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Sample records for examination exploration cerebrale

  1. Exploring examiner judgement of professional competence in rater based assessment.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Fiona L; Marshall, Stephen; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip D

    2016-10-01

    Exercise physiology courses have transitioned to competency based, forcing Universities to rethink assessment to ensure students are competent to practice. This study built on earlier research to explore rater cognition, capturing factors that contribute to assessor decision making about students' competency. The aims were to determine the source of variation in the examination process and document the factors impacting on examiner judgment. Examiner judgement was explored from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Twenty-three examiners viewed three video encounters of student performance on an OSCE. Once rated, analysis of variance was performed to determine where the variance was attributed. A semi-structured interview drew out the examiners reasoning behind their ratings. Results highlighted variability of the process of observation, judgement and rating, with each examiner viewing student performance from different lenses. However, at a global level, analysis of variance indicated that the examiner had a minimal impact on the variance, with the majority of variance explained by the student performance on task. One anomaly noted was in the assessment of technical competency, whereby the examiner had a large impact on the rating, linked to assessing according to curriculum content. The thought processes behind judgement were diverse and if the qualitative results had been used in isolation, may have led to the researchers drawing conclusions that the examined performances would have yielded widely different ratings. However, as a cohort, the examiners were able to distinguish good and poor levels of competency with the majority of student competency linked to the varying ability of the student. PMID:26796200

  2. Exploring examiner judgement of professional competence in rater based assessment.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Fiona L; Marshall, Stephen; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip D

    2016-10-01

    Exercise physiology courses have transitioned to competency based, forcing Universities to rethink assessment to ensure students are competent to practice. This study built on earlier research to explore rater cognition, capturing factors that contribute to assessor decision making about students' competency. The aims were to determine the source of variation in the examination process and document the factors impacting on examiner judgment. Examiner judgement was explored from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Twenty-three examiners viewed three video encounters of student performance on an OSCE. Once rated, analysis of variance was performed to determine where the variance was attributed. A semi-structured interview drew out the examiners reasoning behind their ratings. Results highlighted variability of the process of observation, judgement and rating, with each examiner viewing student performance from different lenses. However, at a global level, analysis of variance indicated that the examiner had a minimal impact on the variance, with the majority of variance explained by the student performance on task. One anomaly noted was in the assessment of technical competency, whereby the examiner had a large impact on the rating, linked to assessing according to curriculum content. The thought processes behind judgement were diverse and if the qualitative results had been used in isolation, may have led to the researchers drawing conclusions that the examined performances would have yielded widely different ratings. However, as a cohort, the examiners were able to distinguish good and poor levels of competency with the majority of student competency linked to the varying ability of the student.

  3. Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

  4. Privileged Identity Exploration: Examining Counselor Trainees' Reactions to Difficult Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry K.; Curtis, Gregg C.; Drummond, Jerri; Kellogg, Angela H.; Lozano, Adele; Nicoli, Gina Tagliapietra; Rosas, Marisela

    2009-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors examined master's-level counselor trainees' reactions to difficult dialogues in the classroom regarding racism, heterosexism/homophobia, and ableism over a 3-year period. Using the Consensual Qualitative Research method as introduced by C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, and E. N. Williams (1997), the data analysis…

  5. A study to examine the feasibility of using surface penetrators for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. S.; Anderson, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using penetrators in earth applications is examined. Penetrator applications in exploration for mineral resources only is summarized. Instrumentation for future penetrators is described. Portions of this report are incorporated into a more extensive report examining other penetrator applications in exploration for fossil fuels, geothermal resources, and in environmental and engineering problems, which is to be published as a NASA technical publication.

  6. Exploring Group Forming Strategies by Examining Participation Behaviours during Whole Class Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Namsook; Bullen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore group forming strategies by examining participation behaviours during whole class discussions associated with active participation in a following small group activity. Written communication data, posted in class discussion forums (843 messages/70,432 words) and small group forums (732 messages/59,394…

  7. Exploration of the value of using a formula sheet for physics examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wheijen; Shieh, Ruey S.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether and how allowing students to prepare their own formula sheet (FS) for use in examinations helps them engage in meaningful learning and improve their academic performance. An action research is adopted to conduct the study. Three years (2009-11) of evaluation of the FS policy in introductory physics courses was undertaken. The data collection consists of the students' FS, examination results, and self-reported surveys. The results show that the students who were allowed to bring an FS to the examination outperformed those who were not. It is also found that the quality of individual students' FS was significantly correlated to their examination score (p < 0.001). The reported benefits of using an FS consists of facilitating conceptual understanding, highlighting cognitive demands in learning physics, and alleviating stress in examinations. The FS strategy appears to have the potential for strengthening students' understanding of physics concepts.

  8. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  9. Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.

    PubMed

    Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

    2009-01-01

    Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency.

  10. An exploration of student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maebh; Noonan, Maria; Bradshaw, Carmel; Murphy-Tighe, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study that explored student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process for obstetric emergencies within a university setting. The development of fundamental clinical skills is an important component in preparing students to meet the responsibilities of a midwife. There is an international concern that the transfer of midwifery education into universities may impact on the development of midwifery clinical skills. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have the potential to promote integration and consolidation of skills prior to clinical placement. Twenty six students (n=36) from two midwifery programmes (BSc and Higher Diploma) participated in four focus groups and Burnard's (2006) framework was used for data analysis. Three main themes emerged following analysis: preparation for the OSCE assessment, the OSCE process and learning through simulating practice. Preparation for the OSCE's which included lectures, demonstrations, and practice of OSCE's facilitated by lecturers and by the students themselves, was considered central to the process. Learning via OSCEs was perceived to be more effective in comparison to other forms of assessment and prepared students for clinical practice. Positive aspects of the process and areas for improvement were identified. Using OSCE's increased the depth of learning for the students with the steps taken in preparation for the OSCE's proving to be a valuable learning tool. This study adds to the evidence on the use of OSCE's in midwifery education. PMID:21999901

  11. Exploring virtual reality technology and the Oculus Rift for the examination of digital pathology slides

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Navid; Post, Robert; Duboy, Jon; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Krinchai, Teppituk; Monaco, Sara E.; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digital slides obtained from whole slide imaging (WSI) platforms are typically viewed in two dimensions using desktop personal computer monitors or more recently on mobile devices. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any studies viewing digital pathology slides in a virtual reality (VR) environment. VR technology enables users to be artificially immersed in and interact with a computer-simulated world. Oculus Rift is among the world's first consumer-targeted VR headsets, intended primarily for enhanced gaming. Our aim was to explore the use of the Oculus Rift for examining digital pathology slides in a VR environment. Methods: An Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) was connected to a 64-bit computer running Virtual Desktop software. Glass slides from twenty randomly selected lymph node cases (ten with benign and ten malignant diagnoses) were digitized using a WSI scanner. Three pathologists reviewed these digital slides on a 27-inch 5K display and with the Oculus Rift after a 2-week washout period. Recorded endpoints included concordance of final diagnoses and time required to examine slides. The pathologists also rated their ease of navigation, image quality, and diagnostic confidence for both modalities. Results: There was 90% diagnostic concordance when reviewing WSI using a 5K display and Oculus Rift. The time required to examine digital pathology slides on the 5K display averaged 39 s (range 10–120 s), compared to 62 s with the Oculus Rift (range 15–270 s). All pathologists confirmed that digital pathology slides were easily viewable in a VR environment. The ratings for image quality and diagnostic confidence were higher when using the 5K display. Conclusion: Using the Oculus Rift DK2 to view and navigate pathology whole slide images in a virtual environment is feasible for diagnostic purposes. However, image resolution using the Oculus Rift device was limited. Interactive VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift are novel tools

  12. Judging the Grade: Exploring the Judgement Processes Involved in Examination Grading Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Examiners' grading judgements are central to the maintenance of examination standards. This research investigated the judgement processes underpinning examination grading. Operating under a think aloud protocol, six examiners conducted a grading exercise for each of two geography A level examinations. They also "thought aloud" whilst marking some…

  13. Examining Metasomatism in Low fO2 Environments: Exploring Sulfidation Reactions in Various Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, P.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.; Bell, A. S.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal systems are common on Earth in a variety of tectonic environments and at different temperature and pressure conditions. These systems are commonly dominated by H2O, and they are responsible for element transport and the production of ore deposits. Unlike the Earth (fO2FMQ), many other planetary bodies (e.g., Moon and asteroids) have fO2 environments that are more reduced (IW+/-2), and H2O is not the important solvent responsible for element transport. One example of a texture that could result from element transport and metasomatism, which appears to occur on numerous planetary bodies, is sulfide-silicate intergrowths. These subsolidus assemblages are interpreted to form as a result of sulfidation reactions from a S-rich fluid phase. The composition of fluids may vary within and among parent bodies and could be sourced from magmatic (e.g. Moon) or impact processes (e.g. HED meteorites and Moon). For example, it has been previously demonstrated on the Moon that the interaction of olivine with a hydrogen- and sulfur-bearing vapor phase altered primary mineral assemblages, producing sulfides (e.g. troilite) and orthopyroxene. Formation of these types of "sulfidation" assemblages can be illustrated with the following reaction: Fe2SiO4(ol) + 1/2 S(2 system) = FeS(troi)+ FeSiO3(opx) + 1/2 O2 system. The products of this reaction, as seen in lunar rocks, is a vermicular or "worm-like" texture of intergrown orthopyroxene and troilite. Regardless of the provenance of the S-bearing fluid, the minerals in these various planetary environments reacted in the same manner to produce orthopyroxene and troilite. Although similar textures have been identified in a variety of parent bodies, a comparative study on the compositions and the origins of these sulfide-silicate assemblages has yet to be undertaken. The intent of this study is to examine and compare sulfide-silicate intergrowths from various planetary bodies to explore their petrogenesis and examine the nature

  14. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M(Chiel). J. M.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  15. A longitudinal examination of adolescent career planning and exploration using a social cognitive career theory framework.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Mary E; Creed, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, supports and personality. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated strong support for self-efficacy and goals predicting career planning and exploration across all grades at T1, and predicting change in career planning and exploration from T1 to T2. Whilst support for pathways among other predictor variables (personality, contextual influences and biographic variables) to choice actions was found, these pathways varied across grades at T1, and also from T1 to T2. Implications for social cognitive career theory, career counselling practice and future research are discussed.

  16. Coping with Examinations: Exploring Relationships between Students' Coping Strategies, Implicit Theories of Ability, and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. Aims: This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was…

  17. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  19. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a Pedagogy to Examine Other Perspectives about Stem Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research…

  20. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides;...

  1. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides;...

  2. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil, or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides; the protection of...

  3. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides;...

  4. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil, or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides; the protection of...

  5. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides;...

  6. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides;...

  7. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil, or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides; the protection of...

  8. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil, or by other means, of lands affected by the exploration or mining operations; the prevention of slides; the protection of...

  9. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  10. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the Relationship between Global and Local Assessment Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek…

  11. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a pedagogy to examine other perspectives about stem cell research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research project that was situational, collaborative and self-evaluative. The focus of the research was to identify communication barriers that interfered with classroom discussion and how teachers could help students cross cultural borders when they discussed SSIs that were outside their life worlds. The barriers to communication were access to relevant science knowledge, religion, language, an inability to question issues and cultural expectations of girls. Teachers trialled and adapted two discussion strategies, 'Drawing the Line' and 'Diamond Ranking' that provided a vehicle for their students to explore and discuss this issue from a range of perspectives. These discussion strategies enabled their students to take part in a dialogue where reciprocal conversation could occur because they had opportunities not only to explore their own perspectives but also other people's viewpoints.

  12. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; the control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the... technical examination of an area should be made with the recognition that actual potential mining sites and... lowering of water quality below standards established by the appropriate State water pollution...

  13. Practices and Explorations on Talent-Training Mode of Self-Taught Higher Education Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since the existence of self-taught higher education examination, its fast development has contributed a lot to national higher education reform and economic development. This paper, based on analyzing the talent-training mode of China self-taught higher education, proposes countermeasures and suggestions for problems in the mode at present.

  14. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  15. Exploring Synergy between Classic Mutagens and Antibiotics To Examine Mechanisms of Synergy and Antibiotic Action

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lisa Yun; D'Souza, Sara; Lam, Karen; Kang, Tina Manzhu

    2015-01-01

    We used classical mutagens in Gram-negative Escherichia coli to study synergies with different classes of antibiotics, test models of antibiotic mechanisms of action, and examine the basis of synergy. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), zebularine (ZEB), 5-azacytidine (5AZ), 2-aminopurine (2AP), and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5BrdU) as mutagens (with bactericidal potency of 4NQO > ZEB > 5AZ > 2AP > 5BrdU) and vancomycin (VAN), ciprofloxacin (CPR), trimethoprim (TMP), gentamicin (GEN), tetracycline (TET), erythromycin (ERY), and chloramphenicol (CHL) as antibiotics. We detected the strongest synergies with 4NQO, an agent that oxidizes guanines and ultimately results in double-strand breaks when paired with the bactericidal antibiotics VAN, TMP, CPR, and GEN, but no synergies with the bacteriostatic antibiotics TET, ERY, and CHL. Each of the other mutagens displays synergies with the bactericidal antibiotics to various degrees that reflect their potencies, as well as with some of the other mutagens. The results support recent models showing that bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria principally by ultimately generating more double-strand breaks than can be repaired. We discuss the synergies seen here and elsewhere as representing dose effects of not the proximal target damage but rather the ultimate resulting double-strand breaks. We also used the results of pairwise tests to place the classic mutagens into functional antibacterial categories within a previously defined drug interaction network. PMID:26711761

  16. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  17. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  18. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  19. An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations: exploring variation by ethnicity and geography.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Shin, Nana

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the relationships among ethnic identity and self-esteem across multiple ethnic groups within two distinct geographical locations (N = 1,344). In the current study, for same ethnic group members, the components of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) were differentially related to self-esteem based on geographical context. Furthermore, within each geographical context, the strength of the relation between each ethnic identity component and self-esteem varied based on group membership, suggesting that the variables may be more or less influential on self-esteem depending on one's group membership. Based on these results, the exploration and resolution subscales of the Ethnic Identity scale (EIS) appear to be valid and reliable with diverse samples, whereas support for the affirmation subscale of the EIS is more tenuous. Finally, these findings suggest that ethnic identity may have varying salience and meaning for same ethnic group members in different geographical contexts (e.g., Asian Americans in California vs. Asian Americans in the Midwest). PMID:17500607

  20. An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations: exploring variation by ethnicity and geography.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Shin, Nana

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the relationships among ethnic identity and self-esteem across multiple ethnic groups within two distinct geographical locations (N = 1,344). In the current study, for same ethnic group members, the components of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) were differentially related to self-esteem based on geographical context. Furthermore, within each geographical context, the strength of the relation between each ethnic identity component and self-esteem varied based on group membership, suggesting that the variables may be more or less influential on self-esteem depending on one's group membership. Based on these results, the exploration and resolution subscales of the Ethnic Identity scale (EIS) appear to be valid and reliable with diverse samples, whereas support for the affirmation subscale of the EIS is more tenuous. Finally, these findings suggest that ethnic identity may have varying salience and meaning for same ethnic group members in different geographical contexts (e.g., Asian Americans in California vs. Asian Americans in the Midwest).

  1. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the relationship between global and local assessment discourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek school-based biology examinations' test items in terms of the nature of their textual construction. This nature is determined by the interplay of the notions of classification (content specialisation) and formality (code specialisation) modulated by both the linguistic and the visual expressive modes. The results of the analysis reveal disparities between assessment discourses promoted at the global and the local level. In particular, while PISA test items convey their scientific message (specialised content and code) principally through their visual mode, the specialised scientific meaning of school-based examinations test is mainly conveyed through their linguistic mode. On the other hand, the linguistic mode of PISA test items is mainly compatible with textual practices of the public domain (non-specialised content and code). Such a mismatch between assessment discourses at local and global level is expected to place Greek students at different discursive positions, promoting different types of knowledge. The expected shift from the epistemic positioning promoted in Greece to the one promoted by PISA could significantly restrict Greek students' ability to infer the PISA discursive context and produce appropriate responses. This factor could provide a meaningful contribution in the discussion of the relatively low achievement of Greek students in PISA scientific literacy assessment.

  2. Exploring patterns of recurrent melanoma in Northeast Scotland to inform the introduction a digital self-examination intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Melanoma incidence is growing and more people require follow-up to detect recurrent melanoma quickly. Those detecting their own recurrent melanoma appear to have the best prognosis, so total skin self examination (TSSE) is advocated, but practice is suboptimal. A digital intervention to support TSSE has potential but it is not clear which patient groups could benefit most. The aim of this study was to explore cutaneous melanoma recurrence patterns between 1991 and 2012 in Northeast Scotland. The objectives were to: determine how recurrent melanomas were detected during the period; explore factors potentially predictive of mode of recurrence detection; identify groups least likely to detect their own recurrent melanoma and with most potential to benefit from digital TSSE support. Methods Pathology records were used to identify those with a potential recurrent melanoma of any type (local, regional and distant). Following screening of potential cases available secondary care-held records were subsequently scrutinised. Data was collected on demographics and clinical characteristics of the initial and recurrent melanoma. Data were handled in Microsoft Excel and transported into SPSS 20.0 for statistical analysis. Factors predicting detection at interval or scheduled follow-up were explored using univariate techniques, with potentially influential factors combined in a multivariate binary logistic model to adjust for confounding. Results 149 potential recurrences were identified from the pathology database held at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary. Reliable data could be obtained on 94 cases of recurrent melanoma of all types. 30 recurrences (31.9%) were found by doctors at follow-up, and 64 (68.1%) in the interval between visits, usually by the patient themselves. Melanoma recurrences of all types occurring within one-year were significantly more likely to be found at follow-up visits, and this remained so following adjustment for other factors that could be used to

  3. Results of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Gap Review: Specific Action Team (SAT), Examination of Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for Human Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Eppler, D.; Farrell, W.; Gruener, J.; Lawrence, S.; Pellis, N.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J.; Zeigler, R.; Neal, C; Bussey, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) was tasked by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to establish a Specific Action Team (SAT) to review lunar Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) within the context of new lunar data and some specific human mission scenarios. Within this review, the SAT was to identify the SKGs that have been fully or partially retired, identify new SKGs resulting from new data and observations, and review quantitative descriptions of measurements that are required to fill knowledge gaps, the fidelity of the measurements needed, and if relevant, provide examples of existing instruments or potential missions capable of filling the SKGs.

  4. A Preliminary Exploration of On-Line Study Question Performance and Response Certitude as Predictors of Future Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Mark; Flannery, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This research evaluated an online study task intended to improve the study metacognition and examination performance of inexperienced college students. Existing research has commonly operationalized metacognition as the accuracy of examination score predictions. This research made use of the average discrepancy between rated confidence in…

  5. An Exploration of the Examination Script Features that Most Influence Expert Judgements in Three Methods of Evaluating Script Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suto, Irenka; Novakovic, Nadezda

    2012-01-01

    Some methods of determining grade boundaries within examinations, such as awarding, paired comparisons, and rank ordering, entail expert judgements of script quality. We aimed to identify the features of examinees' scripts that most influence judgements in the three methods. For contrasting examinations in biology and English, a Latin square…

  6. Exploration of Nursing Faculty Members' Lived Experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Undergraduate Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obizoba, Cordelia O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of nursing faculty members' lived experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate nursing education. As owners of their programs' curriculum, nursing faculties are charged with the responsibility of providing needed knowledge, skills, and…

  7. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  8. Examination of Changes in Prospective Elementary Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Science and Exploration of Factors Meditating that Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Epistemological beliefs refer to an individual's thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. The present study examined two research questions: (1) how do prospective elementary teachers' epistemological beliefs in science change as a result of instruction specifically designed to improve their epistemological beliefs and (2)…

  9. Exploration of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Pathway Puzzle and Examination of the Origin of Elusive Mutational Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Suman; Namslauer, Ida; Brzezinski, Peter; Warshel, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Gaining detailed understanding of the energetics of the proton-pumping process in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a problem of great current interest. Despite promising mechanistic proposals, so far, a physically consistent model that would reproduce all the relevant barriers needed to create a working pump has not been presented. In addition, there are major problems in elucidating the origin of key mutational effects and in understanding the nature of the apparent pKa values associated with the pH dependencies of specific proton transfer (PT) reactions in CcO. This work takes a key step in resolving the above problems, by considering mutations, such as the Asn139Asp replacement, that blocks proton pumping without affecting PT to the catalytic site. We first introduce a formulation that makes it possible to relate the apparent pKa of Glu286 to different conformational states of this residue. We then use the new formulation along with the calculated pKa values of Glu286 at these different conformations to reproduce the experimentally observed apparent pKa of the residue. Next, we take the X-ray structures of the native and Asn139Asp mutant of the Paracoccus denitrificans CcO (N131D in this system) and reproduce for the first time the change in the primary PT pathways (and other key features) based on simulations that start with the observed structural changes. We also consider the competition between proton transport to the catalytic site and the pump site, as a function of the bulk pH, as well as the H/D isotope effect, and use this information to explore the relative height of the two barriers. The paper emphasizes the crucial role of energy-based considerations that include the PT process, and the delicate control of PT in CcO. PMID:21232525

  10. School-Based Assessments in High-Stakes Examinations in Bhutan: A Question of Trust? Exploring Inconsistencies between External Exam Scores, School-Based Assessments, Detailed Teacher Ratings, and Student Self-Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE) examination, to detailed teacher ratings of…

  11. Sharing My Music with You: The Musical Presentation as a Tool for Exploring, Examining and Enhancing Self-Awareness in a Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Moshe; Amir, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    Musical presentation (MP) is a diagnostic and therapeutic music therapy tool which focuses on the participant's emotional exploration and awareness-insight development. Using this tool people present themselves through music of their choice and subsequently receive feedback from their peers. This study investigates MP as a tool for enhancing…

  12. Exploring the Nature of the H[subscript 2] Bond. 1. Using Spreadsheet Calculations to Examine the Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    A three-part project for students in physical chemistry, computational chemistry, or independent study is described in which they explore applications of valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital-configuration interaction (MO-CI) treatments of H[subscript 2]. Using a scientific spreadsheet, students construct potential-energy (PE) curves for several…

  13. Enhancing Undergraduate Education: Examining Faculty Experiences during Their First Year in a Residential College and Exploring the Implications for Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Yao, Christina W.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study employed a constructivist, case study approach to explore how faculty made meaning of their experiences in a newly developed residential college at a large, land-grant research university in the Midwest. Findings revealed that faculty focused on determining how to prioritize the numerous opportunities for involvement while…

  14. A Preliminary Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment among Polish Adolescents with and without Motor Disability: Does Disability Constitute Diversity in Identity Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define whether, and to what extent identity formation in late adolescence is disability specific. Ninety-eight adolescents participated in this study, including 43 students with motor disability and 55 students without disability. Identity exploration and commitment was measured by the Utrecht-Groningen Identity…

  15. An Examination of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 Turkish Database with the Aim of Exploring the Relationship between Homework Variables and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay; Akin, Ayca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the amount of time spent on homework in all subjects (HTAS), the time spent on mathematics homework (MHT), confidence in doing mathematics homework (HCM) and the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey, based on data from the programme for international student assessment…

  16. Exploring Clinical Reasoning Strategies and Test-Taking Behaviors During Clinical Vignette Style Multiple-Choice Examinations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Heist, Brian Sanjay; Gonzalo, Jed David; Durning, Steven; Torre, Dario; Elnicki, David Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical vignette multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are widely used in medical education, but clinical reasoning (CR) strategies employed when approaching these questions have not been well described. Objectives The aims of the study were (1) to identify CR strategies and test-taking (TT) behaviors of physician trainees while solving clinical vignette MCQs; and (2) to examine the relationships between CR strategies and behaviors, and performance on a high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examination. Methods Thirteen postgraduate year–1 level trainees completed 6 clinical vignette MCQs using a think-aloud protocol. Thematic analysis employing elements of grounded theory was performed on data transcriptions to identify CR strategies and TT behaviors. Participants' CR strategies and TT behaviors were then compared with their US Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores. Results Twelve CR strategies and TT behaviors were identified. Individuals with low performance on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased premature closure and increased faulty knowledge, and showed comparatively less ruling out of alternatives or admission of knowledge deficits. High performers on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased ruling out of alternatives and admission of knowledge deficits, and less premature closure, faulty knowledge, or closure prior to reading the alternatives. Conclusions Different patterns of CR strategies and TT behaviors may be used by high and low performers during high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examinations. PMID:26140123

  17. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  18. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    No production has been established in the Reel-foot rift. However, at least nine of 22 exploratory wells have reported petroleum shows, mainly gas shows with some asphalt or solid hydrocarbon residue. Regional seismic profiling shows the presence of two large inversion structures (Blytheville arch and Pascola arch). The Blytheville arch is marked by a core of structurally thickened Elvins Shale, whereas the Pascola arch reflects the structural uplift of a portion of the entire rift basin. Structural uplift and faulting within the Reelfoot rift since the late Paleozoic appear to have disrupted older conventional hydrocarbon traps and likely spilled any potential conventional petroleum accumulations. The remaining potential resources within the Reelfoot rift are likely shale gas accumulations within the Elvins Shale; however, reservoir continuity and porosity as well as pervasive faulting appear to be significant future challenges for explorers and drillers.

  19. Exploring the use of grounded theory as a methodological approach to examine the 'black box' of network leadership in the national quality forum.

    PubMed

    Hoflund, A Bryce

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how grounded theory was used to investigate the "black box" of network leadership in the creation of the National Quality Forum. Scholars are beginning to recognize the importance of network organizations and are in the embryonic stages of collecting and analyzing data about network leadership processes. Grounded theory, with its focus on deriving theory from empirical data, offers researchers a distinctive way of studying little-known phenomena and is therefore well suited to exploring network leadership processes. Specifically, this paper provides an overview of grounded theory, a discussion of the appropriateness of grounded theory to investigating network phenomena, a description of how the research was conducted, and a discussion of the limitations and lessons learned from using this approach.

  20. Causes of variation in BCG vaccine efficacy: examining evidence from the BCG REVAC cluster randomized trial to explore the masking and the blocking hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Pilger, Daniel; Pereira, Susan M; Genser, Bernd; Cruz, Alvaro A; Cunha, Sergio S; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Hijjar, Miguel A; Ichihara, Maria Y; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2014-06-24

    BCG protection varies and in some places (nearest the equator) is low or absent. Understanding this variation can inform the efforts to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. Two main hypotheses are used to explain this variation: under masking, new vaccines are unlikely to increase protection; under blocking new vaccines have a greater potential to be effective when BCG is not. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to explored the masking and blocking hypotheses by studying BCG vaccine efficacy of neonatal vaccination and when administered for the first or a second (revaccination) time at school age in two sites (Manaus close and Salvador further south from the equator). Seven hundred and sixty three state schools were matched on socio economic characteristics of the neighborhood and 239,934 children were randomized to vaccine (BCG vaccination at school age) or control group. Protection by first BCG vaccination at school age was high in Salvador (34%, 95% CI 7-53%, p=0.017) but low in Manaus (8%, 95% CI t0 39-40%, p=0.686). For revaccination at school age, protection was modest in Salvador (19%, 95% CI 3-33%, p=0.022) and absent in Manaus (1%, 95% CI to 27-23%, p=0.932). Vaccine efficacy for neonatal vaccination was similar in Salvador (40%, 95% CI 22-54%, p<0.001) and Manaus (36%, 95% CI 11-53%, p=0.008). Variation in BCG efficacy was marked when vaccine was given at school age but absent at birth, which points towards blocking as the dominant mechanism. New tuberculosis vaccines that overcome or by pass this blocking effect could confer protection in situations where BCG is not protective.

  1. Social stratification, development and health in Pakistan: an empirical exploration of relationships in population-based national health examination survey data.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Wilbur C; Pappas, Gregory; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2003-11-01

    There is a growing literature on an overall direct relationship between health and social position in developed countries. The relationship, however, is less well documented in developing countries where social hierarchies are changing more rapidly, demographic and health transitions are less advanced, and this topic has received less attention from researchers than in some developed countries. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the relationship between social stratification and social development and population health using data on over 6000 adults from the National Health Survey of Pakistan, a nationally representative health examination survey of people in that country. We analyze four indicators of poor nutrition in adults from this data set. The findings reveal complex relationships among social development, social stratification and the consequences for the health of the people of Pakistan. Underweight is related to economic status, anemia to education and social development, and both severe dental caries and a monotonous diet are related to both development and economic status which interact with each other. These results suggest that continued conceptual refinement and the development of standardized measures of stratification and development would contribute to building cross-nationally comparable data sets addressing issues of the relationship among health and economic development and health transitions.

  2. Exploring How to Walk the Talk: Examining the Practical Application of Models of Science Communication in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartock, L.; Rickard, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates the relationship between science communication at a theoretical level and the practice of science communication in long-term ecological research sites (LTERs). In particular, we examine if and how the work of LTER science communication practitioners, individuals with the responsibility to communicate, report, or interpret the findings of his/her LTER with any other group, excluding through K-12 educational programs, aligns with theoretically established models of science communication. Broadly speaking, as over two decades of research in science communication attests, these models tend to emphasize the deficit approach, dialogue with and between audiences, and/or audience participation. Does the practitioners' work fall neatly into these three "ideal type" categories, or do their practices blur the boundaries of established models? Do practitioners appeal to more than one type of model in the course of their work? Is there evidence of hybrid approaches, or other, new models that have not yet been identified in the literature? Participating organizations will be selected from the Long Term Ecological Research Network, an organization of LTERs funded by the National Science Foundation. The LTER network is actively involved in science communication, as shown by the most recent LTER Strategic Communication Plan. Science communicators may be involved in variety of practices, such as creating translational materials for policymakers to better understand the findings of LTERs, developing training courses for conservation professionals, or organizing site tours for journalists or funders. Practitioners will participate in semi-structured interviews covering how their practices relate to established models of science communication, how they view their roles and responsibilities, and how they view their audience(s). This presentation will cover emerging results from ongoing analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of these

  3. Genetic basis of delay discounting in frequent gamblers: examination of a priori candidates and exploration of a panel of dopamine-related loci

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects preferences for small immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. It has been consistently linked to pathological gambling and other forms of addictive behavior, and has been proposed to be a behavioral characteristic that may link genetic variation and risk of developing addictive disorders (i.e., an endophenotype). Studies to date have revealed significant associations with polymorphisms associated with dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined associations between delay discounting and both previously linked variants and a novel panel of dopamine-related variants in a sample of frequent gamblers. Methods Participants were 175 weekly gamblers of European ancestry who completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to assess delay discounting preferences and provided a DNA via saliva. Results In a priori tests, two loci previously associated with delayed reward discounting (rs1800497 and rs4680) were not replicated, however, the long form of DRD4 VNTR was significantly associated with lower discounting of delayed rewards. Exploratory analysis of the dopamine-related panel revealed 11 additional significant associations in genes associated with dopamine synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, and receptor function (DRD3, SLC6A3, DDC, DBH, and SLC18A2). An aggregate genetic risk score from the nominally significant loci accounted for 17% of the variance in discounting. Mediational analyses largely supported the presence of indirect effects between the associated loci, delay discounting, and pathological gambling severity. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previously reported associations but identify several novel candidates and provide preliminary support for a systems biology approach to understand the genetic basis of delay discounting. PMID:25365808

  4. Exploring Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

  5. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  6. An exploration of student nurses' thoughts and experiences of using a video-recording to assess their performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during a mock objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    PubMed

    Paul, Fiona

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an essential skill taught within undergraduate nursing programmes. At the author's institution, students must pass the CPR objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) before progressing to second year. However, some students have difficulties developing competence in CPR and evidence suggests that resuscitation skills may only be retained for several months. This has implications for practice as nurses are required to be competent in CPR. Therefore, further opportunities for students to develop these skills are necessary. An action research project was conducted with six students who were assessed by an examiner at a video-recorded mock OSCE. Students self-assessed their skills using the video and a checklist. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to compare checklist scores, and explore students' thoughts and experiences of the OSCE. The findings indicate that students may need to repeat this exercise by comparing their previous and current performances to develop both their self-assessment and CPR skills. Although there were some differences between the examiner's and student's checklist scores, all students reported the benefits of participating in this project, e.g. discussion and identification of knowledge and skills deficits, thus emphasising the benefits of formative assessments to prepare students for summative assessments and ultimately clinical practice.

  7. Describing Examination Performance: Grade Criteria in Public Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the introduction of grade criteria into the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination as an effort to make clearer the competency and knowledge levels expected of examination candidates in Great Britain. Concludes by exploring problems with this concept and by calling for further clarification of the purpose for this…

  8. Exploring racism.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen

    2002-10-01

    Whilst the concept of 'race' has no basis in genetics or biology, the dynamics of racism pervade all aspects of modern life--including the consulting room. In this paper the relationship between a white therapist and a black patient is explored through an unbidden thought and a verbal slip that occurred in the course of the therapy. The amplification and examination of these unwanted 'slips' are used to shed light on the subtleties of the effects of difference in colour on the relationship. It is argued here that the interaction reflects and illuminates the asymmetrical relationship between 'black' and 'white' in modern-western society. This is then considered using the concepts of the cultural unconscious and social unconscious as ways of understanding the tenacity of racism in ourselves.

  9. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  10. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Vasil, R.L.; Nolting, A.

    2011-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2010 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry.

  11. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Bourget, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2009 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on industry exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  12. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  13. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2008 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry, and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  14. Problematizing Assumptions, Examining Dilemmas, and Exploring Promising Possibilities in Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. A Response to "'I Didn't See It as a Cultural Thing': Supervisors of Student Teachers Define and Describe Culturally Responsive Supervision"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantas-Whitney, Maria; Ulveland, R. Dana

    2016-01-01

    In response to the study and recommendations presented in the article "I Didn't See it as a Cultural Thing," written by Linda Griffin, Dyan Watson and Tonda Liggett, we explore three interrelated topics. First, we seek to problematize some of the assumptions in the study. We review some of the authors' approaches and assertions that seem…

  15. Telepresence for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1991-01-01

    Telepresence from a manned central base to unmanned rovers is discussed as a possible solution to the problem of human presence in planetary field geology. Some issues that are essential to planetary surface field work are examined with reference to results of the Amboy field study. The discussion emphasizes the exploration behavior and user-based requirements for effective telepresence systems for planetary exploration.

  16. Vocational Rehabilitation: An Employment Program. Hearing on Examining the Vocational Rehabilitation System and the Rehabilitation Act, Focusing Slightly and Explore Some of the Issues, Including Linkage, the VR System Faces in Ohio, (Columbus, OH) before the Subcommittee on Employment and Training of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional report contains testimony examining the vocational rehabilitation system and the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and exploring some of the issues, including linkage, faced by the vocational rehabilitation system in Ohio. Statements were provided by a U.S. senator (Mike DeWine, Ohio) and representatives of the following agencies…

  17. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  18. Exploration Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  19. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  20. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Rapstine, T.D.; Lee, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2011 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. This summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents surveys returned by companies primarily focused on precious (gold, platinum-group metals and silver) and base (copper, lead, nickel and zinc) metals.

  1. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 27 percent in 2003 from the 2002 budget, according to the Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes after five years of declining spending for mineral exploration.

  2. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  3. Lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.; Anand, M.

    The Moon has historically been at the forefront of the solar system exploration. Building on early telescopic discoveries, over the past half century lunar exploration by spacecraft has taught us much about the Moon as a planetary body, the early history of the solar system (including the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system), the geological evolution of rocky planets more generally, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout the solar system history. In this chapter, we review the rich history of lunar exploration and draw attention to the advances in scientific knowledge that have resulted from it. We also review the scientific arguments for continued lunar exploration and argue that these will be maximized in the context of a renewed program of human exploration of the Moon.

  4. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  5. Explorer 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'This satellite, Explorer 24, was a 12-foot-diameter inflatable sphere developed by an engineering team at Langley. It provided information on complex solar radiation/air-density relationships in the upper atmosphere.' Explorer satellites were inflatable satellites--or satelloons, like Echo, and were developed as a follow-on program. They were intended as a vehicle to study the density of air in the upper atmosphere. Explorer 24 was launched in November 1964. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 191-192.

  6. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Space exploration is an endeavor that has universal appeal, is far reaching in its consequences, crossing borders and spanning intellectual disciplines from art to literature to mathematics, with a purpose and reach that can potentially unite. To enhance awareness and strengthen cooperation within the space community, and provide inspiration for new activities, Dr. McGrath will provide a brief glimpse into a few of the exciting space exploration activities currently being undertaken by NASA.

  7. Exploring Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

  8. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  9. Exploring the Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exploring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Exploring," is devoted primarily to examination of alphabets and the languages they represent. Major articles include: "Shrinking the Alphabet" (Pat Murphy), a comparison of alphabet composition for different languages; "The Puzzle of Linear B" (Paul Doherty), a history of archaeologists' deciphering of an early form of written…

  10. Discovery by the examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Walterscheid, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (M.P.E.P.), 4th Edition now has a chapter 2100 on patentability. At present this chapter only contains sections dealing with Patentable Subject Matter - Microorganisms and the Statutory Bars of Public Use and On Sale (35 U.S.C. 102(b), but it is the intent of the Patent and Trademark Office to expand its content as future revisions of the M.P.E.P. are issued. The requirement for information provisions of chapter 2100 - if they are upheld on judicial review - portend a significant change in the relationship of the examiner and the applicant in ex parte prosecution. In view of the fact that the Office positions which appear to herald this change have been adopted without public review or comment, it is imperative that members of the patent bar review them critically and express their concerns to the Office. Simply put, although the M.P.E.P. carefully avoids any use of the term, the Office in chapter 2100 is indicating that an examiner has a right of discovery in ex parte prosecution. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to discuss the extent to which the Office is attempting to sanction discovery by examiners. In particular, it will explore certain of the ramifications of the requirement for information provisions of chapter 2100. It will begin by outlining the requirements for information in ex parte prosecution which are expressly permitted by the rules of practice. It will then review the authority for discovery requirements in ex parte prosecution and consider the sanction for failure to meet such a requirement. Some consideration will then be given to the extent and effect of a requirement for information presented under the aegis of chapter 2100. The potential for Office discovery in the prosecution of reissue applications will be briefly examined. Finally, the failure of the Office to seek public review or comment in presenting the requirement for information provisions of chapter 2100 will be briefly discussed.

  11. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  12. Exploring maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Exploring Maps is an interdisciplinary set of materials on mapping for grades 7-12. Students will learn basic mapmaking and map reading skills and will see how maps can answer fundamental geographic questions: "Where am I?" "What else is here?" "Where am I going?"

  13. Exploring Fractals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewdney, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the subject of fractal geometry focusing on the occurrence of fractal-like shapes in the natural world. Topics include iterated functions, chaos theory, the Lorenz attractor, logistic maps, the Mandelbrot set, and mini-Mandelbrot sets. Provides appropriate computer algorithms, as well as further sources of information. (JJK)

  14. Early Explorers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of a magazine of Iowa history for young people focuses on early explorers and combined learning activities with informative articles. Sections in this issue include: "Where? What? Who?"; "Maps--long ago and recent"; "Every map answers at least two questions: Where? What?"; "Jolliet and Marquette"; "Match the maps"; "Louisiana Purchase";…

  15. Global Explorers: An Examination of Program Processes and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerden, Mathew David

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes longitudinal, mixed-method data drawn from participants in an environmental education/international immersion program for middle high-school students to study outcomes and processes associated with program participation. Studies of program outcomes and processes are important for better understanding the design and impact of…

  16. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  17. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  18. Human Challenges in Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presents an overview using pictures some of the history of human exploration of the new frontiers of Earth and then examines some of the challenges to human exploration of space. Particular attention is given to the environmental factors and to the social and human factors that effect humans in space environments.

  19. Bringing life to space exploration.

    PubMed

    Noor, A K; Doyle, R J; Venneri, S L

    1999-11-01

    Characteristics of 21st century space exploration are examined. Characteristics discussed include autonomy, evolvability, robotic outposts, and an overview of future missions. Sidebar articles examine the application of lessons from biological systems to engineered systems and mission concepts taking shape at NASA. Those mission concepts include plans for Mars missions, sample return missions for Venus and a comet nucleus, Europa orbiter and lander missions, a Titan organics explorer, and a terrestrial planet finder. PMID:11542653

  20. Geoelectrical exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseem, Mostafa Said; El Lateef, Talaat Ali Abd; Ezz El Deen, Hosny Mahomud; Abdel Rahman, Abd Allah Al Abaseiry

    2015-12-01

    Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER) revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  1. [Exploring Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This summer I have been working with the N.A.S.A. Project at Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) under the title of Exploring Aeronautics Project Leader. The class that I have worked with is comprised of students that will enter the eighth grade in the fall of 2004. The program primarily focuses upon math proficiency and individualized class projects. My duties have encompassed both realms. During the first 2-3 weeks of my internship, I worked at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) researching, organizing, and compiling information for weekly Scholastic Challenges and the Super Scholastic Challenge. I was able to complete an overview of Scholastic Challenge and staff responsibilities regarding the competition; a proposal for an interactive learning system, Quizdom; a schedule for challenge equipment, as well as a schedule listing submission deadlines for the staff. Also included in my tasks, during these first 2-3 weeks, were assisting Tammy Allen and Candice Thomas with the student application review and interview processes for student applicants. For the student and parent orientation, I was assigned publications and other varying tasks to complete before the start of the program. Upon the commencement of the program, I changed location from NASA GRC to Tri-C Metro Campus, where student classes for the Cleveland site are held. During the duration of the program, I work with the instructor for the Exploring Aeronautics class, kkkk, assisting in classroom management, daily attendance, curriculum, project building, and other tasks as needed. These tasks include the conducting of the weekly competition, known as Scholastic Challenge. As a Project Leader, I am also responsible for one subject area of the Scholastic Challenge aspect of the N.A.S.A. Project curriculum. Each week I have to prepare a mission that the participants will take home the following Monday and at least 10 questions that will be included in the pool of questions used for the Scholastic Challenge

  2. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  3. Examination Involving Students as Peer Examiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljungman, Anders G.; Silen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The main interest in this article is students' involvement in assessment as a part of growth towards self-directedness in learning. In order to enhance students' development of autonomy in learning, a project involving "older" students as peer examiners for "younger" students was designed and carried out. Students in the sixth semester in a…

  4. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  5. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  6. Exploring the Explorers Using Internet Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrez, Cheryl Franklin; Bush, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The topic of explorers and exploration is commonly taught in the upper elementary grades. Depending on state and local social studies content standards, teachers will develop a curriculum unit on Explorers of Our State for fourth grade students, a unit on Explorers of the United States for fifth graders, and one on World Explorers for sixth…

  7. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your ... UPDATED: February 5, 2015 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your ...

  8. The preparticipation physical examination.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Jaime; Jardeleza, Julie Ann

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews the components of the preparticipation physical examination. It looks at some of the key elements of the history and the physical examination that help determine whether an athlete can participate in an organized sport.

  9. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  10. Physics 300 Provincial Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This document consists of the physics 300 provincial examination (English version), a separate "provincial summary report" on the results of giving the test, and a separate French language version of the examination. This physics examination contains a 53-item multiple choice section and an 12 item free response section. Subsections of the test…

  11. [Scanner examination of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Richard, F; Khoury, S; Parienty, R; Ducellier, R; Fourcade, R; Küss, R

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a large series of documents, the authors participate in establishment of the classification of scanner appearances of urological diseases of the kidney : peripheral or parapelvic sub-capsular cysts, carcinomas and their spread, multiple tumours but of different nature in the same kidney, angiomyolipomas, polycystic disease, renal abscess, hydated cyst, non-invasive exploration of kidneys showed to be non-functioning by I.V.U., tumours of the intrarenal excretory system, lumbar trauma, long-term surveillance of the retroperitoneal space in individuals undergoing surgery for a urological malignant renoureteric tumour. The authors suggest a new chronological arrangement of investigations in the presence of a renal mass discovered by I.V.U. Scanner has its place between echotomography and renal arteriography. Investigations may be stopped at renal echotomography when this examination offers definite evidence of the fluid nature of the mass. Solid or doubtful nature of the mass necessitates the use of a scanner examination.

  12. Skylab Dental Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Commander Charles Conrad is seen undergoing a dental examination by the Medical Officer, Joseph Kerwin in the Skylab Medical Facility. In the absence of an examination chair, Conrad simply rotated his body to an upside down position to facilitate the procedure.

  13. Otoscope examination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An otoscope is a tool which shines a beam of light to help visualize and examine the condition of the ear canal and eardrum. Examining the ear can reveal the cause of symptoms such as an earache, the ear feeling full, or hearing loss.

  14. Examining Latina College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…

  15. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  16. The Anxious Examiner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dean A.

    1970-01-01

    Author suggests that the examiner experiences the same psychological and physical malaise evoked by anxiety that is felt by the student which may have something to do with today's student-teacher tension. (IR)

  17. Exploring Culture through Children's Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Sandy; Short, Kathy G.

    1998-01-01

    Shares one teacher's attempts to highlight diversity and children's cultures in authentic ways. Examines three children's connections to culture and their own cultural identities by looking at issues they explored across the school year (family, family and religion, and ethnicity). Situates the discussion of multiculturalism in the context of "kid…

  18. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  19. Bibliotherapy: "Literature as Exploration" Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justman, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Louise Rosenblatt's "Literature as Exploration," a popular textbook used since 1938 (in five successive editions) in high school English classrooms across America. He discusses how the one-time college roommate of Margaret Mead managed to transform teaching literature into a form of student therapy that…

  20. The Sexual Assault Examination

    PubMed Central

    Hargot, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21274059

  1. The sexual assault examination.

    PubMed

    Hargot, L A

    1985-04-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court.

  2. Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

  3. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  4. Biorhythms: An Empirical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Phillip R.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the theory of biorhythms using data from 727 deaths, 319 marriages, and data from students who kept track of their feelings and abilities, either having a biorhythm to follow or not knowing about the theory. None of the data sets provided confirmation of the theory. (JAC)

  5. Witness Disclaiming During Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutman, Randall K.

    1986-01-01

    Supports research indicating that disclaimers have no effect on perceptions of source credibility. Reveals that frequency of disclaimer use was unrelated to subject-juror evaluations of witness credibility and testimony believability; females did not use more disclaimers than males during examination; and when females used disclaimers, they were…

  6. Examining College Writing Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncheon, Julia C.; Tierney, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing postsecondary access depends in large part on enhancing underrepresented students' writing ability, or college writing readiness. However, what exactly constitutes college-level writing is not clear-cut, complicating efforts to improve secondary preparation. This article examines recent efforts to define postsecondary writing,…

  7. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  8. Examining Student Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jessica; Braaten, Melissa; Windschitl, Mark; Sjoberg, Bethany; Jones, Margaret; Martinez, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a model of collaborative inquiry for groups of science teachers who want to systematically improve their practice through analyses of student work. The five-phase APEX[superscript ST] (Advancing High-Leverage Practices by Examining Student Thinking) model is appropriate for students of all achievement levels. It focuses on…

  9. [Physical breast examination].

    PubMed

    Migda, Renata; Salamon-Zagajska, Magdalena; Wacławiak, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the project was the comparison of the effectiveness of physical breast examination in relation to mammography on the basis of research analysis conducted within the program "The Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer". The program was conducted at J. Sniadecki Hospital in Nowy Sacz in the year 2002. The physical examination was carried out by professional midwives. The documentation of 400 women who participated in the program was analyzed in order to gain the necessary information. Half of the participants have identified anomalies in breasts (202; 50.5%). There was no difference in the number of the mentioned anomalies between the group of the younger (55; 50.0%) and older women (147; 50.7%). One of the three anomalies diagnosed in mammography was earlier diagnosed in the physical examination. It is important to indicate that it seems more difficult to detect the anomalies in the group of younger women (13; 23.6%) than in the group of the older women (47; 32.0%). Among all anomalies diagnosed in mammography more than half (98; 53.3%) are mastopathies. Only one of the five mastopathies (19; 19.4%) was detected in physical examination. The majority of women who participated in the prevention program live in the city (244; 61.0%). Women from cities had more breast anomalies (53.3%) than women from the country (46.1%).

  10. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  11. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  12. Examining the Effects of New Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Marjorie E.; Caspary, Kyra; Humphrey, Daniel C.; Matsko, Kavita Kapadia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to explore comprehensively the effect of induction on new teachers. Through a mixed-method design, the authors examine both the inputs of induction (i.e., the types of support provided for new teachers, its content, and frequency) and a variety of outcomes (i.e., teacher efficacy, teacher-reported growth, teacher…

  13. Dimensionality and DIF in a Licensure Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; And Others

    The sources of multidimensionality found in several different forms of a licensure examination were studied. The relationship between one source of multidimensionality, differential item functioning (DIF) (or factors producing DIF), and content characteristics was explored in an attempt to isolate aspects of training or curriculum that could…

  14. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  15. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  16. Explorations in Chaos Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Armando; Bixler, David

    2012-03-01

    Chaos Theory is an interesting and important branch of physics. Many physical systems, such as weather or fluid flow, exhibit chaotic behavior. Experiments in simple mechanical or electrical systems, as well as simple simulations can be used as methods of studying chaos. Using a mechanical method, we connected a speaker and to a frequency modulator to bounce a table tennis ball. We recorded the ball's motion at different frequencies using a video camera. Using Tracker software we observed it's position versus it's velocity in order to analyze its chaotic behavior. For a simple simulation, we used the visual-based programming in LabView to examine chaotic behavior produced by some non-linear differential equations. Results from both the mechanical system and the simulations will be discussed. For future work, we plan to continue to explore some chaotic simulations and perform a sequence of experiments with an electrical system. Exploring these nonlinear chaotic systems can help us to better understand and model many phenomena found in nature.

  17. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  18. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  19. Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

  20. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  1. Forensic psychiatric examinations: competency.

    PubMed

    Koson, D F

    1982-01-01

    The many definitions of competency in civil, criminal, and domestic relations law are discussed with emphasis on the various legal criteria for competency and the different classes of psychiatric information required to apply the criteria to a given case. Within the context of a general discussion of forensic examinations, techniques for gathering the right kind of information are systematically related to the exigencies of evaluating past, present, or future mental states by selectively altering the focus of mental status evaluations and history-taking. In addition, special investigative techniques such as hypnosis, Amytal sodium interview, stress interview, psychological testing, and others are discussed.

  2. Hot cell examination table

    SciTech Connect

    Gaal, P.S.; Ebjer, L.P.; Kareis, J.H.; Schlegel, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  3. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  4. Examining Mars with SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  5. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  6. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  7. ESA Human Exploration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, Scott

    The long term goal of the Aurora Exploration Programme is Human exploration of Mars. In preparation for this, exploration of the Moon is a necessary step to provide demonstration of capabilities, mandatory for long duration human spaceflight. With the European Columbus module attached to the ISS, Europe has access to a world class laboratory in space for microgravity research, technology demonstration and preparation for future human exploration missions. The ongoing phase of the exploration programme has been focused on defining the overall European strategy and exploration architecture within the global exploration environment. System studies as well as focused technology developments are in progress (e.g. development of regenerative life support).

  8. The golden age of solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinners, N. W.

    The origin and evolution of the NASA program of solar system exploration of the past two decades are discussed. The past and possible future roles of national prestige, vision, knowledge and applications as the motivations for the United States space exploration program are examined. The origin of the technology and scientific basis for space exploration by the United States is considered, and the strategies adopted in planning for planetary exploration involving reconnaissance, exploration, intensive study phases, and in mission implementation which is acutely sensitive to budgetary constraints, are compared. Finally, prospects for future NASA space exploration programs are examined, and the importance of the return of samples from Mars, Venus, comets and asteroids for analysis and consequently the development of low-thrust propulsion is emphasized.

  9. Mathematics Lecturers' Views of Examinations: Tensions and Possible Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    If assessment drives learning and the closed book examination dominates the pattern of assessment for undergraduate mathematics (as it does in the UK), lecturers need to ensure that examinations reflect the learning they value. This article uses a mixed method approach to explore lecturers' views of the closed book examination in relation to other…

  10. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  11. Historic Cosmology Identity and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebergall, K.

    The role of the soul and spirit in the composition of human endeavour generally takes the form of motivational poster catch phrases or third-hand quotes. If the spirit equals the life of a creature, and one of the signs of life is locomotion, are humans not obliged by something even deeper than our humanity to explore the universe? This paper examines the roots and perspectives of our worldviews on identity, exploration, and the limitations and capacities of humanity. It will equip the reader to discuss the nature of exploration with audiences across a wide range of worldviews. Current cultures, regardless of religion or politics, are looped into a series of nihilistic patterns that must be broken by rediscovering our nature as living beings, and our obligations as human beings.

  12. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J.; Kales, Stefanos N.; Porter, Richard J.; Hegmann, Kurt T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Methods: Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Results: Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m2), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Conclusions: Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification. PMID:25710607

  13. Technology Needs to Support Future Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.; Baker, John; Lillard, Randolph P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) under the direction of Dr. Orlando Figueroa, was chartered to develop options for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars consistent with the objective to send humans to Mars in the 2030's. Scientific pathways were defined for future exploration, and multiple architectural options were developed that meet current science goals and support the future human exploration objectives. Integral to the process was the identification of critical technologies which enable the future scientific and human exploration goals. This paper describes the process for technology capabilities identification and examines the critical capability needs identified in the MPPG process. Several critical enabling technologies that have been identified to support the robotic exploration goals and with potential feedforward application to human exploration goals. Potential roadmaps for the development and validation of these technologies are discussed, including options for subscale technology demonstrations of future human exploration technologies on robotic missions.

  14. Explore with Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security and economic interest through a robust space exploration program. Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond. Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration. Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.

  15. Examining Archean methanotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratios preserved in sedimentary rocks can be used to fingerprint ancient metabolisms. Organic carbon in Late Archean samples stands out from that of other intervals with unusually low δ13C values (∼-45 to -60‰). It was hypothesized that these light compositions record ecosystem-wide methane cycling and methanotrophy, either of the aerobic or anaerobic variety. To test this idea, we studied the petrography and carbon and oxygen isotope systematics of well-known and spectacular occurrences of shallow water stromatolites from the 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation of Western Australia. We examined the carbonate cements and kerogen produced within the stromatolites, because methanotrophy is expected to leave an isotopic fingerprint in these carbon reservoirs. Mathematical modeling of Archean carbonate chemistry further reveals that methanotrophy should still have a discernible signature preserved in the isotopic record, somewhat diminished from those observed in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins due to higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations. These stromatolites contain kerogen with δ13Corg values of ∼ - 50 ‰. By microsampling different regions and textures within the stromatolites, we determined that the isotopic compositions of the authigenic calcite cements show a low degree of variation and are nearly identical to values estimated for seawater at this time; the lack of low and variable δ13Ccarb values implies that methanotrophy does not explain the low δ13Corg seen in the coeval kerogen. These observations do not support a methanotrophy hypothesis, but instead hint that the Late Archean may constitute an interval wherein autotrophs employed markedly different biochemical processes of energy conservation and carbon fixation.

  16. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  17. Exploration cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, J.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Jerry Huttrer, President, Geothermal Management Company, discusses the general state of exploration in the geothermal industry today, and mentions some ways to economize and perhaps save costs of geothermal exploration in the future. He suggests an increased use of satellite imagery in the mapping of geothermal resources and the identification of hot spots. Also, coordinating with oil and gas exploration efforts, the efficiency of the exploration task could be optimized.

  18. Exploring neurogenesis in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carol Ann; Goergen, Erin M; Beltz, Barbara S

    2002-01-01

    Plasticity, learning and memory, and neurological disease are exciting topics for students. Discussion around these subjects often results in the consideration of the role of neurogenesis in development, or its involvement in a potential cure for some diseases. We have therefore designed a lab that allows students to experimentally examine how the rate of neurogenesis can be altered by environmental factors. Neuronal cell division in crayfish is identified with fluorescently-labeled BrdU and quantified using conventional or confocal microscopy. Recent studies indicate a conservation of mechanisms that control neurogenesis from insects and crustaceans to mammals. Yet the use of invertebrate models such as crayfish or lobsters has advantages over mammalian models. Invertebrate nervous systems have a simpler organization and larger, identifiable neurons - qualities that make such preparations easier for students to manage. This lab offers many opportunities for student designed experiments and discovery-oriented learning by exploring factors that regulate neurogenesis such as environment, hormones and light. This article illustrates our first experience with the lab, using an experiment designed by our students. We include ideas for expansion of this model and suggestions for avoiding potential pitfalls. It is written in the form of a scientific paper, reporting on a single student experiment, to aid as a teaching tool for future classes.

  19. Explorations in Statistics: Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This seventh installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores regression, a technique that estimates the nature of the relationship between two things for which we may only surmise a mechanistic or predictive connection.…

  20. Birth Control Explorer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  1. Lunar Exploration Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, Maria Antonietta

    The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon and robotic missions to Mars, Phobos and other destinations. Notably the US has since the announcement of the US space exploration vision by President G. W. Bush in 2004 made significant progress in the further definition of its exploration programme focusing in the next decades in particular on human missions to Moon. Given the highly demanding nature of these missions, different initiatives have been recently taken at international level to discuss how the lunar exploration missions currently planned at national level could fit in a coordinate roadmap and contribute to lunar exploration. Thales Alenia Space - Italia is leading 3 studies for the European Space Agency focus on the analysis of the transportation, in-space and surface architectures required to meet ESA provided stakeholders exploration objectives and requirements. Main result of this activity is the identification of European near-term priorities for exploration missions and European long-term priorities for capability and technology developments related to planetary exploration missions. This paper will present the main studies' results drawing a European roadmap for exploration missions and capability and technology developments related to lunar exploration infrastructure development, taking into account the strategic and programmatic indications for exploration coming from ESA as well as the international exploration context.

  2. Explorations in Statistics: Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This sixth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores correlation, a familiar technique that estimates the magnitude of a straight-line relationship between two variables. Correlation is meaningful only when the…

  3. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  4. Asteroid exploration and utilization: The Hawking explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Alan; Date, Medha; Duarte, Manny; Erian, Neil; Gafka, George; Kappler, Peter; Patano, Scott; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar; Radovich, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources which may exist on asteroids could have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. With the possibly limitless opportunities that exist, it is clear that asteroids are the next step for human existence in space. This report comprises the efforts of NEW WORLDS, Inc. to develop a comprehensive design for an asteroid exploration/sample return mission. This mission is a precursor to proof-of-concept missions that will investigate the validity of mining and materials processing on an asteroid. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on two utilization scenarios: (1) moving an asteroid to an advantageous location for use by Earth; and (2) mining an asteroids and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plane for humans to utilize asteroid resources. The report concentrates specifically on the selection of the most promising asteroids for exploration and the development of an exploration scenario. Future utilization as well as subsystem requirements of an asteroid sample return probe are also addressed.

  5. Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, A. A.; Aaron, K. M.; Heun, M. K.; Nock, K. T.; Schlaifer, R. S.; Wyszkowski, C. J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloons will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as microprobe delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We report here results of the preliminary analysis of the trajectory control capabilities and potential applications for DARE platforms at Venus, Mars, Titan and Jupiter.

  6. Capability 9.1 Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckelkamp, Rick; Blacic, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The exploration challenge are: To build an efficient, cost effective exploration infrastructure, To coordinate exploration robots & crews from multiple. earth sites to accomplish science and exploration objectives. and To maximize self-sufficiency of the lunar/planetary exploration team.

  7. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  8. Exploration Blueprint: Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The material contained in this report was compiled to capture the work performed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration study team in the late 2002 timeframe. The "Exploration Blueprint Data Book" documents the analyses and findings of the 90-day Agency-wide study conducted from September - November 2002. During the summer of 2002, the NASA Deputy Administrator requested that a study be performed with the following objectives: (1) Develop the rationale for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit (2) Develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps through humans to Mars (3) Develop design reference missions as a basis for the roadmaps 4) Make recommendations on what can be done now to effect this future This planning team, termed the Exploration Blueprint, performed architecture analyses to develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps beyond LEO through the human exploration of Mars. The previous NASA Exploration Team activities laid the foundation and framework for development of NASA's Integrated Space Plan. The reference missions resulting from the analysis performed by the Exploration Blueprint team formed the basis for requirement definition, systems development, technology roadmapping, and risk assessments for future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Emphasis was placed on developing recommendations on what could be done now to effect future exploration activities. The Exploration Blueprint team embraced the "Stepping Stone" approach to exploration where human and robotic activities are conducted through progressive expansion outward beyond low-Earth orbit. Results from this study produced a long-term strategy for exploration with near-term implementation plans, program recommendations, and technology investments. Specific results included the development of a common exploration crew vehicle concept, a unified space nuclear strategy, focused bioastronautics research objectives, and an integrated human

  9. Exploration Blueprint: Data Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-02-01

    The material contained in this report was compiled to capture the work performed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration study team in the late 2002 timeframe. The "Exploration Blueprint Data Book" documents the analyses and findings of the 90-day Agency-wide study conducted from September - November 2002. During the summer of 2002, the NASA Deputy Administrator requested that a study be performed with the following objectives: (1) Develop the rationale for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit (2) Develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps through humans to Mars (3) Develop design reference missions as a basis for the roadmaps 4) Make recommendations on what can be done now to effect this future This planning team, termed the Exploration Blueprint, performed architecture analyses to develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps beyond LEO through the human exploration of Mars. The previous NASA Exploration Team activities laid the foundation and framework for development of NASA's Integrated Space Plan. The reference missions resulting from the analysis performed by the Exploration Blueprint team formed the basis for requirement definition, systems development, technology roadmapping, and risk assessments for future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Emphasis was placed on developing recommendations on what could be done now to effect future exploration activities. The Exploration Blueprint team embraced the "Stepping Stone" approach to exploration where human and robotic activities are conducted through progressive expansion outward beyond low-Earth orbit. Results from this study produced a long-term strategy for exploration with near-term implementation plans, program recommendations, and technology investments. Specific results included the development of a common exploration crew vehicle concept, a unified space nuclear strategy, focused bioastronautics research objectives, and an integrated human

  10. International exploration by independent

    SciTech Connect

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  11. Mars Exploration with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2004-02-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons when over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. A conceptual analysis of DARE capabilities and science applications for Mars is presented. Initial results of simulations indicate that a relatively small trajectory control wing can significantly change planetary balloon flight paths, especially during summer seasons in Polar Regions. This opens new possibilities for high-resolution observations of crustal magnetic anomalies, polar layered terrain, polar clouds, dust storms at the edges of the Polar caps and of seasonal variability of volatiles in the atmosphere.

  12. NASA's Exploration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburski, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A Bold Vision for Space Exploration includes: 1) Complete the International Space Station; 2) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; 3) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle no later than 2012; 4) Return to the moon no later than 2020; 5) Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond; 6) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program; 7) Develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and 8) Promote international and commercial participation in exploration.

  13. Optimal exploration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.

    This dissertation studies optimal exploration, defined as the collection of information about given objects of interest by a mobile agent (the explorer) using imperfect sensors. The key aspects of exploration are kinematics (which determine how the explorer moves in response to steering commands), energetics (which determine how much energy is consumed by motion and maneuvers), informatics (which determine the rate at which information is collected) and estimation (which determines the states of the objects). These aspects are coupled by the steering decisions of the explorer. We seek to improve exploration by finding trade-offs amongst these couplings and the components of exploration: the Mission, the Path and the Agent. A comprehensive model of exploration is presented that, on one hand, accounts for these couplings and on the other hand is simple enough to allow analysis. This model is utilized to pose and solve several exploration problems where an objective function is to be minimized. Specific functions to be considered are the mission duration and the total energy. These exploration problems are formulated as optimal control problems and necessary conditions for optimality are obtained in the form of two-point boundary value problems. An analysis of these problems reveals characteristics of optimal exploration paths. Several regimes are identified for the optimal paths including the Watchtower, Solar and Drag regime, and several non-dimensional parameters are derived that determine the appropriate regime of travel. The so-called Power Ratio is shown to predict the qualitative features of the optimal paths, provide a metric to evaluate an aircrafts design and determine an aircrafts capability for flying perpetually. Optimal exploration system drivers are identified that provide perspective as to the importance of these various regimes of flight. A bank-to-turn solar-powered aircraft flying at constant altitude on Mars is used as a specific platform for

  14. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  15. NASA Exploration Design Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    From the International Space Station, astronaut Sunita Williams welcomes participants to the NASA Exploration Design Challenge and explains the uncertainties about the effects of space radiation on...

  16. Technology Drives Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is investing in the future by advancing its capabilities and developing transformative technologies required to reach the challenging destinations that await exploration. The Space Technology ...

  17. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  18. Verification and maintenance of dental explorer sharpness.

    PubMed

    Pape, H R; Mäkinen, K K

    1994-01-01

    An ongoing study of the relationship between different chewing gums, remineralization, and caries rates was started in 1989 in Belize, Central America. Initially 1277 children, age 10 years, were assigned in equal randomized groups to four dentists who had been trained to identify a standard of caries diagnosis. The same children were examined according to a modified WHO caries code by the same dentist in each of the three subsequent years. To eliminate one possible variable, all 200 dental explorers used were examined under a X20 binocular Bausch and Lomb dissecting microscope initially and at each exam period. Any explorer not comparable to an explorer that was originally marked and kept unused as a standard was sharpened by hand on an Arkansas oilstone wetted with engine oil for lubrication. Explorers that could not be restored to a condition comparable at X20 to the standard were discarded. Approximately 10% of the explorers needed correction at each exam period and about 1% were discarded. In any study related to dental caries evaluation with dental explorers or comparison of explorer use versus nonuse, verification and maintenance of sharpness of used and even new dental explorers should be addressed to remove that factor as a possible variable.

  19. Variation among Examiners and Protocols on Oral Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; And Others

    A method for understanding and controlling the multiple facets of an oral examination (OE) or other judge-intermediated examination is presented and illustrated. This study focused on determining the extent to which the facets model (FM) analysis constructs meaningful variables for each facet of an OE involving protocols, examiners, and…

  20. Copernican Astronomy and Oceanic Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKittrick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the century long development of the “New Astronomy” (Copernicus’ axially rotating and solar orbiting earth, governed by Kepler’s laws of planetary motion) of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and the emerging astronomical navigation technologies of the fifteenth and sixteenth century Iberian oceanic explorers and their sixteenth and seventeenth century Protestant competitors. Since the first breakthroughs in Portuguese astronomical navigation in ascertaining latitude at sea were based upon the theories and observations of classically trained Ptolemaic astronomers and cosmographers, it can be argued that the new heliocentric astronomy was not necessary for future developments in early modern navigation. By examining the history of the concurrent revolutions in early modern navigation and astronomy and focusing upon commonalities, we can identify the period during which the old astronomy provided navigators with insufficient results - perhaps hastening the acceptance of the new epistemology championed by Galileo and rejected by Bellarmine. Even though this happened during the period of northern protestant ascendancy in exploration, its roots can be seen during pre-Copernican acceptance in both Lutheran and Catholic Europe. Copernican mathematics was used to calculate Reinhold’s Prutenic Tables despite the author’s ontological rejection of the heliocentric hypothesis. These tables became essential for ascertaining latitude at sea. Kepler’s Rudophine Tables gained even more widespread currency across Europe. His theories were influenced by Gilbert’s work on magnetism - a work partially driven by the requirements of English polar exploration. Sailors themselves never needed to accept a heliocentric cosmography, but the data they brought back to the metropolis undermined Ptolemy, as better data kept them alive at sea. This exchange between theoretician and user in the early modern period drove both

  1. Explorer Program: X-ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet describes the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), one in a series of Explorer missions administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science and managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The X-ray astronomy observatory is scheduled for launch into low-Earth orbit by Delta 2 expendable launch vehicle in late summer of 1995. The mission is expected to operate for at least 2 years and will carry out in-depth timing and spectral studies of the X-ray sources in the 2 to 200 kilo-electron Volt (keV) range. XTE is intended to study the temporal and broad-band spectral phenomena associated with stellar and galactic systems containing compact objects, including neutron stars, white dwarfs, and black holes.

  2. Exploring Planets with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2004-02-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. This paper focuses on a conceptual analysis of the DARE architecture capabilities and science applications for Venus, Titan and Jupiter. Preliminary simulations with simplified atmospheric models show that a relatively small trajectory control wing can enable global coverage of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan by a single balloon over a 100-day mission. This presents unique opportunities for global in situ sampling of the atmospheric composition and dynamics, atmospheric profiling over multiple sites with small dropsondes and targeted deployment of surface microprobes. At Jupiter, path guidance capabilities of the DARE platforms permits targeting localized regions of interest, such as ``hot spots'' or the Great Red Spot. A single DARE platform at Jupiter can sample major types of the atmospheric flows (zones and belts) over a 100-day mission. Observations by deployable probes would reveal if the differences exist in radiative, dynamic and compositional environments

  3. The exploration metaphor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's experience in planetary exploration has demonstrated that the desktop workstation is inadequate for many visualization situations. The primary mission displays for the unmanned Surveyor missions to the moon during the mid-1960's, for example, were environmental images assembled on the inside surfaces of spherical shells. Future exploration missions will greatly benefit from advances in digital computer and display technology, but there remain unmet user interface needs. Alternative user interfaces and metaphors are needed for planetary exploration and other interactions with complex spatial environments. These interfaces and metaphors would enable the user to directly explore environments and naturally manipulate objects in those environments. Personal simulators, virtual workstations, and telepresence user interfaces are systems capable of providing this integration of user space and task space. The Exploration Metaphor is a useful concept for guiding the design of user interfaces for virtual environments and telepresence. To apply the Exploration Metaphor is to assert that computing is like exploration, and to support objects, operations, and contexts comparable to those encountered in the exploration of natural environments. The Exploration Metaphor, under development for user interfaces in support of NASA's planetary exploration missions and goals, will also benefit other applications where complex spatial information must be visualized. Visualization methods and systems for planetary exploration are becoming increasingly integrated and interactive as computing technology improves. These advances will benefit from virtual environment and telepresence interface technology. A key development has been the processing of multiple images and other sensor data to create detailed digital models of the planets and moons. Data from images of the Earth, Mars, and Miranda, for example, have been converted into 3D models, and dynamic virtual fly-overs have been

  4. Examining Preservice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Doubts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siwatu, Kamau Oginga; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Alejandro, Angela Ybarra; Young, Haeni Alecia

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to add to the research on teachers' self-efficacy beliefs by examining preservice teachers' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy doubts. We examined the tasks that preservice teachers felt least efficacious to successfully execute and explored the reasoning behind these self-efficacy doubts. Consequently, we were…

  5. A Comprehensive Strategy to Examine and Address Transfer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.

    This paper examines major transfer education issues and proposes a comprehensive strategy for examining and improving transfer education. The first section explores ten major issues: (1) access to higher education for minorities and low socioeconomic status (SES) whites continues to be a problem; (2) over 50% of all entering community college…

  6. An Examination of Emerging Adulthood in Romanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Little work has been done to examine emerging adulthood in Eastern European countries such as Romania that are making the transition out of communism into the broader free-market economy of Western Europe. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the criteria that college students in Romania have for adulthood, and (b) explore whether…

  7. Examining Student Responses to Frequent Bullying: A Latent Class Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is a major concern in schools, yet there has been limited research examining the ways in which students respond to frequent victimization by their peers. The current study explored whether there are discrete groups of children who display similar patterns of responses to frequent bullying. We also examined the associations between the…

  8. LYMAN - The far ultraviolet explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moos, Warren; Osantowski, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The LYMAN FUSE mission concept for far ultraviolet astronomy is presented. The wavelength window from 100 to 1200 A provides access to a wide range of important scientific problems in cosmology, galactic structure, stellar evolution, and planetary magnetospheres, which cannot be studied in any other way. The LYMAN FUSE Phase A study is examining in detail mission operations, instrumentation technology, the construction of the instrument module, and the interfaces between the Instrument Module and the Explorer Platform Mission. Most of the mission observing time will be allotted through a competitive Guest Observer program analogous to that in operation for the IUE.

  9. The Future of Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Doug

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the near term future of human space exploration in terms of possible mission scenarios, propulsion technologies, orbital dynamics that lead to Low-Energy Transfer from Earth-Moon LI to Solar Libration Points and Return Potential Staging Point for Human Mars Missions. It also examines the required evolution of mission architecture, solar electric propulsion concept, vehicle concepts for future Mars missions, and an overview of a Mars Mission, Also in this presentation are pictures of several historic personages and occasions, and a view of a Mars Meteorite (i.e., ALH84001.0)

  10. We Are the Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Why do we explore? Simply put, it is part of who we are, and it is something we have done throughout our history. In NASA’s new video, “We Are the Explorers,” we take a look at that tradition...

  11. Explorations in Statistics: Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…

  12. Why Man Explores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication was prepared from a transcript of a panel discussion held on July 2, 1976, in conjunction with the Viking Missions to Mars. The members of the Why Man Explores panel were selected as authorities in classical disciplines relating to exploration.

  13. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  14. The Chinese Cult of Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Sylvia H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

  15. Physical examination of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    King, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes the overall assessment of the shoulder joint and seeks to help direct clinicians to diagnose shoulder pathology using standard and specific physical examinations. The history and standard examination can prompt the examiner to focus on specific tests to further evaluate the shoulder and limit the differential diagnoses. An appropriate and directed shoulder physical examination allows the clinician to focus on further diagnostic strategies and treatment options for the patient.

  16. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  17. Timing of the Medical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    The medical examination of the sexually abused child may have evidentiary, medical, and therapeutic purposes, and the timing of the examination requires consideration of each of these objectives. In cases of acute sexual assault, emergent examinations may be needed to identify injury, collect forensic evidence, and provide infection and pregnancy…

  18. Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Molly

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

  19. International exploration by independents

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagne, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues.

  20. An Integrated Exploration Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Many new scientific findings in planetary science (potential life in a Mars meteorite, possible frozen water at the Lunar Poles, permanently lit region at the lunar south pole, recent water flow on Mars) provide a compelling case for humans to once again leave low earth orbit and explore. Robotic missions are capable of conducting science, but only humans can explore and discover. The challenge is to build an affordable exploration program. This can be done by aggressively evolving our current systems, developing high payoff technologies, leveraging off commercial and other agencies' programs, and developing a set of core capabilities to be used to explore a variety of destinations. NASA has a Strategic Roadmap based on detailed mission studies to develop these core technologies and capabilities to allow human space exploration. Advances in human support, launch vehicle. improvements, development of in-space transportation systems, efficient power generation and distribution, and In-Situ Resource Utilization are all required to meet the exploration challenge. The groundwork today will provide the technology and tools needed to conduct safe, affordable, and efficient exploration to the moon, asteroids, deep space observatories and Mars.

  1. Water Recovery Systems for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2007-01-01

    As NASA prepares for the Vision for Space Exploration, advances in technology for water recovery systems are necessary to enable future missions. This paper examines the proposed water recovery systems for the initial Constellation exploration missions as well as the capability gaps that exist in the current technology portfolio. We discuss how these gaps will be addressed with future technology development. In addition, the paper reviews how the water recovery system matures throughout the sequence of planned exploration missions, to ultimately support a 180-day lunar mission.

  2. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  3. Human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwynne, Owen; Mckay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  4. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  5. Mars exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Seiji

    1991-07-01

    Mars exploration scenarios are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on scientific exploration. The review and evaluation results are reported for the following items: (1) orbit plans for Mars surface exploration missions that begin in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); (2) powered and aerodynamic capturing payloads from the transfer orbit to a Mars revolving orbit; and (3) a penetrator system as a Mars landing vehicle. Proposed Mars transfer orbits have the following advantages over Hohmann orbits: (1) transfer time and angle are less; (2) the inclination between the orbital planes of Earth and Mars is considered; and (3) velocity variations are not required to change orbit plane.

  6. Hydrothermal exploration with the Autonomous Benthic Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Christopher R.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Jakuba, Michael; Shank, Timothy M.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Nakamura, Ko-ichi

    We describe a three-phase use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Autonomous Benthic Explorer ( ABE), to locate, map and photograph previously undiscovered fields of high temperature submarine hydrothermal vents. Our approach represents both a complement to and a significant advance beyond the prior state of the art. Previously, hydrothermal exploration relied upon deep-tow instruments equipped with sensors that could locate sites of active "black smoker" venting to within a few kilometers. Follow-on CTD tow-yos could then resolve the sites of seafloor venting to length scales of less than a kilometer but rarely to better than a few hundreds of meters. In our new approach ABE: (i) uses sensors to locate the center of a dispersing non-buoyant hydrothermal plume 100-400 m above the seabed; (ii) makes high-resolution maps of the seafloor beneath the plume center whilst simultaneously detecting interception of any rising, buoyant hydrothermal plumes; and (iii) dives to the seafloor to take photographs in and around any new vent site to characterize its geologic setting and reveal the nature of any chemosynthetic ecosystems it may host. By conducting all of the above under long-baseline navigation, precise sites of venting can be determined to within 5 m. Our approach can be used both to address important scientific issues in their own right and to ensure much more efficient use of other deep-submergence assets such as human occupied vehicles (HOVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) during follow-on studies.

  7. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., cargo tank internal examination, and underwater survey intervals. 91.40-3 Section 91.40-3 Shipping COAST... examination, and underwater survey intervals. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (g) of this..., during an internal structural, cargo tank internal examination, or underwater survey, damage...

  8. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Except under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, vessels that operate in salt water must be....40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals in Years Single hull ship and barge Double... elapse between any two examinations. Table 91.40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals...

  9. Why Do We Explore Space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, E. W.; Skiles, J. W.

    2006-09-01

    The launch of the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 challenged the American space enterprise to a race for political and technological superiority. During the Cold War era, the space program had a very clear goal - to show the world that we were the premier force and player in this new frontier. The American public could, therefore, relate to such a simplistic goal and largely was very supportive of the US space program. Since the end of the Cold War, the raison d'etre for space exploration has been less clear and not as well articulated. This paper is part of a dialogue hoping to solicit input from the public domain on the topic of space exploration. We first examine a previous study on some of the "why's" anticipated by the American public. Then we propose a triumvirate perspective to seek a balance among the romantic, pragmatic and scientific aspects of space faring ventures. Finally, we suggest a somewhat simplistic message that can be more easily related to the common person on the street. We assert that we go to space to "explore the Heavens, enhance the Earth and enrich humankind", and cite numerous concrete examples to support these three themes.(Disclaimer: these are personal ideas and opinions of the authors and do not represent an official NASA position. All references to NASA information are from NASA web pages or in the public domain. This paper is written from an American vantage point due to the authors' experience with the American space agency.)

  10. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  11. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  12. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  13. Explorations of Representational Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael H.; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    1987-01-01

    Figures that undergo an implied rotation are remembered as being slightly beyond their final position, a phenomenon called representational momentum. Eight experiments explored the questions of what gets transformed and what types of transformations induce such representational distortions. (GDC)

  14. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  15. Explore and Discover

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your aerobic and anaerobic fitness by carrying weighted objects in this activity. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to se...

  16. Exploration technology prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dula, Alex

    1992-01-01

    A series of outlines and graphs describing NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) technology prioritization are presented. Prioritization criteria and preliminary critical technology priorities for a first lunar outpost and a Mars and permanently-manned lunar mission are addressed.

  17. EarthExplorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houska, Treva

    2012-01-01

    The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  18. The space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, Pete

    1991-01-01

    A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

  19. We Are The Explorers!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leucht, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    Every year in history classrooms all across the United States, young students are taught about the great westward expansion by the early American pioneers. These visionary pioneers were drawn to the ideas of exploration and adventure along with the promise of a land of opportunity that was open to them. They faced danger and even death in their efforts to conquer this new frontier. These pioneers and explorers could not pack up their entire household and carry enough food, clothing, and other supplies to last their entire journey. They had to be prepared to live off the land and use the local resources in order to survive and thrive. So too, will future explorers have to live off the land as they venture out into new frontiers of space exploration and colonization. This talk will introduce the audience to several in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technologies that are being investigated for NASA's Journey to Mars. These technologies are needed for missions where astronauts will live, work, and be productive on another planet. After all, pioneers and explorers are not just people we read about in history class. Because we are the explorers of today!

  20. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  1. Future Exploration of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    Venus has been the target of exploration for half a century, before the successful Mariner 2 fly-by in December 1962. The decade after that was marked by growing sophistication in the instruments and spacecraft. During the second decade of Venus exploration (1972 - 1981) the instruments and spacecraft had advanced to make the first detailed survey of the planet and image the surface. During the third decade Venus was explored with more advanced instruments such as synthetic aperture radar and by balloons - the only balloons in another atmosphere ever flown till present. Then came a long pause until 2005 when ESA launched Venus Express, which is still orbiting the planet and returning data. The nearly two-dozen missions flown to Venus have painted a puzzling picture of Venus - we still do not have answers to some key questions. The foremost is why did Venus evolve so differently from Earth? International space agencies and scientists have been considering various approaches to exploring Venus through small and large missions. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (NASA) has developed a Venus Exploration Roadmap and a comprehensive list of goals, objectives and investigations (www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag), but an international coordinated, comprehensive plan to explore Venus is needed. To fill this void, the COSPAR International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) has been active in fostering dialog and discussions among the space faring agencies. One small step in the future exploration of Venus is the formation of a joint Science Definition Team (SDT) (NASA and Roscosmos/IKI) for Russia’s Venera-D mission in early 2014. The team is expected to submit a report to respective agencies in early 2015. Towards identifying key surface regions and atmospheric regions of Venus, a workshop is being held in May 2014 by VEXAG to seek community input. It is likely that calls for proposals for missions will also be announced under the M class by ESA and under the Discovery

  2. Physical examination: how to examine the arm with arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Apóstolo, João Luís; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta; Martins, Maria Manuela; Dias, Vanessa Filipa

    2013-04-01

    Physical examination has demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying complications of arteriovenous fistula (AVF). It should be initiated at the stage prior to the construction of the AVF and continue in its accomplishment, maturation, and subsequent use in the treatment of hemodialysis. Nurses should incorporate the physical examination in their practices, in order to preserve the vascular net of patients and assist in the recognition of complications of AVF. It is intended to describe aspects of the physical examination that enable the identification of the AVF complications including: infection, accessory veins, venous stenosis, steal syndrome, high-output cardiac failure, and venous hypertension.

  3. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  4. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  5. Integration of Examinations and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehler, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses examinations as the major determinant of student behavior and suggests that no improvement in the effectiveness of biochemistry courses will occur until examinations are so integrated into the educational process that they reinforce educational objectives. Includes discussions on self-education, cooperation between students, and problem…

  6. Physical examination of scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Dembert, M L

    1979-08-01

    With the increasing popularity of courses in scuba diving, prospective diving students coming to physicians for medical examinations are presenting a wide range of ages and physical makeup. A working knowledge of medical fitness for diving and of diving medical emergencies will assist the nondiving physician in establishing a basic medical history and examination for the student scuba diver.

  7. Learning Communities: Examining Positive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen S.

    2008-01-01

    Learning communities, designed primarily to increase student persistence and academic achievement, are a common first-year initiative on university campuses. Assessments of learning communities frequently examine indicators that are easily quantifiable such as student persistence and academic achievement, but also examine factors thought to affect…

  8. Physical examination of the hand.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Raymond J; Hammert, Warren C

    2014-11-01

    Examination of the hand is an essential piece of a hand surgeon's skill set. This current concepts review presents a systematic process of performing a comprehensive physical examination of the hand including vascular, sensory, and motor assessments. Evaluations focused on specific hand diseases and injuries are also discussed. This information can be useful for any health care provider treating patients with hand conditions.

  9. Changing Systems of External Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjorn; Brandt, Ellen; Solum, Nils Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and identify changes in systems of external examinations in Denmark, the UK and Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Comparative analysis of studies, reviews and documents concerning the purpose and functioning of systems of external examination in three selected countries. Findings: The paper…

  10. Investigating Phd Thesis Examination Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, A.; Bourke, S.; Lovat, T.; Dally, K.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a slow but steady accretion of findings on doctoral assessment and examination processes over the past decade and a half. The study of Australian PhD examination reported here draws on the written reports on 301 theses across all discipline areas. Text categories identified in the reports are linked to other data including the…

  11. History of neurologic examination books.

    PubMed

    Boes, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word "examination" in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's "Blue Book of Neurology" ("Blue Bible") was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors).

  12. History of neurologic examination books.

    PubMed

    Boes, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word "examination" in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's "Blue Book of Neurology" ("Blue Bible") was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors). PMID:25829645

  13. Information Illiteracy: Examining Our Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of information illiteracy in relation to doctoral students' information literacy activities. Findings from a qualitative study of the doctoral literature review process portray learners as competent, rather than information illiterate, even though they may not have received information literacy interventions.

  14. Intrigue and potential of space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losh, H.

    1972-01-01

    A brief history of astronomy is presented. A chronology of events in the space program is summarized. The possibilities of interplanetary exploration are postulated. The accomplishments of astronomy in pointing the way to manned spaceflight and improved understanding of the solar system are examined.

  15. Exploring Literary Devices in Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of graphic novels with young readers. During the 2009-2010 school year, while working with four fifth-grade students, the author examined the question "In what ways do readers engage while reading a graphic novel?" The fifth graders took part in book discussions and one-on-one interviews after reading two…

  16. Exploring Space and Place with Walking Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phil; Bunce, Griff; Evans, James; Gibbs, Hannah; Hein, Jane Ricketts

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the use of walking interviews as a research method. In spite of a wave of interest in methods which take interviewing out of the "safe," stationary environment, there has been limited work critically examining the techniques for undertaking such work. Curiously for a method which takes an explicitly spatial approach, few…

  17. Status and plans for exploration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.; Rosen, Robert; Harris, Leonard A.; Reck, Gregory M.; Mankins, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is discussed. SEI mission planning is reviewed, including various architectural options, their waypoints, and their strategic features. SEI technology needs and issues are examined in order of priority and technology development plans are described.

  18. Let's Find out! Preschoolers as Scientific Explorers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Scientific Explorers both tall and small, ask questions about objects, living things, and events that interest or puzzle them. They seek answers by examining the world in specific ways that allow them to understand more about it. Young children are often described as natural scientists. They earn this description because they engage in many of the…

  19. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq

    2016-01-01

    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  20. Exploring E-Learning. IES Report 376.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, E.; Hillage, J.

    This guide summarizes current research and commentary on e-learning, examining the key issues facing organizations exploring e-learning for employee development. The guide contains six sections. The first section provides an introduction to the issue of e-learning and a summary of the issues discussed in the remainder of the guide. Section 2…

  1. Exploring Technological Frontiers: Autonomy in Legal Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lyria Bennett

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, Barton Beebe critiqued a "golden age" of space law in the 1950s and 1960s in which obscure legal issues concerning space exploration and aliens were addressed. This article describes a more recent "golden age" in legal scholarship, namely that relating to virtual worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second Life. The author examines the…

  2. Explorations in Cultural Policy and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennell, Stephen, Ed.; Mennell, Barbara, Ed.

    Eleven articles by policy researchers, cultural experts, and officials from various European governments explore prospects for cultural policy in Europe. Specifically, the document examines international cooperation in cultural activities, problems caused by increased participation in cultural activities, the role of cultural leaders, recreational…

  3. The Nature of "Special Facilities": An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toombs, William

    The nature of successful enterprises ("special facilities") is explored to assist an inquiry into economic development that was conducted by the Business Council of Pennsylvania. An extension of the concept of a "site" is examined as an organized way of looking at the many successful enterprises. The process of selecting sites for businesses in…

  4. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  5. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  6. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  7. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  8. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  9. Multivariate Data EXplorer (MDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2012-08-01

    The MDX toolkit facilitates exploratory data analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets. MDX provides and interactive graphical user interface to load, explore, and modify multivariate datasets stored in tabular forms. MDX uses an extended version of the parallel coordinates plot and scatterplots to represent the data. The user can perform rapid visual queries using mouse gestures in the visualization panels to select rows or columns of interest. The visualization panel provides coordinated multiple views whereby selections made in one plot are propagated to the other plots. Users can also export selected data or reconfigure the visualization panel to explore relationships between columns and rows in the data.

  10. The foot and ankle examination.

    PubMed

    Papaliodis, Dean N; Vanushkina, Maria A; Richardson, Nicholas G; DiPreta, John A

    2014-03-01

    Most foot and ankle disorders can be diagnosed after a proper history and clinical examination and can be effectively managed in a primary care setting. It is important to assess the entirety of patient disorders that present as they can be multifactorial in cause. A broad differential should include disorders of bones, joints, muscles, neurovasculature, and surrounding soft tissue structures. Physical examination should be thorough and focused on inspection, palpation, range of motion, and appropriate special tests when applicable. This article highlights some of the salient features of the foot and ankle examination and diagnostic considerations.

  11. Examining the Examiners: How Inexperienced Examiners Approach the Assessment of Research Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiley, M.; Mullins, G.

    2004-01-01

    Earlier research by Mullins and Kiley (2002) [Studies in higher education, 27(4), 369-386] reported on the processes that experienced examiners go through when they assess research theses. Since that study two further studies have been undertaken, interviews with novice Australian examiners, reported here, and the analysis of approximately 100…

  12. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  13. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  14. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  15. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  16. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  17. Improving Career Exploration. Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Iowa Learning Resources Center, Red Oak.

    This junior high/middle school career exploration implementation manual is designed to assist in implementing a comprehensive career exploration program using four career exploration components developed in the Improving Career Exploration project. The first of six sections addresses career exploration and career/vocational development. Basic…

  18. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, before sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Dr. Paul Abell discussed some of the physical characteristics of NEOs that will be relevant for EVA considerations, reviewed the current data from previous NEA missions (e.g., Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker and Hayabusa), and discussed why future robotic and human missions to NEAs are important from space exploration and planetary defense perspectives.

  19. History of neurologic examination books

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word “examination” in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's “Blue Book of Neurology” (“Blue Bible”) was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors). PMID:25829645

  20. S8DR shield examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, D. G.; Mccurnin, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The SNAP 8 developmental reactor lithium hydride shield was examined after being irradiated for over 7000 hours at relatively low temperature. A crack was located in the seam weld of the containment vessel, probably the result of hot short cracking under thermal stress. The LiH was visually examined at two locations and its appearance was typical of low temperature irradiated LiH. The adherence of the chrome oxide emittance coating was found to be excellent.

  1. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  2. Software for Classroom Explorers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehring, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Describes computer simulation programs that take elementary and secondary students exploring. One has students act as Magellan commanding his ship to reinforce history, geography, decision-making, and resource management skills. Another has students use problem-solving skills to venture across oceans and find trading routes to the Orient. (SM)

  3. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  4. Exploring Careers. Service Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  5. Exploring Careers. Sales Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  6. Multimodal Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliviero; Zancanaro, Massimo; Strapparava, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information exploration and software design in computer-based educational systems focuses on the integration of hypermedia and natural language dialog. AlFRESCO is described, an interactive natural language-centered multimodal system that was developed for users interested in frescoes and paintings. (LRW)

  7. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  8. Exploring Racism through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  9. Europa Orbiter Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.

    2001-01-01

    The Europa Orbiter mission is planned as the next stage of Europa exploration. Its primary goals are to search for definitive evidence of a subsurface ocean, to characterize the ice crust and ice/water interface, and to prepare for future surface/sub-surface missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  11. Exploring the Conceptual Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Humans can learn to organize many kinds of domains into categories, including real-world domains such as kinsfolk and synthetic domains such as sets of geometric figures that vary along several dimensions. Psychologists have studied many individual domains in detail, but there have been few attempts to characterize or explore the full space of…

  12. Exploring Global Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie

    The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…

  13. Exploring Careers. Health Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  14. Youth Exploring Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Diane

    2008-04-01

    This session features Youth Exploring Science (YES), Saint Louis Science Center's nationally recognized work-based teen development program. In YES, underserved audiences develop interest and understanding in physics through design engineering projects. I will discuss breaking down barriers, helping youth develop skills, and partnering with community organizations, universities and engineering firms.

  15. Exploring Geometric Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Elana

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article Elana Reiser describes her favorite lesson that combines popular culture with mathematics in a way that motivates student thinking and participation. Exploring open-ended problems, students may feel uneasy at first, but working in small groups often leads them to experiment with a variety of solutions. Reiser explains that…

  16. Exploring Sound with Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  17. Exploring Careers. Transportation Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  18. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  19. Exploring Careers in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

    The career exploration program for grades 9 through 10, as part of a comprehensive K through 10 career development program, attempts to develop an awareness of and appreciation for work, extend knowledge of the variety of career opportunities, and provide experiences in career areas of individual interest. The document, a collection of materials…

  20. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  1. Invasive EEG explorations.

    PubMed

    Taussig, D; Montavont, A; Isnard, J

    2015-03-01

    The Wada test was adapted from the procedure described by Wada in 1964. It still has a role in the prognostic evaluation of memory disorders after mesial temporal lobectomy. The test consists of injecting a short-acting anesthetic into one hemisphere, under continuous EEG monitoring and during carotid catheterization, to verify the function of contralateral structures. Intracranial EEG recordings deliver signals with few artifacts, and which are quite specific of the zone explored. Three types of electrodes are in common use: (a) foramen ovale (FO) electrodes: electrodes can be inserted directly, without any stereotactic procedure, to provide easy and comparative EEG recordings of the lower and middle portions of the temporal lobe close to the hippocampus. These allow validation of the temporal lobe origin of seizures using FO electrodes recording coupled with scalp EEG; (b): subdural strip or grip electrodes. This relatively aggressive technique carries infectious and hemorrhagic risks and does not allow the exploration of deep cortical structures. However, it permits precise functional cortical mapping via electrical stimulation because of dense and regular positioning of electrodes over the cortical convexity; (c) stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography [SEEG]). Electrodes are individually planned and inserted within the brain parenchyma through small burr holes. This technique is less aggressive than subdural grid exploration. However it offers relatively limited spatial sampling that may be less well adapted to precise functional evaluation. It allows recording from deep cortical structures and can be argued to be the gold standard of presurgical EEG exploration. PMID:25703438

  2. Exploration Life Support Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, B. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project is now developing new technologies for the Vision for Space Exploration announced in 2004. ELS project development work is organized around the three major vehicles of the Exploration Program. The first vehicle is the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The ELS project will develop prototype hardware for this short duration orbital and trans-lunar vehicle s mission. The second vehicle is for sortie landings on the moon. Life support technology hardware for lunar surface access vehicles will include upgrades of existing CEV equipment and technologies to maximize commonality between the two vehicles as well as new technologies needed for the harsher thermal environments of the moon and the new element of dust. The third vehicle will be a longer duration lunar outpost. Crew stays of 180 days are planned for the lunar outpost. To minimize the need for consumables needed for resupply, a new set of hardware developments and processes better suited for long duration life support will be used. The water loop will be almost completely closed. The air revitalization will be partially closed. The outpost mission will have the continuous environment of 1/6th gravity making the separations of fluids and gases easier than the zero gravity for the CEV and orbital phases of lunar lander vehicles. This presentation will describe the planned technologies that are expected to be developed and considerations for how those technologies will be developed and demonstrated by the ELS project for these major program vehicles.

  3. Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echols, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes current Lunar Exploration plans and objectives. It begins with specific statements from the President s vision for U.S. Space Exploration which pertain to robotic lunar missions. An outline of missions objectives is provided, along with a high-level schedule of events through the year 2025. Focus is then given to the Lunar Robotic and Precursor Program (LPRP) to describe objectives and goals. Recent developments in the Program are explained - specifically, the renaming of the RLEP program to "LPRP" and the movement of the program office to MSFC. A brief summary of the synergy expected between the robotic and crewed missions, with the LSAM descent stage Project is given. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, with its co-manifested Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), is then described with an overview of the payloads and mission objectives. Finally, information is given about the expected future of the LPRP program and Exploration and the development of a compressive Lunar Exploration Architecture.

  4. Exploring Careers in Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

    The career exploration program for grades 9 through 10, as part of a comprehensive K through 10 career development program, attempts to develop an awareness of and appreciation for work, extend knowledge of the variety of career opportunities, and provide experiences in career areas of individual interest. The document, a collection of materials…

  5. Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  6. Oil Exploration Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    After concluding an oil exploration agreement with the Republic of Yemen, Chevron International needed detailed geologic and topographic maps of the area. Chevron's remote sensing team used imagery from Landsat and SPOT, combining images into composite views. The project was successfully concluded and resulted in greatly improved base maps and unique topographic maps.

  7. Exploring the Educational Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Futures studies uses scenarios--stories of the future--to explore how trends and events shaping our world may play out in future decades. This article features a short scenario set in California in 2037, depicting twelve-year-old Moya and her brother mart, whose "fenced community" has opted for a system of self-directed, online learning to educate…

  8. Invasive EEG explorations.

    PubMed

    Taussig, D; Montavont, A; Isnard, J

    2015-03-01

    The Wada test was adapted from the procedure described by Wada in 1964. It still has a role in the prognostic evaluation of memory disorders after mesial temporal lobectomy. The test consists of injecting a short-acting anesthetic into one hemisphere, under continuous EEG monitoring and during carotid catheterization, to verify the function of contralateral structures. Intracranial EEG recordings deliver signals with few artifacts, and which are quite specific of the zone explored. Three types of electrodes are in common use: (a) foramen ovale (FO) electrodes: electrodes can be inserted directly, without any stereotactic procedure, to provide easy and comparative EEG recordings of the lower and middle portions of the temporal lobe close to the hippocampus. These allow validation of the temporal lobe origin of seizures using FO electrodes recording coupled with scalp EEG; (b): subdural strip or grip electrodes. This relatively aggressive technique carries infectious and hemorrhagic risks and does not allow the exploration of deep cortical structures. However, it permits precise functional cortical mapping via electrical stimulation because of dense and regular positioning of electrodes over the cortical convexity; (c) stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography [SEEG]). Electrodes are individually planned and inserted within the brain parenchyma through small burr holes. This technique is less aggressive than subdural grid exploration. However it offers relatively limited spatial sampling that may be less well adapted to precise functional evaluation. It allows recording from deep cortical structures and can be argued to be the gold standard of presurgical EEG exploration.

  9. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  10. Exploring Worlds Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Lisa; Breen, Susan; Tandy, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    At Waite End Primary School in Waterlooville, Hampshire, the authors are involved in a research project with the University of Winchester and the pharmaceutical company Astra- Zeneca called "Teachers and young children exploring their worlds together". The project focuses around their belief that "the younger a child is the more scientifically…

  11. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  12. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  13. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  14. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Cláudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration.

  15. Materials Challenges in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2005-01-01

    United States civil space program administered by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new strategic direction to explore the solar system. This new 'vision for space exploration' encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions, including the Moon, Mars and destinations beyond. These missions require advanced systems and capabilities that will accelerate the development of many critical technologies, including advanced materials and structural concepts. Specifically, it is planned to develop high-peformance materials for vehicle structures, propulsion systems, and space suits; structural concepts for modular assembly for space infrastructure; lightweight deployable and inflatable structures for large space systems and crew habitats; and highly integrated structural systems and advanced thermal management systems for reducing launch mass and volume. This paper will present several materials challenges in advanced space systems-high performance structural and thermal materials, space durable materials, radiation protection materials, and nano- structural materials. The paper will also address smart materials and structures and examine space environmental effects on materials and methods of mitigating them. Finally, the paper will take a look at the possibility of utilizing materials in situ, i.e., processing and using desired materials on the surface of the Moon and Mars.

  16. Preparing for the FFAEM examination.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D

    2003-03-01

    While the pass rate for this examination is relatively high compared to previous postgraduate examinations such as membership or fellowship (of whichever college) it should still not be underestimated. It is true that those who have been through a recognised training scheme should pass and failure reflects upon the scheme as well as the candidate, but the consequences of failure are high and fall directly only upon the candidate. Thorough preparation will immensely improve the chances of passing first time and finishing the critical topic reviews well in advance is thoroughly recommended (it would be ideal to do one each year during the first four years of training and then choose the best two for the examination). This will leave time to go through the management books and as many short clinical questions books as possible, those designed for MRCP are especially helpful. While the amount of reading for the critical appraisal section is relatively short it is essential to practice appraising papers and those previously used are most appropriate for this. Since the examination is new advice can be difficult to obtain. An FFAEM course is immensely helpful as it allows the opportunity to ask questions of those who have recently passed the examination. PMID:12743933

  17. Exploring Online Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Examines the setup of American University's electronic procurement system and explains how it works and the benefits it brings to the school. Cautionary advice on setting up an online purchasing system is also offered. (GR)

  18. Exploring the Woodland Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Pat

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the often ignored information that can be discovered by examining ground characteristics in woods and forests. Woodland cycles, the food chain, animal habitats, and nature's recycling are included. (KM)

  19. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  20. Space exploration outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The exploration of the solar system has been one of NASA's most significant achievements. Currently Voyager 2 is on its way to Uranus and Neptune, and Galileo is being readied for detailed investigation of Jupiter and its Galilean satellites. A new phase of exploration will be inaugurated in the mid-80s with the start of the Planetary Observers and Mariner Mark II missions. A major thrust during this phase will be to cut mission costs by emphasizing spacecraft inheritance and multi-mission automated mission operations. More ambitious missions, e.g., Mars Sample Return, are under study but probably will not be candidates for new start funding till the mid-90s. Another exciting area is the potential utilization of resources on the moon and near earth asteroids.

  1. Exploring Invisible Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-09-01

    The success of the human genome project reminds us that every so often we ought to step back from our day-to-day duties and view with wonder the myriad possibilities that chemistry presents. Chemistry is a wondrous frontier that should stimulate students' intellect and imagination. Perhaps our course titles should be more like "Adventures in the Nanoworld" or "Stalking the Self-Assembled Structure". This would reflect the excitement and exploration that await students who participate actively in the study of chemistry. Of course, such titles would require living up to. Otherwise students might feel shortchanged. With or without catchy titles, courses that capitalize on the molecular-scale maps that new scientific explorations constantly present to us are what our students ought to have.

  2. Multivariate Data EXplorer (MDX)

    2012-08-01

    The MDX toolkit facilitates exploratory data analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets. MDX provides and interactive graphical user interface to load, explore, and modify multivariate datasets stored in tabular forms. MDX uses an extended version of the parallel coordinates plot and scatterplots to represent the data. The user can perform rapid visual queries using mouse gestures in the visualization panels to select rows or columns of interest. The visualization panel provides coordinated multiple views wherebymore » selections made in one plot are propagated to the other plots. Users can also export selected data or reconfigure the visualization panel to explore relationships between columns and rows in the data.« less

  3. Universe exploration vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Handley, D.; Swan, P.; Sadeh, W.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. space policy is discussed in terms of present and planned activities in the solar system and beyond to develop a concept for expanding space travel. The history of space exploration is briefly reviewed with references to the Mariner II, Apollo, and Discoverer programs. Attention is given to the issues related to return trips to the moon, sprint vs repetitive missions to Mars, and the implications of propulsion needs. The concept of terraforming other bodies within the solar system so that they can support human activity is identified as the next major phase of exploration. The following phase is considered to be the use of robotic or manned missions that extend beyond the solar system. Reference is given to a proposed Thousand Astronomical Units mission as a precursor to exploratory expansion into the universe, and current robotic mission activities are mentioned.

  4. Asteroid and comet exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.; Alfven, H.; Fitzgerald, R.

    1973-01-01

    Exploration of Venus, Mars, and the Moon have had two major scientific objectives. One was to clarify the processes which control planetary evolution. The fulfillment of this purpose, although far from complete, was eminently successful in generating entirely new perspectives on the growth and differentiation of earth. The second objective, particularly prominent in the planning of the lunar exploration, was to augment the understanding of the virtually unknown preplanetary history of the solar system. This would include the fundamental questions of the origin, emplacement, and state of matter gathered around the sun and some planets. Preplanetary history also inquires into the problems of fractionation, condensation, and non-gravitation aggregation of circumsolar and circumplanetary matter.

  5. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  6. Human assisted robotic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  7. Space explorers outreach program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, D. A.

    1995-06-01

    For over three and a half years the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA) has operated a program for African-American K-12 students in Chicago. Space Explorers (the high school students in the program participate in a wide range of educational activities in astronomy). They attend workshops at the Adler Planetarium, on the University of Chicago campus, and at Yerkes Observatory. CARA operates a summer institute for them every summer at Yerkes Observatory. A key program during the school year is one that uses the Adler Planetarium's Starlab. A Starlab is an inflatable, portable planetarium that can easily be transported to schools. The Space Explorers are highly experienced in the use of a Starlab and are trained to deliver programs for younger students. They reach over two thousand grammar school students each spring.

  8. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  9. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness.

  10. Physical examination of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Young, Darryl; Papp, Steven; Giachino, Alan

    2007-04-01

    Physical examination of the wrist requires knowledge of wrist anatomy and pathology to make a diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis. Symptoms are provoked by palpation and signs are produced by manipulation. Negative findings elsewhere in the wrist are important. Final diagnosis may require diagnostic imaging. By having all three methods of assessment agree one is assured of correct diagnosis. The physical examination of the wrist is not unlike that of other joints, in that a systematic approach includes observation, range of motion, palpation, and special tests.

  11. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  12. Juno I -- Explorer I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Juno I, a slightly modified Jupiter-C launch vehicle, shortly before the January 31, 1958 launch of America's first satellite, Explorer I. The Jupiter-C, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  14. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  15. An Asteroseismology Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.; Cox, A. N.

    In response to a NASA opportunity, a proposal has been made to study the concept of an Asteroseismology Explorer (ASE). The goal of the ASE would be to measure solar-like oscillations on many (perhaps hundreds) of stars during a 1-year mission, including many members of open clusters. The authors describe this proposal's observational goals, a strawman technical approach, and likely scientific rewards.

  16. Exploring neural network technology

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Maulbetsch, J.

    1992-12-01

    EPRI is funding several projects to explore neural network technology, a form of artificial intelligence that some believe may mimic the way the human brain processes information. This research seeks to provide a better understanding of fundamental neural network characteristics and to identify promising utility industry applications. Results to date indicate that the unique attributes of neural networks could lead to improved monitoring, diagnostic, and control capabilities for a variety of complex utility operations. 2 figs.

  17. Photonics Explorer Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The Photonics Explorer is an intra-curricular educational kit developed in a European project with a pan-European collaboration of over 35 teachers and science education professors. Unlike conventional educational outreach kits, the Photonics Explorer is specifically designed to integrate seamlessly in school curricula and enhance and complement the teaching and learning of science and optics in the classroom. The kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental components, provided within a supporting didactic framework and is designed for lower and upper secondary students (12-18 years). The kit is provided completely free of charge to teachers in conjunction with teacher training courses. The workshop will provide an overview of the Photonics Explorer intra-curricular kit and give teachers the opportunity to work hands-on with the material and didactic content of two modules, `Light Signals' (lower secondary) and `Diffraction and Interference'(upper secondary). We also aim to receive feedback regarding the content, components and didactic framework from teachers from non- European countries, to understand the relevance of the kit for their teaching and the ability for such a kit to integrate into non-EU curricula.

  18. Market Driven Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2004-02-01

    Market driven space exploration will have the opportunity to develop to new levels with the coming of space nuclear power and propulsion. NASA's recently established Prometheus program is expected to receive several billion dollars over the next five years for developing nuclear power and propulsion systems for future spacecraft. Not only is nuclear power and propulsion essential for long distance Jupiter type missions, but it also important for providing greater access to planets and bodies nearer to the Earth. NASA has been working with industrial partners since 1987 through its Research Partnerships Centers (RPCs) to utilize the attributes of space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Plans are now being made to utilize the RPCs and industrial partners in extending the duration and boundaries of human space flight to create new opportunities for exploration and discovery. Private investors are considering setting up shops in LEO for commercial purposes. The trend is for more industrial involvement in space. Nuclear power and propulsion will hasten the progress. The objective of this paper is to show the progression of space market driven research and its potential for supporting space exploration given nuclear power and propulsion capabilities.

  19. Exploration potential of Albania

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, M.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Albania is rich in natural resources, especially crude oil and natural gas. It has far greater petroleum reserves for its size than any other country in Eastern Europe. The nation consists of three principal geologic provinces. Strongly folded upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata comprise the Sub-Pelagonian and Pelagonian massifs in the northeast Albania. The search for oil and gas in the future is likely to be concentrated in the coastal basins and offshore in the relatively shallow waters of the Adriatic Sea. Hydrocarbons have been trapped onshore in anticlines and tilted fault blocks, primarily in lenticular upper Miocene sandstones and in Helvetian limestones. Exploration for stratigraphic and other nonstructural traps may represent the best potential for future discoveries onshore. Albania's greatest oil and gas potential is probably in the Albanian shelf of the Durres basin, offshore. No wells have ever been drilled offshore, and exploration is confined to a limited, nearshore seismic survey. Recent access to Albanian data suggests most published regional interpretations are many years out of date. Albania's offshore potential includes several zones of hydrocarbon generation in Mesozoic to Paleogene strata. Potential reservoirs include Neogene flysch sandstones and Mesozoic platform carbonates. Albania has recently invited foreign oil companies to apply for offshore exploration rights. As Albania is opened to foreign investment in the petroleum sector, there is little doubt that modern seismic techniques and the deliberate search for subtle traps may be expected to lead to substantial new discoveries.

  20. The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer was proposed in 1986 for NASA's Explorer Concept Study Program by an international collaboration of 25 scientists from nine institutions. The one-year feasibility study began in June 1988. The Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer would obtain high resolution observations of gamma-ray lines, E/Delta E about 1000, at a sensitivity of about 0.000003 ph/sq cm s, in order to study fundamental problems in astrophysics such as nucleosynthesis, supernovae, neutron star and black-hole physics, and particle acceleration and interactions. The instrument would operate from 15 keV to 10 Mev and use a heavily shielded array of nine cooled Ge spectrometers in a very low background configuration. Its 10 deg FWHM field of view would contain a versatile coded mask system which would provide two-dimensional imaging with 4 deg resolution, one-dimensional imaging with 2 deg resolution, and efficiendt measurements of diffuse emission. An unshielded Ge spectrometer would obtain wide-field measurements of transient gamma-ray sources. The earliest possible mission would begin in 1995.

  1. Exploration EVA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, Lara

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for all phases of the Vision, both in-space and planetary. Supporting the human outside the protective environment of the vehicle or habitat and allow ing him/her to perform efficient and effective work requires an integrated EVA "System of systems." The EVA System includes EVA suits, airlocks, tools and mobility aids, and human rovers. At the core of the EVA System is the highly technical EVA suit, which is comprised mainly of a life support system and a pressure/environmental protection garment. The EVA suit, in essence, is a miniature spacecraft, which combines together many different sub-systems such as life support, power, communications, avionics, robotics, pressure systems and thermal systems, into a single autonomous unit. Development of a new EVA suit requires technology advancements similar to those required in the development of a new space vehicle. A majority of the technologies necessary to develop advanced EVA systems are currently at a low Technology Readiness Level of 1-3. This is particularly true for the long-pole technologies of the life support system.

  2. Explorers from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fary, Raymond W.

    1967-01-01

    The statement that a new era in exploration is opening will almost surely bring to mind the venturing of man into space and the ever more imminent exploration of the moon. The reference here, however, is to exploration of earth itself and to the unique capabilities for study of the earth that space technology will provide. Demands for water, minerals, energy, food, and for working, living and recreational space are outrunning our ability to meet them by traditional methods. In order to satisfy these demands, it is necessary now, just as it has been in the past, to look to the activities, the instruments, and the technologies that in part create the pressures for aid in meeting them. Studies being made at the U.S. Geological Survey and elsewhere of the potential applications of remote sensors in space to earth resources research indicate that now, at last, it will be possible to approach solutions on a regional or global basis. This paper discusses the plans for an Earth Resources Observational Satellites Program which will be designed for that purpose.

  3. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  4. Legal Implications of Physical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Jean Spencer

    1978-01-01

    With the new national emphasis on the prevention of occupationally incurred disease, legislative constraints have been placed in connection with the medical examination of employed persons at health risk. Concurrently, there is mandated a system of communication to the worker of the significant clinical findings encountered on his physical and laboratory inventories. PMID:636417

  5. Learning Style Profile: Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.; Monk, John S.

    This examiner's manual accompanies the Learning Style Profile (LSP), which measures cognitive skills as well as affective and environmental preferences. Charles Letteri's General Operations Model was accepted as the prototype for relating learning styles to cognitive information processing. The LSP was developed from 1983 to 1986; several versions…

  6. Report on the CDE Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haga, Enoch J.

    1971-01-01

    The Certificate in Data Education (Basic) examination is designed to certify that successful candidates are academically proficient in those principles and concepts of automation, computing, and data processing (including social and user implications) which are usually taught in basic introductory courses at the college or university level. (CK)

  7. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  8. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    PubMed

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination. PMID:25184422

  9. Canadian Accountants: Examining Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Bagg, Robert; Doyle, Wendy; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine workplace learning strategies, learning facilitators and learning barriers of public accountants in Canada across three professional levels--trainees, managers, and partners. Design/methodology/approach: Volunteer participants from public accounting firms in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick completed a demographic…

  10. Open Book Professional Accountancy Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, J. E.; Forsyth, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the structure and rationale for an open-book approach in professional accountancy examinations. The concept of knowledge management and the recognition that some knowledge ought to be embedded in the minds of professional accountants while other knowledge ought to be readily accessible and capable of application forms the…

  11. School Vouchers: Examining the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    This study reviews recent empirical research on the effect of school vouchers on student achievement (particularly for low-income minorities attending private schools) and the effect of the threat of vouchers on low-performing public schools. The study examines the Milwaukee voucher experiment, the Cleveland voucher program, and new voucher…

  12. Examining Emotions in Identity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.

    2005-01-01

    In this study I develop theoretically the role of emotions in identity theory by examining individuals' emotional reactions to identity nonverification (in a positive and a negative direction) and identity verification, which occurs once versus repeatedly, and which is perpetrated by a familiar other compared with an unfamiliar other. Predictions…

  13. A Methodological Examination of Cultivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Considers two issues in cultivation research. Examines relationships between television exposure and positive statements of social perceptions, and tests a model of instrumental media uses and effects. Finds television exposure to be unrelated to social attitudes, while program selectivity is related to all social attitudes except interpersonal…

  14. Data Analysis in Physics Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of data analysis requirements in physics tertiary entrance examinations. The setting is Western Australia. Common aspects of the questions asked over 14 years and changes in the questions since a major syllabus reform are identified. Similar changes in other jurisdictions are referenced. The data analysis…

  15. An Examination of Addiction Treatment Completion by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Connie R.; Lorah, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discharge status of all clients admitted to an intensive outpatient facility over the course of 1 year, specifically exploring differences based on client gender and ethnicity. The article also argues the need for more culturally sensitive addiction treatment and addresses some alternative approaches. The purpose of the…

  16. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  17. On Being Examined: Do Students and Faculty Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrella, Andrew; Koenig, Joshua; Kwon, Henry; Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Students measure out their lives, not with coffee spoons, but with grades on examinations. But what exams mean and whether or not they are a bane or a boon is moot. Senior undergraduates (A. Perrella, J. Koenig, and H. Kwon) designed and administered a 15-item survey that explored the contrasting perceptions of both students (n = 526) and faculty…

  18. The End of Handwriting? Using Computers in Traditional Essay Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogey, N.; Sarab, G.; Haywood, J.; van Heyningen, S.; Dewhurst, D.; Hounsell, D.; Neilson, R.

    2008-01-01

    Most of our students complete most of their written assignments using a word processor, but they are still asked to handwrite responses in an examination. It could be argued that they have not practiced this task and the validity of the assessment could thus be questioned. This paper explores the possibility of bringing computers into the…

  19. "Mem's the Word": Examining the Writing of Mem Fox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the work of Mem Fox. Explores Fox's life in order to better understand her work; examines books she has written for teachers and for parents; and reviews her children's books, emphasizing children's and teachers comments. Looks at best-loved books, bedtime books, predictable books for early readers, books that play with language, and…

  20. Teachers, Unions, and School Reform: Examining Margaret Haley's Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Lois

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses teacher unionism's potential as a vehicle for democratizing education, examining Margaret Haley's 1904 speech on why teachers should organize, noting her role in setting this agenda, and exploring her contribution to the definition of a collaborative role for organized labor and schools in democratizing American society. (SM)

  1. Examining the Educational Benefits of Interacting with International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Jiali; Jamieson-Drake, David

    2013-01-01

    Through the analysis of alumni survey data from three graduating cohorts, this study examined the influence of interaction with international students on domestic students' college outcomes and explored factors that helped to promote international interaction on college campuses. The findings indicate that in comparison to non-interactive domestic…

  2. Curriculum Type as a Differentiating Factor in Medical Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    This study assessed the effects of the type of medical curriculum on differential item functioning (DIF) and group differences at the test level in Level 1 of the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examinations (COMLEX). The study also explored the relationship of the DIF and group differences at the test level. There are generally two…

  3. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, John

    2008-04-28

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  4. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  5. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial

  6. Physics in NASA Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Callaghan, Fred

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of the workshop was NASA's new concentration on sending crewed missions to the Moon by 2020, and then on to Mars and beyond. Several speakers, including JPL s Fred O Callaghan and NASA's Mark Lee, broached the problem that there is now a serious reduction of capability to perform experiments in the ISS, or to fly significant mass in microgravity by other means. By 2010, the shuttle fleet will be discontinued and Russian craft will provide the only access to the ISS. O Callaghan stated that the Fundamental Physics budget is being reduced by 70%. LTMPF and LCAP are slated for termination. However, ground-based experiments are continuing to be funded at present, and it will be possible to compete for $80-90 million in new money from the Human Research Initiative (HRI). The new program thrust is for exploration, not fundamental physics. Fundamental, we were told by Lee, does not ring well in Washington these days. Investigators were advised to consider how their work can benefit missions to the Moon and Mars. Work such as that regarding atomic clocks is looked upon with favor, for example, because it is considered important to navigation and planetary GPS. Mark Lee stressed that physicists must convey to NASA senior management that they are able and willing to contribute to the new exploration research programs. The new mentality must be we deliver products, not do research. This program needs to be able to say that it is doing at least 50% exploration-related research. JPL s Ulf Israelsson discussed the implications to OBPR, which will deliver methods and technology to assure human health and performance in extraterrestrial settings. The enterprise will provide advanced life-support systems and technology that are reliable, capable, simpler, less massive, smaller, and energy-efficient, and it may offer other necessary expertise in areas such as low-gravity behavior. Like Dr. Lee, he stated that the focus must be on products, not research. While there

  7. Astrobiology and Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D. H.; Bullock, M. A.

    2005-12-01

    Venus has not traditionally been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. We propose that Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. 1) Putting Earth life in context: Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. For example, active volcanism is most likely responsible for maintaining the global cloud cover (Bullock and Grinspoon, 2001). Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. 2) The possibility of extant life: Venus almost surely once had warm oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004

  8. Pre-operative electrocardiograph examination.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, G. F.; Cunnick, G. H.; Allen, S.; Cook, C.; Turner, L. F.

    2001-01-01

    The leading cause of death following surgery is a cardiac event, and an electrocardiogram is the most common pre-operative test to investigate coronary artery disease. Fifty adults, who required an electrocardiogram, undergoing general surgical procedures, were recruited into this pilot study, which investigated the examination rate of electrocardiographs by doctors pre-operatively. Each tracing was folded in one corner and a paperclip prevented full pre-operative viewing without its removal. Results suggest that 30% of ECGs were not opened and the records of 58% patients overall had no mention of the ECG having been performed. Further analysis showed no correlation with the examination rate of the electrocardiograph with patient age or fitness. If this reflects normal clinical practice, it is sub-optimal use of resources and warrants further audit. PMID:11777129

  9. Pre-operative electrocardiograph examination.

    PubMed

    Nash, G F; Cunnick, G H; Allen, S; Cook, C; Turner, L F

    2001-11-01

    The leading cause of death following surgery is a cardiac event, and an electrocardiogram is the most common pre-operative test to investigate coronary artery disease. Fifty adults, who required an electrocardiogram, undergoing general surgical procedures, were recruited into this pilot study, which investigated the examination rate of electrocardiographs by doctors pre-operatively. Each tracing was folded in one corner and a paperclip prevented full pre-operative viewing without its removal. Results suggest that 30% of ECGs were not opened and the records of 58% patients overall had no mention of the ECG having been performed. Further analysis showed no correlation with the examination rate of the electrocardiograph with patient age or fitness. If this reflects normal clinical practice, it is sub-optimal use of resources and warrants further audit.

  10. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  11. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  12. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  13. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  14. Time Series Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas

    The key, central objectives of the proposed Time Series Explorer project are to develop an organized collection of software tools for analysis of time series data in current and future NASA astrophysics data archives, and to make the tools available in two ways: as a library (the Time Series Toolbox) that individual science users can use to write their own data analysis pipelines, and as an application (the Time Series Automaton) providing an accessible, data-ready interface to many Toolbox algorithms, facilitating rapid exploration and automatic processing of time series databases. A number of time series analysis methods will be implemented, including techniques that range from standard ones to state-of-the-art developments by the proposers and others. Most of the algorithms will be able to handle time series data subject to real-world problems such as data gaps, sampling that is otherwise irregular, asynchronous sampling (in multi-wavelength settings), and data with non-Gaussian measurement errors. The proposed research responds to the ADAP element supporting the development of tools for mining the vast reservoir of information residing in NASA databases. The tools that will be provided to the community of astronomers studying variability of astronomical objects (from nearby stars and extrasolar planets, through galactic and extragalactic sources) will revolutionize the quality of timing analyses that can be carried out, and greatly enhance the scientific throughput of all NASA astrophysics missions past, present, and future. The Automaton will let scientists explore time series - individual records or large data bases -- with the most informative and useful analysis methods available, without having to develop the tools themselves or understand the computational details. Both elements, the Toolbox and the Automaton, will enable deep but efficient exploratory time series data analysis, which is why we have named the project the Time Series Explorer. Science

  15. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  16. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  17. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  18. Exploring MBA Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Amanda; Hodgkinson, Myra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of career success in relation to the attainment of an MBA degree, for a group of experienced managers. In so doing, the paper aims to consider the adequacy of MBA career success, defined solely in terms of external criteria. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 36 in-depth interviews…

  19. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  20. Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Black-Hawkins, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to examine teachers' craft knowledge of their practice of "inclusion" in terms of what they do, why and how. The research approach offers an important alternative to studies of students with "additional needs" and the search to articulate the specialist knowledge and skill required to teach them. Through…

  1. Exploring the Industrial Subculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barry A.

    This book is an attempt to create a theoretical vocabulary for those who believe that the sociology of industrial organizations should concern itself with discovering the ways in which people in industry define their life-position and with examining the collective and organizational consequences of these views which they hold of themselves. Using…

  2. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (a) of this section that is less than 15 years of age may be considered for an underwater survey...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older, may be considered for continued participation in... five year period. No more than three years may elapse between any two examinations. (2) Vessels...

  3. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (a) of this section that is less than 15 years of age may be considered for an underwater survey...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older, may be considered for continued participation in... five year period. No more than three years may elapse between any two examinations. (2) Vessels...

  4. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (a) of this section that is less than 15 years of age may be considered for an underwater survey...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older, may be considered for continued participation in... five year period. No more than three years may elapse between any two examinations. (2) Vessels...

  5. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (a) of this section that is less than 15 years of age may be considered for an underwater survey...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older, may be considered for continued participation in... five year period. No more than three years may elapse between any two examinations. (2) Vessels...

  6. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (a) of this section that is less than 15 years of age may be considered for an underwater survey...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older, may be considered for continued participation in... five year period. No more than three years may elapse between any two examinations. (2) Vessels...

  7. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Except under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, vessels that operate in salt water must be....40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals in Years Single hull ship and barge Double... (except wooden hull vessels) that are in salt water service with a 2.5 year drydock interval (as...

  8. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Except under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, vessels that operate in salt water must be....40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals in Years Single hull ship and barge Double... (except wooden hull vessels) that are in salt water service with a 2.5 year drydock interval (as...

  9. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Except under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, vessels that operate in salt water must be....40-3(a)—Salt Water Service Vessels Examination Intervals in Years Single hull ship and barge Double... (except wooden hull vessels) that are in salt water service with a 2.5 year drydock interval (as...

  10. Exploring Equity Properties in Equating Using AP® Examinations. Research Report No. 2012-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Won-Chan; Brennan, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    In almost all high-stakes testing programs, test equating is necessary to ensure that test scores across multiple test administrations are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. Test equating becomes even more challenging in mixed-format tests, such as Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) Exams, that contain both multiple-choice and constructed…

  11. Sexual history disclosure polygraph examinations with cybercrime offences: a first Dutch explorative study.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Jos; Bogaerts, Stefan; Foulger, Sarah; Wilcox, Daniel; Sosnowski, Daniel; Cushman, Barry

    2010-06-01

    This article presents the first study on post-conviction polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study is designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 25 participants who are in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results indicate that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision, and more effective containment of offending behaviour and the reduction of future victimization.

  12. What Constitutes Doctoral Knowledge? Exploring Issues of Power and Subjectivity in Doctoral Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Anita; Somerville, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation has brought increasing diversity in student populations and therefore the potential for different sorts of knowledges to enter the academy. At the same time there is heightened surveillance brought about in response to the pressures of global competition, including increasing standardisation, marketisation and performativity…

  13. Profiles of Identity Exploration and Commitment across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relationships between family structure, gender and age and profiles of identity exploration and commitment in the ideological (occupation, values, politics, religion, gender roles) and interpersonal identity (dating, friendships, and family) domains among 388 young adults. The general profile revealed low exploration in both…

  14. Exploring Crossing Differential Item Functioning by Gender in Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore crossing differential item functioning (DIF) in a test drawn from a national examination of mathematics for 11-year-old pupils in England. An empirical dataset was analyzed to explore DIF by gender in a mathematics assessment. A two-step process involving the logistic regression (LR) procedure for…

  15. Context and Identity: Exploring Adult Learners' Experiences of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askham, Phil

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a longitudinal case study exploring the experience of a cohort of part-time, adult, work-based learners, mostly experiencing higher education for the first time. A wide range of instruments, including diaries and interviews, were used to collect data to explore, in some depth, the nature of the learning experience. Data…

  16. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  17. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial

  18. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  19. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  20. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  1. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  2. NSB endorses Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The National Science Board (NSB) recently voted to endorse a program of scientific ocean drilling that would replace the 14-yearold Glomar Challenger with the Glomar Explorer as the pillar of scientific drilling. This vote by the policymaking arm of the National Science Foundation (NSF) gives another boost to the proposed drilling plan. The plan also has the blessings of the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) and of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Ocean Drilling.NSF now will approach the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to request that $9 million of NSF funds be transferred to the Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD) program in fiscal 1983 for the next design stages for the Explorer (Eos, March 2, 1982, p. 179). With the support of NSB, COSOD, and the NAS committee, the request goes to OSTP and OMB with strong backing. If OSTP and OMB give the transfer the green light, Congress will review the request.

  3. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  4. Baseline antenna design for space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. L.; Nasir, M. A.; Lee, S. W.; Zaman, Afroz

    1993-01-01

    A key element of the future NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission is the lunar and Mars telecommunication system. This system will provide voice, image, and data transmission to monitor unmanned missions to conduct experiments, and to provide radiometric data for navigation. In the later half of 1991, a study was conducted on antennas for the Mars Exploration Communication. Six antenna configurations were examined: three reflector and three phased array. The conclusion was that due to wide-angle scan requirement, and multiple simultaneous tracking beams, phased arrays are more suitable. For most part, this report studies phased array antenna designs for two different applications for Space Exploration Initiative. It also studies one design for a tri-reflector type antenna. These antennas will be based on a Mars orbiting satellite.

  5. Unmanned lunar rovers: Utilization for exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Lane, A. L.; Miller, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    A small lunar rover and its use for lunar exploration are described. Constraints on a rover mission in the fields of communications, power, speed, navigation/hazard avoidance, and operational time are discussed. The rover design concept consistent with the constraints is described. The instruments to be used, again constrained by mass and power requirements, are listed. Three mission objectives are examined: geological exploration; resource assessment; and a geotechnical survey. It was determined that a small rover, with a mass of less than 60 kg and which would be compatible with being carried on the first Artemis lunar lander, could be built and could accomplish significant scientific exploration or the collection of engineering information.

  6. Distractibility during infants' examining and repetitive rhythmic activity.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, E J; Ruff, H A

    1998-05-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the role of examining and repetitive rhythmic activity in infants' exploration of novel objects. Sixteen 8-month-old infants played with novel toys as auditory-visual slide distractors occurred on one side at random intervals. The results showed that examining, but not repetitive activities, declined with exposure to the objects. They also showed that infants had different patterns of distractibility during examining and repetitive rhythmic activities. The infants were slower to turn to the distractor if they were examining the toy than if they were engaged in other activity, but the probability of a response did not differ. In contrast, when engaged in repetitive rhythmic activity, infants were less likely to respond to the distractor than when engaged in other activities, including examining; the speed with which they responded, however, did not differ. The results suggest that, during these two activities, the mechanisms for resisting distraction are quite different. PMID:9589216

  7. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  8. The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

  9. Apollo scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

  10. Historical research: examining documentary sources.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, J F

    2005-01-01

    In this paper John Sweeney outlines key principles for conducting a study employing an historical design based on documentary analysis. It derives in part from his PhD study, in which he employs an historical design based on documentary analysis to investigate the delay in introduction of intellectual disability nursing into the Republic of Ireland from 1921 until 1958. This study examines the social, political and professional context to the decision to forgo the recognition of a professional nursing qualification and education process in intellectual disability until 1958.

  11. [Examination of the olfactory analyzer].

    PubMed

    Domrachev, A A; Afon'kin, V Iu

    2002-01-01

    A method of threshold olfactometry is proposed consisting in the use of three olfactive substances (tincture of valerian, acetic acid, liquid ammonia) in selected concentrations. This allows to investigate the thresholds of certain modality. Each concentration of the olfactive substance is placed into a glass bottle (100 ml) and stored at the temperature 18-20 degrees C. The examination of the state of the olfactory analyzer within a 24-h working day showed stability of threshold olfactometry when the organism is tired. Utilization of threshold olfactometry in some diagnostic areas is shown. PMID:12056163

  12. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  13. Chronic osteomyelitis examined by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Helms, C.A.; Trafton, P.

    1985-01-01

    CT examination of 25 patients who had acute exacerbations of chronic osteomyelitis allowed for the correct identification of single or multiple sequestra in 14 surgical patients. Plain radiographs were equivocal for sequestra in seven of these patients, because the sequestra were too small or because diffuse bony sclerosis was present. CT also demonstrated a foreign body and five soft tissue abscesses not suspected on the basis of plain radiographs. CT studies, which helped guide the operative approach, were also useful in treating those patients whose plain radiographs were positive for sequestra. The authors review the potential role of CT in evaluating patients with chronic osteomyelitis.

  14. [Ultrasound examination of hidradenitis suppurativa].

    PubMed

    Martorell, A; Segura Palacios, J M

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating chronic, recurrent, inflammatory cutaneous disease of the hair follicle that usually presents with painful, deep and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, most frequently the axillary, groin and anogenital regions. This entity is difficult to manage since it can be difficult to determine the true nature and extension of the lesions. Cutaneous ultrasound allows real-time visualization of the cutaneous structures under examination, defining the type of lesion, its anatomical extension, and the degree of inflammatory activity, which affects adequate patient management. The present review analyses the importance of ultrasound in the assessment of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.

  15. Examining 'risks' of overspecifying TMVs.

    PubMed

    Makin, Tom; Tench, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Dr. Tom Makin, a highly experienced microbiologist and former Directorate manager at the Department of Medical Microbiology at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, and Ken Tench, compliance manager, Estates and Facilities Directorate, at Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, who has worked in operational estate functions since 1984, examine the widespread use of thermostatic mixing valves, or TMVs, in healthcare premises. They argue that such devices have, in recent years especially, been overspecified, particularly given the potential for increased contamination of the outlets, and the resulting heightened risk of spread of potentially life-threatening nosocomial waterborne diseases. PMID:24930184

  16. NASA Robotics for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, RIchard T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

  17. An Optometric Clinical Practicum Examination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Jess B.

    1979-01-01

    A practical clinical examination model for use by state board examiners in optometry is described including purpose, format, examination design, procedures, evaluation examples and administration. (JMF)

  18. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. PMID:24780273

  19. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  20. Solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Quaide, William L.

    Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described.

  1. Exploring Ensemble Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Madhura N.; Pinto, Lifford; Alabi, Femi; Harter, Jonathan; Taylor, Russell M.; Wu, Xunlei; Petersen, Hannah; Bass, Steffen A.; Healey, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    An ensemble is a collection of related datasets. Each dataset, or member, of an ensemble is normally large, multidimensional, and spatio-temporal. Ensembles are used extensively by scientists and mathematicians, for example, by executing a simulation repeatedly with slightly different input parameters and saving the results in an ensemble to see how parameter choices affect the simulation. To draw inferences from an ensemble, scientists need to compare data both within and between ensemble members. We propose two techniques to support ensemble exploration and comparison: a pairwise sequential animation method that visualizes locally neighboring members simultaneously, and a screen door tinting method that visualizes subsets of members using screen space subdivision. We demonstrate the capabilities of both techniques, first using synthetic data, then with simulation data of heavy ion collisions in high-energy physics. Results show that both techniques are capable of supporting meaningful comparisons of ensemble data. PMID:22347540

  2. Spacecraft exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Conway W.; Moroz, Vasilii I.

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and American spacecraft exploration of Mars over the past quarter century is reviewed. Data on the earliest Soviet attempts to send spacecraft to observe the planet are presented. Of the series of spacecraft that were announced (designated Mars 1 to Mars 7), none fulfilled all its scientific goals, but some good photographs and other important data were obtained. Of the six spacecraft in the Mariner series, two failed, but Mariner 4 first revealed the cratered surface of Mars, and Mariner 9 discovered all the major geologic features. The Viking mission, with its two Orbiters, two Landers, and its 6-yr duration, surpassed in quantity and variety of data all other missions combined. The Phobos mission ended in two failures, but the second of the two spacecraft acquired significant new data about Mars and Phobos. An appendix listing special issues of journals containing collections of papers about Mars is provided.

  3. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  4. Exploring Seafloor Volcanoes in Cyberspace: NOAA's "Ocean Explorer" Inspires Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelm, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Seafloor exploration being done by scientists is an ideal way to introduce students to technology as a tool for inquiry. The same technology that allows scientists to share data in near real time can also provide students the tools to become researchers. NOAA's Ocean Explorer Explorations website is a rich research data bank that can be used by…

  5. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  6. OCT for Examination of Artwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Rouba, Bogumiła J.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    In this chapter the application of OCT to examination of objects of cultural heritage is given. The knowledge about the structure of the object of art is necessary both for inventory purposes and planning/monitoring of conservation-restoration treatments. Due to its noninvasiveness OCT is well suited for such applications. The major limitation is in the lack of transparency of certain structures. Specific requirements, advantages and limitations of use of the OCT technique in this area are discussed first. Then the overview of applications to easel paintings, historic glass, and craftsmanship is given, followed by two examples of monitoring the laser ablation with OCT: very local in case of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and more general in case of laser ablation of the varnish layer. Then the examples of application of OCT to examination of paintings are given: investigation of deterioration of the varnish layer in the "Adoration of the Magi" by Leonardo da Vinci (Uffizi, Italy), imaging of overpaintings on two 17th and 18th c. oil paintings on canvas, and visualization of specific case of retouching located between two layers of varnish in the "Madonna with Yarnwinder" (attributed to L. da Vinci, private property).

  7. Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuliano, J.; Bahcivan, H.

    2015-12-01

    NSF has recently selected Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX), a 3U Cubesat mission to explore the three-dimensional structure of scintillation-scale ionospheric irregularities associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF). ISX is a collaborative effort between SRI International and Cal Poly. This project addresses the science question: To what distance along a flux tube does an irregularity of certain transverse-scale extend? It has been difficult to measure the magnetic field-alignment of scintillation-scale turbulent structures because of the difficulty of sampling a flux tube at multiple locations within a short time. This measurement is now possible due to the worldwide transition to DTV, which presents unique signals of opportunity for remote sensing of ionospheric irregularities from numerous vantage points. DTV spectra, in various formats, contain phase-stable, narrowband pilot carrier components that are transmitted simultaneously. A 4-channel radar receiver will simultaneously record up to 4 spatially separated transmissions from the ground. Correlations of amplitude and phase scintillation patterns corresponding to multiple points on the same flux tube will be a measure of the spatial extent of the structures along the magnetic field. A subset of geometries where two or more transmitters are aligned with the orbital path will be used to infer the temporal development of the structures. ISX has the following broad impact. Scintillation of space-based radio signals is a space weather problem that is intensively studied. ISX is a step toward a CubeSat constellation to monitor worldwide TEC variations and radio wave distortions on thousands of ionospheric paths. Furthermore, the rapid sampling along spacecraft orbits provides a unique dataset to deterministically reconstruct ionospheric irregularities at scintillation-scale resolution using diffraction radio tomography, a technique that enables prediction of scintillations at other radio frequencies, and

  8. Innovative interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Tom; Roelof, Edmond C.; Gruntman, Mike; Gloeckler, George; Koehn, Patrick L.; Kurth, William S.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Leary, James C.; Anderson, Brian J.

    2006-09-01

    An interstellar ``precursor'' mission has been under discussion in the scientific community for at least 30 years. Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium can only be answered with in situ measurements that such a mission can provide. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is being studied under a NASA ``Vision Mission'' grant. Speed is provided by a combination of a high-energy launch, using current launch vehicle technology, a Jupiter gravity assist, and long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration provided by an ion thruster running off electricity provided by advanced radioisotope electric generators. A payload of ten instruments with an aggregate mass of ~35 kg and requiring ~30 W has been carefully chosen to address the compelling science questions. The nominal 20-day launch window opens on 22 October 2014 followed by a Jupiter gravity assist on 5 February 2016. The REP system accelerates the spacecraft to a ``burnout'' speed of 7.8 AU per year at 104 AU on 13 October 2032 (Voyager 1's current speed is ~3.6 AU/yr). The spacecraft will return at least 500 bits per second from at least 200 AU ~30 years after launch. Additional (backup) launch opportunities occur every 13 months to early 2018. In addition to addressing basic heliospheric science, the mission will ensure continued information on the far-heliospheric galactic cosmic ray population after the Voyagers have fallen silent and as the era of human Mars exploration begins.

  9. Mars Exploration Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, James F.; Miller, Sylvia L.

    2000-01-01

    The architecture of NASA's program of robotic Mars exploration missions received an intense scrutiny during the summer months of 1998. We present here the results of that scrutiny, and describe a list of Mars exploration missions which are now being proposed by the nation's space agency. The heart of the new program architecture consists of missions which will return samples of Martian rocks and soil back to Earth for analysis. A primary scientific goal for these missions is to understand Mars as a possible abode of past or present life. The current level of sophistication for detecting markers of biological processes and fossil or extant life forms is much higher in Earth-based laboratories than possible with remotely deployed instrumentation, and will remain so for at least the next decade. Hence, bringing Martian samples back to Earth is considered the best way to search for the desired evidence. A Mars sample return mission takes approximately three years to complete. Transit from Earth to Mars requires almost a single year. After a lapse of time of almost a year at Mars, during which orbital and surface operations can take place, and the correct return launch energy constraints are met, a Mars-to-Earth return flight can be initiated. This return leg also takes approximately one year. Opportunities to launch these 3-year sample return missions occur about every 2 years. The figure depicts schedules for flights to and from Mars for Earth launches in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. Transits for less than 180 deg flight angle, measured from the sun, and more than 180 deg are both shown.

  10. Ice Giant Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Masters, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Simon, A. A.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Turrini, D.; Politi, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ice Giants in our solar system, Uranus and Neptune, are fundamentally different from their Gas Giant siblings Jupiter and Saturn, from the different proportions of rock and ice to the configuration of their planetary magnetic fields. Kepler space telescope discoveries of exo-planets indicate that planets of this type are among the most ubiquitous universally and therefore a future mission to explore the nature of the Ice Giants in our own solar system will provide insights into the nature of extra-solar system objects in general. Uranus has the smallest self- luminosity of all the planets, potentially related to catastrophic events early in the planet's history, which also may explain Uranus' large obliquity. Uranus' atmosphere is subject to extreme seasonal forcing making it unique in the Solar System. Neptune is also unique in a number of ways, notably its large moon Triton which is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object and one of only two moons in the solar system with a robustly collisional atmosphere. Similar to Uranus, the angle between the solar wind and the magnetic dipole axis is subject to large-amplitude variations on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, but peculiarly it has one of the quietest magnetospheres of the solar system, at least according to Voyager 2, the only spacecraft to encounter Neptune to date. A comprehensive mission, as advocated in the Decadal Survey, would provide enormous science return but is also challenging and expensive. In this presentation we will discuss mission scenarios and suggest how collaboration between disciplines and internationally can help us to pursue a mission that includes Ice Giant exploration.

  11. Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEAs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEAs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future

  12. NASA's Solar System Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, James

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) Solar System Exploration with Highlights and Status of Programs; 2) Technology Drivers and Plans; and 3) Summary

  13. Translational Research in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, M. Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's role in medical translational research, and the importance in research for space exploration. The application of medical research for space exploration translates to health care in space medicine, and on earth.

  14. Orion Exploration Mission-1 Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the Orion spacecraft’s Exploration Mission-1 in 2017. Exploration Mission-1 will be the first integrated flight test with both the Orion spacecraft and NASA’s new Space Launch System.

  15. Anxiety and classroom examination performance.

    PubMed

    Daniels, B; Hewitt, J

    1978-04-01

    Studied classroom examination performance over the course of an entire semester as a function of (a) students' anxiety level (high, medium, low); (b) difficulty level of exam question (more vs. less difficult); (c) type of exam question (rote memory vs. generalization); (d) sex of S; and (e) intelligence level of S. As expected, there was a strong main effect of anxiety and a significant interaction between anxiety and item difficulty. The latter was consistent with the Hull-Spence formulation of learning and performance--as the habit strength of incorrect responses increases (i.e., as the items become more difficult), the superiority of low over high anxious Ss also should increase. When item difficulty was held constant, anxiety did not interact with type of exam question. PMID:681509

  16. Genesis Preliminary Examination: Ellipsometry Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry in which both the drogue and main parachutes failed to deploy causing the capsule to impact the surface of the UTTR desert at a speed of approximately 310 kph (193 mph). The impact caused severe damage to the capsule and a breach of the science canister in the field. The science canister was recovered and transported to the cleanroom at UTTR within approximately 8 hours of reentry. Although the ground water table did not rise to canister level before removal, damp soil and debris from the heat shield and other spacecraft components did enter the canister and contaminate some collector surfaces. The objective of preliminary examination of the Genesis collectors is to provide the science community with the information necessary to request the most useful samples for their analysis.

  17. Human Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the Moon tilde-n or, more generally, human exploration of the solar system tilde-n began with the landing of Apollo 11 Lunar Module on the lunar surface. Human exploration continued with growing capability until the departure of the Apollo 17 lunar module from the lunar surface in 1972. Human exploration is currently experiencing what can be called euphemistically a hiatus.

  18. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  19. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  20. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  1. Seeing by exploring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The classical notion of how things are seen is that perception is passive, that the eyes are windows, and in floods reality. Physiological work of the 19th century cast doubt on this view that perception is passive acceptance of reality. Perception is not at the present time a popular topic for philosophers. This must be partly because scientific accounts of perception have now gone a long way away from appearances. They depend on physiological and psycho-physical experiments which require technical investigation and do not fall within traditional concepts of philosophy. Theories of visual perception are examined, both from a physical and psycho-physical standpoint.

  2. Virtual Alternative to the Oral Examination for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R.; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P.; Nelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    . Virtual environments for oral examinations should continue to be explored, particularly since they offer an inexpensive, more comfortable, yet equally rigorous alternative. PMID:25834684

  3. Designing for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles M.

    2004-02-01

    This presentation addresses a concept-level model that produces technical design parameters and economic feasibility information addressing future human spaceflight exploration platforms. This paper uses a design methodology and analytical tools to create feasible concept design information for these space platforms. The design tool has been validated against a number of actual facility designs, and appropriate modal variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is then employed in the examination of the impact of various payloads on the power, size (volume), and mass of the platform proposed. The development of the analytical tool employed an approach that accommodated possible payloads characterized as simplified parameters such as power, weight, volume, crew size, and endurance. In creating the approach, basic principles are employed and combined with parametric estimates as necessary. Key system parameters are identified in conjunction with overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are provided based on empirical data extracted from actual human spaceflight systems. In order to provide a credible basis for a valid engineering model, an extensive survey of existing manned space platforms was conducted. This survey yielded key engineering specifications that were incorporated in the engineering model. Data from this survey is also used to create parametric equations and graphical representations in order to establish a realistic range of engineering quantities used in the design of manned space platforms.

  4. The idea of space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazlish, B.

    1985-01-01

    Public reactions to the space program, especially to the 1969 Moon landing are discussed. Space exploration is compared to explorations during the Age of Discovery. It is argued that space exploration has failed to capture the public's imagination, that it has had few economic or social consequences of any importance, and that it has had a minimum impact on national prestige.

  5. Explorations in Statistics: the Bootstrap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fourth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the bootstrap. The bootstrap gives us an empirical approach to estimate the theoretical variability among possible values of a sample statistic such as the…

  6. Exploration decisions and firms in the mineral industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how physical characteristics of deposits and results of past exploration enter future exploration decisions. A proposed decision model is presented that is consistent with a set of primitive probabilistic assumptions associated with deposit size distributions and discoverability. Analysis of optimal field exploration strategy showed the likely firm responses to alternative exploration taxes and effects on the distribution of future discoveries. Examination of the probabilistic elements of the decision model indicates that changes in firm expectations associated with the distribution of deposits cannot be totally offset by changes in economic variables. ?? 1981.

  7. Having a Voice: An Exploration of Children's Rights and Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Jane, Ed.; Hough, Jan, Ed.

    This book explores the concept of advocacy in British society with regard to children and young people, examining advocacy from a number of different perspectives, and taking into account the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and legislation that affects children and young people. The three parts of the book examine why young people need an…

  8. Exploring Reasons for Bed Pressures in Winnipeg Acute Care Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menec, Verena H.; Bruce, Sharon; MacWilliam, Leonard R.

    2005-01-01

    Hospital overcrowding has plagued Winnipeg and other Canadian cities for years. This study explored factors related to overcrowding. Hospital files were used to examine patterns of hospital use from fiscal years 1996/1997 to 1999/2000. Chart reviews were conducted to examine appropriateness of admissions and hospital stays during one pressure…

  9. Exploring digital professionalism.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences. PMID:26030375

  10. Exploring digital professionalism.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  11. Dynamics Explorer guest investigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, Jan J.

    1991-01-01

    A data base of satellite particle, electric field, image, and plasma data was used to determine correlations between the fields and the particle auroral boundaries. A data base of 8 days of excellent coverage from all instruments was completed. The geomagnetic conditions associated with each of the selected data periods, the number of UV image passes per study day that were obtained, and the total number of UV images for each day are given in tabular form. For each of the days listed in Table 1, both Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) electric potential data and LAPI integrated particle energy fluxes were obtained. On the average, between 8 and 11 passes of useful data per day were obtained. These data are displayed in a format such that either the statistical electric field model potential or the statistical precipitation energy flux could be superimposed. The Heppner and Maynard (1987) and Hardy et al. (1987) models were used for the electric potential and precipitation, respectively. In addition, the auroral image intensity along the Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite pass could be computed and plotted along with the LAPI precipitation data and Hardy et al. (1987) values.

  12. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Karl-Heinz

    1992-01-01

    The observation, data reduction, and interpretation of ultraviolet spectra (obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer) of Herbig-Haro objects, stellar jets, and (in a few cases) reflection nebulae in star-forming regions is discussed. Intermediate results have been reported in the required semi-annual reports. The observations for this research were obtained in 23 (US1) IUE shifts. The spectra were taken in the low resolution mode with the large aperture. The following topics were investigated: (1) detection of UV spectra of high excitation Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, identification of emission lines, and a preliminary study of the energy distribution of the ultraviolet continuum; (2) details of the continuum energy distribution of these spectra and their possible interpretation; (3) the properties of the reddening (extinction) of HH objects; (4) the possible time variation of strong emission lines in high excitation HH objects; (5) the ultraviolet emission of low excitation HH objects, especially in the fluorescent lines of the H2 molecule; (6) the ultraviolet emission in the peculiar object HH24; (7) the spatial emission distribution of different lines and different parts of the continuum in different HH objects; and (8) some properties of reflection nebula, in the environment of Herbig-Haro objects. Each topic is discussed.

  13. Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

  14. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  15. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  16. Innovative interstellar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R.; Innovative Interstellar Explorer Team

    Fundamental scientific questions about the interaction of the Sun with the interstellar medium can only be answered with in situ measurements. The problem is the development of a probe that can provide the required measurements and can reach a heliocentric distance of at least 200 astronomical units (AU) in 15 years or less, an average speed almost four times the 3.6 AU/yr speed of Voyager 1. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer (IIE) and its use of Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) is now being studied under a NASA Vision Mission grant to enable such a mission. Speed is provided by a high-energy launch using current launch vehicle technology followed by long-term, low-thrust, continuous acceleration. The latter is provided by a kilowatt-class ion thruster running off of electricity provided by advanced Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) powered by Pu-238. While subject to mass and power limitations for the instruments on board, such an approach relies on known General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Pu-238 technology and current launch vehicles for speed, both of which require little new development and have well-known regulatory requirements for launch. In addition, this approach avoids the intrinsically large masses associated with nuclear fission reactors and incorporates launch of all nuclear material directly into an Earth-escape trajectory. We discuss the ongoing trade studies and development of this approach to an Interstellar Probe

  17. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth; Nordgaard, Julie; Jansson, Lennart; Sæbye, Ditte; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Results Controls outperformed patients on all syllogism types, but the difference between the two groups was only significant for valid syllogisms presented with unusual content. However, when adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703730

  18. The CISM Data Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehmeyr, M.; Weigel, R.; Wiltberger, M.

    2004-12-01

    We introduce the CISM Data Explorer: a collection of data, models, and tools for analysis and visualization, to be used by space physics researchers and students. It relies heavily on well--documented programs and examples written in OpenDX, Octave, Perl, C, and FORTRAN. This project began in response to a need to simplify model (both empirical and numerical) and data (both measurements and model output) exchange between CISM group members. The CISM_DX package is a community--developed collection of (1) Code for side--by--side visualization and analysis of the output of space physics numerical models; (2) Data sets put into a standard file format and form, and provided with code for display in IDL, Matlab, Octave, and OpenDX; (3) Tools, together with examples of their use, for space physics research, including coordinate transformation codes, and scripts that transforms data from many data providers into a standard file format and form; (4) Code for running the CISM Forecast model and code for carrying out the validation of the CISM Forecast Models using comparison data in the standard data set distributed with CISM_DX. All of the codes in the package have been tested on computers running the Red Hat Enterprise or the Fedora Core OS, and many components can be run also on different operating systems.

  19. National Postirradiation Examination Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, Jason L

    2011-06-01

    A National Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) Workshop was held March 29-30, 2011, in Washington D.C., stimulated by the DOE Acting Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy approval on January 31, 2011 of the “Mission Need Statement for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability”. As stated in the Mission Need, “A better understanding of nuclear fuels and material performance in the nuclear environment, at the nanoscale and lower, is critical to the development of innovative fuels and materials required for tomorrow’s nuclear energy systems.” (2011) Developing an advanced post-irradiation capability is the most important thing we can do to advance nuclear energy as an option to meeting national energy goals. Understanding the behavior of fuels and materials in a nuclear reactor irradiation environment is the limiting factor in nuclear plant safety, longevity, efficiency, and economics. The National PIE Workshop is part of fulfilling or addressing Department of Energy (DOE) missions in safe and publically acceptable nuclear energy. Several presentations were given during the opening of the workshop. Generally speaking, these presentations established that we cannot continue to rely on others in the world to provide the capabilities we need to move forward with nuclear energy technology. These presentations also generally identified the need for increased microstructural understanding of fuels and materials to be coupled with modeling and simulation, and increased accessibility and infrastructure to facilitate the interaction between national laboratories and participating organizations. The overall results of the work of the presenters and panels was distilled into four primary needs 1. Understanding material changes in the extreme nuclear environment at the nanoscale. Nanoscale studies have significant importance due to the mechanisms that cause materials to degrade, which actually occur on the nanoscale. 2. Enabling additional proficiency in

  20. Exploration strategies for hydrothermal deposits.

    PubMed

    Horn, R A

    1996-01-01

    With unlimited money the most certain strategy for finding most hydrothermal metal deposits would be by drilling to 5000 m at 50 m spacing. However, the cost would far outweigh the benefit of the discoveries. Geological knowledge and exploration techniques may be used to obtain the greatest benefit for minimum cost, and to concentrate human and material resources in the most economic way in areas with the highest probability of discovery. This paper reviews the economic theory of exploration based on expected value, and the application of geological concepts and exploration techniques to exploration for hydrothermal deposits. Exploration techniques for hydrothermal-systems on Mars would include geochemistry and particularly passive geophysical methods.

  1. Planetary Exploration Panel PEX: Support for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2010-05-01

    The new era of space exploration will be international, human-centric, transdisciplinary and participatory. It will also provide an opportunity to inspire, motivate, and involve an ever increasing number of countries. The objective of the COSPAR Panel on Space Exploration (PEX) is to provide the best, independent, input to support the development of worldwide space exploration programs and to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system objects. The input will be drawn from expertise provided via the contacts maintained by COSPAR's various Associates within the international community and scientific entities. For lunar exploration, the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) and the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), as well as other committees, represent important foci for an even broader base of expertise. Seven NASA Lunar Science Institute nodes are actively supporting space exploration in the US. In addition, the International Space Exploration Coordination group ISECG was established to implement the Global Exploration Strategy GES, contained in a document that was elaborated by representatives of 14 space agencies. PEX provides synergies of existing documents and roadmaps of each of these bodies to support existing space exploration groups, foster transnational alliances and support joint research and education.

  2. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  3. Examining the Synergy of Practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are charged with conducting a home visit to every postnatal mother within 48 hours of hospital discharge. This represents the beginning of a long-term relationship, not only with the mother and newborn child but also with the family. This article fundamentally demonstrates the essential work of the public health nurse in promoting the health of the baby within a family. In this article, the expertise the public health nurse uses in the first visit is examined in the context of 3 competencies: communication, partnerships with the family, and partnerships with individual family members. This expertise provides the foundation for a long-term therapeutic relationship with the family to the essential benefit of the baby’s early childhood growth and developmental milestones. Consequently, the first postnatal visit by public health nursing in Ireland represents a synergy of practice, which provides the foundation for enduring family relationships focused on potentializing both individual family members’ health and the family as a dynamic unit. PMID:27335911

  4. Examining pharmaceuticals using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovská, Kateřina; Křesálek, Vojtěch

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical trafficking is common issue in countries where they are under stricter dispensing regime with monitoring of users. Most commonly smuggled pharmaceuticals include trade names Paralen Plus, Modafen, Clarinase repetabs, Aspirin complex, etc. These are transported mainly from Eastern Europe (e.g. Poland, Ukraine, Russia) to countries like Czech Republic, which is said to have one of the highest number of methamphetamine producers in Europe. The aim of this paper is to describe the possibility of terahertz spectroscopy utilization as an examining tool to distinguish between pharmaceuticals containing pseudoephedrine compounds and those without it. Selected medicaments for experimental part contain as an active ingredient pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or pseudoephedrine sulphate. Results show a possibility to find a pseudoephedrine compound spectra in samples according to previously computed and experimentally found ones, and point out that spectra of same brand names pills may vary according to their expiration date, batch, and amount of absorbed water vapours from ambience. Mislead spectrum also occurs during experimental work in a sample without chosen active ingredient, which shows persistent minor inconveniences of terahertz spectroscopy. All measurement were done on the TPS Spectra 3000 instrument.

  5. Topological exploration of subterranean environments

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, D.; Ferguson, D.; Morris, A.; Thayer, S.

    2006-06-15

    The need for reliable maps of subterranean spaces too hazardous for humans to occupy has motivated the development of robotic mapping tools suited to these domains. As such, this work describes a system developed for autonomous topological exploration of mine environments to facilitate the process of mapping. The exploration framework is based upon the interaction of three main components: Node detection, node matching, and edge exploration. Node detection robustly identifies mine corridor intersections from sensor data and uses these features as the building blocks of a topological map. Node matching compares newly observed intersections to those stored in the map, providing global localization during exploration. Edge exploration translates topological exploration objectives into locomotion along mine corridors. This article describes both the robotic platform and the algorithms developed for exploration, and presents results from experiments conducted at a research coal mine near Pittsburgh, PA.

  6. Examining Rotational Ground Motion Induced by Tornados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Elijah; Dunn, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Ring lasers are well known for their ability to detect rotation and to serve as replacements for mechanical gyroscopes. The sensitivity of large ring lasers to various forms of ground motion is less familiar. Since ring lasers preferentially measure rotational ground motion and a standard seismograph is designed to measure translational and vertical ground motion, each device responds to different aspects of ground movement. Therefore, the two instruments will be used to explore responses to microseisms, earthquake generated shear waves, and in particular tornado generated ground movement. On April 27, 2014 an EF4 tornado devastated Vilonia, AR a small town ~ 21 km from the Hendrix College ring laser. The proximity of the tornado's path to the ring laser interferometer and to a seismograph located in Vilonia provided the opportunity to examine the response of these instruments to tornadic generated ground motion. Our measurements suggest tornadic weather systems can produce both rotational and lateral ground motion. This contention is supported by an after the fact damage survey which found that the tornado flattened a forest in which trees were uprooted and laid down in a pair of converging arcs with the centerline pointed in the direction of the tornado's path.

  7. Exploring the retinal connectome

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Shaw, Margaret V.; Yang, Jia-Hui; DeMill, David; Lauritzen, James S.; Lin, Yanhua; Rapp, Kevin D.; Mastronarde, David; Koshevoy, Pavel; Grimm, Bradley; Tasdizen, Tolga; Whitaker, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A connectome is a comprehensive description of synaptic connectivity for a neural domain. Our goal was to produce a connectome data set for the inner plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. This paper describes our first retinal connectome, validates the method, and provides key initial findings. Methods We acquired and assembled a 16.5 terabyte connectome data set RC1 for the rabbit retina at ≈2 nm resolution using automated transmission electron microscope imaging, automated mosaicking, and automated volume registration. RC1 represents a column of tissue 0.25 mm in diameter, spanning the inner nuclear, inner plexiform, and ganglion cell layers. To enhance ultrastructural tracing, we included molecular markers for 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), glutamate, glycine, taurine, glutamine, and the in vivo activity marker, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane. This enabled us to distinguish GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells; to identify ON bipolar cells coupled to glycinergic cells; and to discriminate different kinds of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells based on their molecular signatures and activity. The data set was explored and annotated with Viking, our multiuser navigation tool. Annotations were exported to additional applications to render cells, visualize network graphs, and query the database. Results Exploration of RC1 showed that the 2 nm resolution readily recapitulated well known connections and revealed several new features of retinal organization: (1) The well known AII amacrine cell pathway displayed more complexity than previously reported, with no less than 17 distinct signaling modes, including ribbon synapse inputs from OFF bipolar cells, wide-field ON cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells, and extensive input from cone-pathway amacrine cells. (2) The axons of most cone bipolar cells formed a distinct signal integration compartment, with ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses targeting diverse cell types. Both ON and OFF bipolar cells receive

  8. Exploring linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Baird, Stuart J E

    2015-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD, association of allelic states across loci) is poorly understood by many evolutionary biologists, but as technology for multilocus sampling improves, we ignore LD at our peril. If we sample variation at 10 loci in an organism with 20 chromosomes, we can reasonably treat them as 10 'independent witnesses' of the evolutionary process. If instead, we sample variation at 1000 loci, many are bound to be close together on a chromosome. With only one or two crossovers per meiosis, associations between close neighbours decay so slowly that even LD created far in the past will not have dissipated, so we cannot treat the 1000 loci as independent witnesses (Barton ). This means that as marker density on genomes increases classic analyses assuming independent loci become mired in the problem of overconfidence: if 1000 independent witnesses are assumed, and that number should be much lower, any conclusion will be overconfident. This is of special concern because our literature suffers from a strong publication bias towards confident answers, even when they turn out to be wrong (Knowles ). In contrast, analyses that take into account associations across loci both control for overconfidence and can inform us about LD generating events far in the past, for example human/Neanderthal admixture (Fu et al. ). With increased marker density, biologists must increase their awareness of LD and, in this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Kemppainen et al. () make software available that can only help in this process: LDna allows patterns of LD in a data set to be explored using tools borrowed from network analysis. This has great potential, but realizing that potential requires understanding LD. PMID:26261040

  9. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building

  10. Re-examining the basis for ethical dementia care practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Louise; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth

    Ethical nursing practice is an important component of quality dementia care. To be ethically competent, and to acquire the language, knowledge and skills required to explore and resolve ethical dilemmas in practice, the nurse needs an understanding of ethics and of the theory behind ethical decision-making. Traditional theories of ethics and ethical principles are commonly used to explore the dilemmas faced in dementia care practice. While these theories remain influential in healthcare practice, more contemporary ethical theories are equally relevant to the examination of the ordinary and extraordinary ethical dilemmas that present in conditions such as dementia. In this article, the ethical considerations central to effective dementia care nursing will be examined.

  11. An experimental task to examine the mirror system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Yuji; Ukezono, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mirror system in the brain is considered to be a neural basis of sociality, but previous studies have been limited to primates. Here we report an experimental task to examine the mirror system in rats. We show that a rat could reach to a pellet and grasp and eat it in front of another rat that was observing the reaching, which indicates that the task will enable us to start exploring the rat mirror system. PMID:25323637

  12. Detection and sizing of underbead cracks using ultrasonic nondestructive examination

    SciTech Connect

    Scarbrough, J.D.; Wierzbicki, W.M.

    1982-02-11

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) will detect three mil deep underbead cracks in welds joining thin walled iridium hemishells. A correlation was developed to relate the amplitude of the signal reflected from the crack with crack wall area. The observed cracks occur in the weld underbead in the arc taper area during encapsulation of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets for thermoelectric generators used in deep space exploration.

  13. An experimental task to examine the mirror system in rats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuji; Ukezono, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mirror system in the brain is considered to be a neural basis of sociality, but previous studies have been limited to primates. Here we report an experimental task to examine the mirror system in rats. We show that a rat could reach to a pellet and grasp and eat it in front of another rat that was observing the reaching, which indicates that the task will enable us to start exploring the rat mirror system. PMID:25323637

  14. Small rover exploration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make

  15. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  17. Comet radar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  18. GRAPHIE: graph based histology image explorer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Histology images comprise one of the important sources of knowledge for phenotyping studies in systems biology. However, the annotation and analyses of histological data have remained a manual, subjective and relatively low-throughput process. Results We introduce Graph based Histology Image Explorer (GRAPHIE)-a visual analytics tool to explore, annotate and discover potential relationships in histology image collections within a biologically relevant context. The design of GRAPHIE is guided by domain experts' requirements and well-known InfoVis mantras. By representing each image with informative features and then subsequently visualizing the image collection with a graph, GRAPHIE allows users to effectively explore the image collection. The features were designed to capture localized morphological properties in the given tissue specimen. More importantly, users can perform feature selection in an interactive way to improve the visualization of the image collection and the overall annotation process. Finally, the annotation allows for a better prospective examination of datasets as demonstrated in the users study. Thus, our design of GRAPHIE allows for the users to navigate and explore large collections of histology image datasets. Conclusions We demonstrated the usefulness of our visual analytics approach through two case studies. Both of the cases showed efficient annotation and analysis of histology image collection. PMID:26330277

  19. Atmosphere Explorer set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer-D (Explorer-54) is described which will explore in detail an area of the earth's outer atmosphere where important energy transfer, atomic and molecular processes, and chemical reactions occur that are critical to the heat balance of the atmosphere. Data are presented on the mission facts, launch vehicle operations, AE-D/Delta flight events, spacecraft description, scientific instruments, tracking, and data acquisition.

  20. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  1. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Koehn, Patrick L.; Korth, Haje; Levi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet s miniature magnetosphere since the brief flybys of Mariner 10. Mercury s magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is among the smallest in the solar system; its magnetic field typically stands off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed drift paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts. The characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short and kinetic and fluid modes may be coupled. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to impact directly the regolith. Inductive currents in Mercury s interior may act to modify the solar wind interaction by resisting changes due to solar wind pressure variations. Indeed, observations of these induction effects may be an important source of information on the state of Mercury s interior. In addition, Mercury s magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionospheric layer. This lack of an ionosphere is probably the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short-lived, - 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 during its first traversal of Mercury s magnetic tail. Because of Mercury s proximity to the sun, 0.3 - 0.5 AU, this magnetosphere experiences the most extreme driving forces in the solar system. All of these factors are expected to produce complicated interactions involving the exchange and re-cycling of neutrals and ions between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and regolith. The electrodynamics of Mercury s magnetosphere are expected to be equally complex, with strong forcing by the solar wind, magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and in the tail, and the pick-up of planetary ions all

  2. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Acuña, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Koehn, Patrick L.; Korth, Haje; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2007-08-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet’s miniature magnetosphere since the brief flybys of Mariner 10. Mercury’s magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is among the smallest in the solar system; its magnetic field typically stands off the solar wind only ˜1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed drift paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere, allowing solar wind ions to impact directly the regolith. Inductive currents in Mercury’s interior may act to modify the solar wind interaction by resisting changes due to solar wind pressure variations. Indeed, observations of these induction effects may be an important source of information on the state of Mercury’s interior. In addition, Mercury’s magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted beneath the solid surface as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionospheric layer. This lack of an ionosphere is probably the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short-lived, ˜1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 during its first traversal of Mercury’s magnetic tail. Because of Mercury’s proximity to the sun, 0.3-0.5 AU, this magnetosphere experiences the most extreme driving forces in the solar system. All of these factors are expected to produce complicated interactions involving the exchange and recycling of neutrals and ions among the solar wind, magnetosphere, and regolith. The electrodynamics of Mercury’s magnetosphere are expected to be equally complex, with strong forcing by the solar wind, magnetic reconnection, and pick-up of planetary ions all playing roles in the generation of field-aligned electric currents. However, these field

  3. Exploration Systems Town Hall Meeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    Doug Cooke, Associate Administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, discusses the future during a question and answer session with employees at NASA Headquarters on April 19, 2010.

  4. Materials Challenges in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    The new vision of space exploration encompasses a broad range of human and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. Extended human space travel requires high reliability and high performance systems for propulsion, vehicle structures, thermal and radiation protection, crew habitats and health monitoring. Advanced materials and processing technologies are necessary to meet the exploration mission requirements. Materials and processing technologies must be sufficiently mature before they can be inserted into a development program leading to an exploration mission. Exploration will be more affordable by in-situ utilization of materials on the Moon and Mars.

  5. Exploration and Sustainability Expo Welcome

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Ames Deputy Associate Director Dr. Yvonne Pendleton welcomes attendees to the 2009 Exploration and Sustainability Expo held at NASA Ames Research Center. She highlights the emerging technologi...

  6. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of preoperative clinical examination in upper limb injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Eshaghi, Mohammad Amin; Teimouri, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injuries in hands and forearms may cause significant discomfort and disability. Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of preoperative clinical examination in depicting lesions caused by penetrating wounds of hands or forearms. Setting and Design: This prospective study was conducted from August 2006 to September 2009 at Kashani University Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients with clean penetrating injury to the hand/forearm were enrolled in this study. After patient's data registration, a careful clinical examination and routine exploration without expansion of wound were done by an orthopedic resident. Each tendon was tested at each joint level. Nerves were evaluated with a two-point discrimination test, and arteries were tested with palpable pulses. Surgical exploration was done by a single hand surgeon in operation room. Accuracy of clinical examination was compared to surgical examination. Results: During the study period, 180 (72%) males and 70 (28%) females with mean age of 28±4 years participated. The preoperative examination showed a predominance of the volar zone IV injuries followed by volar zone II, III, thumb zone II, volar zone V and thumb zone III. Despite the enough accuracy of preoperative examinations in dorsal side injuries of hands and forearms (error rate = 8.3%), the preoperative examinations significantly underestimated the amount of damage to soft tissues on the volar side of hands and forearms (error rate = 14%). Conclusions: The precise surgical evaluations should be considered in patients with penetrating injury to the hand or forearm, especially in those with volar side injuries. PMID:22090738

  8. Lower extremity pediatric history and physical examination.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Aaron M; Raducanu, Ron; DeHeer, Patrick A

    2013-10-01

    Although the pediatric foot and ankle examination is essentially similar to that of the adult patient, there are subtle differences unique to a child's examination. The unique findings are discussed in this article based on the following: weight-bearing examination, gait evaluation, non-weight-bearing examination, vascular examination, neurologic examination, and dermatologic examination for pediatric patients. A comprehensive overview is provided; however, other challenges presented in evaluating children include management of a child's parents and a child's temperament. The setting for an examination and a child's mood must be taken into consideration to ensure a successful outcome.

  9. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Typically Developing Children's Attitudes toward Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaraizi, Magda; Kumar, Poonam; Favazza, Paddy; Sideridis, Georgios; Koulousiou, Dafni; Riall, Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study explores children's attitudes toward individuals with special needs in Greece and in the United States. A total of 196 kindergarten-age children participated in the study. Children's attitudes were examined using the "Acceptance Scale for Kindergartners-Revised" (ASK-R) and were further explored with the use of an open-ended interview.…

  10. The Fear Factor: Students' Experiences of Test Anxiety when Taking A-Level Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony Leslie; Spalding, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that explored students' experiences of test anxiety when taking A-level examinations. Four focus groups were convened with a sample of 19 participants in the south of England to explore the triggers of test anxiety and the perceived need for interventions to assist high test-anxious students cope…

  11. Effects of Item Exposure for Conventional Examinations in a Continuous Testing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Norman R.; Chinn, Roberta N.

    This study explored the effect of item exposure on two conventional examinations administered as computer-based tests. A principal hypothesis was that item exposure would have little or no effect on average difficulty of the items over the course of an administrative cycle. This hypothesis was tested by exploring conventional item statistics and…

  12. Examining the Role of Assessment Reform in Literature Teaching and Learning: A Study in Two Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Mary H.

    A study examined two high school English teachers' explorations of portfolio assessment and the effect of these explorations on their teaching and on students' understandings of their own learning and knowledge. The teachers (one with 28 years of experience, the other with 3 years teaching experience) taught at a public city school with an…

  13. High-School Exit Examinations and the Schooling Decisions of Teenagers: Evidence from Regression-Discontinuity Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether barely failing one or more state-mandated high school exit examinations in Massachusetts affects the probability that students enroll in college. We extend the exit examination literature in two ways. First, we explore longer term effects of failing these tests. We find that barely failing an exit examination, for students on…

  14. Vehicle design for Mars surface exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This design course is directed to studying problems related to mobile exploration of the surface of Mars. Constraints on the vehicles considered are set by the payload and performance currently envisioned by mission analysis carried out previously at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The students are given full flexibility to examine those aspects which suit their interests and background. There are no regularly scheduled class lectures. Weekly review meetings are held with personnel from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and students use JPL resources as required.

  15. Advanced flight computers for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    1988-01-01

    Research concerning flight computers for use on interplanetary probes is reviewed. The history of these computers from the Viking mission to the present is outlined. The differences between ground commercial computers and computers for planetary exploration are listed. The development of a computer for the Mariner Mark II comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission is described. Various aspects of recently developed computer systems are examined, including the Max real time, embedded computer, a hypercube distributed supercomputer, a SAR data processor, a processor for the High Resolution IR Imaging Spectrometer, and a robotic vision multiresolution pyramid machine for processsing images obtained by a Mars Rover.

  16. Exploring the expansion history of the universe.

    PubMed

    Linder, Eric V

    2003-03-01

    Exploring the recent expansion history of the universe promises insights into the cosmological model, the nature of dark energy, and potentially clues to high energy physics theories and gravitation. We examine the extent to which precision distance-redshift observations can map out the history, including the acceleration-deceleration transition, and the components and equations of state of the energy density. We consider the ability to distinguish between various dynamical scalar field models for the dark energy, as well as higher dimension and alternate gravity theories. Finally, we present a new, advantageous parametrization for the study of dark energy. PMID:12689209

  17. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion vehicle to cislunar space in 2018, targeted to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). Analysis of EM-1 DRO mission opportunities in 2018 help characterize mission parameters that are of interest to other subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc). Subsystems request mission design trades which include: landing lighting, addition of an Orion main engine checkout burn, and use of auxiliary thruster only cases. This paper examines the evolving trade studies that incorporate subsystem feedback and demonstrate the feasibility of these constrained mission trajectory designs and contingencies.

  18. Exploring the perspectives of obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Chung, Richard J; Sherman, Laura; Goodman, Elizabeth; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2013-10-01

    To understand obese adolescent girls' perspectives regarding their weight and health we studied video intervention/prevention assessment audiovisual narratives created by 14 obese girls ages 12 to 20 years. The narratives included interviews, monologues, and daily activities. Themes included illness conceptualizations, health concerns, health misinformation, and distress regarding appearance deriving from both within and without. The predominant theme was ambivalence about obesity. Close examination of these themes revealed potential footholds for intervention. Sensitive exploration of issues such as appearance and psychosocial distress might strengthen the patient-clinician partnership in identifying a patient's strengths and motivating weight loss. PMID:24043347

  19. Learning, Exploration and Chaotic Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, Alexei B.; Ali, M. K.

    We consider different versions of exploration in reinforcement learning. For the test problem, we use navigation in a shortcut maze. It is shown that chaotic ɛ-greedy policy may be as efficient as a random one. The best results were obtained with a model chaotic neuron. Therefore, exploration strategy can be implemented in a deterministic learning system such as a neural network.

  20. ILEWG Recommendations for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Duke, M.; Galimov, E.; Mizutani, H.; ILEWG Team

    1999-03-01

    The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was created in 1995 with the charter: 1. To develop an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon; 2. To establish a forum and mechanism for the communication and coordination of activities; and 3. To implement international coordination and cooperation.

  1. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  2. Exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

    1974-01-01

    A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

  3. Great Explorers to the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  4. Project Career Exploration: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberger, R. Laurence

    Project Career Exploration's overall purpose was designing and implementing a method of providing juniors and seniors in high school with career exploration opportunities relative to the occupational programs offered by the Waukesha County Technical Institute and other postsecondary institutions. Course outlines make up the body of the report,…

  5. Mars exploration: follow the water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    Over the centuries, the red planet Mars has been a subject of imagination as well as intense scientific interest. As the overwhelming success of two Mars Exploration Rovers unfolds before us, this article provides an overview of and rationale for NASA's Mars exploration program.

  6. Exploration Medical System Technical Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, K.; Middour, C.; Cerro, J.; Burba, T.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Mindock, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element systems engineering goals include defining the technical system needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars. This past year, scenarios captured in the medical system concept of operations laid the foundation for systems engineering technical development work. The systems engineering team analyzed scenario content to identify interactions between the medical system, crewmembers, the exploration vehicle, and the ground system. This enabled the definition of functions the medical system must provide and interfaces to crewmembers and other systems. These analyses additionally lead to the development of a conceptual medical system architecture. The work supports the ExMC community-wide understanding of the functional exploration needs to be met by the medical system, the subsequent development of medical system requirements, and the system verification and validation approach utilizing terrestrial analogs and precursor exploration missions.

  7. 5 CFR 300.201 - Examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Examinations and Related Subjects § 300.201 Examinations. (a) The Office makes available information that will... examinations. This includes the types of questions and the categories of knowledge or skill pertinent to a... review. (e) The Office will release information concerning the results of examinations only to...

  8. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Ruscello, Dennis M.

    Although speech-language pathologists are expected to be able to administer and interpret oral examinations, there are currently no screening tests available that provide careful administration instructions and data for intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE) is designed primarily for…

  9. A Matter of Exposition: Examination and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schröder, Sabrina; Thompson, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    While current literature on examination and testing mostly engages with the objectivity of exams and their procedural logic, this article is concerned with the 'ethical dimension' of examination: Examinations provoke a particular relation to oneself, possibly self-transformation. The praxis of examination entails self-confrontation in the light of…

  10. 37 CFR 41.39 - Examiner's answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examiner's answer. 41.39... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals § 41.39 Examiner's... appealable action, the primary examiner shall make such determination of record. (2) An examiner's answer...

  11. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F.

    Exploring Ancient Skies uses modern science to examine ancient astronomy throughout the World, that is, to use the methods of archaeology and insights of modern astronomy explore how astronomy was practiced before the invention of the telescope. It thus reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World, particularly Mesoamerica, putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts.

  12. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  13. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  14. Spatial Exploration and Spatial Knowledge: Individual and Developmental Differences in Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Nancy L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the relationship between young children's spatial exploration and their cognitive representations of environments. Children ages 20-28 months and 36-44 months explored a museum room; measures of the quantity and mode (active versus passive) of their exploration were recorded. Results indicate individual differences in the extent to which…

  15. International Collaboration for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Limaye, Sanjay; Zasova, Ludmila; Wilson, Colin; Ocampo, Adriana; Glaze, Lori; Svedhem, H.; Nakamura, Masato; Widemann, Thomas

    The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. From the outset, VEXAG has been open to the international community participation and has followed the progress of the ESA Venus Express Mission and the JAXA Akasuki mission as well exploring potential broad international partnerships for Venus exploration through coordinated science and missions. This paper discussed three mechanisms through which these collaborations are being explored in which VEXAG members participate One pathway for international collaboration has been through COSPAR. The International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) was formed during the 2012 COSPAR general assembly in Mysore, India. Another potentially significant outcome has been the IVEWG’s efforts to foster a formal dialog between IKI and NASA/PSD on the proposed Venera D mission resulting in a meeting in June 2013 to be followed by a discussion at the 4MS3 conference in October 2013. This has now resulted in an agreement between NASA/PSD and IKI to form a joint Science Definition Team for Venera D. A second pathway has been through an international focus on comparative climatology. Scientists from the established space faring nations participated in a first international conference on Comparative Climatology for Terrestrial Planet (CCTP) in Boulder Colorado in June 2012 sponsored by several international scientific organizations. A second conference is planned for 2015. The Planetary Robotics Exploration Coordinating Group (PRECG) of International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) the IAA has been focusing on exploring affordable contributions to the robotic exploration by non-space-faring nations wishing to get involved in planetary exploration. PRECG has sponsored a two year study of Comparative Climatology for which Venus is the focal point and focused on engaging nations without deep space exploration capabilities. A third

  16. Effects of test stress during an objective structured clinical examination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Niu; Rabatsky, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective The existence of test stress has been widely reported among professional students. To our knowledge, no studies exist that explore student stress response to objective structured clinical examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between stress and objective structured clinical examination performance in a sample of chiropractic students. Methods A total of 116 students completed a 2-part questionnaire to assess test stress and the physiological symptoms and signs of stress. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic were measured during the physical examination laboratory class within the first 3 weeks and then again just prior to their objective structured clinical examination in week 5. Statistical tests were then performed for questionnaire data, heart rate and blood pressure differences, and correlation between the objective structured clinical examination grade and symptoms and signs. Results Questionnaire results showed that 5.1%–22.4% of students sometimes or often felt a certain degree of stress. More than 50% had 1 or more physiological symptoms and signs of stress. The objective structured clinical examination heart rate (75.23 ± 11.20 vs 68.16 ± 8.82, p < .001), systolic blood pressure (120.43 ± 9.59 vs 114.97 ± 11.83, p < .001), and diastolic blood pressure (73.00 ± 7.93 vs 69.32 ± 7.76, p < .001) were significantly higher than baseline. There were also negative linear correlations between objective structured clinical examination grades and physiological symptoms and signs and between objective structured clinical examination grades and feeling statement score. Conclusion The results support our hypothesis that chiropractic students experience stress when performing the objective structured clinical examination and that high levels of stress had a negative impact on performance. PMID:25806413

  17. Human exploration and settlement of Mars - The roles of humans and robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific objectives and strategies for human settlement on Mars are examined in the context of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integrated strategy for humans and robots in the exploration and settlement of Mars is examined. Such an effort would feature robotic, telerobotic, and human-supervised robotic phases.

  18. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  19. STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.

  20. Exploring Venus: the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, A.; Atreya, S.; Thompson, T.; Luhmann, J.; Mackwell, S.; Baines, K.; Cutts, J.; Robinson, J.; Saunders, S.

    In July 2005 NASA s Planetary Division established the Venus Exploration Analysis Group VEXAG http www lpi usra edu vexag in order to engage the scientific community at large in identifying scientific priorities and strategies for the exploration of Venus VEXAG is a community-based forum open to all interested in the exploration of Venus VEXAG was designed to provide scientific input and technology development plans for planning and prioritizing the study of Venus over the next several decades including a Venus surface sample return VEXAG regularly evaluates NASA s Venus exploration goals scientific objectives investigations and critical measurement requirements including the recommendations in the National Research Council Decadal Survey and NASA s Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap VEXAG will take into consideration the latest scientific results from ESA s Venus Express mission and the MESSENGER flybys as well as the results anticipated from JAXA s Venus Climate Orbiter together with science community inputs from venues such as the February 13-16 2006 AGU Chapman Conference to identify the scientific priorities and strategies for future NASA Venus exploration VEXAG is composed of two co-chairs Sushil Atreya University of Michigan Ann Arbor and Janet Luhmann University of California Berkeley VEXAG has formed three focus groups in the areas of 1 Planetary Formation and Evolution Surface and Interior Volcanism Geodynamics etc Focus Group Lead Steve Mackwell LPI 2 Atmospheric Evolution Dynamics Meteorology