trajectories of paternal mental health and self-rated health, focusing on…

  6. A prospective study of health, life-style and psychosocial predictors of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Pia; Bardage, Carola; Sandin, Sven; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate what psychosocial predictors, life-style factors and health behaviors in early adulthood are of importance for self-ratings of health after the age of 45. Like-sexed adult twins born 1926-1950 (n = 16,080) from the Swedish Twin Registry that participated in a questionnaire in 1973 and in a telephone interview conducted between 1998 and 2002 were included. Exposure data was collected in 1973 and information on self-rated health and covariates was collected at the second contact 25 years later. Logistic regression using Generalized Estimating Equations was used to evaluate the associations. Conditional logistic regression was used to control for familial and genetic effects in the sample. Pain, lack of exercise, smoking, obesity, unemployment, perceived stress and personality are associated with future poor self-rated health, after controlling for age, sex, illness, education and socio-economic status. Familial and genetic effects influence the associations between recurrent headache, exercise, obesity, and poor self-rated health. Overall, these findings provide support for long-term effects of health behavior and psychosocial risk factors on poor self-ratings of health, beyond the influence of obvious health consequences such as disorders or illnesses. Genetic and familial factors are of importance only for some of these associations.

  7. Self-rated health in Senegal: A comparison between urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Duboz, Priscilla; Boëtsch, Gilles; Gueye, Lamine; Macia, Enguerran

    2017-01-01

    Although the relationship between mortality and self-rated health has been demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa, information in this area is rudimentary. In Senegal, no study has been undertaken comparing self-rated health between urban and rural areas. The objective of this study is therefore to compare self-rated health and its main predictors in Dakar and in a rural isolated area, Tessekere municipality, taking into account socio-demographic and economic factors, social relations, as well as measures of physical and mental health. This study was carried out in 2015 on a population sample of 1000 individuals living in Dakar and 500 individuals living in the municipality of Tessekere, constructed using the quota method. Self-rated health, health variables, psychosocial, sociodemographic and economic characteristics were collected during face-to-face interviews. Statistical analyses used were Chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions. Results show that self-rated health in Senegalese urban area (Dakar) is better than in rural area (Tessekere), but the determinants of self-rated health partly differ between these two environments. Age and gender play a fundamental role in self-rated health as much in Dakar as in Tessekere but diabetes and social support play a role in self-rated health only in urban environment, whereas economic well-being is associated to self-rated health only in rural area. The analyses carried out in these two environments show that despite the existence of common determinants (age, gender, stress), the determinants for formulating an answer to the question of self-rated health differ. People's social and cultural environments thus play a fundamental role in the process of rating one's health and, in the short and long term, in the mortality rate.

  8. Self-rated health and associated factors among older people living alone in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Self-rated health is a reliable and important health measure related to older people's mortality and quality of life. Few studies regarding the self-rated health of older people living alone have been carried out in Mainland China. The present study aimed to investigate the self-rated health of older people living alone in Shanghai and its associated factors. A stratified random cluster sample of 521 community-dwelling older people living alone in Shanghai completed structured questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. The data collected included self-rated health, physical health, depression, functional ability, physical activity, health services satisfaction, loneliness, social support and sociodemographic variables. More than two-fifths of the participants (43.2%) reported good self-rated health. Multinomial logistic regression analyses found that chronic disease, acute disease, functional ability, satisfaction with health services, depression and age were predictors of self-rated health. Identifying factors associated with the self-rated health of older people living alone could inform the delivery of appropriate health and social care interventions to promote older people's health. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Language of Interview, Self-Rated Health, and the Other Latino Health Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether the conventional Spanish translation of the self-rated health survey question helps explain why Latinos' self-rated health is worse than Whites' despite more objective health measures showing them to be as healthy as or healthier than are Whites. Methods. We analyzed the relationship between language of interview and self-rated health in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (2001–2003) and the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results. Being interviewed in Spanish was associated with significantly higher odds of rating health as fair or poor in both data sets. Moreover, adjusting for language of interview substantially reduced the gap between Whites and Latinos. Spanish-language interviewees were more likely to rate their health as fair (regular in Spanish) than as any other choice, and this preference was strongest when compared with categories representing better health (good, very good, and excellent). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that translation of the English word “fair” to regular induces Spanish-language respondents to report poorer health than they would in English. Self-rated health should be interpreted with caution, especially in racial/ethnic comparisons, and research should explore alternative translations. PMID:21164101

  10. Immigration, generation and self-rated health in Canada: on the role of health literacy.

    PubMed

    Omariba, D Walter Rasugu; Ng, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in self-rated health by immigration and generational status, and the role of health literacy in this relationship. Data were from the Canadian component of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS) undertaken by Statistics Canada. The sample comprised a total of 22,818 persons, of whom 3,861 were immigrants and 18,957 non-immigrants. The study employed logistic regression to examine the relationship between health literacy and self-rated health. The analysis separately compared: immigrants and non-immigrants; immigrant groups defined by region of origin and recency of arrival in Canada; and the local-born defined by generation. Logistic regression results indicated that immigrants compared to non-immigrants, and recent immigrants not from Europe or USA compared to established immigrants from Europe or USA, were more likely to report good self-rated health. On the other hand, compared to the third-plus generation, the second generation were less likely to report good self-rated health. Health literacy was positively associated with good self-rated health. However, its effect was largely accounted for by discordance between mother tongue and language of survey administration among immigrants, and by literacy practices at home, education, place of residence, and income among non-immigrants. Health literacy is important in the health of both immigrants and non-immigrants, but with different underlying mechanisms. For non-immigrants, engaging in literacy practices at home would benefit both health literacy and overall health, whereas for immigrants, it would be improving proficiency in either English or French.

  11. Marital status, social capital, material conditions and self-rated health: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Associations between marital status and self-rated health were investigated, adjusting for material conditions and trust (social capital). The 2004 public-health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study. A total of 27,757 persons aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate associations between marital status and self-rated health, adjusting for economic problems and trust. The prevalence of poor self-rated health was 28.7% among men and 33.2% among women. Older respondents, respondents born abroad, with medium/low education, low emotional support, low instrumental support, economic problems, low trust, never married and divorced had significantly higher odds ratios of poor self-rated health than their respective reference group. Low trust was significantly higher among the divorced and unmarried compared to the married/cohabitating. Adjustment for economic problems but not for trust reduced the odds ratios of poor self-rated health among the divorced, which became not significant among men. Never married and the divorced have significantly higher age-adjusted odds ratios of poor self-rated health than the married/cohabitating group. Economic problems but not trust seem to affect the association between marital status and poor self-rated health.

  12. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-03-01

    The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651

  14. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Self-rated health and its determinants in Japan and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Lee, K S

    2013-09-01

    To compare self-rated health and its determinants between Japanese and South Koreans. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2496 and 1576 adults (aged ≥20 years) in Japan and Korea, respectively, who completed the 2010 East Asian Social Survey. Ordinal logistic regression was conducted to identify significant factors for self-rated health in the two nations. Japan has a lower level, and a smaller variance, of self-rated health than Korea. This study confirmed traditional results by finding that socio-economic status, daily activity and physical exercise had positive effects on self-rated health; and chronic disease, overweight/obesity and smoking had negative effects on self-rated health. In addition, this study found that: middle-aged (40s/50s) Japanese have lower self-rated health than younger (20s/30s) Japanese; living with a spouse has a negative impact on self-related health in both Japanese and Koreans in their 20s/30s; and mental factors (i.e. happiness, hopelessness and mental health problems) have a greater impact on self-rated health in Japanese than in Koreans, whereas the reverse is true for physical health problems. This study found that many health dynamics depend on the unique context of each nation. Moreover, this study may help to inform the direction of future research on self-rated health and its determinants in other Asian nations. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Predictors of poor self-rated health in an elderly population].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Trinidad; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Sánchez, Alba; Maseda, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Self-Rated Health is part of the comprehensive concept of Quality of Life and is a valid measurement of health status. The main objective of this study was to test the predictive value of some different variables on the poor Self-Rated Health among elders. We performed a cross-sectional study on a sample consisting of 140 participants. age, gender, level of education, environment, cognitive status, physical impairment, diseases, health perception and social support. The influence of the studied variables on the poor Self-Rated Health was performed with a logistic regression analysis and a ROC curve to establish the cut-off values for these variables with the best sensitivity and specificity to predict the poor Self-Rated Health. A poor Self-Rated Health was significantly associated with age, comorbidity, and the perception of poor functional social support, whereas no association was found with gender, environment and educational level. Old age, the number of diagnosed diseases, and functional social support are Self-Rated Health risk factors, while the characteristics and repercussions of the diseases should not be considered. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Christine M; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A

    2013-04-01

    Although research has explored the association between marital quality and physical health in marriage, existing research fails to consider possible bidirectional associations between changes in individuals' marital quality and self-rated health. To address this gap, this study used latent change models to assess whether adults' marital happiness and problems over a 20-year period predicted subsequent changes in self-rated health, as well as whether self-rated health over the same time period was associated with changes in marital happiness and problems. The sample included 707 continuously married adults who participated in all six waves of the Marital Instability Over the Life Course panel study. Participants averaged 35 years in age at the first wave and were continuously married to the same spouse over the 20-year period. Latent differential models in AMOS 19 showed that unidirectional coupling existed for marital happiness and self-rated health only, such that higher levels of marital happiness predicted subsequent elevations in self-rated health over time. No evidence was found for bidirectional coupling between marital problems and self-rated health. Possible explanations for these patterns of results are discussed, including important directions for future researchers.

  18. Associations of self-rated health with different forms of leisure activities among ageing people.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Olli; Sulander, Tommi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Uutela, Antti

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations between self-rated health and specific forms of leisure activities - i. e. singing in a choir, art painting, playing music; art exhibitions, theatre, movies, concerts; religious events; studying and self-development; voluntary work - and investigated how confounding factors contribute to these associations among ageing people in Finland. A postal survey was conducted in 2002 among men and women born in 1926-30, 1936-40 and 1946-50. The final 2,815 participants represented 66% of the original sample drawn, stratified by age, gender, and municipality. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between specific forms of leisure activities and self-rated health. Going to art exhibitions, theatre, movies, and concerts among women and studying and self-development among men were significantly positively related to self-rated health, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES), other sociodemographic variables, obesity, and health behaviours. Among women, active participation in religious events and voluntary work were negatively associated with self-rated health. The association of leisure activities and good self-rated health may differ for genders due to their nature or meaning. Partial support was found for the assumption that leisure activities go together with better self-rated health among ageing people.

  19. Exploring self-rated health among adolescents: a think-aloud study.

    PubMed

    Joffer, Junia; Jerdén, Lars; Öhman, Ann; Flacking, Renée

    2016-02-16

    Despite extensive use of self-rated health questions in youth studies, little is known about what such questions capture among adolescents. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore how adolescents interpret and reason when answering a question about self-rated health. A qualitative study using think-aloud interviews explored the question, "How do you feel most of the time?", using five response options ("Very good", "Rather good", "Neither good, nor bad", "Rather bad", and "Very bad"). The study involved 58 adolescents (29 boys and 29 girls) in lower secondary school (7th grade) and upper secondary school (12th grade) in Sweden. Respondents' interpretations of the question about how they felt included social, mental, and physical aspects. Gender differences were found primarily in that girls emphasized stressors, while age differences were reflected mainly in the older respondents' inclusion of a wider variety of influences on their assessments. The five response options all demonstrated differences in self-rated health, and the respondents' understanding of the middle option, "Neither good, nor bad", varied widely. In the answering of potential sensitive survey questions, rationales for providing honest or biased answers were described. The use of a self-rated health question including the word 'feel' captured a holistic view of health among adolescents. Differences amongst response options should be acknowledged when analyzing self-rated health questions. If anonymity is not feasible when answering questions on self-rated health, a high level of privacy is recommended to increase the likelihood of reliability.

  20. Widowhood and self-rated health among Chinese elders: the effect of economic condition.

    PubMed

    Krochalk, Pamela C; Li, Yawen; Chi, Iris

    2008-03-01

    To examine the mediating effect of economic condition (income, work status, self-rated financial situation and financial support) on widowhood and self-rated health in elderly Chinese. The study sample consists of 17,556 married and widowed elders age 60 and older selected from the nationwide 2000 Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China. Path analysis is used to identify the direct and indirect relationships of economic condition between widowhood and self-rated health. Widowhood has a direct effect on self-rated health for those widowed for more than 4 years. Work status and perceived financial situation mediate that relationship regardless of length of time widowed. Being older, male, less educated, and functionally healthy are associated with better self-rated health among those widowed. Work status and perceived financial situation have a more significant effect on widowhood and self-rated health than income and financial support. The findings have cross-cultural implications for developing elder care programs.

  1. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  2. Using physiological dysregulation to assess global health status: associations with self-rated health and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Vogt, Thomas M; Hillier, Teresa A; Dubanoski, Joan P

    2009-03-01

    Six measures of physiological dysregulation were derived from 11 clinically assessed biomarkers, and related to health outcomes and health behaviors for the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort (N = 470). Measures summing extreme scores at one tail of the biomarker distributions performed better than ones summing both tails, and continuous measures performed better than count scores. Health behaviors predicted men's dysregulation but not women's. Dysregulation and health behaviors predicted self-rated health for both men and women, and depressive symptoms predicted self-rated health only for women. These findings provide preliminary guidelines for constructing valid summary measures of global health status for use in health psychology.

  3. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, James E; Young, Rodney

    2004-06-03

    The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11), but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively). Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were.19 and.22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to.0043 and.0332). Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.

  4. Psychological Resources and Self-rated Health Status on Fifty-year-old Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to expand knowledge about predictors of the self-rated health and mental health in fifty-year-old women. The study exploring links between self-rated mental/health and optimism, self-esteem, acceptance of the changes in physical look and some sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants in this study were 209 women aged 50 to 59. A single-items measures of self-rated health and mental health were used. Self-esteem was measured through the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; optimism through the OPEB questionnaire; acceptance of the changes in physical look was rated by respondents on a seven-point scale. Participants were also asked about weight loss attempts, the amount of leisure time, and going on vacation during the last year. Results Predictors of the self-rated mental health in women in the age range of 50 to 59 were: acceptance of the changes in physical look, self-esteem and optimism. Predictors of the self-rated health were: optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look. Conclusion Optimism and acceptance of the changes in physical look seem to be important factors that may impact subjective health both physical and mental of women in their 50s. The role of the leisure time and vacation in instilling the subjective health requires further investigation. PMID:26793678

  5. Self-rated health and standard risk factors for myocardial infarction: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Robert; Forssén, Annika

    2015-02-13

    To investigate the relationship between self-rated health, adjusted for standard risk factors, and myocardial infarction. Population-based prospective cohort study. Enrolment took place between 1990 and 2004 in Västerbotten County, Sweden Every year, persons in the total population, aged 40, 50 or 60 were invited. Participation rate was 60%. The cohort consisted of 75 386 men and women. After exclusion for stroke or myocardial infarction before, or within 12 months after enrolment or death within 12 months after enrolment, 72 530 persons remained for analysis. Mean follow-up time was 13.2 years. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate HRs for the end point of first non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction. HR were adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, body mass index, education, physical activity and self-rated health in the categories very good; pretty good; somewhat good; pretty poor or poor. In the cohort, 2062 persons were diagnosed with fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Poor self-rated health adjusted for sex and age was associated with the outcome with HR 2.03 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.84). All categories of self-rated health worse than very good were statistically significant and showed a dose-response relationship. In a multivariable analysis with standard risk factors (not including physical activity and education) HR was attenuated to 1.61 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.31) for poor self-rated health. All categories of self-rated health remained statistically significant. We found no interaction between self-rated health and standard risk factors except for poor self-rated health and diabetes. This study supports the use of self-rated health as a standard risk factor among others for myocardial infarction. It remains to demonstrate whether self-rated health adds predictive value for myocardial infarction in combined algorithms with standard risk factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  6. Life course indices for social determinants of self-rated health trajectory in Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiae; Cho, Sung-Il; Chun, Heeran; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Kang, Minah; Jang, Soong-Nang

    This study investigated the self-rated health trajectories of the Korean older population and revealed life-course factors that affect the trajectories over the life course. Around 1000 older adults were randomly allocated by stratified multi-stage sampling based on the population census, and underwent face-to-face interviews. Self-rated health status, socioeconomic variables over the life course, and demographic variables were included in the analysis. A group-based trajectory model was used to investigate the association between self-rated health and explanatory variables. The enrolled men and women were divided into three groups by trajectory analysis, which showed marked differences in self-rated health trajectories from childhood to senescence. Among older men, those who experienced skipping meals in childhood and those with chronic disease conditions were more likely to be in the lower trajectory groups. Compared to the older men, the likelihood of being in the lower trajectory groups in older women was increased by experience of skipping meals, lower household income, housekeeping labor, receiving Basic Livelihood Security and chronic disease conditions. Various self-rated health trajectories of the Korean older population were identified, and differed according to socioeconomic variables during their life course. Therefore, socioeconomic variables during the life course should be monitored, and health policies directed at the elderly should focus on initial health status from the perspective of a life-course approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Religious Involvement, Humility, and Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a conceptual model that assesses the following theoretical linkages: (1) people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., encouragement to adopt religious teachings and principles); (2) individuals who get more frequent spiritual support are more likely to be humble; and (3) people with greater humility tend to rate their health more favorably. The data come from the third wave of a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The data provide support for each of the conceptual linkages identified above.

  8. Religious Involvement, Humility, and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a conceptual model that assesses the following theoretical linkages: (1) people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (i.e., encouragement to adopt religious teachings and principles); (2) individuals who get more frequent spiritual support are more likely to be humble; and (3) people with greater humility tend to rate their health more favorably. The data come from the third wave of a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The data provide support for each of the conceptual linkages identified above. PMID:20703366

  9. Self-rated health and health care utilization after military deployments.

    PubMed

    Trump, David H

    2006-07-01

    Self-rated general health is one element of the standard health assessment required of U.S. military service members upon completion of major deployments. A cohort study of 22,229 male U.S. Army and Air Force personnel returning from Europe or Southwest Asia in 2000 used survival analysis methods and Cox proportional hazard models to examine postdeployment self-rated health (SRH) status and subsequent hospitalization, separation, and ambulatory care visits. Self-rated health was fair/poor for 1.5% and good for 20.4%; 11% documented at least one health concern. During 30,433 person-years of follow-up (median, 1.5 person-years), there were 22.8 hospitalizations per 1,000 person-years and 4.0 ambulatory care visits per person-years. After adjustment, deployers with fair/poor SRH had an increased risk for hospitalization (hazard ratio [HRI, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0,2.7); the risk was lower for those with good SRH (HR, 1.3; 95% CI,1.1,1.5). Deployers with fair/poor SRH health had an increased risk for illness-related ambulatory care visits (HR, 1.8, 95%; CI, 1.6,2.1) and administrative visits (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1,1.7), but not injury-related visits (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8,1.7). Self-reported low health status and other health concerns identify military members with higher levels of health care needs following return from major deployments.

  10. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  11. Self-rated job performance and absenteeism according to employee engagement, health behaviors, and physical health.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Grossmeier, Jessica J; Whitmer, R William

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.

  12. Self-Rated Health Appraisal as Cultural and Identity Process: African American Elders' Health and Evaluative Rationales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Carmit K.; Luborsky, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We explored self-rated health by using a meaning-centered theoretical foundation. Self-appraisals, such as self-rated health, reflect a cultural process of identity formation, whereby identities are multiple, simultaneously individual and collective, and produced by specific historical formations. Anthropological research in Philadelphia…

  13. Reports of self-rated health by citizenship and homeownership, United States 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Patricia Y; Reyes, Adriana; Hudson, Darrell; Yao, Nengliang; Bleser, William K; Amy Snipes, S; BeLue, Rhonda

    2017-03-18

    Citizenship facilitates home ownership, which promotes access to additional resources and structures social context, factors that improve the health of individuals and communities. The objective of this study was to examine whether citizenship moderated the association between homeownership and self-rated health. We used multivariate logistic regression models and propensity score matching techniques to examine this association using pooled years 2000-2010 of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data linked with the National Health Interview Survey to examine U.S. adults aged 18 and older (N=170,429). Rates of fair/poor health among homeowners vs. non-homeowners were comparable for foreign-born non-citizens. However, native- and foreign-born citizen non-homeowners showed significantly higher rates of reporting fair/poor health, with native-born citizens having the highest rates of poor health. While homeownership is protective for self-rated health, not meeting the "American Dream" of home ownership may be embodied more in the health of native-born citizens as "failure" and translate into poorer self-rated health. However, the economic privileges of homeownership and its association with better self-rated health are limited to citizens. Non-citizens may be disadvantaged despite socioeconomic position, particularly wealth as considered by homeownership, placing citizenship at the forefront as the most proximate and important burden besides socioeconomic status that needs further investigation as a fundamental health determinant.

  14. Neighbourhood characteristics, social capital and self-rated health - A population-based survey in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In previous public health surveys large differences in health have been shown between citizens living in different neighbourhoods in the Örebro municipality, which has about 125000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of health with an emphasis on the importance of neighbourhood characteristics such as the influence of neighbourhood social cohesion and social capital. The point of departure in this study was a conceptual model inspired by the work of Carpiano, where different factors related to the neighbourhood have been used to find associations to individual self-rated health. Methods We used data from the survey 'Life & Health 2004' sent to inhabitants aged 18-84 years in Örebro municipality, Sweden. The respondents (n = 2346) answered a postal questionnaire about living conditions, housing conditions, health risk factors and individual health. The outcome variable was self-rated health. In the analysis we applied logistic regression modelling in various model steps following a conceptual model. Results The results show that poor self-rated health was associated with social capital, such as lack of personal support and no experience of being made proud even after controlling for strong factors related to health, such as age, disability pension, ethnicity and economic stress. Also the neighbourhood factors, housing area and residential stability were associated with self-rated health. Poor self-rated health was more common among people living in areas with predominately large blocks of flats or areas outside the city centre. Moreover, people who had lived in the same area 1-5 years reported poor health more frequently than those who had lived there longer. Conclusions The importance of the neighbourhood and social capital for individual health is confirmed in this study. The neighbourhoods could be emphasized as settings for health promotion. They can be constructed to promote social interaction which in turn

  15. Self-rated mental health and socio-economic background: a study of adolescents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Katrin; Nyholm, Maria; Nygren, Jens M; Svedberg, Petra

    2014-04-23

    Adolescents' mental health is a major public health issue. Previous research has shown that socio-economic factors contribute to the health status of adolescents. The present study explores the association between socio-economic status and self-rated mental health among adolescents. Cross sectional data from the Halmstad Youth Quality of Life cohort was collected in a town in Sweden. In all, 948 adolescents (11-13 younger age group and 14-16 older age group) participated. Information on self-rated mental health was collected from the subscale Psychological functioning in the Minneapolis Manchester Quality of Life instrument. The items were summarized into a total score and dichotomized by the mean. Indicators measuring socio-economic status (SES) were collected in a questionnaire using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and additional factors regarding parents' marital status and migration were added. Logistic models were used to analyze the data. Girls were more likely to rate their mental health below the mean compared to boys. With regard to FAS (high, medium, low), there was a significantly increased risk of self-rated mental health below the mean among younger boys in the medium FAS score OR; 2.68 (95% CI 1.35;5.33) and among older boys in the low FAS score OR; 2.37 (1.02;5.52) compared to boys in the high FAS score. No such trend was seen among girls. For younger girls there was a significant protective association between having parents born abroad and self-rated mental health below mean OR: 0.47 (0.24;0.91). A complex pattern of associations between SES and self-rated mental health, divergent between age and gender groups, was shown. The total FAS score was only associated with boys' self-rated mental health in both age groups, whereas parents' migratory status influenced only the girls' self-rated mental health. Because of the different association for girls' and boys' self-rated mental health and SES, other factors than SES should also be considered when

  16. Income gaps in self-rated poor health and its association with life expectancy in 245 districts of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-01

    To examine the income gaps associated with self-rated poor health at the district level in Korea and to identify the geographical correlations between self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and the associated income gaps. We analyzed data for 1,578,189 participants from the Community Health Survey of Korea collected between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of self-rated poor health and the associated income gaps were calculated. Previously released data on life expectancy and the associated income gaps were also used. We performed correlation and regression analyses for self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and associated income gaps. Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of self-rated poor health was 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6 to 16.8%), with interquartile range (IQR) of 3.1 percentage points (%p). The median interquintile gaps in the prevalence of self-rated poor health was 11.1%p (95% CI, 8.1 to 14.5%p), with IQR of 3.6%p. Pro-rich inequalities in self-rated health were observed across all 245 districts of Korea. The correlation coefficients for the association between self-rated poor health and the associated income gaps, self-rated poor health and life expectancy, and income gaps associated with self-rated poor health and life expectancy were 0.59, 0.78 and 0.55 respectively. Income gaps associated with self-rated poor health were evident across all districts in Korea. The magnitude of income gaps associated with self-rated poor health was larger in the districts with greater prevalence of self-rated poor health. A strong correlation between self-rated poor health and life expectancy was also observed.

  17. Predictors of Self-Efficacy and Self-Rated Health for Older Male Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Steffensmeier, Darrell; Kassab, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine: (1) the relationships between self-efficacy for health management and (a) health-promoting behaviors, (b) health-monitoring behaviors, and (c) self-rated health status in older male prisoners; and (2) the variations in self-rated health status and self-efficacy for health management by inmate characteristics of older men in prison. Background The graying of the inmate population around the globe can be attributed to increases in punitive crime control practices, life expectancy; and the aging baby boom generation. Older inmates are typically not a healthy group. Therefore, the needs of burgeoning numbers of older, sicker inmates are issues of international significance. Methods A descriptive, correlational, survey was conducted from late 2007 to mid-2008 with Bandura’s self-efficacy model as the guiding framework. Results/Findings Participants were 131 male inmates, age 50 and older. A significant positive relationship was found between self-efficacy for health management and the indexes measuring health-promoting behaviors (r=0.550; P<0.001), health-monitoring behaviors (r=0.323; P=0.001), and the single item rating for self-rated health (τb=0.411; P<0.001). There was a tendency for education to be positively related to self-rated health, but not self-efficacy (τb =0.140; P=0.054 and τb=0.105; P=0.122, respectively). Years of incarceration was not significantly related to self-rated health or self-efficacy. Conclusion These research findings support Bandura’s self-efficacy theoretical work and its applicability to health-related research in prisons. Nurses are front line health care providers in prison, who are in a key position to implement interventions that promote greater inmate self-efficacy for healthy behaviors and chronic disease management. PMID:21198807

  18. Determinants of poor self-rated health among adults in urban Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cau, Boaventura M; Falcão, Joana; Arnaldo, Carlos

    2016-08-24

    Self-rated health is a measure expressing the general condition of health of individuals. Self-rated health studies are common in developed countries and in some developing regions. Despite increasing proportion of adult and older population in sub-Saharan Africa and poor population health indicators, there is a dearth of studies on self-rated health in the region. This study examines factors associated with poor self-rated health among adult individuals in Maputo metropolitan area in Mozambique. Data for this study come from a survey of 1768 individuals aged 18 years or more carried out in Maputo metropolitan area, Mozambique, in 2015. Employing multiple logistic regression, the study used a subsample of 677 female and male respondents aged 40 years or more to estimate the determinants of poor self-rated health. About 54 % of respondents aged 40 years or more believed that their health status was poor. Female respondents [Odds Ratios (OR) = 3.43, p <0.01], single (OR = 4.71, p < 0.05), widow (OR = 1.81, p < 0.05), separated or divorced (OR = 2.08, p < 0.05) and those believing that hypertension or heart problem was a major community health problem (OR = 1.56, p < 0.05) displayed higher odds of reporting poor health than their peers, net of other factors. Furthermore, individuals aged 40-49 years (OR = 0.45, p < 0.01), or 50-59 years (OR = 0.59, p < 0.05), those whose work involves intensive physical activity (OR = 0.60, p < 0.05) and those from households treating drinking water (OR = 0.49, p < 0.01) showed lower odds of reporting poor health, adjusting for other factors. Overall, the results point to the importance of age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic circumstances, individuals' health behaviors and perceived community health problems as key determinants of poor self-rated health among adults in Maputo metropolitan area. Given the growing number of adult and older people in sub

  19. Is Occupation a Good Predictor of Self-Rated Health in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhijun; Jian, Weiyan; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-01-01

    Background China’s rapidly changing economic landscape has led to widening social inequalities. Occupational status in terms of occupational type and prestige may reflect these socio-structural shifts of social position and be more predictive of self-rated health status than income and education, which may only reflect more gradual acquisitions of social status over time. The goals of this study were to understand the role of occupational status in predicting self-rated health, which is well known to be associated with long-term mortality, as well as compare the occupational status to the other major socioeconomic indicators of income and education. Methods Data from the 2010 baseline surveys of the China Family Panel Studies, which utilized multi-stage probability sampling with implicit stratification was used. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of various socioeconomic indicators (i.e. occupational status, income, and education) with self-rated health as the primary outcome of interest. A series of models considered the associations of occupational category or occupational prestige with self-rated health. Results The final sample consisted of 14,367 employed adults aged 18–60, which was nationally representative of working adults in China. We found that occupation was not a major predictor of self-rated health in China when age, ethnicity, location, marital status, physical and mental health status were controlled for, with the exception of women working in lower grade management and professional jobs (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.03–3.22). In comparison, income followed by education exhibited greater association with self-rated health. The highest income group had the least probability to report poor health (In men: OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.21–0.43. In women: OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73). People educated with junior high school had better self-rated health than those with primary and below education level (In men: OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50–0

  20. Poor self-rated health predicts mortality in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Inkrot, Simone; Lainscak, Mitja; Edelmann, Frank; Loncar, Goran; Stankovic, Ivan; Celic, Vera; Apostolovic, Svetlana; Tahirovic, Elvis; Trippel, Tobias; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Gelbrich, Götz; Düngen, Hans-Dirk

    2016-12-01

    In heart failure, a holistic approach incorporating the patient's perspective is vital for prognosis and treatment. Self-rated health has strong associations with adverse events and short-term mortality risk, but long-term data are limited. We investigated the predictive value of two consecutive self-rated health assessments with regard to long-term mortality in a large, well characterised sample of elderly patients with stable chronic heart failure. We measured self-rated health by asking 'In general, would you say your health is: 1, excellent; 2, very good; 3, good; 4, fair; 5, poor?' twice: at baseline and the end of a 12-week beta-blocker up-titration period in the CIBIS-ELD trial. Mortality was assessed in an observational follow-up after 2-4 years. A total of 720 patients (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 45±12%, mean age 73±5 years, 36% women) rated their health at both time points. During long-term follow-up, 144 patients died (all-cause mortality 20%). Fair/poor self-rated health in at least one of the two reports was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.42 per level; 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.75; P<0.001). It remained independently significant in multiple Cox regression analysis, adjusted for N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), heart rate and other risk prediction covariates. Self-rated health by one level worse was as predictive for mortality as a 1.9-fold increase in NTproBNP. Poor self-rated health predicts mortality in our long-term follow-up of patients with stable chronic heart failure, even after adjustment for established risk predictors. We encourage clinicians to capture patient-reported self-rated health routinely as an easy to assess, clinically meaningful measure and pay extra attention when self-rated health is poor. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  1. Neighborhood environment and self-rated health among adults in Southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Jayawardana, Chandramali

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence of different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%), stray dog problems (26.8%), nuisance from neighbors (20.3%), and nuisance from drug users (18.7%) were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, but nuisance from neighbors, nuisance from drug users, shortage of water and having poor water/sewage drainage system were associated with self-rated mental health among the respondents.

  2. Tourism Experiences and Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danan; Zhu, Haiyan; Brown, Tyson; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate factors associated with tourism experiences, and the association between tourism experiences and subsequent self-rated health. Multilevel logistic regression models and four waves of panel data from a large nationally representative survey of older adults in China were employed. Those who had a tourism experience tended to be younger, men, urban residents, have a higher socioeconomic status (SES), and frequently participate in leisure activities and exercise. However, controlling for SES, women were more likely than men to have a tourism experience. Notably, tourism was negatively associated with poor self-rated health and the association was robust to adjustments for a wide range of confounders. The net beneficial impact of tourism on self-rated health may operate through several mechanisms such as improvements in tourists' cognitive functioning, healthy lifestyles, self-esteen, family and social relations, and psychological and spirtual well-being. Tourism participation is an effective way to promote healthy aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Tourism Experiences and Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Danan; Zhu, Haiyan; Brown, Tyson; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with tourism experiences, and the association between tourism experiences and subsequent self-rated health. Method Multilevel logistic regression models and four waves of panel data from a large nationally representative survey of older adults in China were employed. Results Those who had a tourism experience tended to be younger, men, urban residents, have a higher socioeconomic status (SES), and frequently participate in leisure activities and exercise. However, controlling for SES, women were more likely than men to have a tourism experience. Notably, tourism was negatively associated with poor self-rated health and the association was robust to adjustments for a wide range of confounders. Discussion The net beneficial impact of tourism on self-rated health may operate through several mechanisms such as improvements in tourists’ cognitive functioning, healthy lifestyles, self-esteen, family and social relations, and psychological and spirtual well-being. Tourism participation is an effective way to promote healthy aging. PMID:26486781

  4. Conscientiousness mediates the relation between perceived parental socialisation and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Roberts, Brent W; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The pathways between parenting behaviours, personality and physical health have all been separately studied. Prior research has paid little attention to the indirect effects of personality in the path between parenting behaviours and better health. The purpose of this study was to explore the mediational effects of conscientiousness on the relationships between parental socialisation of responsibility and self-rated health, and to examine potential age differences in this mediational pathway. In total, 736 female and 749 male members across Japan participated in this study. They were divided into three groups by age category: younger-, middle-aged and older-aged. Conscientiousness and health were concurrently rated, while parental socialisation of responsibility was retrospectively assessed. Our analyses revealed that parental socialisation of responsibility is positively associated with conscientiousness and self-rated health, that conscientiousness is positively associated with self-rated health, and that conscientiousness fully mediated the effect of parental socialisation of responsibility on self-rated health. The mediational links were consistent across younger, middle-aged and older-aged cohorts. Our findings suggest that greater parental socialisation of responsibility relates to higher conscientiousness, and consequently healthier adults. These findings imply that parental behaviours could be a plausible target for intervention to foster the development of conscientiousness and better health.

  5. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  6. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  7. Physical activity, screen time and self-rated health and mental health in Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Hopman, Wilma M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) are associated with self-rated health (SRH) in adults; however, SRH has been less studied among youth, and information about self-rated mental health (SRMH) is lacking. This study examined the associations of PA and ST with SRH and SRMH among adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2011-2012 Canadian Community Health Survey included 7725 participants aged 12-17years, representing 1,820,560 Canadian adolescents. Associations of self-reported PA and ST to SRH and SRMH were assessed, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, smoking, highest household education and weight status. Excellent/very good SRH was reported by 78% of active vs. 62% of inactive adolescents, and 77% of those meeting vs. 70% of those exceeding ST guidelines (both p<0.001). Excellent/very good SRMH was reported by 81% of active vs. 76% of inactive adolescents, and 84% of those meeting vs. 78% of those exceeding ST guidelines (both p<0.001). Inactive adolescents had twice higher odds of sub-optimal SRH, and inactive girls had 30% greater odds of sub-optimal SRMH. Adolescents exceeding 2h/day ST had 30% greater odds of sub-optimal SRH, and 30-50% greater odds of sub-optimal SRMH. PA and ST are independently associated with health perceptions among Canadian adolescents. Interventions should consider health perceptions in addition to biomedical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-rated health and hospital services use in the Spanish National Health System: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Fonseca, Nayara; Nolasco, Andreu; Quesada, Jose A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Melchor, Inmaculada; Moncho, Joaquin; Calabuig, Julia; Barona, Carmen

    2015-11-04

    Self-rated health is a subjective measure that has been related to indicators such as mortality, morbidity, functional capacity, and the use of health services. In Spain, there are few longitudinal studies associating self-rated health with hospital services use. The purpose of this study is to analyze the association between self-rated health and socioeconomic, demographic, and health variables, and the use of hospital services among the general population in the Region of Valencia, Spain. Longitudinal study of 5,275 adults who were included in the 2005 Region of Valencia Health Survey and linked to the Minimum Hospital Data Set between 2006 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios between use of hospital services and self-rated health, sex, age, educational level, employment status, income, country of birth, chronic conditions, disability and previous use of hospital services. By the end of a 4-year follow-up period, 1,184 participants (22.4%) had used hospital services. Use of hospital services was associated with poor self-rated health among both men and women. In men, it was also associated with unemployment, low income, and the presence of a chronic disease. In women, it was associated with low educational level, the presence of a disability, previous hospital services use, and the presence of chronic disease. Interactions were detected between self-rated health and chronic disease in men and between self-rated health and educational level in women. Self-rated health acts as a predictor of hospital services use. Various health and socioeconomic variables provide additional predictive capacity. Interactions were detected between self-rated health and other variables that may reflect different complex predictive models, by gender.

  9. Neighbourhood environment and its association with self rated health: evidence from Scotland and England.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Steven; Stafford, Mai; Macintyre, Sally; Marmot, Michael; Ellaway, Anne

    2005-03-01

    To investigate associations between measures of neighbourhood social and material environment and self rated health. New contextual measures added to cross sectional study of a sample of people from the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey to provide multilevel data. 13,899 men and women aged 16 or over for whom data on self rated health were available from the Health Survey for England (years 1994-99) and the Scottish Health Survey (years 1995 and 1998). Fair to very bad self rated health was significantly associated with six neighbourhood attributes: poor physical quality residential environment, left wing political climate, low political engagement, high unemployment, lower access to private transport, and lower transport wealth. Associations were independent of sex, age, social class, and economic activity. Odds ratios were larger for non-employed residents than for employed residents. Self rated health was not significantly associated with five other neighbourhood measures: public recreation facilities, crime, health service provision, access to food shops, or access to banks and buildings societies. Some, but not all, features of the neighbourhood environment are associated with self rated health and may be indicators of important causal pathways that could provide a focus for public health intervention strategies. Associations were more pronounced for non-employed residents, perhaps because of greater exposure to the local environment compared with employed people. Operationalizing specific measures of the characteristics of local areas hypothesised to be important for living a healthy life provides a more focused approach than general measures of deprivation in the search for area effects.

  10. Social capital and self-rated health in urban low income neighbourhoods in Chile.

    PubMed

    Sapag, J C; Aracena, M; Villarroel, L; Poblete, F; Berrocal, C; Hoyos, R; Martínez, M; Kawachi, I

    2008-09-01

    To examine the potential association between social capital and self-rated health within a low income community of Santiago, Chile. Cross-sectional survey, based on in-home interviews in the municipality of Puente Alto in Santiago, Chile. The participants were 781 residents of four neighbourhoods within Puente Alto (mean age 45.5 years). Principal components analysis with varimax rotation identified five domains of social capital: perceived trust in neighbours, perceived trust in organisations, reciprocity within the neighbourhood, neighbourhood integration, and social participation (Cronbach alphas: 0.58 to 0.77). Trust and reciprocity were significantly associated with better self-rated health. For example, a one standard deviation increase in trust in neighbours was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.10 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.05 to 1.15) for reporting good self-rated health. By contrast, social participation was associated with a lower odds (0.89, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.06) of reporting good health. Neighbourhood social cohesion, measured by trust and reciprocity, is associated with higher self-rated health. However, social participation did not appear to be associated with better health in this predominantly low income neighbourhood. These findings provide preliminary support to the relevance for social capital as a determinant of health in Chile.

  11. Factors associated with self-rated health among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-09-26

    The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.

  12. Individual health care system distrust and neighborhood social environment: how are they jointly associated with self-rated health?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A; Shoff, Carla

    2011-10-01

    Americans' distrust in the health care system has increased in the past decades; however, little research has explored the impact of distrust on self-rated health and even less is known about whether neighborhood social environment plays a role in understanding the relationship between distrust and self-rated health. This study fills these gaps by investigating both the direct and moderating associations of neighborhood social environment with self-rated health. Our analysis is based on the 2008 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's household survey and neighborhood-level data. Findings from multilevel logistic regression show that after controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, distrust is directly and adversely related to self-rated health, and that neighborhood social affluence and stability are directly and negatively associated with the odds of reporting poor/fair health. Neighborhood disadvantage and crime rates are not directly related to self-rated health, but increase the odds of having poor/fair health via distrust. Overall, our results suggest that macro-level actions can alter individual's perception of residential environment and lead to improved health. To improve the public health in an urban setting, rebuilding confidence in the health care system is integral, and the policies that help establish safe and cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the adverse effect of distrust on self-rated health.

  13. [Self-rated health and social inequalities, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2005].

    PubMed

    Alazraqui, Marcio; Diez Roux, Ana V; Fleischer, Nancy; Spinelli, Hugo

    2009-09-01

    Self-rated health is a quality-of-life indicator. This study investigates the impact of individual-level and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics, considered simultaneously, on the state of self-rated health at the individual level in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study employs a two-level (individual and neighborhood) multilevel analysis, and the data sources were the 2005 Argentina National Risk Factor Survey (multistage probabilistic sample) and the 2001 Population Census. Linear regression shows that higher schooling and income, as well as occupational category, are related to better self-rated health, and increasing age with worse health. In the multilevel analysis, an increase in the proportion (per census tract) of individuals with less schooling was associated with an increase in the proportion of individuals with worse self-rated health. Improving the general health of the population requires strategies and action that reduce the levels of social inequalities in their multiple dimensions, including the individual and neighborhood levels.

  14. Primary Care, Self-rated Health, and Reductions in Social Disparities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leiyu; Starfield, Barbara; Politzer, Robert; Regan, Jerri

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which good primary-care experience attenuates the adverse association of income inequality with self-reported health. Data Sources Data for the study were drawn from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sponsored 1996–1997 Community Tracking Study (CTS) Household Survey and state indicators of income inequality and primary care. Study Design Cross-sectional, mixed-level analysis on individuals with a primary-care physician as their usual source of care. The analyses were weighted to represent the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the continental United States. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Principal component factor analysis was used to explore the structure of the primary-care indicators and examine their construct validity. Income inequality for the state in which the community is located was measured by the Gini coefficient, calculated using income distribution data from the 1996 current population survey. Stratified analyses compared proportion of individuals reporting bad health and feeling depressed with those with good and bad primary-care experiences for each of the four income-inequality strata. A set of logistic regressions were performed to examine the relation between primary-care experience, income inequality, and self-rated health. Principal Findings Good primary-care experience, in particular enhanced accessibility and continuity, was associated with better self-reported health both generally and mentally. Good primary-care experience was able to reduce the adverse association of income inequality with general health although not with mental health, and was especially beneficial in areas with highest income inequality. Socioeconomic status attenuated, but did not eliminate, the effect of primary-care experience on health. In conclusion, good primary-care experience is associated not only with improved self-rated overall and mental health but also with reductions in disparities between more- and less

  15. Depression: Problem-solving appraisal and self-rated health among Hong Kong Chinese migrant women.

    PubMed

    Chow, Susan K Y; Chan, Wing Chi

    2010-09-01

    This cross-sectional survey explored the depression status of new migrant women and its relationship with self-rated health in the Hong Kong Chinese context. A convenience sample of 68 migrant women volunteered to participate in the study. The data were collected by using the Problem Solving Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaire, and a self-rated health scale. The respondents were found to have a lesser degree of problem-solving appraisal, compared with other populations, and almost half of the volunteers were found to be depressed. Approximately 50% of the women reported their general health as "excellent", "very good", or "good". The Pearson's correlation showed a positive significant correlation between problem-solving appraisal, depression, and self-rated health. The results of the regression analysis showed that family income, self-rated health, and problem-solving confidence are predictive factors of depression. Community nurses could consider using multidisciplinary interventions that focus on life-skills training in order to promote the psychological and general wellness of migrant women in addition to the use of counseling or medication interventions.

  16. Rising U.S. income inequality, gender and individual self-rated health, 1972-2004.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui

    2009-11-01

    The effect of income inequality on health has been a contested topic among social scientists. Most previous research is based on cross-sectional comparisons rather than temporal comparisons. Using data from the General Social Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines how rising income inequality affects individual self-rated health in the U.S. from 1972 to 2004. Data are analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models. The findings suggest a significant association between income inequality and individual self-rated health. The dramatic increase in income inequality from 1972 to 2004 increases the odds of worse self-rated health by 9.4 percent. These findings hold for three measures of income inequality: the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson Index, and the Theil entropy index. Results also suggest that overall income inequality and gender-specific income inequality harm men's, but not women's, self-rated health. These findings also hold for the three measures of income inequality. These findings suggest that inattention to gender composition may explain apparent discrepancies across previous studies.

  17. Favourable changes in economic well-being and self-rated health among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2011-04-01

    Adverse economic shocks exert an influence on health perceptions, but little is known about the effect of sudden positive changes in a person's financial situation on self-rated health, particularly among low income people. This paper explores the association between an increase in the amount of non-contribution pensions, public cash transfers given to Costa Rican elderly of low socio-economic status (SES) and changes in self-rated health over time. The analysis is based on data from CRELES, the "Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging", which is based on a probabilistic sample of people born in 1945 or earlier, and living in Costa Rica by 2002. The fieldwork for the first and second waves of CRELES was conducted from 2004 to 2006, and from 2006 to 2008, respectively. The Costa Rican Government raised the amount of the non-contribution pension for the poor 100% before July 2007, and an additional 100% after that date. Due to the CRELES fieldwork schedule, the data have a natural quasi-experimental design, given that approximately half of CRELES respondents were interviewed before July 2007, independently of their status in receiving the public cash transfers. Using random effects ordered probit regression models, we find that people who experienced such increase report a greater improvement in self-rated health between waves than those who experienced a smaller increase and than the rest of the interviewees. Results suggest that increases in income may lead to a greater improvement in self-rated health.

  18. Self-Rated Health and Long-Term Prognosis of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ambresin, Gilles; Chondros, Patty; Dowrick, Christopher; Herrman, Helen; Gunn, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Indicators of prognosis should be considered to fully inform clinical decision making in the treatment of depression. This study examines whether self-rated health predicts long-term depression outcomes in primary care. METHODS Our analysis was based on the first 5 years of a prospective 10-year cohort study underway since January 2005 conducted in 30 randomly selected Australian primary care practices. Participants were 789 adult patients with a history of depressive symptoms. Main outcome measures include risks, risk differences, and risk ratios of major depressive syndrome (MDS) on the Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Retention rates during the 5 years were 660 (84%), 586 (74%), 560 (71%), 533 (68%), and 517 (66%). At baseline, MDS was present in 27% (95% CI, 23%–30%). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data showed participants reporting poor or fair self-rated health had greater odds of chronic illness, MDS, and lower socioeconomic status than those reporting good to excellent self-rated health. For participants rating their health as poor to fair compared with those rating it good to excellent, risk ratios of MDS were 2.10 (95% CI, 1.60–2.76), 2.38 (95% CI, 1.77–3.20), 2.22 (95% CI, 1.70–2.89), 1.73 (95% CI, 1.30–2.28), and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.59–2.90) at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, after accounting for missing data using multiple imputation. After adjusting for age, sex, multimorbidity, and depression status and severity, self-rated health remained a predictor of MDS up to 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Self-rated health offers family physicians an efficient and simple way to identify patients at risk of poor long-term depression outcomes and to inform therapeutic decision making. PMID:24445104

  19. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. Methods We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. Results For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87–1.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96–1.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19–2.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26–2.51). Conclusion There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social

  20. Food Insecurity, Self-Rated Health, and Obesity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knol, Linda L.; Robb, Cliff A.; McKinley, Erin M.; Wood, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of food insecurity among college students ranges from 14% to 59%. Most of the research to date has examined the determinants of food insecurity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between food insecurity and self-rated health and obesity among college students living off campus. Methods:…

  1. Financial Hardship and Self-Rated Health among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among…

  2. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Assess Group Differences in General Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Freese, Jeremy; Hauser, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses a potentially serious problem with the widely used self-rated health (SRH) survey item: that different groups have systematically different ways of using the item's response categories. Analyses based on unadjusted SRH may thus yield misleading results. The authors evaluate anchoring vignettes as a possible solution to this…

  3. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  4. Financial Hardship and Self-Rated Health among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among…

  5. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  6. Educational attainment and self-rated health status among single mothers in rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    Zekeri, Andrew A

    2013-08-01

    Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.

  7. Democracy and self-rated health across 67 countries: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Patrick M; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T

    2015-10-01

    Existing research has found a positive association between countries' level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Democracy and Self-Rated Health across 67 Countries: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Patrick M.; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T.

    2015-01-01

    Existing research has found a positive association between countries’ level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health. PMID:26356825

  9. Political regimes, political ideology, and self-rated health in Europe: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V

    2010-07-22

    Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime.

  10. Political Regimes, Political Ideology, and Self-Rated Health in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Methodology/Principal Findings Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime. PMID:20661433

  11. The Contribution of Health Literacy to Disparities in Self-Rated Health Status and Preventive Health Behaviors in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ian M.; Chen, Jing; Soroui, Jaleh S.; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Health literacy is associated with a range of poor health-related outcomes. Evidence that health literacy contributes to disparities in health is minimal and based on brief screening instruments that have limited ability to assess health literacy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether health literacy contributes, through mediation, to racial/ethnic and education-related disparities in self-rated health status and preventive health behaviors among older adults. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 2,668 US adults aged 65 years and older from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess for evidence of mediation. RESULTS Of older adults in the United States, 29% reported fair or poor health status, and 27% to 39% reported not utilizing 3 recommended preventive health care services in the year preceding the assessment (influenza vaccination 27%, mammography 34%, dental checkup 39%). Health literacy and the 4 health outcomes (self-rated health status and utilization of the 3 preventive health care services) varied by race/ethnicity and educational attainment. Regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for potential confounders, health literacy significantly mediated both racial/ethnic and education-related disparities in self-rated health status and receipt of influenza vaccination, but only education-related disparities in receipt of mammography and dental care. CONCLUSIONS Health literacy contributes to disparities associated with race/ethnicity and educational attainment in self-rated health and some preventive health behaviors among older adults. Interventions addressing low health literacy may reduce these disparities. PMID:19433837

  12. Health literacy, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yoko; Kondo, Naoki; Yamagata, Zentaro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is a key determinant of health in a contemporary society characterized by abundant information. Previous studies have suggested that basic or functional HL is positively associated with health, whereas evidences on the association between health and communicative/critical HL are scarce. Furthermore, confounding by socioeconomic status on HL-health association has been poorly tested. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community-based survey in Japan, we investigated whether communicative/critical HL is associated with self-rated health independent of socioeconomic status. A total of 1237 subjects participated in this study; the response rate was 62%. To measure communicative/critical HL, we used three questions assessing the respondents' ability to select, to communicate to others and to evaluate specific health-related information. Potential confounders included demographic factors, household income, employment status, and educational attainment. A multivariate model revealed that good self-reported health was significantly associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-0.99], employment (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.06-7.88) and higher communicative/critical HL scores (OR 2.75; 95%CI, 1.93-3.90). Respondents with lower education were likely to have poorer communicative/critical HL. These results imply that to close the health gap, policy interventions should focus on the promotion of HL among deprived sociodemographic groups.

  13. Predictors of self-rated health: a 12-month prospective study of IT and media workers.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Dan; Arnetz, Bengt B; Theorell, Töres; Anderberg, Ulla Maria

    2006-07-31

    The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH), i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0-12 months). A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings) at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23-64) from four information technology and two media companies. There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho) between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression), and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression). The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.

  14. Types of cultural capital and self-rated health among disadvantaged women in outer Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Aims Our study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g., drawing, theatre performance) and consuming art or literature (e.g., attending exhibits, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Results With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for socio-demographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.07 to 3.22) for watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.06) for consuming art. As expected, health risk factors, age, social support and community of residence were also associated with health status. Conclusions Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income and other relevant risk factors. PMID:17852992

  15. Cohort and duration patterns among Asian immigrants: comparing trends in obesity and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, but not all, suggest that immigrant health worsens with duration of residence in the United States. Cohort effects may explain the inconsistent findings; not only are cohort effects confounded with duration, but the timing of entry into the United States may also create qualitatively different migration experiences. The present study tests for duration and cohort patterns among Asian immigrants to the United States across six year-of-entry cohorts (pre-1980, 1981-85, 1986-90, 1991-95, 1996-2000, 2001-05). Data come from the Asian American sample (n = 44,002) of the 1994-2009 waves of the National Health Interview Survey. The data show cohort differences for self-rated health, such that more recent cohorts showed improved baseline health compared to older cohorts. After accounting for cohorts, there was no significant change in self-rated health by duration of residence. Older cohorts actually showed improving self-rated health with longer duration. Obesity showed the opposite pattern; there were no differences across cohorts, but duration in the United States correlated with higher obesity. These results imply that immigrant health is not simply an issue of duration and adaptation; instead, they underscore the utility of considering cohorts as broader contexts of migration. Collectively, the results encourage future research that more carefully examines the etiological mechanisms that drive immigrant health.

  16. Cohort and duration patterns among Asian immigrants: Comparing trends in obesity and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, but not all, suggest that immigrant health worsens with duration of residence in the U.S. Cohort effects may explain the inconsistent findings; not only are cohort effects confounded with duration, but the timing of entry into the US may also create qualitatively different migration experiences. The present study tests for duration and cohort patterns among Asian immigrants to the United States across six year-of-entry cohorts (pre-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005). Data come from the Asian American sample (n=44,002) from the 1994-2009 waves of the National Health Interview Survey. The data show cohort differences for self-rated health, such that more recent cohorts showed improved baseline health compared to older cohorts. After accounting for cohorts, there was no significant change in self-rated health by duration. Older cohorts actually showed improving self-rated health with longer duration. Obesity showed the opposite pattern; there were no differences across cohorts, but duration in the United States correlated with higher obesity. These results imply that immigrant health is not simply an issue of duration and adaptation, but underscore the utility of considering cohorts as broader contexts of migration. Collectively, the results encourage future research that more carefully examines the etiological mechanisms that drive immigrant health. PMID:25879262

  17. Trauma, Socioeconomic Resources, and Self-rated Health in an Ethnically Diverse Adult Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai‘i. Design Across a ten-year period (1998–2008), participants (N = 833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves. Results Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health. Conclusion These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations. PMID:22732011

  18. Unemployment insurance and deteriorating self-rated health in 23 European countries.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, Tommy; Nelson, Kenneth; Sjöberg, Ola

    2014-07-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 is likely to have repercussions on public health in Europe, not least through escalating mass unemployment, fiscal austerity measures and inadequate social protection systems. The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of unemployment insurance for deteriorating self-rated health in the working age population at the onset of the fiscal crisis in Europe. Multilevel logistic conditional change models linking institutional-level data on coverage and income replacement in unemployment insurance to individual-level panel data on self-rated health in 23 European countries at two repeated occasions, 2006 and 2009. Unemployment insurance significantly reduces transitions into self-rated ill-health and, particularly, programme coverage is important in this respect. Unemployment insurance is also of relevance for the socioeconomic gradients of health at individual level, where programme coverage significantly reduces health risks attached to educational attainment. Unemployment insurance mitigated adverse health effects both at individual and country-level during the financial crisis. Due to the centrality of programme coverage, reforms to unemployment insurance should focus on extending the number of insured people in the labour force. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Sleep duration and self-rated health: the national health interview survey 2008.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Anoop; Charumathi, Sabanayagam; Kalidindi, Sita

    2011-09-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to consistently predict overall mortality and cardiovascular mortality in several population-based studies across the world. Similarly sleep duration have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. However, relatively few studies have examined the association between sleep duration and SRH, and the results have not been consistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study of n = 20,663 National Health Interview Survey 2008 participants ≥ 18 years of age (56.2% women). Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and ≥ 9 h. The main outcome interest was fair/poor SRH (n = 3043). We found both short and long sleep duration to be independently associated with fair/poor SRH, independent of age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, physical activity, depression, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and CVD. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h (referent), the multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of fair/poor SRH was 2.29 (1.86-2.83), 1.68 (1.42-2.00), 1.38 (1.18-1.61), and 1.98 (1.63-2.40) for sleep duration ≤ 5, 6, 8, and ≥ 9 h. This association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, race-ethnicity, and body mass index categories. Compared with sleep duration of 7 h, there was a positive association between both shorter and longer sleep duration and fair/poor self-rated health in a representative sample of US adults.

  20. Self-rated Health among Pregnant Women: Associations with Objective Health Indicators, Psychological Functioning, and Serum Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. Purpose The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with 1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors and psychological factors and 2) serum inflammatory markers. Methods In the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. Results The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: 1) greater psychological stress, 2) greater objective health diagnoses, 3) higher body mass index, and 4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1β (p = .02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = .06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. Conclusions This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women. PMID:23765366

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Health Behaviors, Obesity and Self-Rated Health among Older Arabs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, R N Rabia

    2017-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.

  2. Marital Status, Relationship Distress, and Self-rated Health: What Role for "Sleep Problems"?

    PubMed

    Meadows, Robert; Arber, Sara

    2015-09-01

    This paper analyzes data from a nationally representative survey of adults in the United Kingdom (Understanding Society, N = 37,253) to explore the marital status/health nexus (using categories that include a measure of relationship distress) and to assess the role that sleep problems play as a potential mediator. Findings indicate how it is not just the "form" marital status takes but also the absence or presence of relationship distress that is essential to self-rated health. We demonstrate two further findings that: (1) sleep problems act as a mediator of the link between marital status/relationship distress and self-rated health, most notably for those in cohabiting relationships with medium/high distress or who have a history of relationship loss, and (2) the mediating role of sleep problems differs for divorced men and women.

  3. Comparability of self rated health: cross sectional multi-country survey using anchoring vignettes

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Joshua A; Tandon, Ajay; Murray, Christopher J L

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in expectations for health using anchoring vignettes, which describe fixed levels of health on dimensions such as mobility. Design Cross sectional survey of adults living in the community. Setting China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates. Participants 3012 men and women aged 18 years and older (self ratings); subsample of 406 (vignette ratings). Main outcome measures Self rated mobility levels and ratings of hypothetical vignettes using the same questions and response categories. Results Consistent rankings of vignettes are evidence that vignettes are understood in similar ways in different settings, and internal consistency of orderings on two mobility questions indicates good comprehension. Variation in vignette ratings across age groups suggests that expectations for mobility decline with age. Comparison of responses to two different mobility questions supports the assumption that individual ratings of hypothetical vignettes relate to expectations for health in similar ways as self assessments. Conclusions Anchoring vignettes could provide a powerful tool for understanding and adjusting for the influence of different health expectations on self ratings of health. Incorporating anchoring vignettes in surveys can improve the comparability of self reported measures. PMID:14742348

  4. Income inequality and elderly self-rated health in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-12-01

    To test the association between income inequality and elderly self-rated health and to propose a pathway to explain the relationship. We analyzed a sample of 2143 older individuals (60 years of age and over) from 49 distritos of the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. Bayesian multilevel logistic models were performed with poor self-rated health as the outcome variable. Income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) was found to be associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for age, sex, income and education (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% credible interval, 1.01-1.38). When the practice of physical exercise and homicide rate were added to the model, the Gini coefficient lost its statistical significance (P > .05). We fitted a structural equation model in which income inequality affects elderly health by a pathway mediated by violence and practice of physical exercise. The health of older individuals may be highly susceptible to the socioeconomic environment of residence, specifically to the local distribution of income. We propose that this association may be mediated by fear of violence and lack of physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral health: locus of control, health behavior, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors in Istanbul adults.

    PubMed

    Peker, Kadriye; Bermek, Gulcin

    2011-01-01

    To determine oral health control beliefs of Istanbul adults using the Multidimensional Oral Health Locus of Control Scale (MOHLCS) after confirming its factorial validity and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. The MOHLCS was administered to a sample of 1200 subjects aged ≥18 years in Istanbul chosen using a quota-sampling method (response 88%). The relationship between the MOHLCS and oral health behaviors, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors was assessed after confirming the factorial validity of the MOHLCS. The MOHLCS demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. Factor analysis results showed a new four-factor solution, namely Internal, Dentist, Chance, and Socialization agents. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, younger age, higher socioeconomic status, more frequent daily toothbrushing, and regular dental check-ups were associated with higher Internal beliefs, while older age, lower educational level, lower socioeconomic status, low toothbrushing frequency, and symptom-orientated dental attendance were associated with higher Chance beliefs. Being unmarried and low toothbrushing frequency were associated with lower Dentist beliefs. Males and older subjects had lower Socialization agents beliefs. Internal, Dentist and Chance beliefs were significantly associated with self-rated oral health. Compared with the original factor structure, the new factor structure had better goodness of fit for this sample. Self-rated oral health, socio-demographic factors, and oral health behaviors were significantly associated with oral health control beliefs. These beliefs may be useful for planning oral health promotion programs and for formulating advice given by oral health professionals about their patients' oral health behaviors.

  6. Healthcare Communication Barriers and Self-Rated Health in Older Chinese American Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-08-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.

  7. Self-rated health as a comprehensive indicator of lifestyle-related health status.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Chizumi; Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of self-rated health (SRH) as a comprehensive indicator of lifestyle-related health status by examining the relationships between SRH and: (1) history of cancer and cardiovascular disease; (2) treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia; (3) abnormalities in clinical parameters including blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipids; and (4) lifestyle habits. 3744 health-check examinees at Tokai University Hachioji Hospital seen between April 2009 and March 2010 were enrolled. SRH was graded as "good," "relatively good," "relatively poor," or "poor." For statistical comparison, the differences among "healthy" (=good), "relatively healthy" (=relatively good), and "unhealthy" (=relatively poor plus poor) groups were examined. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were calculated to remove the confounding effect of age, using the healthy group as the reference. The Mantel-extension method was used as a trend test. 1049 subjects rated their health as good, 2194 as relatively good, 428 as relatively poor, and 73 as poor. The prevalence of all diseases showed significant odds ratios and trends as SRH deteriorated. Obesity, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipids deteriorated significantly as SRH became poorer, and a trend was observed in all parameters. Weight change, exercise, smoking, and rest showed significant odds ratios and trends as SRH deteriorated. SRH appears useful as a comprehensive indicator of lifestyle-related health status.

  8. [Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.

  9. Favourable changes in economic well-being and self-rated health among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Adverse economic shocks exert an influence on health perceptions, but little is known about the effect of sudden positive changes in a person’s financial situation on self-rated health, particularly among low income people. This paper explores the association between an increase in the amount of non-contribution pensions, public cash transfers given to Costa Rican elderly of low socio-economic status (SES) and changes in self-rated health over time. The analysis is based on data from CRELES, the “Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging”, which is based on a probabilistic sample of people born in 1945 or earlier, and living in Costa Rica by 2002. The fieldwork for the first and second waves of CRELES was conducted from 2004 to 2006, and from 2006 to 2008, respectively. The Costa Rican Government raised the amount of the non-contribution pension for the poor 100% before July 2007, and an additional 100% after that date. Due to the CRELES fieldwork schedule, the data have a natural quasi-experimental design, given that approximately half of CRELES respondents were interviewed before July 2007, independently of their status in receiving the public cash transfers. Using random effects ordered probit regression models, we find that people who experienced such increase report a greater improvement in self-rated health between waves than those who experienced a smaller increase and than the rest of the interviewees. Results suggest that increases in income may lead to a greater improvement in self-rated health. PMID:21440352

  10. Self-rated health in different social classes of Slovenian adult population: nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Jerneja; Pahor, Majda; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2011-02-01

    Self-rated health can be influenced by several characteristics of the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-rated health and self-assessed social class in Slovenian adult population. The study was based on the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Health Monitor database. During 2004, 8,741/15,297 (57.1%) participants aged 25-64 years returned posted self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted estimates of association between poor self-rated health and self-assessed social class. Poor self-rated health was reported by 9.6% of participants with a decrease from lower to upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class (35.9 vs. 3.7%). Logistic regression showed significant association between self-rated health and all self-assessed social classes. In an adjusted model, poor self-rated health remained associated with self-assessed social class (odds ratio for lower vs. upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class 4.23, 95% confidence interval 2.46-7.25; P < 0.001). Our study confirmed differences in the prevalence of poor self-rated health across self-assessed social classes. Participants from lower self-assessed social class reported poor self-rated health most often and should comprise the focus of multisectoral interventions.

  11. Self-rated health and residential segregation: how does race/ethnicity matter?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Joseph; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Despite recent declines, racial segregation remains a detriment to minority neighborhoods. However, existing research is inconclusive as to the effects racial segregation has on health. Some argue that racial segregation is related to poor health outcomes, whereas others suspect that racial segregation may actually lead to improved health for some minority communities. Even less is known about whether minority access to white neighborhoods improves health. We address these gaps with individual data from the 2010 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey and census tract data from the 2010 Decennial Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. We implement logistic multilevel models to determine whether and how a resident's self-rated health is affected by the racial/ethnic segregation of their neighborhoods. Our key finding suggests that the effects of segregation on self-rated health depend on an individual's race/ethnicity, with blacks and Latino residents most likely to experience adverse effects. Particularly, minorities living in predominantly white communities have a significantly higher likelihood to report poor/fair health than they would in segregated minority neighborhoods. These findings make clear that access to white neighborhoods is not sufficient to improve minority health; fuller neighborhood integration is necessary to ensure all have health equity.

  12. The Association of Minority Self-Rated Health with Black versus White Gentrification.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Joseph; Barton, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    There exists controversy as to the impact gentrification of cities has on the well-being of minorities. Some accuse gentrification of causing health disparities for disadvantaged minority populations residing in neighborhoods that are changing as a result of these socioeconomic shifts. Past scholarship has suggested that fears of displacement and social isolation associated with gentrification lead to poorer minority health. However, there is a lack of research that directly links gentrification to minority health outcomes. We address this gap with individual data from the 2008 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey and census tract data from the 2000 Decennial Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. We implement logistic multilevel models to determine whether and how a resident's self-rated health is affected by gentrification of their neighborhoods. We find that while gentrification does have a marginal effect improving self-rated health for neighborhood residents overall, it leads to worse health outcomes for Blacks. Accounting for racial change, while gentrification leading to increases in White population has no measurable effect on minority health, "Black gentrification" leads to marginally worse health outcomes for Black respondents. These results demonstrate the limitations that improvements of neighborhood socioeconomic character have in offsetting minority health disparities.

  13. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health

  14. Self-Assessed Disability and Self-Rated Health among Rural Villagers in Peru: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, James E.; Merry, Stephen P.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Risks for poor self-rated overall health in rural areas of developing nations have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors for poor self-rated health among rural villagers in Peru. Methods: A door-to-door survey of villagers residing in the Pampas Grande region in Peru,…

  15. Self-Assessed Disability and Self-Rated Health among Rural Villagers in Peru: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, James E.; Merry, Stephen P.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Risks for poor self-rated overall health in rural areas of developing nations have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors for poor self-rated health among rural villagers in Peru. Methods: A door-to-door survey of villagers residing in the Pampas Grande region in Peru,…

  16. Relative deprivation in income and self-rated health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Malavika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa; Subramanian, S V

    2009-08-01

    Absolute income is robustly associated with health status. Few studies have, however, examined if relative income is independently associated with health. We examined if, over and above the effects of absolute income, individual relative deprivation in income as well as position in the income hierarchy is associated with individual poor health in the U.S. Using three rounds of the Current Population Surveys (CPS), we analyzed the association between self-rated health (1=fair/poor, 0=otherwise) and the Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation in income and percentile position in the income hierarchy across 17 reference groups. Over and above the effects of absolute income, the odds ratio for reporting poor health among individuals in the highest quintile of relative deprivation compared to the lowest quintile ranged between 2.18 and 3.30, depending on the reference groups used. A 10 percentile increase in income position within reference groups was associated with an odds ratio of poor health of 0.89. Relative deprivation appeared to explain between 33 and 94% of the association between individual income and self-rated health. Relative deprivation in income is independently associated with poor health over and above the well established effects of absolute income on health. Relative deprivation may partly explain the association between income inequality and worse population health status.

  17. Factors associated with self-rated health in older people living in institutions

    PubMed Central

    Damián, Javier; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Valderrama-Gama, Emiliana

    2008-01-01

    Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%), 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28) for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06) when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68) when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition. PMID:18304308

  18. [Functional status, self-rated health and level of physical activity of patients with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as “Fair” (29.4%), “Good” (52.1%), or “Very Good” (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as “Fair” (24.9%), “Good” (43.1%), or “Very Good” (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they “Never” or just “Occasionally” participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they “Never” or “Occasionally” have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly. PMID:27058576

  20. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Education and self-rated health: An individual and neighborhood level analysis of Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Chen, Qi; Foley, Shirley; Strom, Ida; Kehl, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii, this study contributes to the literature by examining (1) the geographical distributions of education in relation to self-rated general health at neighborhood levels, and (2) the individual variations in self-rated health by ethnicity and education at both individual and neighborhood levels. Using the 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information, and applying GIS (Geographic Information System) and binary logistic regression models, this study found that (1) there are significant between ethnic differences in self-rated health in Hawaii, with Hawaiians being the most disadvantaged population compared to Japanese, Chinese, and Caucasians; (2) individual socioeconomic characteristics are all related to self-rated health, and education (in particular) mediates the Japanese vs. Hawaiian and Chinese vs. Hawaiian health differences; (3) the neighborhood level of education has an independent effect on self-rated health over and above individual characteristics for the whole sample and it partially mediates the between ethnic health differences; and (4) the relative importance of education to self-rated health is more significant and salient for Caucasians and Japanese/Chinese than for Filipinos and Hawaiians. In sum, this study not only demonstrates a geographical profile of health and education distributions in Hawaii, but also reveals significant mediating effects of education, at both individual and neighborhood levels, in explaining the between and within ethnic differentials in self-rated health.

  2. What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Marja

    2009-08-01

    The association of self-rated health with mortality is well established but poorly understood. This paper provides new insights into self-rated health that help integrate information from different disciplines, both social and biological, into one unified conceptual framework. It proposes, first, a model describing the health assessment process to show how self-rated health can reflect the states of the human body and mind. Here, an analytic distinction is made between the different types of information on which people base their health assessments and the contextual frameworks in which this information is evaluated and summarized. The model helps us understand why self-ratings of health may be modified by age or culture, but still be a valid measure of health status. Second, based on the proposed model, the paper examines the association of self-rated health with mortality. The key question is, what do people know and how do they know what they know that makes self-rated health such an inclusive and universal predictor of the most absolute biological event, death. The focus is on the social and biological pathways that mediate information from the human organism to individual consciousness, thus incorporating that information into self-ratings of health. A unique source of information is provided by the bodily sensations that are directly available only to the individual him- or herself. According to recent findings in human biology, these sensations may reflect important physiological dysregulations, such as inflammatory processes. Third, the paper discusses the advantages and limitations of self-rated health as a measure of health in research and clinical practice. Future research should investigate both the logics that govern people's reasoning about their health and the physiological processes that underlie bodily feelings and sensations. Self-rated health lies at the cross-roads of culture and biology, therefore a collaborative effort between different

  3. Personality disorder and self-rated health: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Fok, Marcella; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Hatch, Stephani; Hayes, Richard; Moran, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the impact of personality disorder (PD) on the health of people living in the community. The authors set out to examine the association between PD and general health, using a cross-sectional survey of a representative community sample in London, UK. A total of 1,698 adults aged 16 years or over from 1,075 randomly selected households were recruited and interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Using multivariable logistic regression, the authors examined the cross-sectional association between PD screen status, as assessed by the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), and self-rated health, adjusting for demographic and health covariates. Of the participants, 14.5% screened positively for PD. A greater proportion of those scoring positively for PD reported poor self-rated health, compared to screen negative participants (41.3% versus 15.0%). This association was reduced, but remained significant, after adjustment for potential confounders (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.99, 95% CI [2.93, 5.42]; fully adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.02, 2.29]. Of note, subthreshold symptoms of PD were significantly associated with poor self-rated health (unadjusted OR per unit SAPAS score increment = 1.53, 95% CI [1.40, 1.67]; fully adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI [1.07, 1.33]. Furthermore, people screening positive for PD were more likely to report multiple (three or more) long-standing illnesses. The authors conclude that in the general population, individuals who are at high risk for PD are independently at increased risk of poor general health.

  4. Socio-environmental factors associated with self-rated oral health in South Africa: a multilevel effects model.

    PubMed

    Olutola, Bukola G; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A

    2012-10-02

    This study examined the influence of the social context in which people live on self-ratings of their oral health. This study involved a representative sample of 2,907 South African adults (≥16 years) who participated in the 2007 South African Social Attitude Survey (SASAS). We used the 2005 General Household Survey (n = 107,987 persons from 28,129 households) to obtain living environment characteristics of SASAS participants, including sources of water and energy, and household cell-phone ownership (a proxy measure for the social network available to them). Information obtained from SASAS included socio-demographic data, respondents' level of trust in people, oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Of the respondents, 76.3% self-rated their oral health as good. Social context influenced women's self-rated oral health differently from that of men. Good self-rated oral health was significantly higher among non-smokers, employed respondents and women living in areas with higher household cell-phone ownership. Furthermore, trust and higher social position were associated with good self-rated oral health among men and women respectively. Overall, 55.1% and 18.3% of the variance in self-rated oral health were explained by factors operating at the individual and community levels respectively. The findings highlight the potential role of social capital in improving the population's oral health.

  5. Socio-Environmental Factors Associated with Self-Rated Oral Health in South Africa: A Multilevel Effects Model

    PubMed Central

    Olutola, Bukola G.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the influence of the social context in which people live on self-ratings of their oral health. Method: This study involved a representative sample of 2,907 South African adults (≥16 years) who participated in the 2007 South African Social Attitude Survey (SASAS). We used the 2005 General Household Survey (n = 107,987 persons from 28,129 households) to obtain living environment characteristics of SASAS participants, including sources of water and energy, and household cell-phone ownership (a proxy measure for the social network available to them). Information obtained from SASAS included socio-demographic data, respondents’ level of trust in people, oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Results: Of the respondents, 76.3% self-rated their oral health as good. Social context influenced women’s self-rated oral health differently from that of men. Good self-rated oral health was significantly higher among non-smokers, employed respondents and women living in areas with higher household cell-phone ownership. Furthermore, trust and higher social position were associated with good self-rated oral health among men and women respectively. Overall, 55.1% and 18.3% of the variance in self-rated oral health were explained by factors operating at the individual and community levels respectively. Conclusion: The findings highlight the potential role of social capital in improving the population’s oral health. PMID:23202757

  6. [Self-rated health and educational level in Spain: trends by autonomous communities and gender (2001-2012)].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Rabanaque, M José

    2015-01-01

    To identify the trend in self-rated health in Spain by autonomous communities (AC) in the period 2001-2012, as well as differences by gender and age, and the influence of educational level. A cross sectional study was carried out using data from the National Health Surveys from 2001 to 2011-12 and the 2009 European Survey. A descriptive analysis was conducted that included gender, age, educational level, and the AC of residence. Logistic regression analyses were developed to explore the temporal trend and the association between educational level and self-rated health. The predictive capacity of the model was calculated using the C statistic. The prevalence of low self-rated health was higher in women with low educational level. Self-rated health improved in women with high educational level (2001:18.6% vs. 2012:14.6%). The highest prevalence of low self-rated health was observed in Andalusia, the Canary Islands, Galicia and Murcia, with differences by gender. Low educational level was associated with low self-rated health in most AC, with good predictive capacity. In all AC except Asturias, low self-rated health was more frequent in women than in men. In Spain, the prevalence of self-rated health showed no variations in the period analyzed and improved in the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, and Madrid. The prevalence of self-rated health in Spain differed by AC. Although health was unchanged during the period considered, inequalities were found in its temporal trend by educational level and gender, which could lead to an increase in health inequalities in women according educational level. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of a Spatial Intelligent Decision System on Self-Rated Health Status Estimation.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Alberto; Liu, Jun; Wang, Hui; Nugent, Chris; Martinez, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Self- assessed general health status is a commonly-used survey technique since it can be used as a predictor for several public health risks such as mortality, deprivation, and fear of crime or poverty. Therefore, it is a useful alternative measure to help assessing the public health situation of a neighborhood or town, and can be utilized by authorities in many decision support situations related to public health, budget allocation and general policy-making, among others. It can be considered as spatial decision problems, since both data location and spatial relationships make a prominent impact during the decision making process. This paper utilizes a recently-developed spatial intelligent decision system, named, Spatial RIMER(+), to model the self-rated health estimation decision problem using real data in the areas of Northern Ireland, UK. The goal is to learn from past or partial observations on self-rated health status to predict its future or neighborhood behavior and reference it in the map. Three scenarios in line of this goal are discussed in details, i.e., estimation of unknown, downscaling, and predictions over time. They are used to demonstrate the flexibility and applicability of the spatial decision support system and their positive capabilities in terms of accuracy, efficiency and visualization.

  8. Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: insights from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-03-01

    Despite growing research emphasis on understanding the health effects of ethnic discrimination, little work has focused on how such exposures may influence a woman's biology and health during pregnancy. Understanding such effects is important given evidence that maternal stress experience in pregnancy can have long term effects on offspring health. Here we present data evaluating the relationship between perceived discrimination, self-rated health, and the stress hormone cortisol measured in late pregnancy among a diverse sample of women living in Auckland, New Zealand (N = 55). We also evaluated possible intergenerational impacts of maternal discrimination on stress reactivity in a subset of offspring (N = 19). Pregnant women were recruited from two antenatal care clinics in Auckland. Women were met in their homes between 34 and 36 weeks gestation, during which time a prenatal stress questionnaire was administered and saliva samples (morning and evening from two days) were obtained. Offspring cortisol reactivity was assessed at the standard six week postnatal vaccination visit. We found that 34% of women reported having experienced ethnic discrimination, with minority and immigrant women being more likely to report being angry or upset in response to discrimination experience compared with NZ-born women of European descent. Women reporting discrimination experience had worse self-rated health, higher evening cortisol and gave birth to infants with higher cortisol reactivity, all independent of ethnicity and material deprivation. These findings suggest that discrimination experience can have biological impacts in pregnancy and across generations, potentially contributing to the ethnic gradient in health.

  9. GPs asking patients to self-rate their health: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Göran; Hamberg, Katarina; Forssén, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Background In epidemiological research, self-rated health is an independent predictor of mortality, cardiovascular diseases, and other critical outcomes. It is recommended for clinical use, but research is lacking. Aim To investigate what happens in consultations when the question ‘How would you assess your general health compared with others your own age?’ is posed. Design and setting Authentic consultations with GPs at health centres in Sweden. Method Thirty-three planned visits concerning diabetes, pain, or undiagnosed symptoms were voice-recorded. Dialogue regarding self-rated health was transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic text condensation method. Speaking time of patients and doctors was measured and the doctors’ assessment of the value of the question was documented in a short questionnaire. Results Two overarching themes are used to describe patients’ responses to the question. First, there was an immediate reaction, often expressing strong emotions, setting the tone of the dialogue and influencing the continued conversation. This was followed by reflection regarding their functional ability, management of illnesses and risks, and/or situation in life. The GPs maintained an attitude of active listening. They sometimes reported a slight increase in consultation time or feeling disturbed by the question, but mostly judged it as valuable, shedding additional light on the patients’ situation and making it easier to discuss difficulties and resources. The patients’ speaking time increased noticeably during this part of the consultation. Conclusion Asking patients to comparatively self-rate their health is an effective tool in general practice. PMID:26324500

  10. Associations between self-rated health and health behaviour among older adults in Estonia: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Abuladze, Liili; Kunder, Nele; Lang, Katrin; Vaask, Sirje

    2017-06-09

    The population of Estonia has one of the lowest life expectancies and health statuses in Europe. This is reflected in a lower perception of health among older adults. This study focuses on the role of health behaviour (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and nutrition) in self-rated health, accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, activity limitations and long-term illnesses as well as satisfaction with life of older Estonian men and women. We use representative cross-sectional data from Wave 4 of the Estonian Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, conducted mainly in 2011. Frequencies, χ(2) tests and logistic regression models include respondents aged 50 years and older, with no upper age limit (n=6660). Men have 20% higher odds (CI 1.02 to 1.43) of poor self-rated health. Being of foreign origin (OR 1.48; CI 1.24 to 1.77), having a basic (2.50; CI 2.06 to 3.00) or secondary (1.71; CI 1.43 to 2.04) education, being retired (2.00; CI 1.65 to 2.44) or staying at home (1.49; CI 1.16 to 1.93) and having activity limitations (3.25; CI 2.77 to 3.80) or long-term illnesses (4.78; CI 4.08 to 5.60) are related to poor self-rated health. Never being involved in vigorous (2.30; CI 1.90 to 2.79) or moderate physical activity (1.41; CI 1.02 to 1.94), and consuming legumes and eggs less frequently (1.25; CI 1.08 to 1.45) is associated with poorer self-rated health. Lower satisfaction with life accounts for some of the variation (2.28; CI 1.92 to 2.71). There is a strong cumulative effect of one's previous life course on the self-rated health of older adults in Estonia, suggesting that public health policies have long-term consequences rather than immediate consequences. Health services supporting health behaviours and targeting vulnerable population groups with specific sociodemographic characteristics and health problems may influence self-rated health for some. Public health services emphasising social activities or psychological aspects may

  11. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    GIRON, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background: To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. Methods: The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011–12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Results: Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Conclusion: Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability. PMID:27141490

  12. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age.

    PubMed

    Giron, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011-12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability.

  13. Self-Rated Health in Relation to Rape and Mental Health Disorders in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants: A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview…

  14. Self-Rated Health in Relation to Rape and Mental Health Disorders in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants: A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview…

  15. Mechanisms of the Effect of Involuntary Retirement on Older Adults' Self-Rated Health and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Mor Barak, Michàlle E; Gallo, William T

    2016-01-01

    This study examined mechanisms of the effect of involuntary retirement on self-rated health and mental health among adults aged 50 or older. Using two waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2006 and 2010), we selected a sample of 1,195 individuals working for pay at baseline who responded to a lifestyle questionnaire in both waves. Regression-based path analyses were conducted to test the mediating effects of financial control, positive and negative family relationships, and social integration on the relationship between involuntary retirement and self-rated health and mental health. Results of mediation analyses indicated that transition to involuntary retirement was directly negatively associated with subsequent self-rated health and indirectly negatively associated with mental health via perception of less financial control. Voluntary retirement was indirectly positively associated with both self-rated and mental health via perception of more financial control. No significant direct or indirect effects of retirement were found when retirement was measured with an aggregate measure without specifying its voluntariness. Findings emphasize the importance of specifying the voluntariness of retirement and recognizing the heterogeneity in the mechanisms of involuntary and voluntary retirement.

  16. Former athletes' health-related lifestyle behaviours and self-rated health in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bäckmand, H; Kujala, U; Sarna, S; Kaprio, J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between self-rated health (SRH), physical activity and other lifestyle habits among former athletes and referents in late adulthood. Male athletes (N=514) who represented Finland from 1920 through 1965 and referents (N=368) who were classified healthy at the age of 20 years participated in this population-based cohort study. The present analysis was based on a questionnaire study in 2001. SRH was assessed by a single question. Univariate binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of health-related behaviours with SRH. The majority of former athletes (64%) rated their health better than referents (48%). A higher percentage of the athletes (54%) compared to the referents (44%) belonged to the most physically active groups (MET quintiles IV-V). A high percentage of the athletes (77%) and referents (79%) were occasional or moderate alcohol users. The proportion of never smokers among athletes was 59% and among referents 37%. Among current smokers there were no differences in nicotine dependence between athletes and referents (p=0.07). In the univariate analysis the odds of reporting good SRH was 2 times higher for athletes (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.53-2.64, p<0.001) than for referents. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, former participation in team and power athletic groups had significantly higher SRH than the referents even after adjusting for age, level of physical activity, alcohol and smoking habit, and occupation. People who participated in very active physical exercise in their youth, as indexed by participation in competitive sports by elite athletes, continue a physically active lifestyle, and maintained healthier lifestyle. They had significantly higher SRH than the referents in their senior years, which was not totally explained by their physically active and healthier lifestyles. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Family social environment in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Family social support, as a form of social capital, contributes to social health disparities at different age of life. In a life-course epidemiological perspective, the aims of our study were to examine the association between self-reported family social environment during childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood and to assess the role of family functioning during childhood as a potential mediating factor in explaining the association between family breakup in childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood. Methods We analyzed data from the first wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures Survey (SIRS), a longitudinal health and socio-epidemiological survey of a random sample of 3000 households initiated in the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. Sample-weighted logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the quality of family social environment in childhood and self-rated health (overall health, physical health and psychological well-being) in young adults (n = 1006). We used structural equation model to explore the mediating role of the quality of family functioning in childhood in the association between family breakup in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood. Results The multivariate results support an association between a negative family social environment in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood. The association found between parental separation or divorce in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood was mediated by parent-child relationships and by having witnessed interparental violence during childhood. Conclusion These results argue for interventions that enhance family cohesion, particularly after family disruptions during childhood, to promote health in young adulthood. PMID:22192716

  18. Affect and Self-Rated Health: A Dynamic Approach with Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health (SRH) predicts mortality above and beyond objective health risks and as such comprises an important aspect of health. Established contributors to self-rated health include affect, age, and disease, but neither their dynamic nor their synergistic contributions to SRH have been comprehensively tested. Methods The present study employed older adults (N = 150; M age = 75 years) and a longitudinal design with 6-month waves over up to 5 years. Positive and negative affect (PA, NA), chronic disease, and SRH were assessed at each wave. Results In multilevel models with single predictors, older age, more chronic disease, and higher NA predicted worse SRH, whereas higher PA predicted better SRH. Affect predicted SRH both between and within people. In multilevel models with interactions between affect and age or disease, individual differences in NA predicted worse SRH primarily in older people. Within people, changes in NA were associated with changes in SRH, but more so in younger than in older people. Within people, changes in PA were associated with changes in SRH, but only when health was better than usual. Conclusions There were both dynamic and synergistic relationships between affect and SRH that could only emerge in a multilevel, multivariable design. In the case of NA, between-person, trait NA had the opposite relationship to SRH and age compared with within-person, state NA. Which component of this relationship predicts mortality is an important question for future research. PMID:23914813

  19. Monitoring Inequities in Self-Rated Health Over the Life Course in Population Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Baum, Fran E.; Hiller, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of social mobility and to assess the use of socioeconomic indicators in monitoring health inequities over time, we examined the association of self-rated health with socioeconomic position over the life course. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional telephone survey (n = 2999) that included life-course socioeconomic indicators and from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system (n = 26 400). Social mobility variables, each with 4 possible intergenerational trajectories, were constructed from family financial situation and housing tenure during childhood and adulthood. Results. Low socioeconomic position during both childhood and adulthood and improved financial situation in adulthood were associated with a reduced prevalence of excellent or very good health. Trends over time indicated that socioeconomic disadvantage in adulthood was associated with poorer self-rated health. Conclusions. Our results support policies aiming to improve family financial situation during childhood and housing tenure across the life course. Inclusion of life-course socioeconomic measures in surveillance systems would enable monitoring of health inequities trends among socially mobile groups. PMID:19197081

  20. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in the immigrant population of the Basque Country, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Elena; González-Rábago, Yolanda; Borrell, Luisa N; Lanborena, Nerea

    To examine the effect of perceived discrimination and self-rated health among the immigrant population in the Basque Country, Spain, and determine whether this effect varies according to region of origin, age, sex and education. Descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population included immigrants aged 18 and older residing in the Basque Country. Data from the 2014 Foreign Immigrant Population Survey (n=3,456) were used. Log-binomial regression was used to quantify the association between perceived discrimination and self-rated health before and after checking for the selected characteristics. Almost 1 in 10 immigrant adults reports perceiving discrimination. In adjusted analyses, the immigrants perceiving discrimination were almost were 1.92 more likely to rate their health as poor (prevalence ratio: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.44-2.56) than those who did not report discrimination. This association did not vary according to region of origin, age, sex or educational level. Perceived discrimination shows a consistent relationship with perceived health. Moreover, this association did not depend on the region of origin, age, sex or educational level of immigrants. These results show the need for implementing inclusive policies to eliminate individual and institutional discrimination and reduce health inequalities between the immigrant and native populations. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Psychosocial variables and self-rated health in young adult obese women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary Jane; Theeke, Laurie; Culp, Stacey; Clark, Karen; Pinto, Susan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe relationships among self-rated health, stress, sleep quality, loneliness, and self-esteem, in obese young adult women. Obesity has steadily increased among young adults and is a major predictor of self-rated health. A sample of 68 obese (BMI 30 or higher, mean 35), young (18-34 years, mean 22) adult women were recruited from a health center. Survey data were gathered and analyzed using descriptive and bivariate procedures to assess relationships and group differences. Scores reflected stress, loneliness, poor sleep quality, and poor self-esteem. There were positive correlations among stress, loneliness, and sleep quality and, a high inverse correlation between loneliness and self-esteem. Those who ranked their health as poor differed on stress, loneliness, and self-esteem when compared to those with rankings of good/very good. Assessing and addressing stress, loneliness, sleep quality and self-esteem could lead to improved health outcomes in obese young women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-rated health among Hispanic vs non-Hispanic white adults: the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Shetterly, S M; Baxter, J; Mason, L D; Hamman, R F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether objective health indicators explained lower self-rated health among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. It also considered socioeconomic and cultural explanations. METHODS: Health ratings of 429 Hispanics and 583 non-Hispanic Whites aged 20 through 74 were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: Illness indicators were found to be strongly correlated with self-rated health in both ethnic groups, but after such markers were controlled for, Hispanics remained 3.6 times more likely to report fair or poor health (95% confidence interval = 2.4, 5.3). Adjustment for socioeconomic factors accounted for a portion of Hispanics' lower health rating, but the strongest explanatory factor was acculturation. CONCLUSIONS: Because of cultural and economic influences on definitions of health, ethnic differences in self-assessed health may not accurately reflected patterns resulting from objective health measurements. PMID:9003141

  3. Social capital and self-rated health in Colombia: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sudarsky, John

    2011-02-01

    Although there is increasing evidence supporting the associations between social capital and health, less is known of potential effects in Latin American countries. Our objective was to examine associations of different components of social capital with self-rated health in Colombia. The study had a cross-sectional design, using data of a survey applied to a nationally representative sample of 3025 respondents, conducted in 2004-2005. Stratified random sampling was performed, based on town size, urban/rural origin, age, and sex. Examined indicators of social capital were interpersonal trust, reciprocity, associational membership, non-electoral political participation, civic activities and volunteering. Principal components analysis including different indicators of social capital distinguished three components: structural-formal (associational membership and non-electoral political participation), structural-informal (civic activities and volunteering) and cognitive (interpersonal trust and reciprocity). Multilevel analyses showed no significant variations of self-rated health at the regional level. After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, interpersonal trust was statistically significantly associated with lower odds of poor/fair health, as well as the cognitive social capital component. Members of farmers/agricultural or gender-related groups had higher odds of poor/fair health, respectively. Excluding these groups, however, associational membership was associated with lower odds of poor/fair health. Likewise, in Colombians with educational attainment higher than high school, reciprocity was associated with lower odds of fair/poor health. Nevertheless, among rural respondents non-electoral political participation was associated with worse health. In conclusion, cognitive social capital and associational membership were related to better health, and could represent important notions for health promotion. Human rights violations related to political violence

  4. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  5. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  6. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  7. Conflicts at work--the relationship with workplace factors, work characteristics and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  8. Socioeconomic status, social support and self-rated health among lone mothers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Jeon, Gyeong-Suk; Jang, Soong-Nang

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association of socioeconomic status and social support with the differences in self-rated health between lone and partnered mothers in South Korea. Data came from women living with their children in the baseline survey of Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Family (N = 6,370) that yielded a very high response rate (95.8%). Compared to partnered mothers, lone mothers had a significantly higher risk of poor/fair health after adjusting for mediating factors (living natural parent, emotional support from siblings, social activities, educational attainment, equivalized household income, and subjective economic status). When all factors were individually included in the base model, each factor contributed to this difference. Subjective economic status explained 28.0% of the excess risk of poor/fair health among women in the lone compared to the partnered status. All factors combined accounted for 41.4% of the excess risk among lone mothers. The findings clearly indicate that lone mothers have poorer self-rated health than partnered mothers do, but this detrimental effect cannot be entirely explained by the socioeconomic and social support-mediating factors.

  9. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant.

  10. Pornography consumption, sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health among male adolescents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2013-09-01

    To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health. A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health. The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.

  11. The associations between resilience, social capital and self-rated health among HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Dageid, Wenche; Grønlie, Anette A

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between resilience, social capital and self-rated health among 263 HIV-positive South Africans living in poverty, using questionnaires. Self-rated good health was predicted by younger age, trust in community-based organizations and having contacts of different religions. The findings highlight the importance of community-based networks and resources for care and support for persons living with HIV/AIDS in poor, rural areas. Furthermore, resilience, which also related positively to education and income, contributed positively to self-rated health, drawing attention to the interplay between resources at individual and community levels. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Types of social capital resources and self-rated health among the Norwegian adult population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are large in Norway. In part, these inequalities may stem from differences in access to supportive social networks - since occupying disadvantaged positions in affluent societies has been associated with disposing poor network resources. Research has demonstrated that social networks are fundamental resources in the prevention of mental and physical illness. However, to determine potentials for public health action one needs to explore the health impact of different types of network resources and analyze if the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health is partially explained by social network factors. That is the aim of this paper. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2007, through a postal survey from a gross sample of 8000 Norwegian adults, of which 3,190 (about 40%) responded. The outcome variable was self-rated health. Our main explanatory variables were indicators of socioeconomic positions and social capital indicators that was measured by different indicators that were grouped under 'bonding', 'bridging' and 'linking' social capital. Demographic data were collected for statistical control. Generalized ordered logistic regression analysis was performed. Result Results indicated that those who had someone to talk to when distressed were more likely to rate their health as good compared to those deprived of such person(s) (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.02). Similarly, those who were active members in two or more social organisations (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.22) and those who count a medical doctor among their friends (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.00) report better health. The association between self-rated health and socio-economic background indicators were marginally attenuated when social network indicators were added into the model. Conclusion Among different types of network resources, close and strong friendship-based ties are of importance for people's health in Norway. Networks linking

  13. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  14. The association between women's self-rated health and satisfaction with environmental services in an underserved community in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Habib, Rima R; Elzein, Kareem; Hojeij, Safa

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the association between women's self-rated health and a number of socioeconomic and environmental health indicators relating to drinking water services in an underserved Lebanese community. A population-based, cross-sectional survey using interviews was adopted to obtain information from female homemakers of 2,223 households in the town of Bebnine, Lebanon. The questionnaire included indicators on self-rated health, satisfaction with water quality, source of drinking water, occurrence of diarrhea, and socioeconomic variables, such as education, occupation, and perceived economic status. Self-rated health was categorized as poor, fair, and good. Odds ratios for poor and fair compared to good self-rated health values were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 712 women (32%) reported poor self-rated health. Women who perceived their household income to be worse than others in town were four times as likely to report poor health. Compared to women who were satisfied with drinking water quality, dissatisfied women were 42% more likely to report poor health. Women living in households reporting recent episodes of diarrheal illness had poorer health ratings than those without. The findings suggest a positive relationship between individual perceptions of water quality and self-rated health. Community concerns over their surrounding environment serve as a primary guide for infrastructural development and government policy.

  15. Self-Rated Health and Health Care Access Associated With African American Men's Health Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Terry; Mitchell, Jamie A; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Watkins, Daphne C; Modlin, Charles S

    2017-09-01

    Health self-efficacy, a measure of one's self-assurance in taking care of their own health, is known to contribute to a range of health outcomes that has been under examined among African American men. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and contextualize predictors of general health self-efficacy in this population. A cross-sectional sample of surveys from 558 African American was examined. These men were older than 18 years, could read and write English, and attended a hospital-based community health fair targeting minority men in 2011. The outcome of interest was health self-efficacy, which was assessed by asking, "Overall, how confident are you in your ability to take good care of your health?" Responses ranged from 1 ( not confident at all) to 5 ( completely confident). Covariates included age, self-rated health, health insurance status, having a regular physician, and being a smoker. The mean age of participants was 54.4 years, and 61.3% of participants indicated confidence in their ability to take good care of their health. Older age and being a smoker were inversely associated with the outcome. Good self-rated health, having health insurance, and having a regular doctor were positively associated with reports of health self-efficacy. Findings suggest that multiple points of connection to the health care system increase the likelihood of health self-efficacy for this sample and interventions to support older African American men who may evaluate their own health status as poor and who may face barriers to health care access are implicated.

  16. Social participation and self-rated health among older male veterans and non-veterans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2016-08-01

    To examine self-rated health (SRH) and its association with social participation, along with physical and mental health indicators, among USA male veterans and non-veterans aged ≥65 years. The two waves of the National Health and Aging Trend Study provided data (n = 2845 at wave 1; n = 2235 at wave 2). Multilevel mixed effects generalized linear models were fit to test the hypotheses. Despite their older age, veterans did not differ from non-veterans in their physical, mental and cognitive health, and they had better SRH. However, black and Hispanic veterans had lower SRH than non-Hispanic white veterans. Formal group activities and outings for enjoyment were positively associated with better SRH for veterans, non-veterans and all veteran cohorts. Aging veterans, especially black and Hispanic veterans, require programs and services that will help increase their social connectedness. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 920-927. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. How Health Conditions Translate into Self-Ratings: A comparative study of older adults across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Melissa; Acciai, Francesco; Reyes, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we examine how respondents translate morbidity and disability into self-rated health (SRH), how national populations differ in SRH, and how normative and person-specific reporting styles shape SRH. We construct proxy variables that allow us to specify cultural differences in reporting styles and individual differences in relative rating behavior. Using generalized logistic regression, we find that both of these dimensions of subjectivity are related to SRH; however, their inclusion does not significantly alter the connection between SRH and the set of disease and disability indicators. Further, country differences in SRH persist after controlling for all these factors. Our findings suggest that observed country differences in SRH reflect compositional differences, cultural differences in reporting styles, and perceptions of how health restricts typical activities. SRH also seems to capture underlying but unmeasured health differences across populations. PMID:25138200

  18. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have

  19. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  20. A spatial epidemiological analysis of self-rated mental health in the slums of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to study self-rated mental health data in several slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, by accounting for neighbourhood social and physical associations using spatial statistics. We hypothesised that mental health would show a significant spatial pattern in different population groups, and that the spatial patterns would relate to spatially-correlated health-determining factors (HDF). Methods We applied a spatial epidemiological approach, including non-spatial ANOVA/ANCOVA, as well as global and local univariate and bivariate Moran's I statistics. The WHO-5 Well-being Index was used as a measure of self-rated mental health. Results We found that poor mental health (WHO-5 scores < 13) among the adult population (age ≥15) was prevalent in all slum settlements. We detected spatially autocorrelated WHO-5 scores (i.e., spatial clusters of poor and good mental health among different population groups). Further, we detected spatial associations between mental health and housing quality, sanitation, income generation, environmental health knowledge, education, age, gender, flood non-affectedness, and selected properties of the natural environment. Conclusions Spatial patterns of mental health were detected and could be partly explained by spatially correlated HDF. We thereby showed that the socio-physical neighbourhood was significantly associated with health status, i.e., mental health at one location was spatially dependent on the mental health and HDF prevalent at neighbouring locations. Furthermore, the spatial patterns point to severe health disparities both within and between the slums. In addition to examining health

  1. Cultural Capital and Self-Rated Health in Low Income Women: Evidence from the Urban Health Study, Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Mowafi, Mona

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using χ2 tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95–6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09–4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities. PMID:16739047

  2. Cultural capital and self-rated health in low income women: evidence from the Urban Health Study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.

  3. Self-rated health and social capital in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: The MEDIM population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( p<0.001), with the highest prevalence (55.5%) among Iraqi women. Low social capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, pinteraction=0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.

  4. Social desirability, social intelligence and self-rated oral health status and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L; Kawamura, M; Toma, Carmen; Lascu, Viorica

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the impact of social intelligence and social desirability on students' self-rated oral health and oral health-related behaviors. The present study sample consisted of 217 first year dental students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioral factors, self-reported oral health status, social intelligence (Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale-TSIS) and social desirability (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form C). Social desirability was correlated with age, perceived dental health, current nontreated caries, toothache last time, self-reported gum bleeding and reason for the dental visit. Other measures were not influenced by social desirability: current extracted teeth, satisfaction with appearance of own teeth, self-reported gingival condition, daily toothbrushing, flossing, mouthrinse and dental visit frequency. It was revealed that participants with stronger social intelligence tended to evaluate as excellent their self rated oral health status, to be less dissatisfied by the appearance of their teeth, not to have untreated dental decays, extracted teeth (others than third molars) or gingival bleeding, to brush their teeth more than twice a day, to use everyday dental floss and to visit their dentist mainly for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling. Multiple regression analyses models demonstrated significant contributions of social awareness, social skills and social information processing were observed to oral health behaviours: toothbrushing, flossing and dental visit frequency. The results support the view that social desirability should be considered as a factor which may impact measurements and decisions, while social intelligence has a significant association with oral health behaviours.

  5. Disparities in self-rated health across generations and through the life course.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce G; Susser, Ezra S; Factor-Litvak, Pam; March, Dana; Kezios, Katrina L; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew G; Suglia, Shakira F; Fader, Kim M; Andrews, Howard F; Johnson, Eileen; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A

    2017-02-01

    Extensive evidence leads us to expect that health disparities by race and socioeconomic status found in one generation might be reproduced in the next. To the extent that this occurs it is important to assess life course processes responsible for the reproduction. Prospective evidence concerning such life course processes is hard to come by as it requires long-term follow-up of individuals from childhood through adult life. We present data from the Child Health and Development Disparities study that provides evidence relevant to this issue with respect to self-rated health. Mothers and offspring recruited in California's Bay Area between 1959 and 1967 were assessed during pregnancy with follow-up exams of offspring along with in-person interviews with mothers (at offspring ages 5, 9-11, 15-17) and offspring (at ages 15-17, ∼50). Available data allow us to assess the importance of three potential life course pathways in the reproduction of inequalities in self-rated health - socioeconomic pathways, cognitive pathways and pathways involving emerging health itself. As expected we found that race and SES disparities in SRH are reproduced across generations. They are evident in mothers, not strong or significant in offspring at 15-17, but present once again in offspring at age ∼50. Concerning potential pathways, we found that indicators of child health were related to adult SRH and played some role in accounting for race but not SES disparities in adult SRH. Cognitive abilities were unrelated to adult SRH with childhood SES controlled. Childhood SES was associated with adult SRH independent of other childhood factors and is reduced to non-significance only when offspring college attainment is controlled. Race and SES disparities in self-reported health in one generation are re-expressed in the next with strongest support for SES pathways in this transmission.

  6. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Canada: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tonia

    2016-08-08

    Our objective was to explore whether the link between discrimination and self-rated health status differed as a function of discrimination type, including discrimination based on ethnicity/culture, race, physical appearance (other than skin colour), religion, age, and disability. A sample of 19,422 men and women aged 15 and older was included in this study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between perceived discrimination types and self-reported health status defined as excellent/good versus fair/poor. The prevalence of experiencing any discrimination in the past five years was higher among those who rated their health as fair or poor (21.8 %) compared to those who rated their health as excellent or good (14.5 %, p < 0.0001). After controlling for all other covariates, there was a positive association between poorer self-rated health and two of the six specific discrimination variables entered into the model: perceived discrimination based on physical appearance (other than skin colour) (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.24, 2.58) and perceived discrimination based on a having a disability (OR = 1.59, 95 % CI: 1.04, 2.41). Our main findings indicate that perceived discrimination based on physical appearance and disability may have an adverse impact on health. The results highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to improving health outcomes that should include policies that are targeted against specific types of discrimination.

  7. Disparities in self-rated health across generations and through the life course

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce G.; Susser, Ezra S.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; March, Dana; Kezios, Katrina L.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Suglia, Shakira F.; Fader, Kim M.; Andrews, Howard F.; Johnson, Eileen; Cirillo, Piera M.; Cohn, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence leads us to expect that health disparities by race and socioeconomic status found in one generation might be reproduced in the next. To the extent that this occurs it is important to assess life course processes responsible for the reproduction. Prospective evidence concerning such life course processes is hard to come by as it requires long-term follow-up of individuals from childhood through adult life. We present data from the Child Health and Development Disparities study that provides evidence relevant to this issue with respect to self-rated health. Mothers and offspring recruited in California's Bay Area between 1959 and 1967 were assessed during pregnancy with follow-up exams of offspring along with in-person interviews with mothers (at offspring ages 5, 9–11, 15–17) and offspring (at ages 15–17, ~50). Available data allow us to assess the importance of three potential life course pathways in the reproduction of inequalities in self-rated health – socioeconomic pathways, cognitive pathways and pathways involving emerging health itself. As expected we found that race and SES disparities in SRH are reproduced across generations. They are evident in mothers, not strong or significant in offspring at 15–17, but present once again in offspring at age ~50. Concerning potential pathways, we found that indicators of child health were related to adult SRH and played some role in accounting for race but not SES disparities in adult SRH. Cognitive abilities were unrelated to adult SRH with childhood SES controlled. Childhood SES was associated with adult SRH independent of other childhood factors and is reduced to non-significance only when offspring college attainment is controlled. Race and SES disparities in self-reported health in one generation are re-expressed in the next with strongest support for SES pathways in this transmission. PMID:27987434

  8. Changes in self-rated health and subjective social status over time in a cohort of healthcare personnel.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mark G; Gaglani, Manjusha J; Naleway, Allison; Thaker, Swathi; Ball, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    As part of a prospective cohort study of 1354 female and 347 male healthcare personnel, we examined the stability of subjective social status over ~7 months and the prospective association between subjective social status and self-rated health status. Most (82%) subjective social status ratings were stable (within ±1 point). Lower baseline subjective social status among healthcare personnel was associated with more subsequent reports of fatigue and headache and worsening global self-rated health status. Healthcare personnel who placed themselves on the bottom half of the subjective social status ladder were four times more likely to experience a decline in global self-rated health status and half as likely to improve to excellent self-rated health status.

  9. Race, Ethnicity, and Self-Rated Health Among Immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alang, Sirry M; McCreedy, Ellen M; McAlpine, Donna D

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has not fully explored the role of race in the health of immigrants. We investigate race and ethnic differences in self-rated health (SRH) among immigrants, assess the degree to which socio-economic characteristics explain race and ethnic differences, and examine whether time in the USA affects racial and ethnic patterning of SRH among immigrants. Data came from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (N = 16, 288). Using logistic regression, we examine race and ethnic differences in SRH controlling for socio-economic differences and length of time in the country. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black immigrants were the most socio-economically disadvantaged. Asian immigrants were socio-economically similar to non-Hispanic White immigrants. Contrary to U.S. racial patterning, Black immigrants had lower odds of poor SRH than did non-Hispanic White immigrants when socio-demographic factors were controlled. When length of stay in the USA was included in the model, there were no racial or ethnic differences in SRH. However, living in the USA for 15 years and longer was associated with increased odds of poor SRH for all immigrants. Findings have implications for research on racial and ethnic disparities in health. Black-White disparities that have received much policy attention do not play out when we examine self-assessed health among immigrants. The reasons why non-Hispanic Black immigrants have similar self-rated health than non-Hispanic White immigrants even though they face greater socio-economic disadvantage warrant further attention.

  10. [Productive social activities in mothers of intellectually disabled children moderate the relationship between caregiver burden and self-rated health].

    PubMed

    Yatsugi, Sawa; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Izumi, Sinichi

    2013-07-01

    Recently, the length of time for which intellectually disabled children receive homecare has increased; hence, the mothers caring for these intellectually disabled children at home are being exposed to increasingly heavy caregiver burden. Previous studies have reported that negative psychological states, including caregiver burden, influence self-rated health status; however, when elderly people engaged in productive social activities, they experienced heightened positive psychological states. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether mothers' participation in productive social activities influenced the relationship between caregiver burden and self-rated health status. We performed a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire that included items on self-rated health, the modified Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, productive social activities, and various confounding variables. We sent the questionnaires to 270 mothers belonging to patient and family advocacy groups. We then compared the self-rated health and caregiver burden between a group of mothers involved in productive social activities and a group not involved in such activities. The relationships between self-rated health, caregiver burden, and productive social activities were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc testing. We obtained 120 valid responses. Mothers with greater burden had worse self-rated health than the other group (r=-0.305). According to the ANOVA results, the self-rated health of mothers involved in productive social activities did not significantly differ between caregiver burden groups (mild burden group: 3.4 vs. severe burden group: 3.12; F=1.3, P=.253), whereas the self-rated health of mothers without productive social activities showed a significant difference between caregiver burden groups (mild burden group: 3.4 vs. severe burden group: 2.7; F=5.6, P=.017). Mothers with greater burden had worse self-rated health

  11. Association between literacy and self-rated poor health in 33 high- and upper middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Kakarmath, Sujay; Denis, Vanessa; Encinas-Martin, Marta; Borgonovi, Francesca; Subramanian, S V

    2017-09-30

    To assess the relationship between general literacy proficiency and self-rated poor health by analyzing data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies, an international survey conducted from 2011 to 2015 in 33 high- and upper middle-income countries and national sub-regions. Logistic regression was used to model general literacy proficiency as a predictor of self-rated poor health. Data from 167,062 adults aged 25-65 years were analyzed. The mean overall prevalence of self-rated poor health was 24%. The odds ratio of self-rated poor health for those in the lowest level of general literacy proficiency compared to those in the highest level was 2.5 (95% CI 2.2-3.0) in the unadjusted model, and 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.2) in the adjusted model. This association was robust over time and across countries. General literacy proficiency attenuated 22% of the effect of self-education on self-rated poor health, in addition to a substantial independent effect of its own. Our study provides robust and generalizable evidence that general literacy proficiency is independently associated with self-rated poor health. These results offer a potential modifiable target for policy interventions to reduce educational inequities in health.

  12. Five-Factor Personality Traits and Age Trajectories of Self-Rated Health: The Role of Question Framing

    PubMed Central

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of personality traits on mean levels and age trends in four single-item measures of self-rated health: General rating, comparison to age peers, comparison to past health, and expectations for future health. Community-dwelling participants (N = 1,683) completed 7,474 self-rated health assessments over a period of up to 19-years. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, age-associated declines differed across the four health items. Across age groups, high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, low extraversion, and low openness were associated with worse health ratings, with notable differences across the four health items. Furthermore, high neuroticism predicted steeper declines in health ratings involving temporal comparisons. We consider theoretical implications regarding the mechanisms behind associations among personality traits and self-rated health. PMID:21299558

  13. A Life Course Model of Self-Rated Health through Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J.; Boardman, Jason D.; Miech, Richard A.; Macmillan, Ross

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and tests a life course model of self-rated health (SRH) extending from late childhood to young adulthood, drawing on three waves of panel data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Very little research has examined SRH during the early decades, or whether and how these self-assessments reflect experiences in the family of origin. Background characteristics (parental education, income, and family structure), parental health conditions (asthma, diabetes, obesity, migraines), and early health challenges (physical abuse, presence of a disability, and parental alcoholism and smoking) predict SRH from adolescence to young adulthood. These experiences in the family-of-origin are substantially mediated by the young person’s health and health behaviors (as indicated by obesity, depression, smoking, drinking, and inactivity), although direct effects remain (especially for early health challenges). Associations between SRH and these mediators (especially obesity) strengthen with age. In turn, efforts to promote healthy behaviors in young adulthood, after the completion of secondary school, may be especially strategic in the promotion of health in later adulthood. PMID:22726620

  14. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.

  15. Perceived Socioeconomic Status: A New Type of Identity which Influences Adolescents’ Self Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Huang, Bin; Schafer-Kalkhoff, Tara; Adler, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The cognitive, social, and biological transitions of adolescence suggest that subjective perceptions of social position based on the socioeconomic hierarchy may undergo important changes during this period, yet how such perceptions develop is poorly understood and no studies assess if changes in such perceptions influence adolescents’ health. This study describes adolescents’ subjective perceptions of familial socioeconomic status (SSS), how SSS changes over time, and how age, race, and objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators influence SSS. In addition, the study determines if SSS independently influences adolescents’ self-rated health, an important predictor of morbidity and health service utilization. Methods 1179 non-Hispanic black and white baseline 7–12th graders from a Midwestern public school district completed a validated, teen-specific measure of SSS annually for 4 consecutive years. A parent provided information on SES. Markov modeling assessed transitions in SSS over time. Results SSS declined with age (p=.001) and stabilized among older teens. In addition to age, SES and race, but not gender, were significant correlates of SSS, but the relationships between these factors were complex. In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, black teens from families with low parent education had higher SSS than white teens from similarly educated families, while white teens from highly educated families had higher SSS than black teens from highly educated families. Lower SSS and changes in SSS predicted poor self rated health even when adjusting for race and objective SES measures. Conclusion Subjective evaluations of socioeconomic status predict adolescents’ global health ratings even when adjusting for the sociodemographic factors which shape them. PMID:17950168

  16. Neighborhood foreclosures and self-rated health among breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anjali D.; Pruitt, Sandi L.; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We determined the association of neighborhood foreclosure risk on the health status of a statewide sample of breast cancer survivors (n = 1047) and the extent to which covariates accounted for observed associations. Methods Measures of self-rated health and several covariates were obtained by telephone interview 1 year after diagnosis. We used the federal Housing and Urban Development agency's estimated census-tract foreclosure-abandonment-risk score and multilevel, logistic regression to determine the association of foreclosure risk (high, moderate versus low) with self-rated health (fair-poor versus good, very good, excellent) and whether covariates could explain the observed association. Results Women who resided in high-foreclosure-risk (HFR) areas were 2.39 times (95% CI: 1.83–3.13) more likely to report being in fair-poor health than women who lived in low-foreclosure-risk areas. The odds ratio (OR) was reduced for women who lived in high-foreclosure-risk versus low-foreclosure-risk areas after adjusting for income (HFR OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.01–3.15), physical activity (HFR OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.98–3.08), and perceived neighborhood conditions (HFR OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.02–3.05). Conclusions Breast cancer survivors who lived in census tracts with high- versus low-foreclosure risk reported poorer health status. This association was explained by differences in household income, physical activity, and perceived neighborhood conditions. PMID:21590510

  17. Social connections, immigration-related factors, and self-rated physical and mental health among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ta, Van M

    2009-06-01

    Focusing on Asian Americans, this study examines how self-rated physical and mental health depends on the layered social connections (including 4 types: family cohesion, relative support, friend support, and neighborhood cohesion), socioeconomic status, and immigration-related factors (including nativity, length of residence in the U.S., and proficiency of the English language). It draws on the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study, a nationally representative household survey of Latino and Asian Americans. Findings of this study include: (1) there are significant differences in self-rated physical health among Asian Americans of different national origin, but their self-rated physical health differences diminish after indicators of socioeconomic status and immigration-related factors are considered; (2) four types of social connections are all related to the self-rated physical and mental health of Asian Americans, but the patterns of the associations as well as the mechanisms linking the associations vary; and (3) family cohesion has independent and direct effects on both self-rated physical and mental health over and above controls and mediators, whereas the effects of other social connection measures are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and immigration-related factors. In sum, this study indicates the significant effects of social connections, socioeconomic status, and immigration-related factors on the self-rated physical and mental health of Asian Americans.

  18. Providing emotional support to others, self-esteem, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of helping others on self-rated health in middle and late life. Data are from a nationwide sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=1154). The findings indicate that women and Blacks are more likely than men or Whites to help others. Moreover, the results suggest that people who attend church more often are especially likely to help others. The data further reveal that people who help others are more likely to have a greater sense of self-worth and people with more self-esteem, in turn, tend to rate their health in a more favorable way. The findings help clarify issues in the assessment of helping others in middle and late life.

  19. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = .01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = .005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < .001). Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S.

  20. [Poverty, public transfers and health: An analysis on self-rated health of social benefit recipients in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pförtner, T-K; Schumann, N

    2016-09-01

    Prevention and reduction of poverty are key elements of social welfare policy in Germany. This study is the first analysis of self-rated health of individuals that escape poverty by benefiting form public transfers. Analyses are based on the German Socio-economic Panel (GSOEP) of 2010. Self-rated health was based on subjective assessment of general health status. Subjects were directly asked about receipt of public transfers. Income poverty was based on the equalized disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. We analyzed the association between self-rated health and pre- and post-transfer poverty by means of descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression. After adjusting for age, we found a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health among those who escaped income poverty due to the receipt of social transfers compared to others (ORWomen: 1.85; 95%-CI: 1.27-2.69; ORMen: 2.57; 95%-CI: 1.63-4.05), in particular to those at risk of post-transfer poverty. These poverty-related inequalities in health were predominantly explained by nationality, occupational status, household type and long-term care within the household. This study provides first evidence that the receipt of public transfers is associated with increased risk of poor health in the light of impending income-poverty. This study adds to the current debate about the social and health implications of public transfers in the relationship between poverty and health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Individual-level relationships between social capital and self-rated health in a bilingual community.

    PubMed

    Hyyppä, M T; Mäki, J

    2001-02-01

    Previous register studies have shown that mortality rates and disability pension statistics favor Swedish-speakers when compared to their Finnish-speaking neighbors in the same bilingual region in Finland. The purpose of the present questionnaire survey was to determine whether the Swedish-speaking community has more social capital and if the social capital is associated with health at the individual level. The study population consisted of randomly selected samples of Finnish-speakers (N 1,000, response rate 66%) and Swedish-speakers (N 1,000, response rate 63%) representing all adults living in bilingual Ostrobothnian municipalities (75,000 Finnish-speakers and 78,000 Swedish-speakers). To inquire into social capital and health indicators, a bilingual questionnaire was composed to cover variables and indicators of sociodemography, health status, health behavior, and social capital (interpersonal trust and civic engagement). Data were analyzed with multiple logistic regression for two binary outcome variables: language group (Finnish vs Swedish) and self-rated health (good vs almost good/fair/poor/bad). When health-related variables (urban residence, migration, age, BMI, household income, smoking, singing in a choir, membership in any voluntary association, participation in community events, and long-term diseases) were controlled for, the Finnish-speakers were more often migrated (P = 0.0001) and mistrusting (P = 0.0001) and less active in community events (P = 0.0016) and in singing in a choir (P = 0.02) than the Swedish-speakers. After controlling for language and the above-mentioned health-related variables, the number of auxiliary (willing to help) friends (P = 0.001), mistrust (P = 0.037), and membership in any religious association (P = 0.0096) were significantly and independently associated with good self-rated health in the whole sample. The Swedish-speaking community seems to hold a fair quantity of social capital, which is associated with good health

  2. Associations between self-rated health and psychosocial conditions, lifestyle factors and health resources among hospital nurses in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Leisyte, Palmira; Romualdas, Malinauskas; Kirtiklyte, Kristina

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the association between self-rated health and psychosocial factors at work and everyday life (job demands, job control, social support, workplace bullying, life-threatening events); health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, being overweight, obesity, low physical activity); mental distress; job satisfaction; and sense of coherence in a representative sample of Lithuanian hospitals' internal medicine department nurses. Recent trends to extend the retirement age in many countries of the European Union challenge future public health. Nurses are exposed to a broad variety of adverse psychosocial factors at work and in every day life that affect their health perception. As the retirement age in Lithuania is to be extended to 65 years for women, research on the associations of poor self-rated health with related factors is important. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the period 2005-2006 using the representative sample of Lithuanian hospitals' internal medicine department nurses. Data were collected from 748 nurses using questionnaire (response rate 53·9%). About 60·4% of nurses rated their health negatively. In the fully adjusted model age, high job demands, low job control, low social support at work, life-threatening events, low physical activity, being overweight, obesity, mental distress, job dissatisfaction and weak sense of coherence were associated with negative self-rated health. Preventive strategies against adverse psychosocial working conditions of nurses should be implemented in the Lithuanian hospitals. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Self-rated health, multimorbidity and depression in Mexican older adults: Proposal and evaluation of a simple conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Vázquez, Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Astudillo-Garcia, Claudia Iveth

    2017-04-01

    Self-rated health is an individual and subjective conceptualization involving the intersection of biological, social and psychological factors. It provides an invaluable and unique evaluation of a person's general health status. To propose and evaluate a simple conceptual model to understand self-rated health and its relationship to multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms in Mexican older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a national representative sample of 8,874 adults of 60 years of age and older. Self-perception of a positive health status was determined according to a Likert-type scale based on the question: "What do you think is your current health status?" Intermediate variables included multimorbidity, disability and depressive symptoms, as well as dichotomous exogenous variables (sex, having a partner, participation in decision-making and poverty). The proposed conceptual model was validated using a general structural equation model with a logit link function for positive self-rated health. A direct association was found between multimorbidity and positive self-rated health (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.42-0.55), disability and positive self-rated health (OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.30-0.40), depressive symptoms and positive self-rated health (OR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.43). The model also validated indirect associations between disability and depressive symptoms (OR=2.25; 95% CI: 2.01- 2.52), multimorbidity and depressive symptoms (OR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.61-2.00) and multimorbidity and disability (OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.78-2.20). A parsimonious theoretical model was empirically evaluated, which enabled identifying direct and indirect associations with positive self-rated health.

  4. Migration Processes and Self-Rated Health among Marriage Migrants in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on migrant health mostly examines labor migrants, with some attention paid to the trauma faced by refugees. Marriage migrants represent an understudied vulnerable population in the migration and health literature. Objectives Drawing on a Social Determinants of Health (SDH) approach, we use a large Korean national survey and stratified multivariate regressions to examine the link between migration processes and the self-rated health of Korea’s three largest ethnic groups of marriage migrants: Korean-Chinese, Vietnamese, and Han Chinese. Results We find that post-migration socioeconomic status and several social integration factors are associated with the health of marriage migrants of all three groups. Specifically, having more social relationships with Koreans is associated with good health among marriage migrants, while having more social relationships with co-ethnics is associated with worse health. Marriage migrants’ perceived social status of their natal and marital families is a better predictor of their health than more objective measures such as their education attainment and that of their Korean husbands. The post-migration social gradients among all ethnic groups demonstrate a dose-response effect of marital family’s social standing on marriage migrants’ health, independent of their own education and the social standing of their natal families. Lastly, we find some ethnicity-specific predictors such as the association between higher educational level and worse health status among the Vietnamese. This variability by group suggests a more complex set of social determinants of health occurred during the marriage migration processes than a basic SDH framework would predict. Conclusion Using a new immigrant destination, South Korea, as an example, we conclude that, migration and health policies that reduce ethnicity-specific barriers and offer integration programs in early post-migration stages may offer a pathway to good health

  5. The Importance of Spousal Education for the Self-Rated Health of Married Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dustin C; Hummer, Robert A; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Education's benefits for individuals' health are well documented, but it is unclear whether health benefits also accrue from the education of others in important social relationships. We assess the extent to which individuals' own education combines with their spouse's education to influence self-rated health among married persons ages 25 and older in the United States (N = 337,846) with pooled data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Survey. Results from age and gender-specific models revealed that own education and spouse's education each share an inverse association with fair/poor self-rated health among married men and women. Controlling for spousal education substantially attenuated the association between individuals' own education and fair/poor self-rated health and the reduction in this association was greater for married women than married men. The results also suggest that husbands' education is more important for wives' self-rated health than vice versa. Spousal education particularly was important for married women ages 45-64. Overall, the results imply that individuals' own education and spousal education combine to influence self-rated health within marriage. The results highlight the importance of shared resources in marriage for producing health.

  6. Social Capital as a Determinant of Self-Rated Health in Women of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Bakouei, Sareh; Eskandari, Narges; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda

    2015-07-19

    Recognition of the factors related to women's health is necessary. Evidence is available that the social structure including social capital plays an important role in the shaping people's health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between self-rated health and social capital in women of reproductive age. This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age, residing in any one of the 22 municipality areas across Tehran (capital of Iran) with the multi stage sampling technique. Self-rated health (Dependent variable), social capital (Independent variable) and covariates were studied. Analysis of data was done by one-way ANOVA test and multiple linear regressions. Depending on logistic regression analyses, the significant associations were found between self-rated health and age, educational level, crowding index, sufficiency of income for expenses and social cohesion. Data show that women with higher score in social cohesion as an outcome dimension of social capital have better self-rated health (PV = 0.001). Given the findings of this study, the dimensions of social capital manifestations (groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation) can potentially lead to the dimensions of social capital outcomes (social cohesion and inclusion, and empowerment and political action). Following that, social cohesion as a dimension of social capital outcomes has positively relationship with self- rated health after controlling covariates. Therefore, it is required to focus on the social capital role on health promotion and health policies.

  7. Positive attitude toward life, emotional expression, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms among centenarians and near-centenarians.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Schechter, Clyde B; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2016-09-01

    Favorable attitudes, emotions, personality characteristics, and self-rated health have been associated with successful aging in late life. However, less is known regarding these constructs and their relationships to mental health outcomes in the oldest old persons. This study examined cross-sectional relationships of these psychological factors to depressive symptoms in centenarians and near-centenarians. A selected sample of Ashkenazi Jewish older adults aged 98-107 (n = 54, 78% female) without significant cognitive impairment participated. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental Status Examination, positive attitude toward life and emotional expression by the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS), self-rated health by participants' subjective rating of their present health, and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results demonstrated inverse associations of the positive attitude toward life domain of the POPS and self-rated health with participants' levels of depressive symptoms even after adjusting for the effects of history of medical illnesses, cognitive function, and demographic variables. Additionally, participants with high levels of care showed higher levels of depressive symptoms. Path analysis supported the partially mediating role of positive attitude toward life in the relationship between self-rated health and depressive symptoms. These findings emphasized the important roles of positive attitudes and emotions as well as self-rated health in mental health outcomes in the oldest old. Although, limited by its cross-sectional design, findings suggest these psychological factors may exert protective effects on mental health outcomes in advanced age.

  8. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States. PMID:27688982

  9. Migration processes and self-rated health among marriage migrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Chieh; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Research on migrant health mostly examines labor migrants, with some attention paid to the trauma faced by refugees. Marriage migrants represent an understudied vulnerable population in the migration and health literature. Drawing on a Social Determinants of Health (SDH) approach, we use a large Korean national survey and stratified multivariate regressions to examine the link between migration processes and the self-rated health of Korea's three largest ethnic groups of marriage migrants: Korean-Chinese, Vietnamese, and Han Chinese. We find that post-migration socioeconomic status and several social integration factors are associated with the health of marriage migrants of all three groups. Specifically, having more social relationships with Koreans is associated with good health among marriage migrants, while having more social relationships with co-ethnics is associated with worse health. Marriage migrants' perceived social status of their natal and marital families is a better predictor of their health than more objective measures such as their education attainment and that of their Korean husbands. The post-migration social gradients among all ethnic groups demonstrate a dose-response effect of marital family's social standing on marriage migrants' health, independent of their own education and the social standing of their natal families. Lastly, we find some ethnicity-specific predictors such as the association between higher educational level and worse health status among the Vietnamese. This variability by group suggests a more complex set of SDH occurred during the marriage migration processes than a basic SDH framework would predict. Using a new immigrant destination, South Korea, as an example, we conclude that migration and health policies that reduce ethnicity-specific barriers and offer integration programs in early post-migration stages may offer a pathway to good health among marriage migrants.

  10. Religious differences in self-rated health among US Jews: findings from five urban population surveys.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Research findings on religion and health among Jews are in relatively short supply. While recent studies report on the health of Israelis and the mental health of Jews in the USA, little information exists on the physical health of US Jews, especially from population surveys. In this study, data are analyzed from five urban surveys of Jews conducted since 2000: two surveys from New York (N = 4,533; N = 5,993) and one apiece from Chicago (N = 1,993), Philadelphia (N = 1,217), and Boston (N = 1,766). A strategy of two-way ANCOVA with interaction was used to test for differences in self-rated health across five categories of Jewish religious affiliation (secular, Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative, Orthodox) and four categories of synagogue attendance (from never to at least weekly). Findings, adjusted for age and effects of other covariates, reveal that affiliated and synagogue-attending Jews report moderately better health than secular and non-attending Jews.

  11. Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age = 72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean = 8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean = 94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

  12. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Is the Association of Subjective SES and Self-Rated Health Confounded by Negative Mood? An Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael W.; Adler, Nancy; David Chen, Teh-Way

    2012-01-01

    Objective Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) consistently shows associations with poorer health with the strongest relationships emerging with global self-rated health. Though often interpreted as reflecting the impact of low SSS on health, the association could also arise from confounding SSS with negative affect. In this research we sought to determine if negative affect confounds, or alternatively, is on the causal pathway linking SSS to self-rated health. Methods 300 adult participants—recruited from throughout the United States—were randomized to experience sadness, shame, or a neutral mood induction wherein they wrote about and visualized a particularly emotionally evocative event. Participants subsequently completed measures of SSS, self-rated health, depression, and negative mood. Results Consistent with predictions, neither SSS scores nor the association of SSS with self-rated health, depression, and chronic negative affect differed by mood induction condition, controlling for demographic factors that covary with SSS (e.g., age, gender, education, income). Moreover, chronic negative affect partially explained the relationship between SSS and self-rated health, independent of manipulated mood. Conclusions These findings support the utility of the measurement of SSS, and provide evidence suggesting that chronic negative affect is a likely mediator of the SSS association with global health rather than a confounder. PMID:22329426

  14. Job Characteristics Associated With Self-Rated Fair or Poor Health Among U.S. Workers.

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Alterman, Toni; Li, Jia; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Approximately 60% of the U.S. adult population is employed. Many aspects of a person's job may influence health, but it is unclear which job characteristics are most strongly associated with health at a population level. The purpose of this study was to identify important associations between job characteristics and workers' self-rated health in a nationally representative survey of U.S. workers. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to calculate weighted prevalence rates for self-reported fair/poor health for five categories of job characteristics: occupation; pay/benefits (economic); work organization; chemical/environmental hazards; and psychosocial factors. Backward elimination methods were used to build a regression model for self-reported health with the significant job characteristics, adjusting for sociodemographic variables and health behaviors. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012-2016. After adjusting for covariates, workers were more likely to have fair/poor health if they were employed in business operations occupations (e.g., buyers, human resources workers, event planners, marketing specialists; adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]=1.85, 95% CI=1.19, 2.88); had no paid sick leave (APR=1.35, 95% CI=1.11, 1.63); worried about becoming unemployed (APR=1.43, 95% CI=1.22, 1.69); had difficulty combining work and family (APR=1.23, 95% CI=1.01, 1.49); or had been bullied/threatened on the job (APR=1.82, 95% CI=1.44, 2.29). Occupation, lack of paid sick leave, and multiple psychosocial factors were associated with fair/poor health among U.S. workers at the population level in 2010. Public health professionals and employers should consider these factors when developing interventions to improve worker health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    PubMed

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  16. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  17. Associations between supportive leadership and employees self-rated health in an occupational sample.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Loerbroks, Adrian; Herr, Raphael M; Wilson, Mark G; Jarczok, Marc N; Litaker, David; Mauss, Daniel; Bosch, Jos A; Fischer, Joachim E

    2014-01-01

    Protecting the health of the work force has become an important issue in public health research. This study aims to explore potential associations between supportive leadership style (SLS), an aspect of leadership behavior, and self-rated health (SRH) among employees. We drew on cross-sectional data from a cohort of industrial workers (n = 3,331), collected in 2009. We assessed employees' ratings of supportive, employee-oriented leadership behavior at their job, their SRH, and work stress as measured by the effort-reward model and scales measuring demands, control, and social support. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the perception of poor SLS and poor SRH controlling for work-related stress and other confounders. Sensitivity analyses stratified models by sex, age, and managerial position to test the robustness of associations. Perception of poor SLS was associated with poor SRH [OR 2.39 (95 % CI 1.95-2.92)]. Although attenuated following adjustment for measures of work-related stress and other confounders [OR 1.60 (95 % CI 1.26-2.04)], the magnitude, direction, and significance of this association remained robust in stratified models in most subgroups. SLS appears to be relevant to health in the workplace. Leadership behavior may represent a promising area for future research with potential for promoting better health in a large segment of the adult population.

  18. The Effects of Response Option Order and Question Order on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to assess the impact of response option order and question order on the distribution of responses to the self-rated health (SRH) question and the relationship between SRH and other health-related measures. Methods In an online panel survey, we implement a 2-by-2 between-subjects factorial experiment, manipulating the following levels of each factor: 1) order of response options (“excellent” to “poor” versus “poor” to “excellent”); and 2) order of SRH item (either preceding or following the administration of domain-specific health items). We use chi-square difference tests, polychoric correlations, and differences in means and proportions to evaluate the effect of the experimental treatments on SRH responses and the relationship between SRH and other health measures. Results Mean SRH is higher (better health) and proportion in “fair” or “poor” health lower when response options are ordered from “excellent” to “poor” and SRH is presented first compared to other experimental treatments. Presenting SRH after domain-specific health items increases its correlation with these items, particularly when response options are ordered “excellent” to “poor.” Among participants with the highest level of current health risks, SRH is worse when it is presented last versus first. Conclusion While more research on the presentation of SRH is needed across a range of surveys, we suggest that ordering response options from “poor” to “excellent” might reduce positive clustering. Given the question order effects found here, we suggest presenting SRH before domain-specific health items in order to increase inter-survey comparability, as domain-specific health items will vary across surveys. PMID:25409654

  19. Associations of relative income deprivation with perceived happiness and self-rated health among the Hong Kong Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chee Hon; Wong, Ho Kit; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the association of relative income deprivation (RID) with perceived happiness and self-rated health in Hong Kong. We measured RID on Yitzhaki indices constructed using multiple reference groups and used multilevel ordinal logistic regression models to assess its linkages with the two outcomes, using data from 6272 respondents from a large-scale representative household survey. Among the overall population, increased RID was found to be consistently associated with reduced perceived happiness, even after adjusting for respondents' level of absolute income and other socio-demographic covariates; however, there were no consistent associations between RID and self-rated health. In subgroup analysis, we observed significant linkages between RID and self-rated health only among men, the middle and older age ranges, and among those with less education and those not engaged in economic activities. Our findings suggest that RID is adversely associated with perceived happiness. However, its negative linkage with self-rated health is less clear. The weak tie between RID and self-rated health may relate to the Hong Kong context, where the public health system is relatively equitable and has multiple pro-poor health policies.

  20. Employment hardships and single mothers' self-rated health: evidence from the panel study of income dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2014-01-01

    Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.

  1. Socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among women: a comparison of St. Petersburg to Estonia and Finland.

    PubMed

    Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Härkänen, Tommi; Regushevskaya, Elena; Hemminki, Elina; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Laanpere, Made; Kuznetsova, Olga; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-05-17

    Social determinants of health have not been intensively studied in Russia, even though the health divide has been clearly demonstrated by an increased mortality rate among those with low education. A comparative analysis of social health determinants in countries with different historical and economic backgrounds may provide useful evidence for addressing health inequalities. We aimed to assess socioeconomic determinants of self-rated health in St. Petersburg as compared to Estonia and Finland. Data for women aged 18-44 were extracted from existing population-based surveys and analysed. In St. Petersburg the data were originally collected in 2003 (response rate 68%), in Estonia in 2004-2005 (54%), and in Finland in 2000-2001 (86%). The study samples comprised 865 women in St. Petersburg, 2141 in Estonia and 1897 in Finland. Self-rated health was much poorer in St. Petersburg than in Estonia or Finland. High education was negatively associated with poor self-rated health in all the studied populations; it was (partially) mediated via health behaviour and limiting long-term illness only in Estonia and Finland, but not in St. Petersburg. High personal income and employment did not associate with poor self-rated health among St. Petersburg women, as it did in Estonia and Finland. In St. Petersburg housewives rather than employed women had better self-rated health, unlike the two other areas. Women's self-rated health in St. Petersburg varied similarly by education but differently by income and employment as compared to Estonia and Finland. Education is likely the most meaningful dimension of women's socioeconomic position in St. Petersburg. More research is needed to further clarify the pathways between socioeconomic position and health in Russia.

  2. Assessment of the association between dentate status and self-rated general health

    PubMed Central

    Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Aiming at preparing the basis for evidence-based dental public health policy making in Slovenia, the objective of the study was to assess the strength of association between oral health status measured by the number of missing teeth and self-rated health (SRH). Methods The study was designed as a pooled individual-level data study from four national cross-sectional studies carried out in the period 2001-2012, based on CINDI Health Monitor methodology. Altogether, 34,412 participants were included. A logistic regression model with poor SRH as observed outcome and the number of teeth as explanatory factor (adjusted for selected biologic, socio-economic and health factors) was proposed. Results In the sample, women represented 55.7% and men 44.3%, median age was 45 years. Persons with more missing teeth more likely rated their health as poor. The association was persistent even when different confounding variables were included in the model. In the group with 1-5 missing teeth, in comparison to the group with none missing teeth, OR was 1.23 (p=0.049), whereas for the group with 6-10 missing teeth, OR was 1.32 (p=0.019); for the group with >10 missing teeth, but not all, OR was 1.77 (p<0.001), and for the group with all missing teeth, OR was 2.19 (p<0.001). Conclusions Study results showed clear association of SRH with dentate status, which confirms the oral-general health connection. This indicates the need for the development of proper dental public health policies for better oral health, and presents a new view on the importance of preserving teeth. PMID:28289473

  3. Self-rated health and mortality: a follow-up study of a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Fonseca, N; Quesada, J A; Nolasco, A; Melchor, I; Moncho, J; Pereyra-Zamora, P; López, R; Calabuig, J; Barber, X

    2013-12-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is known to be a valid indicator for the prediction of health outcomes. The aims of this study were to describe and analyse the associations between SRH and health status, socio-economic and demographic characteristics; and between SRH and mortality in a Spanish population. Longitudinal study. A sample of 5275 adults (age ≥21 years) residing in the Valencian Community (Spanish Mediterranean region) was surveyed in 2005 and followed for four years. SRH was categorized into good and poor health. The response variable was mortality (dead/alive), obtained from the local mortality register. Logistic regression models were adjusted in order to analyse the associations between SRH and health status, socio-economic and demographic characteristics; odds ratios were calculated to measure the associations. Poisson regression models were adjusted in order to analyse the associations between mortality and explanatory variables; the relative risk of death was calculated to measure the associations. Poor SRH was reported by 25.9% of respondents, and the mortality rate after four years of follow-up was 3.6%. An association was found between SRH and the presence of chronic disease and disability in men and women. A perception of poor health vs good health led to a mortality risk of 3.0 in men and 2.7 in women. SRH was predictive of mortality, even after adjusting for all other variables. In men and women, the presence of disability provided additional predictive ability. SRH was predictive of mortality in both men and women, and acted as a mediator between socio-economic, demographic and health conditions and mortality. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of loneliness on self-rated health symptoms among victimized school children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Loneliness is associated with peer victimization, and the two adverse experiences are both related to ill health in childhood and adolescence. There is, however, a lack of knowledge on the importance of loneliness among victimized children. Therefore, possible modifying effects of loneliness on victimized school children’s self-rated health were assessed. Methods A population based cross-section study included 419 children in grades 1–10 from five schools. The prevalence of loneliness and victimization across grades was analyzed by linear test for trend, and associations of the adverse experiences with four health symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache) were estimated by logistic regression. Results In crude regression analysis, both victimization and loneliness showed positive associations with all the four health symptoms. However, in multivariable analysis, the associations of victimization with health symptoms were fully attenuated except for headache. In contrast, loneliness retained about the same strength of associations in the multivariable analysis as in the crude analysis. More detailed analyses demonstrated that children who reported both victimization and loneliness had three to seven times higher prevalence of health symptoms compared to children who reported neither victimization nor loneliness (the reference group). Rather surprisingly, victimized children who reported no loneliness did not have any higher prevalence of health symptoms than the reference group, whereas lonely children without experiences of victimization had almost the same prevalence of health symptoms (except for stomach ache) as children who were both victimized and lonely. Conclusions Adverse effects of loneliness need to be highlighted, and for victimized children, experiences of loneliness may be an especially harsh risk factor related to ill health. PMID:22643050

  5. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  6. Predictors of Self-Rated Health: Does Education Play a Role Above and Beyond Age?

    PubMed

    Spuling, Svenja M; Huxhold, Oliver; Wurm, Susanne

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that while health factors lose importance for the individual conceptualization of self-rated health (SRH) with advancing age, subjective well-being (SWB) factors gain in importance. The present study examined whether this age-related pattern differs between educational groups. Longitudinal data of adults aged 40 years and older of the German Ageing Survey was used (N = 6,812). The role of education in age-related changes in the predictive value of different health and SWB facets for SRH was investigated with a cross-lagged panel regression model. Physical conditions were a stronger predictor in lower than in higher educated individuals while the association did not change with age. In contrast, positive affect and life satisfaction only gained in importance with advancing age for higher educated individuals. Negative affect was an equally strong predictor independent of education, and loneliness had a stronger association with SRH in people with lower education compared to those with high education while the associations did not change with age. The findings highlight the importance of considering the multidimensionality of SWB and the educational background of individuals for the study of SRH and indicate possible limits to adjustment to age-related declines in health.

  7. Self-rated health, life-style, and psychoendocrine measures of stress in healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Halford, Christina; Ekselius, Lisa; Anderzen, Ingrid; Arnetz, Bengt; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2010-11-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of subsequent health outcome, independent of objective health measures and life-style-related health risk factors. However, the determinants of SRH are as yet largely unknown. In accordance with the prevailing stress theory, we hypothesized that SRH is associated with personal coping resources, psychological strain, life-style variables, and endocrine variables. A total of 106 healthy women, 22-59 years of age, were followed for up to 3 years with annual blood sampling (cortisol, prolactin, testosterone) and written questionnaires in which information on SRH, psychological strain, coping resources, socio-economic and life-style variables was sought. In bivariate, screening logistic regression analyses, intended to find candidate variables for a final analysis model, all coping resource variables (sense of coherence, mastery, and self-esteem) were significantly related to SRH, and so were two psychological strain variables (vital exhaustion, and sleep disturbances), one life-style variable (fitness), but none of the endocrine variables. In the final multivariate analysis model, including all candidate variables, only vital exhaustion (P < 0.0001), fitness (P = 0.0002), and sense of coherence (P = 0.0006) were independently associated with SRH, together explaining 74% of the SRH variance. Some elements of the hypothesis, i.e. the effects of coping resources, psychological strain, and life-style variables on SRH, were supported by the results, while others, i.e. effects of endocrine measures on SRH, were not, indicating a possible gender difference.

  8. Self-rated health in centenarians: a nation-wide cross-sectional Greek study.

    PubMed

    Tigani, Xanthi; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is an inclusive measure of public health that is correlated with quality of life and subsequent mortality. Extensive literature has identified multiple determinants of SRH in different populations. However, such studies on centenarians are scarce and parsimonious. Our objective is to identify SRH determinants in centenarians. This is a nationwide cross-sectional study on 400 Greek centenarians that was carried out between 2007 and 2010. SRH was evaluated by a simple question with a 5-point scale. Three categories of SRH were formed (very good/good/poor), which served as the dependent variable in multinomial regression models. Various sociodemographic, disease-related, lifestyle and psychosocial variables were assessed as candidate determinants of SRH. According to our results, SRH ratings among centenarians were better than that expected according to previous studies showing worse SRH ratings with increasing age in Greece. The 22.4% of the variance in SRH among centenarians was predicted by gender, habitat region and status, financial problems, disease presence and autonomy. Among lifestyle and psychosocial variables, obesity, good relationships with children, lack of feelings of loneliness, high optimism, adaptability and an internal health locus of control profile were independently associated with good SRH. These results indicate that SRH in individuals of extreme longevity were related to specific personal psychosocial factors that contribute to healthy aging and thus support the biopsychosocial model of health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health among older adults in Brazil and Chile.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia; Sánchez, Hugo; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

    2015-04-11

    The determinants of self-rated health (SRH) have been widely investigated to explain social differences and gender differences in health. This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in predictors of SRH among Brazilian and Chilean older adults. We used two samples of older people: 2052 Brazilian community-dwelling participants (1226 women and 862 men) and 1301 Chilean community-dwelling participants (855 women and 446 men). Sequential logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between SRH and potential predictors in a hierarchical model. Overall, 35.5% and 52.1% of individuals in Chile and Brazil, respectively, reported good SRH. There was a gradient association between good SRH and chronic diseases in both countries. Chilean men without chronic disease or with one had a higher chance of good SRH, compared to two or more diseases. For Brazilian men, no or one chronic disease was associated with good SRH. For women, the set of independent predictors for good SRH included no chronic diseases or one chronic disease, and no activities of daily living limitation. For men, the set also included instrumental activities limitation. For Brazilian adults of both genders, depression demonstrated the strongest independent association with good SRH. We conclude that when examining gender differences in predictors of SRH, the similarities are greater than the differences between Brazilian and Chilean older adults. In both countries, physical health was the most important predictor of SRH. In addition, absence of depression was the strongest predictor of good health in older Brazilian adults.

  10. Long-Term Effects of Wealth on Mortality and Self-rated Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ≤0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%–44% higher risk and 6–18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth–mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality. PMID:21059808

  11. Self-rated health and factors influencing responses among young Egyptian type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Heba

    2011-04-07

    Patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) face major daily challenges. Self-rated health (SRH) is a global measure of an individual's health related quality of life (HRQoL) and is based on the question, "In general, how would you rate your health?" Subjects rate their health as excellent, very good, good, poor or very poor. Our objective was to determine the HRQoL using the SRH measure and determine factors influencing responses. We hypothesized that better SRH responses were associated with shorter diabetes duration, better compliance and better glycemic control. The standardized SRH measure was the instrument used for health related quality of life assessment. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between SRH responses and selected variables. 124 subjects, 64 females (51.6%) and 60 males (48.4%) were included. Average age was 13.08 (± 3.19) and average diabetes duration was 5.82 (± 1.60), while the mean HbA1C was 8.02 (± 1.60). The majority rated their health as good (31%), 29% rated it as excellent, 11% as very good, 14% as poor and 15% as very poor. Regression analysis showed that regular exercise was the only predictor that was independently and significantly associated with a "better" self-health rating, with an OR of 12.84, CI of 1.425-115.727 and a p value of 0.023. Regular exercise among Egyptian children with T1DM is strongly associated with a "better" overall health related quality of life and should be repeatedly encouraged.

  12. Predictive validity of parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms in adolescence on adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Du Rietz, Ebba; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Brikell, Isabell; Jangmo, Andreas; Sariaslan, Amir; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kuntsi, Jonna; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-02-10

    There is scarcity of research investigating the validity of self-report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms compared to other informants, such as parents. This study aimed to compare the predictive associations of ADHD symptoms rated by parents and their children across adolescence on a range of adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood. Parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms were assessed in 2960 individuals in early (13-14 years) and late adolescence (16-17 years). Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the associations between parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms at both time points and adverse life outcomes in young adulthood obtained from Swedish national registries. Both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes, although associations of parent-ratings were more often statistically significant and were generally stronger (OR = 1.12-1.49, p < 0.05) than self-ratings (OR = 1.07-1.17, p < 0.05). After controlling for the other informant, parent-ratings of ADHD symptoms in both early and late adolescence significantly predicted academic and occupational failure, criminal convictions and traffic-related injuries, while self-ratings of ADHD symptoms only in late adolescence predicted substance use disorder and academic failure. Our findings suggest that both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in adolescence provides valuable information on risk of future adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes, however, self-ratings are not valuable once parent-ratings have been taken into account in predicting most outcomes. Thus, clinicians and researchers should prioritize parent-ratings over self-ratings.

  13. Substance-use coping and self-rated health among US middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Martins, Silvia S.; Spira, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among US middle-aged and older adults is increasing. A subset of this population uses substances to cope with stress, but the characteristics of these individuals, and the association between substance-use coping and health outcomes remain unclear. We identified correlates of substance-use coping and measured its association with self-rated health in a community-based sample of adults aged 54–99 in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In the 2008 HRS, 1,351 participants reported their frequency of prescription/other drug-, alcohol-, and cigarette-use coping with stress and reported self-rated health (excellent/very good, good, or fair/poor); 1,201 of these participants also reported self-rated health in 2010. One in six participants frequently used substances to cope. The oldest participants were least likely to engage in frequent alcohol-use coping. Those with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to frequently engage in cigarette- and prescription/other drug-use coping. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants who frequently used cigarettes (compared to participants who infrequently used cigarettes) to cope had 2.7 times (95% CI=1.1–6.7) the odds of poor (vs. excellent) self-rated health. Relative to participants who infrequently used prescription/other drugs to cope, participants who frequently used prescription/other drugs to cope had 2.4 times (95% CI=1.1–5.1) the odds of reporting poor self-rated health. The association between prescription/other drug-use coping in 2008 and self-rated health in 2010 was statistically significant (relative OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.7–7.2). Participants engaging in substance-use coping likely have particular demographic and clinical characteristics. Interventions to reduce substance-use coping may prevent adverse health outcomes. PMID:25437264

  14. Substance-use coping and self-rated health among US middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Pia M; Canham, Sarah L; Martins, Silvia S; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among US middle-aged and older adults is increasing. A subset of this population uses substances to cope with stress, but the characteristics of these individuals, and the association between substance-use coping and health outcomes remain unclear. We identified correlates of substance-use coping and measured its association with self-rated health in a community-based sample of adults aged 54-99 in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In the 2008 HRS, 1351 participants reported their frequency of prescription/other drug-, alcohol-, and cigarette-use coping with stress and reported self-rated health (excellent/very good, good, or fair/poor); 1201 of these participants also reported self-rated health in 2010. One in six participants frequently used substances to cope. The oldest participants were least likely to engage in frequent alcohol-use coping. Those with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to frequently engage in cigarette- and prescription/other drug-use coping. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants who frequently used cigarettes (compared to participants who infrequently used cigarettes) to cope had 2.7 times (95% CI=1.1-6.7) the odds of poor (vs. excellent) self-rated health. Relative to participants who infrequently used prescription/other drugs to cope, participants who frequently used prescription/other drugs to cope had 2.4 times (95% CI=1.1-5.1) the odds of reporting poor self-rated health. The association between prescription/other drug-use coping in 2008 and self-rated health in 2010 was statistically significant (relative OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.7-7.2). Participants engaging in substance-use coping likely have particular demographic and clinical characteristics. Interventions to reduce substance-use coping may prevent adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of a Short Sleep Duration, Insufficient Sleep, and Insomnia with Self-Rated Health among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that sleep duration and poor sleep are associated with mortality, as well as with a wide range of negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between sleep and self-rated health, particularly through the combination of sleep complaints. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health is associated with sleep complaints, considering the combination of sleep duration, insomnia, and sleep sufficiency. This cross-sectional study was performed in the 18 largest public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2518 female nurses answered a self-filled multidimensional questionnaire. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the chance of poor self-rated health in the presence of different combinations of sleep duration and quality. Compared with women who reported adequate sleep duration with no sleep quality complaints (reference group), the odds ratios (95% CI) for poor self-rated health were 1.79 (1.27–2.24) for those who reported only insufficient sleep, 1.85 (0.94–3.66) for only a short sleep duration, and 3.12 (1.94–5.01) for only insomnia. Compared with those who expressed all three complaints (short sleep duration, insomnia, and insufficient sleep), the odds ratio for poor self-rated health was 4.49 (3.25–6.22). Differences in the magnitude of the associations were observed, depending on the combination of sleep complaints. Because self-rated health is a consistent predictor of morbidity, these results reinforce the increasing awareness of the role of sleep in health and disease. Our findings contribute to the recognition of sleep as a public health matter that deserves to be better understood and addressed by policymakers. PMID:25961874

  16. Ethnic and Gender Differentials in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self-Rated Health in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Results Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Conclusion Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people. PMID

  17. Ethnic and gender differentials in non-communicable diseases and self-rated health in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teh, Jane K L; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.

  18. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-12

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  19. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = .01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = .005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < .001). Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:28138468

  20. Does the association between self-rated health and mortality vary by social class?

    PubMed

    McFadden, E; Luben, R; Bingham, S; Wareham, N; Kinmonth, A-L; Khaw, K-T

    2009-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) predicts future mortality. Individuals in different social classes with similar physical health status may have different reference levels and criteria against which they judge their health, therefore the SRH-mortality relationship may vary according to social class. We examine the relationship between SRH and mortality by occupational social class in a prospective study of 22,457 men and women aged 39-79 years, without prevalent disease, living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993-1997 and followed up for an average of 10 years. As expected, SRH was related to subsequent mortality. The age and sex adjusted hazard ratio for mortality for those with poor compared to those with excellent SRH was 4.35 (95% confidence interval 3.38-5.59, P<0.001). The prevalence of poor or moderate SRH was higher in manual than in non-manual classes. However, SRH was similarly related to mortality in manual and non-manual classes: when non-manual classes are compared with manual classes for each category of SRH, the 95% confidence intervals for the mortality hazard ratios overlap. There was no evidence of an interaction between social class and SRH in either men or women. Thus in this population, SRH appears to predict mortality in a similar manner in non-manual and manual classes.

  1. Business travel and self-rated health, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Richards, Catherine A; Rundle, Andrew G

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between extent of travel for business and health. Associations between business travel and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed using medical record data from 13,057 patients provided by EHE International, Inc. Compared with light travelers (1 to 6 nights per month), nontravelers were more likely to report poor/fair health (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 1.87) and the odds ratios increased with increasing travel, reaching 2.61 (95% CI: 1.57 to 4.33) among extensive travelers (>20 nights per month). Compared with light travelers, the odds ratios for obesity were highest among nontravelers (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.50) and extensive travelers (odds ratio = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.94). Although the differences were small, nontravelers and extensive travelers had the highest diastolic blood pressure and lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Poor self-rated health and obesity are associated with extensive business travel.

  2. God-Mediated Control and Change in Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if feelings of God-mediated control are associated with change in self-rated health over time. In the process, an effort was made to see if a sense of meaning in life and optimism mediated the relationship between God-mediated control and change in health. The following hypothesized relationships were contained in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate these issues: (1) people who go to church more often tend to have stronger God-mediated control beliefs than individuals who do not attend worship services as often; (2) people with a strong sense of God-mediated control are more likely to find a sense of meaning in life and be more optimistic than individuals who do not have a strong sense of God-mediated control; (3) people who are optimistic and who have a strong sense of meaning in life will rate their health more favorably over time than individuals who are not optimistic, as well as individuals who have not found a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults provided support for each of these hypotheses.

  3. God-Mediated Control and Change in Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if feelings of God-mediated control are associated with change in self-rated health over time. In the process, an effort was made to see if a sense of meaning in life and optimism mediated the relationship between God-mediated control and change in health. The following hypothesized relationships were contained in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate these issues: (1) people who go to church more often tend to have stronger God-mediated control beliefs than individuals who do not attend worship services as often; (2) people with a strong sense of God-mediated control are more likely to find a sense of meaning in life and be more optimistic than individuals who do not have a strong sense of God-mediated control; (3) people who are optimistic and who have a strong sense of meaning in life will rate their health more favorably over time than individuals who are not optimistic, as well as individuals who have not found a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults provided support for each of these hypotheses. PMID:21057586

  4. Impact of Spiritual Well-Being, Spiritual Perspective, and Religiosity on the Self-Rated Health of Jordanian Arab Christians.

    PubMed

    Musa, Ahmad S; Pevalin, David J; Shahin, Francis I

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore associations of spiritual well-being, spiritual perspective, and religiosity with self-rated health in a convenience sample of 340 adult Jordanian Arab Christians. Data were collected through church and community groups. Results indicated that spiritual well-being and religiosity were positively associated with self-rated health, but in the final regression model only spiritual well-being retained a significant association after controlling for the other spiritual and religious measures. In conclusion, spirituality and religiosity are important to Jordanian Arab Christians' health and well-being, and the implications for nursing practice are explored.

  5. Social influences on trajectories of self-rated health: evidence from Britain, Germany, Denmark and the USA.

    PubMed

    Sacker, Amanda; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates social inequalities in self-rated health dynamics for working-aged adults in four nations, representing distinct welfare regime types. The aims are to describe average national trajectories of self-rated health over a 7-year period, identify social determinants of cross-sectional and longitudinal health and compare cross-national patterns. Data are from national household panel surveys in Britain, Germany, Denmark and the USA. The self-rated health of working-age respondents is measured for the years 1995-2001. Social indicators include education, occupational class, employment status, income, age, gender, minority status and marital status. Latent growth curve models are used to estimate both individual change and average national trajectories of self-rated health, conditioned on the social indicators. Ageing-vector graphs reveal general declines in health as people age. They also show differential patterns of change for specific national cohorts. Older cohorts in Denmark had poorer health and young cohorts in the USA had better health in 2001 than 1995. Social covariates predicted baseline health in all four countries, in ways that were consistent with welfare regime theories. Once inequalities in baseline health were accounted for, the few determinants of mean health decline occurred mainly in the USA, again in line with theoretical expectations. Finally, trajectories of health for those in average and advantaged social circumstances were similar, but disadvantaged individuals had much poorer health trajectories than 'average' individuals. The differences were greatest in the countries with lower levels of public transfers. National differences in self-rated health trajectories and their social correlates may be attributed partly to welfare policies.

  6. Population prevalence of edentulism and its association with depression and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Haro, Josep Maria; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Chrepa, Vanessa; Kotsakis, Georgios A.

    2016-01-01

    Edentulism is associated with various adverse health outcomes but treatment options in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are limited. Data on its prevalence and its effect on mental health and overall-health is lacking, especially from LMICs. Self-reported data on complete edentulism obtained by standardized questionnaires on 201,953 adults aged ≥18 years from 50 countries which participated in the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002–2004 were analyzed. Age and sex-standarized edentulism prevalence ranged from 0.1% (95% CI = 0.0–0.3) (Myanmar) to 14.5% (95% CI = 13.1–15.9) (Zimbabwe), and 2.1% (95% CI = 1.5–3.0) (Ghana) to 32.3% (95% CI = 29.0–35.8) (Brazil) in the younger and older age groups respectively. Edentulism was significantly associated with depression (OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.23–2.00) and poor self-rated health (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03–1.83) in the younger group with no significant associations in the older age group. Our findings highlight the edentulism-related health loss in younger persons from LMICs. The relative burden of edentulism is likely to grow as populations age and live longer. Given its life-long nature and common risk factors with other NCDs, edentulism surveillance and prevention should be an integral part of the global agenda of NCD control. PMID:27853193

  7. Self-rated health amongst male and female employees in Sweden: a nationally representative study.

    PubMed

    Taloyan, Marina; Leineweber, Constanze; Hyde, Martin; Westerlund, Hugo

    2015-10-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a well-established measure within social epidemiology. However, most studies on SRH tend to be amongst the general population, where SRH has been found to be lower in women than in men. Few studies have specifically investigated patterns of SRH just within an employed population. The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate whether there are gender differences in reporting suboptimal SRH in an employed Swedish population and (2) study whether these differences could be explained by socio-economic, work-, health- and/or lifestyle-related factors. This study is cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2008 wave of Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, a nationally representative cohort of the Swedish working population. This study includes the responses of 9,756 employed individuals. Logistic regression analyses were performed. After adjusting for age, income and working hours (full vs. part time), men had significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH than women OR 1.38 (95 % CI 1.22-1.55). With stepwise inclusion of health factors such as long-standing disease, sleep quality and fatigue, the OR for men increased to 1.65 (95 % CI 1.44-1.89). Gender differences in reporting suboptimal SRH were attenuated to 1.29 (95 % CI 1.11-1.51) with the inclusion of lifestyle factors. However, they remained significant after inclusion of all explanatory variables. In contrast to findings in general population studies, our results show that men in employment have higher odds of suboptimal SRH than their female counterparts. As SRH is an important indicator of health with a strong association with mortality, an excess risk of suboptimal SRH amongst employed men shows that more attention should be paid to men's health in the workplace.

  8. Population prevalence of edentulism and its association with depression and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Haro, Josep Maria; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Chrepa, Vanessa; Kotsakis, Georgios A

    2016-11-17

    Edentulism is associated with various adverse health outcomes but treatment options in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are limited. Data on its prevalence and its effect on mental health and overall-health is lacking, especially from LMICs. Self-reported data on complete edentulism obtained by standardized questionnaires on 201,953 adults aged ≥18 years from 50 countries which participated in the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Age and sex-standarized edentulism prevalence ranged from 0.1% (95% CI = 0.0-0.3) (Myanmar) to 14.5% (95% CI = 13.1-15.9) (Zimbabwe), and 2.1% (95% CI = 1.5-3.0) (Ghana) to 32.3% (95% CI = 29.0-35.8) (Brazil) in the younger and older age groups respectively. Edentulism was significantly associated with depression (OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.23-2.00) and poor self-rated health (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03-1.83) in the younger group with no significant associations in the older age group. Our findings highlight the edentulism-related health loss in younger persons from LMICs. The relative burden of edentulism is likely to grow as populations age and live longer. Given its life-long nature and common risk factors with other NCDs, edentulism surveillance and prevention should be an integral part of the global agenda of NCD control.

  9. Inner strength as a mediator of the relationship between disease and self-rated health among old people.

    PubMed

    Viglund, Kerstin; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Strandberg, Gunilla; Lundman, Berit; Nygren, Björn

    2014-01-01

    To explore inner strength as a mediator of the relationship between disease and self-rated health among older people. Qualitative research has indicated that inner strength is an essential resource for an individual affected by disease. A hypothesis of inner strength as a mediator of the relationship between disease and self-rated health was proposed. The theoretical framework of inner strength was based on the Model of Inner Strength. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample included 6119 participants from Finland and Sweden, in the ages of 65, 70, 75 and 80 years. The GERDA-Botnia questionnaire, which included the Inner Strength Scale and items related to diseases and self-rated health, was sent out between October and December 2010. Structural equation modelling was used to test a hypothesized model. The result indicated that having a disease was associated with poorer self-rated health and a lower degree of inner strength and a higher degree of inner strength was associated with better self-rated health. The result supported the hypothesis by indicating that inner strength partially mediated the relationship between disease and self-rated health. This large cross-sectional study with participants from 65 to 80 years of age from Finland and Sweden showed that inner strength can be a resource for older people affected by disease. Increasing inner strength in older people affected by disease may be one intervention to support experiences of health despite disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Self-Rated Health in Healthy Adults and Susceptibility to the Common Cold.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Doyle, William J

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association of self-rated health (SRH) with host resistance to illness after exposure to a common cold virus and identify mechanisms linking SRH to future health status. We analyzed archival data from 360 healthy adults (mean [standard deviation] age = 33.07 [10.69] years, 45.6% women). Each person completed validated questionnaires that assessed SRH (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor), socioemotional factors, and health practices and was subsequently exposed to a common cold virus and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection and objective signs of illness). Poorer SRH was associated in a graded fashion with greater susceptibility to developing clinical illness (good/fair versus excellent: odds ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.47-6.99; very good versus excellent: odds ratio = 2.60, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.32), independent of age, sex, race, prechallenge immunity (specific antibody), body mass, season, education, and income. Greater illness risk was not attributable to infection, but to increased likelihood of developing objective signs of illness once infected. Poorer SRH also correlated with poorer health practices, increased stress, lower positive emotions, and other socioemotional factors. However, none of these (alone or together) accounted for the association between SRH and host resistance. Additional data (separate study) indicated that history of having colds was unrelated to susceptibility and hence also did not account for the SRH link with immunocompetence. Poorer SRH is associated with poorer immunocompetence, possibly reflecting sensitivity to sensations associated with premorbid immune dysfunction. In turn, poorer immune function may be a major contributing mechanism linking SRH to future health.

  11. Self-Rated Health in Healthy Adults and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Explore the association of self-rated health (SRH) with host-resistance to illness following exposure to a common cold virus and identify mechanisms linking SRH to future health status. Methods We analyzed archival data from 360 healthy adults (mean age = 33.07, SD = 10.69; 45.6% women). Each completed validated questionnaires assessing SRH (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor), socio-emotional factors and health practices; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Results Poorer SRH was associated in a graded fashion with greater susceptibility to developing clinical illness (good/fair vs. excellent: odds ratio [OR]=3.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.47-6.99]; very good vs. excellent: OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.27-5.32), independent of age, sex, race, pre-challenge immunity (specific antibody), body mass, season, education, and income. Greater illness risk was not attributable to infection, but to increased likelihood of developing objective signs of illness once infected. Poorer SRH also correlated with poorer health practices, increased stress, lower positive emotions, and other socio-emotional factors. However, none of these (alone or together) accounted for the association between SRH and host-resistance. Additional data (separate study) indicated that history of having colds was unrelated to susceptibility and hence also did not account for the SRH link with immunocompetence. Conclusions Poorer SRH is associated with poorer immunocompetence, possibly reflecting sensitivity to sensations associated with premorbid immune dysfunction. In turn poorer immune function may be a major contributing mechanism linking SRH with future health. PMID:26397938

  12. Determinants of self-rated oral health status among school children in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, A N; Mashoto, K

    2002-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived oral health status and to explore its relationship with clinically assessed dental fluorosis among school children in Arusha town, Tanzania. A total of 478 students (mean age 15.7 years) completed questionnaires administered in the schools during May to July 2000. Clinical photos of the upper and lower incisors were taken under field conditions. A total of 461 slides were rated under laboratory conditions. The severity of dental fluorosis in the permanent maxillary central incisors was assessed using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TFI). The prevalence of dental fluorosis at TFI score > or = 2 was 74%. A total of 67% of boys and 70% of girls rated their teeth as yellow to brown, 58% of boys and 68% of girls (P < 0.05) confirmed dissatisfaction with their dental appearance. Kappa values of 0.40-0.44 were obtained between dental fluorosis (TFI > or = 2) and self-reported discoloration. The proportion of school children reporting dissatisfaction with oral condition and dental appearance increased with increasing TFI scores. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis explained 21% and 32% of the variance in the dissatisfaction with oral condition and dental appearance scores; TFI scores 11% and 15% of variation in points, and social and psychological variables 11% and 17%. Whereas dental fluorosis at different diagnostic cut-off points impacts self-rated oral health negatively, social and personal factors are as important in shaping the responses of school children to oral condition and dental appearance.

  13. Are Changes in Self-Rated Health Associated With Memory Decline in Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Bendayan, Rebecca; Piccinin, Andrea M; Hofer, Scott M; Muniz, Graciela

    2016-07-01

    The association between patterns of change in self-rated health (SRH) and memory trajectories in older adults was examined using a systematic approach. Data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 6,016) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing ( n = 734) were analyzed. Individuals were grouped into five categories according to their pattern of change in SRH over 8 years: stable excellent/very good/good, stable fair/poor, improvement, decline, and fluctuating pattern without a trend. Memory was measured using immediate and delayed recall tests. Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squares tests, and linear mixed models were used to examine the association. Different rates of decline in memory can be identified in the different patterns of change in SRH. Those who had a stable excellent/very good/good pattern had the slowest rate of decline. Our findings suggest that SRH status and patterns of change could be used as a marker of cognitive decline in prevention screening programs.

  14. [Self-rated health among climacteric women affiliated with the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Vladislavovna-Doubova, Svetlana; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate self-rated health (SRH) in climacteric women and to identify the factors associated with negative SRH. Information from 9 248 women aged 40 to 59 years was analyzed. SRH was the dependent variable. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, history of reproductive and chronic diseases, physical activity, and participation in screening and health education programs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression modeling. Forty-two percent of women reported positive SRH and 58% reported negative SRH. Factors associated with negative SRH were: low literacy level (OR 1.78, CI95% 1.62-1.95), unemployment (OR 1.20, CI95% 1.09-1.33), menopause (OR 1.22, CI95% 1.11-1.33), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.88, CI95% 1.65-2.13) hypertension (OR 2.01, CI95% 1.82-2.22), irregular physical exercise (OR 1.30, CI95% 1.12-1.50), sedentarism (OR 1.395, CI95% 1.23-1.57), lack of information about climacteric (OR 1.17, CI95% 1.07-1.28) and lack of screening for chronic diseases (OR 0.82, CI95% 0.75-0.89). Factors associated with negative SRH such as lack of information and physical activity should be strengthened.

  15. Later-Life Career Disruption and Self-Rated Health: An Analysis of General Social Survey Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Y. H.; Colantonio, A.; Marshall, V. W.

    2003-01-01

    A study described situations of later-life career disruption in older workers in Canada (n=2,592); large numbers had experienced job interruption or loss. Disruptions were significantly associated with self-ratings of poor health. However, the causal relationship between unemployment and poor health was complex. (Contains 49 references.) (JOW)

  16. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-11-12

    Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50-1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations.

  17. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  18. Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and 19 years, at Okayama University, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed and an oral examination was performed. Results In a structural equation modeling analysis, the score of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) significantly affected self-rated oral health (p <0.05) and the effect size was highest. Malocclusion, subjective symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and stomatitis, and poor oral health behavior significantly induced self-rated poor oral health with small effect sizes (p <0.05). Clinical periodontal conditions and Oral Hygiene Index-simplified were not related to self-rated oral health. Conclusion Self-rated oral health was influenced by subjective symptoms of TMD and stomatitis, oral health behavior, the score of DMFT, and malocclusion. The evaluation of these parameters may be a useful approach in routine dental examination to improve self-rated oral health in university students. PMID:24195632

  19. Long-Term Effect of Population Screening for Diabetes on Cardiovascular Morbidity, Self-Rated Health, and Health Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Prevost, A. Toby; Williams, Kate M.; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Griffin, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE There is limited trial evidence concerning the long-term effects of screening for type 2 diabetes on population morbidity. We examined the effect of a population-based diabetes screening program on cardiovascular morbidity, self-rated health, and health-related behaviors. METHODS We conducted a pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster-randomized controlled trial of diabetes screening (the ADDITION-Cambridge study) including 18,875 individuals aged 40 to 69 years at high risk of diabetes in 32 general practices in eastern England (27 practices randomly allocated to screening, 5 to no-screening for control). Of those eligible for screening, 466 (2.9%) were diagnosed with diabetes. Seven years after randomization, a random sample of patients was sent a postal questionnaire: 15% from the screening group (including diabetes screening visit attenders and non-attenders) and 40% from the no-screening control group. Self-reported cardiovascular morbidity, self-rated health (using the SF-8 Health Survey and EQ-5D instrument), and health behaviors were compared between trial groups using an intention-to-screen analysis. RESULTS Of the 3,286 questionnaires mailed out, 1,995 (61%) were returned, with 1,945 included in the analysis (screening: 1,373; control: 572). At 7 years, there were no significant differences between the screening and control groups in the proportion of participants reporting heart attack or stroke (OR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.71–1.15); SF-8 physical health summary score as an indicator of self-rated health status (β −0.33, 95% CI, −1.80 to 1.14); EQ-5D visual analogue score (β: 0.80, 95% CI, −1.28 to 2.87); total physical activity (β 0.50, 95% CI, −4.08 to 5.07); current smoking (OR 0.97, 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.32); and alcohol consumption (β 0.14, 95% CI, −1.07 to 1.35). CONCLUSIONS Invitation to screening for type 2 diabetes appears to have limited impact on population levels of cardiovascular morbidity, self-rated health status, and health

  20. Socioeconomic status and self-rated health of Japanese people, based on age, cohort, and period.

    PubMed

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Sugihara, Yoko; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Shinmei, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Differences in health resulting from differences in socioeconomic status (SES) have been identified around the world. Age, period, and cohort (A-P-C) differences in health are vital factors which are associated with disparities in SES. However, few studies have examined these differences simultaneously. Moreover, although self-rated health (SRH) has been frequently used as an indicator of health, biases in reporting SRH that depend on the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents have been scarcely adjusted in the previous studies. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the associations between disparities in SES and adjusted SRH based on A-P-C, by using a repeated, cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of Japanese people. In addition, we further investigated how exogenous (macroeconomic) conditions unique to a period or cohort would explain trends across successive periods and cohorts. Data were obtained from a sample of 653,132 Japanese people that responded to the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (CSLC), which is a cross-sectional survey that had been conducted every three years from 1986 to 2013, on over 10 occasions. In the CSLC, SES has been assessed by household income. We simultaneously controlled for each A-P-C dimension by using the model for cross-classification of random effects, and adjusting SRH data for reporting biases caused by differences in income and A-P-C. Differences in adjusted SRH associated with income differences decreased with age and reversed after 76 years of age. Period differences indicated that income differences peaked in 1992 and 2007. Moreover, differences in adjusted SRH associated with income differences decreased in periods with high unemployment across all periods. Furthermore, there were no cohort differences in adjusted SRH that were associated with income differences. In Japan, there are age and period variations associated with adjusted differences in SRH as assessed by income

  1. Self-rated health, life-style, and psychoendocrine measures of stress in healthy adult women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of subsequent health outcome, independent of objective health measures and life-style-related health risk factors. However, the determinants of SRH are as yet largely unknown. In accordance with the prevailing stress theory, we hypothesized that SRH is associated with personal coping resources, psychological strain, life-style variables, and endocrine variables. Methods A total of 106 healthy women, 22–59 years of age, were followed for up to 3 years with annual blood sampling (cortisol, prolactin, testosterone) and written questionnaires in which information on SRH, psychological strain, coping resources, socio-economic and life-style variables was sought. Results In bivariate, screening logistic regression analyses, intended to find candidate variables for a final analysis model, all coping resource variables (sense of coherence, mastery, and self-esteem) were significantly related to SRH, and so were two psychological strain variables (vital exhaustion, and sleep disturbances), one life-style variable (fitness), but none of the endocrine variables. In the final multivariate analysis model, including all candidate variables, only vital exhaustion (P < 0.0001), fitness (P = 0.0002), and sense of coherence (P = 0.0006) were independently associated with SRH, together explaining 74% of the SRH variance. Conclusion Some elements of the hypothesis, i.e. the effects of coping resources, psychological strain, and life-style variables on SRH, were supported by the results, while others, i.e. effects of endocrine measures on SRH, were not, indicating a possible gender difference. PMID:20977316

  2. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  3. Work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011–2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work–family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04–2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92–4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work–family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work–family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women. PMID:28207757

  4. Self-rated health before and after retirement in France (GAZEL): a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E; Pentti, Jaana; Jokela, Markus; Leineweber, Constanze; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Vahtera, Jussi

    2009-12-05

    Governments need to increase the proportion of the population in work in most developed countries because of ageing populations. We investigated longitudinally how self-perceived health is affected by work and retirement in older workers. We examined trajectories of self-rated health in 14 714 employees (11 581 [79%] men) from the French national gas and electricity company, the GAZEL cohort, for up to 7 years before and 7 years after retirement, with yearly measurements from 1989 to 2007. We analysed data by use of repeated-measures logistic regression with generalised estimating equations. Overall, suboptimum health increased with age. However, between the year before retirement and the year after, the estimated prevalence of suboptimum health fell from 19.2% (95% CI 18.5-19.9) to 14.3% (13.7-14.9), corresponding to a gain in health of 8-10 years. We noted this retirement-related improvement in men (odds ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.64-0.73) and women (0.74, 0.67-0.83), and across occupational grades (low 0.72, 0.63-0.82; high 0.70, 0.63-0.77), and it was maintained throughout the 7 years after retirement. A poor work environment and health complaints before retirement were associated with a steeper yearly increase in the prevalence of suboptimum health while still in work, and a greater retirement-related improvement; however, people with a combination of high occupational grade, low demands, and high satisfaction at work showed no such retirement-related improvement. These findings suggest that the burden of ill-health, in terms of perceived health problems, is substantially relieved by retirement for all groups of workers apart from those with ideal working conditions, and that working life for older workers needs to be redesigned to achieve higher labour-market participation. Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Academy of Finland, INSERM (France), BUPA Foundation (UK), European Science Foundation, and Economic and Social Research Council (UK).

  5. The health competence measurement tool (HCMT): developing a new scale to measure self-rated "health competence".

    PubMed

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Bonono Momnougui, Renee Cecile; Thabane, Lehana; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    To develop and test a tool for measuring health competence. In order to measure this attribute, we used a sequential exploratory mixed methods design in rural and urban communities in Cameroon. In the qualitative phase, 67 clients constituted 10 focus groups to elicit themes related to health competence. In the quantitative phase, self-rated items were tested on 300 participants and on a random selection of 25 participants 2 weeks later. The internal consistency for the subscales derived varied from 0.61-0.81. Older (F[45, 339.1]=1.2; p=0.031) and more educated (F[3, 22.6]=2.1; p=0.004) people were more likely to score higher on the scale. Interviewers also contributed to the variance (F[5, 37.6]=3.6; p<0.001). Test-retest reliability was 0.66. The final scale with 15 items is made up of three subscales: knowledge of disease, how to stay in good health and health information. We present a new self-rated scale for health competence with good psychometric properties. It circumvents the need to be literate, but requires well trained interviewers. We recommend that it be tested in other settings. This tool should be used to appraise individual and community health education needs with minor context specific modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unemployment transitions and self-rated health in Europe: A longitudinal analysis of EU-SILC from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten

    2015-10-01

    The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of harassment and victimization on self-rated health and mental health among Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abada, Teresa; Hou, Feng; Ram, Bali

    2008-08-01

    Using 1996/1997 to 2000/2001 data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, this paper examines the effects of harassment on self-rated and mental health status among Canadian adolescents aged 16-17 years. Forty-six percent of the children experienced harassment and victimization (verbal aggression, threat, and physical harm/assault) at school and 40% outside of school. Harassment at school, rather than otherwise, was associated with poor health status and higher levels of depression even when previous health conditions and socio-demographic variables were held constant. The relationship between harassment and mental health is particularly pronounced among girls, immigrant children and those living in single-parent households. Given the sizable proportion of adolescents as victims of harassment at school and its significant relationship with both health status and depression, the issue warrants serious public health attention through school-based intervention programs.

  8. The Effect of Response Option Order on Self-Rated Health: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Following calls for replication of research studies, this study documents the results of two studies that experimentally examine the impact of response option order on self-rated health (SRH). Methods Two studies from an online panel survey examined how the order of response options (positive to negative vs. negative to positive) influences the distribution of SRH answers. Results The results of both studies indicate that the distribution of SRH varies across the experimental treatments, and mean SRH is lower (worse) when the response options start with “poor” rather than “excellent.” In addition, there are differences across the two studies in the distribution of SRH and mean SRH when the response options begin with “excellent,” but not when the response options begin with “poor.” Conclusion The similarities in the general findings across the two studies strengthen the claim that SRH will be lower (worse) when the response options are ordered beginning with “poor” rather than “excellent” in online self-administered questionnaires, with implications for the validity of SRH. The slight differences in the administration of the seemingly identical studies further strengthen the claim and also serve as a reminder of the inherent variability of a single permutation of any given study. PMID:26911155

  9. Residential Surrounding Greenness, Self-Rated Health and Interrelations with Aspects of Neighborhood Environment and Social Relations.

    PubMed

    Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.

  10. Positive Attitude Towards Life, Emotional Expression, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms among centenarians and near-centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Schechter, Clyde B.; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Favorable attitudes, emotions, personality characteristics, and self-rated health have been associated with successful aging in late life. However, less is known regarding these constructs and their relationships to mental health outcomes in the oldest old persons. This study examined cross-sectional relationships of these psychological factors to depressive symptoms in centenarians and near-centenarians. Methods A selected sample of Ashkenazi Jewish older adults ages 98 to 107 (n = 54, 78% female) without significant cognitive impairment participated. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE), Positive Attitude Towards Life and Emotional Expression by the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS), self-rated health by participants’ subjective rating of their present health, and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Results demonstrated inverse associations of the Positive Attitude Towards Life domain of the POPS and self-rated health with participants’ levels of depressive symptoms even after adjusting for the effects of history of medical illnesses, cognitive function, and demographic variables. Additionally, participants with high levels of care showed higher levels of depressive symptoms. Path analysis supported the partially mediating role of Positive Attitude Towards Life in the relationship between self-rated health and depressive symptoms. Conclusion These findings emphasized the important roles of positive attitudes and emotions as well as self-rated health in mental health outcomes in the oldest old. Although, limited by its cross-sectional design, findings suggest these psychological factors may exert protective effects on mental health outcomes in advanced age. PMID:26114814

  11. Does community capacity influence self-rated health? Multilevel contextual effects in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, K

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between community-level contextual effects and self-rated health (SRH) based on the perspective of community capacity rather than social capital. Community capacity for mobilization is broad cooperation for networking among indigenous social agents and grassroots organizations that may serve as potential resources. The idea of community capacity is rooted in the philosophy that a community not only faces problems but also possesses the necessary resources to solve its problems. We used nationally representative data from South Korea, 2010, drawing on 14,228 residents in 404 communities. Community capacity was measured at two levels: an individual-level indicator of community satisfaction, and community-level indicators of participation rate in community organizations, number of community-based organizations (CBOs), and number of volunteer work camps (VWCs). The outcome variable was SRH, which was categorized into two groups: the low-SRH and high-SRH groups. Confounders included gender, age, and income at the individual level, and aggregate length of residency, financial independence ratio, and aggregate income at the community level. We estimated the effects of community capacity on SRH using hierarchical generalized linear models. The likelihood of belonging to the group having low-SRH is significantly high among those respondents living in places with lower community capacity at the community level, that report lower community satisfaction, and that have lower income at the individual level. After controlling for socio-economic confounders, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant in the final model, which included the gender-specific model. This study revealed that SRH is related to the level of community capacity for mobilization. It is probably because CBOs and VWCs not only provide necessary information and complementary services but also play an active role in identifying and resolving health problems

  12. Exploring trends in and determinants of educational inequalities in self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Granström, Fredrik; Molarius, Anu; Garvin, Peter; Elo, Sirkka; Feldman, Inna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2015-11-01

    Educational inequalities in self-rated health (SRH) in European welfare countries are documented, but recent trends in these inequalities are less well understood. We examined educational inequalities in SRH in different age groups, and the contribution of selected material, behavioural and psychosocial determinants from 2000 to 2008. Data were derived from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2008 including 37,478, 34,876 and 32,982 respondents, respectively, aged 25-75 in mid-Sweden. Inequalities were analysed by age-standardized and age-stratified rate ratios of poor SRH and age-standardized prevalence of determinants, and contribution of determinants by age-adjusted logistic regression. Relative educational inequalities in SRH increased among women from 2000 (rate ratio (RR) 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.85) to 2008 (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.90-2.26), but were unchanged among men (RR 1.91-2.01). The increase among women was mainly due to growing inequalities in the age group 25-34 years. In 2008, significant age differences emerged with larger inequalities in the youngest compared with the oldest age group in both genders. All determinants were more prevalent in low educational groups; the most prominent were lack of a financial buffer, smoking and low optimism. Educational differences were unchanged over the years for most determinants. In all three surveys, examined determinants together explained a substantial part of the educational inequalities in SRH. Increased relative educational health inequalities among women, and persisting inequalities among men, were paralleled by unchanged, large differences in material/structural, behavioural and psychosocial factors. Interventions to reduce these inequalities need to focus on early mid-life. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Self-rated Health in Relation to Rape and Mental Health Disorders in a National Sample of College Women

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview between January and June, 2006. Methods Interview modules assessed demographics, posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, rape experiences, and physical health. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that poor self-rated health was associated with low income (OR = 2.70), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.47), lifetime major depressive episode (OR = 2.56), past year illicit drug use (OR = 2.48), and multiple rape history (OR = 2.25). Conclusions These findings highlight the need for university mental health and medical service providers to assess for rape history, and to diagnose and treat related psychiatric problems in order to reduce physical morbidity. PMID:21823953

  14. The impact of neighborhood social capital on life satisfaction and self-rated health: A possible pathway for health promotion?

    PubMed

    Maass, Ruca; Kloeckner, Christian A; Lindstrøm, Bengt; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-11-01

    Neighborhood social capital has repeatedly been linked to favorable health-outcomes and life satisfaction. However, it has been questioned whether it's impact on health has been over-rated. We aim to investigate relationships between neighborhood social capital and self-rated health (SRH) and life satisfaction (LS) respectively, both directly and indirectly mediated via Sense of Coherence and self-esteem. Based on a cross-sectional population-survey (N=865) in a medium size Norwegian municipality, we specified a structural equation model (SEM) including the above-listed variables, while controlling for gender, age, education, income, and employment status. The applied model explains more variance in LS (46%) than in SRH (23%). Social capital has a stronger impact on life satisfaction than on health. The indirect pathway via SOC had the highest impact on life satisfaction, but no significant relationship to SRH. Self-rated health was more tightly linked to personal background variables. Enhancing social capital in the neighborhood might be a beneficial strategy to promote life satisfaction, as well as strengthening sense of coherence even in healthy communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  16. [A lower adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a poorer self-rated health in university population].

    PubMed

    Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-09-15

    A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  18. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of

  19. Association of perceived neighborhood problems and census tract income with poor self-rated health in adults: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Höfelmann, Doroteia Aparecida; Diez Roux, Ana V; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    Neighborhood problems constitute sources of chronic stress that may increase the risk of poor self-rated health. The associations of census tract level income and perceived neighborhood problems with self-rated health were examined in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil (1,720 adults). Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of poor self-rated health were estimated through multilevel models. Residents in census tracts in the lower and intermediate tertiles of income reported poorer health than those in the highest tertile. OR of reporting poorer health was 2.44 (95%CI: 2.35- 2.54) in the higher tertile of social disorder (adjusting for mental health). The chances of reporting the poorer health with neighborhood problems ranged from 1.07 (95%CI: 1.03-1.11) to 2.02 (95%CI: 1.95-2.10) for the higher tertile of social disorder (physical health) and physical problem (health-related variables). Perceived neighborhood problems were independently associated with poor health. The perception of a neighborhood among its residents should be considered by health policymakers.

  20. Socioeconomic Status, Self-Rated Health, and Mortality in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES), self-rated health (SRH), and mortality separately by race-ethnicity in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods We analyzed data from 16 716 adult women and men who were followed up for mortality for up to 12 years as part of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES III). Poverty-income ratio (PIR) and education were assessed as measures of SES. All-cause mortality (n = 2850) was recorded from the NHANES III linked mortality file. Results Lower PIR was associated with mortality after adjustment for lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and SRH in all racial-ethnic groups (P-trend <0.005). In contrast, after adjusting for lifestyle and clinical risk factors, lower education was not associated with all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic whites (P-trend = 0.16), whereas the association remained significant after adjustment for SRH and lifestyle and clinical risk factors in other race-ethnicities (P-trend = 0.005; P-interaction between education categories and race-ethnicity was 0.02). Conclusions Our results suggest that lower PIR was associated with mortality in all racial-ethnic groups. In contrast, lower education was significantly associated with mortality only in racial-ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic whites. Our results indicate that, beyond lifestyle and clinical risk factors, adjusting for SRH resulted in only a modest change in the association of SES and mortality. PMID:21747210

  1. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents: associated risk and protective correlates.

    PubMed

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine; Melhus, Marita; Kvernmo, Siv Eli; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami. Cross-sectional data were collected from "Well-being among Youth in Greenland" (WBYG) and "The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study" (NAAHS), conducted during 2003-2005 and comprising 10th and 11th graders, 378 Inuit and 350 Sami. SRH was assessed by one single item, using a 4-point and 5-point scale for NAAHS and WBYG, respectively. Logistic regressions were performed separately for each indigenous group using a dichotomous measure with "very good" (NAAHS) and "very good/good" (WBYG) as reference categories. We simultaneously controlled for various socio-demographics, risk correlates (drinking, smoking, violence and suicidal behaviour) and protective correlates (physical activity, well-being in school, number of close friends and adolescent-parent relationship). A majority of both Inuit (62%) and Sami (89%) youth reported "good" or "very good" SRH. The proportion of "poor/fair/not so good" SRH was three times higher among Inuit than Sami (38% vs. 11%, p≤0.001). Significantly more Inuit females than males reported "poor/fair" SRH (44% vs. 29%, p≤0.05), while no gender differences occurred among Sami (12% vs. 9%, p≤0.08). In both indigenous groups, suicidal thoughts (risk) and physical activity (protective) were associated with poor and good SRH, respectively. In accordance with other studies of indigenous adolescents, suicidal thoughts were strongly associated with poorer SRH among Sami and Inuit. The Inuit-Sami differences in SRH could partly be due to higher "risk" and lower "protective" correlates among Inuit than Sami. The positive impact of physical activity on SRH needs to be targeted in future intervention programs.

  2. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents: associated risk and protective correlates

    PubMed Central

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine; Melhus, Marita; Kvernmo, Siv Eli; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami. Design Cross-sectional data were collected from “Well-being among Youth in Greenland” (WBYG) and “The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study” (NAAHS), conducted during 2003–2005 and comprising 10th and 11th graders, 378 Inuit and 350 Sami. Methods SRH was assessed by one single item, using a 4-point and 5-point scale for NAAHS and WBYG, respectively. Logistic regressions were performed separately for each indigenous group using a dichotomous measure with “very good” (NAAHS) and “very good/good” (WBYG) as reference categories. We simultaneously controlled for various socio-demographics, risk correlates (drinking, smoking, violence and suicidal behaviour) and protective correlates (physical activity, well-being in school, number of close friends and adolescent–parent relationship). Results A majority of both Inuit (62%) and Sami (89%) youth reported “good” or “very good” SRH. The proportion of “poor/fair/not so good” SRH was three times higher among Inuit than Sami (38% vs. 11%, p≤0.001). Significantly more Inuit females than males reported “poor/fair” SRH (44% vs. 29%, p≤0.05), while no gender differences occurred among Sami (12% vs. 9%, p≤0.08). In both indigenous groups, suicidal thoughts (risk) and physical activity (protective) were associated with poor and good SRH, respectively. Conclusions In accordance with other studies of indigenous adolescents, suicidal thoughts were strongly associated with poorer SRH among Sami and Inuit. The Inuit–Sami differences in SRH could partly be due to higher “risk” and lower “protective” correlates among Inuit than Sami. The positive impact of physical activity on SRH needs to be targeted in future intervention programs. PMID:23396865

  3. The mediating effects of lifestyle factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-rated health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships between SES and self-rated health. This study further tested whether the effects of SES and lifestyle factors differ as people age. The findings indicate that higher levels of income and education as well as not being in poverty predicted better self-rated health. Meanwhile, engaging in regular exercise and being underweight significantly mediated the relationship between education and self-rated health as well as between poverty and self-rated health. Finally, poverty and regular exercise had a greater impact on self-rated health in old age than in middle age. Implications for enhancing antipoverty policies and exercise programs are discussed.

  4. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Jay, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is widespread in the working population and leads to muscular fatigue, reduced work capacity, and fear of movement. While ergonomic intervention is the traditional approach to the problem, physical exercise may be an alternative strategy. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual care ergonomic training (control). At baseline and follow-up, participants performed a handgrip muscular fatigue test (time above 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force) with simultaneous recording of electromyography. Additionally, participants replied to a questionnaire regarding self-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P < 0.05). Time to fatigue increased by 97% following strength training and this change was correlated to the reduction in fear avoidance (Spearman's rho = −0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267. PMID:27830144

  5. The relationship between rural status, individual characteristics, and self-rated health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of 347,790 non-institutionalized adults. Findings Self-rated health was poorer among rural residents, compared to urban residents (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.54, 1.90). However, underlying risk factors such as obesity, low income, and low educational attainment were found to vary by rural status and account for the observed increased risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.12). There was little evidence of effect modification by rural status, though the association between obesity and self-rated health was stronger among urban residents (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 2.38, 2.64) than among rural residents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 2.03, 2.34). Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in self-rated health by rural status were attributable to differential distributions of participant characteristics and not due to differential effects of those characteristics. PMID:23083079

  6. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is widespread in the working population and leads to muscular fatigue, reduced work capacity, and fear of movement. While ergonomic intervention is the traditional approach to the problem, physical exercise may be an alternative strategy. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual care ergonomic training (control). At baseline and follow-up, participants performed a handgrip muscular fatigue test (time above 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force) with simultaneous recording of electromyography. Additionally, participants replied to a questionnaire regarding self-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P < 0.05). Time to fatigue increased by 97% following strength training and this change was correlated to the reduction in fear avoidance (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.

  7. The Relationship between Rural Status, Individual Characteristics, and Self-Rated Health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods: This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of…

  8. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  9. Investigating the relationship between self-rated health and social capital in South Africa: a multilevel panel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yan Kwan; Ataguba, John E

    2015-03-19

    The relationship between social capital and self-rated health has been documented in many developed compared to developing countries. Because social capital and health play important roles in development, it may be valuable to study their relationship in the context of a developing country with poorer health status. Further, the role of social capital research for health policy has not received much attention. This paper therefore examines the relationship between social capital and health in South Africa, a country with the history of colonialism and apartheid that has contributed to the social disintegration and destruction of social capital. This study uses data from the National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), the first nationally representative panel study in South Africa. Two waves of the NIDS were used in this paper--Wave 1 (2008) and Wave 2 (2010). Self-rated health, social capital (individual- and contextual-level), and other covariates related to the social determinants of health (SDH) were obtained from the NIDS. Individual-level social capital included group participation, personalised trust and generalised trust while contextual-level or neighbourhood-level social capital was obtained by aggregating from the individual-level and household-level social capital variables to the neighbourhood. Mixed effects models were fitted to predict self-rated health in Wave 2, using lagged covariates (from Wave 1). Individual personalised trust, individual community service group membership and neighbourhood personalised trust were beneficial to self-rated health. Reciprocity, associational activity and other types of group memberships were not found to be significantly associated with self-rated health in South Africa. Results indicate that both individual- and contextual-level social capital are associated with self-rated health. Policy makers may want to consider policies that impact socioeconomic conditions as well as social capital. Some of these policies are

  10. Ethnic Groups Differ in How Poor Self-Rated Mental Health Reflects Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656). SRMH was the outcome. Independent variables were psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder [MDD], general anxiety disorder [GAD], social phobia, alcohol abuse, binge eating disorders, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were covariates. The only psychiatric disorder which was universally associated with SRMH across all ethnic groups was MDD. More psychiatric disorders were associated with poor SRMH in Non-Hispanic Whites than any other ethnic groups. Among African Americans, demographic and socioeconomic factors could fully explain the associations between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Among Mexican and Other Hispanics, demographic and socioeconomic factors could only explain the association between some but not all psychiatric disorders and SRMH. In all other ethnic groups, demographic and socioeconomic factors did not explain the link between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Although SRMH is a useful tool for estimation of mental health needs of populations, poor SRMH may not have universal meanings across ethnically diverse populations. Ethnic groups differ in how their poor SRMH reflects psychiatric conditions and the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors

  11. Depression and Self-Rated Health Among Rural Women Who Experienced Adolescent Dating Abuse: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally H; Humphreys, Janice C

    2016-03-01

    This study used mixed methods to examine the experiences and health of rural, young adult women (N = 100) who self-reported past experience of physical, emotional and verbal, sexual, and relational abuse in adolescent dating relationships. Few studies have examined the lasting health ramifications of adolescent dating abuse adolescent dating abuse in rural populations, and almost no mixed methods studies have explored adolescent dating abuse. Participants completed questionnaires on demographics, relationship behaviors, and mental health symptoms. A subsample (n = 10) of participants also completed semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the primary investigator. Results suggest that depressive symptoms and self-rating of health in these women are associated with particular kinds and severity of abusive experiences, and that adolescent dating abuse has ramifications for health and development beyond the duration of the original relationship. Self-rated health (SRH) was inversely associated with abusive behaviors in the relationship, whereas depressive symptoms were positively correlated with such behaviors. Self-rated health was also negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. The results of this study represent an important step toward establishing lifetime health risks posed by adolescent dating abuse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents’ estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States. PMID:27775582

  13. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-10-19

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents' estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States.

  14. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  15. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  16. [Self-rating of oral health according to the Oral Health Impact Profile and associated factors: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the literature to investigate associations between social, demographic, economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and the self-perception of oral health measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). In this systematic review of the literature, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) were adapted for the performance of a qualitative metasummary, without meta-analysis. Articles about oral health and associated factors with implications for quality of life were selected, with a focus on the tool for self-rating of the oral health-disease process, the OHIP. Pubmed/National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - BVS/BIREME) were searched. Articles published between 2001 and 2011 were included. The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were employed: oral health, quality of life, sickness impact profile, and socioeconomic factors. Of 57 articles identified, 20 met the inclusion criteria. The metasummary revealed that a poor self-perception of oral health was associated with unfavorable social, economic, demographic, and psychosocial factors, as well as with undesirable habits and poor clinical oral conditions. There is consensus in the literature about the influence of the investigated factors on the self-perception of oral health and on quality of life. The OHIP is an important aid for determining oral health needs and for developing strategies to control/reduce disease and promote oral health, with a consequent positive impact on quality of life.

  17. Self-rated health and mental health of lone fathers compared with lone mothers and partnered fathers: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Maria; Rahman, Farah; Kurdyak, Paul; Cairney, John; Jembere, Nathaniel; Vigod, Simone

    2017-05-01

    Lone parenthood is associated with poorer health; however, the vast majority of previous studies have examined lone mothers and only a few have focused on lone fathers. We aimed to examine the self-rated health and mental health status among a large population-based cross-sectional sample of Canadian lone fathers compared with both partnered fathers and lone mothers. We investigated differences in self-rated health and mental health among 1058 lone fathers compared with 20 692 partnered fathers and 5725 lone mothers using the Ontario component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2013). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds of poor/fair self-rated health and mental health between the study groups while adjusting for a comprehensive list of sociodemographic factors, stressors and lifestyle factors. Lone fathers and lone mothers showed similar prevalence of poor/fair self-rated health (11.6% and 12.5%, respectively) and mental health (6.2% and 8.4%, respectively); the odds were similar even after multivariable adjustment. Lone fathers showed higher odds of poor/fair self-rated health (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17) and mental health (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46) than partnered fathers after adjustment for sociodemographic factors; however, these differences were no longer significant after accounting for stressors, including low income and unemployment. In this large population-based study, lone fathers had worse self-rated health and mental health than partnered fathers and similarly poor self-rated health and mental health as lone mothers. Interventions, supports and social policies designed for single parents should also recognise the needs of lone fathers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Self-rated health and reasons for non-vaccination against seasonal influenza in Canadian adults with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fisman, David; Gardy, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction While seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for individuals with asthma, uptake in this population is low. We examined how self-rated health impacts reasons for not being immunized against influenza in Canadian adults with asthma, focusing on those who have never been immunized. Methods We pooled four cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycles 3.1(2005), 2007/08, 2009/10 and 2011/12), grouping individuals by whether their reasons for not having been vaccinated were perceptual or technical. We used a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for confounders, to quantify the relationship between self-rated health and their reported reasons for not vaccinating. Results Among the 9,836 respondents, 84.4% cited perceptual barriers as a reason for not being vaccinated. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and province of residence, we determined that reporting perceptual barriers was associated with self-rated health status, with the adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.42 (95%CI: 0.97, 2.09) to 2.64 (95%CI: 1.74, 3.99) for fair and excellent health versus poor health, respectively. Each increase in self-rated health category was associated with greater odds of citing a perceptual rather than technical barrier as a reason for non-vaccination. Discussion Self-reported health influences people’s perception of the need for influenza vaccination. Viewing the results through the lens of the precaution adoption process model suggests that personalizing communication around both the risk of influenza and the effectiveness of the vaccine may improve uptake amongst adults with asthma. PMID:28207823

  19. Sexual orientation and self-rated health: the role of social capital, offence, threat of violence, and violence.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin

    2013-07-01

    To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.

  20. Dynamical Resilience Indicators in Time Series of Self-Rated Health Correspond to Frailty Levels in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijzel, Sanne M W; van de Leemput, Ingrid A; Scheffer, Marten; Roppolo, Mattia; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Melis, René J F

    2017-07-01

    We currently still lack valid methods to dynamically measure resilience for stressors before the appearance of adverse health outcomes that hamper well-being. Quantifying an older adult's resilience in an early stage would aid complex decision-making in health care. Translating complex dynamical systems theory to humans, we hypothesized that three dynamical indicators of resilience (variance, temporal autocorrelation, and cross-correlation) in time series of self-rated physical, mental, and social health were associated with frailty levels in older adults. We monitored self-rated physical, mental, and social health during 100 days using daily visual analogue scale questions in 22 institutionalized older adults (mean age 84.0, SD: 5.9 years). Frailty was determined by the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) frailty index. The resilience indicators (variance, temporal autocorrelation, and cross-correlation) were calculated using multilevel models. The self-rated health time series of frail elderly exhibited significantly elevated variance in the physical, mental, and social domain, as well as significantly stronger cross-correlations between all three domains, as compared to the nonfrail group (all P < 0.001). Temporal autocorrelation was not significantly associated with frailty. We found supporting evidence for two out of three hypothesized resilience indicators to be related to frailty levels in older adults. By mirroring the dynamical resilience indicators to a frailty index, we delivered a first empirical base to validate and quantify the construct of systemic resilience in older adults in a dynamic way.

  1. Self-rated health: a predictor for the three year incidence of major depression in individuals with Type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Ghislaine; Pagé, Véronique; Smith, Kimberley J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Malla, Ashok; Wang, Jianli; Boyer, Richard; Strychar, Irene; Lesage, Alain; Schmitz, Norbert

    2013-02-15

    To determine whether self-rated health was a predictor for the three year incidence of major depression in people with Type II diabetes. Data was collected as part a population-based telephone survey of adults with diabetes, in Québec, Canada (2008-2011). Adults with Type II diabetes who did not have major depression at baseline were assessed at three follow-up interviews conducted 12, 24 and 36 months after baseline. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Self-rated health status was determined by asking participants to rate their health on a scale from excellent to poor. The sample consisted of 1265 adults with Type II diabetes who did not have major depression at baseline. 36% of individuals who had developed major depression at follow up rated their health as fair or poor at baseline compared to 14.4% of those who had not developed major depression. Logistic regression analyses indicated fair or poor self-rated health at baseline to be predictive of a twofold increased risk for major depression at follow-up, even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle-related behaviors, disability and diabetes characteristics (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.20-3.48). We have focused on current depression (last two weeks) and we have used a questionnaire (PHQ-9) rather than a clinical interview for the assessment of depression. Self-rated health status might be a predictor for developing major depression in people with diabetes in addition to well established risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Is self-rated health comparable between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics? Evidence from the health and retirement study.

    PubMed

    Su, Dejun; Wen, Ming; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2013-07-01

    Using subsequent all-cause mortality as a yardstick for retrospective health, this study assessed the comparability of self-rated health (SRH) between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Based on longitudinal data from 6,870 white and 886 Hispanic respondents aged between 51 and 61 in the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, we related SRH in 1992 to risk of mortality in the 1992-2008 period. Logit models were used to predict white-Hispanic differences in reporting fair or poor SRH. Survival curves and cox proportional hazard models were estimated to assess whether and the extent to which the SRH-mortality association differs between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Hispanic respondents reported worse SRH than whites at the baseline, yet they had similar risk of mortality as whites in the 1992-2008 period. Overall, Hispanics rated their health more pessimistically than whites. This was especially the case for Hispanics who rated their health fair or poor at the baseline, whereas their presumed health conditions, as reflected by subsequent risk of mortality, should be considerably better than their white counterparts. Health disparities between whites and Hispanics aged between 51 and 61 will be overestimated if the assessment has been solely based on differences in SRH between the two groups. Findings from this study call for caution in relying on SRH to quantify and explain health disparities between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics in the United States.

  3. Pathways to Health: Association Between Trail Use, Weight Status, and Self-Rated Health Among Adults in Greenville County, South Carolina, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Clennin, Morgan N.; Reed, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined associations between adults’ use of a prominent rail-trail and their weight status and self-rated health. In 2014, a random-digit-dial survey of Greenville County, South Carolina, residents (n = 639) was used to collect data on trail use, height and weight, self-rated health, and demographics. Trail users were half as likely to be overweight or obese as trail nonusers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33–0.95). Similarly, trail users were significantly more likely to report high self-rated health than were trail nonusers (OR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13–2.97). Findings suggest that trail use is associated with healthier weight status and higher self-rated health and supports the development, maintenance, and promotion of trail resources. PMID:27978409

  4. Pathways to Health: Association Between Trail Use, Weight Status, and Self-Rated Health Among Adults in Greenville County, South Carolina, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hughey, S Morgan; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Clennin, Morgan N; Reed, Julian A

    2016-12-15

    We examined associations between adults' use of a prominent rail-trail and their weight status and self-rated health. In 2014, a random-digit-dial survey of Greenville County, South Carolina, residents (n = 639) was used to collect data on trail use, height and weight, self-rated health, and demographics. Trail users were half as likely to be overweight or obese as trail nonusers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.95). Similarly, trail users were significantly more likely to report high self-rated health than were trail nonusers (OR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.97). Findings suggest that trail use is associated with healthier weight status and higher self-rated health and supports the development, maintenance, and promotion of trail resources.

  5. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status.

  6. The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Tello, Blanca Lilia Gómez; Valdés, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and youths between the ages of 12 and 29 years, in order to explore whether this association is mediated by discrimination and violence. Three dimensions of sexual orientation (affective attraction, sexual behavior, and identity) were assessed. The outcomes were self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use. Compared to heterosexuals, LGB youths more frequently smoked >or=6 cigarettes per day, reported having experienced family violence, having crimes perpetrated against them, and having experienced violations of their rights. Among males, gays and bisexuals exhibited a higher risk of poor health than heterosexuals. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to consume alcohol. Many differences in self-rated health and substance use according to sexual orientation were explained by having experienced discrimination and violence. We concluded that lesbian and bisexual females have a higher prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use. It is necessary to develop policies and programs aimed at the reduction of substance abuse among LGB youths (focusing on females who engage in sexual contact with persons of the same gender) and to work against discrimination and violence experienced by LGB people, particularly against non-heterosexual males.

  7. The influence of physical and mental health on life satisfaction is mediated by self-rated health: A study with Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social support, self-rated health, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender identity disclosure to cancer care providers.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles S; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz

    2015-01-01

    To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Online, Internet-based. 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients' cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients' support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients' care.

  9. Dietary behaviors and body image recognition of college students according to the self-rated health condition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom; Kwak, Ho Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern for body weight control, dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge, and health-related characteristics collected by a self-reported questionnaire. The proportion of men and women in each group was not significantly different. The academic year, major, experience of nutritional education, and type of residence were not significantly related with self-rated health but the pocket money range was significantly associated (p<0.05) with self-rated health. The proportion of subjects rated their health as unhealthy was the lowest in 210-300 thousand won pocket money range and was increased in less than 210 thousand won or over 300 thousand won pocket money ranges. There were no significant differences for age, height, weight and BMI between the groups. The body image perception and body weight satisfaction levels of healthy group was significantly higher than those of unhealthy group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), but the level of concern for body weight control in healthy subjects was significantly lower than that in unhealthy subjects (p<0.05). The proportion of subjects reported as healthy was significantly increased with increased frequencies of following food behaviors; weekly use of protein foods (p<0.01), vegetables (p<0.05) and dairy products (p<0.01), and food habits such as "regularity of meal time" (p<0.01), "eating in moderation" (p<0.05), and "eating breakfast" (p<0.001). Overall results suggested that the college students have tended to have a better perception of

  10. Social support and the self-rated health of older people

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ2 test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results. The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068–6.516, P = 0.000), age (−0.805, 95% CI: −1.394 to −0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (−1.260, 95% CI: −1.891 to −0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022–5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH −1.941, 95% CI: −3.194 to −0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ2 = 5.103, P < 0.001). Marital status (−2.133, 95

  11. The association between relative deprivation and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and smoking behavior in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Tung; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2013-07-01

    Relative deprivation has been hypothesized as one explanation for the association between income inequality and health. However, few studies have examined the effect of relative deprivation on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Using a cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Promotion in Taiwan, this study examined the relationship between relative deprivation and physical health (self-rated health), psychosocial health (depressive symptoms), and behavioral health (smoking) among working-age Taiwanese men and women. We found that higher relative deprivation (measured by the Yitzhaki Index) is significantly associated with a higher prevalence of poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and current smoking in both genders. After controlling for demographic variables and absolute income, the prevalence ratios (PRs) of reporting poor health for each 10,000 NT-dollars higher in the Yitzhaki Index are between 1.25 and 1.57, depending on the reference groups. The PRs were between 1.33 and 1.77 for depressive symptoms, and between 1.04 and 1.46 for smoking. Additionally, the depressive symptoms attenuated the association between relative deprivation and self-rated health. The results were consistent with various definitions of reference groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that the psychosocial process of relative deprivation is a crucial mechanism linking income inequality to health. Narrowing the income gap between rich and poor may protect the physical and mental well-being of the population and reduce the prevalence of smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Poor Self-Rated Health in the United States: The National Elder Mistreatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Begle, Angela Moreland; Cisler, Josh M.; Hernandez, Melba A.; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Despite its subjective nature, self report of health status is strongly correlated with long term physical morbidity and mortality. Among the most reliable predictors of self-reported poor health is older age. In younger adult populations, a second reliable predictor of reported poor health is the experience of domestic and other interpersonal violence. However, very little research exits on the connection between elder mistreatment and self reports of poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine the level of, and correlates for, poor self-rated health in a community sample of older adults with particular emphasis on elder mistreatment history, demographics, and social dependency variables. Design Random Digit Dialing telephone survey methodology. Setting A national representative phone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. household population. Participants 5,777 U.S. adults, aged 60 and older. Measurements Individuals participated in a structured interview assessing elder mistreatment history, demographics, and social dependency variables. Results Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 22.3% of the sample. Final multivariable logistic regression models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with unemployment, marital status, low income, low social support, use of social services, needing help in activities of daily living, and being bothered by emotional problems. Exploratory analyses revealed a mediational role of emotional symptoms in the association between physical maltreatment and poor health. Conclusions Results suggest that poor health is common among older adults. This study also identified correlates of poor health that may be useful in identification of those in need of intervention. PMID:20220579

  13. Life-style and self-rated global health in Sweden: a prospective analysis spanning three decades.

    PubMed

    Mood, Carina

    2013-12-01

    To study the relations between lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, exercise, vegetable consumption, social relations) and global self-rated health in the adult Swedish population. The data come from the Swedish Level of Living Survey, a face-to-face panel study. The analysis follows the respondents with good health in 1991 (N=4035) and uses multivariate logistic regression to assess the relations between lifestyle factors in 1991 and health in 2000 and 2010. Baseline (1991) exercise, social support, smoking and vegetable consumption are associated with health in 2000 and/or 2010. 2000: Weekly exercise in 1991 increases the probability of good health by 6 percentage points [95% CI: 1-10] compared to no exercise, and smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day decreases the probability of good health by 5 percentage points [95% CI 1-8]. Lacking social support decreases the probability of good health by 17 percentage points (95% CI: 9-25). 2010: Smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day decreases the probability of good health by 10 percentage points [95% CI 5-15], and eating vegetables every day increases the probability of good health by 4 percentage points [95% CI 0.2-7]. Exercise, smoking, social support and vegetable consumption are related to self-rated health 2000 and/or 2010. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A cross-sectional and semantic investigation of self-rated health in the northern Sweden MONICA-study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-Rated Health (SRH) correlates with risk of illness and death. But how are different questions of SRH to be interpreted? Does it matter whether one asks: “How would you assess your general state of health?”(General SRH) or “How would you assess your general state of health compared to persons of your own age?”(Comparative SRH)? Does the context in a questionnaire affect the answers? The aim of this paper is to examine the meaning of two questions on self-rated health, the statistical distribution of the answers, and whether the context of the question in a questionnaire affects the answers. Methods Statistical and semantic methodologies were used to analyse the answers of two different SRH questions in a cross-sectional survey, the MONICA-project of northern Sweden. Results The answers from 3504 persons were analysed. The statistical distributions of answers differed. The most common answer to the General SRH was “good”, while the most common answer to the Comparative SRH was “similar”. The semantic analysis showed that what is assessed in SRH is not health in a medical and lexical sense but fields of association connected to health, for example health behaviour, functional ability, youth, looks, way of life. The meaning and function of the two questions differ – mainly due to the comparing reference in Comparative SRH. The context in the questionnaire may have affected the statistics. Conclusions Health is primarily assessed in terms of its sense-relations (associations) and Comparative SRH and General SRH contain different information on SRH. Comparative SRH is semantically more distinct. The context of the questions in a questionnaire may affect the way self-rated health questions are answered. Comparative SRH should not be eliminated from use in questionnaires. Its usefulness in clinical encounters should be investigated. PMID:23046741

  15. What does self-rated health mean? Changes and variations in the association of obesity with objective and subjective components of self-rated health*

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Claire E.; Van Hook, Jennifer; Hillemeier, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns about the meaning of SRH and the factors individuals consider. To illustrate how SRH is contextualized, we examine how the obesity-SRH association varies across age, periods, and cohorts. We decompose SRH into subjective and objective components and used a mechanism-based APC model approach with four decades (1970s-2000s) and five birth cohorts of NHANES data (N=26,184). Obese adults rate their health more negatively than non-obese when using overall SRH with little variation by age, period, or cohort. However, when we decomposed SRH into objective and subjective components, the obesity gap widened with increasing age in objective SRH, but narrowed in subjective SRH. Additionally, the gap narrowed for more recently-born cohorts for objective SRH, but widened for subjective SRH. The results provide indirect evidence that the relationship between obesity and SRH is socially patterned according to exposure to information about obesity and the availability of resources to manage it. PMID:26811364

  16. Self-rated Health and Medical Conditions in Refugees and Immigrants from the Same Country of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Barkho, Evone; Broadbridge, Carissa L.; Ventimiglia, Matthew; Arnetz, Judith E.; Lami, Faris; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research suggests that refugees are at an increased risk for poor health outcomes as compared to immigrants. However, prior studies have compared refugees and immigrants from different countries and have failed to isolate specific war-related factors. Objective To compare health outcomes and their determinants in refugees and immigrants from the same country of origin. Methods A cross-sectional study based on a convenient sample and on self-report participants were conducted at Southeast Michigan during the period September to December 2009. A validated survey was used to examine refugees (n = 75) and immigrants (n = 65) from Iraq. The survey covered socioeconomics, lifestyle, violence exposure, self-rated health, and number of medical conditions (high blood pressure, fatigue, and backache, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal disorders, skin problems, and musculoskeletal problems). Group differences and predictors of health outcomes were assessed. Results Refugees reported significantly more violence exposure than immigrants (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in self-rated health or medical disorders between groups; however, violence exposure was the main predictor of health outcomes in refugees, whereas age was the main predictor in immigrants. Other predictors also varied by migratory group. Conclusion Even though migration status did not directly influence health outcomes, results suggest that factors associated with migration status, e.g., violence exposure and age, do impact health. Future studies need to more carefully define and control for country-specific variables. PMID:26644795

  17. Does reporting behaviour bias the measurement of social inequalities in self-rated health in Indonesia? An anchoring vignette analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-05-01

    Studies on self-rated health outcomes are fraught with problems when individuals' reporting behaviour is systematically biased by demographic, socio-economic, or cultural factors. Analysing the data drawn from the Indonesia Family Life Survey 2007, this paper aims to investigate the extent of differential health reporting behaviour by demographic and socio-economic status among Indonesians aged 40 and older (N = 3735). Interpersonal heterogeneity in reporting style is identified by asking respondents to rate a number of vignettes that describe varying levels of health status in targeted health domains (mobility, pain, cognition, sleep, depression, and breathing) using the same ordinal response scale that is applied to the self-report health question. A compound hierarchical ordered probit model is fitted to obtain health differences by demographic and socio-economic status. The obtained regression coefficients are then compared to the standard ordered probit model. We find that Indonesians with more education tend to rate a given health status in each domain more negatively than their less-educated counterparts. Allowing for such differential reporting behaviour results in relatively stronger positive education effects. There is a need to correct for differential reporting behaviour using vignettes when analysing self-rated health measures in older adults in Indonesia. Unless such an adjustment is made, the salutary effect of education will be underestimated.

  18. Keeping it in the family: the self-rated health of lone mothers in different European welfare regimes.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Bambra, Clare; Van der Bracht, Koen; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Bracke, Piet

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether health inequalities exist between lone and cohabiting mothers across Europe, and how these may differ by welfare regime. Data from the European Social Survey were used to compare self-rated general health, limiting long-standing illness and depressive feelings by means of a multi-level logistic regression. The 27 countries included in the analyses are classified into six welfare regimes (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Nordic, Central East Europe (CEE) (new EU) and CEE (non-EU). Lone motherhood is defined as mothers not cohabiting with a partner, regardless of their legal marital status. The results indicate that lone mothers are more at risk of poor health than cohabiting mothers. This is most pronounced in the Anglo-Saxon regime for self-rated general health and limiting long-standing illness, while for depressive feelings it is most pronounced in the Bismarckian welfare regime. While the risk difference is smallest in the CEE regimes, both lone and cohabiting mothers also reported the highest levels of poor health compared with the other regimes. The results also show that a vulnerable socioeconomic position is associated with ill-health in lone mothers and that welfare regimes differ in the degree to which they moderate this association. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effort-reward imbalance at work and self-rated health of Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    PubMed

    Krause, Niklas; Rugulies, Reiner; Maslach, Christina

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Logistic regression models adjust for age, health behaviors, physical workload and other potential confounders. 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2-5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Civic participation and self-rated health: a cross-national multi-level analysis using the world value survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saerom; Kim, Chang-yup; You, Myung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859). People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.

  1. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Saerom; Kim, Chang-yup; You, Myung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859). Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country. PMID:25652707

  2. Explaining socioeconomic differences in adolescent self-rated health: the contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Moor, Irene; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2012-08-01

    Efforts to explain social inequalities in health have mainly focused on adults. Few studies have systematically analysed different explanatory pathways in adolescence. This study is among the first to examine the contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in the explanation of inequalities in adolescent health. Data were obtained from the German part of the cross-sectional 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' Survey in 2006, with a total of 6997 respondents aged 11-15 years (response rate 86%). Socioeconomic position was measured using the Family Affluence Scale. Multistage logistic regression models were used to assess the relative importance of explanatory factors. Compared with adolescents from high affluent backgrounds, the ORs of fair/poor self-rated health increased to 1.53 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.12) in low affluent boys and to 2.08 (95% CI 1.62 to 2.67) in low affluent girls. In the separate analyses, material, psychosocial and behavioural factors attenuated the OR by 30-50%. Together, the three explanatory factors reduced the OR by about 80% in low affluent boys and girls. The combined analyses illustrated that material factors contributed most to the differences in self-rated health because of their direct and indirect effect (through psychosocial and behavioural factors). The findings show that the main explanatory approaches for adults also apply to adolescents. The direct and indirect contribution of material factors for inequalities in self-rated health was stronger than that of behavioural and psychosocial factors. Strategies for reducing health inequalities should primarily focus on improving material circumstances in lower affluent groups.

  3. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2%) and 927 women (61.8%)) aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age), socio-economic factors (education and marital status), and health behaviors (smoking and drinking) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent) or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor), or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men and women

  4. The validity of self-rated health as a measure of health status among young military personnel: evidence from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker SC; Pyle, Sara A; Klesges, Robert C; Vander Weg, Mark W; Peterson, Alan; Debon, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Background Single item questions about self ratings of overall health status are widely used in both military and civilian surveys. Limited information is available to date that examines what relationships exist between self-rated health, health status and health related behaviors among relatively young, healthy individuals. Methods The current study uses the population of active duty United States Air Force recruits (N = 31,108). Participants completed surveys that asked about health behaviors and health states and were rated their health on a continuum from poor to excellent. Results Ratings of health were consistently lower for those who used tobacco (F = 241.7, p < .001), reported binge drinking (F = 69.0, p < .001), reported drinking and driving (F = 19.4, p < .001), reported taking health risks (F = 109.4, p < .001), were depressed (F = 256.1, p < .001) and were overweight (F = 39.5, p < .001). Conclusion Given the consistent relationship between self-rated overall health and factors important to military health and fitness, self-rated health appears to be a valid measure of health status among young military troops. PMID:16939653

  5. Associations of self-rated health and socioeconomic status with information seeking and avoiding behavior among post- treatment cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how self-rated health and socioeconomic status are associated with behaviour of cancer survivors regarding desire for information. For this association, we compared survivors who did not seek information about cancer with those who did. We examined how sociodemographic, socioeconomic, cancer- related, and health information factors are associated with self-rated health (SRH) by health information seeking/ avoiding behavior in a survey of 502 post-treatment cancer patients. In the information seeking group, all four factors exhibited significant relationships with SRH. SRH values were significantly high for women (p<0.05), non-Hispanic White (p<0.05), and educated (p<0.01) participants, and for those who had high self-efficacy to use health information by themselves (p<0.01). Furthermore, in the information avoiding group, not only were there no significant relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and SRH, but there were negative associations between their attitude/capacity and the SRH. In terms of communication equity, the promotion of information seeking behavior can be an effective way to reduce health disparities that are caused by social inequalities. Information avoiding behavior, however, does not exhibit a negative contribution toward the relationship between SRH and SES. Information seeking behavior was positively associated with SRH, but avoiding behavior was not negatively associated. We thus need to eliminate communication inequalities using health intervention to support information seeking behavior, while simultaneously providing support for avoiders.

  6. Impact of co-morbidities on self-rated health in self-reported COPD: An analysis of NHANES 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Putcha, Nirupama; Puhan, Milo A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Drummond, M. Brad; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) coexists with co-morbidities. While co-morbidity has been associated with poorer health status, it is unclear which conditions have the greatest impact on self-rated health. We sought to determine which, and how much, specific co-morbid conditions impact on self-rated health in current and former smokers with self-reported COPD. Using the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey we characterized the association between thirteen co-morbidities and health status among individuals self-reporting COPD. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were generated using ordinal logistic regression. Additionally we evaluated the impact of increasing number of co-morbidities with self-rated health. Eight illnesses had significant associations with worse self-rated health, however after mutually adjusting for these conditions, congestive heart failure (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.69–5.58), arthritis (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.13–2.52), diabetes (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01–2.64), and incontinence/prostate disease (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01–2.62) remained independent predictors of self-rated health. Each increase in co-morbidities was associated with a 43% higher chance of worse self-rated health (95% CI 1.27–1.62). Individuals with COPD have a substantial burden of co-morbidity, which is associated with worse self-rated health. CHF, arthritis, diabetes and incontinence/prostate disease have the most impact on self-rated health. Targeting these co-morbidities in COPD may result in improved self-rated health. PMID:23713595

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of Anchoring Vignettes in Bias Reduction for Socioeconomic Disparities in Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongwei; Xie, Yu

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates how reporting heterogeneity may bias socioeconomic and demographic disparities in self-rated general health, a widely used health indicator, and how such bias can be adjusted by using new anchoring vignettes designed in the 2012 wave of the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). We find systematic variation by socio-demographic characteristics in thresholds used by respondents in rating their general health status. Such threshold shifts are often non-parallel in that the effect of a certain group characteristic on the shift is stronger at one level than another. We find that the resulting bias of measuring group differentials in self-rated health can be too substantial to be ignored. We demonstrate that the CFPS anchoring vignettes prove to be an effective survey instrument in obtaining bias-adjusted estimates of health disparities not only for the CFPS sample, but also for an independent sample from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Effective adjustment for reporting heterogeneity may require vignette administration only to a small subsample (20-30% of the full sample). Using a single vignette can be as effective as using more in terms of anchoring, but the results are sensitive to the choice of vignette design.

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Anchoring Vignettes in Bias Reduction for Socioeconomic Disparities in Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwei; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how reporting heterogeneity may bias socioeconomic and demographic disparities in self-rated general health, a widely used health indicator, and how such bias can be adjusted by using new anchoring vignettes designed in the 2012 wave of the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). We find systematic variation by socio-demographic characteristics in thresholds used by respondents in rating their general health status. Such threshold shifts are often non-parallel in that the effect of a certain group characteristic on the shift is stronger at one level than another. We find that the resulting bias of measuring group differentials in self-rated health can be too substantial to be ignored. We demonstrate that the CFPS anchoring vignettes prove to be an effective survey instrument in obtaining bias-adjusted estimates of health disparities not only for the CFPS sample, but also for an independent sample from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Effective adjustment for reporting heterogeneity may require vignette administration only to a small subsample (20–30% of the full sample). Using a single vignette can be as effective as using more in terms of anchoring, but the results are sensitive to the choice of vignette design. PMID:27721523

  9. Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

    2014-07-29

    Several studies have reported the relationship between residents' perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Cross-sectional study. We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents' self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents' responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents' health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than

  11. The Relationship Between Self-Rated Health and Use of Parks and Participation in Recreation Programs, United States, 1991 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Pitas, Nicholas A D; Barrett, Austin G; Mowen, Andrew J; Graefe, Alan R; Godbey, Geoffrey C; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-01-05

    We examined the relationship between self-rated health and use of parks and recreation program participation by using logistic regression to analyze data from representative national surveys conducted in 1991 and 2015. Neither park use nor program participation were significantly related to self-rated health in 1991; however, both were significantly related in 2015. The growing relationship between use of parks and recreation programs and self-rated health during this period is likely the result of broad national health promotion efforts and provides support for funding of capital and operational expenses for park and recreation services.

  12. The Relationship Between Self-Rated Health and Use of Parks and Participation in Recreation Programs, United States, 1991 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Austin G.; Mowen, Andrew J.; Graefe, Alan R.; Godbey, Geoffrey C.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between self-rated health and use of parks and recreation program participation by using logistic regression to analyze data from representative national surveys conducted in 1991 and 2015. Neither park use nor program participation were significantly related to self-rated health in 1991; however, both were significantly related in 2015. The growing relationship between use of parks and recreation programs and self-rated health during this period is likely the result of broad national health promotion efforts and provides support for funding of capital and operational expenses for park and recreation services. PMID:28055820

  13. Determinants of changes in self-rated health among Finnish war veterans: results from the Veteran Project 1992 and 2004 surveys.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Riitta; Antikainen, Riitta; Peltonen, Markku; Sippola, Risto; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Self-rated health is a strong predictor of mortality, morbidity, future functional capacity and the quality of life. Measures of self-rated health have been collected fairly regularly since the 1980s, but few of them focus on self-rated health among the elderly war veterans. The aim of this study was to examine changes in self-rated health among Finnish war veterans from 1992 to 2004 and to analyze the independent determinants associated with changes in veterans' self-rated health. The study population was 4999 veterans living in Finland, who participated in data collection of both the Veteran Project 1992 and 2004. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors for changes in self-rated health. Analyses were conducted separately for men with and without disability and for women. During the follow-up, self-rated health improved or remained unchanged among 88.8% of the men without disability, 90.5% of the men with disability and 87.9% of the women. Determinants for declined self-rated health were a new cardiovascular disease (CVD) among all veteran groups, increased walking difficulties among men without disability and women, a new neurological disease and institutionalization among men without disability, and a new musculoskeletal disease among men with disability. In conclusion, the majority of veterans rated their health improved or unchanged during the follow-up. The importance of mobility impairments and cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and neurological diseases as the predictors of declined self-rated health were confirmed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on optimism and its relationship to mental and self-rated health: a study of aging twins.

    PubMed

    Mosing, Miriam A; Zietsch, Brendan P; Shekar, Sri N; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2009-11-01

    Optimism has been shown to be important in maintaining wellbeing into old age, but little is known about the sources of variation in optimism and its links to mental and somatic health. Optimism, mental, and self-rated health were measured in 3,053 twin individuals (501 MZF, 153 MZM, 274 DZF, 77 DZM, and 242 DZ opposite-sex twin pairs and 561 single twins) over 50 years using the life orientation test, the General Health Questionnaire and a single-item question for self-rated health. Additive genetic factors explained 36, 34, and 46% of the variation in optimism, mental, and self-rated health, respectively, with the remainder being due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic influences accounted for most of the covariance between the variables (14-20% of the genetic variance) indicating that in older adults genes predisposing to high optimism also predispose to good mental health and self-rated health.

  15. Social Support, Self-Rated Health, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Identity Disclosure to Cancer Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles S.; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E.; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Setting Online, Internet-based. Sample 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Methods Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Main Research Variables Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients’ cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. Findings 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients’ support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Conclusions Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Implications for Nursing Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients’ care. PMID:25542320

  16. Social inequalities in self-rated health in Ukraine in 2007: the role of psychosocial, material and behavioural factors.

    PubMed

    Platts, Loretta G; Gerry, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Despite Ukraine's large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55-64% in men and 35-47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27-30% in men and 19-27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68-84% in men and 43-60% in women. The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty.

  17. Domestic work division and satisfaction in cohabiting adults: Associations with life satisfaction and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Petra; Nordin, Maria; Alfredsson, Lars; Westerholm, Peter J M; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2017-01-01

    The amount and perception of domestic work may affect satisfaction with everyday life, but further knowledge is needed about the relationship between domestic work division and health and well-being. To describe the division of, and satisfaction with, domestic work and responsibility for home/family in adults living with a partner. A further aim was to investigate the associations between these aspects and self-rated life satisfaction and health. Data from the Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen survey collected 2009 were used, comprising 4924 participants living with a partner. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. The majority shared domestic work and responsibility for home/family equally with their partner. However, more women conducted the majority of the domestic work and were less satisfied with its division. When both division and satisfaction with division was included in the analysis, solely satisfaction with the division and the responsibility were associated with higher odds for good life satisfaction. Regarding health, higher odds for good self-rated health were seen in those who were satisfied with their division of responsibility. The results highlight the importance of taking into account not solely the actual division of domestic work but also the satisfaction with it.

  18. Improved Hand Function, Self-Rated Health and Decreased Activity Limitations - results after a two month hand osteoarthritis group intervention.

    PubMed

    Bjurehed, Linda; Brodin, Nina; Nordenskiöld, Ulla; Björk, Mathilda

    2017-10-03

    Hand Osteoarthritis (hand OA) causes pain, impaired mobility and reduced grip force, which cause activity limitations. Osteoarthritis group interventions in primary care settings are sparsely reported. To evaluate the effects on hand function, activity limitations and self-rated health of a primary care hand OA group intervention. 64 individuals with hand OA agreed to participate, 15 were excluded due to not fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The 49 remaining (90% female) participated in OA group intervention at a primary care unit with education, paraffin wax bath and hand exercise over a six-week period. Data were collected at baseline, end of intervention and after one year. Instruments used were the Grip Ability Test (GAT), the Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI), the JAMAR (dynamometry), hand pain at rest using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulders and Hand (Quick-DASH) and the EuroQol VAS (EQ VAS). Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Hand function, activity limitation and self-rated health significantly improved from baseline to end of intervention, JAMAR (right hand, p<0.001, left hand, p=0.008), SOFI (p=0.011), GAT (p<0.001), hand pain at rest (p<0.001), PSFS (1, p=0.008, 2, p<0.001, 3, p=0.004), Quick- DASH (p=0.001), and EQ VAS (p=0.039)and the effects were sustained after one year. The hand OA group intervention in primary care improves hand function, activity limitation and self-rated health. The benefits are sustained one year after completion of the intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Hot flashes severity, complementary and alternative medicine use, and self-rated health in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandwani, Kavita D; Heckler, Charles E; Mohile, Supriya G; Mustian, Karen M; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J; Bushunow, Peter; Flynn, Patrick J; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Hot flashes (HF) are a common distressing symptom in women with breast cancer (BC). Current pharmacologic options are moderately effective and are associated with bothersome side effects. Complementary and alternative medicine is commonly used by cancer patients. However, information on the association of hot flashes severity with such use and self-rated health is lacking. To examine the hot flashes severity in women with breast cancer and its association with complementary and alternative medicine use and self-rated health (SRH). Longitudinal multicenter study to assess information needs of cancer outpatients. Patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Hot flashes severity (0 = not present and 10 = as bad as you can imagine), use of complementary and alternative medicine (yes/no), and self-rating of health (SRH) status post-treatment and six-months thereafter (1-5, higher score = better SRH). The majority of women with HF (mean age = 54.4 years) were Caucasian and married, with higher education, and 93% had received surgical treatment for BC. At the end of treatment, 79% women reported experiencing HF [mean severity = 5.87, standard deviation (SD) = 2.9]; significantly more severe HF were reported by younger women with poor SRH, poor performance status, and those reporting doing spiritual practices. At follow-up, 73% had HF (mean severity = 4.86, SD = 3.0), and more severe HF were reported by younger women with poor self-rated health who had undergone chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, used vitamins, and did not exercise. A high percentage of women experienced hot flashes at the end of treatment and at six-month follow-up. A significant association of hot flashes severity with spiritual practice, increased vitamin use, and reduced exercise emphasize the need for future studies to confirm the results. This can facilitate safe use of complementary and alternative medicine and favorable outcomes while

  20. Socioeconomic status, labour market connection, and self-rated psychological health: the role of social capital and economic stress.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.

  1. Individual-level social capital and self-rated health in Japan: an application of the Resource Generator.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Kawachi, Ichiro; Iwase, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi

    2013-05-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of associations between social capital and health in public health research, a criticism of the field has been that researchers have exclusively focused on concepts of social cohesion to the exclusion of individual-level approaches. In the present study, we evaluated the association between social capital measured by the Resource Generator (an individual-level assessment of access to social capital) and self-rated health among Japanese population in a cross-sectional study. A postal survey of 4000 randomly selected residents in Okayama City (western Japan) was conducted in February 2009. We divided the overall scores from the Resource Generator Japan scale into quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self-rated health were calculated separately by sex. Individuals with the highest quartile of scores had significantly lower odds of poor health compared to the lowest group after covariate adjustment among both men and women (men; OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.86, women; OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.79, respectively) and there were also significant dose-response relationships. In the sub-domains of Resource Generator Japan scale, a differential pattern was observed by sex. Women showed a clear dose-response relationship with health across all four sub-scales (domestic resources, expert advice, personal skills, and problem solving resources). In contrast, only the domain of expert advice exhibited a strong association with men's health. Among both men and women individual-level social capital measured by the Resource Generator was related to reduced odds of poor health even after taking into account individual confounders. Although we cannot exclude reverse causation due to the cross-sectional design, our study adds to the accumulating evidence of the potential utility of the Resource Generator for evaluating the relationship between individual-level access to social capital and health.

  2. Comparative analysis on determinants of self-rated health among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Asian American older adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Jong Won; Rhee, Siyon; Lee, Sang E; Rhee, Jessica; Tran, Thanh

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study is (1) to compare the effects of factors on self-rated health (SRH) among older non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), Hispanic, and Asian Californians and (2) to provide estimated influence size of each factor on SRH. This study analyzed secondary data drawn from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Binary logit regressions were used to analyze data with the Jackknife replication sampling weights. Significant differences were found in SRH among the three groups. Hispanics and Asians reported poorer health than NHW. Socioeconomic status, acculturation, and health access significantly accounted for an association between ethnicity and SRH. However, the magnitudes of their effects on SRH varied across the groups and by the factors examined. This study discusses and concludes with some recommendations on the opportunities presented by the Affordable Care Act and Healthy People 2020.

  3. Exposure to and fear of terror as predictors of self-rated health among apparently healthy employees.

    PubMed

    Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Melamed, Samuel

    2008-05-01

    The effects of exposure to terror on physical health were investigated by relating objective exposure to terror and fear of terror to self-rated health (SRH), a proxy measure of health status. Our respondents were apparently healthy (N=4,877, 38% women) adults who completed self-report questionnaires. Objective exposure was assessed by the number of terrorist attacks and their casualties in a respondent's urban area prior to her/his completion of the questionnaire. Using several alternative assessments, objective exposure to terror did not predict SRH for both the genders. As hypothesized, fear of terror negatively predicted SRH for both females and males (beta=-0.04, -0.05, respectively). The effects of subjective and objective exposure were not found to be more pronounced among women relative to men, thus disconfirming our hypotheses in this regard. Our findings suggest that living under continuous fear of terror may adversely influence physical health irrespective of objective exposure.

  4. Prevalence of poor self-rated health and associated risk factors among older adults in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Ossa, Helmer de J; Cubides-Munévar, Ángela M; Curcio, Carmen L; Villegas, Juan de D; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH) has beeen considered an important marker of quality of life and an independent predictor of mortality in older adults. Objective: To determine the prevalence of poor SRH and identify risk factors associated with poor SRH among older adults residing in the Commune 18 of the city of Cali, Colombia, in 2009. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study with a single-stage cluster sampling design. Sample included 314 persons aged 60 and older. The dependent variable, SRH was dichotomized into good (excellent, very good, good) and poor (fair, poor). Independent variables were sociodemographic, biological, mental, functional and geriatric syndromes. Logistic regression was used for multivariate statistical modeling. Results: Overall, 40.1% reported poor SRH (women 42.9%, men 35.0%). Factors independently associated with poor SRH were diabetes mellitus, depression, fear of falling and frailty syndrome (frail and pre-frail vs. non-frail). Widowed men reported poorer health than married men while other marital status (single/separated/divorced) was associated with better self-rated health in women. Conclusion: Potential modifiable factors such as depression and frailty syndrome are important determinants for poor SRH in Colombian older adults. PMID:24892239

  5. Prevalence of poor self-rated health and associated risk factors among older adults in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Chaparro, José M; Zapata-Ossa, Helmer de J; Cubides-Munévar, Angela M; Curcio, Carmen L; Villegas, Juan de D; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2013-10-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has beeen considered an important marker of quality of life and an independent predictor of mortality in older adults. To determine the prevalence of poor SRH and identify risk factors associated with poor SRH among older adults residing in the Commune 18 of the city of Cali, Colombia, in 2009. A population-based cross-sectional study with a single-stage cluster sampling design. Sample included 314 persons aged 60 and older. The dependent variable, SRH was dichotomized into good (excellent, very good, good) and poor (fair, poor). Independent variables were sociodemographic, biological, mental, functional and geriatric syndromes. Logistic regression was used for multivariate statistical modeling. Overall, 40.1% reported poor SRH (women 42.9%, men 35.0%). Factors independently associated with poor SRH were diabetes mellitus, depression, fear of falling and frailty syndrome (frail and pre-frail vs. non-frail). Widowed men reported poorer health than married men while other marital status (single/separated/divorced) was associated with better self-rated health in women. Potential modifiable factors such as depression and frailty syndrome are important determinants for poor SRH in Colombian older adults.

  6. No change in health behavior, BMI or self-rated health after a psychosocial cancer rehabilitation: Results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ibfelt, Else; Rottmann, Nina; Kjaer, Trille; Høybye, Mette Terp; Ross, Lone; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2011-02-01

    The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to enable patients to attain and maintain optimal physical, psychological and social functioning. We evaluated the effect on health behavior, BMI and self-rated health of a residential psychosocial rehabilitation course for cancer patients. Patients with a primary cancer of the breast, prostate, colon or rectum were randomized to either a six-day multi-focus psychosocial residential rehabilitation intervention that included lectures, discussions and peer group discussions on issues related to treatment and life with cancer or to usual care. The end points were changes in smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index and self-rated health between baseline and follow-up after one and six months. The primary analyses included all participants who received their allocated condition. The two follow-up times were analyzed separately in general linear and logistic regression models for continuous and dichotomous outcomes, respectively. The analyses were adjusted for baseline outcome score, cancer site, time since diagnosis, age and education. Of the 507 participants who were randomly assigned, 452 were included in the analysis, of whom 404 completed the one month and 394 completed the six month assessment. The intervention group showed slightly more positive changes in health behavior, BMI and self-rated health than the usual care group, but the differences between the groups were small and not significant. Participation in a six-day cancer rehabilitation course did not significantly influence health behavior, BMI or self-rated health among cancer patients.

  7. Experience of violation during the past 3 months, social capital, and self-rated health: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Axelsson, Jakob; Rosvall, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between experience of violation during the past 3 months and self-rated health, taking trust (social capital), economic stress, and country of birth and parents' country of birth into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study with 55% response rate. A random sample was approached using a postal questionnaire, and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 responded. Logistic regression models investigated associations between experience of violation during the past 3 months and self-rated health. A 27.4% proportion of the men and 30.0% of the women reported less than good health. Less than good health was significantly higher in older age groups, among persons born outside Sweden, with low education, economic stress, low trust in other people, and experience of violation during the past 3 months. The group with experience of violation at one occasion during the past 3 months had odds ratio 1.76 (95% CI 1.57-1.97) of less than good health among men and odds ratio 1.78 (95% CI 1.62-1.96) among women, while the group with experience of violation two or more times during the past 3 months had odds ratio 4.28 (95% CI 3.36-5.44) among men and 3.54 (95% CI 2.89-4.35) among women in the final multiple analyses. Experience of violation during the past 3 months is significantly associated with less than good health, which is a finding with important policy implications.

  8. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications.

    PubMed

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.

  9. Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hill, Patrick L; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, M(age) = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood.

  10. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  11. What does age-comparative self-rated health measure? A cross-sectional study from the Northern Sweden MONICA Project.

    PubMed

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Hamberg, Katarina; Forssén, Annika

    2016-05-01

    Self-rated health comprehensively accounts for many health domains. Using self-ratings and a knowledge of associations with health domains might help personnel in the health care sector to understand reports of ill health. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between age-comparative self-rated health and disease, risk factors, emotions and psychosocial factors in a general population. We based our study on population-based cross-sectional surveys performed in 1999, 2004 and 2009 in northern Sweden. Participants were 25-74 years of age and 5314 of the 7500 people invited completed the survey. Comparative self-rated health was measured on a three-grade ordinal scale by the question 'How would you assess your general health condition compared to persons of your own age?' with the alternatives 'better', 'worse' or 'similar'. The independent variables were sex, age, blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, self-reported myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, physical activity, smoking, risk of unemployment, satisfaction with economic situation, anxiety and depressive emotions, education and Karasek scale of working conditions. Odds ratios using ordinal regression were calculated. Age, sex, stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, economic satisfaction, anxiety and depressive emotions were associated with comparative self-rated health. The risk of unemployment, a tense work situation and educational level were also associated with comparative self-rated health, although they were considerably weaker when adjusted for the the other variables. Anxiety, depressive emotions, low economic satisfaction and a tense work situation were common in the population. Emotions and economic satisfaction were associated with comparative self-rated health as well as some medical variables. Utilization of the knowledge of these associations in health care should be further investigated. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public

  12. The effects of Obama's political success on the self-rated health of blacks, Hispanics, and whites.

    PubMed

    Malat, Jennifer; Timberlake, Jeffrey M; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    Stress in the social environment can affect individual health. Election of the first Black President of the United States provides an opportunity to assess how a positive change in the macro-political climate impacts the health of Americans. Past research suggests that race-related political events influence the health of non-dominant racial groups. Yet many questions remain, including the types of events that affect health, the timing and durability of health effects, and whether effects are similar for Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. The present study uses data from the Ohio Family Health Survey, which was in the field from August 6, 2008 until January 24, 2009, to assess whether immediate changes in average self-rated health occurred after key events in the election of President Barack Obama. We find better average health ratings among Blacks and Hispanics immediately following Obama's nomination by the Democratic Party. Similar effects did not occur after the election or inauguration, and Whites showed no effect of any of the events. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of the theoretical links between macro-level social conditions, race/ethnicity, and health.

  13. [Self-rated health in adults: influence of poverty and income inequality in the area of residence].

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Beatriz; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of income inequality and poverty in the towns of Bogotá, Colombia, on poor self-rated health among their residents. The study was based on a multipurpose survey applied in Bogotá-Colombia. A hierarchical data structure (individuals=level1, locations=level 2) was used to define a logit-type multilevel logistic model. The dependent variable was self-perceived poor health, and local variables were income inequality and poverty. All analyses were controlled for socio-demographic variables and stratified by sex. The prevalence of self-reported fair or poor health in the study population was 23.2%. Women showed a greater risk of ill health, as well as men and women with a low educational level, older persons, those without work in the last week and persons affiliated to the subsidized health system. The highest levels of poverty in the city increased the risk of poor health. Cross-level interactions showed that young women and men with a low education level were the most affected by income inequality in the locality. In Bogotá, there are geographical differences in the perception of health. Higher rates of poverty and income inequality were associated with an increased risk of self-perceived poor health. Notable findings were the large health inequalities at the individual and local levels. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance.

  15. Racial and Ethnic Stratification in the Relationship Between Homeownership and Self-Rated Health*

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have long demonstrated that socioeconomic resources benefit health. More recently, scholars have begun to examine the potential stratification in the health returns different groups receive for a given resource. Motivated by fundamental cause theory, this paper examines homeownership as a salient health resource with potentially stratified benefits. Homeowners have significantly greater housing quality, wealth, neighborhood quality and integration, and physical and mental health than renters. However, there are compelling theoretical reasons to expect the health advantage of homeownership to be unequally distributed across racial and ethnic groups. Analyses of the 2012 March Current Population Survey initially suggest all homeowners experience a significant health advantage. Further examination finds robust evidence for a homeowner health advantage among Whites, on par with the difference between the married and divorced. The advantage among minority households is considerably smaller, and not significant among Latinos or Asians. Conditioning on a broad array of observable characteristics, White homeowners emerge as exceptionally healthy compared to White renters and all minority groups. This leads to the unexpected finding that racial/ethnic differences in health are concentrated among homeowners. The findings demonstrate the interactive nature of racial/ethnic stratification in health through both access to and returns from socioeconomic resources. PMID:24953499

  16. Racial and ethnic stratification in the relationship between homeownership and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Ryan

    2014-08-01

    Social scientists have long demonstrated that socioeconomic resources benefit health. More recently, scholars have begun to examine the potential stratification in the health returns different groups receive for a given resource. Motivated by fundamental cause theory, this paper examines homeownership as a salient health resource with potentially stratified benefits. Homeowners have significantly greater housing quality, wealth, neighborhood quality and integration, and physical and mental health than renters. However, there are compelling theoretical reasons to expect the health advantage of homeownership to be unequally distributed across racial and ethnic groups. Regression analyses of 71,874 household heads in the United States from the 2012 March Current Population Survey initially suggest all homeowners experience a significant health advantage. Further examination finds robust evidence for a homeowner health advantage among Whites, on par with the difference between the married and divorced. The advantage among minority households is considerably smaller, and not significant among Latinos or Asians. Conditioning on a broad array of observable characteristics, White homeowners emerge as exceptionally healthy compared to White renters and all minority groups. This leads to the unexpected finding that racial/ethnic differences in health are concentrated among homeowners. The findings demonstrate the interactive nature of racial/ethnic stratification in health through both access to and returns from socioeconomic resources.

  17. Self-Rated Health and Mortality: Does the Relationship Extend to a Low Income Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Jones, Nathan R.

    2004-01-01

    Although a relationship between poor self-reported health status and excess mortality risk has been well-established for industrialized countries, almost no research considers developing countries. We use data from Indonesia to show that in a low-income setting, as in more advantaged parts of the world, individuals who perceive their health to be…

  18. Multiple contexts of exposure: Activity spaces, residential neighborhoods, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gregory; Denney, Justin T; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2015-12-01

    Although health researchers have made progress in detecting place effects on health, existing work has largely focused on the local residential neighborhood and has lacked a temporal dimension. Little research has integrated both time and space to understand how exposure to multiple contexts - where adults live, work, shop, worship, and seek healthcare - influence and shape health and well-being. This study uses novel longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to delve deeper into the relationship between context and health by considering residential and activity space neighborhoods weighted by the amount of time spent in these contexts. Results from multilevel cross-classified logistic models indicate that contextual exposure to disadvantage, residential or non-residential, is independently associated with a higher likelihood of reporting poor or fair health. We also find support for a contextual incongruence hypothesis. For example, adults living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poor or fair health when they spend time in more advantaged neighborhoods than in more disadvantaged ones, while residents of more advantaged neighborhoods report worse health when they spend time in more disadvantaged areas. Our results suggest that certain types of place-based cumulative exposures are associated with a sense of relative neighborhood deprivation that potentially manifests in worse health ratings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joyce M; Lee, Lewina O; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. Among men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared with those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. Among women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women; in men, however, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared with those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  20. Religion, Suffering, and Self-rated Health Among Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiously based beliefs about suffering and health among older Mexicans. Methods. A nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans was conducted (N = 1,005). Questions were administered to assess beliefs about finding positive outcomes in suffering, the benefits of suffering in silence, other dimensions of religion, and health. Results. The findings suggest that older Mexican Americans who use their faith to find something positive in the face of suffering tend to rate their health more favorably. In contrast, older Mexican Americans who believe that it is important to suffer in silence tend to rate their health less favorably. Discussion. Moving beyond measures of church attendance to explore culturally relevant beliefs about suffering provides important insight into the relationship between religion and health among older Mexican Americans. PMID:21076086

  1. The Relationship Between Self-Rated Health and Acculturation in Hispanic and Asian Adult Immigrants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lommel, Lisa L; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2016-04-01

    We systematically reviewed studies to identify the association between acculturation and self-rated health (SRH) and the impact of nativity and language use in Asian and Hispanic adult immigrants. Six electronic databases were searched. Data on nativity and limited English proficiency (LEP) was extracted and analyzed. Nine studies met review criteria. A positive association between acculturation and fair/poor SRH among Asians and Hispanics was found. For both Asians and Hispanics, six out of eight studies showed nativity and all three studies reporting LEP were associated with worse SRH compared to whites. Nativity and LEP were found to be risk factors for reporting worse SRH in Hispanics compared to Asians. The degree of association between nativity and LEP and worse SRH was found to vary by Asian and Hispanic subgroup. Further studies are needed to accurately assess the health status of these populations, which will be essential to eliminating disparities.

  2. Prospective cohort study of stress, life satisfaction, self-rated health, insomnia, and suicide death in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2005-04-01

    The association between many psychosocial factors and risk of suicide was examined. A cohort was conducted over 14 years of follow up among the general population (15,597 people) in Japan. A baseline survey of psychosocial characteristics was conducted by self-administrated questionnaire. The relative risks of occasional emotional stress, difficulty maintaining sleep, and reporting unhealthy as their self-rated health are 3.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 7.6), 2.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 4.3) and 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 6.2), respectively. The importance of these observations lie in its potential for improving physician and public awareness of psychosocial factors as an early indication of mental health morbidity.

  3. Negative self-rated health in the elderly in cities with different levels of economic well-being: data from FIBRA.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Efigênia Passarelli; de Lucca, Sérgio Roberto; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-12-01

    This comparative, cross-sectional study analyzed negative self-rated health in elderly people, according to sociodemographic and health variables, use of public or private health services, functional performance, frailty and depressive symptoms. The participants lived in Belém (n = 571) and Campinas (n = 676), cities with different socioeconomic conditions, and the research formed part of a multicentric study on frailty (Fibra Study, Unicamp). Multivariate regression analysis showed that in both cities, negative self-rated health was associated with low education, three or more chronic diseases and sight deficiencies. In Belem, additional observations included associations with fatigue, three or more signs and symptoms and use of public health services; in Campinas, negative self-rated health was also associated with depressive symptoms. The associations suggest that poor health in old age is the result of an accumulation of deficits for lack of socioeconomic resources throughout life and that deficits are not sufficiently compensated for health services in old age.

  4. Gender Differences in the Impact of Warfare Exposure on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joyce M.; Lee, Lewina O.; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined gender differences in the impact of warfare exposure on self-reported physical health. METHODS Data are from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans, a nationally representative survey of veterans from multiple eras of service. Regression analyses assessed gender differences in the association between warfare exposure (deployment to a war zone, exposure to casualties) and health status and functional impairment, adjusting for sociodemographics. FINDINGS Women reported better health status but greater functional impairment than men. In men, those who experienced casualties only or both casualties and deployment to a war zone had worse health compared to those who experienced neither stressor or deployment to a war zone only. In women, those who experienced casualties only or both stressors reported worse health than those who experienced war zone only, who did not differ from the unexposed. No association was found between warfare exposure and functional impairment in women, but in men, those who experienced exposure to casualties or both stressors had greater odds of functional impairment compared to those who experienced war zone only or neither stressor. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to casualties may be more predictive of health than deployment to a war zone, especially for men. We did not find a stronger association between warfare exposure and health for women than men. Given that the expansion of women's military roles has allowed them to serve in direct combat, their degree and scope of warfare exposure is likely to increase in the future. PMID:25442366

  5. High incidence of hospitalisation due to infectious gastroenteritis in older people associated with poor self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Bette C; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn D

    2015-12-30

    To estimate the incidence and risk factors for gastroenteritis-related hospitalisations in older adults. Longitudinal cohort study. The 45 and Up Study is a large-scale Australian prospective study of adults aged ≥ 45 years (mean 62.7 years) at recruitment in 2006-2009. Self-reported demographic, health and dietary information at recruitment from 265,440 participants were linked to infectious gastroenteritis hospitalisation data. We estimated the incidence of hospitalisation for infectious gastroenteritis, and calculated HRs using Cox regression, adjusting for sociodemographic, health and behavioural variables, with age as the underlying time variable. There were 6077 incident infectious gastroenteritis admissions over 1,111,000 person-years. Incidence increased exponentially with increasing age; from 2.4 per 1000 (95% CI 2.2 to 2.5) in individuals aged 45-54 years to 9.5 per 1000 (95% CI 9.2 to 9.8) in those aged 65+ years. After adjustment, hospitalisation due to infectious gastroenteritis was significantly more common in those reporting use of proton pump inhibitors (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7), and those with poorer self-rated health (HR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6 to 4.9). Infectious gastroenteritis results in hospitalisation of approximately 1% of people ≥ 65 years old each year. Early recognition and supportive treatment of diarrhoea in older patients with poorer self-rated health may prevent subsequent hospitalisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Country of birth, parental background and self-rated health among adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences according to country of birth and parental country of birth, in relation to poor self-rated health (SRH), in Swedish adolescents. The Scania public health survey among children and adolescents, conducted in 2012, is a cross-sectional study including most pupils in grade 9 (15 years old), including in 32 of 33 municipalities. The participation rate was 83% (9,791 of 11,735). We performed logistic regressions to investigate the association between the students' country of birth, parental country of birth and poor SRH. Boys born outside Europe had an odds ratio (OR) 2.1 (1.6-2.8) of poor SRH in the unadjusted model, which was reduced to 0.7 (0.4-1.3) in the multiple model, as compared to boys born in Sweden with both or one parent born in Sweden. Boys born in Europe had an OR 0.4 (0.2-0.9) of poor SRH, after multiple adjustments. Girls born in Sweden with both parents born abroad, and girls born outside of Europe had significantly lower ORs of poor SRH in the multiple model. In particular, adjustment for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors reduced the ORs of poor SRH among boys, but did so to a lesser extent among girls. Differences in socio-demographic and psychosocial factors explained the higher odds of poor SRH among boys born outside of Europe. Girls born in Sweden with both parents born abroad, and girls born outside Europe, had significantly lower ORs of poor SRH. Our results indicate that there are gender differences in the factors behind poor self-rated health, according to the country-related background of adolescents in Sweden. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Self-rated health and life satisfaction among Canadian adults: associations of perceived weight status versus BMI.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Hopman, Wilma M; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). As perceived constructs, self-rated health (SRH) and general life satisfaction (LS) might be more strongly related to perceived weight status than actual weight status. The aim was to assess agreement between perceived weight status and self-reported body mass index (BMI), and to investigate their associations with SRH and LS as indicators of HRQL. Cross-sectional data included 87,545 adults aged 18-65 years from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey. Agreement between perceived weight status and self-reported BMI was assessed. Prevalence of suboptimal SRH and LS was estimated by perceived weight status and BMI, and adjusted logistic regression used to assess the odds of suboptimal outcomes. Overall agreement between perceived weight status and self-reported BMI was only moderate (females: κ = 0.58; males: κ = 0.42). The lowest prevalences of suboptimal SRH and LS were in those who reported both a healthy weight BMI and "about right" weight perception. Discordance between perceived weight status and BMI status, and congruence (i.e. perceived weight status = BMI) around underweight or overweight/obese were associated with poorer SRH and LS. For weight perceptions of "about right", BMI status had minimal influence on suboptimal SRH or LS, while perceptions of underweight or overweight were associated with higher odds of suboptimal SRH and LS, independent of BMI. Adults' weight status perceptions often do not agree with their actual weight status, even when self-reported. While both perceived and actual weight status influence self-rated health and life satisfaction, perceptions are more strongly associated with these HRQL indicators and should be considered when informing obesity-targeted policies and programmes.

  8. The influence of ethnicity and gender on the association between measured obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness with self-rated overweight, physical activity and health.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Ardern, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how ethnicity may influence how self-rated physical activity (PA) and obesity relates to measured obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness and self-rated health. To examine the influence of ethnicity on the association between: (1) self-rated and measured obesity; (2) self-reported PA and cardiorespiratory fitness; and (3) obesity and PA with self-rated health. Data from NHANES 1999-2004 (2,981 adults) was used. Compared to white and overweight black men, Hispanic men were less likely to consider themselves overweight (OR = 0.36-0.56). Compared to white men, black active men were more likely to report being more active than their peers (OR = 1.44) but were less likely to be fit (OR = 0.74). Black active women and non-white overweight women were less likely to self-rate as having very good or excellent health as compared to white women with similar self-reported and measured health factors. Ethnicity and gender influence how self-rated and measured health factors interrelate.

  9. Psychological morbidity, quality of life, and self-rated health in the military personnel.

    PubMed

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Cheng; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The mental health of military personnel varies as a result of different cultural, political, and administrative factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological morbidity and quality of life of military personnel in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study utilized the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, brief version, Taiwan version, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version, and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in several military units. More than half of the subjects (55.3%) identified themselves as mentally unhealthy on the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version; however, a higher percentage of officers perceived themselves as healthy (57.4%) than did noncommissioned officers (38.5%) or enlisted men (42.2%). Officers also had higher total quality of life (QOL) scores (83.98) than did enlisted men (79.67). Scores on the VAS also varied: officers: 72.5; noncommissioned officers: 67.7; and enlisted men: 66.3. The VAS and QOL were positively correlated with perceived mental health among these military personnel. Our subjects had higher rates of perceiving themselves as mentally unhealthy compared to the general population. Those of higher rank perceived themselves as having better mental health and QOL. Improving mental health could result in a better QOL in the military. The VAS may be a useful tool for the rapid screening of self-reported mental health, which may be suitable in cases of stressful missions, such as in disaster rescue; however, more studies are needed to determine the optimal cut-off point of this measurement tool.

  10. Psychological morbidity, quality of life, and self-rated health in the military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Cheng; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The mental health of military personnel varies as a result of different cultural, political, and administrative factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological morbidity and quality of life of military personnel in Taiwan. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study utilized the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, brief version, Taiwan version, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version, and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in several military units. Results More than half of the subjects (55.3%) identified themselves as mentally unhealthy on the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version; however, a higher percentage of officers perceived themselves as healthy (57.4%) than did noncommissioned officers (38.5%) or enlisted men (42.2%). Officers also had higher total quality of life (QOL) scores (83.98) than did enlisted men (79.67). Scores on the VAS also varied: officers: 72.5; noncommissioned officers: 67.7; and enlisted men: 66.3. The VAS and QOL were positively correlated with perceived mental health among these military personnel. Conclusion Our subjects had higher rates of perceiving themselves as mentally unhealthy compared to the general population. Those of higher rank perceived themselves as having better mental health and QOL. Improving mental health could result in a better QOL in the military. The VAS may be a useful tool for the rapid screening of self-reported mental health, which may be suitable in cases of stressful missions, such as in disaster rescue; however, more studies are needed to determine the optimal cut-off point of this measurement tool. PMID:24570587

  11. Self-rated health and a healthy lifestyle are the most important predictors of survival in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jessica; Spallek, Melanie; Dobson, Annette

    2008-03-01

    to test the hypothesis that morbidity and health related behavioural factors are stronger than social factors as predictors of death among older women. we used data from 12,422 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who were aged 70-75 in 1996. Proportional hazards models of survival up to 31 October 2005 were fitted separately for the whole cohort and those women who were initially in 'good health'. among the whole cohort, 18.7% died during the follow_up period. The strongest predictor of death was 'poor' or 'fair' self-rated health (with 52.3% and 28.0%, respectively, of women in these categories dying). Among the women in 'good health' at baseline 11.5% died, with current cigarette smoking (hazard ratio HR = 2.19, 95% confidence interval (1.71, 2.81), physical inactivity (HR = 1.45 (1.17, 1.81)), and age (HR = 1.10 (1.04, 1.16) per year) as statistically significant predictors of death. among older women, current health and health related behaviours are stronger predictors than social factors of relatively early mortality. Adopting a healthier lifestyle, by doing more exercise and not smoking, is beneficial even in old age.

  12. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  13. Benefits gained, benefits lost: comparing baby boomers to other generations in a longitudinal cohort study of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Badley, Elizabeth M; Canizares, Mayilee; Perruccio, Anthony V; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-03-01

    POLICY POINTS: Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). We analyzed Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were almost counterbalanced by

  14. Pain-related psychological distress, self-rated health and significance of neuropathic pain in Danish soldiers injured in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J R; Warburg, F E; Koelle, S-F T; Werner, M U; Nielsen, P R

    2015-11-01

    Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and EuroQOL Visual Analogue Scale) administered to injured soldiers. The participants were classified into three groups according to the PainDETECT questionnaire: non-neuropathic pain, possible neuropathic pain and definite neuropathic pain. Fifty-three participants were included. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score was in median (interquartile range) 26 (22-31), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was 4 (2-6.5) and 2 (1-5) for anxiety and depression respectively. Evidence of neuropathic pain correlated positively with the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score (rho = 0.469, P < 0.001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscale for anxiety score (rho = 0.357, P = 0.009), and inversely with the EuroQOL Visual Analogue Scale score (rho = -0.361, P = 0.008). In multivariate regression analyses, the associations remained when adjusting for socio-demographics and clinical characteristics. The results from the present study suggest that neuropathic pain is related to increased psychological distress and deterioration in self-rated health in injured soldiers. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A prospective analysis of the effect of neighbourhood and individual social capital on changes in self-rated health of people with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Waverijn, Geeke; Wolfe, Mary K; Mohnen, Sigrid; Rijken, Mieke; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter

    2014-07-03

    Social capital in the living environment, both on the individual and neighbourhood level, is positively associated with people's self-rated health; however, prospective and longitudinal studies are rare, making causal conclusions difficult. To shed more light on the direction of the relationship between social capital and self-rated health, we investigated main and interaction effects of individual and neighbourhood social capital at baseline on changes in self-rated health of people with a somatic chronic disease. Individual social capital, self-rated health and other individual level variables were assessed among a nationwide sample of 1048 non-institutionalized people with a somatic chronic disease residing in 259 neighbourhoods in the Netherlands. The assessment of neighbourhood social capital was based on data from a nationwide survey among the general Dutch population. The association of social capital with changes in self-rated health was assessed by multilevel regression analysis. Both individual social capital and neighbourhood social capital at baseline were significantly associated with changes in self-rated health over the time period of 2005 to 2008 while controlling for several disease characteristics, other individual level and neighbourhood level characteristics. No significant interactions were found between social capital on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. Higher levels of individual and neighbourhood social capital independently and positively affect changes in self-rated health of people with chronic illness. Although most of the variation in health is explained at the individual level, one's social environment should be considered as a possible relevant influence on the health of the chronically ill.

  16. Integrating Self-Rated Health and Social Involvement for the Examination of Mortality among Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, William; Wilcox, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Integrated ratings of global health status and reports of social involvements into single, combined variable. Used variable to predict mortality over three time periods. Data from 6,053 self-respondents aged 70 and older at baseline in 1984 showed that combined variable produced substantial effects on mortality, particularly for 1984-86 and…

  17. Integrating Self-Rated Health and Social Involvement for the Examination of Mortality among Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, William; Wilcox, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Integrated ratings of global health status and reports of social involvements into single, combined variable. Used variable to predict mortality over three time periods. Data from 6,053 self-respondents aged 70 and older at baseline in 1984 showed that combined variable produced substantial effects on mortality, particularly for 1984-86 and…

  18. Self-Rated Mental Health, School Adjustment, and Substance Use in Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats

    2008-01-01

    This survey, "Life and Health--Young People 2005," included all 15/16-year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Orebro, Sweden. Just students with a slight/mild or moderate hearing loss were included. There were 56 (1.9%) "hard-of-hearing (HH) students with multiple disabilities," 93 (3.1%) students who were…

  19. Self-Rated Mental Health, School Adjustment, and Substance Use in Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats

    2008-01-01

    This survey, "Life and Health--Young People 2005," included all 15/16-year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Orebro, Sweden. Just students with a slight/mild or moderate hearing loss were included. There were 56 (1.9%) "hard-of-hearing (HH) students with multiple disabilities," 93 (3.1%) students who were…

  20. Racial disparities in self-rated health: Trends, explanatory factors, and the changing role of socio-demographics

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Hummer, Robert A.; Masters, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (N = 1,513,097) to describe and explain temporal patterns in black-white health disparities with models that simultaneously consider the unique effects of age, period, and cohort. First, we employ cross-classified random effects age–period–cohort (APC) models to document black-white disparities in self-rated health across temporal dimensions. Second, we use decomposition techniques to shed light on the extent to which socio-economic shifts in cohort composition explain the age and period adjusted racial health disparities across successive birth cohorts. Third, we examine the extent to which exogenous conditions at the time of birth help explain the racial disparities across successive cohorts. Results show that black-white disparities are wider among the pre-1935 cohorts for women, falling thereafter; disparities for men exhibit a similar pattern but exhibit narrowing among cohorts born earlier in the century. Differences in socioeconomic composition consistently contribute to racial health disparities across cohorts; notably, marital status differences by race emerge as an increasingly important explanatory factor in more recent cohorts for women whereas employment differences by race emerge as increasingly salient in more recent cohorts for men. Finally, our cohort characteristics models suggest that cohort economic conditions at the time of birth (percent large family, farm or Southern birth) help explain racial disparities in health for both men and women. PMID:24581075

  1. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in self-rated health among the employed in South Korea: the role of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright's social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study subjects included the employed population of 4392 men and 3309 women aged 19-64 years. Subjects were classified into twelve social class positions based on the Wright's social class map. The health outcome was self-rated health. Material, psychosocial, behavioral, and workplace environmental factors were considered as potential mediators in explaining social class health inequality. We calculated prevalence ratios of poor self-rated health according to social class, adjusted for age and mediating factors using Poisson regression models. Nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie reported worse self-rated health than other social classes among men. The age-adjusted prevalence of petty bourgeoisie and nonskilled workers were about four-fold greater than that of managers. Expert supervisors in the contradictory class location had a greater prevalence of poor self-rated health than experts in men. In women, the prevalence of poor self-rated health was greater in most social classes than their male counterparts, while the differences among social classes within women were not statistically significant. Workplace environmental factors explained the social class inequality by from 24 to 31% in nonskilled and skilled workers and nonskilled supervisors, respectively, and material factors showed an explanatory ability of about 8% for both nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie in men. We showed the inequality in self-rated health according to the Wright's social class in an industrialized Asian country

  2. Five months of physical exercise in hemodialysis patients: effects on aerobic capacity, physical function and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Molsted, Stig; Eidemak, Inge; Sorensen, Helle Tauby; Kristensen, Jens Halkjaer

    2004-01-01

    The number of chronic renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis (HD) is continuously increasing. Most patients have reduced physical capacity and have a high risk of cardiac and vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 5 months physical exercise of HD patients' physical capacity, self-rated health and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. 33 HD patients were included in the study. HD for more than 3 months, age >18 years. Diabetes mellitus, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal limitations, severe peripheral polyneuropathy, inability to speak Danish or English, dementia or other mental disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n = 22) or a control group (CG, n = 11). Prior to randomization, baseline testing was performed. The effects were measured by aerobic capacity, '2-min stair climbing', 'squat test', self-rated health (SF36), blood pressure and lipids. All tests were carried out by blinded testers. The intervention consisted of 1 h of physical exercise twice a week for 5 months. 20 patients completed the intervention. Attendance was 74% of all sessions. There were no dropouts caused by complications related to the intervention. The EG had a significant increase in aerobic capacity, 'squat test' and Physical Function and Physical Component Scale (SF36). No significant changes were observed in any of the parameters in the CG. Physical exercise twice a week for 5 months increases physical function and aerobic capacity in HD patients. An exercise program with only two exercise sessions per week seems easy to implement in clinical practice with high attendance among participants. Further investigation is needed to determine the effects on blood pressure and lipids. There were no medical complications related to the exercise program. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. 'In general, how do you feel today?'--self-rated health in the context of aging in India.

    PubMed

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is centered on self-rated health (SRH) as an outcome measure, as a predictor, and as a marker. The thesis uses primary data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) implemented in India in 2007. The structural equation modeling approach is employed to understand the pathways through which the social environment, disability, disease, and sociodemographic characteristics influence SRH among older adults aged 50 years and above. Cox proportional hazard model is used to explore the role of SRH as a predictor for mortality and the role of disability in modifying this effect. The hierarchical ordered probit modeling approach, which combines information from anchoring vignettes with SRH, was used to address the long overlooked methodological concern of interpersonal incomparability. Finally, multilevel model-based small area estimation techniques were used to demonstrate the use of large national surveys and census information to derive precise SRH prevalence estimates at the district and sub-district level. The thesis advocates the use of such a simple measure to identify vulnerable communities for targeted health interventions, to plan and prioritize resource allocation, and to evaluate health interventions in resource-scarce settings. The thesis provides the basis and impetus to generate and integrate similar and harmonized adult health and aging data platforms within demographic surveillance systems in different regions of India and elsewhere.

  4. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  5. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    PubMed

    Taloyan, Marina; Aronsson, Gunnar; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Alexanderson, Kristina; Westerlund, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP) may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12), also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06). Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  6. A prospective investigation of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and self-rated health in a large US cohort.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qian; Berrigan, David; Matthews, Charles E

    2017-03-01

    Neighborhood characteristics play a critical role in health. Self-rated health (SRH) is an important indicator of quality of life and a strong predictor of premature death. Prospective study on neighborhood deprivation and SRH is limited. We examined neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation with reporting fair/poor SRH at follow-up (2004-2006) in 249,265 men and women (age 50-71) who reported SRH as good or better at baseline (1995-1996) in the NIH-AARP Health and Diet Study. Baseline addresses were geocoded and linked to 2000 Census. Census tract level variables were used to generate a socioeconomic deprivation index by principle component analysis. Residents of more deprived neighborhoods had a higher risk of developing poor/fair SRH at follow-up, even after adjusting for individual-level factors (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Q5 vs Q1: 1.26 (1.20, 1.32), p-trend: <0.0001). The results were largely consistent across subgroups with different demographics, health behaviors, and disease conditions and after excluding participants who moved away from their baseline address. Neighborhood disadvantage predicts SRH over 10 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and foreign-born Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Koenen, Karestan

    2011-09-01

    We investigated associations among racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and immigrant Black Americans. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of employed working-class Black Americans (193 US-born, 275 foreign-born). Both US-born and foreign-born Black participants had high levels of exposure to poverty (51% and 57%, respectively) and racial discrimination (76% and 60%) and reported high levels of severe psychological distress (14% and 16% had a Kessler 6 [K6] score of 13 or greater); 17% and 7% reported fair or poor health. After controlling for relevant covariates, their risk parameters for racial discrimination (high vs no exposure) were 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 5.6) and 3.3 (95% CI = 2.1, 4.5), respectively, for continuous K6 score; corresponding odds ratios for severe psychological distress were 6.9 (95% CI = 1.4, 35.7) and 6.8 (95% CI = 2.5, 18.3). No associations existed between racial discrimination and self-reported health, suggesting that an underlying propensity to report adversity does not account for our psychological distress findings. Our results attest to the salience of racial discrimination, nativity, and socioeconomic position in understanding the experiences and psychological health of Black Americans.

  8. Disability and self-rated health among older women and men in rural Guatemala: The role of obesity and chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, John; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented population aging in poorer settings is coinciding with the rapid spread of obesity and other chronic conditions. These conditions predict disability and poor self-rated health and often are more prevalent in women than men. Thus, gender gaps in obesity and other chronic conditions may account for older women's greater disability and worse self-rated health in poor, rural populations, where aging, obesity, and chronic conditions are rapidly emerging. In a survey of 604 adults 50 years and older in rural Guatemala, we assessed whether gender gaps in obesity and other chronic conditions accounted for gender gaps in disability and self-rated health. Obesity strongly predicted gross-mobility (GM) disability, and the number of chronic conditions strongly predicted all outcomes, especially in women. Controlling for gender gaps in body mass index (BMI) and especially the number of chronic conditions eliminated gender gaps in GM disability, and controlling for gender gaps in the number of chronic conditions eliminated gender gaps in self-rated health. We recommend conducting longitudinal cohort studies to explore interventions that may mitigate adult obesity and chronic conditions among poor, rural older adults. Such interventions also may reduce gender gaps in later-life disability and self-rated health. PMID:20813446

  9. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Muoi T; Chan, Winnie Y; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-09-01

    Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data.This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6).Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively).Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics.Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health.

  10. Does an immigrant health paradox exist among Asian Americans? Associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    John, Dolly A; de Castro, A B; Martin, Diane P; Duran, Bonnie; Takeuchi, David T

    2012-12-01

    A robust socioeconomic gradient in health is well-documented, with higher socioeconomic status (SES) associated with better health across the SES spectrum. However, recent studies of U.S. racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants show complex SES-health patterns (e.g., flat gradients), with individuals of low SES having similar or better health than their richer, U.S.-born and more acculturated counterparts, a so-called "epidemiological paradox" or "immigrant health paradox". To examine whether this exists among Asian Americans, we investigate how nativity and occupational class (white-collar, blue-collar, service, unemployed) are associated with subjective health (self-rated physical health, self-rated mental health) and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (any mental disorder, anxiety, depression). We analyzed data from 1530 Asian respondents to the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study in the labor force using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models controlling for confounders, subjective social status (SSS), material and psychosocial factors theorized to explain health inequalities. Compared to U.S.-born Asians, immigrants had worse socioeconomic profiles, and controlling for age and gender, increased odds for reporting fair/poor mental health and decreased odds for any DSM-IV mental disorder and anxiety. No strong occupational class-health gradients were found. The foreign-born health-protective effect persisted after controlling for SSS but became nonsignificant after controlling for material and psychosocial factors. Speaking fair/poor English was strongly associated with all outcomes. Material and psychosocial factors were associated with some outcomes--perceived financial need with subjective health, uninsurance with self-rated mental health and depression, social support, discrimination and acculturative stress with all or most DSM-IV outcomes. Our findings caution against using terms like "immigrant health paradox" which oversimplify

  11. Does an immigrant health paradox exist among Asian Americans? Associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    John, Dolly A.; de Castro, A.B.; Martin, Diane P.; Duran, Bonnie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2017-01-01

    A robust socioeconomic gradient in health is well-documented, with higher socioeconomic status (SES) associated with better health across the SES spectrum. However, recent studies of U.S. racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants show complex SES-health patterns (e.g., flat gradients), with individuals of low SES having similar or better health than their richer, U.S.-born and more acculturated counterparts, a so-called “epidemiological paradox” or “immigrant health paradox”. To examine whether this exists among Asian Americans, we investigate how nativity and occupational class (white-collar, blue-collar, service, unemployed) are associated with subjective health (self-rated physical health, self-rated mental health) and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (any mental disorder, anxiety, depression). We analyzed data from 1530 Asian respondents to the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study in the labor force using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models controlling for confounders, subjective social status (SSS), material and psychosocial factors theorized to explain health inequalities. Compared to U.S.-born Asians, immigrants had worse socioeconomic profiles, and controlling for age and gender, increased odds for reporting fair/poor mental health and decreased odds for any DSM-IV mental disorder and anxiety. No strong occupational class-health gradients were found. The foreign-born health-protective effect persisted after controlling for SSS but became nonsignificant after controlling for material and psychosocial factors. Speaking fair/poor English was strongly associated with all outcomes. Material and psychosocial factors were associated with some outcomes – perceived financial need with subjective health, uninsurance with self-rated mental health and depression, social support, discrimination and acculturative stress with all or most DSM-IV outcomes. Our findings caution against using terms like “immigrant health paradox

  12. Early socioeconomic position and self-rated health among civil servants in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis from the Pró-Saúde cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Joanna Miguez Nery; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Faerstein, Eduardo; Lopes, Claudia S; Chor, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although there is evidence that socioeconomic conditions in adulthood are associated with worse self-rated health, the putative effect of early adverse life circumstances on adult self-rated health is not consistent. Besides, little is known on this subject in the context of middle-income countries. We aimed to investigate the association between indicators of socioeconomic position in early life and self-rated health in adulthood, taking into account the influence of current socioeconomic position. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 3339 civil servants (44.5% male) working at a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participants of the Pró-Saúde cohort study. Measurements Through a lifecourse approach, we evaluated if seven indicators of participants’ socioeconomic position earlier in life were associated with worse self-rated health in adulthood. Ordinal logistic regression analysis with a proportional odds model was used. Results After adjusting for socioeconomic position in adulthood (education and income), the indicators of early socioeconomic position associated with poor self-rated health were as follows: not eating at home due to lack of money at the age of 12 (OR=1.29 95% CI 1.06 to 1.57) and having lived in a small city or rural area at the age of 12 (OR=1.51 95% CI 1.21 to 1.89). Conclusions Self-rated health was associated with two indicators of remarkable experiences of poverty in early life, even when socioeconomic conditions improved throughout life. Our findings have shown a long-term impact of extreme socioeconomic hardship during childhood and/or adolescence on the development of social inequalities in health. In terms of implications for public health, our work emphasises that health policies, usually focused on adult lifestyle interventions, should be complemented by initiatives aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities during the earliest stages of development, such as childhood and adolescence. PMID:25416056

  13. Exploring relationships among social integration, social isolation, self-rated health, and demographics among Latino day laborers.

    PubMed

    Steel, Kenneth C; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Atkinson, John S; Taylor, Wendell C

    2017-01-19

    Research indicates social integration and social isolation are related to health, and Latino day laborers (LDLs) tend to be socially isolated and, thus, at high risk for adverse health consequences. relationships among social isolation, social integration, self-rated health (SRH), and demographics were examined in a sample of LDLs to contribute to the literature on social networks and health in this and other migrant populations. We analyzed data from 324 LDLs who participated in Proyecto SHILOS (Salud del Hombre Inmigrante Latino), a Houston-based survey of Latino immigrant men's health. Based on the literature, we hypothesized SRH would be (1) positively associated with social integration and (2) negatively associated with social isolation. All proposed measures were first entered into a correlation matrix to identify significant bivariate relationships (p ≤ .05, two-tailed). Associations between variables that were directly correlated with SRH and variables that were, in turn, proximally associated with these variables were then used to develop a structural equation path model of SRH. Individual paths in the model were measured for significance, and goodness of fit was assessed by the model chi-square, the Comparative Fit Index, and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. Inconsistent with the first hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social integration, as measured by the number of trusted friends. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social isolation, as measured by needing someone to talk to. More frequent contact with family was also negatively associated with social isolation. Our findings suggest social integration may not always protect and promote health. Therefore, assessing the quality of LDLs' different relationships, not just the quantity, is vital. Future studies should further analyze the effects that social resources have on perceptions of social isolation and health in LDLs and other

  14. Healthy life expectancy and the correlates of self-rated health in Bangladesh in 1996 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Saito, Yasuhiko; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2015-03-31

    Life expectancy (LE) at birth has increased steadily in Bangladesh since its independence. When people live longer, quality of life becomes a central issue. This study examines whether healthy life expectancy (HLE) at ages 15, 25, 35, and 45 is keeping pace with LE at those ages between 1996 and 2002. It also seeks to investigate the correlates of self-rated health (SRH) in 1996 and 2002. We used data from the World Values Survey conducted in 1996 and 2002 among individuals 15 years and older. The Sullivan method was used to compute HLE. Socio-demographic differences and their association with different states of health were examined by chi-square and Pearson's correlation tests. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to examine the correlates of SRH. The results show that perceived health improved between 1996 and 2002. For males, statistically significant increases in the expected number of years lived in good SRH were found. Proportionally, in 2002, both males and females at ages 15, 25, 35 and 45 expected more life years in good health and fewer life years in fair and poor health than did their counterparts in 1996. Comparatively, males expected fewer life years spent in good health but a much larger proportion of expected life in good health than did females. Finally, in multivariate analyses, life satisfaction was the only factor found to be significantly and positively associated with SRH for males and females in both years, although in both years the association was much more pronounced for females than for males. This study documented changes in HLE during 1996-2002. Women outlive men, but they have a lower quality of life and are more likely to live a greater part of their remaining life in poor SRH. Life satisfaction as well as other significant factors associated with SRH should be promoted, with special attention given to women, to improve healthy life expectancy and the quality of life of the Bangladeshi people.

  15. Self-Rated Mental Health: Screening for Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of a single-item, self-rated mental health (SRMH) measure in the identification of women at risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Baseline data of 239 low-income women participating in an intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention study were analyzed. PTSD was measured with the Davidson Trauma Scale. Risk for depression was determined using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. SRMH was assessed with a single item asking participants to rate their mental health at the time of the baseline interview. Single-item measures can be an efficient way to increase the proportion of patients screened for mental health disorders. Although SRMH is not a strong indicator of PTSD, it may be useful in identifying pregnant women who are at increased risk for depression and need further comprehensive assessment in the clinical setting. Future research examining the use of SRMH among high-risk populations is needed. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Economic stress and condescending treatment in childhood and adult self-rated health: results from a population study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Granström, Fredrik; Eriksson, Hans-Georg; Molarius, Anu

    2017-05-22

    Even today, 12% of the children in Sweden live in poverty and many children are exposed to adverse experiences, such as being bullied, which may have long-term consequences on public health. This study examined the associations between economic stress and condescending treatment in childhood and self-rated health (SRH) in adulthood. The study is based on 26,706 persons who responded to a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 25-84 years in 2012 (response rate 53%). The associations between childhood circumstances and adult SRH were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, economic stress in adulthood, condescending treatment in adulthood, socioeconomic status and several other known material, behavioural and psychosocial risk factors. In total, 39% of both men and women reported economic stress in their family during childhood. 36% of the men and 41% of the women indicated that they had been treated in a condescending manner, e.g. in school or at home, during childhood. Both economic stress in childhood and condescending treatment in childhood were strongly associated with adult SRH. The associations attenuated, but were still statistically significant after adjustment for adulthood circumstances and other risk factors. Economic stress in childhood and condescending treatment in childhood were associated with SRH in adulthood, both independently and through adulthood circumstances. The results underline the importance of taking into account both material and psychosocial circumstances over the whole life course when developing public health measures.

  17. Household income and spiritual well-being but not body mass index as determinants of poor self-rated health among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M

    2012-06-01

    Very little is known about predictors of subjective health status among African American adolescents. This study was designed to determine whether selected anthropometric, psychological, lifestyle behavioral, and structural variables predicted poor self-rated general health in a cross-sectional nonclinical sample of 310 female African American adolescents, 14-18 years old. The odds of reporting poor self-rated health were 2-3 times greater for African American teens from lower socioeconomic households when compared to teens residing in higher socioeconomic households and for those reporting infrequent participation in activities that promote spiritual well-being compared to those who participate more frequently in activities that enhance spiritual health. Findings indicate that socioeconomic level and engagement in behaviors that enhance healthy spirituality appear to be the most salient predictors of self-rated health. In addition to biodiversity considerations that influence perceptions of health status, culturally focused interventions should integrate variables shown to influence self-rated health among African American teens. These inclusions may inform a more integrated understanding of health, health outcomes, and health disparities in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Household income and spiritual well-being but not body mass index as determinants of poor self-rated health among African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about predictors of subjective health status among African American adolescents. This study was designed to determine whether selected anthropometric, psychological, lifestyle behavioral, and structural variables predicted poor self-rated general health in a cross-sectional non-clinical sample of 310 female African American adolescents, 14 to 18 years old. The odds of reporting poor self-rated health were 2 to 3 times greater for African American teens from lower socioeconomic households when compared to teens residing in higher socioeconomic households and for those reporting infrequent participation in activities that promote spiritual well-being compared to those who participate more frequently in activities that enhance spiritual health. Findings indicate that socioeconomic level and engagement in behaviors that enhance healthy spirituality appear to be the most salient predictors of self-rated health. In addition to biodiversity considerations that influence perceptions of health status, culturally focused interventions should integrate variables shown to influence self-rated health among African American teens. These inclusions may inform a more integrated understanding of health, health outcomes, and health disparities in this vulnerable population. PMID:22456912

  19. Sense of coherence does not moderate the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Apers, Silke; Sevenants, Lien; Budts, Werner; Luyckx, Koen; Moons, Philip

    2016-12-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease seem to be more distressed than their healthy counterparts, which might render them even more susceptible to developing detrimental health outcomes. Previous research has confirmed the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health. However, it remains unknown whether sense of coherence, a person's capacity to cope with stressors, moderates this relationship. This cross-sectional study aims to explore: the relationship between demographic and clinical characteristics, sense of coherence, and the perceived impact of stress on health; the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health; and the moderating effect of sense of coherence in a sample of adults with congenital heart disease. Patients were recruited from the database of congenital and structural cardiology of a university hospital. The analytic sample included 255 patients (median age 35 years; 50% men). Data were obtained using self-report questionnaires and through medical record view. Univariate analyses and multiple regression analysis were conducted. The perceived impact of stress on health was negatively associated with sense of coherence (P<0.01), but there was no significant association with demographic or clinical characteristics. The perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health were negatively associated (P<0.001), but sense of coherence did not moderate this relationship. Our findings support the need for further research on the perceived impact of stress on health. Such insights can be valuable for developing interventions aimed at reducing the negative health consequences of stress in patients with congenital heart disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  20. Understanding causal associations between self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults: A review of evidence from longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Craigs, Cheryl L; Twiddy, Maureen; Parker, Stuart G; West, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    As we age we experience many life changes in our health, personal relationships, work, or home life which can impact on other aspects of our life. There is compelling evidence that how we feel about our health influences, or is influenced by, the personal relationships we experience with friends and relatives. Currently the direction this association takes is unclear. To assess the level of published evidence available on causal links between self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO searches from inception to June 2012 and hand searches of publication lists, reference lists and citations were used to identify primary studies utilizing longitudinal data to investigate self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults. Thirty-one articles were identified. Only three articles employed methods suitable to explore causal associations between changes in self-rated health and changes in personal relationships. Two of these articles suggested that widowhood leads to a reduction in self-rated health in the short term, while the remaining article suggested a causal relationship between self-rated health and negative emotional support from family or friends, but this was complex and mediated by self-esteem and sense of control. While there is an abundance of longitudinal aging cohorts available which can be used to investigate self-rated health and personal relationships over time the potential for these databases to be used to investigate causal associations is currently not being recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Joint association of screen time and physical activity on self-rated health and life satisfaction in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study.

    PubMed

    Matin, Nassim; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Rasool; Safiri, Saeid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Self-rated health and life satisfaction are two subjective measures for assessing overall health status. This study aims to investigate the association of self-rated health and life satisfaction with physical activity and screen time. As part of the fourth survey of a national surveillance program in Iran (CASPIAN-IV study), 14 880 students aged 6 to 18 years were selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Data were obtained from the WHO Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire. A total of 13 486 students with mean age of 12.47 (SD 3.36) completed the study. In crude model both prolonged screen time and physical activity were associated with favorable life satisfaction and self-rated health. However, in multivariate analysis only high physical activity was associated with good self-rated health (OR 1.37) and life satisfaction (OR 1.39), while prolonged screen time was not associated with good self-rated health (OR 1.02) and life satisfaction (OR 0.94). For combined screen time-physical activity variable, low screen time-high physical activity combination had the highest OR for both good self-rated health (OR 1.37) and life satisfaction (OR 1.43) in multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that increasing physical activity is more crucial than emphasizing reducing screen time in improving the well-being of children and adolescents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  3. Is poor self-rated health associated with low-grade inflammation in 43 110 late adolescent men of the general population? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Warnoff, Carin; Lekander, Mats; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Melin, Bo; Andreasson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a powerful predictor of long-term health and mortality, hence the importance of a better understanding of its biological determinants. Previous studies have shown that low-grade inflammation is associated with poor self-rated health in clinical and healthy populations, but the evidence is sparse in men and completely lacking for men in late adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and self-rated health among conscripts. It was hypothesised that high levels of inflammatory factors would be associated with poor self-rated health. Design Data from 49 321 men (18–21 years) conscripted for military service in 1969 and 1970 were used. Inflammation had been measured through erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Self-rated health had been assessed on a five-point scale, and was dichotomised into Good (‘Very good’/‘Good’/‘Fair’) versus Poor (‘Poor’/‘Very poor’). Data from 43 110 conscripts with normal levels of ESR, and who reported self-rated health remained after exclusion of those with ESR <1 and >11 mm/h. Associations were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Adjustments were made for body mass index, socioeconomic position, inflammatory disease, emotion regulation, smoking, risky use of alcohol and physical activity. Results High levels of ESR were associated with higher odds for poor self-rated health (OR: 1.077 for each unit mm/h increase in ESR, 95% CI 1.049 to 1.105). Conclusions The present study shows for the first time a significant association between a marker of inflammation and self-rated health in late adolescent men, adding to evidence of an association between low-grade inflammation and subjective health perception also in men, as previously demonstrated in women. Further support for inflammation as part of a general psychobiological process that underpins subjective health perception is hereby provided. PMID:27113233

  4. How are self-rated health and diagnosed disease related to early or deferred retirement? A cross-sectional study of employees aged 55-64.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Hydbom, Anna Rignell; Rylander, Lars

    2016-08-26

    More people will probably continue working into old age in the future due to the increased size of aging populations in many countries. We therefore need to know more about older workers' health in relation to their work situation and retirement. This study is a part of a theoretical development of older workers' situations. Older workers' situations are theoretically themed in nine areas by the authors of this study. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between: i) diagnosed disease and factors in older workers' situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; ii) self-rated health and factors in older workers' situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; iii) diagnosed disease and self-rated health; and iv) the relationships between these health measures and retirement. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, using logistic regression, with 1,756 health care personnel aged 55-64 years. The questionnaire used gave an overview of most different areas in the older workers' situations. There was a difference in the participants' frequency of objectively specified diagnosed disease and their subjectively experienced self-rated health. A bad self-rated health was related higher to early retirement than diagnosed diseases. In the multivariate model, having 'Diagnosed disease' was not significantly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years of age. A bad 'Self-rated health' was also more highly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years, than if the respondents stated that a 'Diagnosed disease is a hindrance in my daily work' in the multivariate model. This study showed an important difference between older workers' own experiences and the effect of their self-rated health and their diagnosed diseases. Subjective self-rated health seems to be more important to people's retirement planning than diagnosed disease. The most important factors affecting older workers' self-rated

  5. Don't ask for fair treatment? A gender analysis of ethnic discrimination, response to discrimination, and self-rated health among marriage migrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yugyun; Son, Inseo; Wie, Dainn; Muntaner, Carles; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-07-19

    Ethnic discrimination is increasingly common nowadays in South Korea with the influx of migrants. Despite the growing body of evidences suggests that ethnic discrimination negatively impacts health, only few researches have been conducted on the association between ethnic discrimination and health outcomes among marriage migrants in Korea. This study sought to examine how ethnic discrimination and response to the discrimination are related to self-rated health and whether the association differs by victim's gender. We conducted two-step analysis using cross-sectional dataset from the 'National Survey of Multicultural Families 2012'. First, we examined the association between perceived ethnic discrimination and self-rated health among 14,406 marriage migrants in Korea. Second, among the marriage migrants who experienced ethnic discrimination (n=5,880), we examined how response to discrimination (i.e., whether or not asking for fair treatment) is related to poor self-rated health. All analyses were conducted after being stratified by the migrant's gender. This research found the significant association between ethnic discrimination and poor self-rated health among female marriage migrants (OR: 1.53, 95 % CI: 1.32, 1.76), but not among male marriage migrants (OR: 1.16, 95 % CI: 0.81, 1.66). In the restricted analysis with marriage migrants who experienced ethnic discrimination, compared to the group who did not ask for fair treatment, female marriage migrants who asked for fair treatment were more likely to report poor self-rated health (OR: 1.21, 95 % CI: 0.98, 1.50); however, male marriage migrants who asked for fair treatment were less likely to report poor self-rated health (OR: 0.65, 95 % CI: 0.36, 1.04) although both were not statistically significant. This is the first study to investigate gender difference in the association between response to ethnic discrimination and self-rated health in South Korea. We discussed that gender may play an important role

  6. Perceived Age Discrimination as a Mediator of the Association Between Income Inequality and Older People's Self-Rated Health in the European Region.

    PubMed

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Marques, Sibila; Lima, Maria L; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah; Bratt, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    The relative income hypothesis predicts poorer health in societies with greater income inequality. This article examines whether the psychosocial factors of perceived age discrimination and (lack of) social capital may help explain the adverse effect of inequality on older people's health. Self-rated health, perceived age discrimination, and social capital were assessed in the 2008/9 European Social Survey (European Social Survey Round 4 Data, 2008). The Gini coefficient was used to represent national inequalities in income in each of the 28 European Social Survey countries. Mediation analyses (within a multilevel structural equation modeling paradigm) on a subsample of respondents over 70 years of age (N = 7,819) were used to examine whether perceived age discrimination mediates the negative effect of income inequality on older people's self-rated health. Perceived age discrimination fully mediated the associations between income inequality and self-rated health. When social capital was included into the model, only age discrimination remained a significant mediator and predictor of self-rated health. Concrete instances of age discrimination in unequal societies are an important psychosocial stressor for older people. Awareness that the perception of ageism can be an important stressor and affect older patient's self-reported health has important implications for the way health practitioners understand and treat the sources of patient's health problems in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Racial differences in self-rated health at similar levels of physical functioning: an examination of health pessimism in the health, aging, and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Spencer, S Melinda; Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N; Albert, Steven M; Thorpe, Roland J; Brenes, Gretchen A; Harris, Tamara B; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Newman, Anne B

    2009-01-01

    The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70-79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults.

  8. Information and communication technology demands at work: the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata.

    PubMed

    Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Broström, Anders; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2016-10-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the demands (r = 0.42; p < 0.01) and effort (r = 0.51; p < 0.01) dimensions. ICT demands were associated with suboptimal self-rated health, also after adjustment for age, sex, SES, lifestyle and BMI (OR 1.49 [95 % CI 1.36-1.63]), but job strain (OR 1.93 [95 % CI 1.74-2.14) and ERI (OR 2.15 [95 % CI 1.95-2.35]) showed somewhat stronger associations with suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands are common among people with intermediate and high SES and associated with job strain, ERI and suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands should thus be acknowledged as a potential stressor of work-related stress in modern working life.

  9. Women's oral health: the evolving science.

    PubMed

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Harrison, Sonja G

    2008-02-01

    The evidence base for women's oral health is emerging from legislative action, clinical research, and survey documentation. The Women's Health in the Dental School Curriculum study (1999) followed a similar study (1996) of medical school curricula. Both of these major efforts resulted from statutory mandates in the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 (updated October 2000). A major study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) National Academy of Sciences in 2001 concluded that "the study of sex differences is evolving into a mature science." This IOM study documented the scientific basis for gender-related policy and research and challenged the dental research enterprise to conduct collaborative, cross-disciplinary research on gender-related issues in oral health, disease, and disparities. This report chronicles some of the factors that have and continue to influence concepts of women's oral health in dental education, research, and practice. Gender issues related to women's health are no longer restricted to reproductive issues but are being considered across the life span and include psychosocial factors that impact women's health and treatment outcomes.

  10. Self-rated health, generalized trust, and the Affordable Care Act: A US panel study, 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Jan; Giordano, Giuseppe Nicola

    2017-10-01

    Previous research shows that generalized trust, the belief that most people can be trusted, is conducive to people's health. However, only recently have longitudinal studies suggested an additional reciprocal pathway from health back to trust. Drawing on a diverse body of literature that shows how egalitarian social policy contributes to the promotion of generalized trust, we hypothesize that this other 'reverse' pathway could be sensitive to health insurance context. Drawing on nationally representative US panel data from the General Social Survey, we examine whether the Affordable Care Act of 2010 could have had influence on the deteriorating impact of worsening self-rated health (SRH) on generalized trust. Firstly, using two-wave panel data (2008-2010, N = 1403) and employing random effects regression models, we show that a lack of health insurance coverage negatively determines generalized trust in the United States. However, this association is attenuated when additionally controlling for (perceived) income inequality. Secondly, utilizing data from two separate three-wave panel studies from the US General Social Survey (2006-10; N = 1652; 2010-2014; N = 1187), we employ fixed-effects linear regression analyses to control for unobserved heterogeneity from time-invariant factors. We demonstrate that worsening SRH was a stronger predictor for a decrease in generalized trust prior (2006-2010) to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Further, the negative effect of fair/poor SRH seen in the 2006-2010 data becomes attenuated in the 2010-2014 panel data. We thus find evidence for a substantial weakening of the previously established negative impact of decreasing SRH on generalized trust, coinciding with the most significant US healthcare reforms in decades. Social policy and healthcare policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Educational inequalities in self-rated health: whether post-socialist Estonia and Russia are performing better than 'Scandinavian' Finland.

    PubMed

    Vöörmann, Rein; Helemäe, Jelena

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and education in post-socialist countries (Estonia and Russia) and in Finland, a Scandinavian country. Data from the 5th wave of the European Social Survey (ESS) carried out in 2010 were used. In particular, we used a sub-sample of the 25-69 years old. Two-step analysis was carried out: descriptive overview of relationship between SRH and education to assess the knowledge-related impact of education on SRH in pooled model for all three countries; and logistic regression analysis to evaluate separate models in each country. The prevalence of at-least-good health was the highest in Finland, Estonia occupied the second position and Russia the third. Knowledge-related educational inequalities were lower in Russia compared to Finland, while they were of similar magnitude in Estonia and Finland. Our expectations that knowledge-based inequalities are lower in post-socialist countries compared to a Scandinavian country turn to be true in case of Russia, not Estonia. Possible reasons for the expectations might be a lack of attention paid to educational inequalities in terms of access to social resources, competitiveness in the labour market and to what extent education provide a tool against uncertainty (preventing work- and unemployment-related stress). Series of comparative studies revealing links between certain institutional packages and (socio-economic and knowledge-related) educational inequalities seem to be of special relevance.

  12. Acculturation, Inner Peace, Cancer Self-efficacy, and Self-rated Health among Latina Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    García-Jimenez, María; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Ortiz, Carmen; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Nápoles, Anna María

    2015-01-01

    Cancer self-efficacy (CSE) and spiritual well-being (SWB) have been associated with better self-rated health (SRH) among breast cancer survivors (BCS), but have not been well studied among Latina BCS (LBCS). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of secondary data from a cross-sectional population-based telephone survey of 330 LBCS explored relationships of language acculturation, CSE, and SWB subdomains of inner peace and faith with SRH. English proficiency was associated with SRH, independent of other covariates (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.15, 4.45). Cancer self-efficacy attenuated this effect and was positively associated with SRH (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.22, 4.10). Adding inner peace (a SWB subscale) attenuated the association of CSE and SRH (OR=1.67, 95% CI 0.88, 3.18). Inner peace remained associated with SRH (OR= 2.44, 95% CI 1.30, 4.56), controlling for covariates. Findings support the importance of a sense of inner peace and control over breast cancer to LBCS' perceived health. PMID:25418229

  13. Trajectories of self-rated health among veterans: a latent growth curve analysis of the impact of posttraumatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Yael; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Ginzburg, Karni; Solomon, Zahava

    2009-04-01

    To examine the effects of combat stress reaction (CSR) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) on the level and trajectories of self-rated health (SRH) over 20 years after war exposure. A total of 675 veterans comprising two groups, a CSR group (n = 369) and a matched control group without CSR (n = 306), were assessed in a prospective longitudinal design, 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after their participation in the 1982 Lebanon War. SRH and PTS were assessed repeatedly, at each point of measurement. The CSR participants showed more impaired initial SRH than the controls. Although the CSR group showed an improvement in SRH over time, its SRH level remained lower than that of the control group in all 4 points in time. Initial levels of PTS were associated with more impaired SRH and lower improvement over time. In addition, increased levels of PTS in the first follow-up period were related to poorer SRH, in comparison to the predicted trajectory on the basis of CSR and initial PTS. Stress reaction to war trauma affected the trajectory of SRH over a 20-year period. Although the differences between veterans who had shown acute stress reaction and those who had not persisted over the entire period, there was slow improvement in SRH over time among the more impaired CSR group. PTS in the first years after the war slowed this improvement and thus played a key role in the relationship between war trauma and physical health.

  14. Self-rated health and mortality in older men and women: a time-dependent covariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Tiina-Mari; Leskinen, Esko; Jylhä, Marja; Heikkinen, Eino

    2009-01-01

    Although the relation between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality is widely known, most of the studies have relied in baseline measurements unheeding the dynamics of the phenomenon. Our aim was to analyze how SRH both as a constant and as a time-dependent covariate predicts mortality in older men and women and to compare these different approaches. Subjects consisted of 110 male and 208 female (n=318) residents in the city of Jyväskylä, central Finland, aged 75 years at the baseline in 1989. The follow-up data was gathered in 1994 and mortality was followed for 10 years. Results showed that poor SRH was strongly associated with higher mortality risk in women in all models. In men, the association was found only in time-dependent and 5 year follow-up models and these associations were explained by baseline health status. To conclude, our analyses showed that there are gender differences in association between SRH and mortality and that the use of time-dependent covariate in a Cox regression model enables advantage to be taken of all the information in a longitudinal study design.

  15. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  16. Comparison of the Rowe–Kahn Model of Successful Aging With Self-rated Health and Life Satisfaction: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Popham, Frank; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: With increasing longevity in industrialized populations, there is growing interest in what defines “successful aging” (SA). Various SA measures have been proposed but no consensus has been reached and many have been criticized for not representing the views and priorities of older people. We consider whether the Rowe–Kahn SA model captures older individual’s perceptions of their own health and aging. Methods: Using two cohorts of 886 and 483 men and women from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, aged around 57 and 76, respectively, we explored associations between Rowe–Kahn SA dimensions (absence of disease/disability; good physical/cognitive functioning; good interpersonal/productive social engagement) and four aspects of self-rated health and satisfaction (current general health; health for age; satisfaction with health; satisfaction with life). Results: Respondents’ self-rated health and satisfaction was generally good but few had all six Rowe–Kahn dimensions positive, the conventional definition of SA. All individual positive SA dimensions were associated with better self-rated health and satisfaction. This was consistent across age, gender, manual/nonmanual occupations, and personality. The prevalence of good self-rated health and satisfaction increased with increasing numbers of positive SA dimensions. Implications: The Rowe–Kahn model provides a functional definition of SA. Future work on ageing should include all Rowe–Kahn dimensions and consider SA as a continuum. PMID:26970606

  17. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  18. The relationship between working conditions and self-rated health among medical doctors: evidence from seven waves of the Medicine In Australia Balancing Employment and Life (Mabel) survey.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Spittal, Matthew J; Bismark, Marie; Graham, Melissa; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2017-08-29

    Psychosocial job stressors, such as low control and high demands, have been found to influence the health and wellbeing of doctors. However, past research in this area has relied on cross-sectional data, which limits causal inferences about the influence of psychosocial job stressors on health. In this study, we examine this relationship longitudinally while also assessing whether the relationship between psychosocial job stressors and health is modified by gender. The data source was seven annual waves of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey. The outcome was self-rated health (measured using the SF-12), and key exposures reflected job control, job demands, work-life balance variables, employment arrangements, and aggression experienced at work. We used longitudinal fixed and random effects regression models to assess within and between-person changes in health. Excessive job demands, low job control, feelings of not being rewarded at work, and work-life imbalance were associated with higher within-person odds of poorer self-rated health. Gender differences were apparent. For female doctors, work arrangements and work-life imbalance were associated with poorer self-rated health whilst task-based job stressors were associated with poorer self-rated health in male doctors. These results suggest the importance of addressing adverse working environments among doctors. Not applicable.

  19. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  20. Covariation in the socioeconomic determinants of self rated health and happiness: a multivariate multilevel analysis of individuals and communities in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S; Kim, D.; Kawachi, I.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate individual level determinants of self rated health and happiness, as well as the extent of community level covariation in health and happiness. Design: Multivariate multilevel regression analysis of self rated poor health and unhappiness at level 1, nested within 24 118 people at level 2, nested within 36 communities at level 3. Data were obtained from the 2000 social capital benchmark survey. Setting: USA communities. Participants: 24 118 adults. Main outcome measures: Self reported fair/poor health; and a single item measure of subjective wellbeing. Results: Controlling for demographic markers, a strong income and education gradient was seen for self rated poor health and unhappiness, with the gradient being stronger for poor health. Community level correlations between self rated poor health and happiness were stronger (0.65) than the individual level correlations (0.16) between the two outcomes. Conclusion: Poor health and unhappiness are highly positively correlated within individuals, and communities that are healthier tend to be happier and vice versa. PMID:16020643

  1. Role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health among urban adolescents in Peru: a school-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Dohyeong; Yoon, Young Min; Kim, Yeunju; Kim, Ha Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 970 randomly selected students from 11 secondary schools in Lima and Callao, Peru, participated in 2014. Main outcome measure Self-rated health was measured with a single item: ‘In general, how would you rate your health?’ Responses were arranged along a five-point Likert-type scale: ‘excellent’, ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘fair’ and ‘poor’. The outcome variable was dichotomised as ‘good’ (excellent, very good or good) or ‘poor/fair’ (poor or fair). Methods We calculated adjusted ORs (AORs) and 95% CIs for poor/fair self-rated health using multivariate logistic regression analyses at 3-graded levels. Results 32.5% of the respondents had fair/poor self-rated health, 23.7% of the total males and 40.0% of the total female samples. Males were less likely to have poor/fair self-rated health (AOR 0.61; CI 0.41 to 0.91). Poor family support strongly increased the likelihood of having poor/fair self-rated health (no support, (AOR 3.15; CI 1.63 to 6.09); low support, (AOR 2.50; CI 1.29 to 4.85)). The other associated variables were missed meals due to a shortage of food (AOR 1.97; CI 1.15 to 3.36), television watching during leisure time (AOR 1.70; CI 1.09 to 2.67), low physical activity (AOR 1.49; CI 1.03 to 2.15), school absenteeism (AOR 1.54; CI 1.03 to 2.31) and perceived life satisfaction (AOR 0.28; CI 0.15 to 0.25). Conclusions Gender, missing meals due to a shortage of food, family support, physical activity and life satisfaction influenced self-rated health among adolescents in Peru. Interventions that focus on promoting physical activity for at least 1 h each day for 3 or more days per week, food security and strengthening supportive family roles may improve self-rated health during adolescence. PMID:26842274

  2. Role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health among urban adolescents in Peru: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Dohyeong; Yoon, Young Min; Kim, Yeunju; Kim, Ha Yun

    2016-02-03

    We examined the role of gender, family, lifestyle and psychological factors in self-rated health. Cross-sectional study. A total of 970 randomly selected students from 11 secondary schools in Lima and Callao, Peru, participated in 2014. Self-rated health was measured with a single item: 'In general, how would you rate your health?' Responses were arranged along a five-point Likert-type scale: 'excellent', 'very good', 'good', 'fair' and 'poor'. The outcome variable was dichotomised as 'good' (excellent, very good or good) or 'poor/fair' (poor or fair). We calculated adjusted ORs (AORs) and 95% CIs for poor/fair self-rated health using multivariate logistic regression analyses at 3-graded levels. 32.5% of the respondents had fair/poor self-rated health, 23.7% of the total males and 40.0% of the total female samples. Males were less likely to have poor/fair self-rated health (AOR 0.61; CI 0.41 to 0.91). Poor family support strongly increased the likelihood of having poor/fair self-rated health (no support, (AOR 3.15; CI 1.63 to 6.09); low support, (AOR 2.50; CI 1.29 to 4.85)). The other associated variables were missed meals due to a shortage of food (AOR 1.97; CI 1.15 to 3.36), television watching during leisure time (AOR 1.70; CI 1.09 to 2.67), low physical activity (AOR 1.49; CI 1.03 to 2.15), school absenteeism (AOR 1.54; CI 1.03 to 2.31) and perceived life satisfaction (AOR 0.28; CI 0.15 to 0.25). Gender, missing meals due to a shortage of food, family support, physical activity and life satisfaction influenced self-rated health among adolescents in Peru. Interventions that focus on promoting physical activity for at least 1 h each day for 3 or more days per week, food security and strengthening supportive family roles may improve self-rated health during adolescence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The role of gender in the association between self-rated health and mortality among older adults in Santiago, Chile: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ximena; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia; Sánchez, Hugo; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Dangour, Alan D

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on the role of gender in the association between self-rated health and mortality have shown contrasting results. This study was aimed to determine the importance of gender in the association between self-rated health and mortality among older people in Santiago, Chile. A 10 year follow-up of 1066 people aged 60 or more, from the Chilean cohort of the Study of Health, Ageing and Well-Being. Self-rated health was assessed in face to face interviews through a single general question, along with socio-demographic and health status information. Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric models for survival analyses were employed. By the end of follow-up, 30.7% of women and 39.4% of men died. Adjusted hazard ratio of poor self-rated health, compared to good self-rated health, was 1.92(95% CI 1.29-2.86). In models stratified by gender, an increased risk of mortality was observed among women who rated their health as poor (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.43-3.40), but not among men (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.58-1.86). Age was associated with mortality in both groups; for men, functional limitation and underweight were also risk factors and obesity was a protective factor. Compared to older women who rated their health as good, older women who rated their health as poor had a 2 fold increased risk of mortality over the subsequent 10 years. These findings stress the importance of considering a gender perspective into health programmes, including those focused on older people, in order to address the different elements that increase, on the long run, the risk of dying among older women and men.

  4. The role of gender in the association between self-rated health and mortality among older adults in Santiago, Chile: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Ximena; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia; Sánchez, Hugo; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Dangour, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the role of gender in the association between self-rated health and mortality have shown contrasting results. This study was aimed to determine the importance of gender in the association between self-rated health and mortality among older people in Santiago, Chile. Methods A 10 year follow-up of 1066 people aged 60 or more, from the Chilean cohort of the Study of Health, Ageing and Well-Being. Self-rated health was assessed in face to face interviews through a single general question, along with socio-demographic and health status information. Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric models for survival analyses were employed. Results By the end of follow-up, 30.7% of women and 39.4% of men died. Adjusted hazard ratio of poor self-rated health, compared to good self-rated health, was 1.92(95% CI 1.29–2.86). In models stratified by gender, an increased risk of mortality was observed among women who rated their health as poor (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.43–3.40), but not among men (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.58–1.86). Age was associated with mortality in both groups; for men, functional limitation and underweight were also risk factors and obesity was a protective factor. Conclusions Compared to older women who rated their health as good, older women who rated their health as poor had a 2 fold increased risk of mortality over the subsequent 10 years. These findings stress the importance of considering a gender perspective into health programmes, including those focused on older people, in order to address the different elements that increase, on the long run, the risk of dying among older women and men. PMID:28719627

  5. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  6. Does age modify the association between physical work demands and deterioration of self-rated general health?

    PubMed

    Burr, Hermann; Pohrt, Anne; Rugulies, Reiner; Holtermann, Andreas; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2017-03-02

    Objective Due to the growing proportion of older employees in the work force in several countries, the importance of age in the association between work and health is becoming increasingly relevant. Few studies have investigated whether age modifies the association of physical work demands with health. We hypothesized that the association of demanding body postures with deteriorated self-rated health (SRH) is stronger among older employees than among younger employees. Method We analyzed three 5-year cohorts in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study comprising 8318 observations from 5204 employees (follow-up participation rate 83%) with good baseline SRH. Physical work demands were assessed as demanding body postures. Age was divided into tertiles; young (18-32 years), middle-aged (33-43 years) and old (44-59 among men and 44-54 years among women). Poor SRH ("fairly good", "poor", and "very poor") was measured with a single item. Log binomial regressions were stratified by gender. Effect modification (ie, interaction) was defined as deviation from additivity and examined by calculating the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The reference group was employees aged 18-32 years with low physical exposure. Results When predicting deterioration of SRH, an interaction between demanding body postures and age was found among men [RERI: 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.16-1.34, regarding the age group 44-59 years] and among women (RERI: 0.84, 95% CI 0.19-1.34, for the age group 33-43 years; and 1.17, 95% CI 0.42-1.93, for the age group 44-54 years). Conclusion The study findings suggest that demanding body postures have a stronger impact on health among older compared to younger employees.

  7. Does age modify the association between psychosocial factors at work and deterioration of self-rated health?

    PubMed

    Burr, Hermann; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Kersten, Norbert; Pohrt, Anne; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-09-01

    Objectives Few epidemiological studies have examined whether associations of psychosocial working conditions with risk of poor health differ by age. Based on results from mostly cross-sectional studies, we test whether (i) psychosocial relational factors (social support) are more strongly associated with declining health of older than younger employees and (ii) psychosocial job factors (workpace, influence, possibilities for development) are more strongly associated with declining health of younger than older employees. Methods We extracted two cohorts from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS): the 2000-2005 and 2005-2010 cohorts. The participating 5281 employees with good self-rated health (SRH) at baseline were observed in 6585 5-year time windows. Using log-binomial regression analyses, we analysed whether psychosocial factors at work predicted 5-year deterioration of SRH. Effect modification by age was estimated by calculating relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Results High workpace among men, low influence at work as well as low social support from colleagues among women, and low possibilities for development and low social support from supervisors among both genders predicted 5-year decline in SRH. Of the 20 interaction analyses, only 1 was statistically significant and in the opposite direction of what was hypothesized (higher risk for declining SRH among middle-aged men with low possibilities for development compared to the young men with high possibilities for development). Conclusions Psychosocial working conditions predicted decline in SRH in this 5-year follow-up study. The model did not support our hypotheses about modifying effects by age.

  8. Are gender differences in the relationship between self-rated health and mortality enduring? Results from three birth cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged 75-81 years registered with a primary care practice in the U.K. Midlands surveyed in 1981, 1988, and 1993-1995. Self-rated health was consistently a stronger predictor in men (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1-3.5) than it was in women (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.5-2.4). Women surveyed in 1993-1995 were more likely than men to report problems that were disabling but not life-threatening, whereas men were more likely to report potentially life-threatening problems. However, these differences did not explain the association of self-rated health with mortality. More than half of those who reported a potentially life-threatening problem said that their health was good. Self-rated health is more strongly associated with mortality in men, but this is unlikely to be explained by differences in the nature of their physical health problems.

  9. The influence of re-employment on quality of life and self-rated health, a longitudinal study among unemployed persons in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unemployed persons have a poorer health compared with employed persons and unemployment may cause ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of re-employment on quality of life and health among unemployed persons on social benefits. Methods A prospective study with 18 months follow-up was conducted among unemployed persons (n=4,308) in the Netherlands, receiving either unemployment benefits or social security benefits. Quality of life, self-rated health, and employment status were measured at baseline and every 6 months of follow up with questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling was performed to study the influence of re-employment on change in self-rated health and quality of life over time. Results In the study population 29% had a less than good quality of life and 17% had a poor self-rated health. Persons who started with paid employment during the follow-up period were more likely to improve towards a good quality of life (OR 1.76) and a good self-rated health (OR 2.88) compared with those persons who remained unemployed. Up to 6 months after re-employment, every month with paid employment, the likelihood of a good quality of life increased (OR 1.12). Conclusions Starting with paid employment improves quality of life and self-rated health. This suggests that labour force participation should be considered as an important measure to improve health of unemployed persons. Improving possibilities for unemployed persons to find paid employment will reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health. PMID:23706106

  10. Age at smoking initiation and self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls in Scania, Sweden, a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kristina; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-11-18

    Smoking is usually initiated early in life and most adult regular smokers have started smoking before 18 years of age. A younger age at smoking initiation is associated with risk taking behaviours and worse health outcomes regarding psychological and somatic conditions, suggested to be caused by exposure during critical developmental periods. The present study aims to investigate self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls related to age at smoking initiation (<14 years of age and ≥ 14 years of age) among current and former smokers, compared to never smokers. Data was derived from the Scania public health survey among children and adolescents in 2012. The study was cross-sectional with retrospective information about first time cigarette smoking experiences among 3245 boys and 3434 girls in second grade of high school. Self-rated health was assessed with the question "How do you rate your general health". Associations of age at smoking initiation, current smoking status and poor self-rated health were investigated with logistic regression models. Crude odds ratios of poor self-rated health were increased for all smoking groups compared to never smokers. Former smoking boys and currently smoking girls with early smoking initiation had the highest odds ratios of poor self-rated health, with odds ratios (OR) 2.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.5-3.7) and OR 2.9 (95 % CI: 2.3-3.6), respectively. After adjustments for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, psychosocial factors, weight and functional disabilities, the results were attenuated, but remained statistically significant regarding former and current smoking boys with early smoking initiation, OR 2.0 (95 % CI: 1.1-3.7) and OR 1.7 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.4) and for current smoking girls with early and later smoking initiation, OR 2.1 (95 % CI: 1.5-2.8) and OR 1.5 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0). Boys and girls in second grade of high school with early smoking initiation reported

  11. Inequalities in self-rated health among 45+ year-olds in Almaty, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abikulova, Akmaral K; Tulebaev, Kazbek A; Akanov, Aikan A; Turdalieva, Botagoz S; Kalmahanov, Sundetgali B; Kumar, Ainur B; Izekenova, Aigulsum K; Mussaeva, Bakhyt A; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2013-07-15

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been widely studied to assess health inequalities in both developed and developing countries. However, no studies have been performed in Central Asia. The aim of the study was to assess gender-, ethnic-, and social inequalities in SRH in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Altogether, 1500 randomly selected adults aged 45 years or older were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study and 1199 agreed (response rate 80%). SRH was classified as poor, satisfactory, good and excellent. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to study associations between SRH and socio-demographic characteristics. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for poor vs. good and for satisfactory vs. good health were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Altogether, poor, satisfactory, good and excellent health was reported by 11.8%, 53.7%, 31.0% and 3.2% of the responders, respectively. Clear gradients in SRH were observed by age, education and self-reported material deprivation in both crude and adjusted analyses. Women were more likely to report poor (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) or satisfactory (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) than good health. Ethnic Russians and unmarried participants had greater odds for poor vs. good health (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.7 and OR=4.0, 95% CI: 2.7-6.1, respectively) and for satisfactory vs. good health (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9 and OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5, respectively) in crude analysis, but the estimates were reduced to non-significant levels after adjustment. Unemployed and pensioners were less likely to report good health than white-collar workers while no difference in SRH was observed between white- and blue-collar workers. Considerable levels of inequalities in SRH by age, gender, education and particularly self-reported material deprivation, but not by ethnicity or marital status were found in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Further research is warranted to identify the factors behind the observed associations in Kazakhstan.

  12. Socioeconomic position, gender, and inequalities in self-rated health between Roma and non-Roma in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Janevic, Teresa; Jankovic, Janko; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    Roma experience high levels of discrimination and social exclusion. Our objective was to examine differences in self-rated health (SRH) between Roma and non-Roma in Serbia. Using data from the 2007 Living Standards Measurement Survey in Serbia (n = 14,313), we used binomial regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of poor (SRH) among Roma (n = 267) relative to non-Roma. We additionally conducted group comparisons of combinations of Romani ethnicity, poverty, and gender, relative to the baseline group of non-Roma males not in poverty. Adjusting for age, Roma were more than twice as likely as non-Roma to report poor SRH (RR = 2.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.8, 2.8). After adjustment for household consumption, employment, and education, the RR was reduced to 1.6 (95% CI = 1.3, 2.0). Romani women, regardless of whether they were living in poverty or not, experienced the greatest risk of poor SRH, with risks relative to non-Roma males not in poverty of 3.2 (95% CI = 2.3, 4.2) and 3.1 (95% CI = 2.4, 4.0), respectively. Roma in Serbia are at increased risk of poor SRH; Romani women experience the greatest burden of poor SRH.

  13. Material Hardship and Self-Rated Mental Health among Older Black Americans in the National Survey of American Life.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gillian L; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L

    2017-05-01

    This article examines the association between material hardships and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among older black Americans and determines whether the effect varies by race and ethnicity. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, multiple logistic regression models were specified on a sample of older white Americans (n = 289), African Americans (n = 1,135), and black Caribbean Americans (n = 377). Material hardship was measured as an index of seven items that occurred within the past year. Material hardship (odds ratio = 0.48; 95 percent confidence interval = 0.29-0.79) was associated with SRMH for both groups. None of the interactions were significant. The study concludes that material hardship may contribute to poorer SRMH among older African Americans and black Caribbean Americans. Future studies should examine these associations by using longitudinal designs, which may be better designed to confirm these results. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.