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Sample records for exact discrete breather

  1. Dissipative lattice model with exact traveling discrete kink-soliton solutions: discrete breather generation and reaction diffusion regime.

    PubMed

    Comte, J C; Marquié, P; Remoissenet, M

    1999-12-01

    We introduce a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice model with specific double-well on-site potential, additional constant external force and dissipation terms, which admits exact discrete kink or traveling wave fronts solutions. In the non-dissipative or conservative regime, our numerical simulations show that narrow kinks can propagate freely, and reveal that static or moving discrete breathers, with a finite but long lifetime, can emerge from kink-antikink collisions. In the general dissipative regime, the lifetime of these breathers depends on the importance of the dissipative effects. In the overdamped or diffusive regime, the general equation of motion reduces to a discrete reaction diffusion equation; our simulations show that, for a given potential shape, discrete wave fronts can travel without experiencing any propagation failure but their collisions are inelastic. PMID:11970697

  2. Dissipative lattice model with exact traveling discrete kink-soliton solutions: discrete breather generation and reaction diffusion regime.

    PubMed

    Comte, J C; Marquié, P; Remoissenet, M

    1999-12-01

    We introduce a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice model with specific double-well on-site potential, additional constant external force and dissipation terms, which admits exact discrete kink or traveling wave fronts solutions. In the non-dissipative or conservative regime, our numerical simulations show that narrow kinks can propagate freely, and reveal that static or moving discrete breathers, with a finite but long lifetime, can emerge from kink-antikink collisions. In the general dissipative regime, the lifetime of these breathers depends on the importance of the dissipative effects. In the overdamped or diffusive regime, the general equation of motion reduces to a discrete reaction diffusion equation; our simulations show that, for a given potential shape, discrete wave fronts can travel without experiencing any propagation failure but their collisions are inelastic.

  3. Discrete breathers in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Baimova, Yu A.; Velarde, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems, in addition to traveling waves, support vibrational defect-localized modes. It turned out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Since the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, it is only through the special choice of initial conditions that a group of nodes can be found on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), will be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of the small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically conserve its vibrational energy forever provided no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery in them of DBs was only a matter of time. It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems support both traveling waves and vibrational defect-localized modes. It turns out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Because the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, only a special choice of the initial conditions allows selecting a group of nodes on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), can be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically preserve its vibrational energy forever if no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery of DBs in them was only a matter of time. Experimental studies of DBs encounter major technical difficulties, leaving atomistic computer simulations as the primary investigation tool. Despite

  4. Nonintegrable Schrodinger discrete breathers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Floría, L M; Peyrard, M; Bishop, A R

    2004-12-01

    In an extensive numerical investigation of nonintegrable translational motion of discrete breathers in nonlinear Schrödinger lattices, we have used a regularized Newton algorithm to continue these solutions from the limit of the integrable Ablowitz-Ladik lattice. These solutions are shown to be a superposition of a localized moving core and an excited extended state (background) to which the localized moving pulse is spatially asymptotic. The background is a linear combination of small amplitude nonlinear resonant plane waves and it plays an essential role in the energy balance governing the translational motion of the localized core. Perturbative collective variable theory predictions are critically analyzed in the light of the numerical results.

  5. Dissipative discrete breathers: periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic, and mobile.

    PubMed

    Martínez, P J; Meister, M; Floría, L M; Falo, F

    2003-06-01

    The properties of discrete breathers in dissipative one-dimensional lattices of nonlinear oscillators subject to periodic driving forces are reviewed. We focus on oscillobreathers in the Frenkel-Kontorova chain and rotobreathers in a ladder of Josephson junctions. Both types of exponentially localized solutions are easily obtained numerically using adiabatic continuation from the anticontinuous limit. Linear stability (Floquet) analysis allows the characterization of different types of bifurcations experienced by periodic discrete breathers. Some of these bifurcations produce nonperiodic localized solutions, namely, quasiperiodic and chaotic discrete breathers, which are generally impossible as exact solutions in Hamiltonian systems. Within a certain range of parameters, propagating breathers occur as attractors of the dissipative dynamics. General features of these excitations are discussed and the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is addressed. Numerical scattering experiments with mobile breathers reveal the existence of two-breather bound states and allow a first glimpse at the intricate phenomenology of these special multibreather configurations.

  6. Discrete breathers in hexagonal dusty plasma lattices.

    PubMed

    Koukouloyannis, V; Kourakis, I

    2009-08-01

    The occurrence of single-site or multisite localized vibrational modes, also called discrete breathers, in two-dimensional hexagonal dusty plasma lattices is investigated. The system is described by a Klein-Gordon hexagonal lattice characterized by a negative coupling parameter epsilon in account of its inverse dispersive behavior. A theoretical analysis is performed in order to establish the possibility of existence of single as well as three-site discrete breathers in such systems. The study is complemented by a numerical investigation based on experimentally provided potential forms. This investigation shows that a dusty plasma lattice can support single-site discrete breathers, while three-site in phase breathers could exist if specific conditions, about the intergrain interaction strength, would hold. On the other hand, out of phase and vortex three-site breathers cannot be supported since they are highly unstable.

  7. Discrete breathers in hexagonal dusty plasma lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Koukouloyannis, V.; Kourakis, I.

    2009-08-15

    The occurrence of single-site or multisite localized vibrational modes, also called discrete breathers, in two-dimensional hexagonal dusty plasma lattices is investigated. The system is described by a Klein-Gordon hexagonal lattice characterized by a negative coupling parameter epsilon in account of its inverse dispersive behavior. A theoretical analysis is performed in order to establish the possibility of existence of single as well as three-site discrete breathers in such systems. The study is complemented by a numerical investigation based on experimentally provided potential forms. This investigation shows that a dusty plasma lattice can support single-site discrete breathers, while three-site in phase breathers could exist if specific conditions, about the intergrain interaction strength, would hold. On the other hand, out of phase and vortex three-site breathers cannot be supported since they are highly unstable.

  8. Localization in finite vibroimpact chains: Discrete breathers and multibreathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Itay; Gendelman, Oleg V.

    2016-09-01

    We explore the dynamics of strongly localized periodic solutions (discrete solitons or discrete breathers) in a finite one-dimensional chain of oscillators. Localization patterns with both single and multiple localization sites (breathers and multibreathers) are considered. The model involves parabolic on-site potential with rigid constraints (the displacement domain of each particle is finite) and a linear nearest-neighbor coupling. When the particle approaches the constraint, it undergoes an inelastic impact according to Newton's impact model. The rigid nonideal impact constraints are the only source of nonlinearity and damping in the system. We demonstrate that this vibro-impact model allows derivation of exact analytic solutions for the breathers and multibreathers with an arbitrary set of localization sites, both in conservative and in forced-damped settings. Periodic boundary conditions are considered; exact solutions for other types of boundary conditions are also available. Local character of the nonlinearity permits explicit derivation of a monodromy matrix for the breather solutions. Consequently, the stability of the derived breather and multibreather solutions can be efficiently studied in the framework of simple methods of linear algebra, and with rather moderate computational efforts. One reveals that that the finiteness of the chain fragment and possible proximity of the localization sites strongly affect both the existence and the stability patterns of these localized solutions.

  9. Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E

    2016-08-26

    Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials.

  10. Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2016-08-01

    Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials.

  11. Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E

    2016-08-26

    Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials. PMID:27610856

  12. Intraband discrete breathers in disordered nonlinear systems. II. Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopidakis, G.; Aubry, S.

    2000-05-01

    We find spatially localized, time-periodic solutions (discrete breathers or DBs) in disordered nonlinear systems with frequency inside the linear phonon spectrum under conditions that strictly prohibit their existence in their periodic counterparts. For that purpose, we develop a new in situ method for the accurate calculation of these solutions which does not make use of any continuation from an anticontinuous limit. Using this method, we demonstrate that intraband localized modes (intraband discrete breathers or IDBs) at a given site with frequencies inside the discrete linear spectrum do exist, provided these frequencies do not belong to forbidden resonance gaps. Since there is a dense set of resonant frequencies, we illustrate numerically, in agreement with a theorem by Albanese and Fröhlich, that the localized DBs exist provided that their frequencies belong to fat Cantor sets (i.e., with finite measure). Such a set contains as accumulation points the linear frequency of the normal mode at the occupied site. We check that many of these solutions are linearly stable and conjecture that their frequency belongs to another smaller fat Cantor set. Our numerical methods provide a much wider set of exact solutions which are multisite breathers and suggest conjectures extending the existing theorems. The physical implications of the existence of IDBs and possible applications for glasses and the persistent spectral hole burning are discussed.

  13. Discrete breathers in alpha-uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzaev, Ramil T.; Babicheva, Rita I.; Zhou, Kun; Korznikova, Elena A.; Fomin, Sergey Yu.; Dubinko, Vladimir I.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2016-07-01

    Uranium is an important radioactive material used in the field of nuclear energy and it is interesting from the scientific point of view because it possesses unique structure and properties. There exist several experimental reports on anomalies of physical properties of uranium that have not been yet explained. Manley et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125501 (2006); Phys. Rev. B 77, 214305 (2008)] speculate that the excitation of discrete breathers (DBs) could be the reason for anisotropy of thermal expansion and for the deviation of heat capacity from the theoretical prediction in the high temperature range. In the present work, with the use of molecular dynamics, the existence of DBs in α-uranium is demonstrated and their properties are studied. It is found that DB frequency lies above the phonon band and increases with DB amplitude. DB is localized on half a dozen of atoms belonging to a straight atomic chain. DB in uranium, unlike DBs in fcc, bcc and hcp metals, is almost immobile. Thus, the DB reported in this study cannot contribute to thermal conductivity and the search for other types of DBs in α-uranium should be continued. Our results demonstrate that even metals with low-symmetry crystal lattices such as the orthorhombic lattice of α-uranium can support DBs.

  14. Oscillations of a highly discrete breather with a critical regime

    PubMed

    Coquet; Remoissenet; Dinda

    2000-10-01

    We analyze carefully the essential features of the dynamics of a stationary discrete breather in the ultimate degree of energy localization in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice with an on-site double-well potential. We demonstrate the existence of three different regimes of oscillatory motion in the breather dynamics, which are closely related to the motion of the central particle in an effective potential having two nondegenerate wells. In given parameter regions, we observe an untrapped regime, in which the central particle executes large-amplitude oscillations from one to the other side of the potential barrier. In other parameter regions, we find the trapped regime, in which the central particle oscillates in one of the two wells of the effective potential. Between these two regimes we find a critical regime in which the central particle undergoes several temporary trappings within an untrapped regime. Importantly, our study reveals that in the presence of purely anharmonic coupling forces, the breather compactifies, i.e., the energy becomes abruptly localized within the breather.

  15. Symmetric Potential Lattice and Smooth Propagation of Tail-Free Discrete Breathers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    We present a particular type of one-dimensional nonlinear lattice that supports smoothly propagating discrete breathers. The lattice is constructed by imposing a particular symmetry on its potential function. This symmetry crucially affects the profile and motion of a traveling discrete breather. We show that any traveling discrete breather is truly localized with no tail and can smoothly propagate with a constant velocity. Theoretical analysis using an average Lagrangian explains this numerical observation. PMID:27419571

  16. Symmetric Potential Lattice and Smooth Propagation of Tail-Free Discrete Breathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    We present a particular type of one-dimensional nonlinear lattice that supports smoothly propagating discrete breathers. The lattice is constructed by imposing a particular symmetry on its potential function. This symmetry crucially affects the profile and motion of a traveling discrete breather. We show that any traveling discrete breather is truly localized with no tail and can smoothly propagate with a constant velocity. Theoretical analysis using an average Lagrangian explains this numerical observation.

  17. From Discrete Breathers to Many Body Localization and Flatbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flach, Sergej

    Discrete breathers (DB) and intrinsic localized modes (ILM) are synonymic dynamical states on nonlinear lattices - periodic in time and localized in space, and widely observed in many applications. I will discuss the connections between DBs and many-body localization (MBL) and the properties of DBs on flatband networks. A dense quantized gas of strongly excited DBs can lead to a MBL phase in a variety of different lattice models. Its classical counterpart corresponds to a 'nonergodic metal' in the MBL language, or to a nonGibbsean selftrapped state in the language of nonlinear dynamics. Flatband networks are lattices with small amplitude waves exhibiting macroscopic degeneracy in their band structure due to local symmetries, destructive interference, compact localized eigenstates and horizontal flat bands. DBs can preserve the compactness of localization in the presence of nonlinearity with properly tuned internal phase relationships, making them promising tools for control of the phase coherence of waves. Also at New Zealand Institute of Advanced Study, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand.

  18. Nonlinear nano-scale localized breather modes in a discrete weak ferromagnetic spin lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, L.; Parasuraman, E.; Gopi, D.; Prabhu, A.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the propagation dynamics of highly localized discrete breather modes in a weak ferromagnetic spin lattice with on-site easy axis anisotropy due to crystal field effect. We derive the discrete nonlinear equation of motion by employing boson mappings and p-representation. We explore the onset of modulational instability both analytically in the framework of linear stability analysis and numerically by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and a perfect agreement was demonstrated. It is also explored that how the antisymmetric nature of the canted ferromagnetic lattice supports highly localized discrete breather (DBs) modes as shown in the stability/instability windows. The energy exchange between low amplitude discrete breathers favours the growth of higher amplitude DBs, resulting eventually in the formation of few long-lived high amplitude DBs.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Different Kinds of Discrete Breathers in Three Types of One-Dimensional Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Bin-Bin; Tian, Qiang

    2010-10-01

    The dynamics of different kinds of discrete breathers in three types of one-dimensional monatomic chains with on-site and inter-site potentials are investigated. The existence and evolution of symmetric breather, antisymmetric breather, and multibreather in one-dimensional models are proved by using rotating wave approximation, local anharmonic approximation, and the numerical method. The linear stability of these breathers is investigated by using Lyapunov stable analysis. The localization and stability of breathers in three types of models correlate closely to the system nonlinear parameter β.

  20. Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Prezhdo, Oleg; Maniadis, Panagiotis

    2013-02-07

    In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that

  1. Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics.

    PubMed

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Maniadis, Panagiotis; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that

  2. Breather-like protonic tunneling in a discrete hydrogen bonded chain with heavy-ionic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, L.; Parasuraman, E.; Venkatesh, M.; Mohamadou, A.; Gopi, D.

    2013-03-01

    We consider the tunneling motion of protons within a hydrogen bonded (HB) chain. Each proton is subjected to a coulomb interaction from the nearest heavy ions, as well as from the two neighboring protons. We investigate the nonlinear proton dynamics of a HB chain in the semiclassical limit using the coherent state method combined with the Holstein-Primakoff bosonic representation. The protonic transport mechanism has arisen due to the neighboring proton-proton interaction and coherent tunneling of protons along hydrogen bonds and/or around heavy atoms. We construct the exact periodic solutions in terms of elliptic functions by invoking a discrete Jacobian elliptic function method. We present a detailed analysis of the effect of the interaction strength of neighboring protons in the process of bioenergy localization in the form of coherent localized breather modes in a discrete HB chain. A linear stability analysis is performed and the eigenvalues are strictly lying in the imaginary axis, confirming the stable nature of the obtained solutions.

  3. Lower and upper estimates on the excitation threshold for breathers in discrete nonlinear Schroedinger lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas, J.; Palmero, F.

    2009-11-15

    We propose analytical lower and upper estimates on the excitation threshold for breathers (in the form of spatially localized and time periodic solutions) in discrete nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) lattices with power nonlinearity. The estimation, depending explicitly on the lattice parameters, is derived by a combination of a comparison argument on appropriate lower bounds depending on the frequency of each solution with a simple and justified heuristic argument. The numerical studies verify that the analytical estimates can be of particular usefulness, as a simple analytical detection of the activation energy for breathers in DNLS lattices.

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional diatomic face-centered square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Bin-Bin; Tian, Qiang

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional diatomic face-centered square lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with on-site potential and coupling potential. This study is focused on two-dimensional breathers with their frequency in the gap that separates the acoustic and optical bands of the phonon spectrum. We demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers by using a numerical method. Six types of two-dimensional gap breathers are obtained, i.e., symmetric, mirror-symmetric and asymmetric, whether the center of the breather is on a light or a heavy atom. The difference between one-dimensional discrete gap breathers and two-dimensional discrete gap breathers is also discussed. We use Aubry's theory to analyze the stability of discrete gap breathers in the two-dimensional diatomic face-centered square lattice.

  5. Discrete breathers in a nonlinear electric line: Modeling, computation, and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmero, F.; English, L. Q.; Cuevas, J.; Carretero-González, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2011-08-01

    We study experimentally and numerically the existence and stability properties of discrete breathers in a periodic nonlinear electric line. The electric line is composed of single cell nodes, containing a varactor diode and an inductor, coupled together in a periodic ring configuration through inductors and driven uniformly by a harmonic external voltage source. A simple model for each cell is proposed by using a nonlinear form for the varactor characteristics through the current and capacitance dependence on the voltage. For an electrical line composed of 32 elements, we find the regions, in driver voltage and frequency, where n-peaked breather solutions exist and characterize their stability. The results are compared to experimental measurements with good quantitative agreement. We also examine the spontaneous formation of n-peaked breathers through modulational instability of the homogeneous steady state. The competition between different discrete breathers seeded by the modulational instability eventually leads to stationary n-peaked solutions whose precise locations is seen to sensitively depend on the initial conditions.

  6. Quantum signature of discrete breathers in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice with nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bing; Li, De-Jun

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical work on quantum breathers in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice model with nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions is presented. The semiclassical and the full quantum cases are respectively considered. For the semiclassical case, we obtain the analytical solution of discrete breather, and find that the wave number corresponding to the appearance of discrete breather changes when the ratio of the next-nearest- to -nearest - neighbor harmonic force constants is greater than 1/4. For the full quantum case, by calculating the energy spectrum of the system containing two quanta, we prove numerically the existence of quantum breathers (two-quanta bound states) and find the shape of energy spectrum changes dramatically as the value of next -nearest neighbor harmonic force constant increasing.

  7. Strongly localized moving discrete dissipative breather-solitons in Kerr nonlinear media supported by intrinsic gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Magnus; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.; Derevyanko, Stanislav A.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the mobility of nonlinear localized modes in a generalized discrete Ginzburg-Landau-type model, describing a one-dimensional waveguide array in an active Kerr medium with intrinsic, saturable gain and damping. It is shown that exponentially localized, traveling discrete dissipative breather-solitons may exist as stable attractors supported only by intrinsic properties of the medium, i.e., in the absence of any external field or symmetry-breaking perturbations. Through an interplay by the gain and damping effects, the moving soliton may overcome the Peierls-Nabarro barrier, present in the corresponding conservative system, by self-induced time-periodic oscillations of its power (norm) and energy (Hamiltonian), yielding exponential decays to zero with different rates in the forward and backward directions. In certain parameter windows, bistability appears between fast modes with small oscillations and slower, large-oscillation modes. The velocities and the oscillation periods are typically related by lattice commensurability and exhibit period-doubling bifurcations to chaotically "walking" modes under parameter variations. If the model is augmented by intersite Kerr nonlinearity, thereby reducing the Peierls-Nabarro barrier of the conservative system, the existence regime for moving solitons increases considerably, and a richer scenario appears including Hopf bifurcations to incommensurately moving solutions and phase-locking intervals. Stable moving breathers also survive in the presence of weak disorder.

  8. Unidirectional transport of wave packets through tilted discrete breathers in nonlinear lattices with asymmetric defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Malomed, Boris A.; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-09-01

    We consider the transfer of lattice wave packets through a tilted discrete breather (TDB) in opposite directions in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model with asymmetric defects, which may be realized as a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a deep optical lattice, or as optical beams in a waveguide array. A unidirectional transport mode is found, in which the incident wave packets, whose energy belongs to a certain interval between full reflection and full passage regions, pass the TDB only in one direction, while in the absence of the TDB, the same lattice admits bidirectional propagation. The operation of this mode is accurately explained by an analytical consideration of the respective energy barriers. The results suggest that the TDB may emulate the unidirectional propagation of atomic and optical beams in various settings. In the case of the passage of the incident wave packet, the scattering TDB typically shifts by one lattice unit in the direction from which the wave packet arrives, which is an example of the tractor-beam effect, provided by the same system, in addition to the rectification of incident waves.

  9. Breathers in a locally resonant granular chain with precompression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Vainchtein, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We study a locally resonant granular material in the form of a precompressed Hertzian chain with linear internal resonators. Using an asymptotic reduction, we derive an effective nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) modulation equation. This, in turn, leads us to provide analytical evidence, subsequently corroborated numerically, for the existence of two distinct types of discrete breathers related to acoustic or optical modes: (a) traveling bright breathers with a strain profile exponentially vanishing at infinity and (b) stationary and traveling dark breathers, exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. The stability and bifurcation structure of numerically computed exact stationary dark breathers is also examined. Stationary bright breathers cannot be identified using the NLS equation, which is defocusing at the upper edges of the phonon bands and becomes linear at the lower edge of the optical band.

  10. Breathers in a locally resonant granular chain with precompression

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Vainchtein, Anna

    2016-05-24

    Here we study a locally resonant granular material in the form of a precompressed Hertzian chain with linear internal resonators. Using an asymptotic reduction, we derive an effective nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) modulation equation. In turn, this leads us to provide analytical evidence, subsequently corroborated numerically, for the existence of two distinct types of discrete breathers related to acoustic or optical modes: (a) traveling bright breathers with a strain profile exponentially vanishing at infinity and (b) stationary and traveling dark breathers, exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. Moreover, the stability and bifurcation structure of numerically computedmore » exact stationary dark breathers is also examined. Stationary bright breathers cannot be identified using the NLS equation, which is defocusing at the upper edges of the phonon bands and becomes linear at the lower edge of the optical band.« less

  11. Modulational instability and localized breather modes in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with helicoidal hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhofe, J.; Schmelcher, P.

    2016-08-01

    We study a one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model with hopping to the first and a selected Nth neighbor, motivated by a helicoidal arrangement of lattice sites. We provide a detailed analysis of the modulational instability properties of this equation, identifying distinctive multi-stage instability cascades due to the helicoidal hopping term. Bistability is a characteristic feature of the intrinsically localized breather modes, and it is shown that information on the stability properties of weakly localized solutions can be inferred from the plane-wave modulational instability results. Based on this argument, we derive analytical estimates of the critical parameters at which the fundamental on-site breather branch of solutions turns unstable. In the limit of large N, these estimates predict the emergence of an effective threshold behavior, which can be viewed as the result of a dimensional crossover to a two-dimensional square lattice.

  12. Discrete gap breathers in a diatomic Klein-Gordon chain: stability and mobility.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Andrey V; Johansson, Magnus

    2003-06-01

    A one-dimensional diatomic chain with harmonic intersite potential and nonlinear external potential is considered (the Klein-Gordon model). Localized solutions of the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum--"gap breathers"--are studied numerically. The linear stability analysis for these solutions is performed while changing the system parameters from the anticontinuous to the continuous limit. Two different types of solutions are considered: symmetric centered at a heavy atom and antisymmetric centered at a light atom, respectively. Different mechanisms of instability, oscillatory as well as nonoscillatory, of the gap breathers are studied, and the influence of the instabilities on the breather solutions is investigated in the dynamics simulations. In particular, the presence of an "inversion of stability" regime, with simultaneous nonoscillatory instabilities of symmetric and antisymmetric solutions with respect to antisymmetric perturbations, is found, yielding practically radiationless mobility.

  13. Quantized Hamilton dynamics describes quantum discrete breathers in a simple way

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2011-08-15

    We study the localization of energy in a nonlinear coupled system, exhibiting so-called breather modes, using quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD). Already at the lowest order, which is only twice as complex as classical mechanics, this simple semiclassical method incorporates quantum-mechanical effects. The transition between the localized and delocalized regimes is instantaneous in classical mechanics, while it is gradual due to tunneling in both quantum mechanics and QHD. In contrast to classical mechanics, which predicts an abrupt appearance of breathers, quantum mechanics and QHD show an alternation of localized and delocalized behavior in the transient region. QHD includes zero-point energy that is reflected in a shifted energy asymptote for the localized states, providing another improvement on the classical perspective. By detailed analysis of the distribution and transfer of energy within classical mechanics, QHD, and quantum dynamics, we conclude that QHD is an efficient approach that accounts for moderate quantum effects and can be used to identify quantum breathers in large nonlinear systems.

  14. Simulation of the interaction between discrete breathers of various types in a Pt{sub 3}Al crystal nanofiber

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, P. V.; Starostenkov, M. D.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Medvedev, N. N.; Eremin, A. M.

    2015-08-15

    It is known that, in a molecular dynamics model of Pt{sub 3}Al crystal, a discrete breather (DB) with soft type nonlinearity (DB1) can be excited, which is characterized by a high degree of localization on a light atom (Al), stationarity, as well as a frequency that lies in the gap of the phonon spectrum and decreases with increasing amplitude of the DB. In this paper, it is demonstrated that a DB with hard type nonlinearity (DB2) can be excited in a Pt{sub 3}Al nanofiber; this DB is localized on several light atoms, can move along the crystal, and has a frequency that lies above the phonon spectrum and increases with the DB amplitude. It is noteworthy that the presence of free surfaces of a nanofiber does not prevent the existence of DB1 and DB2 in it. Collisions of two DBs counterpropagating with equal velocities, as well as a collision of DB2 with a standing DB1, are considered. Two colliding DBs with hard type nonlinearity are repelled almost elastically, losing only insignificant part of their energy during the interaction. DB2 is also reflected from a standing DB1; in this case, the energy of the breathers is partially scattered into the Al sublattice. The results obtained indicate that DBs can transfer energy along a crystal over large distances. During the collision of two or more DBs, the energy localized in space can be as high as a few electron-volts; this allows one to raise the question of the participation of DBs in structural transformations of the crystal.

  15. Breathers in strongly anharmonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, Philip; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2014-02-01

    We present and study a family of finite amplitude breathers on a genuinely anharmonic Klein-Gordon lattice embedded in a nonlinear site potential. The direct numerical simulations are supported by a quasilinear Schrodinger equation (QLS) derived by averaging out the fast oscillations assuming small, albeit finite, amplitude vibrations. The genuinely anharmonic interlattice forces induce breathers which are strongly localized with tails evanescing at a doubly exponential rate and are either close to a continuum, with discrete effects being suppressed, or close to an anticontinuum state, with discrete effects being enhanced. Whereas the D-QLS breathers appear to be always stable, in general there is a stability threshold which improves with spareness of the lattice.

  16. Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.

    PubMed

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-18

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings. PMID:24182275

  17. Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-01

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  18. Glassy Interfacial Dynamics of Ni Nanoparticles: Part II Discrete Breathers as an Explanation of Two-Level Energy Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Douglas, Jack F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of the dynamics of diverse condensed amorphous materials have indicated significant heterogeneity in the local mobility and a progressive increase in collective particle motion upon cooling that takes the form of string-like particle rearrangements. In a previous paper (Part I), we examined the possibility that fluctuations in potential energy E and particle mobility μ associated with this ‘dynamic heterogeneity’ might offer information about the scale of collective motion in glassy materials based on molecular dynamics simulations of the glassy interfacial region of Ni nanoparticles (NPs) at elevated temperatures. We found that the noise exponent associated with fluctuations in the Debye-Waller factor, a mobility related quantity, was directly proportional to the scale of collective motion L under a broad range of conditions, but the noise exponent associated with E(t) fluctuations was seemingly unrelated to L. In the present work, we focus on this unanticipated difference between potential energy and mobility fluctuations by examining these quantities at an atomic scale. We find that the string atoms exhibit a jump-like motion between two well-separated bands of energy states and the rate at which these jumps occur seems to be consistent with the phenomenology of the ‘slow-beta’ relaxation process of glass-forming liquids. Concurrently with these local E(t) jumps, we also find ‘quake-like’ particle displacements having a power-law distribution in magnitude so that particle displacement fluctuations within the strings are strikingly different from local E(t) fluctuations. An analysis of these E(t) fluctuations suggests that we are dealing with ‘discrete breather’ excitations in which large energy fluctuations develop in arrays of non-linear oscillators by virtue of large anharmonicity in the interparticle interactions and discreteness effects associated with particle packing. We quantify string collective motions on a fast caging

  19. Unified theory of exactly and quasiexactly solvable ''discrete'' quantum mechanics. I. Formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu

    2010-08-15

    We present a simple recipe to construct exactly and quasiexactly solvable Hamiltonians in one-dimensional ''discrete'' quantum mechanics, in which the Schroedinger equation is a difference equation. It reproduces all the known ones whose eigenfunctions consist of the Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a continuous or a discrete variable. The recipe also predicts several new ones. An essential role is played by the sinusoidal coordinate, which generates the closure relation and the Askey-Wilson algebra together with the Hamiltonian. The relationship between the closure relation and the Askey-Wilson algebra is clarified.

  20. An exact and consistent adjoint method for high-fidelity discretization of the compressible flow equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme

  1. Exactly solvable potentials with finitely many discrete eigenvalues of arbitrary choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ryu

    2014-06-01

    We address the problem of possible deformations of exactly solvable potentials having finitely many discrete eigenvalues of arbitrary choice. As Kay and Moses showed in 1956, reflectionless potentials in one dimensional quantum mechanics are exactly solvable. With an additional time dependence these potentials are identified as the soliton solutions of the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) hierarchy. An N-soliton potential has the time t and 2N positive parameters, k1 < ⋯ < kN and {cj}, j = 1, …, N, corresponding to N discrete eigenvalues lbrace -k_j^2rbrace. The eigenfunctions are elementary functions expressed by the ratio of determinants. The Darboux-Crum-Krein-Adler transformations or the Abraham-Moses transformations based on eigenfunction deletions produce lower soliton number potentials with modified parameters lbrace c^' }_jrbrace. We explore various identities satisfied by the eigenfunctions of the soliton potentials, which reflect the uniqueness theorem of Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equations for separable (degenerate) kernels.

  2. Discrete element modelling of large scale particle systems—I: exact scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y. T.; Owen, D. R. J.

    2014-06-01

    The discrete element method has emerged as a powerful predictive tool for the numerical modelling of many scientific and engineering problems involving discrete and discontinuous phenomena. There are nevertheless computational challenges to resolve before industrial scale applications can be effectively simulated. This multi-part paper aims to address some of the theoretical and computational issues central to achieving this goal. In the first part of this paper, a simple but generic theoretical framework is established for the development of a comprehensive set of scaling conditions, under which a scaled discrete element model can exactly reproduce the mechanical behaviour of a physical model. In particular, three basic physical quantities and their scale factors can be freely chosen. A special selection leads to a unique set of scale factors governing an exact scaling, which also gives rise to the requirement that all the interaction laws employed in a scaled model be scale-invariant. The subsequent examination reveals that most commonly used interaction laws, if all material (mechanical and physical) properties are treated as constant, do not possess such a feature and therefore cannot be directly employed in a scaled model. The problem can be solved by treating the scaled particles as pseudo-particles and by properly scaling the interaction laws. The resulting scaled interaction laws become scale-invariant and thus can be used in a scaled model.

  3. Discretization error estimation and exact solution generation using the method of nearby problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Andrew J.; Raju, Anil; Kurzen, Matthew J.; Roy, Christopher John; Phillips, Tyrone S.

    2011-10-01

    The Method of Nearby Problems (MNP), a form of defect correction, is examined as a method for generating exact solutions to partial differential equations and as a discretization error estimator. For generating exact solutions, four-dimensional spline fitting procedures were developed and implemented into a MATLAB code for generating spline fits on structured domains with arbitrary levels of continuity between spline zones. For discretization error estimation, MNP/defect correction only requires a single additional numerical solution on the same grid (as compared to Richardson extrapolation which requires additional numerical solutions on systematically-refined grids). When used for error estimation, it was found that continuity between spline zones was not required. A number of cases were examined including 1D and 2D Burgers equation, the 2D compressible Euler equations, and the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization error estimation results compared favorably to Richardson extrapolation and had the advantage of only requiring a single grid to be generated.

  4. Exact cover of states in the discrete state-space system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Stefanowicz, Łukasz; Wiśniewska, Monika; Kur, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Given the discrete state-space system, the set cover problem is defined as selection of the minimal number of global states to cover all the local states. Commonly known methods base on the matrix reduction, boolean function transformation or heuristics ideas. Most of them are inefficient because of computational/memory complexity or non-optimal results. We propose an application of xt-hypergraphs to compute the solution in case where the discrete system can be represented by an xt-hypergraph. Recognition, as well as computation of exact cover in case of xt-hypergraphs is bounded by a polynomial in the number of local states. Therefore, the whole cover process problem turns out to be polynomial.

  5. Coherent Backscattering by Polydisperse Discrete Random Media: Exact T-Matrix Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    The numerically exact superposition T-matrix method is used to compute, for the first time to our knowledge, electromagnetic scattering by finite spherical volumes composed of polydisperse mixtures of spherical particles with different size parameters or different refractive indices. The backscattering patterns calculated in the far-field zone of the polydisperse multiparticle volumes reveal unequivocally the classical manifestations of the effect of weak localization of electromagnetic waves in discrete random media, thereby corroborating the universal interference nature of coherent backscattering. The polarization opposition effect is shown to be the least robust manifestation of weak localization fading away with increasing particle size parameter.

  6. Self-gravitating scalar breathers with a negative cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter; Grandclément, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Breather-type (time-periodic and spatially localized) solutions with spherical symmetry are investigated in a massless scalar field theory coupled to Einstein's gravity with cosmological constant in d spatial dimensions imposing anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptotics on space-time. Using a code constructed with the Kadath library that enables the use of spectral methods, the phase space of breather solutions is explored in detail for d =3 and d =4 . It is found that there are discrete families of solutions indexed by an integer and by their frequency. Using a time evolution code these AdS breathers are found to be stable for up to a critical central density, in analogy to boson stars. Using an analytical perturbative expansion small amplitude breathers are worked out for arbitrary dimensions d .

  7. Event-driven Monte Carlo: Exact dynamics at all time scales for discrete-variable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Coto, Alejandro; Díaz-Méndez, Rogelio; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-06-01

    We present an algorithm for the simulation of the exact real-time dynamics of classical many-body systems with discrete energy levels. In the same spirit of kinetic Monte Carlo methods, a stochastic solution of the master equation is found, with no need to define any other phase-space construction. However, unlike existing methods, the present algorithm does not assume any particular statistical distribution to perform moves or to advance the time, and thus is a unique tool for the numerical exploration of fast and ultra-fast dynamical regimes. By decomposing the problem in a set of two-level subsystems, we find a natural variable step size, that is well defined from the normalization condition of the transition probabilities between the levels. We successfully test the algorithm with known exact solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and equilibrium thermodynamical properties of Ising-spin models in one and two dimensions, and compare to standard implementations of kinetic Monte Carlo methods. The present algorithm is directly applicable to the study of the real-time dynamics of a large class of classical Markovian chains, and particularly to short-time situations where the exact evolution is relevant.

  8. Breather mechanism of the void ordering in crystals under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinko, Vladimir

    2009-09-01

    The void ordering has been observed in very different radiation environments ranging from metals to ionic crystals. In the present paper the ordering phenomenon is considered as a consequence of the energy transfer along the close packed directions provided by self-focusing discrete breathers. The self-focusing breathers are energetic, mobile and highly localized lattice excitations that propagate great distances in atomic-chain directions in crystals. This points to the possibility of atoms being ejected from the void surface by the breather-induced mechanism, which is similar to the focuson-induced mechanism of vacancy emission from voids proposed in our previous paper. The main difference between focusons and breathers is that the latter are stable against thermal motion. There is evidence that breathers can occur in various crystals, with path lengths ranging from 104 to 107 unit cells. Since the breather propagating range can be larger than the void spacing, the voids can shield each other from breather fluxes along the close packed directions, which provides a driving force for the void ordering. Namely, the vacancy emission rate for "locally ordered" voids (which have more immediate neighbors along the close packed directions) is smaller than that for the "interstitial" ones, and so they have some advantage in growth. If the void number density is sufficiently high, the competition between them makes the "interstitial" voids shrink away resulting in the void lattice formation. The void ordering is intrinsically connected with a saturation of the void swelling, which is shown to be another important consequence of the breather-induced vacancy emission from voids.

  9. Calculating complete and exact Pareto front for multiobjective optimization: a new deterministic approach for discrete problems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Ming; Di Paolo, Ezequiel

    2013-06-01

    Searching the Pareto front for multiobjective optimization problems usually involves the use of a population-based search algorithm or of a deterministic method with a set of different single aggregate objective functions. The results are, in fact, only approximations of the real Pareto front. In this paper, we propose a new deterministic approach capable of fully determining the real Pareto front for those discrete problems for which it is possible to construct optimization algorithms to find the k best solutions to each of the single-objective problems. To this end, two theoretical conditions are given to guarantee the finding of the actual Pareto front rather than its approximation. Then, a general methodology for designing a deterministic search procedure is proposed. A case study is conducted, where by following the general methodology, a ripple-spreading algorithm is designed to calculate the complete exact Pareto front for multiobjective route optimization. When compared with traditional Pareto front search methods, the obvious advantage of the proposed approach is its unique capability of finding the complete Pareto front. This is illustrated by the simulation results in terms of both solution quality and computational efficiency.

  10. Existence and non-existence of breather solutions in damped and driven nonlinear lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, D.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the existence of spatially localised solutions, in the form of discrete breathers, in general damped and driven nonlinear lattice systems of coupled oscillators. Conditions for the exponential decay of the difference between the maximal and minimal amplitudes of the oscillators are provided which proves that initial non-uniform spatial patterns representing breathers attain exponentially fast a spatially uniform state preventing the formation and/or preservation of any breather solution at all. Strikingly our results are generic in the sense that they hold for arbitrary dimension of the system, any attractive interaction, coupling strength and on-site potential and general driving fields. Furthermore, our rigorous quantitative results establish conditions under which discrete breathers in general damped and driven nonlinear lattices can exist at all and open the way for further research on the emergent dynamical scenarios, in particular features of pattern formation, localisation and synchronisation, in coupled cell networks.

  11. The role of superregular breathers in the development of modulation instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelash, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The integrable model of modulation instability (MI) - the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) is in the focus of research for many years. Recently a significant progress has been made in the understanding of MI long time consequences (nonlinear stage of MI). Namely, the role of continuous spectrum was studied in the work [1], another two works are devoted to integrable turbulence formation [2] and to the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence [3]. We proposed so-called superregular breathers scenario of MI in [4]. In this scenario instability evolves from small localized perturbations of the condensate to N pairs of breathers which moves in opposite directions leaving a nonperturbed condensate with changed phase behind them. Recently we observed superregular breathers in hydrodynamics and optics experiments [5]. Here we discuss the role of superregular breathers in general scenario of MI. Furthermore we study another important question - the formation of freak waves from the perturbed condensate. To date two possible scenarios in the frame of NLSE have been described: 1) the collisions of Akhmediev breathers and 2) the rational solutions, such as Peregrine breather. In the first case the initial conditions usually include breathers of quite large amplitude. In the case of rational scenario the solution is pure homoclinic, i.e. completely returns to initial unperturbed condensate. Meanwhile, results of numerical modeling of freak waves formation in more exact models like Euler equation and NLSE with higher nonlinearities demonstrate formation of breathers. We present a new model of freak waves formation caused by particular collisions of superregular breathers. In the frame of this scenario extreme waves appear from small perturbations of the condensate and leave breathers, which never disappear. We study special two-pair superregular breathers scenario as well as randomly distributed N pairs solution. The latter case can be considered as a kind of integrable

  12. Nodally exact Ritz discretizations of 1D diffusion-absorption and Helmholtz equations by variational FIC and modified equation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felippa, C. A.; Oñate, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first application of the Finite Calculus (FIC) in a Ritz-FEM variational framework. FIC provides a steplength parametrization of mesh dimensions, which is used to modify the shape functions. This approach is applied to the FEM discretization of the steady-state, one-dimensional, diffusion-absorption and Helmholtz equations. Parametrized linear shape functions are directly inserted into a FIC functional. The resulting Ritz-FIC equations are symmetric and carry a element-level free parameter coming from the function modification process. Both constant- and variable-coefficient cases are studied. It is shown that the parameter can be used to produce nodally exact solutions for the constant coefficient case. The optimal value is found by matching the finite-order modified differential equation (FOMoDE) of the Ritz-FIC equations with the original field equation. The inclusion of the Ritz-FIC models in the context of templates is examined. This inclusion shows that there is an infinite number of nodally exact models for the constant coefficient case. The ingredients of these methods (FIC, Ritz, MoDE and templates) can be extended to multiple dimensions

  13. 14 CFR 121.243 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine breather lines. 121.243 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.243 Engine breather lines. (a) Engine breather lines must be so arranged that condensed water vapor that may...

  14. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine breather lines. 125.141 Section 125... Requirements § 125.141 Engine breather lines. (a) Engine breather lines must be so arranged that condensed water vapor that may freeze and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any point. (b) Engine...

  15. 14 CFR 121.243 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine breather lines. 121.243 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.243 Engine breather lines. (a) Engine breather lines must be so arranged that condensed water vapor that may...

  16. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine breather lines. 125.141 Section 125... Requirements § 125.141 Engine breather lines. (a) Engine breather lines must be so arranged that condensed water vapor that may freeze and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any point. (b) Engine...

  17. 14 CFR 121.243 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine breather lines. 121.243 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.243 Engine breather lines. (a) Engine breather lines must be so arranged that condensed water vapor that may...

  18. 14 CFR 121.243 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine breather lines. 121.243 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.243 Engine breather lines. (a) Engine breather lines must be so arranged that condensed water vapor that may...

  19. Multi-dimensional, fully-implicit, spectral method for the Vlasov-Maxwell equations with exact conservation laws in discrete form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, G. L.

    2015-11-01

    A spectral method for the numerical solution of the multi-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations is presented. The plasma distribution function is expanded in Fourier (for the spatial part) and Hermite (for the velocity part) basis functions, leading to a truncated system of ordinary differential equations for the expansion coefficients (moments) that is discretized with an implicit, second order accurate Crank-Nicolson time discretization. The discrete non-linear system is solved with a preconditioned Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method. It is shown analytically that the Fourier-Hermite method features exact conservation laws for total mass, momentum and energy in discrete form. Standard tests involving plasma waves and the whistler instability confirm the validity of the conservation laws numerically. The whistler instability test also shows that we can step over the fastest time scale in the system without incurring in numerical instabilities. Some preconditioning strategies are presented, showing that the number of linear iterations of the Krylov solver can be drastically reduced and a significant gain in performance can be obtained.

  20. Avalanches, breathers, and flow reversal in a continuous Lorenz-96 model.

    PubMed

    Blender, R; Wouters, J; Lucarini, V

    2013-07-01

    For the discrete model suggested by Lorenz in 1996, a one-dimensional long-wave approximation with nonlinear excitation and diffusion is derived. The model is energy conserving but non-Hamiltonian. In a low-order truncation, weak external forcing of the zonal mean flow induces avalanchelike breather solutions which cause reversal of the mean flow by a wave-mean flow interaction. The mechanism is an outburst-recharge process similar to avalanches in a sandpile model.

  1. Breather statics and dynamics in Klein-Gordon chains with a bend.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we examine a nonlinear model with an impurity emulating a bend. We justify the geometric interpretation of the model and connect it with earlier work on models including geometric effects. We focus on both the bifurcation and stability analysis of the modes that emerge as a function of the strength of the bend angle, but we also examine dynamical effects including the scattering of mobile localized modes (discrete breathers) off of such a geometric structure. The potential outcomes of such numerical experiments (including transmission, trapping within the bend as well as reflection) are highlighted and qualitatively explained. Such models are of interest both theoretically in understanding the interplay of breathers with curvature, but also practically in simple models of photonic crystals or of bent chains of DNA.

  2. Breather management in the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Malomed, Boris A.; Huang, Tingwen

    2015-04-15

    We investigate breather solutions of the generalized derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation with variable coefficients, which is used in the description of femtosecond optical pulses in inhomogeneous media. The solutions are constructed by means of the similarity transformation, which reduces a particular form of the generalized DNLS equation into the standard one, with constant coefficients. Examples of bright and dark breathers of different orders, that ride on finite backgrounds and may be related to rogue waves, are presented. - Highlights: • Exact solutions of a generalized derivative NLS equation are obtained. • The solutions are produced by means of a transformation to the usual integrable equation. • The validity of the solutions is verified by comparing them to numerical counterparts. • Stability of the solutions is checked by means of direct simulations. • The model applies to the propagation of ultrashort pulses in optical media.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. V.; Raskovalov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of "precursors" and "tails" in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.

  4. Asymptotic dynamics of breathers in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains.

    PubMed

    Reigada, R; Sarmiento, A; Lindenberg, Katja

    2002-10-01

    We carry out a numerical study of the asymptotic dynamics of breathers in finite Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains at zero and nonzero temperatures. While at zero temperature such breathers remain essentially stationary and decay extremely slowly over wide parameter ranges, thermal fluctuations tend to lead to breather motion and more rapid decay. In both cases the decay is essentially exponential over long time intervals.

  5. Optical multiband vector breathers in tunable waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Fratalocchi, Andrea; Assanto, Gaetano; Brzdakiewicz, Kasia A; Karpierz, Mirek A

    2005-01-15

    We investigate multiband optical breathers in a voltage-adjustable array of coupled waveguides in nematic liquid crystals. Symmetric breathers resulting from vector composition of modes from two bands are observed over large propagation distances and are described in terms of the Floquet-Bloch theory.

  6. Breather compactons in nonlinear Klein-Gordon systems.

    PubMed

    Dinda, P T; Remoissenet, M

    1999-11-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a localized breathing mode with a compact support, i.e., a stationary breather compacton, in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon system. This breather compacton results from a delicate balance between the harmonicity of the substrate potential and the total nonlinearity induced by the substrate potential and the coupling forces between adjacent lattice sites.

  7. Scalar field breathers on anti-de Sitter background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter; Grandclément, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    We study spatially localized, time-periodic solutions (breathers) of scalar field theories with various self-interacting potentials on anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes in D dimensions. A detailed numerical study of spherically symmetric configurations in D =3 dimensions is carried out, revealing a rich and complex structure of the phase-space (bifurcations, resonances). Scalar breather solutions form one-parameter families parametrized by their amplitude, ɛ, while their frequency, ω =ω(ɛ), is a function of the amplitude. The scalar breathers on AdS we find have a small amplitude limit, tending to the eigenfunctions of the linear Klein-Gordon operator on AdS. Importantly most of these breathers appear to be generically stable under time evolution.

  8. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  9. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  10. 14 CFR 125.141 - Engine breather lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... oil emitted from the line does not impinge upon the pilots' windshield. (c) Engine breathers may...

  11. Alterations in Maxillary Sinus Volume among Oral and Nasal Breathers

    PubMed Central

    Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Gulsun, Belgin; Koparal, Mahmut; Atalay, Yusuf; Aksoy, Orhan; Adiguzel, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral breathing causes many changes in the facial anatomical structures in adult patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of long-term oral breathing (>5 years) on the maxillary sinus volumes among adult male patients. Material/Methods We accessed medical records of 586 patients who had undergone cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for any reason between September 2013 and April 2014. Patients who had undergone cone-beam dental volumetric tomography scans for any reason and who had answered a questionnaire about breathing were screened retrospectively. Cone beam dental volumetric tomography (I-Cat, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to take the images of the maxillo-facial area at a setting of 120 kVp and 3.7 mA. This study involved male patients older than 21 years of age. Results The study included a total of 239 male patients, of which 68 were oral breathers and 171 were nasal breathers. The mean age of the oral breathers was 48.4 years and that of the nasal breathers was 46.7 years and the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean maxillary sinus volumes of the oral and nasal breathers were 9043.49±1987.90 and 10851.77±2769.37, respectively, and the difference in maxillary sinus volume between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions The volume of maxillary sinus in oral breathers (>5 years) was significantly lower than in nasal breathers, but it remains unclear whether this is due to malfunctioning of the nasal cavity or due to the underlying pathological condition. PMID:25553770

  12. Breather-like structures in modified sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2016-05-01

    We report analytical and numerical results on breather-like field configurations in a theory which is a deformation of the integrable sine-Gordon model in (1  +  1) dimensions. The main motivation of our study is to test the ideas behind the recently proposed concept of quasi-integrability, which emerged from the observation that some field theories possess an infinite number of quantities which are asymptotically conserved in the scattering of solitons, and periodic in time in the case of breather-like configurations. Even though the mechanism responsible for such phenomena is not well understood yet, it is clear that special properties of the solutions under a space-time parity transformation play a crucial role. The numerical results of the present paper give support for the ideas on quasi-integrability, as it is found that extremely long-lived breather configurations satisfy these parity properties. We also report on a mechanism, particular to the theory studied here, that favours the existence of long lived breathers even in cases of significant deformations of the sine-Gordon potential. We also find numerically that our breather-like configurations decay through the gradual increase of their frequency of oscillations.

  13. Radial sine-Gordon kinks as sources of fast breathers.

    PubMed

    Caputo, J-G; Soerensen, M P

    2013-08-01

    We consider radial sine-Gordon kinks in two, three, and higher dimensions. A full two-dimensional simulation showing that azimuthal perturbations remain small allows us to reduce the problem to the one-dimensional radial sine-Gordon equation. We solve this equation on an interval [r(0),r(1)] and absorb all outgoing radiation. As the kink shrinks toward r(0), before the collision, its motion is well described by a simple law derived from the conservation of energy. In two dimensions for r(0)≤2, the collision disintegrates the kink into a fast breather, while for r(0)≥4 we obtain a kink-breather metastable state where breathers are shed at each kink "return." In three and higher dimensions d, an additional kink-oscillon state appears for small r(0). On the application side, the kink disintegration opens the way for new types of terahertz microwave generators.

  14. On exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.C.; Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

  15. Lifetime and decay of seeded breathers in the FPU system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, Matthew; Demeglio, Nicholas; Sen, Surajit; Mohan, T. R. Krishna

    2014-03-01

    The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem consists of a chain of N oscillators with linear and nonlinear nearest neighbor interactions. Using velocity-Verlet integration, we study the evolution of the system after a perturbation that consists of a single stretched bond at the center of the chain. This perturbation results in the localization of most of the system's energy in the center particles in the form of a ``breather'' up to reasonably long times, which leaks energy at a rate depending on the potential parameters and the perturbation amplitude. The breather eventually undergoes a catastrophic breakdown, releasing all of its energy into acoustic noise and solitary waves. We explore the conditions on the amplitude and the parameters α, β for which a seeded breather will be most or least stable. Also we show how the overlap or lack thereof between the breather's primary frequencies and the acoustic frequencies influences its long-time stability. Research supported by a US Army Research Office STIR grant.

  16. Cutoff solitons and bistability of the discrete inductance-capacitance electrical line: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Ve Koon, K Tse; Leon, J; Marquié, P; Tchofo-Dinda, P

    2007-06-01

    A discrete nonlinear system driven at one end by a periodic excitation of frequency above the upper band edge (the discreteness induced cutoff) is shown to be a means to (1) generate propagating breather excitations in a long chain and (2) reveal the bistable property of a short chain. After detailed numerical verifications, the bistability prediction is demonstrated experimentally on an electrical transmission line made of 18 inductance-capacitance (LC) cells. The numerical simulations of the LC -line model allow us also to verify the breather generation prediction with a striking accuracy.

  17. Internal wave breather propagation under the influence of the Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Tatiana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Kurkina, Oxana

    2015-04-01

    The internal wave breather propagation under the influence of the Earth rotation is studied in the frames of the asymptotic model based on the Gardner equation as well as the fully nonlinear Euler equations. It is obtained that the amplitude and shape of short breathers depend on the Earth rotation very weakly but the wide breathers change the amplitude and shape sufficiently. This effect is studied in the model situation adapted to the Baltic Sea hydrological conditions. The rate of the breather amplitude damping upon the even bottom is shown.

  18. Maximal intensity higher-order Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and their systematic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Ashour, Omar A.; Nikolić, Stanko N.; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear cubic Schrödinger equation can be superposed nonlinearly via the Darboux transformation to yield breathers of higher order. Surprisingly, we find that the peak height of each Akhmediev breather only adds linearly to form the peak height of the final breather. Using this peak-height formula, we show that at any given periodicity, there exists a unique high-order breather of maximal intensity. Moreover, these high-order breathers form a continuous hierarchy, growing in intensity with increasing periodicity. For any such higher-order breather, a simple initial wave function can be extracted from the Darboux transformation to dynamically generate that breather from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  19. Akhmediev breathers, Ma solitons, and general breathers from rogue waves: a case study in the Manakov system.

    PubMed

    Vishnu Priya, N; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2013-08-01

    We present explicit forms of general breather (GB), Akhmediev breather (AB), Ma soliton (MS), and rogue wave (RW) solutions of the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, namely Manakov equation. We derive these solutions through two different routes. In the forward route, we first construct a suitable periodic envelope soliton solution to this model from which we derive GB, AB, MS, and RW solutions. We then consider the RW solution as the starting point and derive AB, MS, and GB in the reverse direction. The second approach has not been illustrated so far for the two component NLS equation. Our results show that the above rational solutions of the Manakov system can be derived from the standard scalar nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a modified nonlinearity parameter. Through this two-way approach we establish a broader understanding of these rational solutions, which will be of interest in a variety of situations. PMID:24032912

  20. Instability dynamics and breather formation in a horizontally shaken pendulum chain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Alexander, T J; Sidhu, H; Kevrekidis, P G

    2014-10-01

    Inspired by the experimental results of Cuevas et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 224101 (2009)], we consider theoretically the behavior of a chain of planar rigid pendulums suspended in a uniform gravitational field and subjected to a horizontal periodic driving force applied to the pendulum pivots. We characterize the motion of a single pendulum, finding bistability near the fundamental resonance and near the period-3 subharmonic resonance. We examine the development of modulational instability in a driven pendulum chain and find both a critical chain length and a critical frequency for the appearance of the instability. We study the breather solutions and show their connection to the single-pendulum dynamics and extend our analysis to consider multifrequency breathers connected to the period-3 periodic solution, showing also the possibility of stability in these breather states. Finally we examine the problem of breather generation and demonstrate a robust scheme for generation of on-site and off-site breathers.

  1. Exact milestoning

    SciTech Connect

    Bello-Rivas, Juan M.; Elber, Ron

    2015-03-07

    A new theory and an exact computer algorithm for calculating kinetics and thermodynamic properties of a particle system are described. The algorithm avoids trapping in metastable states, which are typical challenges for Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on rough energy landscapes. It is based on the division of the full space into Voronoi cells. Prior knowledge or coarse sampling of space points provides the centers of the Voronoi cells. Short time trajectories are computed between the boundaries of the cells that we call milestones and are used to determine fluxes at the milestones. The flux function, an essential component of the new theory, provides a complete description of the statistical mechanics of the system at the resolution of the milestones. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the exact Milestoning approach by comparing numerical results obtained on a model system using exact Milestoning with the results of long trajectories and with a solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. The theory uses an equation that resembles the approximate Milestoning method that was introduced in 2004 [A. K. Faradjian and R. Elber, J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10880-10889 (2004)]. However, the current formulation is exact and is still significantly more efficient than straightforward MD simulations on the system studied.

  2. Kuznetsov-Ma soliton and Akhmediev breather of higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zai-Dong, Li; Xuan, Wu; Qiu-Yan, Li; P, B. He

    2016-01-01

    In terms of Darboux transformation, we have exactly solved the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation that describes the propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in optical fibers. We discuss the modulation instability (MI) process in detail and find that the higher-order term has no effect on the MI condition. Under different conditions, we obtain Kuznetsov-Ma soliton and Akhmediev breather solutions of higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The former describes the propagation of a bright pulse on a continuous wave background in the presence of higher-order effects and the soliton’s peak position is shifted owing to the presence of a nonvanishing background, while the latter implies the modulation instability process that can be used in practice to produce a train of ultrashort optical soliton pulses. Project supported by the Key Project of Scientific and Technological Research in Hebei Province, China (Grant No. ZD2015133).

  3. Exactly conservation integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1999-03-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of any nonlinear invariants. In this work the authors present a general approach for developing explicit nontraditional algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the three-wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. The ideas are discussed in the context of symplectic (phase-space-conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. They comment on the application of the method to general conservative systems.

  4. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  5. Rogue waves: from nonlinear Schrödinger breather solutions to sea-keeping test.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Miguel; Proment, Davide; Clauss, Günther; Klein, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Under suitable assumptions, the nonlinear dynamics of surface gravity waves can be modeled by the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Besides traveling wave solutions like solitons, this model admits also breather solutions that are now considered as prototypes of rogue waves in ocean. We propose a novel technique to study the interaction between waves and ships/structures during extreme ocean conditions using such breather solutions. In particular, we discuss a state of the art sea-keeping test in a 90-meter long wave tank by creating a Peregrine breather solution hitting a scaled chemical tanker and we discuss its potential devastating effects on the ship.

  6. Effect of a breather soliton in Kerr frequency combs on optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Zhang, Lin; Yan, Yan; Cao, Yinwen; Xie, Guodong; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Li, Long; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen; Willner, Alan E

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we numerically investigate the effect of Kerr-comb-generated breather soliton pulses on optical communication systems. The breather soliton pulse amplitude and spectrum envelope oscillate periodically in time. Simulations show that the spectrum of each comb line in the breather soliton state has multiple sub-teeth due to the periodic oscillation of the comb spectrum. In the simulation, the comb output is modulated with different formats. We find that the sub-teeth distort quadrature phase-shift-keyed signals but have less of an effect on on-off-keyed signals.

  7. Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue waves, probability density functions, and spectral features.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, N; Soto-Crespo, J M; Devine, N

    2016-08-01

    Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue waves, the probability density functions of the chaotic wave fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the wave field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics. PMID:27627303

  8. Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue waves, probability density functions, and spectral features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmediev, N.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Devine, N.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue waves, the probability density functions of the chaotic wave fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the wave field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics.

  9. The breakdown of breathers in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, Alexandra; Kashyap, Rahul; Sen, Surajit

    It is well known that in many nonlinear lattices, remarkably stable and localized disturbances known as breathers may form. Here we discuss in short the properties of these objects in the context of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) system which consists of a mass-spring chain, with spring potentials containing both quadratic and quartic terms. These breathers, though long-lasting, inevitably decay and eventually break apart with sudden violence. This talk in particular will focus on recent numerical work studying the lead-up to the breakdown in which the breather emits at (seemingly) random intervals solitary and anti-solitary waves in the highly nonlinear limit. Furthermore, a possible method to predict the times at which these waves are emitted by examing the frequency structure of the breather will be discussed. Partially supported by US Army Research Office.

  10. Twenty Parameters Families of Solutions to the NLS Equation and the Eleventh Peregrine Breather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Pierre; Gastineau, Mickaël

    2016-02-01

    The Peregrine breather of order eleven (P11 breather) solution to the focusing one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) is explicitly constructed here. Deformations of the Peregrine breather of order 11 with 20 real parameters solutions to the NLS equation are also given: when all parameters are equal to 0 we recover the famous P11 breather. We obtain new families of quasi-rational solutions to the NLS equation in terms of explicit quotients of polynomials of degree 132 in x and t by a product of an exponential depending on t. We study these solutions by giving patterns of their modulus in the (x; t) plane, in function of the different parameters.

  11. Quantum breathers in Heisenberg ferromagnetic chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Bing; Tang, Yi; Li, De-Jun

    2014-06-15

    We present an analytical study on quantum breathers in one-dimensional ferromagnetic XXZ chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction by means of the time-dependent Hartree approximation and the semidiscrete multiple-scale method. The stationary localized single-boson wave functions are obtained and these analytical solutions are checked by numerical simulations. With such stationary localized single-boson wave functions, we construct quantum breather states. Furthermore, the role of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in Mouth Breathers: Clinical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Andrade da Cunha, Renata; Andrade da Cunha, Daniele; Assis, Roberta Borba; Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo; Justino da Silva, Hilton

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The child who chronically breathes through the mouth may develop a weakness of the respiratory muscles. Researchers and clinical are seeking for methods of instrumental evaluation to gather complementary data to clinical evaluations. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate breathing muscles in the child with Mouth Breathing. Objective To develop a review to investigate studies that used evaluation methods of respiratory muscle strength in mouth breathers. Data Synthesis  The authors were unanimous in relation to manovacuometry method as a way to evaluate respiratory pressures in Mouth Breathing children. Two of them performed with an analog manovacuometer and the other one, digital. The studies were not evaluated with regard to the method efficacy neither the used instruments. Conclusion There are few studies evaluating respiratory muscle strength in Mouth Breathing people through manovacuometry and the low methodological rigor of the analyzed studies hindered a reliable result to support or refuse the use of this technique. PMID:25992108

  13. Interaction of a kink soliton with a breather in a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain.

    PubMed

    Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2002-02-01

    The collision process between a breather and moving kink soliton is investigated both analytically and numerically in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains. As it is shown by both analytical and numerical consideration low amplitude breathers and soft kinks retain their shapes after interaction. Low amplitude breather only changes the location after collision and remains static. As the numerical simulations show, the shift of its position is proportional to the stiffness of the kink soliton, what is in accordance with the analytical predictions made in this paper. The numerical experiments are also carried out for large amplitude breathers and some interesting effects are observed: The odd parity large amplitude breather does not change position when colliding with a widely separated soft kink-antikink pair, while in the case of a closely placed kink-antikink pair the breather transforms into the moving one. Therefore it is suggested that the "harmless" objects similar to the kink solitons in FPU chains could be used in order to displace or move the strongly localized structures in realistic physical systems. In particular, the analogies with quasi-one-dimensional easy-plane-type spin structures are discussed.

  14. Numerical investigation of stability of breather-type solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calini, A.; Schober, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    In this article we present the results of a broad numerical investigation on the stability of breather-type solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, specifically the one- and two-mode breathers for an unstable plane wave, which are frequently used to model rogue waves. The numerical experiments involve large ensembles of perturbed initial data for six typical random perturbations. Ensemble estimates of the "closeness", A(t), of the perturbed solution to an element of the respective unperturbed family indicate that the only neutrally stable breathers are the ones of maximal dimension, that is: given an unstable background with N unstable modes, the only neutrally stable breathers are the N-dimensional ones (obtained as a superimposition of N simple breathers via iterated Backlund transformations). Conversely, breathers which are not fully saturated are sensitive to noisy environments and are unstable. Interestingly, A(t) is smallest for the coalesced two-mode breather indicating the coalesced case may be the most robust two-mode breather in a laboratory setting. The numerical simulations confirm and provide a realistic realization of the stability behavior established analytically by the authors.

  15. Weak-light rogue waves, breathers, and their active control in a cold atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to demonstrate the existence of optical Peregrine rogue waves and Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers and realize their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we suggest is a cold, Λ -type three-level atomic gas interacting with a probe and a control laser fields and working under EIT condition. We show that, based on EIT with an incoherent optical pumping, which can be used to cancel optical absorption, (1+1)-dimensional optical Peregrine rogue waves, Akhmediev breathers, and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers can be generated with very low light power. In addition, we demonstrate that the Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers in (2+1)-dimensions obtained can be actively manipulated by using an external magnetic field. As a result, these breathers can display trajectory deflections and bypass obstacles during propagation.

  16. Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H

    2014-09-01

    An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  17. Nonlinear wave collapse, shock, and breather formation in an electron magnetohydrodynamic plasma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency nonlinear wave dynamics is investigated in a two-dimensional inhomogeneous electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) plasma in the presence of electron viscosity. In the long-wavelength limit, the dynamics of the wave is found to be governed by a novel nonlinear equation. The result of the moving-frame nonlinear analysis is noteworthy, which shows that this nonlinear equation does have a breather solution and electron viscosity is responsible for the breather. A breather is a nonlinear wave in which energy accumulates in a localized and oscillatory manner. Analytical solution and time-dependent numerical simulation of this novel equation reveal the collapse of a soliton (localized pulse) into a weak noise shelf and formation of shocklike structures.

  18. Nonlinear instabilities of multi-site breathers in Klein-Gordon lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesus; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2015-12-14

    Here, we explore the possibility of multi-site breather states in a nonlinear Klein–Gordon lattice to become nonlinearly unstable, even if they are found to be spectrally stable. The mechanism for this nonlinear instability is through the resonance with the wave continuum of a multiple of an internal mode eigenfrequency in the linearization of excited breather states. For the nonlinear instability, the internal mode must have its Krein signature opposite to that of the wave continuum. This mechanism is not only theoretically proposed, but also numerically corroborated through two concrete examples of the Klein–Gordon lattice with a soft (Morse) and a hard (Φ4) potential. Compared to the case of the nonlinear Schrödinger lattice, the Krein signature of the internal mode relative to that of the wave continuum may change depending on the period of the multi-site breather state. For the periods for which the Krein signatures of the internal mode and the wave continuum coincide, multi-site breather states are observed to be nonlinearly stable.

  19. Nonlinear instabilities of multi-site breathers in Klein-Gordon lattices

    DOE PAGES

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesus; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2015-12-14

    Here, we explore the possibility of multi-site breather states in a nonlinear Klein–Gordon lattice to become nonlinearly unstable, even if they are found to be spectrally stable. The mechanism for this nonlinear instability is through the resonance with the wave continuum of a multiple of an internal mode eigenfrequency in the linearization of excited breather states. For the nonlinear instability, the internal mode must have its Krein signature opposite to that of the wave continuum. This mechanism is not only theoretically proposed, but also numerically corroborated through two concrete examples of the Klein–Gordon lattice with a soft (Morse) and amore » hard (Φ4) potential. Compared to the case of the nonlinear Schrödinger lattice, the Krein signature of the internal mode relative to that of the wave continuum may change depending on the period of the multi-site breather state. For the periods for which the Krein signatures of the internal mode and the wave continuum coincide, multi-site breather states are observed to be nonlinearly stable.« less

  20. Quantum Breathers in Anisotropy Ferromagnetic Chains with Second-Order Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bing

    2016-08-01

    Under considering the next-nearest-neighbor interaction, quantum breathers in one-dimensional anisotropy ferromagnetic chains are theortically studied. By introducing the Dyson-Maleev transformation for spin operators, a map to a Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin lattice into an extended Bose-Hubbard model can be established. In the case of a small number of bosons, by means of the numerical diagonalization technique, the energy spectrum of the corresponding extended Bose-Hubbard model containing two bosons is calculated. When the strength of the single-ion anisotropy is enough large, a isolated single band appears. This isolated single band corresponds to two-boson bound state, which is the simplest quantum breather state. It is shown that the introduction of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction will lead to interesting band structures. In the case of a large number of bosons, by applying the time-dependent Hartree approximation, quantum breather states for the system is constructed. In this case, the effect of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction on quantum breathers is also analyzed.

  1. Lubrication System 2. Service the Crankcase Breather. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on servicing the crankcase breather is the third of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  2. Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma solitons and rogue waves in a dispersion varying optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo; Sun, Ya; Chai, Jun; Jiang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Dispersion varying fibres have applications in optical pulse compression techniques. We investigate Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma (KM) solitons and optical rogue waves in a dispersion varying optical fibre based on a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Analytical solutions in the forms of Akhmediev breathers, KM solitons and rogue waves up to the second order of that equation are obtained via the generalised Darboux transformation and integrable constraint. The properties of Akhmediev breathers, KM solitons and rogue waves in a dispersion varying optical fibre, e.g. dispersion decreasing fibre (DDF) or a periodically distributed system (PDS), are discussed: in a DDF we observe the compression behaviours of KM solitons and rogue waves on a monotonically increasing background. The amplitude of each peak of the KM soliton increases, while the width of each peak of the KM soliton gradually decreases along the propagation distance; in a PDS, the amplitude of each peak of the KM soliton varies periodically along the propagation distance on a periodic background. Different from the KM soliton, the Akhmediev breather and rogue waves repeat their behaviours along the propagation distance without the compression.

  3. Oblique breathers generated by a flow of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates past a polarized obstacle.

    PubMed

    Kamchatnov, A M; Kartashov, Y V

    2013-10-01

    We predict that oblique breathers can be generated by a flow of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates past a polarized obstacle that attracts one component of the condensate and repels the other one. The breather exists if intraspecies interaction constants differ from the interspecies interaction constant, and it corresponds to the nonlinear excitation of the so-called polarization mode with domination of the relative motion of the components. Analytical theory is developed for the case of small-amplitude breathers that is in reasonable agreement with the numerical results.

  4. Breathers and localized solitons for the Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system on constant backgrounds in erbium doped fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Rui Hao, Hui-Qin

    2014-05-15

    In nonlinear erbium doped fibers, the Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system with higher order effects usually governs the propagation of ultrashort pulses. New soliton solutions for this system are constructed on the constant backgrounds including one and two breathers and first and higher order localized soliton solutions. Considering the influence of higher order effects, propagation properties of those soliton solutions are discussed. -- Highlights: •The AB and Ma-breathers are derived on the constant backgrounds. •Dynamic features of two-breathers are discussed. •Localized solutions are generated from two different ways.

  5. Multi-soliton, multi-breather and higher order rogue wave solutions to the complex short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Liming; Feng, Bao-Feng; Zhu, Zuonong

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the general analytic solutions to the complex short pulse (CSP) equation including soliton, breather and rogue wave solutions. With the aid of a generalized Darboux transformation, we construct the N-bright soliton solution in a compact determinant form, the N-breather solution including the Akhmediev breather and a general higher order rogue wave solution. The first and second order rogue wave solutions are given explicitly and analyzed. The asymptotic analysis is performed rigorously for both the N-soliton and the N-breather solutions. All three forms of the analytical solutions admit either smoothed-, cusped- or looped-type ones for the CSP equation depending on the parameters. It is noted that, due to the reciprocal (hodograph) transformation, the rogue wave solution to the CSP equation can be a smoothed, cusponed or a looped one, which is different from the rogue wave solution found so far.

  6. Time-Symmetric Discretization of The Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2010-11-24

    We explicitly and analytically demonstrate that simple time-symmetric discretization of the harmonic oscillator (used as a simple model of a discrete dynamical system), leads to discrete equations of motion whose solutions are perfectly stable at all time scales, and whose energy is exactly conserved. This result is important for both fundamental discrete physics, as well as for numerical analysis and simulation.

  7. Simulation of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with dispersed particles in the propagation of breather in the surface layer of a liquid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Zabolotin, V.V.; Uvarova, L.A.

    2015-03-10

    A numerical simulation of the interaction of laser radiation with dispersed particles in the course of propagation of breather in the surface layer of the liquid breather was performed. The shape and amplitude of the acoustic signal formed in this interaction were obtained. Two acoustic signals, before and after the impact of a breather on the process of optical sound generation, were compared. Results of the comparison showed that the breather spreading over the surface of the liquid medium affecst the acoustic signal and its effect must be considered in the measurements.

  8. Observation of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Recurrence Induced by Breather Solitons in an Optical Microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Chengying; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A.; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E.; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2016-10-01

    We present, experimentally and numerically, the observation of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence induced by breather solitons in a high-Q SiN microresonator. Breather solitons can be excited by increasing the pump power at a relatively small pump phase detuning in microresonators. Out of phase power evolution is observed for groups of comb lines around the center of the spectrum compared to groups of lines in the spectral wings. The evolution of the power spectrum is not symmetric with respect to the spectrum center. Numerical simulations based on the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation are in good agreement with the experimental results and unveil the role of stimulated Raman scattering in the symmetry breaking of the power spectrum evolution. Our results show that optical microresonators can be exploited as a powerful platform for the exploration of soliton dynamics.

  9. Anatomy of the Akhmediev breather: Cascading instability, first formation time, and Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Ashour, Omar A.; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2015-12-01

    By invoking Bogoliubov's spectrum, we show that for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the modulation instability (MI) of its n =1 Fourier mode on a finite background automatically triggers a further cascading instability, forcing all the higher modes to grow exponentially in locked step with the n =1 mode. This fundamental insight, the enslavement of all higher modes to the n =1 mode, explains the formation of a triangular-shaped spectrum that generates the Akhmediev breather, predicts its formation time analytically from the initial modulation amplitude, and shows that the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence is just a matter of energy conservation with a period twice the breather's formation time. For higher-order MI with more than one initial unstable mode, while most evolutions are expected to be chaotic, we show that it is possible to have isolated cases of "super-recurrence," where the FPU period is much longer than that of a single unstable mode.

  10. Amplification of matter rogue waves and breathers in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Kraenkel, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    We construct rogue wave and breather solutions of a quasi-two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent interatomic interaction and external trap. We show that the trapping potential and an arbitrary functional parameter that present in the similarity transformation should satisfy a constraint for the considered equation to be integrable and yield the desired solutions. We consider two different forms of functional parameters and investigate how the density of the rogue wave and breather profiles vary with respect to these functional parameters. We also construct vector localized solutions of a two coupled quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate system. We then investigate how the vector localized density profiles modify in the constant density background with respect to the functional parameters. Our results may help to manipulate matter rogue waves experimentally in the two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate systems.

  11. Nonlinear wave propagation in discrete and continuous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothos, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this review we try to capture some of the recent excitement induced by a large volume of theoretical and computational studies addressing nonlinear Schrödinger models (discrete and continuous) and the localized structures that they support. We focus on some prototypical structures, namely the breather solutions and solitary waves. In particular, we investigate the bifurcation of travelling wave solution in Discrete NLS system applying dynamical systems methods. Next, we examine the combined effects of cubic and quintic terms of the long range type in the dynamics of a double well potential. The relevant bifurcations, the stability of the branches and their dynamical implications are examined both in the reduced (ODE) and in the full (PDE) setting. We also offer an outlook on interesting possibilities for future work on this theme.

  12. Exactly solvable birth and death processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Ryu

    2009-10-15

    Many examples of exactly solvable birth and death processes, a typical stationary Markov chain, are presented together with the explicit expressions of the transition probabilities. They are derived by similarity transforming exactly solvable 'matrix' quantum mechanics, which is recently proposed by Odake and the author [S. Odake and R. Sasaki, J. Math. Phys. 49, 053503 (2008)]. The (q-) Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable and their dual polynomials play a central role. The most generic solvable birth/death rates are rational functions of q{sup x} (with x being the population) corresponding to the q-Racah polynomial.

  13. Breaking and Restoring of Diffeomorphism Symmetry in Discrete Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bahr, B.; Dittrich, B.

    2009-12-15

    We discuss the fate of diffeomorphism symmetry in discrete gravity. Diffeomorphism symmetry is typically broken by the discretization. This has repercussions for the observable content and the canonical formulation of the theory. It might however be possible to construct discrete actions, so-called perfect actions, with exact symmetries and we will review first steps towards this end.

  14. Asymmetric inflation: Exact solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Buniy, Roman V.; Berera, Arjun; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2006-03-15

    We provide exact solutions to the Einstein equations when the universe contains vacuum energy plus a uniform arrangement of magnetic fields, strings, or domain walls. Such a universe has planar symmetry; i.e., it is homogeneous but not isotropic. Further exact solutions are obtained when dust is included and approximate solutions are found for w{ne}0 matter. These cosmologies also have planar symmetry. These results may eventually be used to explain some features in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. The magnetic field case is the easiest to motivate and has the highest possibility of yielding reliable constraints on observational cosmology.

  15. Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Franklin S.

    2006-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.

  16. Exact folded-band chaotic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corron, Ned J.; Blakely, Jonathan N.

    2012-06-01

    An exactly solvable chaotic oscillator with folded-band dynamics is shown. The oscillator is a hybrid dynamical system containing a linear ordinary differential equation and a nonlinear switching condition. Bounded oscillations are provably chaotic, and successive waveform maxima yield a one-dimensional piecewise-linear return map with segments of both positive and negative slopes. Continuous-time dynamics exhibit a folded-band topology similar to Rössler's oscillator. An exact solution is written as a linear convolution of a fixed basis pulse and a discrete binary sequence, from which an equivalent symbolic dynamics is obtained. The folded-band topology is shown to be dependent on the symbol grammar.

  17. Solitons, breathers and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch system in an erbium-doped fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi-Min; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Zuo, Da-Wei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch system with quintic terms is investigated, which describes the propagation of ultrashort optical pulses, up to the attosecond duration, in an erbium-doped fiber. Multi-soliton, breather and rogue-wave solutions are derived by virtue of the Darboux transformation and the limiting procedure. Features and interaction patterns of the solitons, breathers and rogue waves are discussed. (i) The solitonic amplitudes, widths and velocities are exhibited, and solitonic amplitudes and widths are proved to have nothing to do with the higher-order terms. (ii) The higher-order terms and frequency detuning affect the growth rate of periodic modulation and skewing angle for the breathers, except for the range of the frequency of modulation. (iii) The quintic terms and frequency detuning have the effects on the temporal duration for the rogue waves. (iv) Breathers are classified into two types, according to the range of the modulation instability. (v) Interaction between the two solitons is elastic. When the two solitons interact with each other, the periodic structure occurs, which is affected by the higher-order terms and frequency detuning. (vi) Interaction between the two Akhmediev-like breathers or two Kuznetsov-Ma-like solitons shows the different patterns with different ratios of the relative modulation frequencies, while the interaction area induced by the two breathers looks like a higher-order rogue wave.

  18. Exact Lattice Supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat

    2009-03-31

    We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.

  19. Nonautonomous solitons, breathers and rogue waves for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Xue, Long; Wang, Qi-Min

    2016-07-01

    Under investigation in this paper is the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which describes the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Lax pair, conservation laws and Darboux transformation (DT) are constructed. Nonautonomous solitons and breathers are derived based on the DT obtained. A kind of modulation instability process is generated. Nonautonomous rogue waves are obtained via the generalized DT. Influence of the nonlinearity, linear external potential, harmonic external potential, and spectral parameter on the propagation and interaction of the nonautonomous solitons, breathers and rogue waves is also discussed. Amplitude of the first-order nonautonomous soliton is proportional to the imaginary part of the spectral parameter and inversely proportional to the nonlinearity parameter. Linear external potential parameter affects the location of the first-order nonautonomous soliton. Head-on interaction, overtaking interaction and bound-state-like nonautonomous solitons can be formed based on the signs of the real parts of the spectral parameters. Quasi-periodic behaviors are exhibited for the nonautonomous breathers. If the harmonic external potential parameter is negative, quasi-period decreases along the positive time axis, with an increase in the amplitude and a compression in the width. Quasi-period decreases with the increase of the nonlinearity parameter. The second-order nonautonomous rogue wave can split into three first-order ones. Nonlinearity parameter has an effect on the amplitude of the rogue wave. Linear external potential parameter influences the location of the rogue wave, while harmonic external potential parameter affects the curved direction of the background.

  20. Exact approaches for scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new structural and algorithmic results around the scaffolding problem, which occurs prominently in next generation sequencing. The problem can be formalized as an optimization problem on a special graph, the "scaffold graph". We prove that the problem is polynomial if this graph is a tree by providing a dynamic programming algorithm for this case. This algorithm serves as a basis to deduce an exact algorithm for general graphs using a tree decomposition of the input. We explore other structural parameters, proving a linear-size problem kernel with respect to the size of a feedback-edge set on a restricted version of Scaffolding. Finally, we examine some parameters of scaffold graphs, which are based on real-world genomes, revealing that the feedback edge set is significantly smaller than the input size. PMID:26451725

  1. Kinematics of foldable discrete space cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Exact kinematic description of a NASA proposed prototype foldable-deployable discrete space crane are presented. A computer program is developed which maps the geometry of the crane once controlling parameters are specified. The program uses a building block type approach in which it calculates the local coordinates of each repeating cell and then combines them with respect to a global coordinates system.

  2. Approximation of small-amplitude weakly coupled oscillators by discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry; Penati, Tiziano; Paleari, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Small-amplitude weakly coupled oscillators of the Klein-Gordon lattices are approximated by equations of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger type. We show how to justify this approximation by two methods, which have been very popular in the recent literature. The first method relies on a priori energy estimates and multi-scale decompositions. The second method is based on a resonant normal form theorem. We show that although the two methods are different in the implementation, they produce equivalent results as the end product. We also discuss the applications of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the context of existence and stability of breathers of the Klein-Gordon lattice.

  3. Photoexcited breathers in conjugated polyenes: An excited-state molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Tretiak, S.; Saxena, A.; Martin, R. L.; Bishop, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    π-conjugated polymers have become an important class of materials for electronic devices. Design of these devices requires understanding such processes as photochemical reactions, spatial dynamics of photoexcitations, and energy and charge transport, which in turn involve complex coupled electron-vibrational dynamics. Here we study nonlinear photoexcitation dynamics in the polyene oligomers by using a quantum-chemical method suitable for the simulation of excited-state molecular dynamics in extended molecular systems with sizes up to hundreds of atoms. The method is based on the adiabatic propagation of the ground-state and transition single-electron density matrices along the trajectory. The simulations reveal formation of a self-localized vibronic excitation (“breather” or multiquanta bound state) with a typical period of 34 fs and allows us to identify specific slow and fast nuclear motions strongly coupled to the electronic degrees of freedom. The effect of chain imperfections and chemical defects on the dynamics is also investigated. A complementary two-dimensional analysis of corresponding transition density matrices provides an efficient way to monitor time-dependent real-space localization of the photoexcitation by identifying the underlying changes in charge densities and bond orders. Possible correlated electronic and vibrational spectroscopic signatures of photoexcited breathers are predicted, and generalizations to energy localization in complex macromolecules are discussed. PMID:12594339

  4. The Neglected Exactness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endom, Joerg

    2014-05-01

    negligible any more. Locating for example the exact position of joints, rebars on site, getting correct calibration information or overlaying measurements of independent methods requires high accuracy positioning for all data. Different technologies of synchronizing and stabilizing are discussed in this presentation. Furthermore a scale problem for interdisciplinary work between the geotechnical engineer, the civil engineer, the surveyor and the geophysicist is presented. Manufacturers as well as users are addressed to work on a unified methodology that could be implemented in future. This presentation is a contribution to COST Action TU1208.

  5. Breather-to-soliton transitions, nonlinear wave interactions, and modulational instability in a higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Zi-Qi; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds of the higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (HGNLS) equation describing the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in optical fibers. We derive the breather, rogue wave, and semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation. Our results show that these three types of solutions can be converted into the nonpulsating soliton solutions. In particular, we present the explicit conditions for the transitions between breathers and solitons with different structures. Further, we investigate the characteristics of the collisions between the soliton and breathers. Especially, based on the semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation, we display the novel interactions between the rogue waves and other nonlinear waves. In addition, we reveal the explicit relation between the transition and the distribution characteristics of the modulation instability growth rate.

  6. The exact fundamental solution for the Benes tracking problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam

    2009-05-01

    The universal continuous-discrete tracking problem requires the solution of a Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov forward equation (FPKfe) for an arbitrary initial condition. Using results from quantum mechanics, the exact fundamental solution for the FPKfe is derived for the state model of arbitrary dimension with Benes drift that requires only the computation of elementary transcendental functions and standard linear algebra techniques- no ordinary or partial differential equations need to be solved. The measurement process may be an arbitrary, discrete-time nonlinear stochastic process, and the time step size can be arbitrary. Numerical examples are included, demonstrating its utility in practical implementation.

  7. What exactly do numbers mean?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the covered box task). Our findings establish that when scalar implicatures are cancelled in the critical trials of this task, both adults and children consistently give exact interpretations for number words. These results, in concert with recent work on real-time processing, provide the first unambiguous evidence that number words have exact semantics. PMID:25285053

  8. Characteristics of the breathers, rogue waves and solitary waves in a generalized (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Bin; Tian, Shou-Fu; Qin, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2016-07-01

    Under investigation in this work is a generalized (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation, which can be used to describe the propagation of small-amplitude, long wave in shallow water. By virtue of Bell's polynomials, an effective way is presented to succinctly construct its bilinear form. Furthermore, based on the bilinear formalism and the extended homoclinic test method, the breather wave solution, rogue-wave solution and solitary-wave solution of the equation are well constructed. Our results can be used to enrich the dynamical behavior of the generalized (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear wave fields.

  9. Engineering Fano resonances in discrete arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2005-11-01

    We study transmission properties of discrete arrays composed of a linear waveguide coupled to a system of N side defect states. This simple system can be used to model discrete networks of coupled defect modes in photonic crystals, complex waveguide arrays in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices, and ring-resonator structures. We demonstrate the basic principles of the resonant scattering management through engineering Fano resonances and find exact results for the wave transmission coefficient. We reveal conditions for perfect reflections and transmissions due to either destructive or constructive interferences, and associate them with Fano resonances, also demonstrating how these resonances can be tuned by nonlinear defects.

  10. Discretely holomorphic parafermions and integrable boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlef, Yacine

    2012-07-01

    In two-dimensional statistical models possessing a discretely holomorphic parafermion, we introduce a modified discrete Cauchy-Riemann equation on the boundary of the domain, and we show that the solution of this equation yields integrable boundary Boltzmann weights. This approach is applied to (i) the square-lattice O(n) loop model, where the exact locations of the special and ordinary transitions are recovered, and (ii) the Fateev-Zamolodchikov {Z}_N spin model, where a new rotation-invariant, integrable boundary condition is discovered for generic N.

  11. New exact solutions to some difference differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Hong-Qing

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we use our method to solve the extended Lotka-Volterra equation and discrete KdV equation. With the help of Maple, we obtain a number of exact solutions to the two equations including soliton solutions presented by hyperbolic functions of sinh and cosh, periodic solutions presented by trigonometric functions of sin and cos, and rational solutions. This method can be used to solve some other nonlinear difference-differential equations.

  12. Modulational instability, nonautonomous breathers and rogue waves for a variable-coefficient derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the inhomogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Xu, Tao

    2015-03-15

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-DNLS) equation modeling the nonlinear Alfvén waves in the inhomogeneous plasmas. The modulation instability is examined for this inhomogeneous nonlinear model. The nonautonomous breather and rogue wave solutions of the vc-DNLS equation are obtained via the modified Darboux transformation. It is found that the velocity and amplitude of the breather can be controlled by the inhomogeneous magnetic field and nonuniform density. Such novel phenomena as breather amplification and nonlinear Talbot effect-like property are demonstrated with the proper choices of the inhomogeneous parameters. Furthermore, dynamics of the fundamental rogue wave, periodical rogue wave, and composite rogue wave are graphically discussed. The trajectories and amplitudes of the rogue waves can be manipulated by the inhomogeneous magnetic field and nonuniform density. In addition, the nonlinear tunneling of the rogue waves and breathers is studied. As an application, a sample model is treated with our results, and the graphical illustrations exhibit the compressing, expanding, and fluctuating phenomena of the Alfvén rogue waves.

  13. Discrete differential geometry: the nonplanar quadrilateral mesh.

    PubMed

    Twining, Carole J; Marsland, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a discrete differential geometry defined on nonplanar quadrilateral meshes. Physical models on discrete nonflat spaces are of inherent interest, as well as being used in applications such as computation for electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, and image analysis. However, the majority of analysis has focused on triangulated meshes. We consider two approaches: discretizing the tensor calculus, and a discrete mesh version of differential forms. While these two approaches are equivalent in the continuum, we show that this is not true in the discrete case. Nevertheless, we show that it is possible to construct mesh versions of the Levi-Civita connection (and hence the tensorial covariant derivative and the associated covariant exterior derivative), the torsion, and the curvature. We show how discrete analogs of the usual vector integral theorems are constructed in such a way that the appropriate conservation laws hold exactly on the mesh, rather than only as approximations to the continuum limit. We demonstrate the success of our method by constructing a mesh version of classical electromagnetism and discuss how our formalism could be used to deal with other physical models, such as fluids.

  14. Natural discretization in noncommutative field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acatrinei, Ciprian Sorin

    2015-12-07

    A discretization scheme for field theory is developed, in which the space time coordinates are assumed to be operators forming a noncommutative algebra. Generic waves without rotational symmetry are studied in (2+1) - dimensional scalar field theory with Heisenberg-type noncommutativity. In the representation chosen, the radial coordinate is naturally rendered discrete. Nonlocality along this coordinate, induced by noncommutativity, accounts for the angular dependence of the fields. A complete solution and the interpretation of its nonlocal features are given. The exact form of standing and propagating waves on such a discrete space is found in terms of finite series. A precise correspondence is established between the degree of nonlocality and the angular momentum of a field configuration. At small distance no classical singularities appear, even at the location of the sources. At large radius one recovers the usual commutative/continuum behaviour.

  15. Principles of Discrete Time Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-04-01

    1. Introduction; 2. The physics of discreteness; 3. The road to calculus; 4. Temporal discretization; 5. Discrete time dynamics architecture; 6. Some models; 7. Classical cellular automata; 8. The action sum; 9. Worked examples; 10. Lee's approach to discrete time mechanics; 11. Elliptic billiards; 12. The construction of system functions; 13. The classical discrete time oscillator; 14. Type 2 temporal discretization; 15. Intermission; 16. Discrete time quantum mechanics; 17. The quantized discrete time oscillator; 18. Path integrals; 19. Quantum encoding; 20. Discrete time classical field equations; 21. The discrete time Schrodinger equation; 22. The discrete time Klein-Gordon equation; 23. The discrete time Dirac equation; 24. Discrete time Maxwell's equations; 25. The discrete time Skyrme model; 26. Discrete time quantum field theory; 27. Interacting discrete time scalar fields; 28. Space, time and gravitation; 29. Causality and observation; 30. Concluding remarks; Appendix A. Coherent states; Appendix B. The time-dependent oscillator; Appendix C. Quaternions; Appendix D. Quantum registers; References; Index.

  16. Discretizing gravity in warped spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Matthew; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Thambyahpillai, Shiyamala

    2005-07-11

    We investigate the discretized version of the compact Randall-Sundrum model. By studying the mass eigenstates of the lattice theory, we demonstrate that for warped space, unlike for flat space, the strong coupling scale does not depend on the IR scale and lattice size. However, strong coupling does prevent us from taking the continuum limit of the lattice theory. Nonetheless, the lattice theory works in the manifestly holographic regime and successfully reproduces the most significant features of the warped theory. It is even in some respects better than the KK theory, which must be carefully regulated to obtain the correct physical results. Because it is easier to construct lattice theories than to find exact solutions to GR, we expect lattice gravity to be a useful tool for exploring field theory in curved space.

  17. Interaction of the strongly nonlinear internal solitary wave of second mode with the bottom step: breather formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Talipova, Tatiana; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae; Grimshaw, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Second mode internal waves are widespread in offshore areas, and they frequently follow the first mode internal waves on the oceanic shelf. To study the main properties of interaction of second mode internal waves with a bottom features we consider simple configuration of numerical tank with a bottom step. The tank is filled by symmetricaly stratified three-layer fluid. Depending on the parameter of blocking B (ratio of the lower layer depth over the step to incident wave amplitude [1]) a several regimes can be separated. If B > 4, that means that the lower layer is deep enough in comparison with amplitude of the incident wave, then the second mode internal wave pass the step without significant changes. At the range of 0< B<0.5, that corresponds to the case when amplitude of the incident wave is greater than the depth of the lower layer over the step, incident second mode wave completely transforms into a solitary wave of the first mode and into reflected wave of the second mode. These transformations are opposite to the well-known mechanism of formation of the second mode wave in result of the first mode wave interaction with bottom relief. The most interesting is the transitional regime with the range of blocking parameter 0.5breathers are generated after the step. Thus in the frame of numerical modeling new mechanism of the breather generation was found: in the case of three-layer stratification internal wave-breather can occur due to interaction of the second mode internal wave with abrupt changes of the bottom topography. The dependencies for transformation coefficients (reflection and transmission) on the parameter of blocking are similar for incident long and intermediate waves

  18. Construction of Superconvergent Discretizations with Differential-Difference Invariants

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Axford

    2005-08-12

    To incorporate symmetry properties of second-order differential equations into finite difference equations, the concept of differential-difference invariants is introduced. This concept is applied to discretizing homogeneous eigenvalue problems and inhomogeneous two-point boundary value problems with various combinations of Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that discretizations constructed with differential-difference invariants yield exact results for eigenvalue spectra and superconvergent results for numerical solutions of differential equations.

  19. On the Number of Discrete Eigenvalues of a Discrete Schrödinger Operator with a Finitely Supported Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Higuchi, Yusuke; Nomura, Yuji; Ogurisu, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    On the d-dimensional lattice Z^d and the r-regular tree {T^r} , an exact expression for the number of discrete eigenvalues of a discrete Laplacian with a finitely supported potential is described in terms of the support and the intensities of the potential on each case. In particular, the number of eigenvalues less than the infimum of the essential spectrum is bounded by the number of negative intensities.

  20. On the Number of Discrete Eigenvalues of a Discrete Schrödinger Operator with a Finitely Supported Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Higuchi, Yusuke; Nomura, Yuji; Ogurisu, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    On the d-dimensional lattice Z^d and the r-regular tree {T^r}, an exact expression for the number of discrete eigenvalues of a discrete Laplacian with a finitely supported potential is described in terms of the support and the intensities of the potential on each case. In particular, the number of eigenvalues less than the infimum of the essential spectrum is bounded by the number of negative intensities.

  1. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  2. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  3. Exact models for isotropic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirukkanesh, S.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2006-04-01

    We study the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations in spherically symmetric gravitational fields for static interior spacetimes. The condition for pressure isotropy is reduced to a recurrence equation with variable, rational coefficients. We demonstrate that this difference equation can be solved in general using mathematical induction. Consequently, we can find an explicit exact solution to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. The metric functions, energy density, pressure and the electric field intensity can be found explicitly. Our result contains models found previously, including the neutron star model of Durgapal and Bannerji. By placing restrictions on parameters arising in the general series, we show that the series terminate and there exist two linearly independent solutions. Consequently, it is possible to find exact solutions in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and algebraic functions.

  4. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-17

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  5. Exact results for models of multichannel quantum nonadiabatic transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitsyn, N. A.

    2014-12-11

    We consider nonadiabatic transitions in explicitly time-dependent systems with Hamiltonians of the form Hˆ(t)=Aˆ+Bˆt+Cˆ/t, where t is time and Aˆ,Bˆ,Cˆ are Hermitian N × N matrices. We show that in any model of this type, scattering matrix elements satisfy nontrivial exact constraints that follow from the absence of the Stokes phenomenon for solutions with specific conditions at t→–∞. This allows one to continue such solutions analytically to t→+∞, and connect their asymptotic behavior at t→–∞ and t→+∞. This property becomes particularly useful when a model shows additional discrete symmetries. Specifically, we derive a number of simple exact constraints and explicit expressions for scattering probabilities in such systems.

  6. More on exact state reconstruction in deterministic digital control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a special form of the Ideal State Reconstructor for deterministic digital control systems which is simpler to implement than the most general form. The Ideal State Reconstructor is so named because, if the plant parameters are known exactly, its output will exactly equal, not just approximate, the true state of the plant and accomplish this without any knowledge of the plant's initial state. Besides this, it adds no new states or eigenvalues to the system. Nor does it affect the plant equation for the system in any way; it affects the measurement equation only. It is characterized by the fact that discrete measurements are generated every T/N seconds and input into a multi-input/multi-output moving-average (MA) process. The output of this process is sampled every T seconds and utilized in reconstructing the state of the system.

  7. Exact results for models of multichannel quantum nonadiabatic transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Sinitsyn, N. A.

    2014-12-11

    We consider nonadiabatic transitions in explicitly time-dependent systems with Hamiltonians of the form Hˆ(t)=Aˆ+Bˆt+Cˆ/t, where t is time and Aˆ,Bˆ,Cˆ are Hermitian N × N matrices. We show that in any model of this type, scattering matrix elements satisfy nontrivial exact constraints that follow from the absence of the Stokes phenomenon for solutions with specific conditions at t→–∞. This allows one to continue such solutions analytically to t→+∞, and connect their asymptotic behavior at t→–∞ and t→+∞. This property becomes particularly useful when a model shows additional discrete symmetries. Specifically, we derive a number of simple exact constraints and explicitmore » expressions for scattering probabilities in such systems.« less

  8. Exact element modal analysis of beam/oscillator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, Taft H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Exact modal analysis of a beam/many-oscillator system is presented. Each oscillator consists of a discrete mass having rotational inertia, and two locally-dependent springs: one being rotational and the other, translational. A constant longitudinal force is applied to the mass, and its effect is coupled with the dynamic modes. The beam's distributed mass and other material properties, and its geometric properties, do not vary within spans bounded by the oscillators, but may vary from span to span. The classical separation-of-variables technique is used to obtain a dosedform description of the dynamic matrix, and the modal frequencies are determined as the zeros of this determinant.

  9. Discrete monotron oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Haynes, W.B.

    1996-08-01

    The authors theoretically and numerically investigate the operation and behavior of the discrete monotron oscillator, a novel high-power microwave source. The discrete monotron differs from conventional monotrons and transit time oscillators by shielding the electron beam from the monotron cavity`s RF fields except at two distinct locations. This makes the discrete monotron act more like a klystron than a distributed traveling wave device. As a result, the oscillator has higher efficiency and can operate with higher beam powers than other single cavity oscillators and has more stable operation without requiring a seed input signal than mildly relativistic, intense-beam klystron oscillators.

  10. Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

  11. Familial sinistrals avoid exact numbers.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals--individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative--with those of pure familial dextrals--right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd's (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals' responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere.

  12. The Discrete Hanging Cable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

  13. Partitioning technique for discrete quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L.; Song, Z.

    2011-06-15

    We develop the partitioning technique for quantum discrete systems. The graph consists of several subgraphs: a central graph and several branch graphs, with each branch graph being rooted by an individual node on the central one. We show that the effective Hamiltonian on the central graph can be constructed by adding additional potentials on the branch-root nodes, which generates the same result as does the the original Hamiltonian on the entire graph. Exactly solvable models are presented to demonstrate the main points of this paper.

  14. AESS: Accelerated Exact Stochastic Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David D.; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2011-12-01

    The Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) developed by Gillespie provides a powerful mechanism for exploring the behavior of chemical systems with small species populations or with important noise contributions. Gene circuit simulations for systems biology commonly employ the SSA method, as do ecological applications. This algorithm tends to be computationally expensive, so researchers seek an efficient implementation of SSA. In this program package, the Accelerated Exact Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (AESS) contains optimized implementations of Gillespie's SSA that improve the performance of individual simulation runs or ensembles of simulations used for sweeping parameters or to provide statistically significant results. Program summaryProgram title: AESS Catalogue identifier: AEJW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: University of Tennessee copyright agreement No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 861 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 394 631 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C for processors, CUDA for NVIDIA GPUs Computer: Developed and tested on various x86 computers and NVIDIA C1060 Tesla and GTX 480 Fermi GPUs. The system targets x86 workstations, optionally with multicore processors or NVIDIA GPUs as accelerators. Operating system: Tested under Ubuntu Linux OS and CentOS 5.5 Linux OS Classification: 3, 16.12 Nature of problem: Simulation of chemical systems, particularly with low species populations, can be accurately performed using Gillespie's method of stochastic simulation. Numerous variations on the original stochastic simulation algorithm have been developed, including approaches that produce results with statistics that exactly match the chemical master equation (CME) as well as other approaches that approximate the CME. Solution

  15. Generalized computer-aided discrete time domain modeling and analysis of dc-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Iwens, R. P.; Yu, Y.; Triner, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized discrete time domain modeling and analysis technique is presented for all types of switching regulators using any type of duty-cycle controller, and operating in both continuous and discontinuous inductor current. State space techniques are employed to derive an equivalent nonlinear discrete time model that describes the converter exactly. The system is linearized about its equilibrium state to obtain a linear discrete time model for small signal performance evaluations, such as stability, audiosusceptibility and transient response. The analysis makes extensive use of the digital computer as an analytical tool. It is universal, exact and easy to use.

  16. Depression: discrete or continuous?

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the true structure of depression is necessary if we are to advance our understanding and treatment options. Central to the issue of structure is whether depression represents discrete types or occurs on a continuum. Nature almost universally operates on the basis of continuums, whereas human perception favors discrete categories. This reality might be formalized into a 'continuum principle': natural phenomena tend to occur on a continuum, and any instance of hypothesized discreteness requires unassailable proof. Research evidence for discrete types falls far short of this standard, with most evidence supporting a continuum. However, quantitative variation can yield qualitative differences as an emergent property, fostering the appearance of discreteness. Depression as a continuum is best characterized by duration and severity dimensions, with the latter understood in terms of depressive inhibition. In the absence of some degree of cognitive, emotional, social, and physical inhibition, depression should not be diagnosed. Combining the dimensions of duration and severity provides an optimal way to characterize the quantitative and related qualitative aspects of depression and to describe the overall degree of dysfunction. The presence of other symptom types occurs when anxiety, hypomanic/manic, psychotic, and personality continuums interface with the depression continuum. PMID:25531962

  17. Hope, optimism, and self-care among Better Breathers Support Group members with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Alberto, June; Joyner, Barry

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of hope, optimism, and self-care of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who attend community-based Better Breathers Support Group (BBSG) meetings. A convenience sample of 68 BBSG members from 14 groups in three southeastern states participated. The data were collected with a questionnaire set composed of a demographic form and three previously tested research instruments: the Herth Hope Index (HHI), the Alberto Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-care Behavior Inventory (COPDSC), and the Life Orientation Test--Revised (LOT-R). The findings (n = 68) include a significant and positive relationship between the HHI and COPDSC (r = .39; p > .01), between the LOT-R and COPDSC (r = .41; p > .001), and between the LOT-R and HHI (r = .59; p > .001). So, those participants with higher Hope and Optimism have higher levels of Self-care. We concluded the participants were fairly optimistic (LOT-R average = 23.75+/-4.49) and hopeful (HHI average 39.47+/-5.61). The average score on the COPDSC was 141.57 (+/-14.76) indicating a high level of self-care.

  18. Deformed discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  19. Nonlinear propagating localized modes in a 2D hexagonal crystal lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajars, Janis; Eilbeck, J. Chris; Leimkuhler, Benedict

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we consider a 2D hexagonal crystal lattice model first proposed by Marín, Eilbeck and Russell in 1998. We perform a detailed numerical study of nonlinear propagating localized modes, that is, propagating discrete breathers and kinks. The original model is extended to allow for arbitrary atomic interactions, and to allow atoms to travel out of the unit cell. A new on-site potential is considered with a periodic smooth function with hexagonal symmetry. We are able to confirm the existence of long-lived propagating discrete breathers. Our simulations show that, as they evolve, breathers appear to localize in frequency space, i.e. the energy moves from sidebands to a main frequency band. Our numerical findings shed light on the open question of whether exact moving breather solutions exist in 2D hexagonal layers in physical crystal lattices.

  20. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  1. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  2. Discrete cavity solitons.

    PubMed

    Peschel, U; Egorov, O; Lederer, F

    2004-08-15

    We derive evolution equations describing light propagation in an array of coupled-waveguide resonators and predict the existence of discrete cavity solitons. We identify stable, unstable, and oscillating solitons by varying the coupling strength between the anticontinuous and the continuous limit. PMID:15357356

  3. Discrete Variational Approach for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J. Paxon; Shadwick, B. A.

    2014-10-01

    The traditional approach for fluid models of laser-plasma interactions begins by approximating fields and derivatives on a grid in space and time, leading to difference equations that are manipulated to create a time-advance algorithm. In contrast, by introducing the spatial discretization at the level of the action, the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations have particular differencing approximations that will exactly satisfy discrete versions of the relevant conservation laws. For example, applying a spatial discretization in the Lagrangian density leads to continuous-time, discrete-space equations and exact energy conservation regardless of the spatial grid resolution. We compare the results of two discrete variational methods using the variational principles from Chen and Sudan and Brizard. Since the fluid system conserves energy and momentum, the relative errors in these conserved quantities are well-motivated physically as figures of merit for a particular method. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY-1104683.

  4. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  5. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

    2003-06-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  6. Breather transition dynamics, Peregrine combs and walls, and modulation instability in a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua

    2016-06-01

    We study a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-NLS) equation with higher-order effects. We show that the breather solution can be converted into four types of nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds including the multipeak solitons, antidark soliton, periodic wave, and W-shaped soliton. In particular, the transition condition requiring the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) to scale linearly is obtained analytically. We display several kinds of elastic interactions between the transformed nonlinear waves. We discuss the dispersion management of the multipeak soliton, which indicates that the GVD coefficient controls the number of peaks of the wave while the TOD coefficient has compression effect. The gain or loss has influence on the amplitudes of the multipeak soliton. We further derive the breather multiple births and Peregrine combs by using multiple compression points of Akhmediev breathers and Peregrine rogue waves in optical fiber systems with periodic GVD modulation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Peregrine comb can be converted into a Peregrine wall by the proper choice of the amplitude of the periodic GVD modulation. The Peregrine wall can be seen as an intermediate state between rogue waves and W-shaped solitons. We finally find that the modulational stability regions with zero growth rate coincide with the transition condition using rogue wave eigenvalues. Our results could be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in diverse physical systems modeled by vc-NLS equation with higher-order effects. PMID:27415265

  7. Breather transition dynamics, Peregrine combs and walls, and modulation instability in a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua

    2016-06-01

    We study a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-NLS) equation with higher-order effects. We show that the breather solution can be converted into four types of nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds including the multipeak solitons, antidark soliton, periodic wave, and W -shaped soliton. In particular, the transition condition requiring the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) to scale linearly is obtained analytically. We display several kinds of elastic interactions between the transformed nonlinear waves. We discuss the dispersion management of the multipeak soliton, which indicates that the GVD coefficient controls the number of peaks of the wave while the TOD coefficient has compression effect. The gain or loss has influence on the amplitudes of the multipeak soliton. We further derive the breather multiple births and Peregrine combs by using multiple compression points of Akhmediev breathers and Peregrine rogue waves in optical fiber systems with periodic GVD modulation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Peregrine comb can be converted into a Peregrine wall by the proper choice of the amplitude of the periodic GVD modulation. The Peregrine wall can be seen as an intermediate state between rogue waves and W -shaped solitons. We finally find that the modulational stability regions with zero growth rate coincide with the transition condition using rogue wave eigenvalues. Our results could be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in diverse physical systems modeled by vc-NLS equation with higher-order effects.

  8. Gravity cutoff in theories with large discrete symmetries.

    PubMed

    Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele; Sibiryakov, Sergey; Vainshtein, Arkady

    2008-10-10

    We set an upper bound on the gravitational cutoff in theories with exact quantum numbers of large N periodicity, such as Z(N) discrete symmetries. The bound stems from black hole physics. It is similar to the bound appearing in theories with N particle species, though a priori, a large discrete symmetry does not imply a large number of species. Thus, there emerges a potentially wide class of new theories that address the hierarchy problem by lowering the gravitational cutoff due to the existence of large Z(10(32))-type symmetries. PMID:18999587

  9. Exact significance test for Markov order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, S. D.; Hahs, D. W.

    2014-02-01

    We describe an exact significance test of the null hypothesis that a Markov chain is nth order. The procedure utilizes surrogate data to yield an exact test statistic distribution valid for any sample size. Surrogate data are generated using a novel algorithm that guarantees, per shot, a uniform sampling from the set of sequences that exactly match the nth order properties of the observed data. Using the test, the Markov order of Tel Aviv rainfall data is examined.

  10. Surface pauses in relation to dive duration in imperial cormorants; how much time for a breather?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; Quintana, Flavio

    2004-05-01

    Air-breathing animals diving to forage can optimize time underwater by diving with just enough oxygen for the projected performance underwater. By so doing they surface with minimal body oxygen levels, which leads to maximal rates of oxygen uptake. We examined whether imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps adhere to this by examining dive:pause ratios in birds diving for extended, continuous periods to constant depths, assuming that the oxygen used underwater was exactly replenished by the periods at the surface. Examination of the cumulative time spent in surface pauses relative to the cumulative time spent in diving showed that surface pauses increase according to a power curve function of time spent in the dive or water depth. In a simplistic model we considered the rate at which birds expended energy underwater to be constant and that the rate of oxygen replenishment during the surface pause was directly proportional to the oxygen deficit. We then worked out values for the rate constant for the surface pause before using this constant to examine bird body oxygen levels immediately pre- and post dive. The model predicted that imperial cormorants do not submerge with just enough oxygen to cover their projected dive performance but rather dive with substantial reserves, although these reserves decrease with increasing dive depth/duration. We speculate that these oxygen reserves may be used to enhance bird survival when rare events, such as the appearance of predators or discovery of large prey requiring extended handling time, occur. The form of the oxygen saturation curve over time at the surface means that the time costs for maintaining constant oxygen reserves become particularly onerous for long, deep dives, so the observed decrease in reserves with increasing dive duration is expected in animals benefiting by optimizing for time. PMID:15107434

  11. Discreteness induced extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy

    2015-11-01

    Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.

  12. Spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajc, Borut; Lugo, Adrián R.; Sturla, Mauricio B.

    2012-04-01

    We present an exactly solvable model of a scalar field in an AdSd+1 like background interpolating between a Z2 preserving and a Z2 breaking minima of the potential. We define its holographic dual through the AdS/CFT dictionary and argue that at zero temperature the d - dimensional strongly coupled system on the boundary of AdSd+1 exhibits a phase with a spontaneously broken discrete symmetry. In the presence of a black hole in the bulk ( T≠0) we find that, although the metastable phase is present, the discrete symmetry gets restored. We compute exactly the lowest order boundary correlation functions in the spontaneously broken phase at T = 0, finding out a pole of the propagator for zero momenta that signals the presence of a massless mode and argue that it should not be present at ( T≠0).

  13. A paradigm for discrete physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.

    1987-01-01

    An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity.

  14. Exact Results in Frustrated Quantum Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Shin

    Most of the exact results in frustrated spin systems have for a long time been regarded as of purely academic interest, being realized only due to the special geometry of the lattices concerned. However, recent developments in material design offer the genuine possibility of producing such exact states in real materials. In fact, the exact dimer singlet state of the two-dimensional Shastry-Sutherland model has already been found as the ground state of the quasi-two-dimensional material SrCu2(BO3)2. The cooperation between experimentalists and theorists in investigating this material has caused rapid development in the understanding of low-dimensional frustrated spin systems in general, due to the extreme utility of cases where the ground state is known exactly. This fact provides information essential to recognizing novel magnetic behavior in external magnetic fields, at finite temperatures, and in other regimes. In this chapter, we introduce spin-1 / 2 models which have an exact ground state, considering first exactly solvable spin-1 / 2 Heisenberg models, exemplified by the sawtooth-chain model, the Majumdar-Ghosh model, the two-dimensional Shastry-Sutherland model, and a frustrated ladder model. Such exact states can be realized due to special symmetries on geometrically frustrated lattices. As a second class of examples, we introduce also some exact ground states in spin-1/2 models with multiple-spin interactions.

  15. Two-flavor QCD simulation with exact chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Fukaya, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Yamada, N.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Okawa, M.; Kanaya, K.; Matsufuru, H.; Okamoto, M.; Onogi, T.; Ukawa, A; Yoshie, T.

    2008-07-01

    We perform numerical simulations of lattice QCD with two flavors of dynamical overlap quarks, which have exact chiral symmetry on the lattice. While this fermion discretization is computationally demanding, we demonstrate the feasibility to simulate reasonably large and fine lattices by a careful choice of the lattice action and algorithmic improvements. Our production runs are carried out on a 16{sup 3}x32 lattice at a single lattice spacing around 0.12 fm. We explore the sea quark mass region down to m{sub s}/6, where m{sub s} is the physical strange quark mass, for a good control of the chiral extrapolation in future calculations of physical observables. We describe in detail our setup and algorithmic properties of the production simulations and present results for the static quark potential to fix the lattice scale and the locality of the overlap operator.

  16. Algebraic moment closure for population dynamics on discrete structures.

    PubMed

    House, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Moment closure on general discrete structures often requires one of the following: (i) an absence of short-closed loops (zero clustering); (ii) existence of a spatial scale; (iii) ad hoc assumptions. Algebraic methods are presented to avoid the use of such assumptions for populations based on clumps and are applied to both SIR and macroparasite disease dynamics. One approach involves a series of approximations that can be derived systematically, and another is exact and based on Lie algebraic methods.

  17. Probabilistic flood forecast: Exact and approximate predictive distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzysztofowicz, Roman

    2014-09-01

    For quantification of predictive uncertainty at the forecast time t0, the future hydrograph is viewed as a discrete-time continuous-state stochastic process {Hn: n=1,…,N}, where Hn is the river stage at time instance tn>t0. The probabilistic flood forecast (PFF) should specify a sequence of exceedance functions {F‾n: n=1,…,N} such that F‾n(h)=P(Zn>h), where P stands for probability, and Zn is the maximum river stage within time interval (t0,tn], practically Zn=max{H1,…,Hn}. This article presents a method for deriving the exact PFF from a probabilistic stage transition forecast (PSTF) produced by the Bayesian forecasting system (BFS). It then recalls (i) the bounds on F‾n, which can be derived cheaply from a probabilistic river stage forecast (PRSF) produced by a simpler version of the BFS, and (ii) an approximation to F‾n, which can be constructed from the bounds via a recursive linear interpolator (RLI) without information about the stochastic dependence in the process {H1,…,Hn}, as this information is not provided by the PRSF. The RLI is substantiated by comparing the approximate PFF against the exact PFF. Being reasonably accurate and very simple, the RLI may be attractive for real-time flood forecasting in systems of lesser complexity. All methods are illustrated with a case study for a 1430 km headwater basin wherein the PFF is produced for a 72-h interval discretized into 6-h steps.

  18. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  19. Discrete Dynamics Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  20. A three-level BDDC algorithm for Mortar discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.; Tu, X.

    2007-12-09

    In this paper, a three-level BDDC algorithm is developed for the solutions of large sparse algebraic linear systems arising from the mortar discretization of elliptic boundary value problems. The mortar discretization is considered on geometrically non-conforming subdomain partitions. In two-level BDDC algorithms, the coarse problem needs to be solved exactly. However, its size will increase with the increase of the number of the subdomains. To overcome this limitation, the three-level algorithm solves the coarse problem inexactly while a good rate of convergence is maintained. This is an extension of previous work, the three-level BDDC algorithms for standard finite element discretization. Estimates of the condition numbers are provided for the three-level BDDC method and numerical experiments are also discussed.

  1. A space-time discretization procedure for wave propagation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford

    1989-01-01

    Higher order compact algorithms are developed for the numerical simulation of wave propagation by using the concept of a discrete dispersion relation. The dispersion relation is the imprint of any linear operator in space-time. The discrete dispersion relation is derived from the continuous dispersion relation by examining the process by which locally plane waves propagate through a chosen grid. The exponential structure of the discrete dispersion relation suggests an efficient splitting of convective and diffusive terms for dissipative waves. Fourth- and eighth-order convection schemes are examined that involve only three or five spatial grid points. These algorithms are subject to the same restrictions that govern the use of dispersion relations in the constructions of asymptotic expansions to nonlinear evolution equations. A new eighth-order scheme is developed that is exact for Courant numbers of 1, 2, 3, and 4. Examples are given of a pulse and step wave with a small amount of physical diffusion.

  2. State exact reconstruction for switched linear systems via a super-twisting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, Francisco J.; Fridman, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the problem of state reconstruction synthesis for switched linear systems. Based only on the continuous output information, an observer is proposed ensuring the reconstruction of the entire state (continuous and discrete) in finite time. For the observer design an exact sliding mode differentiator is used, which allows the finite time convergence of the observer trajectories to the actual trajectories. The design scheme includes both cases: zero control input and nonzero control input. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer.

  3. EXACT Software Repository v 1.1

    2007-01-07

    The EXACT Software Repository contains a variety of software packages for describing, controlling, and analyzing computer experiments. The EXACT Python framework provides the experimentalist with convenient software tools to ease and organize the entire experimental process, including the description of factors and levels, the design of experiments, the control of experimental runs, the archiving of results, and analysis of results. The FAST package provides a Framework for Agile Software Testing. FAST manage the distributed executionmore » of EXACT, as well as summaries of test results.« less

  4. EXACT Software Repository v 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    HART, WILLIAM; BERRY, JONATHAN; HEAPHY, ROBERT; PHILLIPS, CYNTHIA; CHAKERIAN, STEFAN

    2007-01-07

    The EXACT Software Repository contains a variety of software packages for describing, controlling, and analyzing computer experiments. The EXACT Python framework provides the experimentalist with convenient software tools to ease and organize the entire experimental process, including the description of factors and levels, the design of experiments, the control of experimental runs, the archiving of results, and analysis of results. The FAST package provides a Framework for Agile Software Testing. FAST manage the distributed execution of EXACT, as well as summaries of test results.

  5. Exact optics - III. Schwarzschild's spectrograph camera revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willstrop, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Karl Schwarzschild identified a system of two mirrors, each defined by conic sections, free of third-order spherical aberration, coma and astigmatism, and with a flat focal surface. He considered it impractical, because the field was too restricted. This system was rediscovered as a quadratic approximation to one of Lynden-Bell's `exact optics' designs which have wider fields. Thus the `exact optics' version has a moderate but useful field, with excellent definition, suitable for a spectrograph camera. The mirrors are strongly aspheric in both the Schwarzschild design and the exact optics version.

  6. Discrete-Time Goldfishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    The original continuous-time ''goldfish'' dynamical system is characterized by two neat formulas, the first of which provides the N Newtonian equations of motion of this dynamical system, while the second provides the solution of the corresponding initial-value problem. Several other, more general, solvable dynamical systems ''of goldfish type'' have been identified over time, featuring, in the right-hand (''forces'') side of their Newtonian equations of motion, in addition to other contributions, a velocity-dependent term such as that appearing in the right-hand side of the first formula mentioned above. The solvable character of these models allows detailed analyses of their behavior, which in some cases is quite remarkable (for instance isochronous or asymptotically isochronous). In this paper we introduce and discuss various discrete-time dynamical systems, which are as well solvable, which also display interesting behaviors (including isochrony and asymptotic isochrony) and which reduce to dynamical systems of goldfish type in the limit when the discrete-time independent variable l=0,1,2,... becomes the standard continuous-time independent variable t, 0≤t<∞.

  7. COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY OF VARIOUS SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION SCHEMES OF THE DISCRETE ORDINATES EQUATIONS IN 2D CARTESIAN GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy; Damien Fournier

    2011-05-01

    We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.

  8. The EXACT description of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    Soldatova, Larisa N.; Aubrey, Wayne; King, Ross D.; Clare, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Many published manuscripts contain experiment protocols which are poorly described or deficient in information. This means that the published results are very hard or impossible to repeat. This problem is being made worse by the increasing complexity of high-throughput/automated methods. There is therefore a growing need to represent experiment protocols in an efficient and unambiguous way. Results: We have developed the Experiment ACTions (EXACT) ontology as the basis of a method of representing biological laboratory protocols. We provide example protocols that have been formalized using EXACT, and demonstrate the advantages and opportunities created by using this formalization. We argue that the use of EXACT will result in the publication of protocols with increased clarity and usefulness to the scientific community. Availability: The ontology, examples and code can be downloaded from http://www.aber.ac.uk/compsci/Research/bio/dss/EXACT/ Contact: Larisa Soldatova lss@aber.ac.uk PMID:18586727

  9. Guide for the program EXACT-NL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanvledder, G. Ph.; Weber, S. L.

    1987-02-01

    A set of programs called EXACT-NL, which computes fetch or duration limited wave growth with an explicit expression for the resonant four-wave interactions is described. The manual is based on experience with EXACT-NL for the computation of shallow water growth curves and the investigation of the directional response of waves to variations in the wind field. Modifications necessary for these specific purposes are also described.

  10. Exact relativistic {beta} decay endpoint spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, S. S.; Nasri, S.; Schechter, J.; Tortola, M. A.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2007-10-15

    The exact relativistic form for the {beta} decay endpoint spectrum is derived and presented in a simple factorized form. We show that our exact formula can be well approximated to yield the endpoint form used in the fit method of the KATRIN Collaboration. We also discuss the three-neutrino case and how information from neutrino oscillation experiments may be useful in analyzing future {beta} decay endpoint experiments.

  11. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2016-05-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of

  12. Mathematical Models of Quasi-Species Theory and Exact Results for the Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saakian, David B; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Crow-Kimura, discrete-time Eigen model, and continuous-time Eigen model. These models are interrelated and we established an exact mapping between them. We consider the evolutionary dynamics for the single-peak fitness and symmetric smooth fitness. We applied the quantum mechanical methods to find the exact dynamics of the evolution model with a single-peak fitness. For the smooth symmetric fitness landscape, we map exactly the evolution equations into Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE). We apply the method to the Crow-Kimura (parallel) and Eigen models. We get simple formulas to calculate the dynamics of the maximum of distribution and the variance. We review the existing mathematical tools of quasi-species theory.

  13. Exact solutions and symmetry analysis for the limiting probability distribution of quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin-Ping; Ide, Yusuke

    2016-10-01

    In the literature, there are numerous studies of one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) using a moving shift operator. However, there is no exact solution for the limiting probability distributions of DTQWs on cycles using a general coin or swapping shift operator. In this paper, we derive exact solutions for the limiting probability distribution of quantum walks using a general coin and swapping shift operator on cycles for the first time. Based on the exact solutions, we show how to generate symmetric quantum walks and determine the condition under which a symmetric quantum walk appears. Our results suggest that choosing various coin and initial state parameters can achieve a symmetric quantum walk. By defining a quantity to measure the variation of symmetry, deviation and mixing time of symmetric quantum walks are also investigated.

  14. Mathematical Models of Quasi-Species Theory and Exact Results for the Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saakian, David B; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Crow-Kimura, discrete-time Eigen model, and continuous-time Eigen model. These models are interrelated and we established an exact mapping between them. We consider the evolutionary dynamics for the single-peak fitness and symmetric smooth fitness. We applied the quantum mechanical methods to find the exact dynamics of the evolution model with a single-peak fitness. For the smooth symmetric fitness landscape, we map exactly the evolution equations into Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE). We apply the method to the Crow-Kimura (parallel) and Eigen models. We get simple formulas to calculate the dynamics of the maximum of distribution and the variance. We review the existing mathematical tools of quasi-species theory. PMID:26342705

  15. Discrete bisoliton fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. M.; Han, X. X.; Yao, X. K.

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative solitons, which result from the intricate balance between dispersion and nonlinearity as well as gain and loss, are of the fundamental scientific interest and numerous important applications. Here, we report a fiber laser that generates bisoliton – two consecutive dissipative solitons that preserve a fixed separation between them. Deviations from this separation result in its restoration. It is also found that these bisolitons have multiple discrete equilibrium distances with the quantized separations, as is confirmed by the theoretical analysis and the experimental observations. The main feature of our laser is the anomalous dispersion that is increased by an order of magnitude in comparison to previous studies. Then the spectral filtering effect plays a significant role in pulse-shaping. The proposed laser has the potential applications in optical communications and high-resolution optics for coding and transmission of information in higher-level modulation formats. PMID:27767075

  16. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  17. Discrete Pearson distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, K.O. ); Shenton, L.R. ); Kastenbaum, M.A. , Basye, VA )

    1991-11-01

    These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.

  18. Discrete anti-gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P. ); Starson, S. )

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.

  19. Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.

  20. A semi-discrete integrable multi-component coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hai-qiong; Yuan, Jinyun

    2016-07-01

    A new integrable semi-discrete version is proposed for the multi-component coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The integrability of the semi-discrete system is confirmed by existence of Lax pair and infinite number of conservation laws. With the aid of gauge transformations, explicit formulas for N-fold Darboux transformations are derived whereby some physically important solutions of the system are presented. Furthermore, the theory of the semi-discrete system including Lax pair, Darboux transformations, exact solutions and infinite number of conservation laws are shown for their continuous counterparts in the continuous limit.

  1. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

  2. Discrete subaortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M M; Varma, M P; Cleland, J; O'Kane, H O; Webb, S W; Mulholland, H C; Adgey, A A

    1981-01-01

    Data concerning 17 consecutive patients with discrete subaortic stenosis are recorded. Twelve patients underwent operative resection of the obstructing lesion. Of these all except one were symptomatic and all had electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular hypertrophy with strain. They had a peak resting systolic left ventricular outflow tract gradient of greater than 50 mmHg as predicted from the combined cuff measurement of systolic blood pressure and the echocardiographically estimated left ventricular systolic pressure and/or as determined by cardiac catheterisation. The outflow tract gradient as predicted from M-mode echocardiography and peak systolic pressure showed close correlation with that measured at cardiac catheterisation or operation. During the postoperative follow-up from one month to 11 years, of 11 patients, one patient required a further operation for recurrence of the obstruction four years after the initial operation. All patients are now asymptomatic. Five patients have not had an operation. The left ventricular outflow tract gradient as assessed at the time of cardiac catheterisation was greater than 50 mmHg. One patient has been lost to follow-up. The remaining four have been followed from four to eight years and have remained asymptomatic and the electrocardiograms have remained unchanged. Careful follow-up of all patients is essential with continuing clinical assessment, electrocardiograms, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms, and if necessary cardiac catheterisation. Prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis is also essential. Images PMID:6457617

  3. Discreteness inducing coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.

  4. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  5. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  6. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  7. Exact results on the ABJM Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2012-10-01

    We study the Fermi gas quantum mechanics associated to the ABJM matrix model. We develop a method to compute the grand partition function of the ABJM theory, and compute exactly the partition function Z( N) up to N = 9 with the Chern-Simons level k = 1. We find that the eigenvalue problem of this quantum mechanical system is reduced to the diagonalization of a certain Hankel matrix. In reducing the number of integrations by commuting coordinates and momenta, we find an exact relation concerning the grand partition function, which is interesting on its own right and very helpful for determining the partition function. We also study the TBA-type integral equations that allow us to compute the grand partition function numerically. Surprisingly, all of our exact partition functions are written in terms of polynomials of π -1 with rational coefficients.

  8. Discrete Newtonian cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, George F. R.; Gibbons, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we lay down the foundations for a purely Newtonian theory of cosmology, valid at scales small compared with the Hubble radius, using only Newtonian point particles acted on by gravity and a possible cosmological term. We describe the cosmological background which is given by an exact solution of the equations of motion in which the particles expand homothetically with their comoving positions constituting a central configuration. We point out, using previous work, that an important class of central configurations are homogeneous and isotropic, thus justifying the usual assumptions of elementary treatments. The scale factor is shown to satisfy the standard Raychaudhuri and Friedmann equations without making any fluid dynamic or continuum approximations. Since we make no commitment as to the identity of the point particles, our results are valid for cold dark matter, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. In future publications we plan to discuss perturbations of our cosmological background from the point particle viewpoint laid down in this paper and show consistency with much standard theory usually obtained by more complicated and conceptually less clear continuum methods. Apart from its potential use in large scale structure studies, we believe that our approach has great pedagogic advantages over existing elementary treatments of the expanding universe, since it requires no use of general relativity or continuum mechanics but concentrates on the basic physics: Newton’s laws for gravitationally interacting particles.

  9. Exact solution of the robust knapsack problem☆

    PubMed Central

    Monaci, Michele; Pferschy, Ulrich; Serafini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We consider an uncertain variant of the knapsack problem in which the weight of the items is not exactly known in advance, but belongs to a given interval, and an upper bound is imposed on the number of items whose weight differs from the expected one. For this problem, we provide a dynamic programming algorithm and present techniques aimed at reducing its space and time complexities. Finally, we computationally compare the performances of the proposed algorithm with those of different exact algorithms presented so far in the literature for robust optimization problems. PMID:24187428

  10. Strongly nonlinear waves in locally resonant granular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Vainchtein, Anna

    2016-11-01

    We explore a recently proposed locally resonant granular system bearing harmonic internal resonators in a chain of beads interacting via Hertzian elastic contacts. In this system, we propose the existence of two types of configurations: (a) small-amplitude periodic traveling waves and (b) dark-breather solutions, i.e. exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. A remarkable feature distinguishing our results from other settings where dark breathers are observed is the complete absence of precompression in the system, i.e. the absence of a linear spectral band. We also identify conditions under which the system admits long-lived bright breather solutions. Our results are obtained by means of an asymptotic reduction to a suitably modified version of the so-called discrete p-Schrödinger (DpS) equation, which is established as controllably approximating the solutions of the original system for large but finite times (under suitable assumptions on the solution amplitude and the resonator mass). The findings are also corroborated by detailed numerical computations. Long-lived bright breathers are proved to exist over long but finite times, after which numerical simulations indicate that the breathers disintegrate. In line with these results, we prove that the only exact time-periodic bright breathers consist of trivial linear oscillations, without contact interactions between discrete elements.

  11. Subcycle solitonic breathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    Optical breathing solitons are known to display well-resolved cycles where the phase of pulse compression is followed by pulse stretching. Here we show that, in the extreme regimes where the soliton pulse width approaches the field cycle, the field waveform dynamics can drastically differ from this textbook scenario. We demonstrate that such extremely short soliton transients can develop optical shock waves, which seed parametric amplification, facilitating, along with ionization nonlinearity, soliton compression to subcycle pulse widths. This pulse compression scenario is shown to enable the generation of sub-quarter-cycle multigigawatt optical field waveforms in the mid infrared.

  12. Exact results for hydrogen recombination on dust grain surfaces.

    PubMed

    Biham, Ofer; Lipshtat, Azi

    2002-11-01

    The recombination of hydrogen in the interstellar medium, taking place on surfaces of microscopic dust grains, is an essential process in the evolution of chemical complexity in interstellar clouds. Molecular hydrogen plays an important role in absorbing the heat that emerges during gravitational collapse, thus enabling the formation of structure in the universe. The H2 formation process has been studied theoretically, and in recent years also by laboratory experiments. The experimental results were analyzed using a rate equation model. The parameters of the surface that are relevant to H2 formation were obtained and used in order to calculate the recombination rate under interstellar conditions. However, it turned out that, due to the microscopic size of the dust grains and the low density of H atoms, the rate equations may not always apply. A master equation approach that provides a good description of the H2 formation process was proposed. It takes into account both the discrete nature of the H atoms and the fluctuations in the number of atoms on a grain. In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of the H2 formation process, under steady state conditions, using an exact solution of the master equation. This solution provides an exact result for the hydrogen recombination rate and its dependence on the flux, the surface temperature, and the grain size. The results are compared with those obtained from the rate equations. The relevant length scales in the problem are identified and the parameter space is divided into two domains. One domain, characterized by first order kinetics, exhibits high efficiency of H2 formation. In the other domain, characterized by second order kinetics, the efficiency of H2 formation is low. In each of these domains we identify the range of parameters in which, due to the small size of the grains, the rate equations do not account correctly for the recombination rate and the master equation is needed. PMID:12513552

  13. Exact results for hydrogen recombination on dust grain surfaces.

    PubMed

    Biham, Ofer; Lipshtat, Azi

    2002-11-01

    The recombination of hydrogen in the interstellar medium, taking place on surfaces of microscopic dust grains, is an essential process in the evolution of chemical complexity in interstellar clouds. Molecular hydrogen plays an important role in absorbing the heat that emerges during gravitational collapse, thus enabling the formation of structure in the universe. The H2 formation process has been studied theoretically, and in recent years also by laboratory experiments. The experimental results were analyzed using a rate equation model. The parameters of the surface that are relevant to H2 formation were obtained and used in order to calculate the recombination rate under interstellar conditions. However, it turned out that, due to the microscopic size of the dust grains and the low density of H atoms, the rate equations may not always apply. A master equation approach that provides a good description of the H2 formation process was proposed. It takes into account both the discrete nature of the H atoms and the fluctuations in the number of atoms on a grain. In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of the H2 formation process, under steady state conditions, using an exact solution of the master equation. This solution provides an exact result for the hydrogen recombination rate and its dependence on the flux, the surface temperature, and the grain size. The results are compared with those obtained from the rate equations. The relevant length scales in the problem are identified and the parameter space is divided into two domains. One domain, characterized by first order kinetics, exhibits high efficiency of H2 formation. In the other domain, characterized by second order kinetics, the efficiency of H2 formation is low. In each of these domains we identify the range of parameters in which, due to the small size of the grains, the rate equations do not account correctly for the recombination rate and the master equation is needed.

  14. A Legendre-Fourier spectral method with exact conservation laws for the Vlasov-Poisson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzini, G.; Delzanno, G. L.; Vencels, J.; Markidis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and implementation of an L2-stable spectral method for the discretization of the Vlasov-Poisson model of a collisionless plasma in one space and velocity dimension. The velocity and space dependence of the Vlasov equation are resolved through a truncated spectral expansion based on Legendre and Fourier basis functions, respectively. The Poisson equation, which is coupled to the Vlasov equation, is also resolved through a Fourier expansion. The resulting system of ordinary differential equation is discretized by the implicit second-order accurate Crank-Nicolson time discretization. The non-linear dependence between the Vlasov and Poisson equations is iteratively solved at any time cycle by a Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method. In this work we analyze the structure of the main conservation laws of the resulting Legendre-Fourier model, e.g., mass, momentum, and energy, and prove that they are exactly satisfied in the semi-discrete and discrete setting. The L2-stability of the method is ensured by discretizing the boundary conditions of the distribution function at the boundaries of the velocity domain by a suitable penalty term. The impact of the penalty term on the conservation properties is investigated theoretically and numerically. An implementation of the penalty term that does not affect the conservation of mass, momentum and energy, is also proposed and studied. A collisional term is introduced in the discrete model to control the filamentation effect, but does not affect the conservation properties of the system. Numerical results on a set of standard test problems illustrate the performance of the method.

  15. Discrete parametric oscillation and nondiffracting beams in a Glauber-Fock oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oztas, Z.; Yuce, C.

    2016-09-01

    We consider a Glauber-Fock oscillator and show that diffraction can be managed. We show how to design arrays of waveguides where light beams experience zero diffraction. We find an exact analytical family of nondiffracting localized solution. We predict discrete parametric oscillation in the Glauber-Fock oscillator.

  16. Discrete Darboux transformation for discrete polynomials of hypergeometric type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerezako, Gaspard

    1998-03-01

    The Darboux transformation, well known in second-order differential operator theory, is applied to the difference equations satisfied by the discrete hypergeometric polynomials (Charlier, Meixner-Kravchuk, Hahn).

  17. Discrete Dirac Structures and Implicit Discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leok, Melvin; Ohsawa, Tomoki

    2010-07-01

    We present discrete analogues of Dirac structures and the Tulczyjew's triple by considering the geometry of symplectic maps and their associated generating functions. We demonstrate that this framework provides a means of deriving discrete analogues of implicit Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. In particular, this yields implicit nonholonomic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian integrators. We also introduce discrete Lagrange-d'Alembert-Pontryagin and Hamilton-d'Alembert variational principles, which provide an alternative derivation of the same set of integration algorithms. In addition to providing a unified treatment of discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics in the more general setting of Dirac mechanics, it provides a generalization of symplectic and Poisson integrators to the broader category of Dirac integrators.

  18. Verbal Interference Suppresses Exact Numerical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael C.; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Piraha (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching…

  19. EXACT VECTORIAL LAW FOR AXISYMMETRIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Galtier, S.

    2009-10-20

    Three-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamics turbulence is investigated under the assumptions of homogeneity and axisymmetry. We demonstrate that previous works of Chandrasekhar may be improved significantly by using a different formalism for the representation of two-point correlation tensors. From this axisymmetric kinematics, the equations a la von Karman-Howarth are derived from which an exact relation is found in terms of measurable correlations. The relation is then analyzed in the particular case of a medium permeated by an imposed magnetic field B{sub 0} . We make the ansatz that the development of anisotropy implies an algebraic relation between the axial and the radial components of the separation vector r and we derive an exact vectorial law which is parameterized by the intensity of anisotropy. The critical balance proposed by Goldreich and Sridhar is used to fix this parameter and to obtain a unique exact expression; the particular limits of correlations transverse and parallel to B{sub 0} are given for which simple expressions are found. Predictions for the energy spectra are also proposed by a straightforward dimensional analysis of the exact law; it gives a stronger theoretical background to the heuristic spectra previously proposed in the context of the critical balance. We also discuss the wave turbulence limit of an asymptotically large external magnetic field which appears as a natural limit of the vectorial relation. A new interpretation of the anisotropic solar wind observations is eventually discussed.

  20. Exact vectorial law for axisymmetric MHD turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, S.

    2009-12-01

    3D incompressible MHD turbulence is investigated under the assumptions of homogeneity and axisymmetry. We demonstrate that previous works of Chandrasekhar (1950) may be improved significantly by using a different formalism for the representation of two-point correlation tensors. From this axisymmetric kinematics, the equations a la von Karman-Howarth are derived from which an exact relation is found in terms of measurable correlations. The relation is then analyzed in the particular case of a medium permeated by an imposed magnetic field. We make the ansatz that the development of anisotropy implies an algebraic relation between the axial and the radial components of the separation vector and we derive an exact vectorial law which is parametrized by the intensity of anisotropy. The critical balance proposed by Goldreich & Sridhar (1995) is used to fix this parameter and to obtain a unique exact expression; the particular limits of correlations transverse and parallel to the mean field are given for which simple expressions are found. Predictions for the energy spectra are also proposed by a straightforward dimensional analysis of the exact law; it gives a stronger theoretical background to the heuristic spectra previously proposed in the context of the critical balance. We also discuss the wave turbulence limit of an asymptotically large external magnetic field which appears as a natural limit of the vectorial relation. A new interpretation of the anisotropic solar wind observations is eventually discussed.

  1. Exact Vectorial Law for Axisymmetric Magnetohydrodynamics Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, S.

    2009-10-01

    Three-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamics turbulence is investigated under the assumptions of homogeneity and axisymmetry. We demonstrate that previous works of Chandrasekhar may be improved significantly by using a different formalism for the representation of two-point correlation tensors. From this axisymmetric kinematics, the equations à la von Kármán-Howarth are derived from which an exact relation is found in terms of measurable correlations. The relation is then analyzed in the particular case of a medium permeated by an imposed magnetic field B0 . We make the ansatz that the development of anisotropy implies an algebraic relation between the axial and the radial components of the separation vector r and we derive an exact vectorial law which is parameterized by the intensity of anisotropy. The critical balance proposed by Goldreich & Sridhar is used to fix this parameter and to obtain a unique exact expression; the particular limits of correlations transverse and parallel to B0 are given for which simple expressions are found. Predictions for the energy spectra are also proposed by a straightforward dimensional analysis of the exact law; it gives a stronger theoretical background to the heuristic spectra previously proposed in the context of the critical balance. We also discuss the wave turbulence limit of an asymptotically large external magnetic field which appears as a natural limit of the vectorial relation. A new interpretation of the anisotropic solar wind observations is eventually discussed.

  2. Exact Solutions to Time-dependent Mdps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyan, Justin A.; Littman, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    We describe an extension of the Markov decision process model in which a continuous time dimension is included in the state space. This allows for the representation and exact solution of a wide range of problems in which transitions or rewards vary over time. We examine problems based on route planning with public transportation and telescope observation scheduling.

  3. Exact fractional revival in spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of fractional revival in quantum spin chains is examined. Analytic models where this phenomenon can be exhibited in exact solutions are provided. It is explained that spin chains with fractional revival can be obtained by isospectral deformations of spin chains with perfect state transfer.

  4. Information entropy of conditionally exactly solvable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, D.; Roy, P.

    2011-03-15

    We evaluate Shannon entropy for the position and momentum eigenstates of some conditionally exactly solvable potentials which are isospectral to harmonic oscillator and whose solutions are given in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality has also been tested for a number of states.

  5. Exact Abjm Partition Function from Tba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putrov, Pavel; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2012-11-01

    We report on the exact computation of the S3 partition function of U(N)k × U(N)-k ABJM theory for k = 1, N = 1, …, 19. The result is a polynomial in π-1 with rational coefficients. As an application of our results, we numerically determine the coefficient of the membrane 1-instanton correction to the partition function.

  6. Theory of the Lattice Boltzmann Equation: Symmetry properties of Discrete Velocity Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Luo, Li-Shi

    2007-01-01

    In the lattice Boltzmann equation, continuous particle velocity space is replaced by a finite dimensional discrete set. The number of linearly independent velocity moments in a lattice Boltzmann model cannot exceed the number of discrete velocities. Thus, finite dimensionality introduces linear dependencies among the moments that do not exist in the exact continuous theory. Given a discrete velocity set, it is important to know to exactly what order moments are free of these dependencies. Elementary group theory is applied to the solution of this problem. It is found that by decomposing the velocity set into subsets that transform among themselves under an appropriate symmetry group, it becomes relatively straightforward to assess the behavior of moments in the theory. The construction of some standard two- and three-dimensional models is reviewed from this viewpoint, and procedures for constructing some new higher dimensional models are suggested.

  7. Novel approach to data discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowik, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Karol; Jankowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Discretization is an important preprocessing step in data mining. The data discretization method involves determining the ranges of values for numeric attributes, which ultimately represent discrete intervals for new attributes. The ranges for the proposed set of cuts are analyzed, in order to obtain a minimal set of ranges while retaining the possibility of classification. For this purpose, a special discernibility function can be constructed as a conjunction of alternative cuts set for each pair of different objects of different decisions- cuts discern these objects. However, the data mining methods based on discernibility matrix are insufficient for large databases. The purpose of this paper is the idea of implementation of a new data discretization algorithm that is based on statistics of attribute values and that avoids building the discernibility matrix explicitly. Evaluation of time complexity has shown that the proposed method is much more efficient than currently available solutions for large data sets.

  8. Concurrency and discrete event control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Much of discrete event control theory has been developed within the framework of automata and formal languages. An alternative approach inspired by the theories of process-algebra as developed in the computer science literature is presented. The framework, which rests on a new formalism of concurrency, can adequately handle nondeterminism and can be used for analysis of a wide range of discrete event phenomena.

  9. Discrete photonics in waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Moison, J M; Belabas, N; Minot, C; Levenson, J A

    2009-08-15

    In homogeneous arrays of coupled waveguides, Floquet-Bloch waves are known to travel freely across the waveguides. We introduce a systematic discussion of the built-in patterning of the coupling constant between neighboring waveguides. Key patterns provide functions such as redirecting, guiding, and focusing these waves, up to nonlinear all-optical routing. This opens the way to light control in a functionalized discrete space, i.e., discrete photonics.

  10. A deterministic global approach for mixed-discrete structural optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Hua; Tsai, Jung-Fa

    2014-07-01

    This study proposes a novel approach for finding the exact global optimum of a mixed-discrete structural optimization problem. Although many approaches have been developed to solve the mixed-discrete structural optimization problem, they cannot guarantee finding a global solution or they adopt too many extra binary variables and constraints in reformulating the problem. The proposed deterministic method uses convexification strategies and linearization techniques to convert a structural optimization problem into a convex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem solvable to obtain a global optimum. To enhance the computational efficiency in treating complicated problems, the range reduction technique is also applied to tighten variable bounds. Several numerical experiments drawn from practical structural design problems are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Discrete field theories and spatial properties of strings

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-10-01

    We use the ground-state wave function in the light-cone gauge to study the spatial properties of fundamental strings. We find that, as the cut-off in the parameter space is removed, the strings are smooth and have a divergent size. Guided by these properties, we consider a large-N lattice gauge theory which has an unstable phase where the size of strings diverges. We show that this phase exactly describes free fundamental strings. The lattice spacing does not have to be taken to zero for this equivalence to hold. Thus, exact rotation and translation invariance is restored in a discrete space. This suggests that the number of fundamental short-distance degrees of freedom in string theory is much smaller than in a conventional field theory. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Hidden algebra method (quasi-exact-solvability in quantum mechanics)

    SciTech Connect

    Turbiner, Alexander

    1996-02-20

    A general introduction to quasi-exactly-solvable problems of quantum mechanics is presented. Main attention is given to multidimensional quasi-exactly-solvable and exactly-solvable Schroedinger operators. Exact-solvability of the Calogero and Sutherland N-body problems ass ociated with an existence of the hidden algebra slN is discussed extensively.

  13. Representing exact number visually using mental abacus.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Barner, David

    2012-02-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of children in India. Our results suggest that MA is represented in visual working memory by splitting the abacus into a series of columns, each of which is independently stored as a unit with its own detailed substructure. In addition, we show that the computations of practiced MA users (but not those of control participants) are relatively insensitive to verbal interference, consistent with the hypothesis that MA is a nonlinguistic format for exact numerical computation. PMID:21767040

  14. Exact vectorial law for homogeneous rotating turbulence.

    PubMed

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2009-10-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence is investigated under the assumptions of homogeneity and weak axisymmetry. Following the kinematics developed by E. Lindborg [J. Fluid Mech. 302, 179 (1995)] we rewrite the von Kármán-Howarth equation in terms of measurable correlations and derive the exact relation associated with the flux conservation. This relation is then analyzed in the particular case of turbulence subject to solid-body rotation. We make the ansatz that the development of anisotropy implies an algebraic relation between the axial and the radial components of the separation vector r and we derive an exact vectorial law which is parametrized by the intensity of anisotropy. A simple dimensional analysis allows us to fix this parameter and find a unique expression.

  15. Exact solution to fractional logistic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.

    2015-07-01

    The logistic equation is one of the most familiar nonlinear differential equations in the biological and social sciences. Herein we provide an exact solution to an extension of this equation to incorporate memory through the use of fractional derivatives in time. The solution to the fractional logistic equation (FLE) is obtained using the Carleman embedding technique that allows the nonlinear equation to be replaced by an infinite-order set of linear equations, which we then solve exactly. The formal series expansion for the initial value solution of the FLE is shown to be expressed in terms of a series of weighted Mittag-Leffler functions that reduces to the well known analytic solution in the limit where the fractional index for the derivative approaches unity. The numerical integration to the FLE provides an excellent fit to the analytic solution. We propose this approach as a general technique for solving a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  16. Representing exact number visually using mental abacus.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Barner, David

    2012-02-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of children in India. Our results suggest that MA is represented in visual working memory by splitting the abacus into a series of columns, each of which is independently stored as a unit with its own detailed substructure. In addition, we show that the computations of practiced MA users (but not those of control participants) are relatively insensitive to verbal interference, consistent with the hypothesis that MA is a nonlinguistic format for exact numerical computation.

  17. On higher dimensional exact Courant algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengifo, Camilo

    2016-09-01

    For a smooth manifold X we show an equivalence of categories between the category of OX♯ [ n ] -extensions of TX♯ and the category of higher-dimensional exact Courant algebroids on X. In addition, for any object in the category of R [ n ] dg-principal bundles over X♯ we construct its Atiyah algebroid which gives rise to an example of OX♯ [ n ] -extensions of TX♯.

  18. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, G.T. ); Tseytlin, A.A. )

    1994-10-15

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail.

  19. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-11-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  20. A hierarchical exact accelerated stochastic simulation algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Orendorff, David; Mjolsness, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm, “HiER-leap” (hierarchical exact reaction-leaping), is derived which improves on the computational properties of the ER-leap algorithm for exact accelerated simulation of stochastic chemical kinetics. Unlike ER-leap, HiER-leap utilizes a hierarchical or divide-and-conquer organization of reaction channels into tightly coupled “blocks” and is thereby able to speed up systems with many reaction channels. Like ER-leap, HiER-leap is based on the use of upper and lower bounds on the reaction propensities to define a rejection sampling algorithm with inexpensive early rejection and acceptance steps. But in HiER-leap, large portions of intra-block sampling may be done in parallel. An accept/reject step is used to synchronize across blocks. This method scales well when many reaction channels are present and has desirable asymptotic properties. The algorithm is exact, parallelizable and achieves a significant speedup over the stochastic simulation algorithm and ER-leap on certain problems. This algorithm offers a potentially important step towards efficient in silico modeling of entire organisms. PMID:23231214

  1. Exact theory of freeze-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannoni, Mirco

    2015-03-01

    We show that the standard theory of thermal production and chemical decoupling of WIMPs is incomplete. The hypothesis that WIMPs are produced and decouple from a thermal bath implies that the rate equation the bath particles interacting with the WIMPs is an algebraic equation that constraints the actual WIMPs abundance to have a precise analytical form down to the temperature . The point , which coincides with the stationary point of the equation for the quantity , is where the maximum departure of the WIMPs abundance from the thermal value is reached. For each mass and total annihilation cross section , the temperature and the actual WIMPs abundance are exactly known. This value provides the true initial condition for the usual differential equation that have to be integrated in the interval . The matching of the two abundances at is continuous and differentiable. The dependence of the present relic abundance on the abundance at an intermediate temperature is an exact result. The exact theory suggests a new analytical approximation that furnishes the relic abundance accurate at the level of 1-2 % in the case of -wave and -wave scattering cross sections. We conclude the paper studying the evolution of the WIMPs chemical potential and the entropy production using methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

  2. Stochastic TDHF in an exactly solvable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, L.; Suraud, E.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Dinh, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We apply in a schematic model a theory beyond mean-field, namely Stochastic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock (STDHF), which includes dynamical electron-electron collisions on top of an incoherent ensemble of mean-field states by occasional 2-particle-2-hole (2 p 2 h) jumps. The model considered here is inspired by a Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model of Ω particles distributed into two bands of energy and coupled by a two-body interaction. Such a model can be exactly solved (numerically though) for small Ω. It therefore allows a direct comparison of STDHF and the exact propagation. The systematic impact of the model parameters as the density of states, the excitation energy and the bandwidth is presented and discussed. The time evolution of the STDHF compares fairly well with the exact entropy, as soon as the excitation energy is sufficiently large to allow 2 p 2 h transitions. Limitations concerning low energy excitations and memory effects are also discussed.

  3. Exact Jacobians in an implicit Newton method for two-phase flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büsing, H.; Clauser, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geological storage of CO2 is one option for mitigating the effects of CO2 emissions on global warming. Since extensive on-site monitoring of the CO2 plume propagation is expensive, numerical simulations are an attractive alternative for gaining deeper insight in the dynamics of this system. We consider a model for two-phase flow in porous media for representing the injection stage of a CO2 sequestration scenario, when the plume propagation is dominated by advection. The porous medium filled by the two phases CO2 and brine is modelled as an initial-boundary-value problem consisting of two nonlinear, coupled partial differential equations, which are complemented by appropriate boundary and initial conditions. We present a new numerical approach to solve this fully coupled system using exact Jacobians. The method is based on the finite element, finite volume, box method [Huber & Helmig(2000)] for the space discretization and, since stability of the method is one of the main concerns, the fully implicit Euler method for the time discretization. A simple first order upwind method takes into account advective contributions. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations is linearized by Newton's method. The required Jacobians can be obtained elegantly by automatic differentiation (AD) [Griewank & Walther(2008), Rall(1981)], a source code transformation giving exact derivatives of the discretized equations with respect to primary variables. The resulting system of linear equations is then solved by an iterative method (BiCGStab) with ILU0 preconditioning in every Newton step. We compare the forward AD differentiation mode to the standard finite difference method in terms of precision and performance. It turns out that AD performs favourable in both aspects. We also illustrate the advantages of exact Jacobians for two-phase flow in a sequestration scenario investigating the evolution of pressure and saturation.

  4. An Exact Dual Adjoint Solution Method for Turbulent Flows on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Lu, James; Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm for solving the discrete adjoint system based on an unstructured-grid discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The method is constructed such that an adjoint solution exactly dual to a direct differentiation approach is recovered at each time step, yielding a convergence rate which is asymptotically equivalent to that of the primal system. The new approach is implemented within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid framework and results are presented for inviscid, laminar, and turbulent flows. Improvements to the baseline solution algorithm, such as line-implicit relaxation and a tight coupling of the turbulence model, are also presented. By storing nearest-neighbor terms in the residual computation, the dual scheme is computationally efficient, while requiring twice the memory of the flow solution. The scheme is expected to have a broad impact on computational problems related to design optimization as well as error estimation and grid adaptation efforts.

  5. Exact solution to plane-wave scattering by an ideal "left-handed" wedge.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Smith, Douglas; Loschialpo, Peter

    2006-02-01

    An exact analytical solution to the problem of plane-wave diffraction by a penetrable left-handed medium (LHM) epsilon = micro = -1 wedge of arbitrary angle (subject to valid physical constraints) is presented. Standard analysis involving discontinuous angular eigenfunctions and even/odd symmetry decomposition resulted in a discrete spectrum leading to a series solution resembling the traditional perfect electric conductor wedge solution but exhibiting the expected negative refraction phenomenology. Numerical results are presented, some of which seemed paradoxical but are explainable by classical means. A new type of illusory edge radiation is observed and explained. Also, a novel edge-launched interface standing wave is observed on the directly illuminated side. The exact analytical solution is verified by comparison with finite-difference time-domain simulation on causal LHM materials.

  6. Experiments on exactly computing non-linear energy transfer rate in MASNUM-WAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xingjie; Wang, Daolong; Gao, Dalu; Zhang, Tingting

    2016-07-01

    The Webb-Resio-Tracy (WRT) method for exact computation of the non-linear energy transfer rate was implemented in MASNUM-WAM, which is a third-generation wave model solving the discrete spectral balance equation. In this paper, we describe the transformation of the spectral space in the original WRT method. Four numerical procedures were developed in which the acceleration techniques in the original WRT method, such as geometric scaling, pre-calculating, and grid-searching, are all reorganized. A series of numerical experiments including two simulations based on real data were performed. The availability of such implementation in both serial and parallel versions of the wave model was proved, and a comparison of computation times showed that some of the developed procedures provided good efficacy. With exact computation of non-linear energy transfer, MASNUM-WAM now can be used to perform numerical experiments for research purposes, which augurs well for further developments of the model.

  7. On exact statistics and classification of ergodic systems of integer dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Guralnik, Zachary Guralnik, Gerald; Pehlevan, Cengiz

    2014-06-01

    We describe classes of ergodic dynamical systems for which some statistical properties are known exactly. These systems have integer dimension, are not globally dissipative, and are defined by a probability density and a two-form. This definition generalizes the construction of Hamiltonian systems by a Hamiltonian and a symplectic form. Some low dimensional examples are given, as well as a discretized field theory with a large number of degrees of freedom and a local nearest neighbor interaction. We also evaluate unequal-time correlations of these systems without direct numerical simulation, by Padé approximants of a short-time expansion. We briefly speculate on the possibility of constructing chaotic dynamical systems with non-integer dimension and exactly known statistics. In this case there is no probability density, suggesting an alternative construction in terms of a Hopf characteristic function and a two-form.

  8. Multi-dimensional, fully implicit, exactly conserving electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations in curvilinear geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangye; Chacon, Luis

    2015-11-01

    We discuss a new, conservative, fully implicit 2D3V Vlasov-Darwin particle-in-cell algorithm in curvilinear geometry for non-radiative, electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations. Unlike standard explicit PIC schemes, fully implicit PIC algorithms are unconditionally stable and allow exact discrete energy and charge conservation. Here, we extend these algorithms to curvilinear geometry. The algorithm retains its exact conservation properties in curvilinear grids. The nonlinear iteration is effectively accelerated with a fluid preconditioner for weakly to modestly magnetized plasmas, which allows efficient use of large timesteps, O (√{mi/me}c/veT) larger than the explicit CFL. In this presentation, we will introduce the main algorithmic components of the approach, and demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency properties of the algorithm with various numerical experiments in 1D (slow shock) and 2D (island coalescense).

  9. Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2001-01-01

    A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.

  10. Discrete event simulation of continuous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation of a system described by differential equations requires that some element of the system be approximated by discrete quantities. There are two system aspects that can be made discrete; time and state. When time is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a difference equation (i.e., a discrete time system), and the solution is calculated at fixed points in time. When the state is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a discrete event system. Events correspond to jumps through the discrete state space of the approximation.

  11. Exact, zero-energy, square-integrable solutions of a model related to the Maxwell's fish-eye problem

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, Adam J.

    2009-12-15

    A model, which admits normalizable wave functions of the Schroedinger equation at the energy of E = 0, is exactly solved and the solutions are compared to the corresponding classical trajectories. The wave functions are proved to be square-integrable for discrete (quantized) values of the coupling constant of the used potential. We also show that our model is a specific version of the well-known Maxwell's fish-eye. This is performed with the help of a suitably chosen conformal mapping.

  12. Geometry of discrete quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Sabry, Amr; Tai, Yu-Tsung

    2013-05-01

    Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2n infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} (based on primes p congruent to 3 (mod4)) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space \\mathbf {CP}^{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p + 1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to \\mathbf {DCP}^{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analogue of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\,\\prod _{k=1}^{n-1} ( p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} have pn(p - 1)n unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have pn + 1(p - 1)(p + 1)n - 1 maximally entangled states with purity zero.

  13. Discrete cloud structure on Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, H. B.

    1989-07-01

    Recent CCD imaging data for the discrete cloud structure of Neptune shows that while cloud features at CH4-band wavelengths are manifest in the southern hemisphere, they have not been encountered in the northern hemisphere since 1986. A literature search has shown the reflected CH4-band light from the planet to have come from a single discrete feature at least twice in the last 10 years. Disk-integrated photometry derived from the imaging has demonstrated that a bright cloud feature was responsible for the observed 8900 A diurnal variation in 1986 and 1987.

  14. Exact solutions for steady reconnective annihilation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Vyacheslav S.; Tassi, Emanuele; Hornig, Gunnar

    2004-10-01

    This work complements the previous studies on steady reconnective magnetic annihilation in three different geometries: the two-dimensional Cartesian and polar ones and the three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical one. A special class of diffusive solutions is found analytically in explicit form for all of the three geometries. In the 3D case it is extended to a much wider class of exact solutions describing reconnective magnetic annihilation at the separatrix spine line of a magnetic null point. One of the obtained solutions provides an explicit expression for the Craig-Fabling solution. It is also identified which of the steady flow regimes found are dynamically accessible.

  15. Supersymmetric Ito equation: Bosonization and exact solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Bo; Yu Jun; Lin Ji

    2013-04-15

    Based on the bosonization approach, the N=1 supersymmetric Ito (sIto) system is changed to a system of coupled bosonic equations. The approach can effectively avoid difficulties caused by intractable fermionic fields which are anticommuting. By solving the coupled bosonic equations, the traveling wave solutions of the sIto system are obtained with the mapping and deformation method. Some novel types of exact solutions for the supersymmetric system are constructed with the solutions and symmetries of the usual Ito equation. In the meanwhile, the similarity reduction solutions of the model are also studied with the Lie point symmetry theory.

  16. Supersymmetric Ito equation: Bosonization and exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bo; Lin, Ji; Yu, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the bosonization approach, the N =1 N = 1 supersymmetric Ito (sIto) system is changed to a system of coupled bosonic equations. The approach can effectively avoid difficulties caused by intractable fermionic fields which are anticommuting. By solving the coupled bosonic equations, the traveling wave solutions of the sIto system are obtained with the mapping and deformation method. Some novel types of exact solutions for the supersymmetric system are constructed with the solutions and symmetries of the usual Ito equation. In the meanwhile, the similarity reduction solutions of the model are also studied with the Lie point symmetry theory.

  17. Exactly soluble quantum wormhole in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.; Yoon, Myung Seok

    2004-11-15

    We are presenting a quantum traversable wormhole in an exactly soluble two-dimensional model. This is different from previous works since the exotic negative energy that supports the wormhole is generated from the quantization of classical energy-momentum tensors. This explicit illustration shows the quantum-mechanical energy can be used as a candidate for the exotic source. As for the traversability, after a particle travels through the wormhole, the static initial wormhole geometry gets a back reaction which spoils the wormhole structure. However, it may still maintain the initial structure along with the appropriate boundary condition.

  18. Exact solutions for network rewiring models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. S.

    2007-03-01

    Evolving networks with a constant number of edges may be modelled using a rewiring process. These models are used to describe many real-world processes including the evolution of cultural artifacts such as family names, the evolution of gene variations, and the popularity of strategies in simple econophysics models such as the minority game. The model is closely related to Urn models used for glasses, quantum gravity and wealth distributions. The full mean field equation for the degree distribution is found and its exact solution and generating solution are given.

  19. Exact and asymptotic distributions of LULU smoothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, W. J.; de Wet, T.; Jankowitz, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper considers a class of non-linear smoothers, called LULU smoothers, introduced by Rohwer in the late eighties in the mathematics literature, and since then investigated fairly extensively by a number of authors for its mathematical properties. They have been successfully applied in various engineering and scientific problems. However, to date their distribution theory has not received any attention in the literature. In this paper we derive their exact as well as asymptotic distributions and show their relationship to the upper order statistics.

  20. Coherent states for exactly solvable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Shreecharan, T.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Banerji, J.

    2004-01-01

    A general algebraic procedure for constructing coherent states of a wide class of exactly solvable potentials, e.g., Morse and Poeschl-Teller, is given. The method, a priori, is potential independent and connects with earlier developed ones, including the oscillator-based approaches for coherent states and their generalizations. This approach can be straightforwardly extended to construct more general coherent states for the quantum-mechanical potential problems, such as the nonlinear coherent states for the oscillators. The time evolution properties of some of these coherent states show revival and fractional revival, as manifested in the autocorrelation functions, as well as, in the quantum carpet structures.

  1. Exact teleparallel gravity of binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hanafy, W.; Nashed, G. G. L.

    2016-02-01

    An exact solution of two singularities in the teleparallel equivalent to general relativity theory has been obtained. A holographic visualization of the binary black holes (BBHs) space-time, due to the non vanishing torsion scalar field, has been given. The acceleration tensor of BBHs space-time has been calculated. The results identify the repulsive gravity zones of the BBHs field. The total conserved quantities of the BBHs has been evaluated. Possible gravitational radiation emission by the system has been calculated without assuming a weak field initial data.

  2. Exact diagonalization of quantum-spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. Q.

    1990-10-01

    We have developed a technique to replace hashing in implementing the Lanczös method for exact diagonalization of quantum-spin models that enables us to carry out numerical studies on substantially larger lattices than previously studied. We describe the algorithm in detail and present results for the ground-state energy, the first-excited-state energy, and the spin-spin correlations on various finite lattices for spins S=1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2. Results for an infinite system are obtained by extrapolation. We also discuss the generalization of our method to other models.

  3. Quasiclassical asymptotics and coherent states for bounded discrete spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Gorska, K.; Penson, K. A.; Horzela, A.; Blasiak, P.; Duchamp, G. H. E.; Solomon, A. I.

    2010-12-15

    We consider discrete spectra of bound states for nonrelativistic motion in attractive potentials V{sub {sigma}}(x)=-|V{sub 0}| |x|{sup -}{sigma}, 0<{sigma}{<=}2. For these potentials the quasiclassical approximation for n{yields}{infinity} predicts quantized energy levels e{sub {sigma}}(n) of a bounded spectrum varying as e{sub {sigma}}(n){approx}-n{sup -}2{sigma}/(2-{sigma}). We construct collective quantum states using the set of wavefunctions of the discrete spectrum assuming this asymptotic behavior. We give examples of states that are normalizable and satisfy the resolution of unity, using explicit positive functions. These are coherent states in the sense of Klauder and their completeness is achieved via exact solutions of Hausdorff moment problems, obtained by combining Laplace and Mellin transform methods. For {sigma} in the range 0 < {sigma}{<=} 2/3 we present exact implementations of such states for the parametrization {sigma}= 2(k-l)/(3k-l) with k and l positive integers satisfying k>l.

  4. Inflationary potentials from the exact renormalisation group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kraljić, David; Svanes, Eirik Eik

    2016-08-01

    We show that an inflationary slow-roll potential can be derived as an IR limit of the non-perturbative exact renormalisation group equation for a scalar field within the mean-field approximation. The result follows without having to specify a Lagrangian in the UV, which we take to be somewhere below the Planck scale to avoid discussing quantum gravity effects. We assume that the theory contains a scalar mode with suppressed coupling to other fields, and that higher derivative couplings are suppressed. In this framework the exact RG equation becomes a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation, which we solve. The effective IR potential is then dominated by the eigen-states of the RG Hamiltonian with the highest eigenvalues. We find that these potentials can generically give rise to slow-roll inflation, which is fully consistent with recent observations. As an example of how the proposed renormalisation group procedure works, we perform an explicit calculation in the ϕ4 theory in an appendix.

  5. An exactly solvable model for quantum communications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2013-12-12

    Information theory establishes the ultimate limits on performance for noisy communication systems. Accurate models of physical communication devices must include quantum effects, but these typically make the theory intractable. As a result, communication capacities--the maximum possible rates of data transmission--are not known, even for transmission between two users connected by an electromagnetic waveguide with Gaussian noise. Here we present an exactly solvable model of communication with a fully quantum electromagnetic field. This gives explicit expressions for all point-to-point capacities of noisy quantum channels, with implications for quantum key distribution and fibre-optic communications. We also develop a theory of quantum communication networks by solving some rudimentary models including broadcast and multiple-access channels. We compare the predictions of our model with the orthodox Gaussian model and in all cases find agreement to within a few bits. At high signal-to-noise ratios, our simple model captures the relevant physics while remaining amenable to exact solution. PMID:24240277

  6. An exactly solvable model for quantum communications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2013-12-12

    Information theory establishes the ultimate limits on performance for noisy communication systems. Accurate models of physical communication devices must include quantum effects, but these typically make the theory intractable. As a result, communication capacities--the maximum possible rates of data transmission--are not known, even for transmission between two users connected by an electromagnetic waveguide with Gaussian noise. Here we present an exactly solvable model of communication with a fully quantum electromagnetic field. This gives explicit expressions for all point-to-point capacities of noisy quantum channels, with implications for quantum key distribution and fibre-optic communications. We also develop a theory of quantum communication networks by solving some rudimentary models including broadcast and multiple-access channels. We compare the predictions of our model with the orthodox Gaussian model and in all cases find agreement to within a few bits. At high signal-to-noise ratios, our simple model captures the relevant physics while remaining amenable to exact solution.

  7. Explicitly broken supersymmetry with exactly massless moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xi; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Zhao, Yue

    2016-06-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is applied to an analogue of the little hierarchy problem in three-dimensional supersymmetric theories. The bulk is governed by a super-gravity theory in which a U(1) × U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. The bulk-to-boundary propagator of the Chern-Simons fields is a total derivative with respect to the bulk coordinates. Integration by parts and the Ward identity permit evaluation of SUSY breaking effects to all orders in the strength of the deformation. The R-charges of scalars and spinors differ so large SUSY breaking mass shifts are generated. Masses of R-neutral particles such as scalar moduli are not shifted to any order in the deformation strength, despite the fact that they may couple to R-charged fields running in loops. We also obtain a universal deformation formula for correlation functions under an exactly marginal deformation by a product of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic U(1) currents.

  8. Gap Filling as Exact Path Length Problem.

    PubMed

    Salmela, Leena; Sahlin, Kristoffer; Mäkinen, Veli; Tomescu, Alexandru I

    2016-05-01

    One of the last steps in a genome assembly project is filling the gaps between consecutive contigs in the scaffolds. This problem can be naturally stated as finding an s-t path in a directed graph whose sum of arc costs belongs to a given range (the estimate on the gap length). Here s and t are any two contigs flanking a gap. This problem is known to be NP-hard in general. Here we derive a simpler dynamic programming solution than already known, pseudo-polynomial in the maximum value of the input range. We implemented various practical optimizations to it, and compared our exact gap-filling solution experimentally to popular gap-filling tools. Summing over all the bacterial assemblies considered in our experiments, we can in total fill 76% more gaps than the best previous tool, and the gaps filled by our method span 136% more sequence. Furthermore, the error level of the newly introduced sequence is comparable to that of the previous tools. The experiments also show that our exact approach does not easily scale to larger genomes, where the problem is in general difficult for all tools. PMID:26959081

  9. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  10. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm2 exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  11. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    SciTech Connect

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm{sup 2} exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  12. Exact solution of the Isovector-Isoscalar pairing interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Errea, B.; Lerma, S.

    2010-04-26

    A Richardson-Gaudin exactly-solvable model is presented for an isovector-isoscalar pairing interaction. Exact results show the existence of quartet correlations at T = 0, that disappear at higher T where two condensates of identical particles coexist.

  13. Exact controllability of partial integrodifferential equations with mixed boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, K.; Balachandran, K.; Lavanya, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work the exact controllability of linear parabolic integrodifferential equations with mixed boundary conditions are studied. Carleman estimate for the linearized problem providing the observability results is fundamental to the analysis and by duality it provides exact global controllability.

  14. Development of discrete gas kinetic scheme for simulation of 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.

  15. Hidden algebra method (quasi-exact-solvability in quantum mechanics)

    SciTech Connect

    Turbiner, A. |

    1996-02-01

    A general introduction to quasi-exactly-solvable problems of quantum mechanics is presented. Main attention is given to multidimensional quasi-exactly-solvable and exactly-solvable Schroedinger operators. Exact-solvability of the Calogero and Sutherland {ital N}-body problems ass ociated with an existence of the hidden algebra {ital sl}{sub {ital N}} is discussed extensively. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Dust grain coagulation modelling : From discrete to continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paruta, P.; Hendrix, T.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    In molecular clouds, stars are formed from a mixture of gas, plasma and dust particles. The dynamics of this formation is still actively investigated and a study of dust coagulation can help to shed light on this process. Starting from a pre-existing discrete coagulation model, this work aims to mathematically explore its properties and its suitability for numerical validation. The crucial step is in our reinterpretation from its original discrete to a well-defined continuous form, which results in the well-known Smoluchowski coagulation equation. This opens up the possibility of exploiting previous results in order to prove the existence and uniqueness of a mass conserving solution for the evolution of dust grain size distribution. Ultimately, to allow for a more flexible numerical implementation, the problem is rewritten as a non-linear hyperbolic integro-differential equation and solved using a finite volume discretisation. It is demonstrated that there is an exact numerical agreement with the initial discrete model, with improved accuracy. This is of interest for further work on dynamically coupled gas with dust simulations.

  17. Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.

  18. Rainbow-shift mechanism behind discrete optical-potential ambiguities

    SciTech Connect

    Brandan, M.E. ); McVoy, K.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Some years ago, Drisko {ital et} {ital al}. suggested that the discrete ambiguity often encountered for elastic scattering optical potentials could be understood as being due to the interior or small-{ital l} {ital S}-matrix elements for two equivalent'' potentials differing in phase by 2{pi}, {ital l}-by-{ital l}. We point out that the {ital absence} of this phase change for peripheral partial waves is equally essential, and suggest that a deeper understanding of the ambiguity may be achieved by viewing it as a consequence of a farside interference between interior and peripheral partial waves. It is this interference which produces the broad Airy maxima'' of a nuclear rainbow, and we show that a Drisko-type phase-shift increment {delta}{sub {ital l}}{r arrow}({delta}{sub {ital l}}+{pi}) for low-{ital l} phases relative to the high-{ital l} ones is exactly what is needed to shift a farside rainbow pattern by one Airy maximum, thus providing an equivalent rainbow-shift'' interpretation of the discrete ambiguity. The physical importance of both interpretations lies in the fact that the existence of discrete ambiguities (as well as of nuclear rainbows) is explicit evidence for low-{ital l} transparency in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The essential role played by low partial waves explains why peripheral reactions have generally not proven helpful in resolving this ambiguity.

  19. Percolation thresholds for discrete-continuous models with nonuniform probabilities of bond formation.

    PubMed

    Szczygieł, Bartłomiej; Dudyński, Marek; Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Lewenstein, Maciej; Lapeyre, Gerald John; Wehr, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a class of discrete-continuous percolation models and an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for computing their properties. The class is general enough to include well-known discrete and continuous models as special cases. We focus on a particular example of such a model, a nanotube model of disintegration of activated carbon. We calculate its exact critical threshold in two dimensions and obtain a Monte Carlo estimate in three dimensions. Furthermore, we use this example to analyze and characterize the efficiency of our algorithm, by computing critical exponents and properties, finding that it compares favorably to well-known algorithms for simpler systems.

  20. Exact methods for self interacting neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlivan, Y.; Balantekin, A. B.; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-06-24

    The effective many-body Hamiltonian which describes vacuum oscillations and self interactions of neutrinos in a two flavor mixing scheme under the single angle approximation has the same dynamical symmetries as the well known BCS pairing Hamiltonian. These dynamical symmetries manifest themselves in terms of a set of constants of motion and can be useful in formulating the collective oscillation modes in an intuitive way. In particular, we show that a neutrino spectral split can be simply viewed as an avoided level crossing between the eigenstates of a mean field Hamiltonian which includes a Lagrange multiplier in order to fix the value of an exact many-body constant of motion. We show that the same dynamical symmetries also exist in the three neutrino mixing scheme by explicitly writing down the corresponding constants of motion.

  1. Exact iterative reconstruction for the interior problem

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Gengsheng L; Gullberg, Grant T

    2010-01-01

    There is a trend in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that small and dedicated imaging systems are becoming popular. For example, many companies are developing small dedicated cardiac SPECT systems with different designs. These dedicated systems have a smaller field of view (FOV) than a full-size clinical system. Thus data truncation has become the norm rather than the exception in these systems. Therefore, it is important to develop region of interest (ROI) reconstruction algorithms using truncated data. This paper is a stepping stone toward this direction. This paper shows that the common generic iterative image reconstruction algorithms are able to exactly reconstruct the ROI under the conditions that the convex ROI is fully sampled and the image value in a sub-region within the ROI is known. If the ROI includes a sub-region that is outside the patient body, then the conditions can be easily satisfied. PMID:19741279

  2. Exact formation of hairy planar black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying; Chen, Bin

    2016-04-01

    We consider Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with a given potential in general dimensions. We obtain large classes of static hairy planar black holes which are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times. In particular, for a special case μ =(n -2 )/2 , we obtain new classes of exact dynamical solutions describing black hole formation. We find there are two classes of collapse solutions. The first class of solutions describes the evolution start from AdS space-time with a naked singularity at the origin. The space-time is linearly unstable and evolves into stationary black hole states even under small perturbation. The second class of solutions describes the space-time spontaneously evolving from AdS vacua into stationary black hole states undergoing nonlinear instability. We also discuss the global properties of all these dynamical solutions.

  3. Exactly isochoric deformations of soft solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggins, John S.; Wei, Z.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-12-01

    Many materials of contemporary interest, such as gels, biological tissues and elastomers, are easily deformed but essentially incompressible. Traditional linear theory of elasticity implements incompressibility only to first order and thus permits some volume changes, which become problematically large even at very small strains. Using a mixed coordinate transformation originally due to Gauss, we enforce the constraint of isochoric deformations exactly to develop a linear theory with perfect volume conservation that remains valid until strains become geometrically large. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by calculating the response of an infinite soft isochoric solid to a point force that leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Kelvin solution. Our approach naturally generalizes to a range of problems involving deformations of soft solids and interfaces in two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries, which we exemplify by determining the solution to a distributed load that mimics muscular contraction within the bulk of a soft solid.

  4. Complexified Path Integrals, Exact Saddles, and Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behtash, Alireza; Dunne, Gerald V.; Schäfer, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Ünsal, Mithat

    2016-01-01

    In the context of two illustrative examples from supersymmetric quantum mechanics we show that the semiclassical analysis of the path integral requires complexification of the configuration space and action, and the inclusion of complex saddle points, even when the parameters in the action are real. We find new exact complex saddles, and show that without their contribution the semiclassical expansion is in conflict with basic properties such as the positive semidefiniteness of the spectrum, as well as constraints of supersymmetry. Generic saddles are not only complex, but also possibly multivalued and even singular. This is in contrast to instanton solutions, which are real, smooth, and single valued. The multivaluedness of the action can be interpreted as a hidden topological angle, quantized in units of π in supersymmetric theories. The general ideas also apply to nonsupersymmetric theories.

  5. Exact solution of multilayered piezoelectric diaphragms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linquan; Lu, Li; Wang, Zhihong; Zhu, Weiguang; Dai, Ying

    2003-10-01

    This paper investigates dynamic behavior of multilayered piezoelectric diaphragms that are simplified as laminated plates. The validity of the dynamic analysis based on the simplified clamped multilayered plate model has first been studied using ANSYS finite element (FE)-codes. The simplified, clamped, multilayered plate model has been verified to be a reasonable one in comparison with the exact model. Subsequently, the frequency characteristics of clamped rectangular piezoelectric laminated plates were further analytically investigated. Using the classical laminated plate theory, mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical characteristics of the multilayered piezoelectric diaphragms were studied. For ease of calculation, the dimensionless method was adopted. Furthermore, numerical analysis was carried out using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Influence of dimensions of the laminar diaphragm on nature frequencies also was studied. The thickness ratio of the PZT layer to the total thickness of the laminar diaphragm has been optimized to obtain the largest deflection.

  6. Complexified Path Integrals, Exact Saddles, and Supersymmetry.

    PubMed

    Behtash, Alireza; Dunne, Gerald V; Schäfer, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Ünsal, Mithat

    2016-01-01

    In the context of two illustrative examples from supersymmetric quantum mechanics we show that the semiclassical analysis of the path integral requires complexification of the configuration space and action, and the inclusion of complex saddle points, even when the parameters in the action are real. We find new exact complex saddles, and show that without their contribution the semiclassical expansion is in conflict with basic properties such as the positive semidefiniteness of the spectrum, as well as constraints of supersymmetry. Generic saddles are not only complex, but also possibly multivalued and even singular. This is in contrast to instanton solutions, which are real, smooth, and single valued. The multivaluedness of the action can be interpreted as a hidden topological angle, quantized in units of π in supersymmetric theories. The general ideas also apply to nonsupersymmetric theories. PMID:26799010

  7. Discrete gauge symmetries in discrete MSSM-like orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, L. E.; Schellekens, A. N.; Uranga, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the necessity of discrete ZN symmetries in the MSSM to insure baryon stability, we study the origin of discrete gauge symmetries from open string sector U(1)'s in orientifolds based on rational conformal field theory. By means of an explicit construction, we find an integral basis for the couplings of axions and U(1) factors for all simple current MIPFs and orientifolds of all 168 Gepner models, a total of 32 990 distinct cases. We discuss how the presence of discrete symmetries surviving as a subgroup of broken U(1)'s can be derived using this basis. We apply this procedure to models with MSSM chiral spectrum, concretely to all known U(3)×U(2)×U(1)×U(1) and U(3)×Sp(2)×U(1)×U(1) configurations with chiral bi-fundamentals, but no chiral tensors, as well as some SU(5) GUT models. We find examples of models with Z2 (R-parity) and Z3 symmetries that forbid certain B and/or L violating MSSM couplings. Their presence is however relatively rare, at the level of a few percent of all cases.

  8. Exact Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Probability Test for 3 by 2 Cross-Classification Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Subroutines to calculate exact chi square and Fisher's exact probability tests are presented for 3 by 2 cross-classification tables. A nondirectional probability value for each test is computed recursively. (Author/GDC)

  9. Dark Energy from Discrete Spacetime

    PubMed Central

    Trout, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502

  10. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    PubMed

    Trout, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  11. A FORTRAN Program for Discrete Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, James O.; Brewer, James K.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran program is presented for discriminant analysis of discrete variables. The program assumes discrete, nominal data with no distributional, variance-covariance assumptions. The program handles a maximum of fifty predictor variables and twelve outcome groups. (Author/JKS)

  12. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  13. Observability of discretized partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.

  14. The SMM Model as a Boundary Value Problem Using the Discrete Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A generalized single step stepwise mutation model (SMM) is developed that takes into account an arbitrary initial state to a certain partial difference equation. This is solved in both the approximate continuum limit and the more exact discrete form. A time evolution model is developed for Y DNA or mtDNA that takes into account the reflective boundary modeling minimum microsatellite length and the original difference equation. A comparison is made between the more widely known continuum Gaussian model and a discrete model, which is based on modified Bessel functions of the first kind. A correction is made to the SMM model for the probability that two individuals are related that takes into account a reflecting boundary modeling minimum microsatellite length. This method is generalized to take into account the general n-step model and exact solutions are found. A new model is proposed for the step distribution.

  15. Multidimensional discretization of conservation laws for unstructured polyhedral grids

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.

    1994-08-22

    To the extent possible, a discretized system should satisfy the same conservation laws as the physical system. The author considers the conservation properties of a staggered-grid Lagrange formulation of the hydrodynamics equations (SGH) which is an extension of a ID scheme due to von Neumann and Richtmyer (VNR). The term staggered refers to spatial centering in which position, velocity, and kinetic energy are centered at nodes, while density, pressure, and internal energy are at cell centers. Traditional SGH formulations consider mass, volume, and momentum conservation, but tend to ignore conservation of total energy, conservation of angular momentum, and requirements for thermodynamic reversibility. The author shows that, once the mass and momentum discretizations have been specified, discretization for other quantities are dictated by the conservation laws and cannot be independently defined. The spatial discretization method employs a finite volume procedure that replaces differential operators with surface integrals. The method is appropriate for multidimensional formulations (1D, 2D, 3D) on unstructured grids formed from polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) cells. Conservation equations can then be expressed in conservation form in which conserved currents are exchanged between control volumes. In addition to the surface integrals, the conservation equations include source terms derived from physical sources or geometrical considerations. In Cartesian geometry, mass and momentum are conserved identically. Discussion of volume conservation will be temporarily deferred. The author shows that the momentum equation leads to a form-preserving definition for kinetic energy and to an exactly conservative evolution equation for internal energy. Similarly, the author derives a form-preserving definition and corresponding conservation equation for a zone-centered angular momentum.

  16. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    PubMed

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology. PMID:26768978

  17. Construction of invariant whiskered tori by a parameterization method. Part II: Quasi-periodic and almost periodic breathers in coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontich, Ernest; de la Llave, Rafael; Sire, Yannick

    2015-09-01

    We construct quasi-periodic and almost periodic solutions for coupled Hamiltonian systems on an infinite lattice which is translation invariant. The couplings can be long range, provided that they decay moderately fast with respect to the distance. For the solutions we construct, most of the sites are moving in a neighborhood of a hyperbolic fixed point, but there are oscillating sites clustered around a sequence of nodes. The amplitude of these oscillations does not need to tend to zero. In particular, the almost periodic solutions do not decay at infinity. The main result is an a posteriori theorem. We formulate an invariance equation. Solutions of this equation are embeddings of an invariant torus on which the motion is conjugate to a rotation. We show that, if there is an approximate solution of the invariance equation that satisfies some non-degeneracy conditions, there is a true solution close by. This does not require that the system is close to integrable, hence it can be used to validate numerical calculations or formal expansions. The proof of this a posteriori theorem is based on a Nash-Moser iteration, which does not use transformation theory. Simpler versions of the scheme were developed in [28]. One technical tool, important for our purposes, is the use of weighted spaces that capture the idea that the maps under consideration are local interactions. Using these weighted spaces, the estimates of iterative steps are similar to those in finite dimensional spaces. In particular, the estimates are independent of the number of nodes that get excited. Using these techniques, given two breathers, we can place them apart and obtain an approximate solution, which leads to a true solution nearby. By repeating the process infinitely often, we can get solutions with infinitely many frequencies which do not tend to zero at infinity.

  18. Spectra of geometric operators in three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: From discrete to continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, Jibril Ben; Geiller, Marc; Noui, Karim; Yu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    We study and compare the spectra of geometric operators (length and area) in the quantum kinematics of two formulations of three-dimensional Lorentzian loop quantum gravity. In the SU(2) Ashtekar-Barbero framework, the spectra are discrete and depend on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ exactly like in the four-dimensional case. However, we show that when working with the self-dual variables and imposing the reality conditions the spectra become continuous and γ independent.

  19. Exact dynamic properties of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, N. J.; Hoyle, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    Molecular motors play important roles within a biological cell, performing functions such as intracellular transport and gene transcription. Recent experimental work suggests that there are many plausible biochemical mechanisms that molecules such as myosin-V could use to achieve motion. To account for the abundance of possible discrete-stochastic frameworks that can arise when modeling molecular motor walks, a generalized and straightforward graphical method for calculating their dynamic properties is presented. It allows the calculation of the velocity, dispersion, and randomness ratio for any proposed system through analysis of its structure. This article extends work of King and Altman ["A schematic method of deriving the rate laws of enzyme-catalyzed reactions," J. Phys. Chem. 60, 1375-1378 (1956)], 10.1021/j150544a010 on networks of enzymatic reactions by calculating additional dynamic properties for spatially hopping systems. Results for n-state systems are presented: single chain, parallel pathway, divided pathway, and divided pathway with a chain. A novel technique for combining multiple system architectures coupled at a reference state is also demonstrated. Four-state examples illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of these methods.

  20. Exact solutions for extreme black hole magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupsasca, Alexandru; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2015-07-01

    We present new exact solutions of Force-Free Electrodynamics (FFE) in the Near-Horizon region of an Extremal Kerr black hole (NHEK) and offer a complete classifica-tion of the subset that form highest-weight representations of the spacetime's SL(2, ℝ)×U(1) isometry group. For a natural choice of spacetime embedding of this isometry group, the SL(2, ℝ) highest-weight conditions lead to stationary solutions with non-trivial angular de-pendence, as well as axisymmetry when the U(1)-charge vanishes. In addition, we unveil a hidden SL(2, ℂ) symmetry of the equations of FFE that stems from the action of a complex automorphism group, and enables us to generate an SL(2, ℂ) family of (generically time-dependent) solutions. We then obtain still more general solutions with less symmetry by appealing to a principle of linear superposition that holds for solutions with collinear cur-rents. This allows us to resum the highest-weight primaries and their SL(2, ℝ)-descendants.

  1. Exact solutions to magnetized plasma flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2001-03-01

    Exact analytic solutions for steady-state magnetized plasma flow (MPF) using ideal magnetohydrodynamics formalism are presented. Several cases are considered. When plasma flow is included, a finite plasma pressure gradient {nabla}p can be maintained in a force-free state JxB=0 by the velocity gradient. Both incompressible and compressible MPF examples are discussed for a Taylor-state spheromak B field. A new magnetized nozzle solution is given for compressible plasma when U{parallel}B. Transition from a magnetized nozzle to a magnetic nozzle is possible when the B field is strong enough. No physical nozzle would be needed in the magnetic nozzle case. Diverging-, drum- and nozzle-shaped MPF solutions when U{perpendicular}B are also given. The electric field is needed to balance the UxB term in Ohm's law. The electric field can be generated in the laboratory with the proposed conducting electrodes. If such electric fields also exist in stars and galaxies, such as through a dynamo process, then these solutions can be candidates to explain single and double jets.

  2. Verbal interference suppresses exact numerical representation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward

    2012-02-01

    Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Pirahã (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching tasks but make errors in more difficult tasks. Their pattern of errors suggests that they are using analog magnitude estimation, an evolutionarily- and developmentally-conserved mechanism for estimating quantities. Here we show that English-speaking participants rely on the same mechanisms when verbal number representations are unavailable due to verbal interference. Followup experiments demonstrate that the effects of verbal interference are primarily manifest during encoding of quantity information, and-using a new procedure for matching difficulty of interference tasks for individual participants-that the effects are restricted to verbal interference. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that number words are used online to encode, store, and manipulate numerical information. This linguistic strategy complements, rather than altering or replacing, non-verbal representations.

  3. Exact Results for `Bouncing' Gaussian Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, M.; Doncheski, M. A.; Robinett, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    We consider time-dependent Gaussian wave packet solutions of the Schrödinger equation, with arbitrary initial central position, x0, and momentum, p0, for an otherwise free particle, but with an infinite wall at x = 0, so-called bouncing wave packets. We show how difference or mirror solutions of the form ψ(x,t) - ψ(-x,t) can, in this case, be normalized exactly, allowing for the evaluation of a number of time-dependent expectation values and other quantities in closed form. For example, we calculate langp2rangt explicitly which illustrates how the free-particle kinetic (and hence total energy) is affected by the presence of the distant boundary. We also discuss the time dependence of the expectation values of position, langxrangt, and momentum, langprangt, and their relation to the impulsive force during the `collision' with the wall. Finally, the x0, p0 → 0 limit is shown to reduce a special case of a non-standard free-particle Gaussian solution. The addition of this example to the literature then expands of the relatively small number of Gaussian solutions to quantum mechanical problems with familiar classical analogs (free particle, uniform acceleration, harmonic oscillator, unstable oscillator, and uniform magnetic field) available in closed form.

  4. Exact solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Matthieu H.

    1984-03-01

    A review is given of research activities since 1976 on the nonlinear Boltzmann equation and related equations of Boltzmann type, in which several rediscoveries have been made and several conjectures have been disproved. Subjects are (i) the BKW solution of the Boltzmann equation for Maxwell molecules, first discovered by Krupp in 1967, and the Krook-Wu conjecture concerning the universal significance of the BKW solution for the large (v, t) behavior of the velocity distribution function f (v, t); (ii) moment equations and polynomial expansions of f (v, t); (iii) model Boltzmann equation for a spatially uniform system of very hard particles, that can be solved in closed form for general initial conditions; (iv) for Maxwell and non-Maxwell-type molecules there exist solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation with algebraic decrease at υ→∞; connections with nonuniqueness and violation of conservation laws; (v) conjectured super- H-theorem and the BKW solution; (vi) exactly soluble one-dimensional Boltzmann equation with spatial dependence.

  5. Coupling of Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.; Simpson, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    A computer code, DRC3, has been developed for coupling Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences in order to solve a special category of geometrically-complex deep penetration shielding problems. The code extends the capabilities of earlier methods that coupled Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with two-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences. The problems involve the calculation of fluences and responses in a perturbation to an otherwise simple two- or three-dimensional radiation field. In general, the perturbation complicates the geometry such that it cannot be modeled exactly using any of the discrete ordinates geometry options and thus a direct discrete ordinates solution is not possible. Also, the calculation of radiation transport from the source to the perturbation involves deep penetration. One approach to solving such problems is to perform the calculations in three steps: (1) a forward discrete ordinates calculation, (2) a localized adjoint Monte Carlo calculation, and (3) a coupling of forward fluences from the first calculation with adjoint leakages from the second calculation to obtain the response of interest (fluence, dose, etc.). A description of this approach is presented along with results from test problems used to verify the method. The test problems that were selected could also be solved directly by the discrete ordinates method. The good agreement between the DRC3 results and the direct-solution results verify the correctness of DRC3.

  6. A TWO-DIMENSIONAL METHOD OF MANUFACTURED SOLUTIONS BENCHMARK SUITE BASED ON VARIATIONS OF LARSEN'S BENCHMARK WITH ESCALATING ORDER OF SMOOTHNESS OF THE EXACT SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy

    2011-05-01

    The quantification of the discretization error associated with the spatial discretization of the Discrete Ordinate(DO) equations in multidimensional Cartesian geometries is the central problem in error estimation of spatial discretization schemes for transport theory as well as computer code verification. Traditionally fine mesh solutions are employed as reference, because analytical solutions only exist in the absence of scattering. This approach, however, is inadequate when the discretization error associated with the reference solution is not small compared to the discretization error associated with the mesh under scrutiny. Typically this situation occurs if the mesh of interest is only a couple of refinement levels away from the reference solution or if the order of accuracy of the numerical method (and hence the reference as well) is lower than expected. In this work we present a Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) benchmark suite with variable order of smoothness of the underlying exact solution for two-dimensional Cartesian geometries which provides analytical solutions aver- aged over arbitrary orthogonal meshes for scattering and non-scattering media. It should be emphasized that the developed MMS benchmark suite first eliminates the aforementioned limitation of fine mesh reference solutions since it secures knowledge of the underlying true solution and second that it allows for an arbitrary order of smoothness of the underlying ex- act solution. The latter is of importance because even for smooth parameters and boundary conditions the DO equations can feature exact solution with limited smoothness. Moreover, the degree of smoothness is crucial for both the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the discretization error for any spatial discretization scheme.

  7. A Residual Monte Carlo Method for Spatially Discrete, Angularly Continuous Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Densmore, Jeffery D.

    2012-06-19

    Residual Monte Carlo provides exponential convergence of statistical error with respect to the number of particle histories. In the past, residual Monte Carlo has been applied to a variety of angularly discrete radiation-transport problems. Here, we apply residual Monte Carlo to spatially discrete, angularly continuous transport. By maintaining angular continuity, our method avoids the deficiencies of angular discretizations, such as ray effects. For planar geometry and step differencing, we use the corresponding integral transport equation to calculate an angularly independent residual from the scalar flux in each stage of residual Monte Carlo. We then demonstrate that the resulting residual Monte Carlo method does indeed converge exponentially to within machine precision of the exact step differenced solution.

  8. Discretization and Preconditioning Algorithms for the Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Several stabilized discretization procedures for conservation law equations on triangulated domains will be considered. Specifically, numerical schemes based on upwind finite volume, fluctuation splitting, Galerkin least-squares, and space discontinuous Galerkin discretization will be considered in detail. A standard energy analysis for several of these methods will be given via entropy symmetrization. Next, we will present some relatively new theoretical results concerning congruence relationships for left or right symmetrized equations. These results suggest new variants of existing FV, DG, GLS and FS methods which are computationally more efficient while retaining the pleasant theoretical properties achieved by entropy symmetrization. In addition, the task of Jacobian linearization of these schemes for use in Newton's method is greatly simplified owing to exploitation of exact symmetries which exist in the system. These variants have been implemented in the "ELF" library for which example calculations will be shown. The FV, FS and DG schemes also permit discrete maximum principle analysis and enforcement which greatly adds to the robustness of the methods. Some prevalent limiting strategies will be reviewed. Next, we consider embedding these nonlinear space discretizations into exact and inexact Newton solvers which are preconditioned using a nonoverlapping (Schur complement) domain decomposition technique. Elements of nonoverlapping domain decomposition for elliptic problems will be reviewed followed by the present extension to hyperbolic and elliptic-hyperbolic problems. Other issues of practical relevance such the meshing of geometries, code implementation, turbulence modeling, global convergence, etc. will be addressed as needed.

  9. Exact models for trimerization and tetramerization in spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachel, Stephan; Greiter, Martin

    2008-10-01

    We present exact models for an antiferromagnetic S=1 spin chain describing trimerization as well as for an antiferromagnetic S=3/2 spin chain describing tetramerization. These models can be seen as generalizations of the Majumdar-Ghosh model. For both models, we provide a local Hamiltonian and its exact threefold or fourfold degenerate ground state wave functions, respectively. We numerically confirm the validity of both models using exact diagonalization and discuss the low-lying excitations.

  10. Transient response of lattice structures based on exact member theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melvin S.

    1989-01-01

    The computer program BUNVIS-RG, which treats vibration and buckling of lattice structures using exact member stiffness matrices, has been extended to calculate the exact modal mass and stiffness quantities that can be used in a conventional transient response analysis based on modes. The exact nature of the development allows inclusion of local member response without introduction of any interior member nodes. Results are given for several problems in which significant interaction between local and global response occurs.

  11. The exact wavefunction factorization of a vibronic coupling system

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Klaiman, Shachar; Otto, Frank; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2014-02-07

    We investigate the exact wavefunction as a single product of electronic and nuclear wavefunction for a model conical intersection system. Exact factorized spiky potentials and nodeless nuclear wavefunctions are found. The exact factorized potential preserves the symmetry breaking effect when the coupling mode is present. Additionally nodeless wavefunctions are found to be closely related to the adiabatic nuclear eigenfunctions. This phenomenon holds even for the regime where the non-adiabatic coupling is relevant, and sheds light on the relation between the exact wavefunction factorization and the adiabatic approximation.

  12. Discreteness effects in population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Lecomte, Vivien

    2016-05-01

    We analyse numerically the effects of small population size in the initial transient regime of a simple example population dynamics. These effects play an important role for the numerical determination of large deviation functions of additive observables for stochastic processes. A method commonly used in order to determine such functions is the so-called cloning algorithm which in its non-constant population version essentially reduces to the determination of the growth rate of a population, averaged over many realizations of the dynamics. However, the averaging of populations is highly dependent not only on the number of realizations of the population dynamics, and on the initial population size but also on the cut-off time (or population) considered to stop their numerical evolution. This may result in an over-influence of discreteness effects at initial times, caused by small population size. We overcome these effects by introducing a (realization-dependent) time delay in the evolution of populations, additional to the discarding of the initial transient regime of the population growth where these discreteness effects are strong. We show that the improvement in the estimation of the large deviation function comes precisely from these two main contributions.

  13. Discrete auroras and magnetotail processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.

    Important information about magnetospheric phenomena associated with auroras and substorms can be inferred from low-altitude auroral observations. Satellite observations have shown that discrete auroral arcs lie within a boundary plasma sheet (BPS) region that is outside the central plasma sheet (CPS). The observations imply that arcs are generated along BPS field lines by magnetospheric processes that form large, perpendicular electric field structures. The BPS and the arc generation processes apparently lie along field lines that are in the vicinity of the boundary between open and closed field lines and cross the tail (or magnetopause) current sheet. Ground-based observations show that the first indication of a substorm onset is the brightening of a quiet, discrete arc. This suggests that substorms are initiated along the BPS field lines associated with arc generation, and not within the CPS. Finally, auroral observations have shown that the area of open, polar-cap field lines varies considerably during periods of geomagnetic activity. Expansion of the polar cap has the potential for releasing trapped plasma sheet particles along freshly open field lines. The resulting evacuation of field lines has the potential for being an important loss process for the plasma sheet and for being a source of tailward flows and energetic particle bursts in the tail.

  14. Measures for the non-Markovianity of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a discrete bath derived from numerically exact references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Saalfrank, Peter

    2015-02-01

    System-bath problems in physics and chemistry are often described by Markovian master equations. However, the Markov approximation, i.e., neglect of bath memory effects is not always justified, and different measures of non-Markovianity have been suggested in the literature to judge the validity of this approximation. Here we calculate several computable measures of non-Markovianity for the non-trivial problem of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a large number of bath oscillators. The Multi Configurational Time Dependent Hartree method is used to provide a numerically converged solution of the system-bath Schrödinger equation, from which the appropriate quantities can be calculated. In particular, we consider measures based on trace-distances and quantum discord for a variety of initial states. These quantities have proven useful in the case of two-level and other small model systems typically encountered in quantum optics, but are less straightforward to interpret for the more complex model systems that are relevant for chemical physics. Supplementary material in the form of one zip file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2014-50727-8

  15. Quantifying Exact Motions Along Lineaments on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, J. C.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evaluating the precise motions along lineaments on the surface of Jupiter's icy moon, Europa, is a valuable tool for interpreting the development and history of lineaments of various morphologies. Such morphologies include strike-slip faults, dilational bands, ridges, and convergence zones. However, the exact mode of origin and kinematic behavior of these various lineaments are not obvious based on morphology alone. In fact, the apparent motions implied by displaced crosscut features can provide misleading indications of true motions along lineaments. Identifying the precise motions (combinations of sliding and opening/closing) is critical to the accurate characterization and interpretation of each of these lineament types. Lineaments of interest (i.e., those having displaced relatively older features in some manner) are identified on Galileo spacecraft images and measurements are made of the total offset, the separation, and relative orientations of crosscut features with respect to the lineament of interest. Specifically, by using these measured quantities and a series of trigonometric equations, the precise motions (i.e., dilation, convergence, strike-slip, or a combination of strike-slip and dilation or convergence) can be determined. These measurements are, however, limited by the resolution of the available images. This study focuses on motion analysis techniques for Europan lineaments and the precise characterization of fault-orthogonal and/or strike-slip motion along lineaments of varying morphologies. We highlight potential pitfalls of cursory analyses of motion indicators. For example, lineaments with obvious lateral offsets have typically been identified simply as strike-slip faults. This assumption may actually be incorrect, as fault-orthogonal motions may contribute to apparent lateral displacements (offsets or separations). Also, variability in the amount of fault motion along the trace length should theoretically be identifiable using the outlined

  16. Observers for discrete-time nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Walter D.

    Observer synthesis for discrete-time nonlinear systems with special applications to parameter estimation is analyzed. Two new types of observers are developed. The first new observer is an adaptation of the Friedland continuous-time parameter estimator to discrete-time systems. The second observer is an adaptation of the continuous-time Gauthier observer to discrete-time systems. By adapting these observers to discrete-time continuous-time parameter estimation problems which were formerly intractable become tractable. In addition to the two newly developed observers, two observers already described in the literature are analyzed and deficiencies with respect to noise rejection are demonstrated. Improved versions of these observers are proposed and their performance demonstrated. The issues of discrete-time observability, discrete-time system inversion, and optimal probing are also addressed.

  17. Discrete ordinates with new quadrature sets and modified source conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, K.; Allen, E.J., Victory, H.D. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    A major shortcoming of the discrete ordinates method with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set is that when the number of secondaries per primary c and the order of approximation N are not too large, all the (N + 1)v (the flux being of the form exp({minus}x/v)) lie in ({minus}1,1). It is known, however, that the largest v{sub j} corresponding to the asymptotic flux is greater than unity. The Legendre polynomial used for obtaining the quadrature set is orthogonal with respect to weight unity in the range ({minus}1,1). However, the Case and Zweifel eigenfunctions derived from the exact solution of one-speed transport theory are orthogonal with respect to a complicated weight function w({mu}) and {mu} in the half-range and full-range cases, respectively. In this paper, the authors have used a set of orthogonal polynomials with respect to w ({mu}) to develop quadrature sets to be used in the discrete ordinates calculation.

  18. Ideal shrinking and expansion of discrete sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Ideal methods are described for shrinking or expanding a discrete sequence, image, or image sequence. The methods are ideal in the sense that they preserve the frequency spectrum of the input up to the Nyquist limit of the input or output, whichever is smaller. Fast implementations that make use of the discrete Fourier transform or the discrete Hartley transform are described. The techniques lead to a new multiresolution image pyramid.

  19. Determinant Expressions for Discrete Integrable Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi

    2006-08-01

    Explicit formulas for several discrete integrable maps with periodic boundary condition are obtained, which give the sequential time developments in a form of the quotient of successive determinants of tri-diagonal matrices. We can expect that such formulas make the corresponding numerical simulations simple and stable. The cases of discrete Lotka-Volterra and discrete KdV equations are demonstrated by using the common algorithm computing determinants of tri-diagonal matrices.

  20. Exact Confidence Intervals in the Presence of Interference

    PubMed Central

    Rigdon, Joseph; Hudgens, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    For two-stage randomized experiments assuming partial interference, exact confidence intervals are proposed for treatment effects on a binary outcome. Empirical studies demonstrate the new intervals have narrower width than previously proposed exact intervals based on the Hoeffding inequality. PMID:26190877

  1. Exact null controllability of degenerate evolution equations with scalar control

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Vladimir E; Shklyar, Benzion

    2012-12-31

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for the exact null controllability of a degenerate linear evolution equation with scalar control are obtained. These general results are used to examine the exact null controllability of the Dzektser equation in the theory of seepage. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  2. Inference and Exact Numerical Representation in Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Bachrach, Asaf

    2010-01-01

    How do children as young as 2 years of age know that numerals, like "one," have exact interpretations, while quantifiers and words like "a" do not? Previous studies have argued that only numerals have exact lexical meanings. Children could not use scalar implicature to strengthen numeral meanings, it is argued, since they fail to do so for…

  3. Exact Statistics of Record Increments of Random Walks and Lévy Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    We study the statistics of increments in record values in a time series {x0=0 ,x1,x2,…,xn} generated by the positions of a random walk (discrete time, continuous space) of duration n steps. For arbitrary jump length distribution, including Lévy flights, we show that the distribution of the record increment becomes stationary, i.e., independent of n for large n , and compute it explicitly for a wide class of jump distributions. In addition, we compute exactly the probability Q (n ) that the record increments decrease monotonically up to step n . Remarkably, Q (n ) is universal (i.e., independent of the jump distribution) for each n , decaying as Q (n )˜A /√{n } for large n , with a universal amplitude A =e /√{π }=1.533 62 ….

  4. Exact Statistics of Record Increments of Random Walks and Lévy Flights.

    PubMed

    Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    We study the statistics of increments in record values in a time series {x_{0}=0,x_{1},x_{2},…,x_{n}} generated by the positions of a random walk (discrete time, continuous space) of duration n steps. For arbitrary jump length distribution, including Lévy flights, we show that the distribution of the record increment becomes stationary, i.e., independent of n for large n, and compute it explicitly for a wide class of jump distributions. In addition, we compute exactly the probability Q(n) that the record increments decrease monotonically up to step n. Remarkably, Q(n) is universal (i.e., independent of the jump distribution) for each n, decaying as Q(n)∼A/sqrt[n] for large n, with a universal amplitude A=e/sqrt[π]=1.53362…. PMID:27419552

  5. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  6. Lepton mixing and discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    The pattern of lepton mixing can emerge from breaking a flavor symmetry in different ways in the neutrino and charged lepton Yukawa sectors. In this framework, we derive the model-independent conditions imposed on the mixing matrix by the structure of discrete groups of the von Dyck type which include A4, S4, and A5. We show that, in general, these conditions lead to at least two equations for the mixing parameters (angles and CP phase δ). These constraints, which correspond to unbroken residual symmetries, are consistent with nonzero 13 mixing and deviations from maximal 2-3 mixing. For the simplest case, which leads to an S4 model and reproduces the allowed values of the mixing angles, we predict δ=(90°-120°).

  7. Discrete Models of Fluids: Spatial Averaging, Closure, and Model Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Panchenko, Alexander; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Cooper, Kevin

    2014-03-06

    The main question addressed in the paper is how to obtain closed form continuum equations governing spatially averaged dynamics of semi-discrete ODE models of fluid flow. In the presence of multiple small scale heterogeneities, the size of these ODE systems can be very large. Spatial averaging is then a useful tool for reducing computational complexity of the problem. The averages satisfy balance equations of mass, momentum and energy. These equations are exact, but they do not form a continuum model in the true sense of the word because calculation of stress and heat flux requires solving the underlying ODE system. To produce continuum equations that can be simulated without resolving micro-scale dynamics, we developed a closure method based on the use of regularized deconvolutions. We mostly deal with non-linear averaging suitable for Lagrangian particle solvers, but consider Eulerian linear averaging where appropriate. The results of numerical experiments show good agreement between our closed form flux approximations and their exact counterparts.

  8. Scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jesus; Taylor, Padraic

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems. By allowing more general boundary conditions and by imposing less restrictions on the nonlinearities, we obtain results that extend previous work in the area of discrete boundary value problems [Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Periodic solutions of nonlinear discrete-time systems, Appl. Anal. 62 (1996) 119-137; Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Scalar discrete nonlinear two-point boundary value problems, J. Difference Equ. Appl. 4 (1998) 127-144].

  9. A discrete event method for wave simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a discrete event interpretation of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) and digital wave guide network (DWN) wave simulation schemes. The discrete event method is formalized using the discrete event system specification (DEVS). The scheme is shown to have errors that are proportional to the resolution of the spatial grid. A numerical example demonstrates the relative efficiency of the scheme with respect to FDTD and DWN schemes. The potential for the discrete event scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and attenuation errors is discussed.

  10. An exact factorization perspective on quantum interferences in nonadiabatic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Curchod, Basile F E; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2016-07-21

    Nonadiabatic quantum interferences emerge whenever nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states meet and interact in a nonadiabatic region. In this work, we analyze how nonadiabatic quantum interferences translate in the context of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction. In particular, we focus our attention on the shape of the time-dependent potential energy surface-the exact surface on which the nuclear dynamics takes place. We use a one-dimensional exactly solvable model to reproduce different conditions for quantum interferences, whose characteristic features already appear in one-dimension. The time-dependent potential energy surface develops complex features when strong interferences are present, in clear contrast to the observed behavior in simple nonadiabatic crossing cases. Nevertheless, independent classical trajectories propagated on the exact time-dependent potential energy surface reasonably conserve a distribution in configuration space that mimics one of the exact nuclear probability densities. PMID:27448870

  11. An exact factorization perspective on quantum interferences in nonadiabatic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curchod, Basile F. E.; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E. K. U.

    2016-07-01

    Nonadiabatic quantum interferences emerge whenever nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states meet and interact in a nonadiabatic region. In this work, we analyze how nonadiabatic quantum interferences translate in the context of the exact factorization of the molecular wavefunction. In particular, we focus our attention on the shape of the time-dependent potential energy surface—the exact surface on which the nuclear dynamics takes place. We use a one-dimensional exactly solvable model to reproduce different conditions for quantum interferences, whose characteristic features already appear in one-dimension. The time-dependent potential energy surface develops complex features when strong interferences are present, in clear contrast to the observed behavior in simple nonadiabatic crossing cases. Nevertheless, independent classical trajectories propagated on the exact time-dependent potential energy surface reasonably conserve a distribution in configuration space that mimics one of the exact nuclear probability densities.

  12. One-dimensional counterion gas between charged surfaces: Exact results compared with weak- and strong-coupling analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dean, David S.; Horgan, Ron R.; Naji, Ali; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate exactly the statistical integral for an inhomogeneous one-dimensional (1D) counterion-only Coulomb gas between two charged boundaries and from this compute the effective interaction, or disjoining pressure, between the bounding surfaces. Our exact results are compared to the limiting cases of weak and strong couplings which are the same for 1D and three-dimensional (3D) systems. For systems with a large number of counterions it is found that the weak-coupling (mean-field) approximation for the disjoining pressure works perfectly and that fluctuations around the mean-field in 1D are much smaller than in 3D. In the case of few counterions it works less well and strong-coupling approximation performs much better as it takes into account properly the discreteness of the counterion charges. PMID:19275406

  13. A novel exact solution to transmission problem of electron wave in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chao; Hai, Kuo; Tan, Jintao; Chen, Hao; Hai, Wenhua

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear Kronig-Penney model has been frequently employed to study transmission problem of electron wave in a doped semiconductor superlattice or in a nonlinear electrified chain. Here from an integral equation we derive a novel exact solution of the problem, which contains a simple nonlinear map connecting transmission coefficient with system parameters. Consequently, we propose a scheme to manipulate electronic distribution and transmission by adjusting the system parameters. A new quantum coherence effect is evidenced by the strict expression of transmission coefficient, which results in the aperiodic electronic distributions and different transmission coefficients including the approximate zero transmission and total transmission, and the multiple transmissions. The method based on the concise exact solution can be applied directly to some nonlinear cold atomic systems and a lot of linear Kronig-Penney systems, and also can be extended to investigate electronic transport in different discrete nonlinear systems.

  14. Discrete dipole approximation for black carbon-containing aerosols in arbitrary mixing state: A hybrid discretization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteki, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-01

    An accurate and efficient simulation of light scattering by an atmospheric black carbon (BC)-containing aerosol-a fractal-like cluster of hundreds of carbon monomers that is internally mixed with other aerosol compounds such as sulfates, organics, and water-remains challenging owing to the enormous diversities of such aerosols' size, shape, and mixing state. Although the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) is theoretically an exact numerical method that is applicable to arbitrary non-spherical inhomogeneous targets, in practice, it suffers from severe granularity-induced error and degradation of computational efficiency for such extremely complex targets. To solve this drawback, we propose herein a hybrid DDA method designed for arbitrary BC-containing aerosols: the monomer-dipole assumption is applied to a cluster of carbon monomers, whereas the efficient cubic-lattice discretization is applied to the remaining particle volume consisting of other materials. The hybrid DDA is free from the error induced by the surface granularity of carbon monomers that occurs in conventional cubic-lattice DDA. In the hybrid DDA, we successfully mitigate the artifact of neglecting the higher-order multipoles in the monomer-dipole assumption by incorporating the magnetic dipole in addition to the electric dipole into our DDA formulations. Our numerical experiments show that the hybrid DDA method is an efficient light-scattering solver for BC-containing aerosols in arbitrary mixing states. The hybrid DDA could be also useful for a cluster of metallic nanospheres associated with other dielectric materials.

  15. Exact solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for stable vortex modes in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Lei; Zhang Jiefang; Li Lu; Mihalache, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A.; Liu, W. M.

    2010-06-15

    We construct exact solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for solitary vortices, and approximate ones for fundamental solitons, in two-dimensional models of Bose-Einstein condensates with a spatially modulated nonlinearity of either sign and a harmonic trapping potential. The number of vortex-soliton (VS) modes is determined by the discrete energy spectrum of a related linear Schroedinger equation. The VS families in the system with the attractive and repulsive nonlinearity are mutually complementary. Stable VSs with vorticity S{>=}2 and those corresponding to higher-order radial states are reported, in the case of the attraction and repulsion, respectively.

  16. Numerically Exact Computer Simulations of Light Scattering by Densely Packed, Random Particulate Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dlugach, Janna M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Direct computer simulations of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media have become an active area of research. In this progress review, we summarize and analyze our main results obtained by means of numerically exact computer solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. We consider finite scattering volumes with size parameters in the range, composed of varying numbers of randomly distributed particles with different refractive indices. The main objective of our analysis is to examine whether all backscattering effects predicted by the low-density theory of coherent backscattering (CB) also take place in the case of densely packed media. Based on our extensive numerical data we arrive at the following conclusions: (i) all backscattering effects predicted by the asymptotic theory of CB can also take place in the case of densely packed media; (ii) in the case of very large particle packing density, scattering characteristics of discrete random media can exhibit behavior not predicted by the low-density theories of CB and radiative transfer; (iii) increasing the absorptivity of the constituent particles can either enhance or suppress typical manifestations of CB depending on the particle packing density and the real part of the refractive index. Our numerical data strongly suggest that spectacular backscattering effects identified in laboratory experiments and observed for a class of high-albedo Solar System objects are caused by CB.

  17. Exact two-dimensional zonal wavefront reconstruction with high spatial resolution in lateral shearing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fengzhao; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangzhao; Bu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    A novel zonal method is proposed for exact discrete reconstruction of a two-dimensional wavefront with high spatial resolution for lateral shearing interferometry. Four difference wavefronts measured in the x and y shear directions are required. Each of the two shear directions is measured twice with different shear amounts. The shear amounts of the second measurements of the x and y directions are Sx+1 pixels and Sy+1 pixels, where Sx pixels and Sy pixels are the shear amounts of the first measurements in the x and y directions, respectively. The shear amount in each direction can be chosen freely, provided that it is below a maximum value determined by the pupil shape and the number of samples N in that direction; thus, the choices are not limited by the more stringent condition required by previous methods, namely, that the shear amounts must be divisors of N. This method can exactly reconstruct any wavefront at evaluation points up to an arbitrary constant if the data is noiseless, and high spatial resolution can be achieved even with large shear amounts. The method is applicable not only to square pupils, but also to general pupil shapes if a sufficient number of Gerchberg iterations are employed. In this study, the validity and capability of the method were confirmed by numerical experiments. In addition, the experiments demonstrated that the method is stable with respect to noise in the difference wavefronts.

  18. Exact calculations of first-passage properties on the pseudofractal scale-free web.

    PubMed

    Peng, Junhao; Agliari, Elena; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we consider discrete time random walks on the pseudofractal scale-free web (PSFW) and we study analytically the related first passage properties. First, we classify the nodes of the PSFW into different levels and propose a method to derive the generation function of the first passage probability from an arbitrary starting node to the absorbing domain, which is located at one or more nodes of low-level (i.e., nodes with large degree). Then, we calculate exactly the first passage probability, the survival probability, the mean, and the variance of first passage time by using the generating functions as a tool. Finally, for some illustrative examples corresponding to given choices of starting node and absorbing domain, we derive exact and explicit results for such first passage properties. The method we propose can as well address the cases where the absorbing domain is located at one or more nodes of high-level on the PSFW, and it can also be used to calculate the first passage properties on other networks with self-similar structure, such as (u, v) flowers and recursive scale-free trees.

  19. Multidimensional, fully implicit, exactly conserving electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We discuss a new, conservative, fully implicit 2D-3V particle-in-cell algorithm for non-radiative, electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations, based on the Vlasov-Darwin model. Unlike earlier linearly implicit PIC schemes and standard explicit PIC schemes, fully implicit PIC algorithms are unconditionally stable and allow exact discrete energy and charge conservation. This has been demonstrated in 1D electrostatic and electromagnetic contexts. In this study, we build on these recent algorithms to develop an implicit, orbit-averaged, time-space-centered finite difference scheme for the Darwin field and particle orbit equations for multiple species in multiple dimensions. The Vlasov-Darwin model is very attractive for PIC simulations because it avoids radiative noise issues in non-radiative electromagnetic regimes. The algorithm conserves global energy, local charge, and particle canonical-momentum exactly, even with grid packing. The nonlinear iteration is effectively accelerated with a fluid preconditioner, which allows efficient use of large timesteps, O(√{mi/me}c/veT) larger than the explicit CFL. In this presentation, we will introduce the main algorithmic components of the approach, and demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency properties of the algorithm with various numerical experiments in 1D and 2D. Support from the LANL LDRD program and the DOE-SC ASCR office.

  20. Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Daboul, Jamil

    1995-01-01

    For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = -gamma/r(exp nu), gamma greater than 0 and -infinity less than nu less than infinity. When the angular momentum is non-zero, these solutions lead to the classical orbits (p(t) = (cos mu(phi(t) - phi(sub 0)t))(exp 1/mu) with mu = nu/2 - 1 does not equal 0. For nu greater than 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when nu is greater than 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Further, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, states. They correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. Finally, the number of space dimensions of the system can determine whether or not an E = 0 state is bound. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed.

  1. Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.; Daboul, J.

    1994-07-01

    For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = {minus}{gamma}/r{sup {nu}}, {gamma} > 0 and {minus}{infinity} < {nu} < {infinity}. When the angular momentum is non-zero, these solutions lead to the classical orbits {rho}(t) = [cos {mu}({var_phi}(t) {minus} {var_phi}{sub 0}(t))]{sup 1/{mu}}, with {mu} = {nu}/2 {minus} 1 {ne} 0. For {nu} > 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when {nu} > 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Also, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, state which correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed.

  2. Dissociation between exact and approximate addition in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiujie; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that number sense and language are involved in number representation and calculation, in which number sense supports approximate arithmetic, and language permits exact enumeration and calculation. Meanwhile, individuals with dyslexia have a core deficit in phonological processing. Based on these findings, we thus hypothesized that children with dyslexia may exhibit exact calculation impairment while doing mental arithmetic. The reaction time and accuracy while doing exact and approximate addition with symbolic Arabic digits and non-symbolic visual arrays of dots were compared between typically developing children and children with dyslexia. Reaction time analyses did not reveal any differences across two groups of children, the accuracies, interestingly, revealed a distinction of approximation and exact addition across two groups of children. Specifically, two groups of children had no differences in approximation. Children with dyslexia, however, had significantly lower accuracy in exact addition in both symbolic and non-symbolic tasks than that of typically developing children. Moreover, linguistic performances were selectively associated with exact calculation across individuals. These results suggested that children with dyslexia have a mental arithmetic deficit specifically in the realm of exact calculation, while their approximation ability is relatively intact. PMID:27310366

  3. 5 CFR 572.102 - Agency discretion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency discretion. 572.102 Section 572.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES; NEW APPOINTEES AND INTERVIEWS § 572.102 Agency discretion. Payment of travel...

  4. Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…

  5. Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…

  6. Covariance control of discrete stochastic bilinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Kherat, S. M.; Yaz, E.

    1991-01-01

    The covariances that certain bilinear stochastic discrete time systems may possess are characterized. An explicit parameterization of all controllers that assign such covariances is given. The state feedback assignability and robustness of the system are discussed from a deterministic point of view. This work extends the theory of covariance control for continuous time bilinear systems to a discrete time setting.

  7. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  8. Discreteness and Gradience in Intonational Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Three experimental techniques that can be used to investigate the gradient of discrete nature of intonational differences, the semantic task, the imitation task, and the pitch range task are discussed and evaluated. It is pointed out that categorical perception is a sufficient but not a necessary, property of phonological discreteness. (Author/VWL)

  9. Generating exact solutions to Einstein's equation using linearized approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Abraham I.; Vines, Justin

    2016-10-01

    We show that certain solutions to the linearized Einstein equation can—by the application of a particular type of linearized gauge transformation—be straightforwardly transformed into solutions of the exact Einstein equation. In cases with nontrivial matter content, the exact stress-energy tensor of the transformed metric has the same eigenvalues and eigenvectors as the linearized stress-energy tensor of the initial approximation. When our gauge exists, the tensorial structure of transformed metric perturbations identically eliminates all nonlinearities in Einstein's equation. As examples, we derive the exact Kerr and gravitational plane wave metrics from standard harmonic-gauge approximations.

  10. Fast and Exact Continuous Collision Detection with Bernstein Sign Classification

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Tong, Ruofeng; Wang, Zhendong; Manocha, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    We present fast algorithms to perform accurate CCD queries between triangulated models. Our formulation uses properties of the Bernstein basis and Bézier curves and reduces the problem to evaluating signs of polynomials. We present a geometrically exact CCD algorithm based on the exact geometric computation paradigm to perform reliable Boolean collision queries. Our algorithm is more than an order of magnitude faster than prior exact algorithms. We evaluate its performance for cloth and FEM simulations on CPUs and GPUs, and highlight the benefits. PMID:25568589

  11. The Quasi-Exactly Solvable Problems in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-Yan; Hao, Qing-Hai

    2014-06-01

    We study the quasi-exactly solvable problems in relativistic quantum mechanics. We consider the problems for the two-dimensional Klein—Gordon and Dirac equations with equal vector and scalar potentials, and try to find the general form of the quasi-exactly solvable potential. After obtaining the general form of the potential, we present several examples to give the specific forms. In the examples, we show for special parameters the harmonic potential plus Coulomb potential, Killingbeck potential and a quartic potential plus Cornell potential are quasi-exactly solvable potentials.

  12. Active control of turbomachine discrete tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleeter, Sanford

    This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.

  13. Generalized exponential function and discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto Martinez, Alexandre; Silva González, Rodrigo; Lauri Espíndola, Aquino

    2009-07-01

    Here we show that a particular one-parameter generalization of the exponential function is suitable to unify most of the popular one-species discrete population dynamic models into a simple formula. A physical interpretation is given to this new introduced parameter in the context of the continuous Richards model, which remains valid for the discrete case. From the discretization of the continuous Richards’ model (generalization of the Gompertz and Verhulst models), one obtains a generalized logistic map and we briefly study its properties. Notice, however that the physical interpretation for the introduced parameter persists valid for the discrete case. Next, we generalize the (scramble competition) θ-Ricker discrete model and analytically calculate the fixed points as well as their stabilities. In contrast to previous generalizations, from the generalized θ-Ricker model one is able to retrieve either scramble or contest models.

  14. Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method.

  15. Clutter from non-discrete seabed structures.

    PubMed

    Holland, Charles W; Ellis, Dale D

    2012-06-01

    Clutter, or discrete target-like returns, is the most significant problem in the employment of active sonar. It is well understood that discrete objects, which are of the same spatial scale as the target and which possess a significant impedance contrast to the surrounding ocean, can lead to clutter. Here a somewhat counter-intuitive result is shown: that discrete target-like returns can occur from slowly varying seabed structures. The range dependence of the seabed can be weak and smooth-due to changes in layer thicknesses, sound speed, or both. Thus, this clutter mechanism may be a viable hypothesis for areas in which seabed clutter has been observed, but no discrete features, buried or proud, could be found. By using a broadband source, the time-frequency evolution of this clutter could be a useful way to discriminate against other kinds of clutter; e.g., that due to discrete objects.

  16. MULTISCALE DISCRETIZATION OF SHAPE CONTOURS

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, L.; Rao, R.

    2000-09-01

    We present an efficient multi-scale scheme to adaptively approximate the continuous (or densely sampled) contour of a planar shape at varying resolutions. The notion of shape is intimately related to the notion of contour, and the efficient representation of the contour of a shape is vital to a computational understanding of the shape. Any polygonal approximation of a planar smooth curve is equivalent to a piecewise constant approximation of the parameterized X and Y coordinate functions of a discrete point set obtained by densely sampling the curve. Using the Haar wavelet transform for the piecewise approximation yields a hierarchical scheme in which the size of the approximating point set is traded off against the morphological accuracy of the approximation. Our algorithm compresses the representation of the initial shape contour to a sparse sequence of points in the plane defining the vertices of the shape's polygonal approximation. Furthermore, it is possible to control the overall resolution of the approximation by a single, scale-independent parameter.

  17. Medical futility and physician discretion

    PubMed Central

    Wreen, M

    2004-01-01

    Some patients have no chance of surviving if not treated, but very little chance if treated. A number of medical ethicists and physicians have argued that treatment in such cases is medically futile and a matter of physician discretion. This paper critically examines that position. According to Howard Brody and others, a judgment of medical futility is a purely technical matter, which physicians are uniquely qualified to make. Although Brody later retracted these claims, he held to the view that physicians need not consult the patient or his family to determine their values before deciding not to treat. This is because professional integrity dictates that treatment should not be undertaken. The argument for this claim is that medicine is a profession and a social practice, and thus capable of breaches of professional integrity. Underlying professional integrity are two moral principles, one concerning harm, the other fraud. According to Brody both point to the fact that when the odds of survival are very low treatment is a violation of professional integrity. The details of this skeletal argument are exposed and explained, and the full argument is criticised. On a number of counts, it is found wanting. If anything, professional integrity points to the opposite conclusion. PMID:15173362

  18. Hard Times May Exact a Toll on Brain Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161283.html Hard Times May Exact a Toll on Brain Health Poverty ... a cause-and-effect relationship between hard economic times and brain health and aging. The findings were ...

  19. Exact and Explicit Internal Equatorial Water Waves with Underlying Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluczek, Mateusz

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present an exact and explicit solution to the geophysical governing equations in the Equatorial region, which represents internal oceanic waves in the presence of a constant underlying current.

  20. Exact theory of intermediate phases in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, Gesualdo Squarcini, Alessio

    2014-03-15

    We show how field theory yields the exact description of intermediate phases in the scaling limit of two-dimensional statistical systems at a first order phase transition point. The ability of a third phase to form an intermediate wetting layer or only isolated bubbles is explicitly related to the spectrum of excitations of the field theory. The order parameter profiles are determined and interface properties such as passage probabilities and internal structure are deduced from them. The theory is illustrated through the application to the q-state Potts model and the Ashkin–Teller model. The latter is shown to provide the first exact solution of a bulk wetting transition. -- Highlights: •Phase separation with appearance of a third phase is studied exactly. •Interfacial properties are derived from field theory. •Exact solution of bulk wetting transition is provided.

  1. Exact geodesics and shortest paths on polyhedral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Mukund; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Schwartz, Eric L

    2009-06-01

    We present two algorithms for computing distances along convex and non-convex polyhedral surfaces. The first algorithm computes exact minimal-geodesic distances and the second algorithm combines these distances to compute exact shortest-path distances along the surface. Both algorithms have been extended to compute the exact minimal-geodesic paths and shortest paths. These algorithms have been implemented and validated on surfaces for which the correct solutions are known, in order to verify the accuracy and to measure the run-time performance, which is cubic or less for each algorithm. The exact-distance computations carried out by these algorithms are feasible for large-scale surfaces containing tens of thousands of vertices, and are a necessary component of near-isometric surface flattening methods that accurately transform curved manifolds into flat representations.

  2. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  3. Impedance Matching for Discrete, Periodic Media and Application to Two-Scale Wave Propagation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Senganal

    also be very useful for numerical simulation of dynamics of crystal lattices, for both MD simulations and AtC coupling. A critical problem that needs to be resolved in this context is the well-posedness of the discrete PMDL formulation. The proposed ECM facilitates direct extension of well-posedness criteria from continuous ABCs to discrete ABCs, and thus to discrete PMDL. This criterion is then used to develop a well-posed discrete PMDL formulation for a diatomic lattice, a simple but representative complex lattice, which is numerically verified to be stable. The methodology can be extended to more complex lattices, but at the expense of increased algebraic complexity, and perhaps significant increase in computational cost. Time-harmonic discrete PMDL can play an important role in numerical simulation of wave propagation in continuous periodic media, e.g. photonic crystals. ECM provides an alternate viewpoint for developing effective ABCs for periodic media. For instance, using ECM we derive an alternative expression for the exact Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) operator of an unbounded periodic waveguide. While it is not yet clear if this alternative expression is computationally advantageous, it is nevertheless an interesting alternative. More significantly, we build on the existing idea of recursive doubling to propose a new and efficient method, based on discrete PMDL, to compute the DtN operator of an unbounded periodic waveguide. Compared to the original method, applicable only to dissipative media, the proposed method is more general and applicable to both dissipative and non-dissipative media. Based on the observations, it appears that discrete PMDL, and more generally the idea of equivalent continuous media, offers additional flexibility towards developing accurate methods for modeling wave propagation in a variety of application problems.

  4. On the definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables.

    PubMed

    Español, Pep; Zúñiga, Ignacio

    2009-10-28

    The Green-Kubo formula for discrete hydrodynamic variables involves information about not only the fluid transport coefficients but also about discrete versions of the differential operators that govern the evolution of the discrete variables. This gives an intimate connection between discretization procedures in fluid dynamics and coarse-graining procedures used to obtain hydrodynamic behavior of molecular fluids. We observed that a natural definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables in terms of Voronoi cells leads to a Green-Kubo formula which is divergent, rendering the full coarse-graining strategy useless. In order to understand this subtle issue, in the present paper we consider the coarse graining of noninteracting Brownian particles. The discrete hydrodynamic variable for this problem is the number of particles within Voronoi cells. Thanks to the simplicity of the model we spot the origin of the singular behavior of the correlation functions. We offer an alternative definition, based on the concept of a Delaunay cell that behaves properly, suggesting the use of the Delaunay construction for the coarse graining of molecular fluids at the discrete hydrodynamic level.

  5. Exact charge-conserving scatter-gather algorithm for particle-in-cell simulations on unstructured grids: A geometric perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Haksu; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Omelchenko, Yuri A.

    2015-09-01

    We describe a charge-conserving scatter-gather algorithm for particle-in-cell simulations on unstructured grids. Charge conservation is obtained from first principles, i.e., without the need for any post-processing or correction steps. This algorithm recovers, at a fundamental level, the scatter-gather algorithms presented recently by Campos-Pinto et al. (2014) (to first-order) and by Squire et al. (2012), but it is derived here in a streamlined fashion from a geometric viewpoint. Some ingredients reflecting this viewpoint are (1) the use of (discrete) differential forms of various degrees to represent fields, currents, and charged particles and provide localization rules for the degrees of freedom thereof on the various grid elements (nodes, edges, facets), (2) use of Whitney forms as basic interpolants from discrete differential forms to continuum space, and (3) use of a Galerkin formula for the discrete Hodge star operators (i.e., "mass matrices" incorporating the metric datum of the grid) applicable to generally irregular, unstructured grids. The expressions obtained for the scatter charges and scatter currents are very concise and do not involve numerical quadrature rules. Appropriate fractional areas within each grid element are identified that represent scatter charges and scatter currents within the element, and a simple geometric representation for the (exact) charge conservation mechanism is obtained by such identification. The field update is based on the coupled first-order Maxwell's curl equations to avoid spurious modes with secular growth (otherwise present in formulations that discretize the second-order wave equation). Examples are provided to verify preservation of discrete Gauss' law for all times.

  6. Discrete symmetries and de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Cotăescu, Ion I. Pascu, Gabriel

    2014-11-24

    Aspects of the ambiguity in defining quantum modes on de Sitter spacetime using a commuting system composed only of differential operators are discussed. Discrete symmetries and their actions on the wavefunction in commonly used coordinate charts are reviewed. It is argued that the system of commuting operators can be supplemented by requiring the invariance of the wavefunction to combined discrete symmetries- a criterion which selects a single state out of the α-vacuum family. Two such members of this family are singled out by particular combined discrete symmetries- states between which exists a well-known thermality relation.

  7. Multigravity from a discrete extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.

    2004-06-01

    Multigravity theories are constructed from the discretization of the extra dimension of five-dimensional gravity. Using an ADM decomposition, the discretization is performed while maintaining the four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariance on each site. We relate the Goldstone bosons used to realize nonlinearly general covariance in discretized gravity to the shift fields of the higher-dimensional metric. We investigate the scalar excitations of the resulting theory and show the absence of ghosts and massive modes; this is due to a local symmetry inherited from the reparametrization invariance along the fifth dimension.

  8. High-accuracy discrete positioning device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, John J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An article (30) is controllably and precisely positioned at one of three discrete locations defined by a linkage. The positioning apparatus includes two independently driven cranks (34, 42), with a link (50) pivotably connected between the two cranks (34, 42). Another connector (44) is pivotably connected between one of the cranks (34 or 42) and the article (30) to be positioned. The cranks (34, 42) are rotationally adjusted so that the pivot points (52, 54) of the link (50) are collinear with the axes of rotation of the cranks (40, 48), thereby defining one of the three discrete locations. Additional cranks and links can be provided to define additional discrete locations.

  9. Discrete flavour symmetries from the Heisenberg group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floratos, E. G.; Leontaris, G. K.

    2016-04-01

    Non-abelian discrete symmetries are of particular importance in model building. They are mainly invoked to explain the various fermion mass hierarchies and forbid dangerous superpotential terms. In string models they are usually associated to the geometry of the compactification manifold and more particularly to the magnetised branes in toroidal compactifications. Motivated by these facts, in this note we propose a unified framework to construct representations of finite discrete family groups based on the automorphisms of the discrete and finite Heisenberg group. We focus in particular, on the PSL2 (p) groups which contain the phenomenologically interesting cases.

  10. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  11. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.

    1997-02-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  12. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2016-10-01

    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  13. Dynamic discretization method for solving Kepler's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, Scott A.; McLaughlin, Craig A.

    2006-09-01

    Kepler’s equation needs to be solved many times for a variety of problems in Celestial Mechanics. Therefore, computing the solution to Kepler’s equation in an efficient manner is of great importance to that community. There are some historical and many modern methods that address this problem. Of the methods known to the authors, Fukushima’s discretization technique performs the best. By taking more of a system approach and combining the use of discretization with the standard computer science technique known as dynamic programming, we were able to achieve even better performance than Fukushima. We begin by defining Kepler’s equation for the elliptical case and describe existing solution methods. We then present our dynamic discretization method and show the results of a comparative analysis. This analysis will demonstrate that, for the conditions of our tests, dynamic discretization performs the best.

  14. A discrete control model of PLANT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A model of the PLANT system using the discrete control modeling techniques developed by Miller is described. Discrete control models attempt to represent in a mathematical form how a human operator might decompose a complex system into simpler parts and how the control actions and system configuration are coordinated so that acceptable overall system performance is achieved. Basic questions include knowledge representation, information flow, and decision making in complex systems. The structure of the model is a general hierarchical/heterarchical scheme which structurally accounts for coordination and dynamic focus of attention. Mathematically, the discrete control model is defined in terms of a network of finite state systems. Specifically, the discrete control model accounts for how specific control actions are selected from information about the controlled system, the environment, and the context of the situation. The objective is to provide a plausible and empirically testable accounting and, if possible, explanation of control behavior.

  15. Motion of Discrete Interfaces Through Mushy Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braides, Andrea; Solci, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    We study the geometric motion of sets in the plane derived from the homogenization of discrete ferromagnetic energies with weak inclusions. We show that the discrete sets are composed by a `bulky' part and an external `mushy region' composed only of weak inclusions. The relevant motion is that of the bulky part, which asymptotically obeys to a motion by crystalline mean curvature with a forcing term, due to the energetic contribution of the mushy layers, and pinning effects, due to discreteness. From an analytical standpoint, it is interesting to note that the presence of the mushy layers implies only a weak and not strong convergence of the discrete motions, so that the convergence of the energies does not commute with the evolution. From a mechanical standpoint it is interesting to note the geometrical similarity of some phenomena in the cooling of binary melts.

  16. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  17. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  18. A Few Continuous and Discrete Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Rui, Wenjuan

    2016-08-01

    Starting from a 2-unimodular group, we construct its new Lie algebras for which the positive-order Lax pairs and the negative-order Lax pairs are introduced, respectively. With the help of the resulting structure equation of the group we generate some partial differential equations including the well-known MKdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the hyperbolic sine-Gordon equation and other new nonlinear evolution equations. With the aid of the Tu scheme combined with the given Lax pairs, we obtain the isospectral and nonisospectral hierarchies of evolution equations, from which we generate two sets of symmetries of a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (gNLS) equation. Finally, we discretize the Lax pairs to obtain a set of coupled semi-discrete equations. As their reduction, we produce the semi-discrete MKdV equation and semi-discrete NLS equation.

  19. Discrete Tchebycheff orthonormal polynomials and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discrete Tchebycheff orthonormal polynomials offer a convenient way to make least squares polynomial fits of uniformly spaced discrete data. Computer programs to do so are simple and fast, and appear to be less affected by computer roundoff error, for the higher order fits, than conventional least squares programs. They are useful for any application of polynomial least squares fits: approximation of mathematical functions, noise analysis of radar data, and real time smoothing of noisy data, to name a few.

  20. Development of discrete components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.J.

    1995-11-01

    Allied-Signal Inc, Kansas City Division, was provided with funding to maintain the capability to procure discrete components for various applications. A development project was undertaken to procure transistor die from one supplier for assembly into finished components by a different supplier. These components would be SA-equivalent with appropriate preconditioning, testing, and certification, The methodologies developed herein go far to ensure the future availability of discrete components.

  1. Boundary treatment for fourth-order staggered mesh discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderse, B.; Verstappen, R. W. C. P.; Koren, B.

    2014-01-01

    Harlow and Welch [Phys. Fluids 8 (1965) 2182-2189] introduced a discretization method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations conserving the secondary quantities kinetic energy and vorticity, besides the primary quantities mass and momentum. This method was extended to fourth order accuracy by several researchers [25,14,21]. In this paper we propose a new consistent boundary treatment for this method, which is such that continuous integration-by-parts identities (including boundary contributions) are mimicked in a discrete sense. In this way kinetic energy is exactly conserved even in case of non-zero tangential boundary conditions. We show that requiring energy conservation at the boundary conflicts with order of accuracy conditions, and that the global accuracy of the fourth order method is limited to second order in the presence of boundaries. We indicate how non-uniform grids can be employed to obtain full fourth order accuracy.

  2. Domain-decomposable preconditioners for second-order upwind discretizations of multicomponent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Gropp, W.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Discrete systems arising in computational fluid dynamics applications often require wide stencils adapted to the local convective direction in order to accommodate higher-order upwind differencing, and involve multiple components perhaps coupling strongly at each point. Conventional exactly or approximately factored inverses of such operators are burdensome to apply globally, especially in problems complicated by non-tensor-product domain geometry or adaptive refinement, though their forward'' action is not. Such problems can be solved by iterative methods by using either point-block preconditioners or combination space-decoupled/component-decoupled preconditioners that are based on lower-order discretizations. Except for a global implicit solve on a coarse grid, each phase in the application of such preconditioners has simple locally exploitable structure. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Combinatorial expressions of the solutions to initial value problems of the discrete and ultradiscrete Toda molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, Shuhei; Takagaki, Tomoaki

    2013-09-01

    Combinatorial expressions are presented of the solutions to initial value problems of the discrete and ultradiscrete Toda molecules. For the discrete Toda molecule, a subtraction-free expression of the solution is derived in terms of non-intersecting paths, for which two results in combinatorics, Flajolet’s interpretation of continued fractions and Gessel-Viennot’s lemma on determinants, are applied. By ultradiscretizing the subtraction-free expression, the solution to the ultradiscrete Toda molecule is obtained. It is finally shown that the initial value problem of the ultradiscrete Toda molecule is exactly solved in terms of shortest paths on a specific graph. The behavior of the solution is also investigated in comparison with the box-ball system.

  4. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  5. Using a curvilinear grid to construct symmetry-preserving discretizations for Lagrangian gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, L.; Shashkov, M.

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to construct discretizations for the equations of Lagrangian gas dynamics that preserve plane, cylindrical, and spherical symmetry in the solution of the original differential equations. The new method uses a curvilinear grid that is reconstructed from a given logically rectangular distribution of nodes. The sides of the cells of the reconstructed grid can be segments of straight lines or arcs of local circles. The procedure is exact for straight lines and circles; that is, it reproduces rectangular and polar grids exactly. The authors use the method of support operators to construct a conservative finite-difference method that they demonstrate will preserve spatial symmetries for certain choices of the initial grid. They also introduce a curvilinear version of artificial edge viscosity that also preserves symmetry. They present numerical examples to demonstrate their theoretical considerations and the robustness of the new method.

  6. Exact-Differential Large-Scale Traffic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanai, Masatoshi; Suzumura, Toyotaro; Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing large-scale traffics by simulation needs repeating execution many times with various patterns of scenarios or parameters. Such repeating execution brings about big redundancy because the change from a prior scenario to a later scenario is very minor in most cases, for example, blocking only one of roads or changing the speed limit of several roads. In this paper, we propose a new redundancy reduction technique, called exact-differential simulation, which enables to simulate only changing scenarios in later execution while keeping exactly same results as in the case of whole simulation. The paper consists of two main efforts: (i) a key idea and algorithm of the exact-differential simulation, (ii) a method to build large-scale traffic simulation on the top of the exact-differential simulation. In experiments of Tokyo traffic simulation, the exact-differential simulation shows 7.26 times as much elapsed time improvement in average and 2.26 times improvement even in the worst case as the whole simulation.

  7. Lyapunov Schmidt reduction algorithm for three-dimensional discrete vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Mike; Pelinovsky, Dmitry; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2008-03-01

    We address the persistence and stability of three-dimensional vortex configurations in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and develop a symbolic package based on Wolfram’s MATHEMATICA for computations of the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction method. The Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction method is a theoretical tool which enables us to study continuations and terminations of the discrete vortices for small coupling between lattice nodes as well as the spectral stability of the persistent configurations. The method was developed earlier in the context of the two-dimensional lattice and applied to the onsite and offsite configurations (called the vortex cross and the vortex cell) by using semianalytical computations [D.E. Pelinovsky, P.G. Kevrekidis, D. Frantzeskakis, Physica D 212 (2005) 20-53; P.G. Kevrekidis, D.E. Pelinovsky, Proc. R. Soc. A 462 (2006) 2671-2694]. The present treatment develops a full symbolic computational package which takes a desired waveform at the anticontinuum limit of uncoupled sites, performs a required number of Lyapunov-Schmidt reductions and outputs the predictions on whether the configuration persists, for finite coupling, in the three-dimensional lattice and whether it is stable or unstable. It also provides approximations for the eigenvalues of the linearized stability problem. We report a number of applications of the algorithm to important multisite three-dimensional configurations, such as the simple cube, the double cross and the diamond. For each configuration, we identify exactly one solution, which is stable for small coupling between lattice nodes.

  8. Multifocus watermarking approach based on discrete cosine transform.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Safa Riyadh; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Rehman, Amjad; Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-05-01

    Image fusion process consolidates data and information from various images of same sight into a solitary image. Each of the source images might speak to a fractional perspective of the scene, and contains both "pertinent" and "immaterial" information. In this study, a new image fusion method is proposed utilizing the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) to join the source image into a solitary minimized image containing more exact depiction of the sight than any of the individual source images. In addition, the fused image comes out with most ideal quality image without bending appearance or loss of data. DCT algorithm is considered efficient in image fusion. The proposed scheme is performed in five steps: (1) RGB colour image (input image) is split into three channels R, G, and B for source images. (2) DCT algorithm is applied to each channel (R, G, and B). (3) The variance values are computed for the corresponding 8 × 8 blocks of each channel. (4) Each block of R of source images is compared with each other based on the variance value and then the block with maximum variance value is selected to be the block in the new image. This process is repeated for all channels of source images. (5) Inverse discrete cosine transform is applied on each fused channel to convert coefficient values to pixel values, and then combined all the channels to generate the fused image. The proposed technique can potentially solve the problem of unwanted side effects such as blurring or blocking artifacts by reducing the quality of the subsequent image in image fusion process. The proposed approach is evaluated using three measurement units: the average of Q(abf), standard deviation, and peak Signal Noise Rate. The experimental results of this proposed technique have shown good results as compared with older techniques.

  9. Equilibrium and Response Properties of the Integrate-and-Fire Neuron in Discrete Time

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Moritz; Deger, Moritz; Diesmann, Markus; Rotter, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The integrate-and-fire neuron with exponential postsynaptic potentials is a frequently employed model to study neural networks. Simulations in discrete time still have highest performance at moderate numerical errors, which makes them first choice for long-term simulations of plastic networks. Here we extend the population density approach to investigate how the equilibrium and response properties of the leaky integrate-and-fire neuron are affected by time discretization. We present a novel analytical treatment of the boundary condition at threshold, taking both discretization of time and finite synaptic weights into account. We uncover an increased membrane potential density just below threshold as the decisive property that explains the deviations found between simulations and the classical diffusion approximation. Temporal discretization and finite synaptic weights both contribute to this effect. Our treatment improves the standard formula to calculate the neuron's equilibrium firing rate. Direct solution of the Markov process describing the evolution of the membrane potential density confirms our analysis and yields a method to calculate the firing rate exactly. Knowing the shape of the membrane potential distribution near threshold enables us to devise the transient response properties of the neuron model to synaptic input. We find a pronounced non-linear fast response component that has not been described by the prevailing continuous time theory for Gaussian white noise input. PMID:20130755

  10. An implicit finite element method for discrete dynamic fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Jobie M. Gerken

    1999-12-01

    A method for modeling the discrete fracture of two-dimensional linear elastic structures with a distribution of small cracks subject to dynamic conditions has been developed. The foundation for this numerical model is a plane element formulated from the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The distribution of small cracks is incorporated into the numerical model by including a small crack at each element interface. The additional strain field in an element adjacent to this crack is treated as an externally applied strain field in the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The resulting stiffness matrix is that of a standard plane element. The resulting load vector is that of a standard plane element with an additional term that includes the externally applied strain field. Except for the crack strain field equations, all terms of the stiffness matrix and load vector are integrated symbolically in Maple V so that fully integrated plane stress and plane strain elements are constructed. The crack strain field equations are integrated numerically. The modeling of dynamic behavior of simple structures was demonstrated within acceptable engineering accuracy. In the model of axial and transverse vibration of a beam and the breathing mode of vibration of a thin ring, the dynamic characteristics were shown to be within expected limits. The models dominated by tensile forces (the axially loaded beam and the pressurized ring) were within 0.5% of the theoretical values while the shear dominated model (the transversely loaded beam) is within 5% of the calculated theoretical value. The constant strain field of the tensile problems can be modeled exactly by the numerical model. The numerical results should therefore, be exact. The discrepancies can be accounted for by errors in the calculation of frequency from the numerical results. The linear strain field of the transverse model must be modeled by a series of constant strain elements. This is an approximation to the true strain field, so some

  11. Discrete Ordinate Quadrature Selection for Reactor-based Eigenvalue Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Joshua J; Evans, Thomas M; Davidson, Gregory G

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of various quadrature sets on the eigenvalues of several reactor-based problems, including a two-dimensional (2D) fuel pin, a 2D lattice of fuel pins, and a three-dimensional (3D) reactor core problem. While many quadrature sets have been applied to neutral particle discrete ordinate transport calculations, the Level Symmetric (LS) and the Gauss-Chebyshev product (GC) sets are the most widely used in production-level reactor simulations. Other quadrature sets, such as Quadruple Range (QR) sets, have been shown to be more accurate in shielding applications. In this paper, we compare the LS, GC, QR, and the recently developed linear-discontinuous finite element (LDFE) sets, as well as give a brief overview of other proposed quadrature sets. We show that, for a given number of angles, the QR sets are more accurate than the LS and GC in all types of reactor problems analyzed (2D and 3D). We also show that the LDFE sets are more accurate than the LS and GC sets for these problems. We conclude that, for problems where tens to hundreds of quadrature points (directions) per octant are appropriate, QR sets should regularly be used because they have similar integration properties as the LS and GC sets, have no noticeable impact on the speed of convergence of the solution when compared with other quadrature sets, and yield more accurate results. We note that, for very high-order scattering problems, the QR sets exactly integrate fewer angular flux moments over the unit sphere than the GC sets. The effects of those inexact integrations have yet to be analyzed. We also note that the LDFE sets only exactly integrate the zeroth and first angular flux moments. Pin power comparisons and analyses are not included in this paper and are left for future work.

  12. Stochastic Event Counter for Discrete-Event Systems Under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2008-06-01

    This paper addresses the issues of counting the occurrence of special events in the framework of partiallyobserved discrete-event dynamical systems (DEDS). First, we develop a noble recursive procedure that updates active counter information state sequentially with available observations. In general, the cardinality of active counter information state is unbounded, which makes the exact recursion infeasible computationally. To overcome this difficulty, we develop an approximated recursive procedure that regulates and bounds the size of active counter information state. Using the approximated active counting information state, we give an approximated minimum mean square error (MMSE) counter. The developed algorithms are then applied to count special routing events in a material flow system.

  13. Universality in exact quantum state population dynamics and control

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul; Egusquiza, Inigo L.

    2010-09-15

    We consider an exact population transition, defined as the probability of finding a state at a final time that is exactly equal to the probability of another state at the initial time. We prove that, given a Hamiltonian, there always exists a complete set of orthogonal states that can be employed as time-zero states for which this exact population transition occurs. The result is general: It holds for arbitrary systems, arbitrary pairs of initial and final states, and for any time interval. The proposition is illustrated with several analytic models. In particular, we demonstrate that in some cases, by tuning the control parameters, a complete transition might occur, where a target state, vacant at t=0, is fully populated at time {tau}.

  14. Exact spectral elements for follower tension buckling by power series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, A. Y. T.

    2008-01-01

    The spectral dynamic stiffness method using exact solutions of the governing equations as shape functions has been popular for vibration and dynamic stability analyses of framed structures consisting of uniform members. Since non-uniform members do not generally have closed form solutions, special cases only have been considered. However, exact solutions are still possible for generally non-uniform members using power series. The paper studies the exact dynamic stability of columns with distributed axial force by power series. Both uniform and distributed, compression and tension, and conservative and non-conservative axial forces are considered. Interaction diagrams of various kinds of axial loads on the natural frequencies including different intensities of the distributed loads and degree of tangency are given. Follower tension buckling is reported for the first time. It is found that the power series outperforms the dynamic stiffness method in terms of versatility in applications and numerical stability at the very low and high ends of the frequency spectrum.

  15. Exact solutions of forced Burgers equations with time variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükaşık, Şirin A.; Pashaev, Oktay K.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a forced Burgers equation with time variable coefficients of the form Ut+(μ˙(t)/μ(t))U+UUx=(1/2μ(t))Uxx-ω2(t)x, and obtain an explicit solution of the general initial value problem in terms of a corresponding second order linear ordinary differential equation. Special exact solutions such as generalized shock and multi-shock waves, triangular wave, N-wave and rational type solutions are found and discussed. Then, we introduce forced Burgers equations with constant damping and an exponentially decaying diffusion coefficient as exactly solvable models. Different type of exact solutions are obtained for the critical, over and under damping cases, and their behavior is illustrated explicitly. In particular, the existence of inelastic type of collisions is observed by constructing multi-shock wave solutions, and for the rational type solutions the motion of the pole singularities is described.

  16. Exact maps in density functional theory for lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Tanja; Appel, Heiko; Fuks, Johanna I.; Rubio, Angel

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we employ exact diagonalization for model systems on a real-space lattice to explicitly construct the exact density-to-potential and graphically illustrate the complete exact density-to-wavefunction map that underly the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem in density functional theory. Having the explicit wavefunction-to-density map at hand, we are able to construct arbitrary observables as functionals of the ground-state density. We analyze the density-to-potential map as the distance between the fragments of a system increases and the correlation in the system grows. We observe a feature that gradually develops in the density-to-potential map as well as in the density-to-wavefunction map. This feature is inherited by arbitrary expectation values as functional of the ground-state density. We explicitly show the excited-state energies, the excited-state densities, and the correlation entropy as functionals of the ground-state density. All of them show this exact feature that sharpens as the coupling of the fragments decreases and the correlation grows. We denominate this feature as intra-system steepening and discuss how it relates to the well-known inter-system derivative discontinuity. The inter-system derivative discontinuity is an exact concept for coupled subsystems with degenerate ground state. However, the coupling between subsystems as in charge transfer processes can lift the degeneracy. An important conclusion is that for such systems with a near-degenerate ground state, the corresponding cut along the particle number N of the exact density functionals is differentiable with a well-defined gradient near integer particle number.

  17. Exact maps in density functional theory for lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Tanja; Appel, Heiko; Fuks, Johanna I.; Rubio, Angel

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we employ exact diagonalization for model systems on a real-space lattice to explicitly construct the exact density-to-potential and graphically illustrate the complete exact density-to-wavefunction map that underly the Hohenberg–Kohn theorem in density functional theory. Having the explicit wavefunction-to-density map at hand, we are able to construct arbitrary observables as functionals of the ground-state density. We analyze the density-to-potential map as the distance between the fragments of a system increases and the correlation in the system grows. We observe a feature that gradually develops in the density-to-potential map as well as in the density-to-wavefunction map. This feature is inherited by arbitrary expectation values as functional of the ground-state density. We explicitly show the excited-state energies, the excited-state densities, and the correlation entropy as functionals of the ground-state density. All of them show this exact feature that sharpens as the coupling of the fragments decreases and the correlation grows. We denominate this feature as intra-system steepening and discuss how it relates to the well-known inter-system derivative discontinuity. The inter-system derivative discontinuity is an exact concept for coupled subsystems with degenerate ground state. However, the coupling between subsystems as in charge transfer processes can lift the degeneracy. An important conclusion is that for such systems with a near-degenerate ground state, the corresponding cut along the particle number N of the exact density functionals is differentiable with a well-defined gradient near integer particle number.

  18. Aesthetic Responses to Exact Fractals Driven by Physical Complexity.

    PubMed

    Bies, Alexander J; Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R; Boydston, Cooper R; Taylor, Richard P; Sereno, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    Fractals are physically complex due to their repetition of patterns at multiple size scales. Whereas the statistical characteristics of the patterns repeat for fractals found in natural objects, computers can generate patterns that repeat exactly. Are these exact fractals processed differently, visually and aesthetically, than their statistical counterparts? We investigated the human aesthetic response to the complexity of exact fractals by manipulating fractal dimensionality, symmetry, recursion, and the number of segments in the generator. Across two studies, a variety of fractal patterns were visually presented to human participants to determine the typical response to exact fractals. In the first study, we found that preference ratings for exact midpoint displacement fractals can be described by a linear trend with preference increasing as fractal dimension increases. For the majority of individuals, preference increased with dimension. We replicated these results for other exact fractal patterns in a second study. In the second study, we also tested the effects of symmetry and recursion by presenting asymmetric dragon fractals, symmetric dragon fractals, and Sierpinski carpets and Koch snowflakes, which have radial and mirror symmetry. We found a strong interaction among recursion, symmetry and fractal dimension. Specifically, at low levels of recursion, the presence of symmetry was enough to drive high preference ratings for patterns with moderate to high levels of fractal dimension. Most individuals required a much higher level of recursion to recover this level of preference in a pattern that lacked mirror or radial symmetry, while others were less discriminating. This suggests that exact fractals are processed differently than their statistical counterparts. We propose a set of four factors that influence complexity and preference judgments in fractals that may extend to other patterns: fractal dimension, recursion, symmetry and the number of segments in a

  19. Anisotropic exact solutions in scalar-tensor-vector gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Yousaf, Aasma

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore exact solutions in the scalar-tensor-vector theory of gravity with two scalar fields and one vector field. We consider a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-I universe filled with perfect fluid. The first exact solution is found through certain assumptions while the second solution is obtained through Noether symmetry approach. We discuss the behavior of the resulting solutions numerically and also explore the corresponding energy conditions. It is found that the strong energy condition is violated in both cases indicating the accelerated expansion of the universe.

  20. Aesthetic Responses to Exact Fractals Driven by Physical Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Bies, Alexander J.; Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R.; Boydston, Cooper R.; Taylor, Richard P.; Sereno, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Fractals are physically complex due to their repetition of patterns at multiple size scales. Whereas the statistical characteristics of the patterns repeat for fractals found in natural objects, computers can generate patterns that repeat exactly. Are these exact fractals processed differently, visually and aesthetically, than their statistical counterparts? We investigated the human aesthetic response to the complexity of exact fractals by manipulating fractal dimensionality, symmetry, recursion, and the number of segments in the generator. Across two studies, a variety of fractal patterns were visually presented to human participants to determine the typical response to exact fractals. In the first study, we found that preference ratings for exact midpoint displacement fractals can be described by a linear trend with preference increasing as fractal dimension increases. For the majority of individuals, preference increased with dimension. We replicated these results for other exact fractal patterns in a second study. In the second study, we also tested the effects of symmetry and recursion by presenting asymmetric dragon fractals, symmetric dragon fractals, and Sierpinski carpets and Koch snowflakes, which have radial and mirror symmetry. We found a strong interaction among recursion, symmetry and fractal dimension. Specifically, at low levels of recursion, the presence of symmetry was enough to drive high preference ratings for patterns with moderate to high levels of fractal dimension. Most individuals required a much higher level of recursion to recover this level of preference in a pattern that lacked mirror or radial symmetry, while others were less discriminating. This suggests that exact fractals are processed differently than their statistical counterparts. We propose a set of four factors that influence complexity and preference judgments in fractals that may extend to other patterns: fractal dimension, recursion, symmetry and the number of segments in a

  1. Exact Distribution of the Maximal Height of p Vicious Walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schehr, Grégory; Majumdar, Satya N.; Comtet, Alain; Randon-Furling, Julien

    2008-10-01

    Using path-integral techniques, we compute exactly the distribution of the maximal height Hp of p nonintersecting Brownian walkers over a unit time interval in one dimension, both for excursions p watermelons with a wall, and bridges p watermelons without a wall, for all integer p≥1. For large p, we show that ⟨Hp⟩˜2p (excursions) whereas ⟨Hp⟩˜p (bridges). Our exact results prove that previous numerical experiments only measured the preasymptotic behaviors and not the correct asymptotic ones. In addition, our method establishes a physical connection between vicious walkers and random matrix theory.

  2. Exact asymmetric Skyrmion in anisotropic ferromagnet and its helimagnetic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Topological Skyrmions as intricate spin textures were observed experimentally in helimagnets on 2d plane. Theoretical foundation of such solitonic states to appear in pure ferromagnetic model, as exact solutions expressed through any analytic function, was made long ago by Belavin and Polyakov (BP). We propose an innovative generalization of the BP solution for an anisotropic ferromagnet, based on a physically motivated geometric (in-)equality, which takes the exact Skyrmion to a new class of functions beyond analyticity. The possibility of stabilizing such metastable states in helimagnets is discussed with the construction of individual Skyrmion, Skyrmion crystal and lattice with asymmetry, likely to be detected in precision experiments.

  3. From hyperbolic regularization to exact hydrodynamics for linearized Grad's equations.

    PubMed

    Colangeli, Matteo; Karlin, Iliya V; Kröger, Martin

    2007-05-01

    Inspired by a recent hyperbolic regularization of Burnett's hydrodynamic equations [A. Bobylev, J. Stat. Phys. 124, 371 (2006)], we introduce a method to derive hyperbolic equations of linear hydrodynamics to any desired accuracy in Knudsen number. The approach is based on a dynamic invariance principle which derives exact constitutive relations for the stress tensor and heat flux, and a transformation which renders the exact equations of hydrodynamics hyperbolic and stable. The method is described in detail for a simple kinetic model -- a 13 moment Grad system.

  4. Security Condition for Exact Localization in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Kim, Jong; Lee, Pil Joong

    As deployment of wireless ad hoc networks for location-based services increases, accurate localization of mobile nodes is becoming more important. Localization of a mobile node is achieved by estimating its distances from a group of anchor nodes. If some anchors are malicious and colluding, localization accuracy cannot be guaranteed. In this article, we present the security conditions for exact localization in the presence of colluding malicious anchors. We first derive the minimum number of truthful anchors that are required for exact localization in 2-D Euclidean space where some anchors may be collinear. Second, we extend our security condition to 3-D localization where some anchors may be coplanar.

  5. Symmetrized quartic polynomial oscillators and their partial exact solvability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    Sextic polynomial oscillator is probably the best known quantum system which is partially exactly alias quasi-exactly solvable (QES), i.e., which possesses closed-form, elementary-function bound states ψ (x) at certain couplings and energies. In contrast, the apparently simpler and phenomenologically more important quartic polynomial oscillator is not QES. A resolution of the paradox is proposed: The one-dimensional Schrödinger equation is shown QES after the analyticity-violating symmetrization V (x) = A | x | + Bx2 + C | x|3 +x4 of the quartic polynomial potential.

  6. On the consistency between nearest-neighbor peridynamic discretizations and discretized classical elasticity models

    DOE PAGES

    Seleson, Pablo; Du, Qiang; Parks, Michael L.

    2016-08-16

    The peridynamic theory of solid mechanics is a nonlocal reformulation of the classical continuum mechanics theory. At the continuum level, it has been demonstrated that classical (local) elasticity is a special case of peridynamics. Such a connection between these theories has not been extensively explored at the discrete level. This paper investigates the consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of linear elastic peridynamic models and finite difference discretizations of the Navier–Cauchy equation of classical elasticity. While nearest-neighbor discretizations in peridynamics have been numerically observed to present grid-dependent crack paths or spurious microcracks, this paper focuses on a different, analytical aspect of suchmore » discretizations. We demonstrate that, even in the absence of cracks, such discretizations may be problematic unless a proper selection of weights is used. Specifically, we demonstrate that using the standard meshfree approach in peridynamics, nearest-neighbor discretizations do not reduce, in general, to discretizations of corresponding classical models. We study nodal-based quadratures for the discretization of peridynamic models, and we derive quadrature weights that result in consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of peridynamic models and discretized classical models. The quadrature weights that lead to such consistency are, however, model-/discretization-dependent. We motivate the choice of those quadrature weights through a quadratic approximation of displacement fields. The stability of nearest-neighbor peridynamic schemes is demonstrated through a Fourier mode analysis. Finally, an approach based on a normalization of peridynamic constitutive constants at the discrete level is explored. This approach results in the desired consistency for one-dimensional models, but does not work in higher dimensions. The results of the work presented in this paper suggest that even though nearest

  7. PREFACE: 4th Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Domenico, Antonio; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2015-07-01

    The DISCRETE 2014: Fourth Symposium in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries took place at King's College London, Strand Campus, London WC2R 2LS, from Tuesday, December 2 2014 till Saturday, December 6 2014. This is the fourth Edition of the DISCRETE conference series, which is a biannual event, having been held previously in Valencia (Discrete'08), Rome (Discrete2010) and Lisbon (Discrete2012). The topics covered at the DISCRETE series of conferences are: T, C, P, CP symmetries; accidental symmetries (B, L conservation); CPT symmetry, decoherence and entangled states, Lorentz symmetry breaking (phenomenology and current bounds); neutrino mass and mixing; implications for cosmology and astroparticle physics, dark matter searches; experimental prospects at LHC, new facilities. In DISCRETE 2014 we have also introduced two new topics: cosmological aspects of non-commutative space-times as well as PT symmetric Hamiltonians (non-Hermitian but with real eigenvalues), a topic that has wide applications in particle physics and beyond. The conference was opened by the King's College London Vice Principal on Research and Innovation, Mr Chris Mottershead, followed by a welcome address by the Chair of DISCRETE 2014 (Professor Nick E. Mavromatos). After these introductory talks, the scientific programme of the DISCRETE 2014 symposium started. Following the tradition of DISCRETE series of conferences, the talks (138 in total) were divided into plenary-review talks (25), invited research talks (50) and shorter presentations (63) — selected by the conveners of each session in consultation with the organisers — from the submitted abstracts. We have been fortunate to have very high-quality, thought stimulating and interesting talks at all levels, which, together with the discussions among the participants, made the conference quite enjoyable. There were 152 registered participants for the event.

  8. Exact Integrations of Polynomials and Symmetric Quadrature Formulas over Arbitrary Polyhedral Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two important elements in the high-order accurate spatial discretization of finite volume equations over arbitrary grids. One element is the integration of basis functions over arbitrary domains, which is used in expressing various spatial integrals in terms of discrete unknowns. The other consists of quadrature approximations to those integrals. Only polynomial basis functions applied to polyhedral and polygonal grids are treated here. Non-triangular polygonal faces are subdivided into a union of planar triangular facets, and the resulting triangulated polyhedron is subdivided into a union of tetrahedra. The straight line segment, triangle, and tetrahedron are thus the fundamental shapes that are the building blocks for all integrations and quadrature approximations. Integrals of products up to the fifth order are derived in a unified manner for the three fundamental shapes in terms of the position vectors of vertices. Results are given both in terms of tensor products and products of Cartesian coordinates. The exact polynomial integrals are used to obtain symmetric quadrature approximations of any degree of precision up to five for arbitrary integrals over the three fundamental domains. Using a coordinate-free formulation, simple and rational procedures are developed to derive virtually all quadrature formulas, including some previously unpublished. Four symmetry groups of quadrature points are introduced to derive Gauss formulas, while their limiting forms are used to derive Lobatto formulas. Representative Gauss and Lobatto formulas are tabulated. The relative efficiency of their application to polyhedral and polygonal grids is detailed. The extension to higher degrees of precision is discussed.

  9. Constraint analysis for variational discrete systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Bianca; Höhn, Philipp A.

    2013-09-15

    A canonical formalism and constraint analysis for discrete systems subject to a variational action principle are devised. The formalism is equivalent to the covariant formulation, encompasses global and local discrete time evolution moves and naturally incorporates both constant and evolving phase spaces, the latter of which is necessary for a time varying discretization. The different roles of constraints in the discrete and the conditions under which they are first or second class and/or symmetry generators are clarified. The (non-) preservation of constraints and the symplectic structure is discussed; on evolving phase spaces the number of constraints at a fixed time step depends on the initial and final time step of evolution. Moreover, the definition of observables and a reduced phase space is provided; again, on evolving phase spaces the notion of an observable as a propagating degree of freedom requires specification of an initial and final step and crucially depends on this choice, in contrast to the continuum. However, upon restriction to translation invariant systems, one regains the usual time step independence of canonical concepts. This analysis applies, e.g., to discrete mechanics, lattice field theory, quantum gravity models, and numerical analysis.

  10. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-01

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space-time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge-Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that its

  11. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-15

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space–time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge–Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that

  12. Discrete Mathematics in the Schools. DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, Volume 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Joseph G., Ed.; Franzblau, Deborah S., Ed.; Roberts, Fred S., Ed.

    This book is a collection of articles by experienced educators and explains why and how discrete mathematics should be taught in K-12 classrooms. It includes evidence for "why" and practical guidance for "how" and also discusses how discrete mathematics can be used as a vehicle for achieving the broader goals of the major effort now underway to…

  13. On the derivation of the exact slope function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay

    2013-02-01

    In this note we give a simple derivation of the exact slope function conjectured by Basso for the anomalous dimensions of Wilson operators in the {s}{l}(2) sector of planar {N}=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory. We also discuss generalizations of this result for higher charges and other sectors.

  14. Exact Results for One Dimensional Fluids Through Functional Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    We review some of the exactly solvable one dimensional continuum fluid models of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics under the unified setting of functional integration in one dimension. We make some further developments and remarks concerning fluids with penetrable particles. We then apply our developments to the study of the Gaussian core model for which we are unable to find a well defined thermodynamics.

  15. General Exact Solutions of the Harry—Dym Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Mokhtari

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to generate exact travelling wave solutions of the Harry—Dym equation through the methods of Adomian decomposition, He's variational iteration, direct integration, and power series. We show that the two later methods are more successful than the two former to obtain more solutions of the equation.

  16. Exact semiclassical wave equation for stochastic quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    1996-02-01

    Semiclassical (stochastic) wave equations are proposed for the coupled dynamics of atomic quantum states and semiclassical radiation field. All relevant predictions of standard unitary quantum dynamics are exactly reproducible in the framework of the stochastic wave equation model. We stress in such a way that the concept of stochastic wave equations is not to be restricted to the widely used Markovian approximation.

  17. Exact Nonlinear Internal Equatorial Waves in the f-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2016-07-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations for internal geophysical water waves propagating westward above the thermocline in the f-plane approximation near the equator. Moreover, the mass transport velocity induced by this internal equatorial wave is eastward and a westward current occurs in the transition zone between the great depth where the water is still and the thermocline.

  18. Exact Tests for the Rasch Model via Sequential Importance Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuguo; Small, Dylan

    2005-01-01

    Rasch proposed an exact conditional inference approach to testing his model but never implemented it because it involves the calculation of a complicated probability. This paper furthers Rasch's approach by (1) providing an efficient Monte Carlo methodology for accurately approximating the required probability and (2) illustrating the usefulness…

  19. Exact geometric optics in a Morris-Thorne wormhole spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Thomas

    2008-02-15

    The simplicity of the Morris-Thorne wormhole spacetime permits us to determine null and timelike geodesics by means of elliptic integral functions and Jacobian elliptic functions. This analytic solution makes it possible to find a geodesic which connects two distant events. An exact gravitational lensing, an illumination calculation, and even an interactive visualization become possible.

  20. An exact solution of Haugan's binary pulsar equation of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, M.; Mor, A.

    1988-05-01

    In his work on the post-Newtonian arrival-time analysis for a pulsary binary system, Haugan (1985) derived and integrated the two-body equation of the motion of the pulsar. The purpose of the present study is to show that there is an exact solution to this nonlinear equation, without any need of far-reaching assumptions and neglected nonlinear terms.

  1. The Fisher-Yates Exact Test and Unequal Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edgar M.

    1972-01-01

    A computational short cut suggested by Feldman and Klinger for the one-sided Fisher-Yates exact test is clarified and is extended to the calculation of probability values for certain two-sided tests when sample sizes are unequal. (Author)

  2. A new classical conjugate gradient coefficient with exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiee, Norrlaili; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new classical conjugate gradient method. The global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results are presented based on number of iterations and CPU time. This numerical result shows that our method is performs better than classical CG method for a given standard test problems.

  3. Exact solutions of the generalized Sinh-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neirameh, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we successfully derive a new exact traveling wave solutions of the generalized Sinh-Gordon equation by new application of the homogeneous balance method. This method could be used in further works to establish more entirely new solutions for other kinds of nonlinear evolution equations arising in physics.

  4. Electromagnetic shock wave in nonlinear vacuum: exact solution.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Lubomir M; Georgieva, Daniela A; Kovachev, Kamen L

    2012-10-01

    An analytical approach to the theory of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear vacuum is developed. The evolution of the pulse is governed by a system of nonlinear wave vector equations. An exact solution with its own angular momentum in the form of a shock wave is obtained.

  5. Exact instanton expansion of the ABJM partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2015-11-01

    We review recent progress in determining the partition function of the ABJM theory in the large-N expansion, including all of the perturbative and non-perturbative corrections. In particular, we focus on how these exact expansions are obtained from various beautiful relations to the Fermi gas system, topological string theory, the integrable model, and the supergroup.

  6. Limitations on the utility of exact master equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G.W.; O'Connell, R.F. . E-mail: oconnell@phys.lsu.edu

    2005-10-01

    The low temperature solution of the exact master equation for an oscillator coupled to a linear passive heat bath is known to give rise to serious divergences. We now show that, even in the high temperature regime, problems also exist, notably the fact that the density matrix is not necessarily positive.

  7. Exact Chord-Length Distribution For SEU Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Luke, Keung L.

    1990-01-01

    Computed rates of SEU's more accurate. Exact integral chord-length distribution derived for use in calculations of rates of single-event upsets (SEU's) (changes in logic states) caused by impingement of cosmic rays or other ionizing radiation on electronic logic circuits.

  8. An Exactly Solvable Model for the Spread of Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new SIR epidemiological model whose exact analytical solution can be calculated. In this model, unlike previous models, the infective population becomes zero at a finite time. Remarkably, these results can be derived from only an elementary knowledge of differential equations.

  9. Exact quasinormal modes for a special class of black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Oliva, Julio; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2010-07-15

    Analytic exact expressions for the quasinormal modes of scalar and electromagnetic perturbations around a special class of black holes are found in d{>=}3 dimensions. It is shown that the size of the black hole provides a lower bound for the angular momentum of the perturbation. Quasinormal modes appear when this bound is fulfilled; otherwise the excitations become purely damped.

  10. Exactly Solvable Quantum Mechanical Potentials: An Alternative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronchik, Jeremy N.; Williams, Brian W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to finding exactly solvable, one-dimensional quantum mechanical potentials. Differs from the usual approach in that instead of starting with a particular potential and seeking solutions to the related Schrodinger equations, it begins with known solutions to second-order ordinary differential equations and seeks to…

  11. Constant pressure and temperature discrete-time Langevin molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Farago, Oded

    2014-11-21

    We present a new and improved method for simultaneous control of temperature and pressure in molecular dynamics simulations with periodic boundary conditions. The thermostat-barostat equations are built on our previously developed stochastic thermostat, which has been shown to provide correct statistical configurational sampling for any time step that yields stable trajectories. Here, we extend the method and develop a set of discrete-time equations of motion for both particle dynamics and system volume in order to seek pressure control that is insensitive to the choice of the numerical time step. The resulting method is simple, practical, and efficient. The method is demonstrated through direct numerical simulations of two characteristic model systems—a one-dimensional particle chain for which exact statistical results can be obtained and used as benchmarks, and a three-dimensional system of Lennard-Jones interacting particles simulated in both solid and liquid phases. The results, which are compared against the method of Kolb and Dünweg [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4453 (1999)], show that the new method behaves according to the objective, namely that acquired statistical averages and fluctuations of configurational measures are accurate and robust against the chosen time step applied to the simulation.

  12. The Cauchy-Kovalevskaya Extension Theorem in Discrete Clifford Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, H.; De Schepper, H.; Sommen, F.

    2010-09-01

    Discrete Clifford analysis is a higher dimensional discrete function theory based on skew Weyl relations. It is centered around the study of Clifford algebra valued null solutions, called discrete monogenic functions, of a discrete Dirac operator, i.e. a first order, Clifford vector valued difference operator. In this contribution, we establish a Cauchy-Kovalevskaya extension theorem for discrete monogenic functions defined on the grid Zhm of m-tuples of integer multiples of a variable mesh width h. Convergence to the continuous case is investigated. As illustrative examples we explicitly construct the Cauchy-Kovalevskaya extensions of the discrete delta function and of a discretized exponential.

  13. Exact Averaging of Stochastic Equations for Flow in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Shvidler, Mark; Karasaki, Kenzi

    2008-03-15

    It is well known that at present, exact averaging of the equations for flow and transport in random porous media have been proposed for limited special fields. Moreover, approximate averaging methods--for example, the convergence behavior and the accuracy of truncated perturbation series--are not well studied, and in addition, calculation of high-order perturbations is very complicated. These problems have for a long time stimulated attempts to find the answer to the question: Are there in existence some, exact, and sufficiently general forms of averaged equations? Here, we present an approach for finding the general exactly averaged system of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded stochastically homogeneous fields. We do this by using (1) the existence and some general properties of Green's functions for the appropriate stochastic problem, and (2) some information about the random field of conductivity. This approach enables us to find the form of the averaged equations without directly solving the stochastic equations or using the usual assumption regarding any small parameters. In the common case of a stochastically homogeneous conductivity field we present the exactly averaged new basic nonlocal equation with a unique kernel-vector. We show that in the case of some type of global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy, or orthotropy), we can for three-dimensional and two-dimensional flow in the same way derive the exact averaged nonlocal equations with a unique kernel-tensor. When global symmetry does not exist, the nonlocal equation with a kernel-tensor involves complications and leads to an ill-posed problem.

  14. Discrete Roughness Transition for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of discrete roughness and the correlations developed to predict the onset of boundary layer transition on hypersonic flight vehicles are discussed. The paper is organized by hypersonic vehicle applications characterized in a general sense by the boundary layer: slender with hypersonic conditions at the edge of the boundary layer, moderately blunt with supersonic, and blunt with subsonic. This paper is intended to be a review of recent discrete roughness transition work completed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of agency flight test programs. First, a review is provided of discrete roughness wind tunnel data and the resulting correlations that were developed. Then, results obtained from flight vehicles, in particular the recently flown Hyper-X and Shuttle missions, are discussed and compared to the ground-based correlations.

  15. An algebra of discrete event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.

  16. Discrete-time Markovian stochastic Petri nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco

    1995-01-01

    We revisit and extend the original definition of discrete-time stochastic Petri nets, by allowing the firing times to have a 'defective discrete phase distribution'. We show that this formalism still corresponds to an underlying discrete-time Markov chain. The structure of the state for this process describes both the marking of the Petri net and the phase of the firing time for each transition, resulting in a large state space. We then modify the well-known power method to perform a transient analysis even when the state space is infinite, subject to the condition that only a finite number of states can be reached in a finite amount of time. Since the memory requirements might still be excessive, we suggest a bounding technique based on truncation.

  17. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  18. The discrete regime of flame propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew

    The propagation of laminar dust flames in iron dust clouds was studied in a low-gravity envi-ronment on-board a parabolic flight aircraft. The elimination of buoyancy-induced convection and particle settling permitted measurements of fundamental combustion parameters such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. The discrete regime of flame propagation was observed by substitut-ing nitrogen present in air with xenon, an inert gas with a significantly lower heat conductivity. Flame propagation in the discrete regime is controlled by the heat transfer between neighbor-ing particles, rather than by the particle burning rate used by traditional continuum models of heterogeneous flames. The propagation mechanism of discrete flames depends on the spa-tial distribution of particles, and thus such flames are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the fuel concentration. Constant pressure laminar dust flames were observed inside 70 cm long, 5 cm diameter Pyrex tubes. Equally-spaced plate assemblies forming rectangular chan-nels were placed inside each tube to determine the quenching distance defined as the minimum channel width through which a flame can successfully propagate. High-speed video cameras were used to measure the flame speed and a fiber optic spectrometer was used to measure the flame temperature. Experimental results were compared with predictions obtained from a numerical model of a three-dimensional flame developed to capture both the discrete nature and the random distribution of particles in the flame. Though good qualitative agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental observations, residual g-jitters and the short reduced-gravity periods prevented further investigations of propagation limits in the dis-crete regime. The full exploration of the discrete flame phenomenon would require high-quality, long duration reduced gravity environment

  19. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called “Discrete Results” (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of “Discrete Results” is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel “Discrete Results” concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast

  20. A well-balanced finite volume scheme for the Euler equations with gravitation. The exact preservation of hydrostatic equilibrium with arbitrary entropy stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käppeli, R.; Mishra, S.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Many problems in astrophysics feature flows which are close to hydrostatic equilibrium. However, standard numerical schemes for compressible hydrodynamics may be deficient in approximating this stationary state, where the pressure gradient is nearly balanced by gravitational forces. Aims: We aim to develop a second-order well-balanced scheme for the Euler equations. The scheme is designed to mimic a discrete version of the hydrostatic balance. It therefore can resolve a discrete hydrostatic equilibrium exactly (up to machine precision) and propagate perturbations, on top of this equilibrium, very accurately. Methods: A local second-order hydrostatic equilibrium preserving pressure reconstruction is developed. Combined with a standard central gravitational source term discretization and numerical fluxes that resolve stationary contact discontinuities exactly, the well-balanced property is achieved. Results: The resulting well-balanced scheme is robust and simple enough to be very easily implemented within any existing computer code that solves time explicitly or implicitly the compressible hydrodynamics equations. We demonstrate the performance of the well-balanced scheme for several astrophysically relevant applications: wave propagation in stellar atmospheres, a toy model for core-collapse supernovae, convection in carbon shell burning, and a realistic proto-neutron star.

  1. Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Vankerschaver, Joris

    2007-03-15

    In this note, we develop a theory of Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete Lagrangian field theories. We introduce the concept of Euler-Poincare equations for discrete field theories, as well as a natural extension of the Moser-Veselov scheme, and show that both are equivalent. The resulting discrete field equations are interpreted in terms of discrete differential geometry. An application to the theory of discrete harmonic mappings is also briefly discussed.

  2. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  3. Stabilization of discrete-event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brave, Y.; Heymann, M.

    1990-01-01

    Discrete-event processes are modeled by state-machines in the Ramadge-Wonham framework with control by a feedback event disablement mechanism. In this paper, concepts of stabilization of discrete-event processes are defined and investigated. The possibility of driving a process (under control) from arbitrary initial states to a prescribed subset of the state set and then keeping it there indefinitely is examined. This stabilization property is studied also with respect to 'open-loop' processes and their asymptotic behavior is characterized. Polynomial time algorithms are presented for verifying various types of attraction and for the synthesis of attractors.

  4. Discrete Gabor Filters For Binocular Disparity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1995-01-01

    Discrete Gabor filters proposed for use in determining binocular disparity - difference between positions of same feature or object depicted in stereoscopic images produced by two side-by-side cameras aimed in parallel. Magnitude of binocular disparity used to estimate distance from cameras to feature or object. In one potential application, cameras charge-coupled-device video cameras in robotic vision system, and binocular disparities and distance estimates used as control inputs - for example, to control approaches to objects manipulated or to maintain safe distances from obstacles. Binocular disparities determined from phases of discretized Gabor transforms.

  5. Discrete-Layer Piezoelectric Plate and Shell Models for Active Tip-Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyliger, P. R.; Ramirez, G.; Pei, K. C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop computational tools for the analysis of active-sensory composite structures with added or embedded piezoelectric layers. The targeted application for this class of smart composite laminates and the analytical development is the accomplishment of active tip-clearance control in turbomachinery components. Two distinct theories and analytical models were developed and explored under this contract: (1) a discrete-layer plate theory and corresponding computational models, and (2) a three dimensional general discrete-layer element generated in curvilinear coordinates for modeling laminated composite piezoelectric shells. Both models were developed from the complete electromechanical constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials, and incorporate both displacements and potentials as state variables. This report describes the development and results of these models. The discrete-layer theories imply that the displacement field and electrostatic potential through-the-thickness of the laminate are described over an individual layer rather than as a smeared function over the thickness of the entire plate or shell thickness. This is especially crucial for composites with embedded piezoelectric layers, as the actuating and sensing elements within these layers are poorly represented by effective or smeared properties. Linear Lagrange interpolation polynomials were used to describe the through-thickness laminate behavior. Both analytic and finite element approximations were used in the plane or surface of the structure. In this context, theoretical developments are presented for the discrete-layer plate theory, the discrete-layer shell theory, and the formulation of an exact solution for simply-supported piezoelectric plates. Finally, evaluations and results from a number of separate examples are presented for the static and dynamic analysis of the plate geometry. Comparisons between the different approaches are provided when

  6. An exact variational method to calculate rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules with large amplitude motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2016-08-01

    We report a new full-dimensional variational algorithm to calculate rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules using an exact quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The rovibrational Hamiltonian of system is derived in a set of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates in the body-fixed frame. It is expressed in an explicitly Hermitian form. The Hamiltonian has a universal formulation regardless of the choice of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates and the number of atoms in molecule, which is suitable for developing a general program to study the spectra of many polyatomic systems. An efficient coupled-state approach is also proposed to solve the eigenvalue problem of the Hamiltonian using a multi-layer Lanczos iterative diagonalization approach via a set of direct product basis set in three coordinate groups: radial coordinates, angular variables, and overall rotational angles. A simple set of symmetric top rotational functions is used for the overall rotation whereas a potential-optimized discrete variable representation method is employed in radial coordinates. A set of contracted vibrationally diabatic basis functions is adopted in internal angular variables. Those diabatic functions are first computed using a neural network iterative diagonalization method based on a reduced-dimension Hamiltonian but only once. The final rovibrational energies are computed using a modified Lanczos method for a given total angular momentum J, which is usually fast. Two numerical applications to CH4 and H2CO are given, together with a comparison with previous results.

  7. An exact variational method to calculate rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules with large amplitude motion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2016-08-28

    We report a new full-dimensional variational algorithm to calculate rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules using an exact quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The rovibrational Hamiltonian of system is derived in a set of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates in the body-fixed frame. It is expressed in an explicitly Hermitian form. The Hamiltonian has a universal formulation regardless of the choice of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates and the number of atoms in molecule, which is suitable for developing a general program to study the spectra of many polyatomic systems. An efficient coupled-state approach is also proposed to solve the eigenvalue problem of the Hamiltonian using a multi-layer Lanczos iterative diagonalization approach via a set of direct product basis set in three coordinate groups: radial coordinates, angular variables, and overall rotational angles. A simple set of symmetric top rotational functions is used for the overall rotation whereas a potential-optimized discrete variable representation method is employed in radial coordinates. A set of contracted vibrationally diabatic basis functions is adopted in internal angular variables. Those diabatic functions are first computed using a neural network iterative diagonalization method based on a reduced-dimension Hamiltonian but only once. The final rovibrational energies are computed using a modified Lanczos method for a given total angular momentum J, which is usually fast. Two numerical applications to CH4 and H2CO are given, together with a comparison with previous results. PMID:27586906

  8. Exact free vibration of multi-step Timoshenko beam system with several attachments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, S. H.; El-Sayed, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the natural frequencies, mode shapes of an axially loaded multi-step Timoshenko beam combined system carrying several attachments. The influence of system design and the proposed sub-system non-dimensional parameters on the combined system characteristics are the major part of this investigation. The effect of material properties, rotary inertia and shear deformation of the beam system for each span are included. The end masses are elastically supported against rotation and translation at an offset point from the point of attachment. A sub-system having two degrees of freedom is located at the beam ends and at any of the intermediate stations and acts as a support and/or a suspension. The boundary conditions of the ordinary differential equation governing the lateral deflections and slope due to bending of the beam system including the shear force term, due to the sub-system, have been formulated. Exact global coefficient matrices for the combined modal frequencies, the modal shape and for the discrete sub-system have been derived. Based on these formulae, detailed parametric studies of the combined system are carried out. The applied mathematical model is valid for wide range of applications especially in mechanical, naval and structural engineering fields.

  9. Exact probability distributions of selected species in stochastic chemical reaction networks.

    PubMed

    López-Caamal, Fernando; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T

    2014-09-01

    Chemical reactions are discrete, stochastic events. As such, the species' molecular numbers can be described by an associated master equation. However, handling such an equation may become difficult due to the large size of reaction networks. A commonly used approach to forecast the behaviour of reaction networks is to perform computational simulations of such systems and analyse their outcome statistically. This approach, however, might require high computational costs to provide accurate results. In this paper we opt for an analytical approach to obtain the time-dependent solution of the Chemical Master Equation for selected species in a general reaction network. When the reaction networks are composed exclusively of zeroth and first-order reactions, this analytical approach significantly alleviates the computational burden required by simulation-based methods. By building upon these analytical solutions, we analyse a general monomolecular reaction network with an arbitrary number of species to obtain the exact marginal probability distribution for selected species. Additionally, we study two particular topologies of monomolecular reaction networks, namely (i) an unbranched chain of monomolecular reactions with and without synthesis and degradation reactions and (ii) a circular chain of monomolecular reactions. We illustrate our methodology and alternative ways to use it for non-linear systems by analysing a protein autoactivation mechanism. Later, we compare the computational load required for the implementation of our results and a pure computational approach to analyse an unbranched chain of monomolecular reactions. Finally, we study calcium ions gates in the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum mediated by ryanodine receptors.

  10. Spectral functions of strongly correlated extended systems via an exact quantum embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, George H.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2015-04-01

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 186404 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.186404], introduced an approach to quantum cluster embedding methods whereby the mapping of strongly correlated bulk problems to an impurity with finite set of bath states was rigorously formulated to exactly reproduce the entanglement of the ground state. The formalism provided similar physics to dynamical mean-field theory at a tiny fraction of the cost but was inherently limited by the construction of a bath designed to reproduce ground-state, static properties. Here, we generalize the concept of quantum embedding to dynamic properties and demonstrate accurate bulk spectral functions at similarly small computational cost. The proposed spectral DMET utilizes the Schmidt decomposition of a response vector, mapping the bulk dynamic correlation functions to that of a quantum impurity cluster coupled to a set of frequency-dependent bath states. The resultant spectral functions are obtained on the real-frequency axis, without bath discretization error, and allows for the construction of arbitrary dynamic correlation functions. We demonstrate the method on the one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model, where we obtain zero temperature and thermodynamic limit spectral functions, and show the trivial extension to two-particle Green's functions. This advance therefore extends the scope and applicability of DMET in condensed-matter problems as a computationally tractable route to correlated spectral functions of extended systems and provides a competitive alternative to dynamical mean-field theory for dynamic quantities.

  11. Development of a discrete gas-kinetic scheme for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows.

    PubMed

    Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme. PMID:27078488

  12. Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

  13. Fast Mix Table Construction for Material Discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Seth R

    2013-01-01

    An effective hybrid Monte Carlo--deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a ``mix table,'' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table in $O(\\text{number of voxels}\\times \\log \\text{number of mixtures})$ time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation.

  14. Teaching Discrete Mathematics with Graphing Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masat, Francis E.

    Graphing calculator use is often thought of in terms of pre-calculus or continuous topics in mathematics. This paper contains examples and activities that demonstrate useful, interesting, and easy ways to use a graphing calculator with discrete topics. Examples are given for each of the following topics: functions, mathematical induction and…

  15. Conjugacy classes in discrete Heisenberg groups

    SciTech Connect

    Budylin, R Ya

    2014-08-01

    We study an extension of a discrete Heisenberg group coming from the theory of loop groups and find invariants of conjugacy classes in this group. In some cases, including the case of the integer Heisenberg group, we make these invariants more explicit. Bibliography: 4 titles.

  16. Discrete Gust Model for Launch Vehicle Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Frank B.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of spacecraft vehicle responses to atmospheric wind gusts during flight is important in the establishment of vehicle design structural requirements and operational capability. Typically, wind gust models can be either a spectral type determined by a random process having a wide range of wavelengths, or a discrete type having a single gust of predetermined magnitude and shape. Classical discrete models used by NASA during the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs included a 9 m/sec quasi-square-wave gust with variable wavelength from 60 to 300 m. A later study derived discrete gust from a military specification (MIL-SPEC) document that used a "1-cosine" shape. The MIL-SPEC document contains a curve of non-dimensional gust magnitude as a function of non-dimensional gust half-wavelength based on the Dryden spectral model, but fails to list the equation necessary to reproduce the curve. Therefore, previous studies could only estimate a value of gust magnitude from the curve, or attempt to fit a function to it. This paper presents the development of the MIL-SPEC curve, and provides the necessary information to calculate discrete gust magnitudes as a function of both gust half-wavelength and the desired probability level of exceeding a specified gust magnitude.

  17. Geometry of Discrete-Time Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, Robert I.; Modin, Klas; Verdier, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Classical Hamiltonian spin systems are continuous dynamical systems on the symplectic phase space (S^2)^n. In this paper, we investigate the underlying geometry of a time discretization scheme for classical Hamiltonian spin systems called the spherical midpoint method. As it turns out, this method displays a range of interesting geometrical features that yield insights and sets out general strategies for geometric time discretizations of Hamiltonian systems on non-canonical symplectic manifolds. In particular, our study provides two new, completely geometric proofs that the discrete-time spin systems obtained by the spherical midpoint method preserve symplecticity. The study follows two paths. First, we introduce an extended version of the Hopf fibration to show that the spherical midpoint method can be seen as originating from the classical midpoint method on T^*{R}^{2n} for a collective Hamiltonian. Symplecticity is then a direct, geometric consequence. Second, we propose a new discretization scheme on Riemannian manifolds called the Riemannian midpoint method. We determine its properties with respect to isometries and Riemannian submersions, and, as a special case, we show that the spherical midpoint method is of this type for a non-Euclidean metric. In combination with Kähler geometry, this provides another geometric proof of symplecticity.

  18. A deterministic discrete ordinates transport proxy application

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-03

    Kripke is a simple 3D deterministic discrete ordinates (Sn) particle transport code that maintains the computational load and communications pattern of a real transport code. It is intended to be a research tool to explore different data layouts, new programming paradigms and computer architectures.

  19. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  20. Discrete Resource Allocation in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is…

  1. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.; Dornmair, I.; Jalas, S.; Peters, K.; Vay, J.-L.; Maier, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  2. Weight discretization paradigm for optical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiesler, Emile; Choudry, Amar; Caulfield, H. John

    1990-08-01

    Neural networks are a primary candidate architecture for optical computing. One of the major problems in using neural networks for optical computers is that the information holders: the interconnection strengths (or weights) are normally real valued (continuous), whereas optics (light) is only capable of representing a few distinguishable intensity levels (discrete). In this paper a weight discretization paradigm is presented for back(ward error) propagation neural networks which can work with a very limited number of discretization levels. The number of interconnections in a (fully connected) neural network grows quadratically with the number of neurons of the network. Optics can handle a large number of interconnections because of the fact that light beams do not interfere with each other. A vast amount of light beams can therefore be used per unit of area. However the number of different values one can represent in a light beam is very limited. A flexible, portable (machine independent) neural network software package which is capable of weight discretization, is presented. The development of the software and some experiments have been done on personal computers. The major part of the testing, which requires a lot of computation, has been done using a CRAY X-MP/24 super computer.

  3. Web-Based Implementation of Discrete Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tanzy; Keinert, Fritz; Shelley, Mack

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Mathematics at Iowa State University teaches a freshman-level Discrete Mathematics course with total enrollment of about 1,800 students per year. The traditional format includes large lectures, with about 150 students each, taught by faculty and temporary instructors in two class sessions per week and recitation sections, with…

  4. Discrete Events as Units of Perceived Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverence, Brandon M.; Scholl, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    In visual images, we perceive both space (as a continuous visual medium) and objects (that inhabit space). Similarly, in dynamic visual experience, we perceive both continuous time and discrete events. What is the relationship between these units of experience? The most intuitive answer may be similar to the spatial case: time is perceived as an…

  5. Models for neutrino mass with discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisi, S.

    2011-08-01

    Discrete non-abelian flavor symmetries give in a natural way tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing as showed in a prototype model. However neutrino mass matrix pattern may be very different from the tri-bimaximal one if small deviations of TBM will be observed. We give the result of a model independent analysis for TBM neutrino mass pattern.

  6. Cesarean section and the manipulation of exact delivery time.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Daniele; Monfardini, Chiara; Castaldini, Ilaria; Protonotari, Adalgisa

    2016-07-01

    Physicians are often alleged responsible for the manipulation of delivery timing. We investigate this issue in a setting that negates the influence of financial incentives on physician's behavior. Working on a sample of women admitted at the onset of labor in a big public hospital in Italy we estimate a model for the exact time of delivery as driven by individual Indication to Cesarean Section (ICS) and covariates. We find that ICS does not affect the day of delivery but leads to a circadian rhythm in the likelihood of delivery. The pattern is consistent with the postponement of high ICS deliveries in the late night\\early morning shift. Our evidence hardly supports the manipulation of timing of births as driven by medical staff's "demand for leisure". Physicians seem to manipulate the exact timing of delivery to reduce exposure to risk factors extant during off-peak periods. PMID:27263061

  7. Exact localization and superresolution with noisy data and random illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannjiang, Albert C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of exact localization of multiple objects with noisy data. The crux of the proposed approach consists of random illumination. Two recovery methods are analyzed: the Lasso and the one-step thresholding (OST). For independent random probes, it is shown that both recovery methods can localize exactly s= O(m), up to a logarithmic factor, objects where m is the number of data. Moreover, when the number of random probes is large the Lasso with random illumination has a performance guarantee for superresolution, beating the Rayleigh resolution limit. Numerical evidence confirms the predictions and indicates that the performance of the Lasso is superior to that of the OST for the proposed setup with random illumination.

  8. Conservation laws and exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation

    SciTech Connect

    Mattis, D.C.; Szpilka, A.M.; Chen, H.

    1989-03-10

    The distribution function f which satisfies the time-dependent Boltzmann equation (BE) for a Lorentz model with perfectly elastic random scatterers is proved nonnegative, and is computed exactly when backscattering dominates. Joule heating and Ohm's law are recovered, although f has no steady-state limit, contrary to the relaxation-time approximation. (The conventional approximation to the time-independent BE also yields OHm's law but not the Joule heating and, worse, it unphysically predicts f < O.) The exact solution is compared with various effective-temperature approximations, and is shown to remain very nearly unchanged over a wide range of times even in the presence of a small amount of inelastic scattering.

  9. Optimization of multilayered composite pressure vessels using exact elasticity solution

    SciTech Connect

    Adali, S.; Verijenko, V.E.; Tabakov, P.Y.; Walker, M.

    1995-11-01

    An approach for the optimal design of thick laminated cylindrical pressure vessels is given. The maximum burst pressure is computed using an exact elasticity solution and subject to the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The design method is based on an accurate 3-D stress analysis. Exact elasticity solutions are obtained using the stress function approach where the radial, circumferential and shear stresses are determined taking the closed ends of the cylindrical shell into account. Design optimization of multilayered composite pressure vessels are based on the use of robust multidimensional methods which give fast convergence. Two methods are used to determine the optimum ply angles, namely, iterative and gradient methods. Numerical results are given for optimum fiber orientation of each layer for thick and thin-walled multilayered pressure vessels.

  10. [Some exact results for random walk models with applications].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, W

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a random walk model that can be analyzed without recourse to Wald's (1947) approximation, which neglects the excess over the absorbing barriers. Hence, the model yields exact predictions for the absorption probabilities and all mean conditional absorption times. We derive these predictions in some detail and fit them to the extensive data of an identification experiment published by Green et al. (1983). The fit of the model seems satisfactory. The relationship of the model to existing classes of random walk models (SPRT and SSR; see Luce, 1986) is discussed; for certain combinations of its parameters, the model belongs either to the SPRT or to the SSR class, or to both. We stress the theoretical significance of the knowledge of exact results for the evaluation of Wald's approximation and general properties of the several models proposed derived from this approximation.

  11. Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, D V; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortín, Silvia; Kurths, J

    2013-04-01

    We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system.

  12. Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, D. V.; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortín, Silvia; Kurths, J.

    2013-04-01

    We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system.

  13. Exact computation of the 3-j and 6-j symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shan-Tao; Chiu, Ying-Nan

    1990-12-01

    A simple FORTRAN program for the exact computation of 3- j and 6- j symbols has been written for the VAX with VMS version v5.1 in our university's computing center. It goes beyond and contains all of the 3- j and 6- j symbols evaluated in the book by M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis and J.K. Wooten Jr. The 3- j symbols up to ( 30m130m2 30 m3)] and 6- j symbols up to { 202020202020} can be computed exactly by this program. Approximate values for larger j's up to 200m1200m2200m3 and { 200200200200200220} can also be computed by this program.

  14. Exact Models for the k-Connected Minimum Energy Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Christina; Chan, Yao-Ban; Sonenberg, Nikki

    We consider the minimum energy problem for a mobile ad hoc network, where any node in the network may communicate with any other via intermediate nodes. To provide quality of service, the network must be connected, even if one or more nodes drop out. This motivates the notion of k-connectivity. The minimum energy problem aims to optimise the total energy that all nodes spend for transmission. Previous work in the literature includes exact mixed-integer programming formulations for a 1-connected network. We extend these models for when the network is k-connected, and compare the models for various network sizes. As expected, the combinatorial nature of the problem limits the size of the networks that we can solve to optimality in a timely manner. However, these exact models may be used for the future design of mobile ad hoc networks and provide useful benchmarks for heuristics in larger networks.

  15. Exact dynamical coarse-graining without time-scale separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2014-07-01

    A family of collective variables is proposed to perform exact dynamical coarse-graining even in systems without time scale separation. More precisely, it is shown that these variables are not slow in general, yet satisfy an overdamped Langevin equation that statistically preserves the sequence in which any regions in collective variable space are visited and permits to calculate exactly the mean first passage times from any such region to another. The role of the free energy and diffusion coefficient in this overdamped Langevin equation is discussed, along with the way they transform under any change of variable in collective variable space. These results apply both to systems with and without inertia, and they can be generalized to using several collective variables simultaneously. The view they offer on what makes collective variables and reaction coordinates optimal breaks from the standard notion that good collective variable must be slow variable, and it suggests new ways to interpret data from molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  16. Exact correlation functions in SU(2) N=2 superconformal QCD.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Marco; Niarchos, Vasilis; Papadodimas, Kyriakos

    2014-12-19

    We report an exact solution of 2- and 3-point functions of chiral primary fields in SU(2) N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory coupled to four hypermultiplets. It is shown that these correlation functions are nontrivial functions of the gauge coupling, obeying differential equations which take the form of the semi-infinite Toda chain. We solve these equations recursively in terms of the Zamolodchikov metric that can be determined exactly from supersymmetric localization on the four-sphere. Our results are verified independently in perturbation theory with a Feynman diagram computation up to 2 loops. This is a short version of a companion paper that contains detailed technical remarks, additional material, and aspects of an extension to the SU(N) gauge group. PMID:25554873

  17. Exact transient photon correlation with arbitrary laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2011-11-15

    We present a full quantum theory to study the transient evolution of photon pairs. We introduce a method which gives exact time-dependent solutions of the coupled quantum Langevin equations for a multilevel quantum particle driven by arbitrary time-dependent laser fields. The analytical solutions are used to develop a numerical code for computing exact time evolution of the two-photon correlation function. We analyze the effects of laser pulses sequence, pulse duration, chirping, and initial internal quantum states on the nonclassicality of the photon correlation through the violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. The results provide a promising possibility of controlling the generation of highly correlated photon pairs using tailored short laser pulses.

  18. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg ..-->.. ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest.

  19. Channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin-star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshed, Nigum; Toor, A. H.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-06-01

    We calculate the entanglement-assisted and -unassisted channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin star system, which models the quantum dephasing channel. The capacities for this non-Markovian model exhibit a strong dependence on the coupling strengths of the bath spins with the system, the bath temperature, and the number of bath spins. For equal couplings and bath frequencies, the channel becomes periodically noiseless.

  20. Channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin-star system

    SciTech Connect

    Arshed, Nigum; Toor, A. H.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-06-15

    We calculate the entanglement-assisted and -unassisted channel capacities of an exactly solvable spin star system, which models the quantum dephasing channel. The capacities for this non-Markovian model exhibit a strong dependence on the coupling strengths of the bath spins with the system, the bath temperature, and the number of bath spins. For equal couplings and bath frequencies, the channel becomes periodically noiseless.

  1. Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Kun; Cao, Junpeng; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-07-01

    The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T  -  Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.

  2. Exact equation for curved stationary flames with arbitrary gas expansion.

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Kirill A

    2005-03-11

    An exact equation describing freely propagating stationary flames with arbitrary values of the gas expansion coefficient is obtained. This equation respects all conservation laws at the flame front, and provides a consistent nonperturbative account of the effect of vorticity produced by the curved flame on the front structure. It is verified that the new equation is in agreement with the approximate equations derived previously in the case of weak gas expansion.

  3. Numerically exact solvable random-bond Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, I.

    1981-06-01

    Exact free energies are calculated numerically for a L×L-Ising lattice ( L≦800) with constant nearest neighbour coupling between adjacent columns and random n.n. coupling between adjacent rows. For the latter a gaussian and a double-peaked δ-distribution are investigated. The result should be useful as a check of the controversially discussed replica trick [1]. In agreement with the numerical treatment a mean field approximation shows a transition to a spinglass phase.

  4. Exact Steady Azimuthal Edge Waves in Rotating Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2016-09-01

    The full problem of water waves travelling along a constant sloping beach with the shoreline parallel to the Equator, written in a moving frame with the origin at a point on the rotating Earth is introduced. An exact steady solution of this problem moving only in the azimuthal direction, with no variations in this direction, is obtained. The solution is discussed in turn in spherical coordinates, in cylindrical coordinates and in the tangent-plan approximations.

  5. Exact Solution of the Isovector Proton Neutron Pairing Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelsky, J; Gueorguiev, V G; Van Isacker, P; Dimitrova, S S; Errea, B; H., S L

    2005-12-02

    The complete exact solution of the T = 1 neutron-proton pairing Hamiltonian is presented in the context of the SO(5) Richardson-Gaudin model with non-degenerate single-particle levels and including isospin-symmetry breaking terms. The power of the method is illustrated with a numerical calculation for {sup 64}Ge for a pf + g{sub 9/2} model space which is out of reach of modern shell-model codes.

  6. Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.

  7. Exactly solvable models for atom-molecule Hamiltonians.

    PubMed

    Dukelsky, J; Dussel, G G; Esebbag, C; Pittel, S

    2004-07-30

    We present a family of exactly solvable generalizations of the Jaynes-Cummings model involving the interaction of an ensemble of SU(2) or SU(1,1) quasispins with a single boson field. They are obtained from the trigonometric Richardson-Gaudin models by replacing one of the SU(2) or SU(1,1) degrees of freedom by an ideal boson. The application to a system of bosonic atoms and molecules is reported.

  8. Exact Controllability of a Piezoelectric Body. Theory and Numerical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Miara, Bernadette Muench, Arnaud

    2009-06-15

    We study the exact controllability of a three-dimensional body made of a material whose constitutive law introduces an elasticity-electricity coupling. We show that a coupled elastic-electric control acting on the whole boundary of the body drives the system to rest after time large enough. Two-dimensional numerical experiments suggest that controllability can still be achieved by relaxing this restrictive condition using either both controls on a reduced support or elastic control alone.

  9. Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiefang Zhang

    1996-08-01

    Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative {Phi}{sup 4}-model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation.

  10. Exact asymptotic form for the {beta} function in quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, I. M.

    2009-06-15

    It is shown that the asymptotic form of the Gell-Mann-Low function in quantum electrodynamics can be determined exactly: {beta}(g) = g for g {sup {yields}} {infinity}, where g = e{sup 2} is the running fine-structure constant. This solves the problem of electrodynamics at small distances L (for which dependence g {infinity} L{sup -2} holds) and completely eliminates the problem of 'zero charge.'.

  11. PITMAN: a FORTRAN program for exact randomization tests.

    PubMed

    Dallal, G E

    1988-02-01

    PITMAN performs exact randomization tests. It also performs Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U tests in the presence of an arbitrary number of ties in the data. PITMAN requires an IBM PC with 256K of memory. The source code is available for those who wish to compile smaller or larger versions or wish to move PITMAN to another computer.

  12. Transmission through layered composite radomes - An exact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, M. K.; Balasubrahmanyam, G.; Rama Rao, K.

    A unified approach is presented for the computation of exact EM transmission characteristics in such multilayered media with flat and spherical surfaces-of-discontinuity as streamlined conical radomes. The approach employed is well suited to use in a ganeralized computer program. Results are presented for the case of a spherical radome with infinitesimal radiating-current source at an arbitrary point or points within the radome. The radome's material is assumed to be lossless.

  13. AdS waves as exact solutions to quadratic gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram; Guerses, Metin

    2011-04-15

    We give an exact solution of the quadratic gravity in D dimensions. The solution is a plane-fronted wave metric with a cosmological constant. This metric solves not only the full quadratic gravity field equations but also the linearized ones which include the linearized equations of the recently found critical gravity. A subset of the solutions change the asymptotic structure of the anti-de Sitter space due to their logarithmic behavior.

  14. Exact and Optimal Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by recent work in density matrix embedding theory, we define exact link orbitals that capture all quantum mechanical (QM) effects across arbitrary quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) boundaries. Exact link orbitals are rigorously defined from the full QM solution, and their number is equal to the number of orbitals in the primary QM region. Truncating the exact set yields a smaller set of link orbitals optimal with respect to reproducing the primary region density matrix. We use the optimal link orbitals to obtain insight into the limits of QM/MM boundary treatments. We further analyze the popular general hybrid orbital (GHO) QM/MM boundary across a test suite of molecules. We find that GHOs are often good proxies for the most important optimal link orbital, although there is little detailed correlation between the detailed GHO composition and optimal link orbital valence weights. The optimal theory shows that anions and cations cannot be described by a single link orbital. However, expanding to include the second most important optimal link orbital in the boundary recovers an accurate description. The second optimal link orbital takes the chemically intuitive form of a donor or acceptor orbital for charge redistribution, suggesting that optimal link orbitals can be used as interpretative tools for electron transfer. We further find that two optimal link orbitals are also sufficient for boundaries that cut across double bonds. Finally, we suggest how to construct "approximately" optimal link orbitals for practical QM/MM calculations.

  15. Dynamical Response of Networks Under External Perturbations: Exact Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinellato, David D.; Epstein, Irving R.; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    2015-04-01

    We give exact statistical distributions for the dynamic response of influence networks subjected to external perturbations. We consider networks whose nodes have two internal states labeled 0 and 1. We let nodes be frozen in state 0, in state 1, and the remaining nodes change by adopting the state of a connected node with a fixed probability per time step. The frozen nodes can be interpreted as external perturbations to the subnetwork of free nodes. Analytically extending and to be smaller than 1 enables modeling the case of weak coupling. We solve the dynamical equations exactly for fully connected networks, obtaining the equilibrium distribution, transition probabilities between any two states and the characteristic time to equilibration. Our exact results are excellent approximations for other topologies, including random, regular lattice, scale-free and small world networks, when the numbers of fixed nodes are adjusted to take account of the effect of topology on coupling to the environment. This model can describe a variety of complex systems, from magnetic spins to social networks to population genetics, and was recently applied as a framework for early warning signals for real-world self-organized economic market crises.

  16. Towards an exact correlated orbital theory for electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2009-12-01

    The formal and computational attraction of effective one-particle theories like Hartree-Fock and density functional theory raise the question of how far such approaches can be taken to offer exact results for selected properties of electrons in atoms, molecules, and solids. Some properties can be exactly described within an effective one-particle theory, like principal ionization potentials and electron affinities. This fact can be used to develop equations for a correlated orbital theory (COT) that guarantees a correct one-particle energy spectrum. They are built upon a coupled-cluster based frequency independent self-energy operator presented here, which distinguishes the approach from Dyson theory. The COT also offers an alternative to Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), whose objective is to represent the electronic density exactly as a single determinant, while paying less attention to the energy spectrum. For any estimate of two-electron terms COT offers a litmus test of its accuracy for principal Ip's and Ea's. This feature for approximating the COT equations is illustrated numerically.

  17. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin–Meshkov–Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  18. Exact series model of Langevin transducers with internal losses.

    PubMed

    Nishamol, P A; Ebenezer, D D

    2014-03-01

    An exact series method is presented to analyze classical Langevin transducers with arbitrary boundary conditions. The transducers consist of an axially polarized piezoelectric solid cylinder sandwiched between two elastic solid cylinders. All three cylinders are of the same diameter. The length to diameter ratio is arbitrary. Complex piezoelectric and elastic coefficients are used to model internal losses. Solutions to the exact linearized governing equations for each cylinder include four series. Each term in each series is an exact solution to the governing equations. Bessel and trigonometric functions that form complete and orthogonal sets in the radial and axial directions, respectively, are used in the series. Asymmetric transducers and boundary conditions are modeled by using axially symmetric and anti-symmetric sets of functions. All interface and boundary conditions are satisfied in a weighted-average sense. The computed input electrical admittance, displacement, and stress in transducers are presented in tables and figures, and are in very good agreement with those obtained using atila-a finite element package for the analysis of sonar transducers. For all the transducers considered in the analysis, the maximum difference between the first three resonance frequencies calculated using the present method and atila is less than 0.03%.

  19. Exact solution of a stochastic susceptible-infectious-recovered model.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Gunter M; Brandaut, Marian; Trimper, Steffen

    2008-12-01

    The susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model describes the evolution of three species of individuals which are subject to an infection and recovery mechanism. A susceptible S can become infectious with an infection rate beta by an infectious I type provided that both are in contact. The I type may recover with a rate gamma and from then on stay immune. Due to the coupling between the different individuals, the model is nonlinear and out of equilibrium. We adopt a stochastic individual-based description where individuals are represented by nodes of a graph and contact is defined by the links of the graph. Mapping the underlying master equation onto a quantum formulation in terms of spin operators, the hierarchy of evolution equations can be solved exactly for arbitrary initial conditions on a linear chain. In the case of uncorrelated random initial conditions, the exact time evolution for all three individuals of the SIR model is given analytically. Depending on the initial conditions and reaction rates beta and gamma , the I population may increase initially before decaying to zero. Due to fluctuations, isolated regions of susceptible individuals evolve, and unlike in the standard mean-field SIR model, one observes a finite stationary distribution of the S type even for large population size. The exact results for the ensemble-averaged population size are compared with simulations for single realizations of the process and also with standard mean-field theory, which is expected to be valid on large fully connected graphs.

  20. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181