Science.gov

Sample records for examination nde reliability

  1. Nondestructive examination (NDE) reliability for inservice inspection of light waters reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Deffenbaugh, J.D.; Good, M.S.; Green, E.R.; Heasler, P.G.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T. )

    1989-11-01

    Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to ASME Code and Regulatory requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel, and other inspected components. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from April 1988 through September 1988. 33 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Nondestructive examination (NDE) reliability for inservice inspection of light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V. )

    1992-05-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to ASME Code and Regulatory requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel, and other components inspected in accordance with Section 11 of the ASME Code. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from October 1989 through September 1990.

  3. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Semiannual report, October 1990--March 1991: Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to the Regulatory and ASME Code requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties.

  4. Assessment of NDE Reliability Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Chang, F. H.; Covchman, J. C.; Lemon, G. H.; Packman, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty sets of relevant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) reliability data have been identified, collected, compiled, and categorized. A criterion for the selection of data for statistical analysis considerations has been formulated. A model to grade the quality and validity of the data sets has been developed. Data input formats, which record the pertinent parameters of the defect/specimen and inspection procedures, have been formulated for each NDE method. A comprehensive computer program has been written to calculate the probability of flaw detection at several confidence levels by the binomial distribution. This program also selects the desired data sets for pooling and tests the statistical pooling criteria before calculating the composite detection reliability. Probability of detection curves at 95 and 50 percent confidence levels have been plotted for individual sets of relevant data as well as for several sets of merged data with common sets of NDE parameters.

  5. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Semiannual report, April 1992--September 1992: Volume 16

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Diaz, A.A.; Friley, J.R.; Greenwood, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V.

    1993-11-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs);using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to the Regulatory and ASME Code requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel and other components inspected in accordance with Section XI of the ASME Code. This is a programs report covering the programmatic work from April 1992 through September 1992.

  6. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Volume 14, Semiannual report, April 1991--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Diaz, A.A.; Friley, J.R.; Good, M.S.; Greenwood, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWR`s); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to the Regulatory and ASME Code requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel, and other components inspected in accordance with Section XI of the ASME Code. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from April 1991 through September 1991.

  7. Nondestructive examination (NDE) reliability for inservice inspection of light water reactors. Annual report, October 1989--September 1990: Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V.

    1992-05-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to ASME Code and Regulatory requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel, and other components inspected in accordance with Section 11 of the ASME Code. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from October 1989 through September 1990.

  8. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Volume 15, Semiannual report: October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Diaz, A.A.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to ASME Code and Regulatory requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel, and other components inspected in accordance with Section XI of the ASME Code. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from October 1991 through March 1992.

  9. Assessment of NDE reliability data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Couchman, J. C.; Chang, F. H.; Packman, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty sets of relevant nondestructive test (NDT) reliability data were identified, collected, compiled, and categorized. A criterion for the selection of data for statistical analysis considerations was formulated, and a model to grade the quality and validity of the data sets was developed. Data input formats, which record the pertinent parameters of the defect/specimen and inspection procedures, were formulated for each NDE method. A comprehensive computer program was written and debugged to calculate the probability of flaw detection at several confidence limits by the binomial distribution. This program also selects the desired data sets for pooling and tests the statistical pooling criteria before calculating the composite detection reliability. An example of the calculated reliability of crack detection in bolt holes by an automatic eddy current method is presented.

  10. Reliably Detectable Flaw Size for NDE Methods that Use Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-01-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-1823 and associated mh1823 POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. In this paper, POD analysis is applied to an NDE method, such as eddy current testing, where calibration is used. NDE calibration standards have known size artificial flaws such as electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches and flat bottom hole (FBH) reflectors which are used to set instrument sensitivity for detection of real flaws. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. Therefore, it is important to correlate signal responses from real flaws with signal responses form artificial flaws used in calibration process to determine reliably detectable flaw size.

  11. Conclusions of the 6th European American Workshop on reliability of NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Christina; Bertovic, Marija; Kanzler, Daniel; Ronneteg, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    The principles of Open Space Technology (OST) were again applied to discuss burning issues in the field of NDE reliability. The results of the discussions among NDE professionals concerning new reliability methods, human factors and integrated solutions will be presented.

  12. Integration of NDE Reliability and Fracture Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F. L.; Doctor, S. R.; Heas!er, P. G.; Morris, C. J.; Pitman, S. G.; Selby, G. P.; Simonen, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a four-phase program for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of in-service inspection (lSI} performed on the primary system piping welds of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). Phase I of the program is complete. A survey was made of the state of practice for ultrasonic rsr of LWR primary system piping welds. Fracture mechanics calculations were made to establish required nondestrutive testing sensitivities. In general, it was found that fatigue flaws less than 25% of wall thickness would not grow to failure within an inspection interval of 10 years. However, in some cases failure could occur considerably faster. Statistical methods for predicting and measuring the effectiveness and reliability of lSI were developed and will be applied in the "Round Robin Inspections" of Phase II. Methods were also developed for the production of flaws typical of those found in service. Samples fabricated by these methods wilI be used in Phase II to test inspection effectiveness and reliability. Measurements were made of the influence of flaw characteristics {i.e., roughness, tightness, and orientation) on inspection reliability. These measurernents, as well as the predictions of a statistical model for inspection reliability, indicate that current reporting and recording sensitivities are inadequate.

  13. Uncertainties in NDE Reliability and Assessing the Impact on RI-ISI

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-08-01

    A major thrust in the past 20 years has been to upgrade nondestructive examinations (NDE) for use in inservice inspection (ISI) programs to more effectively manage degradation at operating nuclear power plants. Risk-informed ISI (RI-ISI) is one of the outcomes of this work, and this approach relies heavily on the reliability of NDE, when properly applied, to detect sources of expected degradation. There have been a number of improvements in the reliability of NDE, specifically in ultrasonic testing (UT), through training of examiners, and improved equipment and procedure development. However, the most significant improvements in UT were derived by moving from prescriptive requirements to performance based requirements. Even with these substantial improvements, NDE contains significant uncertainties and RI-ISI programs need to address and accommodate this factor. As part of the work that PNNL is conducting for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, we are examining the impact of these uncertainties on the effectiveness of RI-ISI programs.

  14. NDE reliability and probability of detection (POD) evolution and paradigm shift

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surendra

    2014-02-18

    The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed “Have Cracks – Will Travel” or in short “Have Cracks” by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974–1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823A (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (Gage R and R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using

  15. NDE reliability and probability of detection (POD) evolution and paradigm shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surendra

    2014-02-01

    The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed "Have Cracks - Will Travel" or in short "Have Cracks" by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974-1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823A (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability &Reproducibility (Gage R&R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using Integrated

  16. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-6, Radiography Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains radiographic inspection as a means of nondestructively examining components, assemblies, structures, and fabricated piping. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  17. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-6, Radiography Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains radiographic inspection as a means of nondestructively examining components, assemblies, structures, and fabricated piping. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  18. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-4, Liquid Penetrant Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes liquid penetrant examination which provides an effective method of detecting undesired, invisible surface discontinuities. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  19. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-1, Visual Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasil, Ed

    This first in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes visual examination as an independent inspection activity. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5)…

  20. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Detection and Characterization of Degradation Precursors, Technical Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, P.; Meyer, R.M.; Fricke, J.M.; Prowant, M.S.; Coble, J.B.; Griffin, J.W.; Pitman, S.G.; Dahl, M.E.; Kafentzis, T.A.; Roosendaal, T.J.

    2012-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) technology in detecting material degradation precursors by initiating and growing cracks in selected materials and using NDE methods to measure crack precursors prior to the onset of cracking. Nuclear reactor components are subject to stresses over time that are not precisely known and that make the life expectancy of components difficult to determine. To prevent future issues with the operation of these plants because of unforeseen failure of components, NDE technology is needed that can be used to identify and quantify precursors to macroscopic degradation of materials. Some of the NDE methods being researched as possible solutions to the precursor detection problem are magnetic Barkhausen noise, nonlinear ultrasonics, acoustic emission, eddy current measurements, and guided wave technology. In FY12, the objective was to complete preliminary assessment of advanced NDE techniques for sensitivity to degradation precursors, using prototypical degradation mechanisms in laboratory-scale measurements. This present document reports on the deliverable that meets the following milestone: M3LW-12OR0402143 – Report detailing an initial demonstration on samples from the crack-initiation tests will be provided (demonstrating acceleration of the work).

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  2. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-5, Fundamentals of Radiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fifth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains the radiographic process, from radiation source selection to equipment and specimen selection and arrangement, and film processing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  4. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-2, Leak Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This second in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the predominantly used leak test methods in nuclear power plants. More specifically, the module describes these test methods, the testing techniques, and the associated quality assurance requirements. The module follows a typical…

  5. NDE research efforts at the FAA Center for Aviation Systems Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Donald O.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration-Center for Aviation Systems Reliability (FAA-CASR), a part of the Institute for Physical Research and Technology at Iowa State University, began operation in the Fall of 1990 with funding from the FAA. The mission of the FAA-CASR is to develop quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for aircraft structures and materials including prototype instrumentation, software, techniques, and procedures and to develop and maintain comprehensive education and training programs in aviation specific inspection procedures and practices. To accomplish this mission, FAA-CASR brings together resources from universities, government, and industry to develop a comprehensive approach to problems specific to the aviation industry. The problem areas are targeted by the FAA, aviation manufacturers, the airline industry and other members of the aviation business community. This consortium approach ensures that the focus of the efforts is on relevant problems and also facilitates effective transfer of the results to industry.

  6. NDE research efforts at the FAA Center for Aviation Systems Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Donald O.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration-Center for Aviation Systems Reliability (FAA-CASR), a part of the Institute for Physical Research and Technology at Iowa State University, began operation in the Fall of 1990 with funding from the FAA. The mission of the FAA-CASR is to develop quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for aircraft structures and materials including prototype instrumentation, software, techniques, and procedures and to develop and maintain comprehensive education and training programs in aviation specific inspection procedures and practices. To accomplish this mission, FAA-CASR brings together resources from universities, government, and industry to develop a comprehensive approach to problems specific to the aviation industry. The problem areas are targeted by the FAA, aviation manufacturers, the airline industry and other members of the aviation business community. This consortium approach ensures that the focus of the efforts is on relevant problems and also facilitates effective transfer of the results to industry.

  7. An International Round-Robin Test of NDE Reliability for PWSCC

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, George J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moyer, Carol E.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe the round robin tests that have been designed and are being conducted in the international program. Participants in the PINC have offered more than 30 test blocks for use in round-robin tests of NDE effectiveness. The test blocks have more than 130 flaws in nickel-base weld metal that are intended to simulate PWSCC in a variety of component geometries. NDE techniques representative of current in-service inspections are being applied, along with emerging NDE approaches.

  8. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-6, Operation of Eddy Current Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This sixth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II details eddy current examination of steam generator tubing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  9. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-6, Operation of Eddy Current Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This sixth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II details eddy current examination of steam generator tubing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  10. Automated thermal impedance scanning (ATIS) system for NDE (nondestructive examination) of coatings on turbine engine parts

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Voyles, J.W.; Prati, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings have been gaining increased application throughout industry in recent years. The quality of the coating-to-substrate bond is of prime importance in many of these applications. This paper describes an Automatic Thermal Impedance Scanning (ATIS) system to provide completely automatic nondestructive examination (NDE) for thermal spray coating bonds in turbine engine parts. This system is being installed as part of an experimental automated production facility at the Teledyne CAE plant in Gainesville, GA. Thermal spray processes utilize a hot, high velocity gas stream to heat either a powder or wire to a plastic or molten state. The high velocity gas accelerates the hot particles to a high velocity before they are allowed to impact the surface to be coated. These particles adhere to the previously roughened surface (grit blast) by predominantly mechanical means. In some cases, depending on the part material and material sprayed, a quasi metallurgical bond can be formed. 19 figs.

  11. Progress in evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination reliability for inservice inspection of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and characterize fabrication flaws in reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Bowey, R.E.; Good, M.S.; Friley, J.R.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Taylor, T.T.; Heasler, P.G.; Andersen, E.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Greenwood, M.S.; Hockey, R.L.; Schuster, G.J.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V.

    1991-10-01

    This paper is a review of the work conducted under two programs. One (NDE Reliability Program) is a multi-year program addressing the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for the inservice inspection (ISI) of light water reactor components. This program examines the reliability of current NDE, the effectiveness of evolving technologies, and provides assessments and recommendations to ensure that the NDE is applied at the right time, in the right place with sufficient effectiveness that defects of importance to structural integrity will be reliably detected and accurately characterized. The second program (Characterizing Fabrication Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessels) is assembling a data base to quantify the distribution of fabrication flaws that exist in US nuclear reactor pressure vessels with respect to density, size, type, and location. These programs will be discussed as two separate sections in this report. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-7, Radiographic Specifications and Code Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This seventh in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes radiographic specifications and code requirements. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-1, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Bruce

    This first in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II introduces the student/trainee to the basic behavior of ultrasound, describes ultrasonic test equipment, and outlines the principal methods of ultrasonic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  14. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-2, Operation of Ultrasonic Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This second in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II describes specific ultrasonic test techniques and calibration principles. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  15. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-5, Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the fundamental concepts applicable to eddy current testing in general. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  16. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-7, Radiographic Specifications and Code Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This seventh in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes radiographic specifications and code requirements. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  17. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II. Module 32-3, Fundamentals of Magnetic Particle Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This third in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II explains the principles of magnets and magnetic fields and how they are applied in magnetic particle testing, describes the theory and methods of magnetizing test specimens, describes the test equipment used, discusses the principles and…

  18. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  19. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-5, Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the fundamental concepts applicable to eddy current testing in general. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  20. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-2, Operation of Ultrasonic Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This second in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II describes specific ultrasonic test techniques and calibration principles. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-1, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Bruce

    This first in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II introduces the student/trainee to the basic behavior of ultrasound, describes ultrasonic test equipment, and outlines the principal methods of ultrasonic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  2. NDE detectability of fatigue-type cracks in high-strength alloys: NDI reliability assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, Brent K.; Long, Donald L.; Rummel, Ward D.

    1988-01-01

    This program was conducted to generate quantitative flaw detection capability data for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques typically practiced by aerospace contractors. Inconel 718 and Haynes 188 alloy test specimens containing fatigue flaws with a wide distribution of sizes were used to assess the flaw detection capabilities at a number of contractor and government facilities. During this program 85 inspection sequences were completed presenting a total of 20,994 fatigue cracks to 53 different inspectors. The inspection sequences completed included 78 liquid penetrant, 4 eddy current, and 3 ultrasonic evaluations. The results of the assessment inspections are presented and discussed. In generating the flaw detection capability data base, procedures for data collection, data analysis, and specimen care and maintenance were developed, demonstrated, and validated. The data collection procedures and methods that evolved during this program for the measurement of flaw detection capabilities and the effects of inspection variables on performance are discussed. The Inconel 718 and Haynes 188 test specimens that were used in conducting this program and the NDE assessment procedures that were demonstrated, provide NASA with the capability to accurately assess the flaw detection capabilities of specific inspection procedures being applied or proposed for use on current and future fracture control hardware program.

  3. On the Reliability of Categorically Scored Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupermintz, Haggai

    2004-01-01

    A decision-theoretic approach to the question of reliability in categorically scored examinations is explored. The concepts of true scores and errors are discussed as they deviate from conventional psychometric definitions and measurement error in categorical scores is cast in terms of misclassifications. A reliability measure based on…

  4. ORCHID - a computer simulation of the reliability of an NDE inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Moles, M.D.C.

    1987-03-01

    CANDU pressurized heavy water reactors contain several hundred horizontally-mounted zirconium alloy pressure tubes. Following a pressure tube failure, a pressure tube inspection system called CIGARette was rapidly designed, manufactured and put in operation. Defects called hydride blisters were found to be the cause of the failure, and were detected using a combination of eddy current and ultrasonic scans. A number of improvements were made to CIGARette during the inspection period. The ORCHID computer program models the operation of the delivery system, eddy current and ultrasonic systems by imitating the on-reactor decision-making procedure. ORCHID predicts that during the early stage of development, less than one blistered tube in three would be detected, while less than one in two would be detected in the middle development stage. However, ORCHID predicts that during the late development stage, probability of detection will be over 90%, primarily due to the inclusion of axial ultrasonic scans (a procedural modification). Rotational and axial slip could severely reduce probability of detection. Comparison of CIGARette's inspection data with ORCHID's predictions indicate that the latter are compatible with the actual inspection results, through the numbers are small and data uncertain. It should be emphasized that the CIGARette system has been essentially replaced with the much more reliable CIGAR system.

  5. Examination of Single- and Multi-Channel GPR Bridge Deck Condition Assessment Methods with Comparison to Complementary NDE Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Francisco A.; Manacorda, Guido; Simi, Alessandro; Gucunski, Nenad; Parvardeh, Hooman

    2013-04-01

    other NDE technologies. Not only did all the single- and multi-channel system comparisons generate nearly identical deterioration maps when GPR results were compared and examined, but mapped results obtained from other NDE methods on the same deck were used to identify zones where corrosive environment (electrical resistivity - ER) elastic modulus (ultrasonic surface wave - USW), and identified delaminations (impact-echo - IE) had commonality with the GPR results. A summary of the equipment used, as well as general data collection and analysis procedures is provided for the GPR condition assessments. Brief descriptions of background and references to how the complementary NDT technologies are deployed, and how data are interpreted, are also discussed. Comparative maps for all technologies are used for illustrative purposes.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Jim Landy, NDE specialist, examines flight crew lockers using flash thermography. He is screening the lockers for hidden damage underneath dings and dents that might occur during handling.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Jim Landy, NDE specialist, examines flight crew lockers using flash thermography. He is screening the lockers for hidden damage underneath dings and dents that might occur during handling.

  7. Remote NDE using high- Tc SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, K.; Tsuduki, M.; Sakuta, K.; Itozaki, H.

    2007-10-01

    In nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using SQUID, the distance between a SQUID and a sample has been used to reduce as much as possible to improve the sensitivity. On the other hand, a remote NDE with a SQUID set several tens mm away from a sample was examined to detect a sample, to which a sensor head could not be close. A through-hole in an aluminum or steel plate was detected by the remote NDE with a SQUID. The signal from the defect up to 50 mm away from the SQUID was detected. This result shows that a remote SQUID-NDE is useful for NDE where a SQUID cannot be close.

  8. Nuclear Power Plant NDE Challenges - Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S. R.

    2007-03-21

    The operating fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants was built to fossil plant standards (of workmanship, not fitness for service) and with good engineering judgment. Fortuitously, those nuclear power plants were designed using defense-in-depth concepts, with nondestructive examination (NDE) an important layer, so they can tolerate almost any component failure and still continue to operate safely. In the 30+ years of reactor operation, many material failures have occurred. Unfortunately, NDE has not provided the reliability to detect degradation prior to initial failure (breaching the pressure boundary). However, NDE programs have been improved by moving from prescriptive procedures to performance demonstrations that quantify inspection effectiveness for flaw detection probability and sizing accuracy. Other improvements include the use of risk-informed strategies to ensure that reactor components contributing the most risk receive the best and most frequent inspections. Another challenge is the recent surge of interest in building new nuclear power plants in the United States to meet increasing domestic energy demand. New construction will increase the demand for NDE but also offers the opportunity for more proactive inspections. This paper reviews the inception and evolution of NDE for nuclear power plants over the past 40 years, recounts lessons learned, and describes the needs remaining as existing plants continue operation and new construction is contemplated.

  9. The reliability of physical examination for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marx, R G; Hudak, P L; Bombardier, C; Graham, B; Goldsmith, C; Wright, J G

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of static and moving two-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, Tinel's test, manual motor testing of abductor pollicis brevis, vibration and Phalen's test in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Twelve patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome were examined in an outpatient setting. The interobserver reliability was satisfactory for all tests except for Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing. Intraobserver reliability was also satisfactory for all tests. Static two point discrimination had higher reliability than moving two-point discrimination. Seven tests for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome were reliable in the hands of skilled health care professionals. Hand surgeons and hand therapists examined patients more reliably than occupational health workers.

  10. Public Perceptions of Reliability in Examination Results in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingping; Boyle, Andrew; Opposs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Building on findings from existing qualitative research into public perceptions of reliability in examination results in England, a questionnaire was developed and administered to samples of teachers, students and employers to study their awareness of and opinions about various aspects of reliability quantitatively. Main findings from the study…

  11. Assessing clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders: reliability of clinical examiners.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, S F; LeResche, L; DeRouen, T; Von Korff, M

    1990-05-01

    Data on interrater reliability in assessing a number of clinical signs commonly evaluated in the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is presented in this article. Four experienced dental hygienists who were field examiners for a large epidemiologic study of TMD and three experienced clinical TMD specialists (dentists) who are coinvestigators in the same study followed carefully detailed specifications and criteria for examination of TMD patients and pain-free controls. Excellent reliability was found for vertical range of motion measures and for summary indices measuring the overall presence of a clinical sign that could arise from several sources (for example, summary indices of muscle palpation pain). However, many clinical signs important in the differential diagnosis of subtypes of TMD were not measured with high reliability. In particular, assessment of pain in response to muscle palpation and identification of specific temporomandibular joint sounds seemed to be possible only with modest, sometimes marginal, reliability. These modest reliabilities could arise from examiner error because the clinical signs are themselves unreliable, changing spontaneously over time and making it difficult to find the same sign on successive examinations. The finding that, without calibration, experienced clinicians showed low reliability with other clinicians suggests the importance of establishing reliable clinical standards for the examination and diagnostic classification of TMD.

  12. Reliability of the hip examination in osteoarthritis: effect of standardization.

    PubMed

    Cibere, Jolanda; Thorne, Anona; Bellamy, Nicholas; Greidanus, Nelson; Chalmers, Andrew; Mahomed, Nizar; Shojania, Kam; Kopec, Jacek; Esdaile, John M

    2008-03-15

    To assess the reliability of the physical examination of the hip in osteoarthritis (OA) among rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons, and to evaluate the benefits of standardization. Thirty-five physical signs and techniques were evaluated using a 6 x 6 Latin square design. Subjects with mild to severe hip OA, based on physical and radiographic signs, were examined in random order prior to and following standardization of physical examination techniques. For dichotomous signs, agreement was calculated as the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK), whereas for continuous and ordinal signs a reliability coefficient was calculated using analysis of variance. A PABAK >0.60 and a reliability coefficient >0.80 were considered to indicate adequate reliability. Adequate post-standardization reliability was achieved for 25 (71%) of 35 signs. The most highly reliable signs included true and apparent leg length discrepancy > or =1.5 cm; hip flexion, abduction, adduction, and extension strength; log roll test for hip pain; internal rotation and flexion range of motion; and Thomas test for flexion contracture. The standardization process was associated with substantial improvements in reliability for a number of physical signs, although minimal or no change was noted for some. Only 1 sign, Trendelenburg's sign, was highly unreliable post-standardization. With the exception of gait, a comprehensive hip examination can be performed with adequate reliability. Post-standardization reliability is improved compared with pre-standardization reliability for some physical signs. The application of these findings to future OA studies will contribute to improved outcome assessments in OA.

  13. A new approach to reliability assessment of dental caries examinations.

    PubMed

    Altarakemah, Yacoub; Al-Sane, Mona; Lim, Sungwoo; Kingman, Albert; Ismail, Amid I

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate reliability of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and identify sources of disagreement among eight Kuwaiti dentists with no prior knowledge of the system. A 90-min introductory e-course was introduced followed by an examination of extracted teeth using the ICDAS coding system on the first day. Then three sessions of clinical examinations were performed. This study only used the data from the last session where 705 tooth surfaces of 10 patients were examined to assess bias in caries examination and on which codes the examiners had the highest disagreement. Compared with the gold standard, we evaluated bias of the ICDAS coding using three approaches (Bland-Altman plot, maximum kappa statistic, and Bhapkar's chi-square test). Linear weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess interexaminer reliability. Marginal ICDAS distributions for most examiners were significantly different from that of the gold standard (bias present). The primary source of these marginal differences was misclassifying sound surfaces as noncavitated lesions. Interexaminer reliability of the 3-level ICDAS (codes 0, 1-2, and 3-6) classification ranged between 0.43 and 0.73, indicating evidence of substantial inconsistency between examiners. The primary source of examiner differences was agreeing on diagnosing noncavitated lesions. This study highlights the importance of assessing both systematic and random sources of examiner agreement to correctly interpret kappa measures of reliability. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  15. NDE: An effective approach to improved reliability and safety. A technology survey. [nondestructive testing of aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Technical abstracts are presented for about 100 significant documents relating to nondestructive testing of aircraft structures or related structural testing and the reliability of the more commonly used evaluation methods. Particular attention is directed toward acoustic emission; liquid penetrant; magnetic particle; ultrasonics; eddy current; and radiography. The introduction of the report includes an overview of the state-of-the-art represented in the documents that have been abstracted.

  16. Interobserver reliability of physical examination of shoulder girdle.

    PubMed

    Nomden, Jettie G; Slagers, Anton J; Bergman, Gert J D; Winters, Jan C; Kropmans, Thomas J B; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2009-04-01

    The object of this study was to assess interobserver reliability in 23 tests concerning physical examination of the shoulder girdle. A physical therapist and a physical therapist/manual therapist independently performed a physical examination of the shoulder girdle in 91 patients with shoulder complaints of varying severity and duration. The observers assessed 23 items in total: active and passive abductions, passive external rotation, hand in neck (HIN) test, hand in back (HIB) test, impingement test according to Neer, springing test of the first rib and joint play test of the acromioclavicular joint. The interobserver reliability was evaluated by means of a Cohen's Kappa, the weighted Kappa and the intraclass correlation (ICC). Criteria for acceptable reliability were: Kappa value>or=0.60, ICC>or=0.75 or an absolute agreement>or=80%. The results showed that Kappa values varied from 0.09 (springing test first rib, stiffness) to 0.66 (springing test first rib, pain), weighted Kappa varied from 0.35 (pain during HIB) to 0.73 (range of motion HIB) and ICC varied from 0.54 (abduction passive starting point painful arc) to 0.96 (active and passive ranges of motion in abduction). In total 11 (48%) items fulfilled the criteria of acceptable reliability. In conclusion, there appears to be a great deal of variation in the reliability of the tests used in the physical examination of the shoulder girdle. Over 50% of the tests did not meet the statistical criteria for acceptable reliability.

  17. Reliability of hip examination tests for femoroacetabular impingement.

    PubMed

    Ratzlaff, Charles; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Wong, Hubert; Li, Linda; Ezzat, Allison; Langford, Dolores; Esdaile, John M; Kennedy, Carol; Embley, Patrick; Caves, Darryl; Hopkins, Trish; Cibere, Jolanda

    2013-10-01

    To assess the interrater reliability of hip examination tests used to assess femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) among clinicians from different disciplines. Twelve subjects were examined by 9 clinicians using 12 hip tests drawn from a review of the literature and consultation with experts in hip pain and FAI. Examiners assessed both hips of each subject and were blinded to subject history. The order in which subjects were seen, the order of tests, and order of examination of the 2 hips within each subject were all randomized. Interrater reliability (IRR) for the 10 categorical tests was summarized using overall raw agreement (ORA), positive agreement (agreement on abnormal findings), and negative agreement (agreement on normal findings). An ORA of >0.75 was considered to indicate adequate reliability. For the 2 range of motion (ROM) outcomes, IRR was summarized using the median of the absolute difference (MAD) in measurements obtained by any 2 examiners on any patient. MAD reflects the "typical" difference (in degrees) between 2 raters. Adequate reliability (ORA >0.75) was achieved for 6 of the 10 hip examination tests with categorical outcomes. Positive agreement ranged from 0.35 to 0.84, while negative agreement ranged from 0.62 to 0.99. For the ROM outcomes, examiners were, on average, within 5° of each other for flexion and 7° for internal rotation. The results provide evidence that the most common hip examination tests would likely be sufficiently reliable to allow agreement between examiners when discriminating between painful FAI and normal hips in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Examiner Reliability of Fluorosis Scoring: A Comparison of Photographic and Clinical Examination Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Warren, John J.; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess and compare examiner reliability of clinical and photographic fluorosis examinations using the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) among children in the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS). Methods The IFS examined 538 children for fluorosis and dental caries at age 13 and obtained intra-oral photographs from nearly all of them. To assess examiner reliability, duplicate clinical examinations were conducted for 40 of the subjects. In addition, 200 of the photographs were scored independently for fluorosis by two examiners in a standardized manner. Fluorosis data were compared between examiners for the clinical exams and separately for the photographic exams, and a comparison was made between clinical and photographic exams. For all 3 comparisons, examiner reliability was assessed using kappa statistics at the tooth level. Results Inter-examiner reliability for the duplicate clinical exams on the sample of 40 subjects as measured by kappa was 0.59, while the repeat exams of the 200 photographs yielded a kappa of 0.64. For the comparison of photographic and clinical exams, inter-examiner reliability, as measured by weighted kappa, was 0.46. FRI scores obtained using the photographs were higher on average than those obtained from the clinical exams. Fluorosis prevalence was higher for photographs (33%) than found for clinical exam (18%). Conclusion Results suggest inter-examiner reliability is greater and fluorosis scores higher when using photographic compared to clinical examinations. PMID:22316120

  19. Neurology objective structured clinical examination reliability using generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Blood, Angela D; Park, Yoon Soo; Lukas, Rimas V; Brorson, James R

    2015-11-03

    This study examines factors affecting reliability, or consistency of assessment scores, from an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in neurology through generalizability theory (G theory). Data include assessments from a multistation OSCE taken by 194 medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Facets evaluated in this study include cases, domains, and items. Domains refer to areas of skill (or constructs) that the OSCE measures. G theory is used to estimate variance components associated with each facet, derive reliability, and project the number of cases required to obtain a reliable (consistent, precise) score. Reliability using G theory is moderate (Φ coefficient = 0.61, G coefficient = 0.64). Performance is similar across cases but differs by the particular domain, such that the majority of variance is attributed to the domain. Projections in reliability estimates reveal that students need to participate in 3 OSCE cases in order to increase reliability beyond the 0.70 threshold. This novel use of G theory in evaluating an OSCE in neurology provides meaningful measurement characteristics of the assessment. Differing from prior work in other medical specialties, the cases students were randomly assigned did not influence their OSCE score; rather, scores varied in expected fashion by domain assessed. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Neurology objective structured clinical examination reliability using generalizability theory

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lukas, Rimas V.; Brorson, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines factors affecting reliability, or consistency of assessment scores, from an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in neurology through generalizability theory (G theory). Methods: Data include assessments from a multistation OSCE taken by 194 medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Facets evaluated in this study include cases, domains, and items. Domains refer to areas of skill (or constructs) that the OSCE measures. G theory is used to estimate variance components associated with each facet, derive reliability, and project the number of cases required to obtain a reliable (consistent, precise) score. Results: Reliability using G theory is moderate (Φ coefficient = 0.61, G coefficient = 0.64). Performance is similar across cases but differs by the particular domain, such that the majority of variance is attributed to the domain. Projections in reliability estimates reveal that students need to participate in 3 OSCE cases in order to increase reliability beyond the 0.70 threshold. Conclusions: This novel use of G theory in evaluating an OSCE in neurology provides meaningful measurement characteristics of the assessment. Differing from prior work in other medical specialties, the cases students were randomly assigned did not influence their OSCE score; rather, scores varied in expected fashion by domain assessed. PMID:26432851

  1. Examination of the UPDRS bradykinesia subscale: equivalence, reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Buck, Philip O; Wilson, Ronald E; Seeberger, Lauren C; Conner, Jill B; Castelli-Haley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Administering items or subscales separately from the measure for which they were designed to be a part may have unintended consequences for research and practice in Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study tested the equivalence of the bradykinesia subscale when administered alone versus as a component of the full 14-item Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor examination, as well as examined the reliability and validity of the bradykinesia subscale. The study sample consisted of 112 patients with PD. Patients were randomly assigned to either the bradykinesia subscale alone group (n = 56), who were administered the bradykinesia subscale separately from the rest of the UPDRS motor examination, or the full scale group (n = 56), who were administered the UPDRS motor examination in its standard format. The two one-sided t-test (TOST) procedure was used to test for mean equivalency between the two administration groups. Additionally, reliability and validity analyses were performed. The bradykinesia subscale mean scores from the full scale group and the subscale alone group were not statistically equivalent. However, in both groups, the bradykinesia subscale had exceptional reliability and was strongly and similarly related to age, activities of daily living, disability, and other assessments of motor symptom severity. The bradykinesia subscale is a valid and reliable assessment when administered separately from the rest of the UPDRS motor examination; however, caution should be taken when comparing mean scores across studies or occasions when different administrations are used.

  2. Are Specialist Certification Examinations a Reliable Measure of Physician Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, V. C.; Norman, G. R.; Schmidt, H. G.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    High stakes postgraduate specialist certification examinations have considerable implications for the future careers of examinees. Medical colleges and professional boards have a social and professional responsibility to ensure their fitness for purpose. To date there is a paucity of published data about the reliability of specialist certification…

  3. Examiner reliability of fluorosis scoring: a comparison of photographic and clinical examination findings.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To assess and compare examiner reliability of clinical and photographic fluorosis examinations using the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) among children in the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS). The IFS examined 538 children for fluorosis and dental caries at age 13 and obtained intraoral photographs from nearly all of them. To assess examiner reliability, duplicate clinical examinations were conducted for 40 of the subjects. In addition, 200 of the photographs were scored independently for fluorosis by two examiners in a standardized manner. Fluorosis data were compared between examiners for the clinical exams and separately for the photographic exams, and a comparison was made between clinical and photographic exams. For all three comparisons, examiner reliability was assessed using kappa statistics at the tooth level. Interexaminer reliability for the duplicate clinical exams on the sample of 40 subjects as measured by kappa was 0.59, while the repeat exams of the 200 photographs yielded a kappa of 0.64. For the comparison of photographic and clinical exams, interexaminer reliability, as measured by weighted kappa, was 0.46. FRI scores obtained using the photographs were higher on average than those obtained from the clinical exams. Fluorosis prevalence was higher for photographs (33 percent) than found for clinical exam (18 percent). Results suggest that interexaminer reliability is greater and fluorosis scores are higher when using photographic compared with clinical examinations. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Introduction - The science and technology of NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, J. D.

    NDE is an emerging engineering discipline encompassing quantitative measurement techniques, physical models for computational analysis, statistical considerations, quantitative design of measurement systems, and reliability analyses. Attention is here given to the development status of such NDE procedures as LF and HF eddy currents, sonic and ultrasonics, X-ray radiography, neutron radiography, magnetic particle methods, laser-based optical methods, X-ray diffraction, thermal-wave imaging, and acoustic emission.

  5. Inter-Examiner Reliability in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Daniel R.; Nichols, Jason J.; Nichols, Kelly K

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated inter-examiner reliability in grading of clinical variables associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in real-time examination versus a graded digital image. Methods. Meibography grading of meibomian gland atrophy and acini appearance, and slit-lamp grading of lid debris and telangiectasias were conducted on 410 post-menopausal women. Meibography and slit-lamp photos were captured digitally and saved for analysis by a masked examiner. Gland atrophy was graded as a proportion of partial glands in the lower lid, and acini appearance by the presence/absence of grape-like clusters. Lid debris and telangiectasias were graded based on severity and quantity from the same image, respectively. Observed agreement and weighted kappas (κw) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) determined the degree of inter-examiner reliability between grading of these clinical variables in real-time examination and digital photographs using a multiple-point categorical scale. Results. Observed agreement was determined for telangiectasias (40.6%), lid debris (50.9%), gland dropout (42.8%), and acini appearance (54.5%). Inter-examiner reliability for the four clinical outcomes ranged from fair agreement for acini appearance (κw = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.14–0.32) and lid debris (κw = 0.24, 0.16–0.32) to moderate agreement for gland dropout (κw = 0.50, 0.40–0.59) and telangiectasias (κw = 0.47, 0.39–0.55). Conclusions. Gland dropout and potentially lid telangiectasia grading from a photograph are more representative of grading in a real-time examination compared to acini appearance and lid debris. Alternative grading scales and/or clinical variables associated with MGD should be addressed in future studies. PMID:22499983

  6. The role of NDE in ceramic turbine engine component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, Janet

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) throughout the ceramic engine component development cycle is necessary to achieve the high reliability required for turbine engine applications. Specifically, NDE techniques must be developed and applied to component design, development, fabrication, and test to ensure adequate materials characterization. This approach has the potential of reducing ceramic component cost by optimizing the initial design and eliminating unacceptable components early in the fabrication cycle. Although research NDE techniques have been developed that have the potential to solve the problems of ceramic component inspection, systematic application of these NDE techniques for inspection and process control has not yet occurred. The application of NDE techniques for both material characterization and flaw detection is discussed as well as an approach for applying NDE throughout the fabrication process to achieve highly reliable ceramic components.

  7. Development of NDE methods for hot gas filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Lee, H.; Spohnholtz, T.; Sun, J. G.

    1999-07-21

    Ceramic hot gas candle filters are currently under development for hot gas particulate cleanup in advanced coal-based power systems. The ceramic materials for these filters include nonoxide monolithic, nonoxide-fiber-reinforced composites, and nonoxide reticulated foam. A concern is the lack of reliable data on which to base decisions for reusing or replacing hot gas filters during plant shutdowns. The work in this project is aimed at developing nondestructive evaluation (FIDE) technology to allow detection, and determination of extent, of life-limiting characteristics such as thermal fatigue, oxidation, damage from ash bridging such as localized cracking, damage from local burning, and elongation at elevated temperature. Although in-situ NDE methods are desirable in order to avoid disassembly of the candle filter vessels, the current vessel designs, the presence of filter cakes and possible ash bridging, and the state of NDE technology prevent this. Candle filter producers use a variety of NDE methods to ensure as-produced quality. While impact acoustic resonance offers initial promise for examining new as-produced filters and for detecting damage in some monolithic filters when removed from service, it presents difficulties in data interpretation, it lacks localization capability, and its applicability to composites has yet to be demonstrated. Additional NDE technologies being developed and evaluated in this program and whose applicability to both monolithics and composites has been demonstrated include (a) full-scale thermal imaging for analyzing thermal property variations; (b) fret, high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging for detecting density variations and dimensional changes; (c) air-coupled ultrasonic methods for determining through-thickness compositional variations; and (d) acoustic emission technology with mechanical loading for detecting localized bulk damage. New and exposed clay-bonded SiC filters and CVI-SiC composite filters have been tested with

  8. Proceedings of the 8th international conference on NDE in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 8th international conference on NDE in the nuclear industry. Topics covered include: NDE reliability and performance demonstration testing; In-service inspection---fuel support structures; NDE of stem generators; and PISC II.

  9. NDE simulations: critical tools in the integration of NDE and SHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. Bruce

    2009-03-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) are closely related technologies intended to assure the safe and reliable operation of structural components at an affordable cost. The paper will start with a brief review of common design strategies to assure the structural integrity of components and of the role that NDE and SHM play within those strategies. Included will be a discussion of the metrics used to quantify the effectiveness of NDE and SHM, such as probability of detection (POD), and how these metrics influence the selection of the optimal noninvasive strategy to assure structural integrity. In many cases, this will involve a combination of traditional NDE measurements performed at discrete time intervals and SHM measurements providing information on a continuous or semi-continuous basis at discrete sensor locations. It will then be suggested that NDE/SHM simulators are key engineering tools in designing these specific measurement configurations and in determining the optimum balance between these two measurement philosophies. Included in that discussion will be a review of the development of NDE simulators, a discussion of applications that they are finding in traditional NDE, including Model-Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD) determination, and a suggestion of how simulations could be integrated into SHM strategies. The paper will conclude with a discussion of possible future directions.

  10. NASA NDE Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The current activities in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Program are presented. The topics covered include organizational communications, orbital weld inspection, electric field imaging, fracture critical probability of detection validation, monitoring of thermal protection systems, physical and document standards, image quality indicators, integrity of composite pressure vessels, and NDE for additively manufactured components.

  11. Research and Evaluation of Advanced Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods for Addressing the Challenges of Inspecting Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2009-07-01

    This Conference paper is for submission to the 7th International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, in Yokohama, Japan Specifically, this paper is being presented at this Conference on May 12-14, 2009.

  12. What Makes Marking Reliable? Experiments with UK Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Greatorex, Jackie; Bell, John F.

    2004-01-01

    Marking reliability is purported to be produced by having an effective community of practice. No experimental research has been identified which attempts to verify empirically the aspects of a community of practice that have been observed to produce marking reliability. This research outlines what that community of practice might entail and…

  13. NDE Techniques Used in PARENT Open Round Robin Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.

    2014-11-05

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client describing the NDE techniques used in the open testing portion of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT).

  14. Developing NDE Techniques for Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Don; Starr, Stan; Youngquist, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Project: The Orion Crew Module (CM) and Service Module (SM) subsystems will require approximately 870 tube welds to be fabricated onsite at KSC O&C High Bay. A quick and reliable NDE technique is required to ensure efficient assembly and superior weld quality.

  15. NDE of hybrid armor structures using acoustography

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Jaswinder S.; Pergantis, Charles G.

    2011-06-23

    The US Army is investigating the use of composite materials to deliver lightweight and more effective armor protection systems to soldiers and other army assets. However, widespread use of such hybrid armor will require a reliable but fast NDE methodology to ensure integrity of these components during manufacturing and while in service. Traditional ultrasonic inspection of such hybrid armor structures may prove to be very effective, but point-by-point ultrasonic scanning is inherently time-consuming and manufacturing slowdowns could develop in high-volume production of such armor systems. In this paper, we report on the application of acoustography for the NDE of hybrid armor structures. Acoustography differs from conventional ultrasonic testing in that test objects are inspected in full field, analogously to real time x-ray imaging. The approach uses a novel, super high resolution large area acousto-optic (AO) sensor, which allows image formation through simple ultrasound shadow casting, analogous to x-ray image formation. This NDE approach offers significant inspection speed advantage over conventional point-by-point ultrasonic scanning procedures and is well-suited for high volume production. We will report initial results on a number of hybrid armor plate specimens employing composite materials that are being investigated by the US Army. Acoustography NDE results will also be verified using other complimentary NDE methods.

  16. Overview of the program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques open testing and study of flaw type effect on NDE response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Komura, Ichiro; Kim, Kyung-cho; Zetterwall, Tommy; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2016-02-01

    In February 2012, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) executed agreements with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Japan (NRA, former JNES), Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), and Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) to establish the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT). The goal of PARENT is to investigate the effectiveness of current emerging and perspective novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of large-bore dissimilar metal welds (LBDMW), small-bore dissimilar metal welds (SBDMW), and bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetration weld test blocks. The purpose of blind testing is to study the reliability of more established techniques and included only qualified teams and procedures. The purpose of open testing is aimed at a more basic capability assessment of emerging and novel technologies. The range of techniques applied in open testing varied with respect to maturity and performance uncertainty and were applied to a variety of simulated flaws. This paper will include a brief overview of the PARENT blind and open testing techniques and test blocks and present some of the blind testing results.

  17. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.; Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed.

  18. Estimating Examination Failure Rates and Reliability Prior to Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Vergil M.

    Using estimates of item ease and item discrimination, procedures are provided for computing estimates of the reliability and percentage of failing scores for tests assembled from these items. Two assumptions are made: that the average item coefficient will be approximately equal to the average of the estimated coefficients and that the score…

  19. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Schmidt, Christa K.; Meek, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Explored variability in reliability scores on a career scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (K. Taylor and N. Betz, 1983). Of the 49 studies examined, 41% reported score reliabilities. Of the five subscales, Problem Solving shows the lowest score reliability. Higher score reliability is associated with age, racial/ethnic…

  20. Directed Design of Experiments (DOE) for Determining Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the problems that are encountered by designers of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) have in determining the probability of detection. According to the author "[the] NDE community should not blindly accept statistical results due to lack of knowledge." This is an attempt to bridge the gap between people doing NDE, and statisticians.

  1. Videotape Reliability: A Method of Evaluation of a Clinical Performance Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Liu, Philip

    1980-01-01

    A method of statistically analyzing clinical performance examinations for reliability and the application of this method in determining the reliability of two examinations of skill in administering anesthesia are described. Videotaped performances for the Spinal Anesthesia Skill Examination and the Anesthesia Setup and Machine Checkout Examination…

  2. Videotape Reliability: A Method of Evaluation of a Clinical Performance Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Liu, Philip

    1980-01-01

    A method of statistically analyzing clinical performance examinations for reliability and the application of this method in determining the reliability of two examinations of skill in administering anesthesia are described. Videotaped performances for the Spinal Anesthesia Skill Examination and the Anesthesia Setup and Machine Checkout Examination…

  3. RCC NDE Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) materials and the progress involved in bringing the technology to technological maturity. Included is information about the test specimens, thermographic, ultrasonic, eddy current, and radiographic inspection of RCC materials.

  4. Interrater reliability of the history and physical examination in patients with mechanical neck pain.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Joshua A; Childs, John D; Fritz, Julie M; Whitman, Julie M

    2006-10-01

    To examine the interrater reliability of the history and physical examination in patients with mechanical neck pain. Single-group repeated measures for interrater reliability. Outpatient physical therapy clinic. Twenty-two patients with mechanical neck pain underwent a standardized history and physical examination by a physical therapist. Following a 5-minute break, a second therapist who was blind to the findings of examiner 1 performed the second standardized history and physical examination. The Cohen kappa and weighted kappa were used to calculate the interrater reliability of ordinal level data from the history and physical examination. Intraclass correlation coefficients model 2,1 (ICC(2,1)) and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the interrater reliability for continuous variables. The kappa coefficients ranged from -.06 to .90 for the variables obtained from the history. Reliability values for categorical data collected during the physical examination ranged from no to substantial agreement depending on the particular test and measure. ICC(2,1) for cervical range of motion (ROM) measurements ranged between .66 and .78. We have reported the interrater reliability of the history and physical examination in a group of patients with a primary report of neck pain. The reliability variables varied considerably for manual assessment techniques and were significantly higher for the examination of muscle length and cervical ROM. Ultimately, it will be up to each clinician to determine if a particular test or measure poses adequate reliability to assist in the clinical decision making process.

  5. Inter-examiner classification reliability of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy for extremity problems - Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Kousuke; Rosedale, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) is used in the treatment of extremity problems. Classifying clinical problems is one method of providing effective treatment to a target population. Classification reliability is a key factor to determine the precise clinical problem and to direct an appropriate intervention. To explore inter-examiner reliability of the MDT classification for extremity problems in three reliability designs: 1) vignette reliability using surveys with patient vignettes, 2) concurrent reliability, where multiple assessors decide a classification by observing someone's assessment, 3) successive reliability, where multiple assessors independently assess the same patient at different times. Systematic review with data synthesis in a quantitative format. Agreement of MDT subgroups was examined using the Kappa value, with the operational definition of acceptable reliability set at ≥ 0.6. The level of evidence was determined considering the methodological quality of the studies. Six studies were included and all studies met the criteria for high quality. Kappa values for the vignette reliability design (five studies) were ≥ 0.7. There was data from two cohorts in one study for the concurrent reliability design and the Kappa values ranged from 0.45 to 1.0. Kappa values for the successive reliability design (data from three cohorts in one study) were < 0.6. The current review found strong evidence of acceptable inter-examiner reliability of MDT classification for extremity problems in the vignette reliability design, limited evidence of acceptable reliability in the concurrent reliability design and unacceptable reliability in the successive reliability design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interrater reliability of quantitative ultrasound using force feedback among examiners with varied levels of experience

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Catheeja; Monfaredi, Reza; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Pennington, Donte; Woletz, Paula; McIntosh, Valerie; Adams, Bernadette; Blackman, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quantitative ultrasound measures are influenced by multiple external factors including examiner scanning force. Force feedback may foster the acquisition of reliable morphometry measures under a variety of scanning conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of force-feedback image acquisition and morphometry over a range of examiner-generated forces using a muscle tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantom. Methods. Sixty material thickness measures were acquired from a muscle tissue mimicking phantom using B-mode ultrasound scanning by six examiners with varied experience levels (i.e., experienced, intermediate, and novice). Estimates of interrater reliability and measurement error with force feedback scanning were determined for the examiners. In addition, criterion-based reliability was determined using material deformation values across a range of examiner scanning forces (1–10 Newtons) via automated and manually acquired image capture methods using force feedback. Results. All examiners demonstrated acceptable interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .98, p < .001) for material thickness measures obtained using force feedback. Individual examiners exhibited acceptable reliability with the criterion-based reference measures (ICC > .90, p < .001), independent of their level of experience. The measurement error among all examiners was 1.5%–2.9% across all applied stress conditions. Conclusion. Manual image capture with force feedback may aid the reliability of morphometry measures across a range of examiner scanning forces, and allow for consistent performance among examiners with differing levels of experience. PMID:27366647

  7. Review of progress in quantitative NDE. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This booklet is composed of abstracts from papers submitted at a meeting on quantitative NDE. A multitude of topics are discussed including analysis of composite materials, NMR uses, x-ray instruments and techniques, manufacturing uses, neural networks, eddy currents, stress measurements, magnetic materials, adhesive bonds, signal processing, NDE of mechanical structures, tomography,defect sizing, NDE of plastics and ceramics, new techniques, optical and electromagnetic techniques, and nonlinear techniques. (GHH)

  8. Aural perception of NDE signals

    SciTech Connect

    Light, G.M.; Holt, A.E.; Polk, K.D.; Godwin, J.G.; Clayton, W.T.

    1994-12-31

    During nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of a material, the inspection signals are received typically by an NDE instrument. These signals usually are displayed electronically for visual interpretation. Work has been done to convert these signals into aural (audible) signals with the intent to enhance the accuracy of evaluation through the use of two senses (ears and eyes) instead of one. This paper describes auralization of ultrasonic NDE testing signals to improve characterization and evaluation of materials.

  9. Feasibility of thermal NDE methods for Naval thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Wandling, C.R.; Schmeller, M.D.; Sulit, R.A.

    1983-10-24

    Thermal spray coatings are widely used to prevent corrosion in metal structures. They are also used to repair and reduce wear in machinery. A feasibility demonstration has shown that infrared-thermal scanning can be applied to nondestructively examine the coating-to-substrate bonds in a variety of thermal spray coatings. Emissivity independent and thermal wave methods must be applied in some cases to eliminate the effects of local differences in surface conditions and coating thickness. Rough-surfaced coatings such as those used in anti-skid applications can have thickness varying from about 0.1 inch (3 mm) at peaks to less than 0.04 inch (1 mm) at valleys. Data showing the feasibility of detecting non-bonds even under such rough coatings is described in this paper. The present work is the first phase of a program to develop a generally applicable emissivity independent thermal NDE scanning system for thermal spray coatings. This work was sponsored by the US Naval Sea Systems Command Materials Research and Development Program. It was directed by the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard which is the lead shipyard for introduction and implementation of industrial thermal spray processes and equipment for Naval applications. High speed, low application cost, high reliability and ease of test interpretation are the prime goals for the final thermal scanning NDE system. The most advanced state-of-the-art methods using thermal wave analysis to make maximum use of the scan information are being incorporated.

  10. Reliability and Validity of a Breast Self-Examination Proficiency Rating Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robin Y.

    1994-01-01

    The reliability and validity of a newly constructed instrument, the Breast Self-Examination Proficiency Rating Instrument, was tested with 84 instructed and 80 uninstructed nursing students. Results support beginning reliability and preliminary validity when the instrument is used in a controlled setting. (SLD)

  11. Subjective Scoring of Divergent Thinking: Examining the Reliability of Unusual Uses, Instances, and Consequences Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvia, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined the reliability of three types of divergent thinking tasks (unusual uses, instances, consequences/implications) and two types of subjective scoring (an average across all responses vs. the responses people chose as their top-two responses) within a latent variable framework, using the maximal-reliability "H"…

  12. Subjective Scoring of Divergent Thinking: Examining the Reliability of Unusual Uses, Instances, and Consequences Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvia, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined the reliability of three types of divergent thinking tasks (unusual uses, instances, consequences/implications) and two types of subjective scoring (an average across all responses vs. the responses people chose as their top-two responses) within a latent variable framework, using the maximal-reliability "H"…

  13. Reliability of physical examination of the upper extremity among keyboard operators.

    PubMed

    Salerno, D F; Franzblau, A; Werner, R A; Chung, K C; Schultz, J S; Becker, M P; Armstrong, T J

    2000-04-01

    Physical examination is a traditional outcome measure in epidemiological research. Its value as a reliable measure depends, in part, on the prevalence of positive findings. The purpose of this paper is to determine the empirical reliability of physical examination and anthropometry in a field study of upper extremity disorders among keyboard operators. Two experienced examiners independently performed common provocative tests and procedures in physical examinations of the neck and upper extremity among 160 keyboard operators. Two additional examiners conducted anthropometric surveys among 137 workers. Inter-examiner reliability was assessed with observed agreement, kappa statistics, and intra-class correlations (ICC). Observed agreement was between 96% and 100% for neck and upper extremity signs, muscle stretch reflexes, and muscle strength, however, with the exception of provocative tests, reliability statistics were unstable. Among the provocative tests, Phalen and Tinel tests had modest agreement after adjusting for chance (kappa range: 0.20-0.43). The carpal compression test had the best reliability (kappa=0.60 and kappa=0.67, left and right side, respectively). The ICCs for anthropometry ranged from 0.36-0.91. Results from the study showed that statistically, except for the carpal compression test, physical examination contributed minimal reliable information. This was attributed mainly to the low prevalence of positive findings, and generally mild nature of upper extremity disorders in this population. The results are the best estimate of what would be found in a field study with experienced examiners. While it may reduce bias, separating physical examination from medical history may contribute to the poor reliability of findings. With a shift toward reliable measures, resources can be allocated to more effective tools, like questionnaires, in epidemiological research of upper extremity disorders among keyboard operators. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Ultrasonic arrays in NDE: Beyond the B-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    The primary outputs of ultrasonic arrays in NDE are B-scan images that mimic the mechanical scanning of a single-element transducer. An alternative, that has only become practically feasible in the last decade, is to capture the full matrix of raw array data from all transmit-receive element combinations and perform other operations in post-processing. This article examines the ways in which the full matrix of raw array data can be exploited to improve ultrasonic NDE.

  15. Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Nicholas; Macaskill, Petra; Irwig, Les; Moran, Robert; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    Trigger points are promoted as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain. There is no accepted reference standard for the diagnosis of trigger points, and data on the reliability of physical examination for trigger points are conflicting. To systematically review the literature on the reliability of physical examination for the diagnosis of trigger points. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other sources were searched for articles reporting the reliability of physical examination for trigger points. Included studies were evaluated for their quality and applicability, and reliability estimates were extracted and reported. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. None satisfied all quality and applicability criteria. No study specifically reported reliability for the identification of the location of active trigger points in the muscles of symptomatic participants. Reliability estimates varied widely for each diagnostic sign, for each muscle, and across each study. Reliability estimates were generally higher for subjective signs such as tenderness (kappa range, 0.22-1.0) and pain reproduction (kappa range, 0.57-1.00), and lower for objective signs such as the taut band (kappa range, -0.08-0.75) and local twitch response (kappa range, -0.05-0.57). No study to date has reported the reliability of trigger point diagnosis according to the currently proposed criteria. On the basis of the limited number of studies available, and significant problems with their design, reporting, statistical integrity, and clinical applicability, physical examination cannot currently be recommended as a reliable test for the diagnosis of trigger points. The reliability of trigger point diagnosis needs to be further investigated with studies of high quality that use current diagnostic criteria in clinically relevant patients.

  16. NDE applications in microelectronic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, N.; Oppermann, M.; Krueger, P.; Roellig, M.; Wolter, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    New concepts in assembly technology boost our daily life in an unknown way. High end semiconductor industry today deals with functional structures down to a few nanometers. ITRS roadmap predicts an ongoing decrease of the "DRAM half pitch" over the next decade. Packaging of course is not intended to realize pitches at the nanometer scale, but has to face the challenges of integrating such semiconductor devices with smallest pitch and high pin counts into systems. Advanced techniques of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with resolutions in volume better than 1 micrometer vixen size are urgently needed for the safety and reliability of electronic systems, especially those that are used in long living applications. The development speed of integrated circuits is still very high and is not expected to decrease in the next future. The integration density of microelectronic devices is increasing, the dimensions become smaller and the number of I/O's is getting higher. The development of new types of packages must be done with respect to reliability issues. Potential damage sources must be identified and finally avoided in the new packages. In power electronics production the condition monitoring receives a lot of interest to avoid electrical shortcuts, dead solder joints and interface cracking. It is also desired to detect and characterize very small defects like transportation phenomenon or Kirkendall voids. For this purpose, imaging technologies with resolutions in the sub-micron range are required.

  17. Model assisted qualification of NDE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballisat, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul; Smith, Robert; Hallam, David

    2017-02-01

    The costly and time consuming nature of empirical trials typically performed for NDE technique qualification is a major barrier to the introduction of NDE techniques into service. The use of computational models has been proposed as a method by which the process of qualification can be accelerated. However, given the number of possible parameters present in an inspection, the number of combinations of parameter values scales to a power law and running simulations at all of these points rapidly becomes infeasible. Given that many NDE inspections result in a single valued scalar quantity, such as a phase or amplitude, using suitable sampling and interpolation methods significantly reduces the number of simulations that have to be performed. This paper presents initial results of applying Latin Hypercube Designs and M ultivariate Adaptive Regression Splines to the inspection of a fastener hole using an oblique ultrasonic shear wave inspection. It is demonstrated that an accurate mapping of the response of the inspection for the variations considered can be achieved by sampling only a small percentage of the parameter space of variations and that the required percentage decreases as the number of parameters and the number of possible sample points increases. It is then shown how the outcome of this process can be used to assess the reliability of the inspection through commonly used metrics such as probability of detection, thereby providing an alternative methodology to the current practice of performing empirical probability of detection trials.

  18. Precise thermal NDE for quantifying structural damage

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.

    1995-09-18

    The authors demonstrated a fast, wide-area, precise thermal NDE imaging system to quantify aircraft corrosion damage, such as percent metal loss, above a threshold of 5% with 3% overall uncertainties. The DBIR precise thermal imaging and detection method has been used successfully to characterize defect types, and their respective depths, in aircraft skins, and multi-layered composite materials used for wing patches, doublers and stiffeners. This precise thermal NDE inspection tool has long-term potential benefits to evaluate the structural integrity of airframes, pipelines and waste containers. They proved the feasibility of the DBIR thermal NDE imaging system to inspect concrete and asphalt-concrete bridge decks. As a logical extension to the successful feasibility study, they plan to inspect a concrete bridge deck from a moving vehicle to quantify the volumetric damage within the deck and the percent of the deck which has subsurface delaminations. Potential near-term benefits are in-service monitoring from a moving vehicle to inspect the structural integrity of the bridge deck. This would help prioritize the repair schedule for a reported 200,000 bridge decks in the US which need substantive repairs. Potential long-term benefits are affordable, and reliable, rehabilitation for bridge decks.

  19. Inter-rater reliability of select physical examination procedures in patients with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Hanney, William J; George, Steven Z; Kolber, Morey J; Young, Ian; Salamh, Paul A; Cleland, Joshua A

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of select examination procedures in patients with neck pain (NP) conducted over a 24- to 48-h period. Twenty-two patients with mechanical NP participated in a standardized examination. One examiner performed standardized examination procedures and a second blinded examiner repeated the procedures 24-48 h later with no treatment administered between examinations. Inter-rater reliability was calculated with the Cohen Kappa and weighted Kappa for ordinal data while continuous level data were calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 (ICC2,1). Coefficients for categorical variables ranged from poor to moderate agreement (-0.22 to 0.70 Kappa) and coefficients for continuous data ranged from slight to moderate (ICC2,1 0.28-0.74). The standard error of measurement for cervical range of motion ranged from 5.3° to 9.9° while the minimal detectable change ranged from 12.5° to 23.1°. This study is the first to report inter-rater reliability values for select components of the cervical examination in those patients with NP performed 24-48 h after the initial examination. There was considerably less reliability when compared to previous studies, thus clinicians should consider how the passage of time may influence variability in examination findings over a 24- to 48-h period.

  20. Education Research: Bias and poor interrater reliability in evaluating the neurology clinical skills examination

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, L A.; London, Z; Neel, R; Brock, C; Kissela, B M.; Schultz, L; Gelb, D J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) has recently replaced the traditional, centralized oral examination with the locally administered Neurology Clinical Skills Examination (NEX). The ABPN postulated the experience with the NEX would be similar to the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise, a reliable and valid assessment tool. The reliability and validity of the NEX has not been established. Methods: NEX encounters were videotaped at 4 neurology programs. Local faculty and ABPN examiners graded the encounters using 2 different evaluation forms: an ABPN form and one with a contracted rating scale. Some NEX encounters were purposely failed by residents. Cohen’s kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for local vs ABPN examiners. Results: Ninety-eight videotaped NEX encounters of 32 residents were evaluated by 20 local faculty evaluators and 18 ABPN examiners. The interrater reliability for a determination of pass vs fail for each encounter was poor (kappa 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.53). ICC between local faculty and ABPN examiners for each performance rating on the ABPN NEX form was poor to moderate (ICC range 0.14-0.44), and did not improve with the contracted rating form (ICC range 0.09-0.36). ABPN examiners were more likely than local examiners to fail residents. Conclusions: There is poor interrater reliability between local faculty and American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examiners. A bias was detected for favorable assessment locally, which is concerning for the validity of the examination. Further study is needed to assess whether training can improve interrater reliability and offset bias. GLOSSARY ABIM = American Board of Internal Medicine; ABPN = American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology; CI = confidence interval; HFH = Henry Ford Hospital; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficients; IM = internal medicine; mini-CEX = Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise; NEX = Neurology Clinical

  1. Reliability and validity of current physical examination techniques of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, James S; Armstrong, David G

    2008-01-01

    This literature review was undertaken to evaluate the reliability and validity of the orthopedic, neurologic, and vascular examination of the foot and ankle. We searched PubMed-the US National Library of Medicine's database of biomedical citations-and abstracts for relevant publications from 1966 to 2006. We also searched the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. We identified 35 articles to review. For discussion purposes, we used reliability interpretation guidelines proposed by others. For the kappa statistic that calculates reliability for dichotomous (eg, yes or no) measures, reliability was defined as moderate (0.4-0.6), substantial (0.6-0.8), and outstanding (> 0.8). For the intraclass correlation coefficient that calculates reliability for continuous (eg, degrees of motion) measures, reliability was defined as good (> 0.75), moderate (0.5-0.75), and poor (< 0.5). Intraclass correlations, based on the various examinations performed, varied widely. The range was from 0.08 to 0.98, depending on the examination performed. Concurrent and predictive validity ranged from poor to good. Although hundreds of articles exist describing various methods of lower-extremity assessment, few rigorously assess the measurement properties. This information can be used both by the discerning clinician in the art of clinical examination and by the scientist in the measurement properties of reproducibility and validity.

  2. Image processing applications in NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) can be defined as a technique or collection of techniques that permits one to determine some property of a material or object without damaging the object. There are a large number of such techniques and most of them use visual imaging in one form or another. They vary from holographic interferometry where displacements under stress are measured to the visual inspection of an objects surface to detect cracks after penetrant has been applied. The use of image processing techniques on the images produced by NDE is relatively new and can be divided into three general categories: classical image enhancement; mensuration techniques; and quantitative sensitometry. An example is discussed of how image processing techniques are used to nondestructively and destructively test the product throughout its life cycle. The product that will be followed is the microballoon target used in the laser fusion program. The laser target is a small (50 to 100 ..mu..m - dia) glass sphere with typical wall thickness of 0.5 to 6 ..mu..m. The sphere may be used as is or may be given a number of coatings of any number of materials. The beads are mass produced by the millions and the first nondestructive test is to separate the obviously bad beads (broken or incomplete) from the good ones. After this has been done, the good beads must be inspected for spherocity and wall thickness uniformity. The microradiography of the glass, uncoated bead is performed on a specially designed low-energy x-ray machine. The beads are mounted in a special jig and placed on a Kodak high resolution plate in a vacuum chamber that contains the x-ray source. The x-ray image is made with an energy less that 2 keV and the resulting images are then inspected at a magnification of 500 to 1000X. Some typical results are presented.

  3. Reliability of the ADI-R: Multiple Examiners Evaluate a Single Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Lord, Catherine; Koenig, Kathy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the reliability of the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). Seven Clinical Examiners evaluated a three and one half year old female toddler suspected of being on the Autism Spectrum. Examiners showed agreement levels of 94-96% across all items, with weighted kappa (K[subscript w]) between 0.80 and 0.88. They were in 100%…

  4. Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians often rely on physical examination tests to guide them in the diagnostic process of knee disorders. However, reliability of these tests is often overlooked and may influence the consistency of results and overall diagnostic validity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in databases up to January 2016. Included studies needed to report reliability measures of at least one physical test for any knee disorder. Methodological quality was evaluated using the QAREL checklist. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence was performed. Thirty-three studies were included with a mean QAREL score of 5.5 ± 0.5. Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Thessaly test for meniscal injuries reached moderate inter-rater reliability (k = 0.54). Based on moderate to excellent quality evidence, the Lachman for anterior cruciate ligament injuries reached moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.42 to 0.81). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Tibiofemoral Crepitus, Joint Line and Patellofemoral Pain/Tenderness, Bony Enlargement and Joint Pain on Movement tests for knee osteoarthritis reached fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.29 to 0.93). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Lateral Glide, Lateral Tilt, Lateral Pull and Quality of Movement tests for patellofemoral pain reached moderate to good inter-rater reliability (k = 0.49 to 0.73). Many physical tests appear to reach good inter-rater reliability, but this is based on low-quality and conflicting evidence. High-quality research is required to evaluate the reliability of knee physical examination tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Examiner training and reliability in two randomized clinical trials of adult dental caries.

    PubMed

    Banting, David W; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gullion, Christina M; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V; Singh, Mabi L; Vollmer, William M

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra-examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Study examiners were trained to use a modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2), and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3,604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4 percent to 13.5 percent of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23-0.35), but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42-0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 versus D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90. Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classifications employed. The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Examiner Training and Reliability in Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Adult Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Banting, David W.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Bader, James D.; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gullion, Christina M.; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K.; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V.; Singh, Mabi L.; Vollmer, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra- examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Methods Study examiners were trained to use a modified ICDAS-II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2) and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. Results The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4% to 13.5% of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23– 0.35) but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42– 0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 vs. D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90.Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classification systems employed. Conclusion The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. PMID:22320292

  7. NDE detectability of fatigue type cracks in high strength alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, B. K.; Rummel, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Specimens suitable for investigating the reliability of production nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to detect tightly closed fatigue cracks in high strength alloys representative of those materials used in spacecraft engine/booster construction were produced. Inconel 718 was selected as representative of nickel base alloys and Haynes 188 was selected as representative of cobalt base alloys used in this application. Cleaning procedures were developed to insure the reusability of the test specimens and a flaw detection reliability assessment of the fluorescent penetrant inspection method was performed using the test specimens produced to characterize their use for future reliability assessments and to provide additional NDE flaw detection reliability data for high strength alloys. The statistical analysis of the fluorescent penetrant inspection data was performed to determine the detection reliabilities for each inspection at a 90% probability/95% confidence level.

  8. NDE: A key to engine rotor life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A key ingredient in the establishment of safe life times for critical components is the means of reliably detecting flaws which may potentially exist. Currently used nondestructive evaluation procedures are successful in detecting life limiting defects; however, the development of automated and computer aided NDE technology permits even greater assurance of flight safety.

  9. Second Conference on NDE for Aerospace Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, Kenneth W. (Compiler); Bryson, Craig C. (Compiler); Workman, Gary L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and inspection procedures must constantly improve rapidly in order to keep pace with corresponding advances being made in aerospace material and systems. In response to this need, the 1989 Conference was organized to provide a forum for discussion between the materials scientists, systems designers, and NDE engineers who produce current and future aerospace systems. It is anticipated that problems in current systems can be resolved more quickly and that new materials and structures can be designed and manufactured in such a way as to be more easily inspected and to perform reliably over the life cycle of the system.

  10. NDE of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic, ultrasonic, and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) techniques were used to characterize silicon nitride and silicon carbide modulus-of-rupture test specimens in various stages of fabrication. Conventional and microfocus X-ray techniques were found capable of detecting minute high-density inclusions in as-received powders, green compacts, and fully densified specimens. Significant density gradients in sintered bars were observed by radiography, ultrasonic velocity, and SLAM. Ultrasonic attenuation was found sensitive to microstructural variations due to grain and void morphology and distribution. SLAM was capable also of detecting voids, inclusions, and cracks in finished test bars. Consideration is given to the potential for applying thermoacoustic microscopy techniques to green and densified ceramics. Some limitations and the detection probability statistics of the aforementioned nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes are also discussed.

  11. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination.

    PubMed

    Winters, M; Bakker, E W P; Moen, M H; Barten, C C; Teeuwen, R; Weir, A

    2017-02-08

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using history and physical examination. We also investigated if clinicians were able to reliably identify concurrent lower leg injuries. A clinical reliability study was performed at multiple sports medicine sites in The Netherlands. Athletes with non-traumatic lower leg pain were assessed for having MTSS by two clinicians, who were blinded to each others' diagnoses. We calculated the prevalence, percentage of agreement, observed percentage of positive agreement (Ppos), observed percentage of negative agreement (Pneg) and Kappa-statistic with 95%CI. Forty-nine athletes participated in this study, of whom 46 completed both assessments. The prevalence of MTSS was 74%. The percentage of agreement was 96%, with Ppos and Pneg of 97% and 92%, respectively. The inter-rater reliability was almost perfect; k=0.89 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.00), p<0.000001. Of the 34 athletes with MTSS, 11 (32%) had a concurrent lower leg injury, which was reliably noted by our clinicians, k=0.73, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.98, p<0.0001. Our findings show that MTSS can be reliably diagnosed clinically using history and physical examination, in clinical practice and research settings. We also found that concurrent lower leg injuries are common in athletes with MTSS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Assessing condition of turbine engine ceramic components through NDE technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Sun, J.G.; Deemer, C.; Erdman, S.; Prested, C.

    2002-04-12

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are under development for hot-gas path components to allow higher gas-firing temperatures in advanced (high-efficiency, low-emission) gas turbines. Increasing dependence on the reliability of TBC and EBC components has driven the need for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to assess the condition, or ''health status,'' of these coatings. NDE methods based on elastic optical scatter and thermal imaging have been applied to TBC-coated test specimens that were thermally cycled and to EBC-coated SiC/SiC components that were run in 4.5 MW(e) field-test turbines. One primary interest is to develop NDE methods that can predict a prespall condition. Resulting data suggest a correlation between laser scatter data and thermal cycles for TBC-coated specimens, and thermal imaging results have demonstrated prespall detection for an EBC-coated SiC/SiC combustor liner.

  13. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  14. Reliability analysis of the objective structured clinical examination using generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Mejía, Juan Andrés; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Martínez-González, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a widely used method for assessing clinical competence in health sciences education. Studies using this method have shown evidence of validity and reliability. There are no published studies of OSCE reliability measurement with generalizability theory (G-theory) in Latin America. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of an OSCE in medical students using G-theory and explore its usefulness for quality improvement. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine in Mexico City. A total of 278 fifth-year medical students were assessed with an 18-station OSCE in a summative end-of-career final examination. There were four exam versions. G-theory with a crossover random effects design was used to identify the main sources of variance. Examiners, standardized patients, and cases were considered as a single facet of analysis. Results The exam was applied to 278 medical students. The OSCE had a generalizability coefficient of 0.93. The major components of variance were stations, students, and residual error. The sites and the versions of the tests had minimum variance. Conclusions Our study achieved a G coefficient similar to that found in other reports, which is acceptable for summative tests. G-theory allows the estimation of the magnitude of multiple sources of error and helps decision makers to determine the number of stations, test versions, and examiners needed to obtain reliable measurements.

  15. An Examination of Reliability and Validity Claims of a Foreign Language Proficiency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mircea-Pines, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study examined the reliability and validity claims of a modified version of the Spanish Modern Language Association Foreign Language Proficiency Test for Teachers and Advanced Students administered at George Mason University (GMU). The study used the 1999 computerized GMU version that was administered to 277 test-takers via…

  16. Reliability analysis of the objective structured clinical examination using generalizability theory

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Mejía, Juan Andrés; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Martínez-González, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a widely used method for assessing clinical competence in health sciences education. Studies using this method have shown evidence of validity and reliability. There are no published studies of OSCE reliability measurement with generalizability theory (G-theory) in Latin America. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of an OSCE in medical students using G-theory and explore its usefulness for quality improvement. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine in Mexico City. A total of 278 fifth-year medical students were assessed with an 18-station OSCE in a summative end-of-career final examination. There were four exam versions. G-theory with a crossover random effects design was used to identify the main sources of variance. Examiners, standardized patients, and cases were considered as a single facet of analysis. Results The exam was applied to 278 medical students. The OSCE had a generalizability coefficient of 0.93. The major components of variance were stations, students, and residual error. The sites and the versions of the tests had minimum variance. Conclusions Our study achieved a G coefficient similar to that found in other reports, which is acceptable for summative tests. G-theory allows the estimation of the magnitude of multiple sources of error and helps decision makers to determine the number of stations, test versions, and examiners needed to obtain reliable measurements. PMID:27543188

  17. Examining the Reliability and Validity of Clinician Ratings on the Five-Factor Model Score Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Few, Lauren R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial research use, measures of the five-factor model (FFM) are infrequently used in clinical settings due, in part, to issues related to administration time and a reluctance to use self-report instruments. The current study examines the reliability and validity of the Five-Factor Model Score Sheet (FFMSS), which is a 30-item…

  18. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  19. The Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Roseanna

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and educational usefulness of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education. The OSCE was administered to dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM) before they entered clinical training. Participants in this…

  20. Examining the Reliability and Validity of Clinician Ratings on the Five-Factor Model Score Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Few, Lauren R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial research use, measures of the five-factor model (FFM) are infrequently used in clinical settings due, in part, to issues related to administration time and a reluctance to use self-report instruments. The current study examines the reliability and validity of the Five-Factor Model Score Sheet (FFMSS), which is a 30-item…

  1. 40-in. OMS Kevlar(Registered Trademark) COPV S/N 007 Stress Rupture Test NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nate; Forth, Scott; Leifeste, Mark; Gallus, Tim; Yoder, Tommy; Keddy, Chris; Mandaras, Eric; Wincheski, Buzz; Williams, Philip; Russell, Richard; Eldridge, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines pretest nondestructive evaluation (NDE), including external/internal visual inspection, raman spectroscopy, laser shearography, and laser profilometry; real-time NDE including eddy current, acoustic emission (AE), and real-time portable raman spectroscopy; and AE application to carbon/epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels.

  2. The concept and implementation of scan plan within the integrated design, NDE, and manufacturing sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Peter

    A novel program for integrated design, NDE, and manufacturing sciences, which emphasizes that product quality must be considered on an equal footing with research product performance and manufacturability at the design stage, is examined. Research in NDE has injected various models into this concept that permit consideration of NDE requirements to be made during the design process. NDE inspections are simulated during the computations of the probability of detection (POD) model. The NDE inspections of the highest POD values for given conditions (e.g., flaw type, size, and location) are translated into physical 'scan plans' to examine their adequacy under simulated conditions of the product examination. This concept has been implemented in ultrasonics, X-ray, and eddy current techiques and applied to the design process of a simple geometry.

  3. Interobserver Reliability of the Respiratory Physical Examination in Premature Infants: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Erik A; Panitch, Howard; Feng, Rui; Moore, Paul E; Schmidt, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    To measure the inter-rater reliability of 7 visual and 3 auscultatory respiratory physical examination findings at 36-40 weeks' postmenstrual age in infants born less than 29 weeks' gestation. Physicians also estimated the probability that each infant would remain hospitalized for 3 months after the examination or be readmitted for a respiratory illness during that time. Prospective, multicenter, inter-rater reliability study using standardized audio-video recordings of respiratory physical examinations. We recorded the respiratory physical examination of 30 infants at 2 centers and invited 32 physicians from 9 centers to review the examinations. The intraclass correlation values for physician agreement ranged from 0.73 (95% CI 0.57-0.85) for subcostal retractions to 0.22 (95% CI 0.11-0.41) for expiratory abdominal muscle use. Eight (27%) infants remained hospitalized or were readmitted within 3 months after the examination. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of this outcome was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.86). Physician predictive accuracy was greater for infants receiving supplemental oxygen (0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.95) compared with those breathing in room air (0.71, 95% CI 0.66-0.75). Physicians often do not agree on respiratory physical examination findings in premature infants. Physician prediction of short-term respiratory morbidity was more accurate for infants receiving supplemental oxygen compared with those breathing in room air. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Technical Letter Report - Preliminary Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-05-29

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a multi-year program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide engineering studies and assessments of issues related to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for the reliable inspection of nuclear power plant components. As part of this program, there is a subtask 2D that was set up to address an assessment of issues related to the NDE of high density polyethylene (HDPE) butt fusion joints. This work is being driven by the nuclear industry wanting to employ HDPE materials in nuclear power plant systems. This being a new material for use in nuclear applications, there are a number of issues related to its use and potential problems that may evolve. The industry is pursuing ASME Code Case N-755 entitled “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe for Section III, Division 1, Construction and Section XI Repair/Replacement Activities” that contains the requirements for nuclear power plant applications of HDPE. This Code Case requires that inspections be performed after the fusion joint is made by visually examining the bead that is formed and conducting a pressure test of the joint. These tests are only effective in general if gross through-wall flaws exist in the fusion joint. The NRC wants to know whether a volumetric inspection can be conducted on the fusion joint that will reliably detect lack-of-fusion conditions that may be produced during joint fusing. The NRC has requested that the work that PNNL is conducting be provided to assist them in resolving this inspection issue of whether effective volumetric NDE can be conducted to detect lack of fusion (LOF) in the butt HDPE joints. PNNL had 24 HDPE pipe specimens manufactured of 3408 material to contain LOF conditions that could be used to assess the effectiveness of NDE in detecting the LOF. Basic ultrasonic material properties were measured and used to guide the use of phased arrays and time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) work that

  5. Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the upper cervical X-ray marking system: a second look.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B L; Barker, W; Bentz, J; Gambale, A G

    1987-08-01

    To determine the degree of reliability (stability over time) for six Pettibon practitioners, the scores resulting from the reading and re-reading of 30 X rays were analyzed using bivariate scattergrams, Pearson Product-moment correlation coefficient estimates and correlated samples t tests. To examine reliability (equivalence over experts) across the practitioners, a repeated measures analysis of variance approach was used. Liberal and conservative reliability coefficients for the upper angle and lower angle were computed. Examination of the data suggest that the reliability (stability over time) for the practitioners is very good. The data on reliability (equivalence over experts) across the practitioners also suggests reliability is very good.

  6. Hip range of motion and provocative physical examination tests reliability and agreement in asymptomatic volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Prather, H; Harris-Hayes, M; Hunt, D; Steger-May, K; Mathew, V; Clohisy, JC

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study are the following: 1) report passive hip ROM in asymptomatic young adults, 2) report the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of hip ROM measurements among testers of multiple disciplines, 3) report the results of provocative hip tests and tester agreement. Design descriptive epidemiology study Setting tertiary university Participants Twenty-eight young adult volunteers without musculoskeletal symptoms, history of disorder or surgery involving the lumbar spine or lower extremities were enrolled and completed the study. Methods Asymptomatic young adult volunteers completed questionnaires and were examined by two blinded examiners during a single session. The testers were physical therapists and physicians. Hip range of motion and provocative tests were completed by both examiners on each hip. Main Outcome Measurements Inter and intra-rater reliability for ROM and agreement for provocative tests was determined. Results Twenty-eight asymptomatic adults with mean age 31 years old (range 18–51 years) and mean modified Harris Hip Score of 99.5 ± 1.5 and UCLA Activity score of 8.8 ± 1.2 completed the study. Intra-rater agreement was excellent for all hip range of motion measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging from 0.76 to 0.97 with similar agreement if the examiner was a physical therapist or a physician. Excellent inter-rater reliability was found for hip flexion ICC 0.87 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.92), supine internal rotation ICC 0.75 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.84) and prone internal rotation ICC 0.79 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.87). The least reliable measurements were supine hip abduction (ICC 0.34) and supine external rotation (ICC 0.18). Agreement between examiners ranged from 96–100% for provocative hip tests which included the hip impingement, resisted straight leg raise, FABER/Patrick’s and log roll tests. Conclusions Specific hip ROM measures show excellent inter-rater reliability and provocative hip tests

  7. Validity and Reliability of 2 Goniometric Mobile Apps: Device, Application, and Examiner Factors.

    PubMed

    Wellmon, Robert H; Gulick, Dawn T; Paterson, Mark L; Gulick, Colleen N

    2016-12-01

    Smartphones are being used in a variety of practice settings to measure joint range of motion (ROM). A number of factors can affect the validity of the measurements generated. However, there are no studies examining smartphone-based goniometer applications focusing on measurement variability and error arising from the electromechanical properties of the device being used. To examine the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of 2 goniometric mobile applications (Goniometer Records, Goniometer Pro), an inclinometer, and a universal goniometer (UG). Nonexperimental, descriptive validation study. University laboratory. 3 physical therapists having an average of 25 y of experience. Three standardized angles (acute, right, obtuse) were constructed to replicate the movement of a hinge joint in the human body. Angular changes were measured and compared across 3 raters who used 3 different devices (UG, inclinometer, and 2 goniometric apps installed on 3 different smartphones: Apple iPhone 5, LG Android, and Samsung SIII Android). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine interrater reliability and concurrent validity. Interrater reliability for each of the smartphone apps, inclinometer and UG were excellent (ICC = .995-1.000). Concurrent validity was also good (ICC = .998-.999). Based on the Bland-Altman plots, the means of the differences between the devices were low (range = -0.4° to 1.2°). This study identifies the error inherent in measurement that is independent of patient factors and due to the smartphone, the installed apps, and examiner skill. Less than 2° of measurement variability was attributable to those factors alone. The data suggest that 3 smartphones with the 2 installed apps are a viable substitute for using a UG or an inclinometer when measuring angular changes that typically occur when examining ROM and demonstrate the capacity of multiple examiners to accurately use smartphone-based goniometers.

  8. [The Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination. Study of interobserver reliability].

    PubMed

    Llinàs, J; Vilalta, J; López Pousa, S; Vidal, C; Amiel, J

    1990-04-01

    Three teams formed by psychologists with experience in the administration of structured interviews evaluated by the CAMDEX (The Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination) in a sample of 41 patients for the interrater reliability study. While a psychologist interview patient, the other one observes each patient. The CAMDEX were completed independently by each of the examiners. The results demonstrate an elevated level agreement both for the different scales (p less than 0.001) and for the different diagnostic criteria employed by the CAMDEX (kappa = 0.88 for the DSM-III-R and Kappa = 1 for the ICD-10).

  9. [Consistency and Reliability of MDK Expertise Examining the Encoding in the German DRG System].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, T; Lehr, F; Blum, B; van Essen, J

    2015-09-01

    Hospital inpatient stays are reimbursed on the basis of German diagnosis-related groups (G-DRG). The G-DRG classification system is based on complex coding guidelines. The Medical Review Board of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds (MDK) examines the encoding by hospitals and delivers individual expertises on behalf of the German statutory health insurance companies in cases in which irregularities are suspected. A study was conducted on the inter-rater reliability of the MDK expertises regarding the scope of the assessment. A representative sample of 212 MDK expertises was taken from a selected pool of 1 392 MDK expertises in May 2013. This representative sample underwent a double-examination by 2 independent MDK experts using a special software based on the 3MTM G-DRG Grouper 2013 of 3M Medica, Germany. The following items encoded by the hospitals were examined: DRG, principal diagnosis, secondary diagnoses, procedures and additional payments. It was analysed whether the results of MDK expertises were consistent, reliable and correct. 202 expertises were eligible for evaluation, containing a total of 254 questions regarding one or more of the 5 items encoded by hospitals. The double-examination by 2 independent MDK experts showed matching results in 187 questions (73.6%) meaning they had been examined consistently and correctly. 59 questions (23.2%) did not show matching results, nevertheless they had been examined correctly regarding the scope of the assessment. None of the principal diagnoses was significantly affected by inconsistent or wrong judgment. A representative sample of MDK expertises examining the DRG encoding by hospitals showed a very high percentage of correct examination by the MDK experts. Identical MDK expertises cannot be achieved in all cases due to the scope of the assessment. Further improvement and simplification of codes and coding guidelines are required to reduce the scope of assessment with regard to correct DRG encoding and its

  10. The reliability, validity, and usefulness of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Roseanna

    This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and educational usefulness of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education. The OSCE was administered to dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM) before they entered clinical training. Participants in this study included CDM's class of 2010 which consisted of 78 students. The overall reliability of the examination was measured via calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Content validity was examined through evaluation of the OSCE by three experienced clinical faculty members. Predictive validity was evaluated by correlating student grades on the OSCE to future clinical performance as measured by number of clinical points achieved during the third year of training. Student perceptions regarding the educational usefulness of the examination were evaluated through a 12-question Liken-type survey and focus group interviews analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Findings of the study indicated the OSCE was a highly reliable examination (alpha=0.86) with high content validity and a moderately high correlation to future clinical performance (r=.614, p<.0001). Overall, student perceptions of the educational usefulness of the OSCE were positive as based on their responses to a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree). They reported that the exam required the ability to think critically and problem-solve (4.0 +/- 0.85), assessed clinically relevant skills (4.59 +/- 0.69), helped identify clinical weaknesses (4.16 +/- 0.90), and was a learning experience (4.58 +/- 0.84). Findings from the qualitative portion of the study identified four main themes including the student perception that the OSCE is a unique assessment experience that required integration and application of knowledge. Recommendations for the use of the OSCE to improve clinical teaching and the implications of this study relating to the expanded use of

  11. The Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale: normal values and interrater reliability.

    PubMed

    Hacker, M R; Funk, S M; Manco-Johnson, M J

    2007-01-01

    Persons with haemophilia often experience their first joint haemorrhage in early childhood. Recurrent bleeding into a joint may lead to significant morbidity, specifically haemophilic arthropathy. Early identification of the onset and progression of joint damage is critical to preserving joint structure and function. Physical examination is the most feasible approach to monitor joint health. Our group developed the Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale to identify earlier signs of joint degeneration and incorporate developmentally appropriate tasks for assessing joint function in young children. This study's objectives were to establish normal ranges for this scale and assess interrater reliability. The ankles, knees and elbows of 72 healthy boys aged 1 through 7 years were evaluated by a physical therapist to establish normal ranges. Exactly 10 boys in each age category from 2 to 7 years were evaluated by a second physical therapist to determine interrater reliability. The original scale was modified to account for the finding that mild angulation in the weight-bearing joints is developmentally normal. The interrater reliability of the scale ranged from fair to good, underscoring the need for physical therapists to have specific training in the orthopaedic assessment of very young children and the measurement error inherent in the goniometer. Modifications to axial alignment scoring will allow the scale to distinguish healthy joints from those suffering frequent haemarthroses.

  12. NASA DOE POD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book, 3rd ed., NTIAC DB-97-02. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. The test methodology used in DOEPOD is based on the field of statistical sequential analysis founded by Abraham Wald. Sequential analysis is a method of statistical inference whose characteristic feature is that the number of observations required by the procedure is not determined in advance of the experiment. The decision to terminate the experiment depends, at each stage, on the results of the observations previously made. A merit of the sequential method, as applied to testing statistical hypotheses, is that test procedures can be constructed which require, on average, a substantially smaller number of observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations.

  13. NASA DOE POD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book, 3rd ed., NTIAC DB-97-02. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. The test methodology used in DOEPOD is based on the field of statistical sequential analysis founded by Abraham Wald. Sequential analysis is a method of statistical inference whose characteristic feature is that the number of observations required by the procedure is not determined in advance of the experiment. The decision to terminate the experiment depends, at each stage, on the results of the observations previously made. A merit of the sequential method, as applied to testing statistical hypotheses, is that test procedures can be constructed which require, on average, a substantially smaller number of observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations.

  14. Developing an estimate of daily cumulative loading for the knee: examining test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Shawn M K; Birmingham, Trevor B; Jones, Gareth R; Callaghan, Jack P; Maly, Monica R

    2009-11-01

    Although the knee adduction moment during gait is a valid and reliable proxy for the dynamic load on the medial compartment of the knee, it represents exposure to loading during one stride only. In contrast, a measure that incorporates both the nature and frequency of loading throughout daily activities might provide additional insight into the effects of cumulative knee loading. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new representation of daily cumulative knee loading and examine its test-retest reliability. Thirty healthy adults participated. Cumulative knee loading was calculated on two testing periods from the mean external knee adduction moment stance phase impulse, measured with a three-dimensional motion capture system over five walking trials, and mean steps/day, measured with a unidimensional accelerometer over one week. Analysis for test-retest reliability included Bland-Altman graphs, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) and standard errors of measurements (SEM). The ICC values for cumulative knee loading, adduction impulse and steps/day ranged from 0.84 to 0.89. Bland-Altman plots suggested daily cumulative knee loading and steps/day measures were less reliable at higher values. The SEM values were 9.67 kNm s, 1.45 Nm s and 1043 steps/day for cumulative knee loading, adduction impulse and steps/day, respectively. Daily cumulative knee loading is reliable and provides a stable measure of the total exposure to knee loading. These findings support further study of cumulative knee loading to determine its potential clinical importance.

  15. Reliability of Chinese medicine diagnostic variables in the examination of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Hua, Bin; Abbas, Estelle; Hayes, Alan; Ryan, Peter; Nelson, Lisa; O'Brien, Kylie

    2012-11-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has its own diagnostic indicators that are used as evidence of change in a patient's condition. The majority of studies investigating efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) have utilized biomedical diagnostic endpoints. For CM clinical diagnostic variables to be incorporated into clinical trial designs, there would need to be evidence that these diagnostic variables are reliable. Previous studies have indicated that the reliability of CM syndrome diagnosis is variable. Little information is known about where the variability stems from--the basic data collection level or the synthesis of diagnostic data, or both. No previous studies have investigated systematically the reliability of all four diagnostic methods used in the CM diagnostic process (Inquiry, Inspection, Auscultation/Olfaction, and Palpation). The objective of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of data collected using the four diagnostic methods of CM in Australian patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in order to investigate if CM variables could be used with confidence as diagnostic endpoints in a clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a CHM in treating OA. An inter-rater reliability study was conducted as a substudy of a clinical trial investigating the treatment of knee OA with Chinese herbal medicine. Two (2) experienced CM practitioners conducted a CM examination separately, within 2 hours of each other, in 40 participants. A CM assessment form was utilized to record the diagnostic data. Cohen's κ coefficient was used as a measure of the level of agreement between 2 practitioners. There was a relatively good level of agreement for Inquiry and Auscultation variables, and, in general, a low level of agreement for (visual) Inspection and Palpation variables. There was variation in the level of agreement between 2 practitioners on clinical information collected using the Four Diagnostic Methods of a CM examination. Some aspects of CM diagnosis appear

  16. Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale-Electronic Version: first examination of reliability, validity, and incremental utility.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Yana; Derbidge, Christina; Cope, Christy

    2005-02-01

    Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS) is a clinical measure previously shown to be related to frontal lobe integrity, executive abilities, and functional independence. Electronic version of the scale (BDS-EV) was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. The BDS-EV, the original BDS, and a brief battery of traditional clinical tests were administered to 55 community-dwelling adults ages 18 to 68. The results yielded high internal consistency and provided support for convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity. Overall, the results demonstrate the feasibility of converting the BDS into an electronic instrument and support continued research and development of this instrument.

  17. A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual`s performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average.

  18. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Italian version.

    PubMed

    Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Sartirana, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartori, Federica; Geccherle, Eleonora; Coppini, Andrea; Franchini, Cecilia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-04-02

    To examine the validity and reliability of a new Italian language version of the latest edition of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0). The sixth edition of the EDE-Q was translated into Italian and administered to 264 Italian-speaking inpatient and outpatient (257 females in their mid-20s) with eating disorder (75.4% anorexia nervosa) and 216 controls (205 females). Internal consistency was high for both the global EDE-Q and all subscale scores. Test-retest reliability was good to excellent (0.66-0.83) for global and subscale scores, and for items assessing key behavioral features of eating disorders (0.55-0.91). Patients with an eating disorder displayed significantly higher EDE-Q scores than controls, demonstrating the good criterion validity of the tool. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for a modified seven-item three-factor structure. The study showed the good psychometric properties of the new Italian version of the EDE-Q 6.0, and validated its use in Italian eating disorder patients, particularly in young females with anorexia nervosa.

  19. The reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament rupture--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lange, Toni; Freiberg, Alice; Dröge, Patrik; Lützner, Jörg; Schmitt, Jochen; Kopkow, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Systematic literature review. Despite their frequent application in routine care, a systematic review on the reliability of clinical examination tests to evaluate the integrity of the ACL is missing. To summarize and evaluate intra- and interrater reliability research on physical examination tests used for the diagnosis of ACL tears. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and AMED until May 30th 2013. Studies were included if they assessed the intra- and/or interrater reliability of physical examination tests for the integrity of the ACL. Methodological quality was evaluated with the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) tool by two independent reviewers. 110 hits were achieved of which seven articles finally met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined the reliability of four physical examination tests. Intrarater reliability was assessed in three studies and ranged from fair to almost perfect (Cohen's k = 0.22-1.00). Interrater reliability was assessed in all included studies and ranged from slight to almost perfect (Cohen's k = 0.02-0.81). The Lachman test is the physical tests with the highest intrarater reliability (Cohen's k = 1.00), the Lachman test performed in prone position the test with the highest interrater reliability (Cohen's k = 0.81). Included studies were partly of low methodological quality. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity in study populations, reliability measures and methodological quality of included studies. Systematic investigations on the reliability of physical examination tests to assess the integrity of the ACL are scarce and of varying methodological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NEW NONLINEAR ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR NDE

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. TENCATE

    2000-09-01

    Acoustic nonlinearity in a medium may occur as a result of a variety of mechanisms. Some of the more common nonlinear effects may come from: (1) one or several cracks, volumetrically distributed due to age or fatigue or single disbonds or delamination; (2) imperfect grain-to-grain contacts, e.g., materials like concretes that are cemented together and have less than perfect bonds; (3) hard parts in a soft matrix, e.g., extreme duty materials like tungsten/copper alloys; or (4) atomic-scale nonlinearities. Nonlinear effects that arise from the first two mechanisms are considerably larger than the last two; thus, we have focused considerable attention on these. The most pervasive nonlinear measure of damage today is a second harmonic measurement. We show that for many cases of interest to NDE, a second harmonic measurement may not be the best choice. We examine the manifestations of nonlinearity in (nonlinear) materials with cracks and/or imperfect bonds and illustrate their applicability to NDE. For example, nonlinear resonance frequency shifts measured at increasing drive levels correlate strongly with the amount of ASR (alkali-silica reaction) damage of concrete cores. Memory effects (slow dynamics) also seem to correlate with the amount of damage.

  1. Challenges of NDE Simulation Tool Challenges of NDE Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Frank, Ashley L.

    2015-01-01

    Realistic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) simulation tools enable inspection optimization and predictions of inspectability for new aerospace materials and designs. NDE simulation tools may someday aid in the design and certification of advanced aerospace components; potentially shortening the time from material development to implementation by industry and government. Furthermore, modeling and simulation are expected to play a significant future role in validating the capabilities and limitations of guided wave based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. The current state-of-the-art in ultrasonic NDE/SHM simulation cannot rapidly simulate damage detection techniques for large scale, complex geometry composite components/vehicles with realistic damage types. This paper discusses some of the challenges of model development and validation for composites, such as the level of realism and scale of simulation needed for NASA' applications. Ongoing model development work is described along with examples of model validation studies. The paper will also discuss examples of the use of simulation tools at NASA to develop new damage characterization methods, and associated challenges of validating those methods.

  2. An examination of the interrater reliability between practitioners and researchers on the static-99.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Stephen P; Calkins, Cynthia; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have validated the psychometric properties of the Static-99, the most widely used measure of sexual offender recidivism risk. However much of this research relied on instrument coding completed by well-trained researchers. This study is the first to examine the interrater reliability (IRR) of the Static-99 between practitioners in the field and researchers. Using archival data from a sample of 1,973 formerly incarcerated sex offenders, field raters' scores on the Static-99 were compared with those of researchers. Overall, clinicians and researchers had excellent IRR on Static-99 total scores, with IRR coefficients ranging from "substantial" to "outstanding" for the individual 10 items of the scale. The most common causes of discrepancies were coding manual errors, followed by item subjectivity, inaccurate item scoring, and calculation errors. These results offer important data with regard to the frequency and perceived nature of scoring errors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. 3D Modeling of Lower Extremities With Biplanar Radiographs: Reliability of Measures on Subsequent Examinations.

    PubMed

    Westberry, David E; Carpenter, Ashley M

    2017-08-02

    Biplanar radiography with 3-dimensional (3D) modeling (EOS) provides a comprehensive assessment of lower limb alignment in an upright weight-bearing position with less radiation than conventional radiography. A study was performed to assess the consistency and reliability of 2 lower extremity 3D biplanar radiograph models created at least 1 year apart in a pediatric population. All patients who had 2 lower extremity radiographic evaluations with EOS performed at visits a minimum of 1 year apart were reviewed. Digital radiographs, of lower extremities in both frontal and sagittal planes, were acquired simultaneously, using the EOS system. The 3D reconstruction of the images was achieved utilizing the SterEOS software. Pelvic position, femoral and tibial anatomy, and the torsional profile were evaluated and compared using t tests. In total, 53 patients with a mean age of 11.7 years (range, 6.1 to 18.9 y) met inclusion criteria. When comparing 3D models between visits, minimal differences were noted in proximal femoral anatomy and pelvic alignment (pelvic incidence, sacral slope, sagittal tilt, neck shaft angle). Expected differences in femoral and tibial length corresponded with normal longitudinal growth between visits. Sagittal plane knee position varied widely between examinations. Femoral and/or tibial rotational osteotomies were performed in 37% of extremities between examinations. After femoral derotational osteotomy, a significant difference in femoral anteversion was appreciated when comparing preoperative and postoperative 3D models. However, this difference was less than the expected difference based on the anatomic correction achieved intraoperatively. No differences were noted in tibial torsion measures after tibial derotational osteotomy. The 3D modeling based on biplanar radiographs provides consistent and reliable measures of pelvic and hip joint anatomy of the lower extremity. Patient positioning may influence the reproducibility of knee alignment

  4. Interrater reliability of the cervicothoracic and shoulder physical examination in patients with a primary complaint of shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Burns, Scott A; Cleland, Joshua A; Carpenter, Kristin; Mintken, Paul E

    2016-03-01

    Examine the interrater reliability of cervicothoracic and shoulder physical examination in patients with a primary complaint of shoulder pain. Single-group repeated-measures design for interrater reliability. Orthopaedic physical therapy clinics. Twenty-one patients with a primary complaint of shoulder pain underwent a standardized examination by a physical therapist (PT). A PT conducted the first examination and one of two additional PTs conducted the 2nd examination. The Cohen κ and weighted κ were used to calculate the interrater reliability of ordinal level data. Intraclass correlation coefficients model 2,1 (ICC2,1) and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the interrater reliability. The kappa coefficients ranged from -.24 to .83 for the mobility assessment of the glenohumeral, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints. The kappa coefficients ranged from -.20 to .58 for joint mobility assessment of the cervical and thoracic spine. The kappa coefficients ranged from .23 to 1.0 for special tests of the shoulder and cervical spine. The present study reported the reliability of a comprehensive upper quarter physical examination for a group of patients with a primary report of shoulder pain. The reliability varied considerably for the cervical and shoulder examination and was significantly higher for the examination of muscle length and cervical range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning objectives for NDE education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. B.

    2001-04-01

    A brainstorming session regarding learning objectives or desired outcomes for NDE education, held on Thursday afternoon, July 20, 2000 at the Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, is discussed. Primary attention is paid to undergraduate education with some discussion of graduate education. The proposed learning objectives are first presented, as formulated by an international group of NDE educators representing the World Federation of NDE Centers. This is followed by a summary of the discussions of those objectives by a group of educators, industrialists and government employees who participated in the brainstorming session. Viewpoints were wide ranging and a unanimous consensus position was not reached in all cases. Nevertheless, some important trends emerged in the discussions and a number of issues were framed more clearly than in the past. These are documented to provide a basis of continued discussions in the future. Generally speaking, the proposed learning objectives were believed to be appropriate but further discussion is required to define the appropriate title to associate with an individual who has achieved those objectives.

  6. Benchmarking of Computational Models for NDE and SHM of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Leckey, Cara; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Juarez, Peter; Timucin, Dogan; Schuet, Stefan; Hafiychuk, Halyna

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave phenomena constitute the leading physical mechanism for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) of solid composite materials such as carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Computational models of ultrasonic guided-wave excitation, propagation, scattering, and detection in quasi-isotropic laminates can be extremely valuable in designing practically realizable NDE and SHM hardware and software with desired accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and coverage. This paper presents comparisons of guided-wave simulations for CFRP composites implemented using three different simulation codes: two commercial finite-element analysis packages, COMSOL and ABAQUS, and a custom code implementing the Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT). Comparisons are also made to experimental laser Doppler vibrometry data and theoretical dispersion curves.

  7. Neuropsychological assessment and telemedicine: a preliminary study examining the reliability of neuropsychology services performed via telecommunication.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Svenn E; Sprenger, Terje; Andersson, Stein; Krogstad, Jan-Magne

    2003-03-01

    Within the last decade, various applications of two-way audio-visual telecommunication have been implemented in the Norwegian health care system to facilitate the delivery of medical services to patients located in rural areas away from the hospitals. This technology may also be useful to extend neuropsychological services to underserved areas and thereby reduce the patients' travel time and costs. In the current study, a total of 12 visual, verbal and performance tests were administered face-to-face and via videophones to 32 volunteer participants to examine the consistency and stability of test-scores when delivered via different formats. The obtained reliability coefficients ranged from .37 to .86 with a median value of .74. When testing for mean differences, the measures on verbal learning (WMS-Logical Memory I) and auditory attention (Seashore Rhythm Test) differed significantly due to administration format (t = 2.34, p = .024 and t = 2.37, p = .025, respectively). The findings imply that administration format does not appear to affect the reliability of measurement but neuropsychological test performance is significantly higher for the measures of attention and memory when delivered via videophone. Additional research on these cognitive domains is required, and if the observed differences due to testing format persist, separate normative data via telecommunication will be required before assessments are carried out. Also, since only normal participants were included in this study, the findings may have external validity for normal populations, but similar controlled trials with patients need to be completed before remote assessments can be implemented in regular clinical practice.

  8. Through the looking glass: The future for NDE?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a mature industry, with global equipment sales fast moving towards 2B. per year. The use of conventional NDT will grow in developing countries and in developed countries the challenges will include those associated with maintaining aging infrastructure. For some systems the future will move to structural health monitoring (SHM) and for others into integration of online measurements in manufacturing. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is a multi-disciplinary area of endeavor that has its origins in materials science and NDT. It seeks to provide an adequate science base for NDT to become a quantitative science. It was seen to be necessary to better detect, size and type defects, improve the reliability of inspection, and probability of detection (POD). There is particular interest in estimating the potential defects could have on performance or potential for loss of structural integrity, under various loading or stressor conditions, and ultimately implement risk-based reliability assessments. NDE must be seen more as a part of the wide field of engineering, as an interdisciplinary endeavor, that brings together the expertise of materials science and metrology, together with the underlying physics for inspection methods, as well as statistics, computers, robotics and software. The adoption of advanced manufacturing, will require new metrology tools and methods to provide data for assessing new materials including powder metals, as used in additive manufacturing, and various composites. The lessons from the past proceedings of this conference series include that the problems faced today are harder than was expected during the first decade of quantitative NDE research. Even with new types of transducers and much improved A/D and powerful computers new approaches and more basic measurement physics being understood, new insights are needed to provide the data needed to solve many real-world NDE problems, to understand and measure early

  9. The interrater reliability of physical examination tests that may predict the outcome or suggest the need for lumbar stabilization exercises.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Alon; Shashua, Anat; Pizem, Koby; Dar, Gali

    2013-02-01

    Interrater reliability. (1) To examine the interrater reliability of an existing clinical prediction rule (CPR) to predict the success of lumbar stabilization exercises (LSE), and (2) to examine the interrater reliability of 4 clinical tests that may be useful in determining the need for LSE. Physical therapists commonly use LSE to manage patients with low back pain. The clinical efficacy of LSE is unclear. A CPR has been previously suggested to identify patients most likely to benefit from LSE. The passive lumbar extension test, lumbar extension load test, active straight leg raise test, and active hip abduction test are 4 clinical tests that may also suggest the need for LSE. The reliability of these tests has not been established sufficiently. Thirty patients with low back pain, who participated in a larger randomized clinical trial, underwent all tests by 2 independent examiners. Kappa coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to establish the interrater reliability of the CPR and individual tests. The interrater reliability of the CPR was excellent (κ = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00). The interrater reliability of the individual items making up the CPR, as well as that of the passive lumbar extension test, was substantial (κ = 0.64-0.73 and κ = 0.76, respectively; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.00). The interrater reliability of the active straight leg raise test (κ = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) and lumbar extension load test (κ = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.78) was moderate. The interrater reliability of the active hip abduction test was poor (κ = -0.09; 95% CI; -0.35, 0.27). With the exception of the active hip abduction test, all other clinical tests can be considered sufficiently reliable for clinical use. The relatively small sample size likely contributed to the fairly wide confidence intervals around some of the reliability indices.

  10. Terahertz NDE for Under Paint Corrosion Detection and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion under paint is not visible until it has caused paint to blister, crack, or chip. If corrosion is allowed to continue then structural problems may develop. Identifying corrosion before it becomes visible would minimize repairs and costs and potential structural problems. Terahertz NDE imaging under paint for corrosion is being examined as a method to inspect for corrosion by examining the terahertz response to paint thickness and to surface roughness.

  11. Material damage diagnosis and characterization for turbine rotors using three-dimensional adaptive ultrasonic NDE data reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Jingdan; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed A; Kevin Zhou, S

    2014-02-01

    Damage diagnosis for turbine rotors plays an essential role in power plant management. Ultrasonic non-destructive examinations (NDEs) have increasingly been utilized as an effective tool to provide comprehensive information for damage diagnosis. This study presents a general methodology of damage diagnosis for turbine rotors using three-dimensional adaptive ultrasonic NDE data reconstruction techniques. Volume reconstruction algorithms and data fusion schemes are proposed to map raw ultrasonic NDE data back to the structural model of the object being examined. The reconstructed volume is used for automatic damage identification and quantification using region-growing algorithms and the method of distance-gain-size. Key reconstruction parameters are discussed and suggested based on industrial experiences. A software tool called AutoNDE Rotor is developed to automate the overall analysis workflow. Effectiveness of the proposed methods and AutoNDE Rotor are explored using realistic ultrasonic NDE data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of footprint pattern analysis obtained from diabetics using the Harris mat.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Lígia de Loiola; Fonseca, Tiago H S; Abreu, Vivianni C

    2010-01-01

    High plantar pressure is a proven risk factor for ulceration among individuals with diabetes mellitus. The Harris and Beath footprinting mat is one of the tools used in screening for foot ulceration risk among these subjects. There are no reports in the literature on the reliability of footprint analysis using print pattern criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the analysis of footprint patterns obtained using the Harris and Beath footprinting mat. Footprints were taken from 41 subjects using the footprinting mat. The images were subjected to analysis by three independent examiners. To investigate the intra-examiner reliability, the analysis was repeated by one of the examiners one week later. The weighted kappa coefficient was excellent (K(w) > 0.80) for the inter- and intra-examiner analyses for most of the points studied on both feet. The criteria for analyzing footprint patterns obtained using the Harris and Beath footprinting mat presented good reliability and high to excellent inter- and intra-examiner agreement. This method is reliable for analyses involving one or more examiners. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under the number ACTRN12609000693224.

  13. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination reliable change indices in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Sulc, Zdenek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Stepankova, Hana

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive tests are used repeatedly to assess the treatment response or progression of cognitive disorders. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a valid screening test for mild cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to establish 90% reliable change indices (RCI) for the MoCA together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in cognitively healthy older adults. We analyzed 197 cognitively healthy and functional independent volunteers aged 60-94 years, who met strict inclusion criteria for four consecutive years. The RCI methods by Chelune and Hsu were used. For 1, 2, and 3 years, the 90% RCI for MoCA using Chelune's formula were -4 ≤, ≥4; -4 ≤, ≥4 and -5 ≤, ≥4 points, respectively, and -3 ≤, ≥3 for the MMSE each year. Ninety percent RCI for MoCA using Hsu's formula ranged from -6 to 0, respectively, and +3 to +8 dependent on the baseline MoCA. Our study demonstrated RCI for the MoCA and MMSE in a 3-year time period that can be used for the estimation of cognitive decline or improvement in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fixed Eigenvector Analysis of Thermographic NDE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been shown effective for reducing thermographic NDE data. This paper will discuss an alternative method of analysis that has been developed where a predetermined set of eigenvectors is used to process the thermal data from both reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) and graphiteepoxy honeycomb materials. These eigenvectors can be generated either from an analytic model of the thermal response of the material system under examination, or from a large set of experimental data. This paper provides the details of the analytic model, an overview of the PCA process, as well as a quantitative signal-to-noise comparison of the results of performing both conventional PCA and fixed eigenvector analysis on thermographic data from two specimens, one Reinforced Carbon-Carbon with flat bottom holes and the second a sandwich construction with graphite-epoxy face sheets and aluminum honeycomb core.

  15. Thermal NDE method for thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Schmeller, M.D.; Sulit, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a feasibility demonstration of a thermal scanning NDE system for thermal spray coatings. Non-bonds were detected between several types of coatings and their substrates. Aluminum anti-skid coatings having very rough surfaces were included. A technique for producing known non-bond areas for calibrating and demonstrating NDE methods was developed.

  16. NDE Activity at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    None, This is a viewgraph outline from an oral presentation. From Intro.: Our speaker will review the NDE technology under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Emphasis will be given to Ultrasonics and application of sensors to space technology. Further, the efforts of JPL in technology transfer to the industry in the area of NDE will be covered.

  17. The Reliability of Essay Marking in High-Stakes Chinese Second Language Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Guanxin

    2007-01-01

    Essay marking is a subjective intellectual exercise in which the score reliability can be influenced by many factors such as the test design, the marker's interpretation of the marking criteria, the procedure, and the method used in the marking process. After conducting a literature review this study investigated the reliability of essay marking…

  18. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  19. The Reliability of Essay Marking in High-Stakes Chinese Second Language Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Guanxin

    2007-01-01

    Essay marking is a subjective intellectual exercise in which the score reliability can be influenced by many factors such as the test design, the marker's interpretation of the marking criteria, the procedure, and the method used in the marking process. After conducting a literature review this study investigated the reliability of essay marking…

  20. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  1. Orbiter Cold Plate Intergranular Corrosion: Development of NDE Standards and Assessment of NDE Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Winfree, William P.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    During pre-servicing of a space shuttle (orbiter vehicle, OV-102), helium leak detection of an avionics cold plate identified a leak located in the face sheet oriented towards the support shelf. Subsequent destructive examination of the leaking cold plate revealed that intergranular corrosion had penetrated the 0.017-inch thick aluminum (AA6061) face sheet. The intergranular attack (IGA) was likely caused by an aggressive crevice environment created by condensation of water vapor between the cold plate and support shelf. Face sheet susceptibility to IGA is a result of the brazing process used in the fabrication of the cold plates. Cold plate components were brazed at 1000 F followed by a slow cooling process to avoid distortion of the bonded cold plate. The slow cool process caused excessive grain boundary precipitation resulting in a material that is susceptible to IGA. The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) Develop first-of-a-kind nondestructive evaluation (NDE) standards that contain IGA identical to that found in the orbiter cold plates; and (2) Assess advanced NDE techniques for corrosion detection and recommend methods for cold plate examination. This report documents the results of work performed at Langley Research Center to fulfill these objectives.

  2. NDE Methodologies for Composite Flywheels Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Konno, Kevin E.; Martin, Richard E.; Thompson, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing readiness of composite rotors and certification of flywheels depend in part on the maturity of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology for process optimization and quality assurance, respectively. Capabilities and limitations of x-ray-computed tomography and radiography, as well as advanced ultrasonics were established on NDE ring and rotor standards with EDM notches and drilled holes. Also, intentionally seeded delamination, tow break, and insert of bagging material were introduced in hydroburst-rings to study the NDE detection capabilities of such anomalies and their effect on the damage tolerance and safe life margins of subscale rings and rotors. Examples of possible occurring flaws or anomalies in composite rings as detected by NDE and validated by destructive metallography are shown. The general NDE approach to ensure quality of composite rotors and to help in the certification of flywheels is briefly outlined.

  3. Terahertz NDE Application for Corrosion Detection and Evaluation under Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Stephen W.; Lomness, Janice K.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Winfree, William P.; Russell, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect for possible corrosion under Space Shuttle Tiles. Other methods such as ultrasonics, infrared, eddy current and microwave technologies have demonstrable shortcomings for tile NDE. This work applies Terahertz NDE, in the frequency range between 50 GHz and 1 THz, for the inspection of manufactured corrosion samples. The samples consist of induced corrosion spots that range in diameter (2.54 to 15.2 mm) and depth (0.036 to 0.787 mm) in an aluminum substrate material covered with tiles. Results of these measurements are presented for known corrosion flaws both covered and uncovered and for blind tests with unknown corrosion flaws covered with attached tiles. The Terahertz NDE system is shown to detect all artificially manufactured corrosion regions under a Shuttle tile with a depth greater than 0.13 mm.

  4. International Needs for Infrastructure Nde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovics, John; Boller, Christian; Cawley, Peter; Spencer, Billie F.; Wang, Ming L.; Washer, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    The Aging of Infrastructure is a world wide problem of increasing importance, with the specifics varying from region to region depending on the age and nature of critical structures. It is clear that the NDE and SHM tools being developed by the QNDE community can play an important role in addressing the Aging Infrastructure problem, and the special evening session is designed to provide perspective to the developers of that technology through an overview of the international needs. A panel of speakers with experience with the unique situations in different regions of the world will first make a series of short presentations. This will be followed by a general discussion period.

  5. A magnetic flux leakage NDE system for CANDU feeder pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Thomas Don

    This work examines the application of different magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection concepts to the non destructive evaluation (NDE) of residual (elastic) stresses in CANDURTM reactor feeder pipes. The stress sensitivity of three MFL inspection techniques was examined with flat plate samples, with stress-induced magnetic anisotropy (SMA) demonstrating the greatest stress sensitivity. A prototype SMA testing system was developed to apply magnetic NDE to feeders. The system consists of a flux controller that incorporates feedback from a wire coil and a Hall sensor (FCV2), and a magnetic anisotropy prototype (MAP) probe. The combination of FCV2 and the MAP probe was shown to provide SMA measurements on feeder pipe samples and predict stresses from SMA measurements with a mean accuracy of +/-38MPa.

  6. The reliability and validity of the Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board examinations: a nine year longitudinal study (1987-1995) of their psychometric properties

    PubMed Central

    Violato, Claudio; Marini, Anthony; Lawson, Douglas; McEwen, Murray

    1996-01-01

    Data derived from the administration of the Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board (CCEB) examinations for a nine year period, 1987-1995, were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the subject tests: anatomy, chemistry, chiropractic practice, diagnosis and symptomatology, microbiology and public health, neurology, pathology, physiology, and x-ray interpretation and physics. Nearly two-thousand candidates from more than eighteen chiropractic colleges have written the CCEB exams over this nine year period. The results indicate that the exams have adequate alpha reliabilities (.69 to .80) and theoretically appropriate statistical properties and item characteristics. There is also substantial evidence of content validity. Results from stepwise multiple regression and factor analyses provided evidence for the criterion-related and construct validity of the exams. The implication of these results for the continued refinement and development of the CCEB exams, together with suggestions for on-going research of their reliability and validity, are discussed.

  7. The intra- and inter-observer reliability of the physical examination methods used to assess patients with patellofemoral joint instability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; Clark, Allan; Neda, Sophia; Arendt, Elizabeth A; Post, William R; Grelsamer, Ronald P; Dejour, David; Almqvist, Karl Fredrik; Donell, Simon T

    2012-08-01

    An accurate physical examination of patients with patellar instability is an important aspect of the diagnosis and treatment. While previous studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of such physical examination tests, little has been undertaken to assess the inter- and intra-tester reliability of such techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-tester reliability of the physical examination tests used for patients with patellar instability. Five patients (10 knees) with bilateral recurrent patellar instability were assessed by five members of the International Patellofemoral Study Group. Each surgeon assessed each patient twice using 18 reported physical examination tests. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was assessed using weighted Kappa statistics with 95% confidence intervals. The findings of the study suggested that there were very poor inter-observer reliability for the majority of the physical tests, with only the assessments of patellofemoral crepitus, foot arch position and the J-sign presenting with fair to moderate agreement respectively. The intra-observer reliability indicated largely moderate to substantial agreement between the first and second tests performed by each assessor, with the greatest agreement seen for the assessment of tibial torsion, popliteal angle and the Bassett's sign. For the common physical examination tests used in the management of patients with patellar instability inter-observer reliability is poor, while intra-observer reliability is moderate. Standardization of physical exam assessments and further study of these results among different clinicians and more divergent patient groups is indicated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An Examination of the Reliability of the Organizational Assessment Package (OAP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    methods, primarily Kuder - Richardson 20 and 21 (KR20 and KR21) and Cronbach’s alpha. Of these four methods, two are appropriate in the present situation...lowers reliability coefficients (Cronbach, 1960). The split-half method, therefore, must use a formula such as the Spearman-Brown correction formula to...estimate the full-scale reliability from the half-scale coeffi- cient. The use of this formula adds more inconsistency, since it is only an estimate

  9. Reliability of specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lange, Toni; Matthijs, Omer; Jain, Nitin B; Schmitt, Jochen; Lützner, Jörg; Kopkow, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Shoulder pain in the general population is common and to identify the aetiology of shoulder pain, history, motion and muscle testing, and physical examination tests are usually performed. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and evaluate intrarater and inter-rater reliability of physical examination tests in the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) through 20 March 2015. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) tool by 2 independent reviewers. The search strategy revealed 3259 articles, of which 18 finally met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the reliability of 62 test and test variations used for the specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. Methodological quality ranged from 2 to 7 positive criteria of the 11 items of the QAREL tool. This review identified a lack of high-quality studies evaluating inter-rater as well as intrarater reliability of specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. In addition, reliability measures differed between included studies hindering proper cross-study comparisons. PROSPERO CRD42014009018. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Reliability of procedures used in the physical examination of non-specific low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    May, Stephen; Littlewood, Chris; Bishop, Annette

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of the research and to assess the reliability of different types of physical examination procedures used in the assessment of patients with non-specific low back pain. A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PEDro, AMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL) up to August 2005 identified 48 relevant studies which were analysed for quality and reliability. Pre-established criteria were used to judge the quality of the studies and satisfactory reliability, and conclusions emphasised high quality studies (> or = 60% methods score). The mean quality score of the studies was 52% (range 0 to 88%), indicating weak to moderate methodology. Based on the upper threshold used (kappa/ICC > 0.85) most procedures demonstrated either conflicting evidence or moderate to strong evidence of low reliability. When the lower threshold was used (kappa/ICC > 0.70) evidence about pain response to repeated movements changed from contradictory to moderate evidence for high reliability. Most procedures commonly used by clinicians in the examination of patients with back pain demonstrate low reliability.

  11. NDE of PWA 1480 single crystal turbine blade material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Orange, Thomas W.; Dreshfield, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Cantilever bending fatigue specimens were examined by fluorescent liquid penetrant and radioactive gas penetrant (Krypton) non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods and tested. Specimens with cast, ground, or polished surface were evaluated to study the effect of surface condition on NDE and fatigue crack initiation. Fractographic and metallurgical analyses were performed to determine the nature of crack precursors. Preliminary results show that fatigue strength was lower for specimens with cast surfaces than for specimens with machined surfaces. The liquid penetrant and gas penetrant techniques both provided indications of a large population of defects on the cast surfaces. On ground or polished specimen surfaces, the gas penetrant appeared to estimate the actual number of voids more accurately than the liquid penetrant.

  12. NDE of titanium alloy MMC rings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Percival, Larry D.; Yancey, Robert N.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    Progress in the processing and fabrication of metal matrix composites (MMC's) requires appropriate mechanical and nondestructive testing methods. These methods are needed to characterize properties, assess integrity, and predict the life of engine components such as compressor rotors, blades, and vanes. Capabilities and limitations of several state-of-the-art nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are investigated for characterizing titanium MMC rings for gas turbine engines. The use of NDE technologies such as x-ray computed tomography, radiography, and ultrasonics in identifying fabrication-related problems that caused defects in components is examined. Acousto-ultrasonics was explored to assess degradation of material mechanical properties by using stress wave factor and ultrasonic velocity measurements before and after the burst testing of the rings.

  13. Developing NDE Techniques for Large Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Don; Starr, Stan

    2009-01-01

    The Shuttle and Constellation Programs require very large cryogenic ground storage tanks in which to store liquid oxygen and hydrogen. The existing LC-39 pad tanks, which will be passed onto Constellation, are 40 years old and have received minimal refurbishment or even inspection, because they can only be temperature cycled a few times before being overhauled (a costly operation in both time and dollars). Numerous questions exist on the performance and reliability of these old tanks which could cause a major Program schedule disruption. Consequently, with the passing of the first two tanks to Constellation to occur this year, there is growing awareness that NDE is needed to detect problems early in these tanks so that corrective actions can be scheduled when least disruptive. Time series thermal images of two sides of the Pad B LH2 tank have been taken over multiple days to demonstrate the effects of environmental conditions to the solar heating of the tank and therefore the effectiveness of thermal imaging.

  14. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  15. The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Eudell-Simmons, Erin M.; DeFife, Jared A.; Charnas, Jocelyn W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the…

  16. Examining Reliability of Reading Comprehension Ratings of Fifth Grade Students' Oral Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernfeld, L. Elizabeth Shirley; Morrison, Timothy G.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Wilcox, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to rate oral retellings of fifth graders to determine how passages, raters, and rating occasions affect those ratings, and to identify what combination of those elements produce reliable retelling ratings. A group of 36 fifth grade students read and orally retold three contemporary realistic fiction passages. Two…

  17. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  18. The Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI): An Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Eudell-Simmons, Erin M.; DeFife, Jared A.; Charnas, Jocelyn W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the reliability, validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index (PTI) in relation to the accurate identification of psychotic disorder (PTD) patients. The PTI is a revision of the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index (SCZI), designed to achieve several criteria, including an increase in the…

  19. Examining Reliability of Reading Comprehension Ratings of Fifth Grade Students' Oral Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernfeld, L. Elizabeth Shirley; Morrison, Timothy G.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Wilcox, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to rate oral retellings of fifth graders to determine how passages, raters, and rating occasions affect those ratings, and to identify what combination of those elements produce reliable retelling ratings. A group of 36 fifth grade students read and orally retold three contemporary realistic fiction passages. Two…

  20. The Examination of Reliability According to Classical Test and Generalizability on a Job Performance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelboga, Atilla; Tavsancil, Ezel

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were carried out with the data obtained by a job performance scale for the years 2005 and 2006. The reliability coefficients obtained (estimated) from the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were compared. In classical test theory, test retest…

  1. Can We Trust Levelled Texts? An Examination of Their Reliability and Quality from a Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Brandy; Fang, Zhihui

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade in the United States, levelled texts, or "little books" with finely graduated levelling of text difficulty, have regained their status as a literacy staple for beginning readers. Despite their resurgence, questions remain regarding the reliability and quality of these books. In this study, we conducted a detailed…

  2. Assessing Reliability: Critical Corrections for a Critical Examination of the Rorschach Comprehensive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    In reply to criticism of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) by J. Wood, M. Nezworski, and W. Stejskal (1996), this article presents a meta-analysis of published data indicating that the CS has excellent chance-corrected interrater reliability. It is noted that the erroneous assumptions of Wood et al. make their assertions about validity…

  3. Test Theories, Educational Priorities and Reliability of Public Examinations in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Black, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Much has already been written on the controversies surrounding the use of different test theories in educational assessment. Other authors have noted the prevalence of classical test theory over item response theory in practice. This Special Issue draws together articles based upon work conducted on the Reliability Programme for England's…

  4. Development of the Anxiety Scale for Natural Disaster: Examination of its Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Miki; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    The objective of present study was to develop the a nxiety scale for natural disaster, and to examineits reliability. We developed the 14 items for the anxiety scale based on anticipated damage of Nankai earthquake in Ehime prefecture. The subjects consist of 391 people in Yawatahama city, Ehime prefecture. Firstly, we analyzed the latent factors which influenced the anxiety for natural disaster by using the factor analysis method. Secondly, we cal culated Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The result of the factor analysis confirmed the three factors such as "anxiety for lifeline damage", "anxiety for second ary disaster" and "fear for others". Cronbach's coefficient alpha for each factor showed the high interna l consistency reliability. We considered that each factor could prove to be a valuable tool for researc h about the person's anxiety for natural disaster.

  5. Development and application of NDE methods for monolithic and continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.

    1999-05-21

    Monolithic structural ceramics and continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for application in many thermally and chemically aggressive environments where structural reliability is paramount. We have recently developed advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can detect distributed ''defects'' such as density gradients and machining-induced damage in monolithic materials, as well as delamination, porosity, and throughwall cracks, in CMC materials. These advanced NDE methods utilize (a) high-resolution, high-sensitivity thermal imaging; (b) high-resolution X-ray imaging; (c) laser-based elastic optical scattering; (d) acoustic resonance; (e) air-coupled ultrasonic methods; and (f) high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrant technology. This paper discusses the development and application of these NDE methods relative to ceramic processing and ceramic components used in large-scale industrial gas turbines and hot gas filters for gas stream particulate cleanup.

  6. The feasibility and reliability of transient elastography using Fibroscan®: A practice audit of 2335 examinations

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jack XQ; Pradhan, Faruq; Zimmer, Scott; Niu, Sophia; Crotty, Pam; Tracey, Jenna; Schneider, Christopher; Heitman, Steven J; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Swain, Mark G; Myers, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using transient elastography is widely used in the management of patients with chronic liver disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility and reliability of LSM, and to identify patient and operator characteristics predictive of poorly reliable results. METHODS: The present retrospective study investigated the frequency and determinants of poorly reliable LSM (interquartile range [IQR]/median LSM [IQR/M] >30% with median liver stiffness ≥7.1 kPa) using the FibroScan (Echosens, France) over a three-year period. Two experienced operators performed all LSMs. Multiple logistic regression analyses examined potential predictors of poorly reliable LSMs including age, sex, liver disease, the operator, operator experience (<500 versus ≥500 scans), FibroScan probe (M versus XL), comorbidities and liver stiffness. In a subset of patients, medical records were reviewed to identify obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). RESULTS: Between July 2008 and June 2011, 2335 patients with liver disease underwent LSM (86% using the M probe). LSM failure (no valid measurements) occurred in 1.6% (n=37) and was more common using the XL than the M probe (3.4% versus 1.3%; P=0.01). Excluding LSM failures, poorly reliable LSMs were observed in 4.9% (n=113) of patients. Independent predictors of poorly reliable LSM included older age (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.05]), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.37), coagulopathy (OR 2.22 [95% CI 1.31 to 3.76) and higher liver stiffness (OR per kPa 1.03 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.05]), including presumed cirrhosis (stiffness ≥12.5 kPa; OR 5.24 [95% CI 3.49 to 7.89]). Sex, diabetes, the underlying liver disease and FibroScan probe were not significant. Although reliability varied according to operator (P<0.0005), operator experience was not significant. In a subanalysis including 434 patients with body mass index data, obesity influenced the rate of poorly reliable results (OR 2.93 [95% CI 0

  7. Reliability and prevalence of physical performance examination assessing mobility and balance in older persons in the US: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Ostchega, Y; Harris, T B; Hirsch, R; Parsons, V L; Kington, R; Katzoff, M

    2000-09-01

    This report provides reliability and prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity of an observed physical performance examination (PPE) assessing mobility and balance. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994. A cross-sectional nationally representative survey. All persons aged 60 and older (n = 5,403) who performed the PPE either in the mobile examination center (MEC) or in the home during NHANES III (conducted 1988-1994). The PPE included timed chair stand, full tandem stand, and timed 8-foot walk. Timed chair stand and 8-foot timed walk were reliable measurements (Intraclass Correlations > 0.5). Women were significantly slower (P < .001) than men for both timed chair stands and timed walk. Non-Hispanic white men and women did the maneuvers in significantly less time than non-Hispanic black men and women and Mexican Americans women (P < .001). Lower extremity functions measured by timed chair stand and walk are reliable. Women at every age group were more physically limited than men.

  8. NDE Studies on CRDMs Removed From Service

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Schuster, George J.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Abrefah, John

    2005-12-31

    Studies being conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington are focused on assessing the effectiveness of NDE inspections of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments, and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies. In describing two CRDM assemblies removed from service, decontaminated, and then used in a series of NDE measurements, this paper will address the following questions: 1) What did each technique detect?, 2) What did each technique miss?, 3) How accurately did each technique characterize the detected flaws? Two CRDM assemblies including the CRDM nozzle, the J-groove weld, buttering, and a portion of the ferritic head material were selected for this study. One contained suspected PWSCC, based on in-service inspection data; the other contained evidence suggesting through-wall leakage, but this was unconfirmed. The selected NDE measurements follow standard industry techniques for conducting in-service inspections of CRDM nozzles and the crown of the J-groove welds and buttering. In addition, laboratory based NDE methods will be employed to conduct inspections of the CRDM assemblies, with particular emphasis on inspecting the J-groove weld and buttering. This paper will also describe the NDE methods used and discus the NDE results. Future work will involve using the results from these NDE studies to guide the development of a destructive characterization plan to reveal the crack morphology, to be compared with NDE responses.

  9. [Examination of safety improvement by failure record analysis that uses reliability engineering].

    PubMed

    Kato, Kyoichi; Sato, Hisaya; Abe, Yoshihisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Hiroshi; Higashimura, Kyoji; Amauchi, Hiroshi; Yanakita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kei; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-08-20

    How the maintenance checks of the medical treatment system, including start of work check and the ending check, was effective for preventive maintenance and the safety improvement was verified. In this research, date on the failure of devices in multiple facilities was collected, and the data of the trouble repair record was analyzed by the technique of reliability engineering. An analysis of data on the system (8 general systems, 6 Angio systems, 11 CT systems, 8 MRI systems, 8 RI systems, and the radiation therapy system 9) used in eight hospitals was performed. The data collection period assumed nine months from April to December 2008. Seven items were analyzed. (1) Mean time between failures (MTBF) (2) Mean time to repair (MTTR) (3) Mean down time (MDT) (4) Number found by check in morning (5) Failure generation time according to modality. The classification of the breakdowns per device, the incidence, and the tendency could be understood by introducing reliability engineering. Analysis, evaluation, and feedback on the failure generation history are useful to keep downtime to a minimum and to ensure safety.

  10. The interrater reliability of an objective structured practical examination in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kevin A; Babajanian, Jesika

    2016-10-01

    The objective structured practical examination (OSPE) is a case-based assessment that can be used to assess the clinical reasoning ability of students. The reliability of using an OSPE for this purpose has not been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the OSPE in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students. Two examiners tested each student simultaneously when enough were available as a check for interrater reliability. The scores for students over 4 exam administrations were compiled, and we calculated an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using 1-way random single measures. Paired scores were available for 133 students. The ICC was .685, showing a fair-to-good level of agreement for faculty in assessing the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students using an OSPE. The OSPE can be a valuable tool for testing clinical reasoning abilities because it can simulate the decision-making process that needs to be implemented in clinical practice. Faculty members at our chiropractic college were able to achieve an acceptable level of reliability in measuring the clinical reasoning abilities of students using an OSPE. Other health professional programs may consider using this tool for assessing the clinical reasoning skills of their students.

  11. The interrater reliability of an objective structured practical examination in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kevin A.; Babajanian, Jesika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective structured practical examination (OSPE) is a case-based assessment that can be used to assess the clinical reasoning ability of students. The reliability of using an OSPE for this purpose has not been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the OSPE in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students. Methods: Two examiners tested each student simultaneously when enough were available as a check for interrater reliability. The scores for students over 4 exam administrations were compiled, and we calculated an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using 1-way random single measures. Results: Paired scores were available for 133 students. The ICC was .685, showing a fair-to-good level of agreement for faculty in assessing the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students using an OSPE. Conclusion: The OSPE can be a valuable tool for testing clinical reasoning abilities because it can simulate the decision-making process that needs to be implemented in clinical practice. Faculty members at our chiropractic college were able to achieve an acceptable level of reliability in measuring the clinical reasoning abilities of students using an OSPE. Other health professional programs may consider using this tool for assessing the clinical reasoning skills of their students. PMID:27115474

  12. A New Reliable Method for Evaluating Gallbladder Dynamics: The 3-Dimensional Sonographic Examination.

    PubMed

    Serra, Carla; Pallotti, Francesca; Bortolotti, Mauro; Caputo, Carla; Felicani, Cristina; De Giorgio, Roberto; Barbara, Giovanni; Nardi, Elena; Labate, Antonio Maria Morselli

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional 2-dimensional (2D) B-mode sonography with 3-dimensional (3D) sonography for assessing gallbladder volume and contractility. Gallbladder volume and contractility were evaluated in 32 healthy volunteers after fasting and abstinence from smoking for 8 hours and after a standardized balanced liquid meal. The gallbladder was evaluated with 2D sonography (with the use of the ellipsoid method) and with 3D sonography using a volumetric matrix probe. Both measurements were made by an operator who was skilled in sonography and an unskilled operator. The group of volunteers was subdivided into 2 subgroups including 16 participants, which represented the "2 moments" of acquisition by the techniques, particularly for the unskilled operator. The postprandial volumes obtained with 3D sonography were significantly lower in comparison to the volumes obtained with 2D sonography (P= .013), and there was a significant difference between the measurements made by the skilled and unskilled operators only for 2D sonography (P< .001), whereas between the 2 moments of acquisition by the 3D technique, there was no significant difference. The reproducibility of the technique for evaluation of gallbladder volumes was higher for 3D sonography than 2D sonography, particularly for the postprandial evaluation. The new 3D sonographic method using a volumetric matrix probe is a simple, reliable, and more reproducible technique than conventional 2D sonography, even if performed by an unskilled operator, and it allows a reliable stimulation test for a gallbladder dynamic study. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Interrater Reliability and Physical Examination of the Pubovisceral Portion of the Levator Ani Muscle, Validity Comparisons using MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Rohna; Miller, Janis M.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Defects in the pubovisceral portion of the levator ani muscle are seen with MR imaging. This study aims to determine interrater reliability of physical examination in detecting these defects, and to validate findings from physical examination using comparisons with MR images Methods Two examiners palpated the pubovisceral muscles of 29 women to assess for defects in this muscle. Each examiner was blinded to the others findings. MR scans were acquired on a further 24 women after structured clinical examination by one examiner. These images were read to determine pubovisceral muscle defects, blinded to patient identifiers. Agreement between raters and between MR imaging and clinical examination were calculated. Results The two examiners had positive agreement (presence of a defect) of 72.7% and negative agreement (absence of a defect) of 83.3%. The positive agreement between physical examination and MR imaging was 27.3% and the negative agreement 86.5% Conclusion The structured physical examination to detect defects in the pubovisceral portion of the levator ani muscle can be learned as shown by good interrater agreement. However, examination alone underestimates these defects compared with MR imaging. PMID:16304674

  14. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  15. Inter-rater Reliability of Three Musculoskeletal Physical examination Techniques Used to Assess Motion in Three Planes While Standing

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; Steger-May, Karen; Hayes, Marcie Harris; Knaus, Evan; Clohisy, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to measure the reliability between examiners of three basic maneuvers of the Total Body Functional Profile© physical examination test. The hypothesis was musculoskeletal health care providers of different disciplines could reliably use the three basic maneuvers as part of the musculoskeletal physical examination. Design A prospective observational study was conducted. Twenty-eight adult volunteers were measured on both the left and right side by two independent raters on a single occasion. Setting The subjects were recruited through advertisements placed by the orthopedic department at a tertiary university. Participants 28 volunteers were recruited and completed the study. The volunteers were between the ages of 18 and 51 years of age, had no symptoms in the lower extremity or spine, had no previous history of surgery or tumor involving the lower extremity, and no medical conditions that would preclude participation. Assessment On a single occasion, two examiners per one volunteer were blinded to their own and each others' measurements. Each examiner assessed the distance of frontal and sagittal plane lunge and angle of motion for transverse plane testing. Main Outcome Measurements Inter-rater agreement is expressed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The difference between raters is reported with 95% CIs. Baseline demographics, UCLA, and Harris hip questionnaires were completed by all participants. Results The UCLA and Harris hip scores showed no significant activity restrictions or pain limitations in all participants. The inter-rater reliability for sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane matrix testing was good with ICCs of 0.86 (95% CI 0.77, 0.91), 0.90 (95% CI 0.84, 0.94), and 0.85 (95% CI 0.75, 0.91) respectively. The rater reliability between disciplines for transverse, sagittal and frontal plane matrix testing was good with ICCs of 0.89 (95% CI 0.80, 0

  16. Improving the Reliability of Autism Diagnoses: Examining the Utility of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomanik, Stacey S.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Lane, David M.; Shaw, J. Bryant

    2007-01-01

    The classification agreement of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) was examined in 129 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years) who were evaluated for autism. Participants received a diagnosis of autism or non-autism based on the ADI-R. Linear discriminant analysis revealed…

  17. Attitude Scale towards Web-Based Examination System (MOODLE)--Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulent, Basaran; Murat, Yalman; Selahattin, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Today, the spread of Internet use has accelerated the development of educational technologies and increased the quality of education by encouraging teachers' cooperation and participation. As a result, examinations executed via the Internet have become common, and a number of universities have started using distant education management system.…

  18. Narrative Review: Should Teaching of the Respiratory Physical Examination Be Restricted Only to Signs with Proven Reliability and Validity?

    PubMed Central

    Baumal, Reuben

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the reported reliability (reproducibility, inter-examiner agreement) and validity (sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios) of respiratory physical examination (PE) signs, and suggest an approach to teaching these signs to medical students. METHODS Review of the literature. We searched Paper Chase between 1966 and June 2009 to identify and evaluate published studies on the diagnostic accuracy of respiratory PE signs. RESULTS Most studies have reported low to fair reliability and sensitivity values. However, some studies have found high specificites for selected PE signs. None of the studies that we reviewed adhered to all of the STARD criteria for reporting diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS Possible flaws in study designs may have led to underestimates of the observed diagnostic accuracy of respiratory PE signs. The reported poor reliabilities may have been due to differences in the PE skills of the participating examiners, while the sensitivities may have been confounded by variations in the severity of the diseases of the participating patients. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE AND MEDICAL EDUCATION Pending the results of properly controlled studies, the reported poor reliability and sensitivity of most respiratory PE signs do not necessarily detract from their clinical utility. Therefore, we believe that a meticulously performed respiratory PE, which aims to explore a diagnostic hypothesis, as opposed to a PE that aims to detect a disease in an asymptomatic person, remains a cornerstone of clinical practice. We propose teaching the respiratory PE signs according to their importance, beginning with signs of life-threatening conditions and those that have been reported to have a high specificity, and ending with signs that are "nice to know," but are no longer employed because of the availability of more easily performed tests. PMID:20349154

  19. NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex A.; Klima, Stanley J.

    1993-01-01

    Although nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for ceramics are fairly well developed, they are difficult to apply in many cases for high probability detection of the minute flaws that can cause failure in monolithic ceramics. Conventional NDE techniques are available for monolithic and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, but more exact quantitative techniques needed are still being investigated and developed. Needs range from flaw detection to below 100 micron levels in monolithic ceramics to global imaging of fiber architecture and matrix densification anomalies in ceramic composites. NDE techniques that will ultimately be applicable to production and quality control of ceramic structures are still emerging from the lab. Needs are different depending on the processing stage, fabrication method, and nature of the finished product. NDE techniques are being developed in concert with materials processing research where they can provide feedback information to processing development and quality improvement. NDE techniques also serve as research tools for materials characterization and for understanding failure processes, e.g., during thermomechanical testing.

  20. NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex; Klima, Stanley J.

    1991-01-01

    Although nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for ceramics are fairly well developed, they are difficult to apply in many cases for high probability detection of the minute flaws that can cause failure in monolithic ceramics. Conventional NDE techniques are available for monolithic and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, but more exact quantitative techniques needed are still being investigated and developed. Needs range from flaw detection to below 100 micron levels in monolithic ceramics to global imaging of fiber architecture and matrix densification anomalies in ceramic composites. NDE techniques that will ultimately be applicable to production and quality control of ceramic structures are still emerging from the lab. Needs are different depending on the processing stage, fabrication method, and nature of the finished product. NDE techniques are being developed in concert with materials processing research where they can provide feedback information to processing development and quality improvement. NDE techniques also serve as research tools for materials characterization and for understanding failure processes, e.g., during thermomechanical testing.

  1. Understanding the reliability of diagnostic variables in a Chinese Medicine examination.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kylie A; Abbas, Estelle; Zhang, Jiansheng; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Luo, Ruizhi; Bensoussan, Alan; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    The question of the objectivity of the clinical examination has been raised in relation to Western and non-Western medical systems. Western practitioners are often skeptical about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the basis that its diagnostic variables and subcategories of disease appear subjective and not repeatable. We conducted a study investigating the reproducibility of individual diagnostic observations within three of the four diagnostic methods used in a TCM examination: inspection, palpation, and auscultation. Three TCM practitioners participated in the study, and examined 45 adults who had mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia but were otherwise healthy. Results indicated that while there are certain features of the TCM system that are highly objective and repeatable, such as detection of the presence of shen, character of breath sounds, and pulse speed, there are other features that are subjective and unreliable, such as color under the eyes and tongue body color. This poses a challenge for TCM practitioners to improve their clinical practice and demonstrates to Western medical practitioners that TCM does in part rest on a rigorous and objective empirical basis.

  2. How do nurses and teachers perform breast self-examination: are they reliable sources of information?

    PubMed Central

    Demirkiran, Fatma; Balkaya, Nevin Akdolun; Memis, Sakine; Turk, Gulengun; Ozvurmaz, Safiye; Tuncyurek, Pars

    2007-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare knowledge, behavior and attitudes among female nurses and teachers concerning breast self-examination (BSE). Methods Two-hundred and eighty nine women working in Aydin, Turkey (125 nurses and 164 teachers) were included in the study. The data were collected using a questionnaire designed to measure the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of the groups. Analysis involved percentiles, χ2 tests, t tests and factor analysis. Results The knowledge of nurses about BSE was higher than that of teachers (81.5% versus 45.1%; p < 0.001). BSE practice parameters (i.e. age groups, indications, frequency) were similar (p > 0.05), whereas skills in performing self-examination were higher in nurses (p < 0.001). Fear of having breast cancer is the most frequent reason for performing BSE. Among nurses, the reasons for failure to perform BSE were the absence of prominent breast problems (82%) and forgetting (56.4%). The teachers who did not perform BSE said that the reasons were lack of knowledge on how to perform self-examination (68.9%) and absence of problems (54%). Both groups had unacceptable technical errors in the performance of BSE. Conclusion We conclude that nurses and teachers should be supported with information enabling them to accomplish their roles in the community. To improve BSE practice, it is crucial to coordinate continuous and planned education. PMID:17547778

  3. 77 FR 3800 - Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order In the Matter of Accurate NDE & Docket: 150... request ADR with the NRC in an attempt to resolve issues associated with this matter. In response, on August 9, 2011, Accurate NDE requested ADR to resolve this matter with the NRC. On September 28, 2011...

  4. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD): Development of Image Analysis Criteria and Examiner Reliability for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mansur; Hollender, Lars; Odont; Anderson, Quentin; Kartha, Krishnan; Ohrbach, Richard K.; Truelove, Edmond L.; John, Mike T.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction As a part of a multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project, comprehensive TMJ diagnostic criteria were developed for image analysis using panoramic radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). Methods Inter-examiner reliability was estimated using the kappa (k) statistic, and agreement between rater pairs was characterized by overall, positive, and negative percent agreement. CT was the reference standard for assessing validity of other imaging modalities for detecting osteoarthritis (OA). Results For the radiological diagnosis of OA, reliability of the three examiners was poor for panoramic radiography (k = 0.16), fair for MRI (k = 0.46), and close to the threshold for excellent for CT (k = 0.71). Using MRI, reliability was excellent for diagnosing disc displacements (DD) with reduction (k = 0.78) and for DD without reduction (k = 0.94), and was good for effusion (k = 0.64). Overall percent agreement for pair-wise ratings was ≥ 82% for all conditions. Positive percent agreement for diagnosing OA was 19% for panoramic radiography, 59% for MRI, and 84% for CT. Using MRI, positive percent agreement for diagnoses of any DD was 95% and for effusion was 81%. Negative percent agreement was ≥ 88% for all conditions. Compared to CT, panoramic radiography and MRI had poor to marginal sensitivity, respectively, but excellent specificity, in detecting OA. Conclusion Comprehensive image analysis criteria for RDC/TMD Validation Project were developed, which can reliably be employed for assessing OA using CT, and for disc position and effusion using MRI. PMID:19464658

  5. Characterization of melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composite combustor liners using meso- and micro-NDE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.; Sun, J. G.; More, K. L.; Hines, R.

    2000-01-26

    Melt-infiltrated ceramic matrix composite SiC/SiC material systems are under development for use in combustor liners for low-emission advanced gas turbines. Uncertainty in repeatability of processing methods for these large components (33--76 cm diameter), and hence possible reduced reliability for the end user. This requires that appropriate test methods, at both meso- and micro-scale, be used to ensure that the liners are acceptable for use. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, if demonstrated to reliably detect changes caused by processing, would be of significant benefit to both manufacturer and end user. This paper describes the NDE methods and their applications in detecting a process upset in a melt-infiltrated 33 cm combustor liner and how high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was used to verify the NDE data.

  6. [Provision of integrity and reliability in hygienic examination of investment projects for human capital development].

    PubMed

    Tarkhov, P V; Matsenko, A M; Krugliak, A P; Derkach, Zh V

    2012-01-01

    To reach normal competitiveness in world division of labour, investment projects should stimulate development of human capital towards advance of modern technologies and organizational development of all types of labour. At present time there are only separate calculations of certain types of people's health damage and completely disparate matters of damage compensation exceptionally for chemical contamination effects. The purpose of the paper is development of algorithms to provide hygienic welfare of human capital in investment projects. For this purpose in investments assessment and hygienic examination it is necessary to apply complete and comprehensive (systematic) evaluation of all factors that influence human capital welfare and practical hygienic and research institutions should be focused on systematic elimination of possible dangers and risks of investment projects.

  7. Improving the reliability of autism diagnoses: examining the utility of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Tomanik, Stacey S; Pearson, Deborah A; Loveland, Katherine A; Lane, David M; Bryant Shaw, J

    2007-05-01

    The classification agreement of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) was examined in 129 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years) who were evaluated for autism. Participants received a diagnosis of autism or non-autism based on the ADI-R. Linear discriminant analysis revealed adequate concordance between the ADI-R and ADOS, with 75% of the participants being correctly classified using the ADOS. Classification accuracy significantly improved to 84% when a measure of adaptive functioning (i.e., the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) was included in the analysis. The findings suggest that when clinicians obtain discrepant information on the ADI-R and ADOS, assessment of an individual's adaptive functioning may reduce diagnostic errors.

  8. Online resistance spot weld NDE using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2017-04-01

    A new online resistance spot weld non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique based on infrared (IR) thermography has been developed. It is capable of both real-time online (during welding) and post-weld online/offline (after welding) inspections. The system mainly consists of an IR camera and a computer program with proprietary thermal imaging analysis algorithms integrated into existing production lines. For real-time inspection, the heat flow generated from the welding process (with temperature exceeding 1000°C) is monitored by the IR camera. For post-weld inspection, a novel auxiliary heating device is applied to locally heat the weld region, resulting in temperature changes on the order of 10°C, and the transmitted heat flow is monitored. Unlike the conventional IR NDE method that requires surface coating to reduce the influence of unknown emissivity, the new method can be applied on as-is bare metal surface thanks to the unique "thermal signatures" extracted from infrared thermal images, which positively correlates to weld quality with a high degree of confidence. The new method can be used to reliably detect weld size, surface indents and defects such as cold weld with sufficient accuracy for welds made from various combinations of materials, thickness, stack-up configuration, surface coating conditions and welding conditions.

  9. Negative Stress Examination Under Anesthesia Reliably Predicts Pelvic Ring Union Without Displacement.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Paul S; Auston, Darryl; Avilucea, Frank R; Ross, Daniel; Archdeacon, Michael; Sciadini, Marcus; Collinge, Cory A; Sagi, Henry C; Mir, Hassan R

    2017-04-01

    To identify the negative predictive value of examination under anesthesia (EUA) for determining pelvic ring stability and union without further displacement. Retrospective cohort study. Two academic Level 1 trauma centers. Thirty-four adult patients with closed pelvic ring injuries treated over a 5-year period. Pelvic stress EUA. Pelvic ring union and pelvic ring displacement at final follow-up. Thirty-four patients with closed pelvic ring injuries who underwent pelvic EUA during the study period and had a negative examination (indicating a stable pelvis) were identified. Mean age was 38 years (range 16-76), and 19 patients (55.9%) were male. Twenty-two patients (64.7%) had Young-Burgess lateral compression (LC)-1 injuries with complete sacral fractures, 4 patients (11.8%) had LC-2 injuries, and 8 patients (23.5%) had anteroposterior compression (APC)-1 injuries. Eight patients (23.5%) had associated injuries requiring restricted weight-bearing on one or both lower extremities and were excluded from the analysis. Immediate weight-bearing as tolerated was permitted bilaterally in the remaining 26 patients. Mean pelvic ring displacement at the time of injury was 3.8 mm (range 1-15 mm) for LC injuries and 9.1 mm (range 2-20 mm) for APC injuries. Patients were followed for a mean of 8 months (range 3-34 months). At final follow-up, mean displacement was 3.7 mm (range 0-17 mm) for LC injuries and 7.1 mm (range 2-19 mm) for APC injuries. Mean change in displacement from injury to union was -0.1 mm for LC injuries and -2.0 mm for APC injuries, indicating decreased pelvic ring displacement at union. All patients were able to tolerate full weight-bearing bilaterally with no pain, and there were no instances of delayed operative fixation after negative EUA. Negative pelvic EUA after closed pelvic ring injury accurately predicts pelvic stability and union without displacement after nonoperative treatment with full weight-bearing bilaterally. Unless otherwise dictated by

  10. Neutron radiography and other NDE tests of main rotor helicopter blades.

    PubMed

    de Beer, F C; Coetzer, M; Fendeis, D; Da Costa E Silva, A

    2004-10-01

    A few nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques are extensively being used worldwide to investigate aircraft structures for all types of defects. The detection of corrosion and delaminations, which are believed to be the major initiators of defects leading to aircraft structural failures, are addressed by various NDE techniques. In a combined investigation by means of visual inspection, X-ray radiography and shearography on helicopter main rotor blades, neutron radiography (NRad) at SAFARI-1 research reactor operated by Necsa, was performed to introduce this form of NDE testing to the South African aviation industry to be evaluated for applicability. The results of the shearography, visual inspection and NRad techniques are compared in this paper. The main features and advantages of neutron radiography, within the framework of these investigations, will be highlighted.

  11. An NDE Approach for Characterizing Quality Problems in Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Sutter, James K.; Bodis, James R.; Leonhardt, Todd A.; Crane, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials are periodically identified appearing optically uniform but containing a higher than normal level of global nonuniformity as indicated from preliminary ultrasonic scanning. One such panel was thoroughly examined by nondestructive (NDE) and destructive methods to quantitatively characterize the nonuniformity. The NDE analysis of the panel was complicated by the fact that the panel was not uniformly thick. Mapping of ultrasonic velocity across a region of the panel in conjunction with an error analysis was necessary to (1) characterize properly the porosity gradient that was discovered during destructive analyses and (2) account for the thickness variation effects. Based on this study, a plan for future NDE characterization of PMC's is presented to the PMC community.

  12. Complimentary single technique and multi-physics modeling tools for NDE challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Lostec, Nechtan; Budyn, Nicolas; Sartre, Bernard; Glass, S. W.

    2014-02-01

    The challenges of modeling and simulation for Non Destructive Examination (NDE) research and development at AREVA NDE Solutions Technical Center (NETEC) are presented. In particular, the choice of a relevant software suite covering different applications and techniques and the process/scripting tools required for simulation and modeling are discussed. The software portfolio currently in use is then presented along with the limitations of the different software: CIVA for ultrasound (UT) methods, PZFlex for UT probes, Flux for eddy current (ET) probes and methods, plus Abaqus for multiphysics modeling. The finite element code, Abaqus is also considered as the future direction for many of our NDE modeling and simulation tasks. Some application examples are given on modeling of a piezoelectric acoustic phased array transducer and preliminary thermography configurations.

  13. Review of progress in quantitative NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts of 386 papers and plenary presentations are included. The plenary sessions related to the national technology initiative. The other sessions covered the following NDE topics: corrosion, electromagnetic arrays, elastic wave scattering and backscattering/noise, civil structures, material properties, holography, shearography, UT wave propagation, eddy currents, coatings, signal processing, radiography, computed tomography, EM imaging, adhesive bonds, NMR, laser ultrasonics, composites, thermal, magnetic measurements, nonlinear acoustics, interface modeling and characterization, UT transducers, new techniques, joined materials, probes and systems, fatigue cracks and fracture, imaging and sizing, NDE in engineering and process control, acoustics of cracks, and sensors. An author index is included. (DLC)

  14. Review of progress in quantitative NDE. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Abstracts of 386 papers and plenary presentations are included. The plenary sessions related to the national technology initiative. The other sessions covered the following NDE topics: corrosion, electromagnetic arrays, elastic wave scattering and backscattering/noise, civil structures, material properties, holography, shearography, UT wave propagation, eddy currents, coatings, signal processing, radiography, computed tomography, EM imaging, adhesive bonds, NMR, laser ultrasonics, composites, thermal, magnetic measurements, nonlinear acoustics, interface modeling and characterization, UT transducers, new techniques, joined materials, probes and systems, fatigue cracks and fracture, imaging and sizing, NDE in engineering and process control, acoustics of cracks, and sensors. An author index is included. (DLC)

  15. a Probabilistic Approach to Robotic Nde Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summan, R.; Dobie, G.; Hensman, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Worden, K.

    2010-02-01

    The application of wireless robotic inspection vehicles equipped with different NDE payloads has been introduced previously, with emphasis placed on inspection applications in hazardous and inaccessible environments. A particular challenge to the practical application of such robotic inspection lies in the localization of the devices. The authors here consider a probabilistic approach to both the positioning and defect problems by using the location of the robot and the NDE measurements (acquired from the onboard transducers) to make inference about defect existence and position. Using a particle filter approach running locally on the robots, the vehicle location is tracked by fusing noisy redundant data sets supplying positional information.

  16. NDE of Fiber Reinforced Foam Composite Structures for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, james; Roth, Don; Hopkins, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the complexities of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber reinforced foam composite structures to be used for aerospace vehicles in the future.Various views of fiber reinforced foam materials are shown and described. Conventional methods of NDE for composites are reviewed such as Micro-computed X-Ray Tomography, Thermography, Shearography, and Phased Array Ultrasonics (PAUT). These meth0ods appear to work well on the face sheet and face sheet ot core bond, they do not provide adequate coverage for the webs. There is a need for additional methods that will examine the webs and web to foam core bond.

  17. Measuring seated hip extensor strength using a handheld dynamometer: an examination of the reliability and validity of the protocol.

    PubMed

    Seko, Toshiaki; Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Miura, Sayo; Kobayashi, Takumi; Takahashi, Yui; Kaneko, Ryousuke; Morino, Akira; Ito, Toshikazu

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of measurements of hip extensor muscle strength using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) with subjects in a sitting position. In doing so, we also aimed to establish a modified method of measurement for patients with flexion contractures in the trunk and lower extremities. [Subjects and Methods] In 20 healthy males, hip extensor muscle strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer in sitting, prone, and standing positions by contracting the hip extensor muscle isometrically with the knee flexed at 90 degrees. For each position, we investigated the relative and absolute reliability and validity of the measurements, and compared muscle strength between the different positions. [Results] The reliability and validity of measurements were highest in the sitting position and higher in both the sitting and standing positions as compared with those in the prone position. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that measurements taken in a sitting position are accurate in assessing hip extensor muscle strength and would be applicable to patients with flexion contractures in the trunk and lower extremities.

  18. Is a Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) reliable for recording erosive tooth wear on 3D models?

    PubMed

    Alaraudanjoki, Viivi; Saarela, Henna; Pesonen, Reetta; Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Kiviahde, Heikki; Tjäderhane, Leo; Lussi, Adrian; Pesonen, Paula; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2017-04-01

    To assess the reliability of the BEWE index on 3D models and to compare 3D-assessed erosive tooth wear scores with clinically detected scores. In total, 1964 members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 participated in a standardized clinical dental examination including the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) and dental 3D modelling at the age of 45-46 years. Of those examined, 586 were randomly selected for this study. 3D models were assessed using the same BEWE criteria as in the clinical examination. Calculated kappa values as well as the prevalence and severity of erosive wear according to the clinical examination and 3D models were compared. Re-examinations were performed to calculate intra- and inter-method and -examiner agreements. The BEWE index on 3D models was reproducible; the mean intra- and inter-examiner agreement were 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for sextant level, and 0.64 and 1, respectively, for BEWE sum scores. Erosive tooth wear was recorded as more severe in 3D models than in the clinical examination, and inter-method agreement was 0.41 for severe erosive wear (BEWE sum>8). The biggest inter-method differences were found in upper posterior sextants. The BEWE index is reliable for recording erosive tooth wear on 3D models. 3D models seem to be especially sensitive in detecting initial erosive wear. Additionally, it seems that erosive wear may be underscored in the upper posterior sextants when assessed clinically. Due to the nature of 3D models, the assessment of erosive wear clinically and on 3D models may not be entirely comparable. 3D models can serve as an additional tool to detect and document erosive wear, especially during the early stages of the condition and in assessing the progression of wear. When scoring erosive wear clinically, care must be taken especially when assessing upper posterior sextants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Supervoltage NDE Techniques for Large Aerospace Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    long hours and with much creativity at the RPI Linac to assemble and commission the scanner and to obtain the results reported herein; all in a period...conventional radiography. Thus, for these large and highly attenuating objects, inovative technical approaches are urgently needed to provide NDE data to

  20. Polymer Piezoelectric Transducers for Ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Xue, Tianji; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    1996-01-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are associated with a low noise and inherent damping that makes them very effective receivers as well as broadband transmitters for high frequencies tasks. This paper reviews polymer piezoelectric materials, the origin of their piezoelectric behavior and their applications to ultrasonic NDE.

  1. NDE and SHM Simulation for CFRP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is a common technique for damage detection in composite materials. There is a need for advanced NDE that goes beyond damage detection to damage quantification and characterization in order to enable data driven prognostics. The damage types that exist in carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include microcracking and delaminations, and can be initiated and grown via impact forces (due to ground vehicles, tool drops, bird strikes, etc), fatigue, and extreme environmental changes. X-ray microfocus computed tomography data, among other methods, have shown that these damage types often result in voids/discontinuities of a complex volumetric shape. The specific damage geometry and location within ply layers affect damage growth. Realistic threedimensional NDE and structural health monitoring (SHM) simulations can aid in the development and optimization of damage quantification and characterization techniques. This paper is an overview of ongoing work towards realistic NDE and SHM simulation tools for composites, and also discusses NASA's need for such simulation tools in aeronautics and spaceflight. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with realistic 3-dimensional damage in CFRP composites. The custom code uses elastodynamic finite integration technique and is parallelized to run efficiently on computing cluster or multicore machines.

  2. Quantifying Flaw Characteristics from IR NDE Data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W; Philips, N R; Burke, M W; Robbins, C L

    2003-02-14

    Work is presented which allows flaw characteristics to be quantified from the transient IR NDE signature. The goal of this effort was to accurately determine the type, size and depth of flaws revealed with IR NDE, using sonic IR as the example IR NDE technique. Typically an IR NDE experiment will result in a positive qualitative indication of a flaw such as a cold or hot spot in the image, but will not provide quantitative data thereby leaving the practitioner to make educated guesses as to the source of the signal. The technique presented here relies on comparing the transient IR signature to exact heat transfer analytical results for prototypical flaws, using the flaw characteristics as unknown fitting parameters. A nonlinear least squares algorithm is used to evaluate the fitting parameters, which then provide a direct measure of the flaw characteristics that can be mapped to the imaged surface for visual reference. The method uses temperature data for the heat transfer analysis, so radiometric calibration of the IR signal is required. The method provides quantitative data with a single thermal event (e.g. acoustic pulse or flash), as compared to phase-lock techniques that require many events. The work has been tested with numerical data but remains to be validated by experimental data, and that effort is underway.

  3. NDE Assessments of Cast Stainless Steel Reactor Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Mathews, Royce

    2006-02-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of novel NDE approaches for the inspection of coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspection of primary piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes recent developments and results from assessments of three different NDE approaches including an ultrasonic phased array inspection methodology, an eddy current testing technique and a low-frequency ultrasonic inspection methodology coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Westinghouse Owner’s Group (WOG) cast stainless steel pipe segments with thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots, were used for assessing the inspection methods. ET studies were conducted on the inner diameter (ID) surface of piping specimens while the ultrasonic inspection methods were performed from the outer diameter (OD) surface of the specimens. The ET technique employed a ZETEC MIZ-27SI Eddy Current instrument and a ZETEC Z0000857-1 cross point spot probe with an operating frequency of 250 kHz. On some samples where noise levels were high, degaussing of the sample resulted in significant improvements. The phased array approach was implemented using an RD Tech Tomoscan III system operating at 1 MHz and composite volumetric images of the samples were generated. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employs a zone-focused, multi-incident angle; inspection protocol (operating at 250-450 kHz) coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for improved signal-to-noise and advanced imaging

  4. The reliability of the examination of foods, processed for safety, for enteric pathogens and Enterobacteriaceae: a mathematical and ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Drion, E. F.; Mossel, D. A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the paucity of quantitative data on numbers of other enteric pathogens in food, the reliability of the examination of processed foods for Enterobacteriaceae was estimated taking Salmonella as a model. For this purpose an assessment was carried out of the risk of accepting Salmonella contaminated consignments of foods, despite a negative outcome of (i) examination of 1·5 kg samples for Salmonella; (ii) examination of one or two 1 g samples for Enterobacteriaceae; (iii) simultaneous application of both tests. The computations were based on the results of the examination of 6830 samples of dried foods, processed for safety, out of a total of 18170 samples. Only 69 samples permitted the exact calculation of the ε-factor, defined as c.f.u./g of Enterobacteriaceae/c.f.u./g of Salmonella; 4642 were positive for the former group but `free' from Salmonella, and the rest were negative in both tests. Numbers of c.f.u./g for both groups, and hence the ε-factors, varied widely between commodities and also between different consignments of the same food product. The average for ε amounted to 5·8 × 103, far from the base-line value of 0·75 × 103 assessed earlier. In only 0·1% of samples did the Enterobacteriaceae test fail to achieve the required consumer protection. This investigation therefore substantiates that testing foods processed for safety by examining accurately chosen quantities for ecologically well selected and taxonomically thoroughly defined index organisms is a most effective procedure in terms both of consumer protection and simplicity of examination without compelling the food industry to achieve hardly attainable microbiological quality standards. PMID:325125

  5. Reliability of physical examination in the measurement of hip flexion contracture and correlation with gait parameters in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Han, Ho Sung; Choi, In Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2011-01-19

    this study was undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the physical examination tests commonly used to measure hip flexion contracture in patients with cerebral palsy who are able to walk. thirty-six consecutive patients (twenty-two male and fourteen female patients), with a mean age (and standard deviation) of 9.8 ± 3.9 years, who had cerebral palsy (level I, II, or III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System) and thirty-seven children without cerebral palsy (nineteen male and eighteen female subjects), with a mean age of 10.0 ± 3.0 years, were enrolled prospectively for this study. Hip flexion contracture was determined by three physical examination tests: the Thomas test, the prone hip extension test (the Staheli test), and the hamstring shift test. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed in all subjects. The interobserver reliabilities of the three physical examination tests were determined with use of three observers. Convergent validity was assessed by evaluating the relationships between the findings on physical examination and kinematic and kinetic gait variables (maximum hip extension during stance and hip flexor index) and three-dimensional modeled psoas lengths. the Thomas test showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficient (0.501 in patients and 0.207 in controls) and the smallest mean absolute difference (5.8° in patients and 1.2° in controls). The Staheli test was found to be the most valid method in the patient group (r = 0.568 with hip flexor index), whereas the Thomas test was the most valid in the control group (r = 0.526 with maximum hip extension in stance, and r = 0.532 with the hip flexor index). The hamstring shift test had the lowest intraclass correlation coefficient and the lowest convergent validity. while the Thomas test showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficient and the smallest mean absolute difference, the Staheli test was the most valid method for detecting hip flexion

  6. Design considerations for NDE systems in a factory setting and the application to transmission manufacture at the Chrysler Transmission Plant in Kokomo, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    LaChapell, M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Erb, S.H.; Nicholson, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Chrysler Corp. and LLNL have entered into a collaboration to enhance the NDE technology at the Kokomo transmission plant. The project spans 3 years and a wide variety of different projects. Goals are making NDE automated, reliable, and capable of avoiding destructive testing. This requires NDE systems to be better utilized by quality teams on the shop floor and better connected for providing in one place a sufficient set of data for identifying problems in a manufacturing operation, and prescribing an adjustment. The approach is illustrated on two different processes, laser welding and pressure die casting; in each case data are combined from different NDE systems to enable a decision on an adjustment in process variables.

  7. High Temperature SHM/NDE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-04

    durability and reliability Integrated Sensors High Temperature network (e.g. silicon carbide) AFOSR-MURI Functionally Graded Hybrid Composites...Strain under voltage potential •  Produce potential when strained + + + + - - - - + + + + - - - - STANDARD PZTs Sensors...PI/ PZT /SWNT   Texas A&M (SO) AFOSR-MURI Functionally Graded Hybrid Composites Sensors Development: Nanomaterials Conductivity changes Strain

  8. Manufacturing and NDE of Large Composite Aerospace Structures at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for transportation to orbit calls for new vehicles built with new materials technology. The goals of this new launch system development are to improve safety, dramatically reduce cost to orbit, and improve vehicle turn around time. Planned Space Shuttle upgrades include new reusable liquid propellant boosters to replace the solid propellant boosters. These boosters are to have wings and return to the launch site for a horizontal landing on an airport runway. New single and two stages to orbit concepts are being investigated. To reduce weight and improve performance composite materials are proposed for fuel and oxidizer tanks, fuel feedlines, valve bodies, aerostructures, turbomachinery components. For large composite structures new methods of fabrication are being proposed and developed. Containment of cryogenic fuel or oxidizer requires emphases on composite material densification and chemical compatibility. Ceramic matrix and fiber composites for hot rotating turbomachinery have been developed with new fabrication processes. The new requirements on the materials for launcher components are requiring development of new manufacturing and inspection methods. This talk will examine new and proposed manufacturing methods to fabricate the revolutionary components. New NDE methods under consideration include alternative X-ray methods, X-ray laminagraphy, advanced CT, Thermography, new ultrasonic methods, and imbedded sensors. The sizes, complexity, use environment, and contamination restrictions will challenge the inspection process. In flight self-diagnosis and rapid depot inspection are also goals of the NDE development.

  9. Manufacturing and NDE of Large Composite Aerospace Structures at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for transportation to orbit calls for new vehicles built with new materials technology. The goals of this new launch system development are to improve safety, dramatically reduce cost to orbit, and improve vehicle turn around time. Planned Space Shuttle upgrades include new reusable liquid propellant boosters to replace the solid propellant boosters. These boosters are to have wings and return to the launch site for a horizontal landing on an airport runway. New single and two stages to orbit concepts are being investigated. To reduce weight and improve performance composite materials are proposed for fuel and oxidizer tanks, fuel feedlines, valve bodies, aerostructures, turbomachinery components. For large composite structures new methods of fabrication are being proposed and developed. Containment of cryogenic fuel or oxidizer requires emphases on composite material densification and chemical compatibility. Ceramic matrix and fiber composites for hot rotating turbomachinery have been developed with new fabrication processes. The new requirements on the materials for launcher components are requiring development of new manufacturing and inspection methods. This talk will examine new and proposed manufacturing methods to fabricate the revolutionary components. New NDE methods under consideration include alternative X-ray methods, X-ray laminagraphy, advanced CT, Thermography, new ultrasonic methods, and imbedded sensors. The sizes, complexity, use environment, and contamination restrictions will challenge the inspection process. In flight self-diagnosis and rapid depot inspection are also goals of the NDE development.

  10. An Examination of the Test-Retest Reliability of the ACE-SQ in a Sample of College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Danielle C; Kaier, Emily; Vanasse, Renee; Davis, Joanne L; Strunk, Kathleen C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2017-10-09

    The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study is one of the largest studies ever conducted that has examined the relationship of childhood abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction to subsequent health and well-being later in life. Questions from the ACE study evolved into the ACE Study Questionnaire, a measure used for assessing individuals' self-reported experiences of childhood adversity. The ACE measure is widely available and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends it as a tool for assessing one's lifetime risk of mental and physical health problems and other negative social problems. Despite the extensive dissemination of the ACE Study Questionnaire, to date there has been only one article published about its psychometric properties. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of the ACE-SQ in a sample of nonservice seeking college athletes (N = 141). Time 1 and Time 2 of data collection were approximately one year apart. Pearson's correlations were computed to observe a level of agreement between Time 1 and Time 2 responses. The overall measure yielded a modest test-retest coefficient, r = .71, p < .001. Household dysfunction items demonstrated a higher stability coefficient, r = .65, p < .001 than did abuse and neglect items, r = .52, p < .001. These findings suggest that further research is needed on the psychometric properties of this questionnaire in different age populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Quantitative NDE applied to composites and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.; Parker, F. Raymond; Heath, D. Michele; Welch, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Research at the NASA/Langley Research Center concerning quantitative NDE of composites and metals is reviewed. The relationship between ultrasonics and polymer cure is outlined. NDE models are presented, which can be used to develop measurement technologies for characterizing the curing of a polymer system for composite materials. The models can be used to determine the glass transition temperature, the degree of cure, and the cure rate. The application of the model to control autoclave processing of composite materials is noted. Consideration is given to the use of thermal diffusion models combined with controlled thermal input measurements to determine the thermal diffusivity of materials. Also, a two-dimensional physical model is described that permits delaminations in samples of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors to be detected in thermograms in the presence of cooling effects and uneven heating.

  12. Quantitative NDE applied to composites and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.; Parker, F. Raymond; Heath, D. Michele; Welch, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Research at the NASA/Langley Research Center concerning quantitative NDE of composites and metals is reviewed. The relationship between ultrasonics and polymer cure is outlined. NDE models are presented, which can be used to develop measurement technologies for characterizing the curing of a polymer system for composite materials. The models can be used to determine the glass transition temperature, the degree of cure, and the cure rate. The application of the model to control autoclave processing of composite materials is noted. Consideration is given to the use of thermal diffusion models combined with controlled thermal input measurements to determine the thermal diffusivity of materials. Also, a two-dimensional physical model is described that permits delaminations in samples of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors to be detected in thermograms in the presence of cooling effects and uneven heating.

  13. NASA DOEPOD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. Although 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes is often stated as an inspection requirement in inspection documents, including NASA Standards, NASA critical aerospace applications have historically only accepted 0.978 POD or better with a 95% one-sided lower confidence bound exceeding 0.90 at critical flaw sizes, a90/95.

  14. Invariance algorithms for processing NDE signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandayam, Shreekanth; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.; Lord, William

    1996-11-01

    Signals that are obtained in a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes capture information not only about the characteristics of the flaw, but also reflect variations in the specimen's material properties. Such signal changes may be viewed as anomalies that could obscure defect related information. An example of this situation occurs during in-line inspection of gas transmission pipelines. The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method is used to conduct noninvasive measurements of the integrity of the pipe-wall. The MFL signals contain information both about the permeability of the pipe-wall and the dimensions of the flaw. Similar operational effects can be found in other NDE processes. This paper presents algorithms to render NDE signals invariant to selected test parameters, while retaining defect related information. Wavelet transform based neural network techniques are employed to develop the invariance algorithms. The invariance transformation is shown to be a necessary pre-processing step for subsequent defect characterization and visualization schemes. Results demonstrating the successful application of the method are presented.

  15. Using flaw implants to qualify nuclear NDE personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pherigo, G.L.; Pherigo, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Intentionally flawed piping and vessel specimens are now required to simulate potential flawed conditions in nuclear power plants. These specimens will be used in a practical examination ``Performance Demonstration`` to verify the capabilities of ultrasonic testing (UT) personnel, procedures and equipment. ASME Section 11, Appendix 8, ``Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems,`` was introduced into the Code to help substantiate the capability of NDE to detect and size flaws in nuclear power plant components. This paper is a brief discussion of some of the current methods used to implant flaws and will describe and evaluate the manufacturing techniques used to implant thermal fatigue cracks in stainless steel pipe and carbon steel vessel material. The accurate placement of flaw implants is critical and this paper will describe in some detail the tolerances applied to the flaw implant technology.

  16. The impacts of standardized information management processes on NDA and NDE waste characterization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, C.J.; Conrad, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evolution of standards-based information management has not fully penetrated nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination operating platforms. Interoperability concepts, which are fundamental to successful information management architecture and structure, are sweeping the markets and redefining the computing industries. The need for the federal government to improve its effectiveness from an informed position has invoked Information Management (IM) concepts into the federal government`s strategies and policies. These strategies and policies are becoming regulatory mandates which are to be imposed contractually, directly delegating responsibility to the contractors to ensure compliance. Participants in the waste clean-up arena will need to ensure that their analyses systems and reporting practices fulfill these emerging life-cycle information management requirements, both to meet the customer`s need and to protect themselves from legal liability. The challenge today faced by the NDA/NDE industry is to adopt these IM concepts, and utilize them in the assay systems and structures. The robust systems developed to perform the NDA/NDE analyses must be equally robust to address these regulatory and contractual mandates. The greatest impact of the regulations in the NDA/NDE arena will be to actually standardize and produce standards-based analyses reports that include integration capability with all the elements of NDA/NDE processes and be interchangeable with all other ancillary processes.

  17. Modeling ultrasonic NDE and guided wave based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Nitin B.; Rathod, Vivek T.; Chakraborty, Nibir.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Sridaran, Ramanan; Boller, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems require integration of non-destructive technologies into structural design and operational processes. Modeling and simulation of complex NDE inspection processes are important aspects in the development and deployment of SHM technologies. Ray tracing techniques are vital simulation tools to visualize the wave path inside a material. These techniques also help in optimizing the location of transducers and their orientation with respect to the zone of interrogation. It helps in increasing the chances of detection and identification of a flaw in that zone. While current state-of-the-art techniques such as ray tracing based on geometric principle help in such visualization, other information such as signal losses due to spherical or cylindrical shape of wave front are rarely taken into consideration. The problem becomes a little more complicated in the case of dispersive guided wave propagation and near-field defect scattering. We review the existing models and tools to perform ultrasonic NDE simulation in structural components. As an initial step, we develop a ray-tracing approach, where phase and spectral information are preserved. This enables one to study wave scattering beyond simple time of flight calculation of rays. Challenges in terms of theory and modelling of defects of various kinds are discussed. Various additional considerations such as signal decay and physics of scattering are reviewed and challenges involved in realistic computational implementation are discussed. Potential application of this approach to SHM system design is highlighted and by applying this to complex structural components such as airframe structures, SHM is demonstrated to provide additional value in terms of lighter weight and/or longevity enhancement resulting from an extension of the damage tolerance design principle not compromising safety and reliability.

  18. Development of social capital scale from a national longitudinal survey and examination of its validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Miyuki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Nakamine, Shin; Takahashi, Sho; Noguchi, Haruko; Takahashi, Hideto; Tamiya, Nanako

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Social capital consists of two subordinate concepts; first one is structural formal, structural informal, or cognitive and second one is bonding or bridging. This study was designed to develop a social capital scale using samples from a national longitudinal survey and evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of the scale.Methods Data were collected from a nationwide panel survey, the "Longitudinal Survey of Middle-aged and Elderly Persons." Individuals aged 50-59 years living in Japan were selected by stratified random sampling in the first wave conducted in 2005. The first (n=34,240) and second (n=32,285) sets of data were used for Phase 1, and the sixth (n=26,220) and seventh (n=25,321) sets of data were used for Phase 2. In regard to first subordinate concept, the occurrence of six selected social activities with "neighborhood association" and "NPOs, or Public Interest Corporations" were calculated as the structural formal index, and the occurrence of six selected social activities with "families or friends" and "colleagues" were calculated as the structural informal index. Moreover, satisfaction with social activities (community activities, support for the elderly, and others) was used as the cognitive index. In regard to second subordinate concept, the bonding index was calculated using "families or friends," "colleagues," and "neighborhood association;" the bridging index was calculated using "NPOs or Public Interest Corporations." The diagnoses of heart disease, stroke, and cancer (yes=1, no=0) and self-rated health (1 item, 6-point scale) were used as variables for determining validity.Results We categorized social capital indices into subordinate concepts based on the construct of social capital defined by professional agreement to assess content validity. The results showed that this survey questionnaire was constructed using items that assessed all the subordinate concepts. Hierarchical Linear Modeling examined the relationship

  19. Simple Syringe Filtration Methods for Reliably Examining Dissolved and Colloidal Trace Element Distributions in Remote Field Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiller, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    Methods for obtaining reliable dissolved trace element samples frequently utilize clean labs, portable laminar flow benches, or other equipment not readily transportable to remote locations. In some cases unfiltered samples can be obtained in a remote location and transported back to a lab for filtration. However, this may not always be possible or desirable. Additionally, methods for obtaining information on colloidal composition are likewise frequently too cumbersome for remote locations as well as being time-consuming. For that reason I have examined clean methods for collecting samples filtered through 0.45 and 0.02 micron syringe filters. With this methodology, only small samples are collected (typically 15 mL). However, with the introduction of the latest generation of ICP-MS's and microflow nebulizers, sample requirements for elemental analysis are much lower than just a few years ago. Thus, a determination of a suite of first row transition elements is frequently readily obtainable with samples of less than 1 mL. To examine the "traditional" (<0.45 micron) dissolved phase, 25 mm diameter polypropylene syringe filters and all polyethylene/polypropylene syringes are utilized. Filters are pre-cleaned in the lab using 40 mL of approx. 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Syringes are pre-cleaned by leaching with hot 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Sample kits are packed in polyethylene bags for transport to the field. Results are similar to results obtained using 0.4 micron polycarbonate screen filters, though concentrations may differ somewhat depending on the extent of sample pre-rinsing of the filter. Using this method, a multi-year time series of dissolved metals in a remote Rocky Mountain stream has been obtained. To examine the effect of colloidal material on dissolved metal concentrations, 0.02 micron alumina syringe filters have been utilized. Other workers have previously used these filters for examining colloidal Fe distributions in lake

  20. The reliability of the physical examination to guide fluid therapy in adults with severe falciparum malaria: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults with severe malaria frequently require intravenous fluid therapy to restore their circulating volume. However, fluid must be delivered judiciously as both under- and over-hydration increase the risk of complications and, potentially, death. As most patients will be cared for in a resource-poor setting, management guidelines necessarily recommend that physical examination should guide fluid resuscitation. However, the reliability of this strategy is uncertain. Methods To determine the ability of physical examination to identify hypovolaemia, volume responsiveness, and pulmonary oedema, clinical signs and invasive measures of volume status were collected independently during an observational study of 28 adults with severe malaria. Results The physical examination defined volume status poorly. Jugular venous pressure (JVP) did not correlate with intravascular volume as determined by global end diastolic volume index (GEDVI; rs = 0.07, p = 0.19), neither did dry mucous membranes (p = 0.85), or dry axillae (p = 0.09). GEDVI was actually higher in patients with decreased tissue turgor (p < 0.001). Poor capillary return correlated with GEDVI, but was present infrequently (7% of observations) and, therefore, insensitive. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) correlated with GEDVI (rs = 0.16, p = 0.002), but even before resuscitation patients with a low GEDVI had a preserved MAP. Anuria on admission was unrelated to GEDVI and although liberal fluid resuscitation led to a median hourly urine output of 100 ml in 19 patients who were not anuric on admission, four (21%) developed clinical pulmonary oedema subsequently. MAP was unrelated to volume responsiveness (p = 0.71), while a low JVP, dry mucous membranes, dry axillae, increased tissue turgor, prolonged capillary refill, and tachycardia all had a positive predictive value for volume responsiveness of ≤50%. Extravascular lung water ≥11 ml/kg indicating pulmonary oedema was

  1. The reliability of the physical examination to guide fluid therapy in adults with severe falciparum malaria: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Josh; Lam, Sophia W K; Alam, Shamsul; Pattnaik, Rajyabardhan; Mahanta, Kishore C; Uddin Hasan, Mahatab; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Cohen, Sophie; Day, Nicholas; White, Nicholas; Dondorp, Arjen

    2013-10-01

    Adults with severe malaria frequently require intravenous fluid therapy to restore their circulating volume. However, fluid must be delivered judiciously as both under- and over-hydration increase the risk of complications and, potentially, death. As most patients will be cared for in a resource-poor setting, management guidelines necessarily recommend that physical examination should guide fluid resuscitation. However, the reliability of this strategy is uncertain. To determine the ability of physical examination to identify hypovolaemia, volume responsiveness, and pulmonary oedema, clinical signs and invasive measures of volume status were collected independently during an observational study of 28 adults with severe malaria. The physical examination defined volume status poorly. Jugular venous pressure (JVP) did not correlate with intravascular volume as determined by global end diastolic volume index (GEDVI; r(s) = 0.07, p = 0.19), neither did dry mucous membranes (p = 0.85), or dry axillae (p = 0.09). GEDVI was actually higher in patients with decreased tissue turgor (p < 0.001). Poor capillary return correlated with GEDVI, but was present infrequently (7% of observations) and, therefore, insensitive. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) correlated with GEDVI (rs = 0.16, p = 0.002), but even before resuscitation patients with a low GEDVI had a preserved MAP. Anuria on admission was unrelated to GEDVI and although liberal fluid resuscitation led to a median hourly urine output of 100 ml in 19 patients who were not anuric on admission, four (21%) developed clinical pulmonary oedema subsequently. MAP was unrelated to volume responsiveness (p = 0.71), while a low JVP, dry mucous membranes, dry axillae, increased tissue turgor, prolonged capillary refill, and tachycardia all had a positive predictive value for volume responsiveness of ≤50%. Extravascular lung water ≥11 ml/kg indicating pulmonary oedema was present on 99 of the 353 times that it was assessed during the

  2. An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

    2012-01-06

    Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

  3. Understanding Schools as High-Reliability Organizations: An Exploratory Examination of Teachers' and School Leaders' Perceptions of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Juli A.; Bellamy, G. Thomas; Reece, Anne; Carlson, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on research on high-reliability organizations, this interviewbased qualitative case study employs four characteristics of such organizations as a lens for analyzing the operations of one very successful K-5 public school. Results suggest that the school had processes similar to those characteristic of high-reliability organizations: a…

  4. Understanding Schools as High-Reliability Organizations: An Exploratory Examination of Teachers' and School Leaders' Perceptions of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Juli A.; Bellamy, G. Thomas; Reece, Anne; Carlson, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on research on high-reliability organizations, this interviewbased qualitative case study employs four characteristics of such organizations as a lens for analyzing the operations of one very successful K-5 public school. Results suggest that the school had processes similar to those characteristic of high-reliability organizations: a…

  5. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  6. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) research progress in 1988: Proceedings from the ninth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Dau, G.J.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety analysis through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now underway. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R and D personnel, and utility representatives. As the tenth in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Ninth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Charlotte, North Carolina, on November 15--16, 1988. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-5490-SR was issued in June 1988. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe, pressure vessel, and steam generator and boiler tubes. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer.

  8. NASA Engineering and Safety Center NDE Super Problem Resolution Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    2007-03-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent organization, which was charted in the wake of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident to serve as an Agency-wide technical resource focused on engineering excellence. The objective of the NESC is to improve safety by performing in-depth independent engineering assessments, testing, and analysis to uncover technical vulnerabilities and to determine appropriate preventative and corrective actions for problems, trends or issues within NASA's programs, projects and institutions. Critical to the NESC are teams of experts in a number of core disciplines including nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These teams, designated Super Problem Resolution Teams (SPRTs), draw upon the best engineering expertise from across the Agency and include partnerships with other government agencies, national laboratories, universities and industry. The NESC NDE SPRT provides a ready resource of NDE technical expertise to support NESC Independent Technical Assessments and Investigations. The purpose of this session will be to provide an overview of the NESC and the NDE SPRT along with a few examples of NDE related problems that the team has addressed for NASA Programs. It is hoped that this session will be of interest to the general NDE community and will foster contacts with additional NDE experts that might provide future support to the NASA NESC NDE SPRT.

  9. NDE in aerospace - Requirements for science, sensors and sense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1989-01-01

    The complexity of modern nondestructive evaluation (NDE) arises from four main factors: quantitative measurement science, physical models for computational analysis, realistic interfacing with engineering decisions, and direct access to management priorities. Recent advances in the four factors of NDE are addressed. Physical models of acoustic propagation are presented that have led to the development of measurement technologies advancing the ability to assure that materials and structures will perform as designed. In addition, a brief discussion is given of current research for future mission needs such as smart structures that sense their own health. Such advances permit projects to integrate design for inspection into their plans, bringing NDE into engineering and management priorities. The measurement focus is on ultrasonics with generous case examples. Problem solutions highlighted include critical stress in fasteners, residual stress in steel, NDE laminography, and solid rocket motor NDE.

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. On-orbit NDE: A novel approach to tube weld inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, Kerry; Hughes, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The challenge of fabrication and repair of structures in space must be met if we are to utilize and maintain long-duration space facilities. Welding techniques have been demonstrated to provide the most reliable means to accomplish this task. Over the past few years, methods have been developed to perform orbital tube welding employing space-based welding technology pioneered by the former Soviet Union. Welding can result in the formation of defects, which threaten the structural integrity of the welded joint. Implementation of welding on-orbit, therefore, must also include methods to evaluate the quality and integrity of the welded joints. To achieve this goal, the development of an on-orbit tube weld inspection system, utilizing alternating current field measurement (ACFM) technology, has been under taken. This paper describes the development of the ACFM on-orbit tube weld inspection tool. Topics discussed include: requirements for on-orbit NDE, basic theory of ACFM, its advantages over other NDE methods for on-orbit applications, and the ACFM NDE system design. System operation and trial inspection results are also discussed. Future work with this technology is also considered.

  15. Study of the reliability and validity of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of clinical skills of audiology students.

    PubMed

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh; Amiri, Marzieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2013-01-31

    Audiology students should possess clinical competence and skills. To achieve this, their clinical skills must be properly assessed. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a standard and fair examination of clinical competence. The goal of this study is to devise a checklist of OSCE examination criteria and study their validity and reliability for assessing the clinical competence of Audiology students. Among the various procedures in which audiology students should possess demonstrated competence, 10 specific skills were selected and checklists were prepared. Faculty members of university's Audiology Department were consulted to determine the validity of the checklists. Subsequently, the examination was administered to all 14 fourth-year audiology students in their final semester of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The examination consisted of three question stations and seven procedure stations. Each station was managed by two examiners who independently used a checklist to score each student's performance in a given procedure. To determine reliability, the Spearman test was used. The correlation between each examiner's scores of students at question stations was 0.908. The correlation between each examiner's scores at procedure stations was 0.857 (p=0). The site of lesion test had the highest correlation (0.948) and immittance audiometry had the lowest correlation (0.585). The prepared checklists had good validity and reliability and can be used to evaluate the clinical competence of audiology students in their final semester of study.

  16. NDE standards for high temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1991-01-01

    High temperature materials include monolithic ceramics for automotive gas turbine engines and also metallic/intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites for a range of aerospace applications. These are materials that can withstand extreme operating temperatures that will prevail in advanced high-efficiency gas turbine engines. High temperature engine components are very likely to consist of complex composite structures with three-dimensionality interwoven and various intermixed ceramic fibers. The thermomechanical properties of components made of these materials are actually created in-place during processing and fabrication stages. The complex nature of these new materials creates strong incentives for exact standards for unambiguous evaluations of defects and microstructural characteristics. NDE techniques and standards that will ultimately be applicable to production and quality control of high temperature materials and structures are still emerging. The needs range from flaw detection to below 100 micron levels in monolithic ceramics to global imaging of fiber architecture and matrix densification anomalies in composites. The needs are different depending on the processing stage, fabrication method, and nature of the finished product. The standards are discussed that must be developed in concert with advances in NDE technology, materials processing research, and fabrication development. High temperature materials and structures that fail to meet stringent specifications and standards are unlikely to compete successfully either technologically or in international markets.

  17. The acousto-ultrasonic approach. [for NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1988-01-01

    The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

  18. Terahertz NDE for metallic surface roughness evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2006-03-01

    Metallic surface roughness in a nominally smooth surface is a potential indication of material degradation or damage. When the surface is coated or covered with an opaque dielectric material, such as paint or insulation, then inspecting for surface changes becomes almost impossible. Terahertz NDE is a method capable of penetrating the coating and inspecting the metallic surface. The terahertz frequency regime is between 100 GHz and 10 THz and has a free space wavelength of 300 micrometers at 1 THz. Pulsed terahertz radiation, can be generated and detected using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. The resulting time domain signal is 320 picoseconds in duration. In this application, samples are inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scans the sample and generates a set of time-domain signals that are a function of the signal reflected from the metallic surface. Post processing is then performed in the time and frequency domains to generate C-scan type images that show scattering effects due to surface non-uniformity.

  19. Terahertz NDE for Metallic Surface Roughness Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anastasi, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic surface roughness in a nominally smooth surface is a potential indication of material degradation or damage. When the surface is coated or covered with an opaque dielectric material, such as paint or insulation, then inspecting for surface changes becomes almost impossible. Terahertz NDE is a method capable of penetrating the coating and inspecting the metallic surface. The terahertz frequency regime is between 100 GHz and 10 THz and has a free space wavelength of 300 micrometers at 1 THz. Pulsed terahertz radiation, can be generated and detected using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. The resulting time domain signal is 320 picoseconds in duration. In this application, samples are inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scans the sample and generates a set of time-domain signals that are a function of the backscatter from the metallic surface. Post processing is then performed in the time and frequency domains to generate C-scan type images that show scattering effects due to surface non-uniformity.

  20. Examining the structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese personal growth initiative scale-II: evidence for the importance of intentional self-change among Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongfei; Chang, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (CPGIS-II) using data from a sample of 927 Chinese university students. Consistent with previous findings, confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor model of the CPGIS-II. Reliability analyses indicated that the 4 CPGIS-II subscales, namely Readiness for Change, Planfulness, Using Resources, and Intentional Behavior, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and adequate test-retest reliability across a 4-week period. In addition, evidence for convergent and incremental validity was found in relation to measures of positive and negative psychological adjustment. Finally, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the 4 personal growth initiative dimensions, especially planfulness, accounted for additional unique variance in psychological adjustment beyond resilience. Some implications for using the CPGIS-II in Chinese are discussed.

  1. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Qiao, Hong; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  2. Development and reliability of a self-report questionnaire to examine children's perceptions of the physical activity environment at home and in the neighbourhood

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Clare; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are increasingly being implicated as key influences on children's physical activity. Few studies have comprehensively examined children's perceptions of their environment, and there is a paucity of literature on acceptable and reliable scales for measuring these. This study aimed to develop and test the acceptability and reliability of a scale which examined a broad range of environmental perceptions among children. Methods Based on constructs from ecological models, a survey incorporating items on children's perceptions of the physical and social environment at home and in the neighbourhood was developed. This was administered on two occasions, nine days apart, to a sample of 39 children aged 11 years (54% boys), attending a metropolitan Australian elementary school. The acceptability of the survey was determined by the proportion of missing responses to each item. The test-retest reliability of individual items, scores and scales were determined using Kappa statistics and percent agreement for categorical variables, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Results There were few missing responses to each question, with only 4% of all responses missing. Although some Kappa values were low, all categorical variables showed acceptable reliability when examined for percent agreement between test and retest (range 68%–100% agreement). Continuous variables all showed moderate to good ICC values (range 0.72–0.92). Conclusion Findings suggest this questionnaire is reliable and acceptable to children for assessing environmental perceptions relevant to physical activity among 11-year-old children. PMID:16846519

  3. Finite Difference Simulation of Ultrasonic NDE Methods for the Detection and Sizing of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtzgen, N.; Volker, A. W. F.; Fingerhut, M.; Tomar, M.; Wassink, C.

    2006-03-01

    Although solutions for detection and sizing of longitudinal and circumferential cracks in pipeline walls exist, reliable detection and sizing of SCC in pipelines has been a challenge for Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) for many years. Detection and sizing are impeded by the fact that SCC can have very irregular morphology and can occur in random orientations. NDE as an industry on the other hand has suffered from the emerging of many new UT techniques and a difficult jargon, making easy understanding of the actual problems and solutions impossible for an outsider (i.e. the pipeline operator). This paper presents a novel approach to provide insight into the capabilities of common NDE methods using finite difference simulation software developed by RTD. Simulations are performed on the most common morphologies of SCC using the most commonly used in-the-ditch NDE methods. Using the parameters of the actual inspection procedure a picture is painted of what works and doesn't work about the most common ways of accessing SCC.

  4. Examining the Reliability of Scores from the Consensual Assessment Technique in the Measurement of Individual and Small Group Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanic, Nicholas; Randles, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of measures of both individual and group creative work using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). CAT was used to measure individual and group creativity among a population of pre-service music teachers enrolled in a secondary general music class (n = 23) and was evaluated from…

  5. An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX 7) scale with regard to coach--player relationships in sports settings. A total of 330 professional soccer players from the Turkish Super League as well as from the First and Second Leagues participated in this study. Factor analyses were performed to…

  6. The Requirement for Acquisition and Logistics Integration: An Examination of Reliability Management Within the Marine Corps Acquisition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    provided in the survey. Table 4.1 provides a compilation of the top responses, presented in an overall composite order of merit rankin g, from the...Commercial Approaches to Weapons Acquisit ion, RAND MR-1147-AF, 2000. 151 Ma, Katherine C., Experts’ Opinions on the Reliability Gap and Some

  7. An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX 7) scale with regard to coach--player relationships in sports settings. A total of 330 professional soccer players from the Turkish Super League as well as from the First and Second Leagues participated in this study. Factor analyses were performed to…

  8. Nde Challenges with Future Commercial Aircraft-A Boeing Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollgaard, J. R.; LaRiviere, S. G.

    2008-02-01

    Commercial aircraft have undergone revolutionary changes in design, configuration and materials. This produces new challenges to the NDE community ranging from process controls of raw materials, to testing and fabrication of structural components, to service damage assessments. As we drive NDE up the value stream, it will become imperative to understand variousprocess parameters and their relationship to product quality. NDE may play a key role in characterizing and controlling those parameters. In production, inspection has become a critical aspect in the processing of large, unitized structures. Penetrant, radiographic, and magnetic particle techniques are less applicable while ultrasonics has taken on a critical role, earlier in the build process. NDE data are acquired over large areas at rates far faster than before, creating challenges in the time required to analyze and document the data. Qualified inspectors, equipment, and techniques are essential. In the field, eddy current and shear wave ultrasonic methods, long a mainstay of aircraft maintenance, are beginning to yield to ultrasonic techniques involving C-scans and linear arrays. The building of new-generation airplanes has revealed shortcomings in existing NDE technology and in some cases enhanced the case for non-traditional methods. This paper will review Boeing's experience with NDE of advanced structures, in particular those present on the Boeing 787, and summarize the Boeing outlook for future NDE needs.

  9. Puget Sound Route Learning Test: Examination of the Validity and Reliability of a Novel Route Test in Healthy Older Adults and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiernan, Kristine N.; Schenk, Kelli; Swadberg, Danielle; Shimonova, Marianna; Schollaert, Daniel; Boorkman, Patti; Cherrier, Monique M.

    2004-01-01

    The validity and reliability of a novel route learning test were examined to assess the effectiveness of its use in evaluating spatial memory in healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Puget Sound Route Learning Test was significantly correlated with an existing measure of cognitive ability, the Dementia Rating Scale.…

  10. Thermal nondestructive examination method for thermal-spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Schmeller, M.D.; Sulit, R.A.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes a feasibility demonstration of a thermal scanning NDE (nondestructive examination) system for thermal-spray coatings. Non-bonds were detected between several types of coatings and their substrates. Aluminum anti-skid coatings having very rough surfaces were included. A technique for producing known non-bond areas for calibrating and demonstrating NDE methods was developed.

  11. Study of the Reliability and Validity of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Assessment of Clinical Skills of Audiology Students

    PubMed Central

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh; Amiri, Marzieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Audiology students should possess clinical competence and skills. To achieve this, their clinical skills must be properly assessed. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a standard and fair examination of clinical competence. The goal of this study is to devise a checklist of OSCE examination criteria and study their validity and reliability for assessing the clinical competence of Audiology students. Methods: Among the various procedures in which audiology students should possess demonstrated competence, 10 specific skills were selected and checklists were prepared. Faculty members of university’s Audiology Department were consulted to determine the validity of the checklists. Subsequently, the examination was administered to all 14 fourth-year audiology students in their final semester of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The examination consisted of three question stations and seven procedure stations. Each station was managed by two examiners who independently used a checklist to score each student’s performance in a given procedure. To determine reliability, the Spearman test was used. Results: The correlation between each examiner’s scores of students at question stations was 0.908. The correlation between each examiner’s scores at procedure stations was 0.857 (p=0). The site of lesion test had the highest correlation (0.948) and immittance audiometry had the lowest correlation (0.585). Conclusion: The prepared checklists had good validity and reliability and can be used to evaluate the clinical competence of audiology students in their final semester of study. PMID:23618476

  12. What Are You Measuring? Dimensionality and Reliability Analysis of Ability and Speed in Medical School Didactic Examinations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Summative didactic evaluation often involves multiple choice questions which are then aggregated into exam scores, course scores, and cumulative grade point averages. To be valid, each of these levels should have some relationship to the topic tested (dimensionality) and be sufficiently reproducible between persons (reliability) to justify student ranking. Evaluation of dimensionality is difficult and is complicated by the classic observation that didactic performance involves a generalized component (g) in addition to subtest specific factors. In this work, 183 students were analyzed over two academic years in 13 courses with 44 exams and 3352 questions for both accuracy and speed. Reliability at all levels was good (>0.95). Assessed by bifactor analysis, g effects dominated most levels resulting in essential unidimensionality. Effect sizes on predicted accuracy and speed due to nesting in exams and courses was small. There was little relationship between person ability and person speed. Thus, the hierarchical grading system appears warrented because of its g-dependence.

  13. An examination of maintenance activities in liquid metal reactor facilities: An analysis by the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J; Knee, H E; Manning, J J; Manneschmidt, J F; Setoguchi, K

    1987-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO database contains information on a population of more than 21,000 components and approximately 1300 event records. Total experience is approaching 1.2 billion component operating hours. Although data gathering for CREDO concentrates on event (failure) information, the work reported here focuses on the maintenance information contained in CREDO and the development of maintenance critical items lists. That is, components are ranked in prioritized lists from worse to best performers from a maintenance standpoint.

  14. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Jim Landy (left), NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), prepares to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. Helping out, at right, is Dan Phillips, also with USA. Attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters, the gray carbon composite RCC panels have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Jim Landy (left), NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), prepares to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. Helping out, at right, is Dan Phillips, also with USA. Attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters, the gray carbon composite RCC panels have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), watches a monitor off-screen to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. Attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters, the gray carbon composite RCC panels have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), watches a monitor off-screen to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. Attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters, the gray carbon composite RCC panels have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry.

  17. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS): Applications for NDE?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Richard M.

    2002-05-01

    In the past 15 years, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have become a topic of widespread research, development and commercialization. Made by augmented integrated circuit fabrication techniques and having at least one dimension in the micron range, these devices have been used in computer printers and in vehicles for airbag deployment, and they are expected to provide the basis for many new types of biomedical, analytic, optical and communications equipment. We will describe some possible MEMS applications to NDE, including the use of MEMS ultrasonic transducers, optical components, and communicating micro-robots that could be used to monitor the integrity of structures. "Exploration about the edges of things … encourages the growth of new idea and new perceptions."

  18. Studying the nonlinearity in Sonic IR NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qiuye; Obeidat, Omar; Han, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Sonic IR Imaging combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non--unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors image the temperature map over the target to identify defects. It works in various materials, including metal/metal alloy, ceramics, and composite materials. Its biggest advantage is that it's a fast, wide area NDE technique. It takes only a fraction of a second or a few seconds, depending on the thermal properties of the target, for one test over a few square feet. However, due to the nonlinearity in the coupling between the ultrasound transducer and the target, the repeatability has been an issue, which affects its application. In this paper, we present our study on this issue in Sonic IR.

  19. Contamination detection NDE for cleaning process inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, W. J.; Dicristina, V.; Sonnenfroh, D.; Blair, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the joining of multilayer materials, and in welding, the cleanliness of the joining surface may play a large role in the quality of the resulting bond. No non-intrusive techniques are currently available for the rapid measurement of contamination on large or irregularly shaped structures prior to the joining process. An innovative technique for the measurement of contaminant levels in these structures using laser based imaging is presented. The approach uses an ultraviolet excimer laser to illuminate large and/or irregular surface areas. The UV light induces fluorescence and is scattered from the contaminants. The illuminated area is viewed by an image-intensified CCD (charge coupled device) camera interfaced to a PC-based computer. The camera measures the fluorescence and/or scattering from the contaminants for comparison with established standards. Single shot measurements of contamination levels are possible. Hence, the technique may be used for on-line NDE testing during manufacturing processes.

  20. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nondestructive Evaluation Program for Safe and Reliable Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Program is presented. As a result of the loss of seven astronauts and the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, NASA has undergone many changes in its organization. NDE is one of the key areas that are recognized by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) that needed to be strengthened by warranting NDE as a discipline with Independent Technical Authority (iTA). The current NASA NDE system and activities are presented including the latest developments in inspection technologies being applied to the Space Transportation System (STS). The unfolding trends and directions in NDE for the future are discussed as they apply to assuring safe and reliable operations.

  1. Proceedings: EPRI 11th Annual NDE Issues Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    For the past 10 years, EPRI has transferred research and applications solutions to its subscribing members during this annual event. At this meeting, members are invited to provide important feedback on emergent issues, solutions needed, and desired direction of the EPRI Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Center. The 11th Annual NDE Issues Meeting was held July 16-18, 2001, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and was hosted by Ontario Power Generation.

  2. Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform for Improved Defect Detection in Terahertz NDE of Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect the adhesive bond-line of Space Shuttle tiles for defects. Terahertz signals are generated and detected, using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. Shuttle tile samples were manufactured with defects that included repair regions unbond regions, and other conditions that occur in Shuttle structures. These samples were inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scanned a tile and generated a data set of RF signals. The signals were post processed to generate C-scan type images that are typically seen in ultrasonic NDE. To improve defect visualization the Hilbert-Huang Transform, a transform that decomposes a signal into oscillating components called intrinsic mode functions, was applied to test signals identified as being in and out of the defect regions and then on a complete data set. As expected with this transform, the results showed that the decomposed low-order modes correspond to signal noise while the high-order modes correspond to low frequency oscillations in the signal and mid-order modes correspond to local signal oscillations. The local oscillations compare well with various reflection interfaces and the defect locations in the original signal.

  3. An investigation to examine the inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of the Rolimeter knee tester, and its sensitivity in identifying knee joint laxity.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Julian; Hatcher, Alison; Arbuthnot, Jamie; McNicholas, Mike

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Rolimeter knee tester (Aircast, Europe) as reliable and clinically sensitive tool for identifying and quantifying knee joint laxity utilising a sample of both known ACLD and normal knees. Thirty matched subjects (15 known ACLD and 15 normal subjects) were tested for knee joint laxity using the Rolimeter. Each subject was measured at both 90 degrees and 30 degrees of knee flexion, by each of the six investigators. This was then repeated again by all six investigators so that inter-tester and intra-tester reliability could be examined. Results showed that there was good reliability between testers, and intra-tester reliability was good for both left and right knees in both 90 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion. Results also demonstrated a high level of sensitivity for determining knee joint laxity in ACLD compared to normal knees. The Rolimeter knee tester is a reliable device for quantifying knee joint laxity, and is sensitive enough to identify anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

  4. The reliability of physical examination tests for the clinical assessment of scapular dyskinesis in subjects with shoulder complaints: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lange, Toni; Struyf, Filip; Schmitt, Jochen; Lützner, Jörg; Kopkow, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate intra- and interrater reliability research of physical examination tests used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. Scapular dyskinesis, defined as alteration of normal scapular kinematics, is described as a non-specific response to different shoulder pathologies. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and PEDro until March 20th, 2015. Methodological quality was assessed with the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) by two independent reviewers. The search strategy revealed 3259 articles, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the reliability of 41 test and test variations used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. This review identified a lack of high-quality studies evaluating intra- as well as interrater reliability of tests used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. In addition, reliability measures differed between included studies hindering proper cross-study comparisons. The effect of manual correction of the scapula on shoulder symptoms was evaluated in only one study, which is striking, since symptom alteration tests are used in routine care to guide further treatment. Thus, there is a strong need for further research in this area. Diagnosis, level 3a. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Ultrasonic wavefield imaging: Research tool or emerging NDE method?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic wavefield imaging refers to acquiring full waveform data over a region of interest for waves generated by a stationary source. Although various implementations of wavefield imaging have existed for many years, the widespread availability of laser Doppler vibrometers that can acquire signals in the high kHz and low MHz range has resulted in a rapid expansion of fundamental research utilizing full wavefield data. In addition, inspection methods based upon wavefield imaging have been proposed for standalone nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with most of these methods coming from the structural health monitoring (SHM) community and based upon guided waves. If transducers are already embedded in or mounted on the structure as part of an SHM system, then a wavefield-based inspection can potentially take place with very little required disassembly. A frequently-proposed paradigm for wavefield NDE is its application as a follow-up inspection method using embedded SHM transducers as guided wave sources if the in situ SHM system generates an alarm. Discussed here is the broad role of wavefield imaging as it relates to ultrasonic NDE, both as a research tool and as an emerging NDE method. Examples of current research are presented based upon both guided and bulk wavefield imaging in metals and composites, drawing primarily from the author's work. Progress towards wavefield NDE is discussed in the context of defect detection and characterization capabilities, scan times, data quality, and required data analysis. Recent research efforts are summarized that can potentially enable wavefield NDE.

  6. Study on the Interrater Reliability of an OSPE (Objective Structured Practical Examination) – Subject to the Evaluation Mode in the Phantom Course of Operative Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Laura; Möltner, Andreas; Rüttermann, Stefan; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the reliability of an OSPE end-of-semester exam in the phantom course for operative dentistry in Frankfurt am Main taking into consideration different modes of evaluation (examiner’s checklist versus instructor’s manual) and number of examiners (three versus four). Methods: In an historic, monocentric, comparative study, two different methods of evaluation were examined in a real end-of-semester setting held in OSPE form (Group I: exclusive use of an examiner’s checklist versus Group II: use of an examiner’s checklist including an instructor’s manual). For the analysis of interrater reliability, the generalisability theory was applied that contains a generalisation of the concept of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha). Results: The results show that the exclusive use of the examiner’s checklist led to higher interrater reliability values than the in-depth instructor’s manual used in addition to the list. Conclusion: In summary it can be said that the examiner’s checklists used in the present study, without the instructor’s manual, resulted in the highest interrater reliability in combination with three evaluators within the context of the completed OSPE. PMID:27579361

  7. Indicating spinal joint mobilisations or manipulations in patients with neck or low-back pain: protocol of an inter-examiner reliability study among manual therapists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Manual spinal joint mobilisations and manipulations are widely used treatments in patients with neck and low-back pain. Inter-examiner reliability of passive intervertebral motion assessment of the cervical and lumbar spine, perceived as important for indicating these interventions, is poor within a univariable approach. The diagnostic process as a whole in daily practice in manual therapy has a multivariable character, however, in which the use and interpretation of passive intervertebral motion assessment depend on earlier results from the diagnostic process. To date, the inter-examiner reliability among manual therapists of a multivariable diagnostic decision-making process in patients with neck or low-back pain is unknown. Methods This study will be conducted as a repeated-measures design in which 14 pairs of manual therapists independently examine a consecutive series of a planned total of 165 patients with neck or low-back pain presenting in primary care physiotherapy. Primary outcome measure is therapists’ decision about whether or not manual spinal joint mobilisations or manipulations, or both, are indicated in each patient, alone or as part of a multimodal treatment. Therapists will largely be free to conduct the full diagnostic process based on their formulated examination objectives. For each pair of therapists, 2×2 tables will be constructed and reliability for the dichotomous decision will be expressed using Cohen’s kappa. In addition, observed agreement, prevalence of positive decisions, prevalence index, bias index, and specific agreement in positive and negative decisions will be calculated. Univariable logistic regression analysis of concordant decisions will be performed to explore which demographic, professional, or clinical factors contributed to reliability. Discussion This study will provide an estimate of the inter-examiner reliability among manual therapists of indicating spinal joint mobilisations or manipulations in

  8. An Examination of the Validity and Reliability of a Measure of Sexual Orientation Identity Exploration, Resolution, and Affirmation.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Anhalt, Karla; Shramko, Maura

    The processes of identity exploration and resolution are salient during adolescence and young adulthood, and awareness of sexual orientation identity, in particular, is heightened in early adolescence. Much of the research on sexual orientation identity development has focused on identity milestones (e.g., age of awareness and disclosure) or internalized homonegativity, rather than the developmental processes of exploration and resolution. Psychometric properties of the Sexual Orientation Identity Development Scale, which was adapted from a developmentally-informed measure of ethnic-racial identity, were evaluated in a sample of 382 Latina/o sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Results supported the reliability and validity of the adapted measure, as well as measurement equivalence across language (Spanish and English) and development (adolescence and young adulthood).

  9. Sexual victimization among African American adolescent females: examination of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a preliminary analysis of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) for a sample drawn from a high-risk population-African American adolescent females. Our analyses indicate good internal consistency for the SES with this sample. Convergent validity is demonstrated. Specifically, scores on the SES are associated with significantly lower levels of self-esteem and mastery, higher levels of depression, lower levels of family cohesion, higher levels of family conflict, and higher levels of using alcohol and being a smoker. Preliminary support for discriminant validity is also obtained. This study is a stepping stone for future investigations into the psychometric evaluation of the SES.

  10. An Examination of the Validity and Reliability of a Measure of Sexual Orientation Identity Exploration, Resolution, and Affirmation

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Anhalt, Karla; Shramko, Maura

    2016-01-01

    The processes of identity exploration and resolution are salient during adolescence and young adulthood, and awareness of sexual orientation identity, in particular, is heightened in early adolescence. Much of the research on sexual orientation identity development has focused on identity milestones (e.g., age of awareness and disclosure) or internalized homonegativity, rather than the developmental processes of exploration and resolution. Psychometric properties of the Sexual Orientation Identity Development Scale, which was adapted from a developmentally-informed measure of ethnic-racial identity, were evaluated in a sample of 382 Latina/o sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Results supported the reliability and validity of the adapted measure, as well as measurement equivalence across language (Spanish and English) and development (adolescence and young adulthood). PMID:27398072

  11. Is strength of handedness reliable over repeated testing? An examination of typical development and autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a lack of agreement concerning the age at which adult-like patterns of handedness emerge, it is generally understood that hand preference presents early in life and development is variable. Young children (ages 3–5 years) are described as having weak hand preference; however, older children (ages 7–10 years) display stronger patterns. Here, strength of hand preference refers to reliable use of the preferred hand. In comparison to their typically developing (TD) peers, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are described as having a weak hand preference. This study aimed to extend the literature to assess three measures of handedness (Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire – WHQ, Annett pegboard – AP, and WatHand Cabinet Test – WHCT) in two repeated sessions. The first research question aimed to delineate if the strength of hand use changes across testing sessions as a function of age in typical development. Right-handed children reported a reliable preference for the right hand on the WHQ, similar to adults. A marginally significant difference was revealed between 3- to 4- and 5- to 6-year-olds on the AP. This was attributed to weak lateralization in 3- to 4-year-olds, where the establishment of hand preference by age 6 leads to superior performance with the preferred hand in 5- to 6-year-olds. Finally, for the WHCT, 3- to 4-year-olds had the highest bimanual score, indicating use of the same hand to lift the cabinet door and retrieve an object. It is likely that the task was not motorically complex enough to drive preferred hand selection for older participants. The second research question sought to determine if there is difference between (TD) children and children with ASD. No differences were revealed; however, children with ASD did display variable AP performance, providing partial support for previous literature. Findings will be discussed in light of relevant literature. PMID:25691875

  12. Reliability and validity of conversion formulas between comprehensive osteopathic medical licensing examination of the United States level 1 and United States medical licensing examination step 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert S; Chang, Lynn; Feng, Eric; Helf, Scott

    2014-06-01

    The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores are important factors in the selection process of medical students into US residency programs. The goals of this study were to investigate the correlation between the COMLEX-USA Level 1 and the USMLE Step 1 and to assess the accuracy of the existing formulas in predicting USMLE scores from COMLEX-USA scores. A retrospective study of 1016 paired COMLEX-USA Level 1 and USMLE Step 1 scores was conducted. Formulas by Sarko et al and by Slocum and Louder were used to estimate USMLE Step 1 scores from COMLEX-USA Level 1 scores, and a paired t test between calculated USMLE Step 1 scores and actual USMLE Step 1 scores was performed. During 2006-2012, 1016 of 1440 students (71%) took both the USMLE Step 1 and the COMLEX-USA Level 1 tests in the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific. The USMLE Step 1 scores were higher than those predicted by Slocum and Louder and by Sarko et al by an average of 14.16 ± 11.69 (P < .001) and 7.80 ± 12.48 (P < .001), respectively. A Pearson coefficient of 0.83 was observed. Regression analysis yielded the following formula: USMLE Step 1  =  0.2392 × COMLEX-USA Level 1 + 82.563 (R (2)  =  0.69577). The USMLE Step 1 scores, on average, were higher than those predicted by the formulas derived by Slocum and Louder and by Sarko et al. Residency program directors should use caution when using formulas to derive USMLE Step 1 scores from COMLEX-USA Level 1 scores.

  13. Detection sensitivity of x-ray CT imaging for NDE of green-state ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Rizo, P.; Ellingson, W.A. ); Tracey, D.M. . Advanced Ceramics Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Improved ceramic-processing methods that use pressure slip-casting and injection molding are being developed at Norton Advanced Ceramics, with a goal of producing reliable structural ceramics for advanced heat engines. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of ceramic parts at different stages of processing can provide useful diagnostic information to help improve processing techniques. For example, an evaluation of density gradients in as-cast green-body samples can be used to judge mold performance and make changes in mold design. Also, the ability to detect minute flaws (20 to 50 {mu}m), such as agglomerates, inclusions, and voids, in green-body, presintered, and densified parts is important in ensuring structural reliability of the final parts, because these flaws, above certain critical sizes, can lead to catastrophic failure. Three-dimensional microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems have been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for application to quantitative NDE evaluation of ceramics. This paper evaluates the detection sensitivity of the ANL X-ray CT system when used to determine density gradients, inclusions, and voids in green-state Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics. A theoretical account of key system- and sample-related parameters affecting X-ray CT detection sensitivity is given, and results of experimental evaluation are presented. Density calibration phantoms and net-shape-formed tensile rods with seeded defects were used in the experimental evaluation of detection limits. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Reliability of a telephone-based Glasgow Outcome Scale assessment using a structured interview in a heterogenous population of patients and examiners.

    PubMed

    LeGrand, Scott A; Hindman, Bradley J; Dexter, Franklin; Moss, Linda G; Todd, Michael M

    2007-09-01

    A reliable telephone-based Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) assessment would be advantageous to both patients and investigators. Using a previously published structured GOS interview and scoring system, the aim of this study was to assess the reliability of telephone-based GOS scores compared to those obtained face-to-face in a heterogenous population of patients and examiners. Sixty-six patients hospitalized for a variety of acute neurological injuries underwent two GOS interviews approximately 90 days after injury. From a pool of six examiners, structured interviews were conducted using a standardized data form containing nine yes/no questions. One interview was conducted face-to-face and the other interview was conducted by telephone, the order being randomly selected. A different examiner conducted the second interview, and was unaware of the findings of the first interview. From this data, a separate investigator assigned GOS scores using standardized criteria. Concordant GOS scores were obtained in 71% (47/66) of patients and discordant scores in 29% (19/66); kappa = 0.56 +/- 0.08 (SE) (95% CI kappa = 0.40-0.73). Patient-, examiner-, and interview-related characteristics had no significant associations with GOS concordance, although patient sex had a significant association with discrepant responses to one specific question (work at previous capacity). When used by multiple examiners to assess patients with diverse neurological conditions, use of a structured GOS examination does not guarantee a reliable telephone-based GOS score. Determination of whether patient sex influences the validity of the structured face-to-face GOS interview is worthy of future study.

  15. Analysis of the reliability of clinical examination in predicting traumatic cerebral lesions and skull fractures in patients with mild and moderate head trauma.

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej; Mazur, Agnieszka; Piotuch, Bernard; Safranow, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of neurological examination and other factors in predicting traumatic cerebral lesions and skull fractures in patients with mild and moderate head trauma (GCS 10-15). Over a one-year period, 227 patients: 145 male and 82 female, aged a mean of 51 years who sustained mild or moderate head trauma (GSC 10-15) were examined neurologically and had performed head CT scans. The neurological examination as a whole and each finding of the neurological examination were tested as predictors of the presence of traumatic abnormalities in the head CT scan. Post-traumatic lesions in head CT scan were found in 109 patients (48%): skull fractures in 66 of these and brain injuries in 94; fifty-eight patients had skull fracture combined with brain injury. Seventeen patients required neurosurgical intervention (hematoma evacuation). Abnormal neurological examination showed the highest reliability in identifying patients with brain injuries in CT (sensitivity 87%, specificity 79%). Of single findings, gait abnormalities and consciousness disturbances, present in sober patients, were the strongest predictors of cerebral lesions. Likewise, abnormal neurological examination was the best indicator of skull fractures (sensitivity 77%, specificity 63%). Gait abnormalities and "raccoon eyes" present in alcohol intoxicated patients were the strongest individual predictors of skull fractures. Results of our study show neurological abnormalities as the most reliable (although not 100% accurate) in identifying patients who are likely to have brain injuries and/or skull fracture following head trauma. Use of clinical decision rules may reduce the number of head CT scans performed "just in case".

  16. Abdominal subcutaneous fat pad aspiration and bone marrow examination for the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis: the reliability of immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kanji; Kawai, Shigeo; Suzuki, Kenshi

    2015-09-01

    Tissue biopsy is essential for the diagnosis and typing of amyloidosis. Given its safety and ease, abdominal fat pad (AFP) is the first biopsy site of choice; bone marrow (BM) biopsy should additionally be performed to identify underlying plasma cell dyscrasia. The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of combined biopsy and immunohistochemical staining of AFP and BM tissues for the diagnosis and typing of amyloidosis. A total of 65 patients were examined. Congo red staining and immunohistochemical staining with antibodies were performed. Of 51 patients with systemic amyloidosis, 50 patients were examined with fat pad aspirates and 38 (76 %) cases were positive. All 51 patients were also examined by BM analysis and 25 (49 %) cases were positive. Including both AFP aspirates and BM specimens, 90 % of patients with systemic amyloidosis were Congo red positive. Of the 49 patients with AL amyloidosis, immunohistochemical stains were positive in 67.6 % of patients with AFP aspirates and in 50 % with BM specimens. Combining AFP aspirate and BM examination, immunohistochemical stains yielded positive stains for the corresponding circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin in 72.7 % of cases, and hence these analyses appear to be valuable in diagnosing the type of amyloidosis.

  17. Platform for Postprocessing Waveform-Based NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don

    2008-01-01

    Taking advantage of the similarities that exist among all waveform-based non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods, a common software platform has been developed containing multiple- signal and image-processing techniques for waveforms and images. The NASA NDE Signal and Image Processing software has been developed using the latest versions of LabVIEW, and its associated Advanced Signal Processing and Vision Toolkits. The software is useable on a PC with Windows XP and Windows Vista. The software has been designed with a commercial grade interface in which two main windows, Waveform Window and Image Window, are displayed if the user chooses a waveform file to display. Within these two main windows, most actions are chosen through logically conceived run-time menus. The Waveform Window has plots for both the raw time-domain waves and their frequency- domain transformations (fast Fourier transform and power spectral density). The Image Window shows the C-scan image formed from information of the time-domain waveform (such as peak amplitude) or its frequency-domain transformation at each scan location. The user also has the ability to open an image, or series of images, or a simple set of X-Y paired data set in text format. Each of the Waveform and Image Windows contains menus from which to perform many user actions. An option exists to use raw waves obtained directly from scan, or waves after deconvolution if system wave response is provided. Two types of deconvolution, time-based subtraction or inverse-filter, can be performed to arrive at a deconvolved wave set. Additionally, the menu on the Waveform Window allows preprocessing of waveforms prior to image formation, scaling and display of waveforms, formation of different types of images (including non-standard types such as velocity), gating of portions of waves prior to image formation, and several other miscellaneous and specialized operations. The menu available on the Image Window allows many further image

  18. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamadain, K. E. M.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Azevedo, A. C. P.; Guebel, M. R. N.; Boechat, M. C. B.; Habani, F.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 µGy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagão Gesteira—IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 µGy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira—IFF Hospital), 161 µGy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 µGy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 µGy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 µSv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 µSv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 µSv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 µSv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 µSv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  19. Validity and reliability of a novel written examination to assess knowledge and clinical decision making skills of medical students on the surgery clerkship.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Anna; Berlin, Ana; Swan-Sein, Aubrie; Nowygrod, Roman; Fingeret, Abbey

    2014-02-01

    The Surgery Clerkship Clinical Skills Examination (CSE) is a novel written examination developed to assess the surgical knowledge, clinical decision making, communication skills, and professionalism of medical students on the surgery clerkship. This study was undertaken to determine its validity. Data were prospectively collected from July 2011 through February 2013. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess score trend; convergent validity with National Board of Medical Examiners surgery and medicine subject scores, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores, and evaluation of clinical reasoning and fund of knowledge; and the effect of clerkship order. Exam reliability was assessed using a modified Cronbach's α statistic. During the study period, 262 students completed the CSE, with a normal distribution of performance. United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge score and end-of-clerkship evaluations of fund of knowledge and clinical reasoning predicted CSE score. Performance on the CSE was independent of clerkship order or prior clerkships. The modified Cronbach's α value for the exam was .67. The CSE is an objective, valid, reliable instrument for assessing students on the surgery clerkship, independent of clerkship order. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. Results The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. Conclusion The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected. PMID:27668883

  1. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  2. Study Methods to Standardize Thermography NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop thermographic inspection methods and standards for use in evaluating structural composites and aerospace hardware. Qualification techniques and calibration methods are investigated to standardize the thermographic method for use in the field. Along with the inspections of test standards structural hardware, support hardware is designed and fabricated to aid in the thermographic process. Also, a standard operating procedure is developed for performing inspections with the Bales Thermal Image Processor (TIP). Inspections are performed on a broad range of structural composites. These materials include graphite/epoxies, graphite/cyanide-ester, graphite/silicon-carbide, graphite phenolic and Kevlar/epoxy. Also metal honeycomb (titanium and aluminum faceplates over an aluminum honeycomb core) structures are investigated. Various structural shapes are investigated and the thickness of the structures vary from as few as 3 plies to as many as 80 plies. Special emphasis is placed on characterizing defects in attachment holes and bondlines, in addition to those resulting from impact damage and the inclusion of foreign matter. Image processing through statistical analysis and digital filtering is investigated to enhance the quality and quantify the NDE thermal images when necessary.

  3. Study Methods to Standardize Thermography NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop thermographic inspection methods and standards for use in evaluating structural composites and aerospace hardware. Qualification techniques and calibration methods are investigated to standardize the thermographic method for use in the field. Along with the inspections of test standards structural hardware, support hardware is designed and fabricated to aid in the thermographic process. Also, a standard operating procedure is developed for performing inspections with the Bales Thermal Image Processor (TIP). Inspections are performed on a broad range of structural composites. These materials include various graphite/epoxies, graphite/cyanide-ester, graphite/silicon-carbide, graphite phenolic and Keviar/epoxy. Also metal honeycomb (titanium and aluminum faceplates over an aluminum honeycomb core) structures are investigated. Various structural shapes are investigated and the thickness of the structures vary from as few as 3 plies to as many as 80 plies. Special emphasis is placed on characterizing defects in attachment holes and bondlines, in addition to those resulting from impact damage and the inclusion of foreign matter. Image processing through statistical analysis and digital filtering is investigated to enhance the quality and quantify the NDE thermal images when necessary.

  4. Quantitative NDE of Composite Structures at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Howell, Patricia A.; Johnston, Patrick H.; Burke, Eric R.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.; Seebo, Jeffery P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community due to the potential benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and manufacturability. Ongoing work at NASA involves the use of the large-scale composite structures for spacecraft (payload shrouds, cryotanks, crew modules, etc). NASA is also working to enable the use and certification of composites in aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). The rapid, in situ characterization of a wide range of the composite materials and structures has become a critical concern for the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over a long time. The quantitative characterization of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking are of particular interest. The research approaches of NASA's Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch include investigation of conventional, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods, infrared thermography and x-ray computed tomography techniques. The use of simulation tools for optimizing and developing these methods is also an active area of research. This paper will focus on current research activities related to large area NDE for rapidly characterizing aerospace composites.

  5. Protection circuitry for high frequency ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaggares, N. Chris; Tang, Raymond K.; Sinclair, A. N., Prof.; Foster, F. S., Prof.; Haraierciwz, Kasia; Starkoski, Brian

    2000-05-01

    Most commercial ultrasonic NDE equipment employs a voltage spike to stimulate a piezoelectric transducer. To protect the signal processing unit from damage from this spike, a voltage limiter or "diode clamp" is included in the pulser-receiver, and limits the voltage reaching the amplifier or oscilloscope. In this project, the deleterious effects of such limiters on the ultrasonic echo in the high frequency (50-100 MHz range) have been quantified: these effects include significant distortion in the frequency content, and oscillations causing a drop in timing resolution by over a factor of 2. To address these problems, a high-voltage high-frequency switch has been designed to replace the voltage limiter; the switch directs the high-voltage spike away from the signal processing/display unit, towards an impedance-matched termination. A prototype circuit has been built, based on two high-voltage MOSFET's acting as a switch for the bi-polar stimulation pulse. The reduction in echo distortion and improvement in time resolution have been successfully modeled with the CAD tool HSPICE, although parasitic capacitance in the current generation of commercial MOSFET's is a continuing concern.

  6. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  7. Developing NDE Techniques for Large Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Don; Starr, Stan; Arens, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The Shuttle Program requires very large cryogenic ground storage tanks in which to store liquid oxygen and hydrogen. The existing Pads A and B Launch Complex-39 tanks, which will be passed onto future launch programs, are 45 years old and have received minimal refurbishment and only external inspections over the years. The majority of the structure is inaccessible without a full system drain of cryogenic liquid and granular insulation in the annular region. It was previously thought that there was a limit to the number of temperature cycles that the tanks could handle due to possible insulation compaction before undergoing a costly and time consuming complete overhaul; therefore the tanks were not drained and performance issues with these tanks, specifically the Pad B liquid hydrogen tank, were accepted. There is a needind an opportunity, as the Shuttle program ends and work to upgrade the launch pads progresses, to develop innovative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to analyze the current tanks. Techniques are desired that can aid in determining the extent of refurbishment required to keep the tanks in service for another 20+ years. A nondestructive technique would also be a significant aid in acceptance testing of new and refurbished tanks, saving significant time and money, if corrective actions can be taken before cryogen is introduced to the systems.

  8. Ultrasonic guided wave NDE for piping

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.L.; Jiao, D.; Spanner, J. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    An ultrasonic guided wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system for rapidly detecting and quantifying the reduction in wall thickness caused by corrosion in piping under insulation is discussed. Only small, easily replaceable sections need to be removed from the thermal insulation that surrounds the pipework. The worst case scenario of the guided wave work will be a two-stage system, the first with guided waves capable of rapidly surveying the piping to indicate areas of corrosion attack and wall thinning, followed by a more quantitative technique using a more conventional normal beam ultrasonic longitudinal wave inspection. In most cases, however, the guided wave technique will be sufficient for quantitatively determining wall thickness, depending on the accuracy required and the local or global nature of the wall thinning. Drawing on guided wave experiences to date on a variety of different plate and tubing problems, preliminary feasibility experiments have already been conducted on piping under insulation in both a laboratory and a chemical processing facility field environment. Three guided wave techniques have been introduced, one on normal beam excitation, one using a broad variable angle beam transducer on a curved shoe, and a third on a newly developed pipe comb system.

  9. The reliability and predictive validity of a sixth-semester OSPE in conservative dentistry regarding performance on the state examination.

    PubMed

    Petko, Petkov; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Hoefer, Sebastian; Stehle, Sebastian; Scherer, Sonja; Steffen, Björn; Scherzer, Stephan; Ochsendorf, Falk; Horz, Holger; Sader, Robert; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the testing format of an OSPE (Objective Structured Practical Examination) in conservative dentistry (sixth semester) predicts the scores on the practical section of the state examination (11(th) semester) in the same subject. Taking general student profiles into consideration (score on the school-leaving exam [Abitur], score on the preliminary exam in dental medicine [Physikum], length of university study, cohorts, and sex), we also investigated if any correlations or differences exist in regard to the total and partial scores on the OSPE and the corresponding state examination. Methods: Within the scope of this longitudinal retrospective study, exam-specific data spanning 11 semesters for dental students (N=223) in Frankfurt am Main were collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out by calculating Spearman rank correlations, partial correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regressions (SPSS Statistics 21, IBM Corporation, New York). Results: The results show that the OSPE (Cronbach's α=.87) correlates with level of success on the practical section of the state exam in conservative dentistry (p=.01, r=.17). Length of university study also emerged to correlate significantly with the state exam score (p=.001, r=.23). Together, these two variables contribute significantly to predicting the state exam score (p=.001, R(2) =.076). This was seen extensively among female students. It was also discovered that these female students had higher school-leaving exam scores than male students (F=6.09, p=.01, η(2) =.027), and that a significant correlation between scores on the Physikum (preliminary exam in dental medicine) and OSPE scores existed only for male students (r=.17, p=.01). Conclusion: This study was able to demonstrate the predictive effect of a clinical OSPE regarding scores achieved on the state exam. Taking the limitations of this study into account, we are able to

  10. A case matched study examining the reliability of using ImPACT to assess effects of multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Barker, Trevor; Russo, Stephen A; Barker, Gaytri; Rice, Mark A; Jeffrey, Mary G; Broderick, Gordon; Craddock, Travis J A

    2017-04-28

    Approximately 3.8 million sport and recreational concussions occur per year, creating a need for accurate diagnosis and management of concussions. Researchers and clinicians are exploring the potential dose-response cumulative effects of concussive injuries using computerized neuropsychological exams, however, results have been mixed and/or contradictory. This study starts with a large adolescent population and applies strict inclusion criteria to examine how previous mild traumatic brain injuries affect symptom reports and neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized tool. After applying exclusion criteria and case matching, 204 male and 99 female participants remained. These participants were grouped according to sex and the number of previous self-reported concussions and examined for overall differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. In an effort to further reduce confounding factors due to the varying group sizes, participants were then case matched on age, sex, and body mass index and analyzed for differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. Case matched analysis demonstrated males with concussions experience significantly higher rates of dizziness (p = .027, η(2) = .035), fogginess (p = .038, η(2) = .032), memory problems (p = .003, η(2) = .055), and concentration problems (p = .009, η(2) = .046) than males with no reported previous concussions. No significant effects were found for females, although females reporting two concussions demonstrated a slight trend for experiencing higher numbers of symptoms than females reporting no previous concussions. The results suggest that male adolescent athletes reporting multiple concussions have lingering concussive symptoms well after the last concussive event; however, these symptoms were found to

  11. Cardiac valve calcifications on low-dose unenhanced ungated chest computed tomography: inter-observer and inter-examination reliability, agreement and variability.

    PubMed

    van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Willemink, Martin J; Takx, Richard A P; Eikendal, Anouk L M; Budde, Ricardo P J; Leiner, Tim; Mol, Christian P; Isgum, Ivana; de Jong, Pim A

    2014-07-01

    To determine inter-observer and inter-examination variability for aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral valve and annulus calcification (MC) in low-dose unenhanced ungated lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). We included 578 lung cancer screening trial participants who were examined by CT twice within 3 months to follow indeterminate pulmonary nodules. On these CTs, AVC and MC were measured in cubic millimetres. One hundred CTs were examined by five observers to determine the inter-observer variability. Reliability was assessed by kappa statistics (κ) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Variability was expressed as the mean difference ± standard deviation (SD). Inter-examination reliability was excellent for AVC (κ = 0.94, ICC = 0.96) and MC (κ = 0.95, ICC = 0.90). Inter-examination variability was 12.7 ± 118.2 mm(3) for AVC and 31.5 ± 219.2 mm(3) for MC. Inter-observer reliability ranged from κ = 0.68 to κ = 0.92 for AVC and from κ = 0.20 to κ = 0.66 for MC. Inter-observer ICC was 0.94 for AVC and ranged from 0.56 to 0.97 for MC. Inter-observer variability ranged from -30.5 ± 252.0 mm(3) to 84.0 ± 240.5 mm(3) for AVC and from -95.2 ± 210.0 mm(3) to 303.7 ± 501.6 mm(3) for MC. AVC can be quantified with excellent reliability on ungated unenhanced low-dose chest CT, but manual detection of MC can be subject to substantial inter-observer variability. Lung cancer screening CT may be used for detection and quantification of cardiac valve calcifications. • Low-dose unenhanced ungated chest computed tomography can detect cardiac valve calcifications. • However, calcified cardiac valves are not reported by most radiologists. • Inter-observer and inter-examination variability of aortic valve calcifications is sufficient for longitudinal studies. • Volumetric measurement variability of mitral valve and annulus calcifications is substantial.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey’s 5-Question Food Insecurity Survey Completed by Fourth-Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Smith, Albert F.; Hitchcock, David B.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Finney, Christopher J.; Royer, Julie A.; Miller, Patricia H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine test-retest reliability and internal consistency of a 5-question food insecurity survey used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Researchers administered the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the classroom to 92 fourth-grade children (74 African American; 48 girls) in 2 sessions 27–30 days apart in spring, 2011. Each classroom administration lasted 5–10 minutes. Results Test-retest reliability was 0.66 (Kendall tau), which is modest. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) was .67 and .70 for respective administrations. Food insecurity scores were related to gender (adjusted P = .05) and academic achievement (adjusted P = .004) but not to socioeconomic status or body mass index percentile (binomial regression). On average, boys reported higher food insecurity than girls. Children with lower academic achievement scores reported higher food insecurity than children with higher academic achievement scores. Conclusions and Implications The National Health and Nutrition Examination 5-question survey may be group administered to assess food insecurity efficiently as reported by individual fourth-grade children. PMID:26363937

  13. Validity and reliability analysis of the planned behavior theory scale related to the testicular self-examination in a Turkish context.

    PubMed

    Iyigun, Emine; Tastan, Sevinc; Ayhan, Hatice; Kose, Gulsah; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability levels of the Planned Behavior Theory Scale as related to a testicular self-examination. The study was carried out in a health-profession higher-education school in Ankara, Turkey, from April to June 2012. The study participants comprised 215 male students. Study data were collected by using a questionnaire, a planned behavior theory scale related to testicular self-examination, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). The sub-dimensions of the planned behavior theory scale, namely those of intention, attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy, were found to have Cronbach's alpha values of between 0.81 and 0.89. Exploratory factor analysis showed that items of the scale had five factors that accounted for 75% of the variance. Of these, the sub-dimension of intention was found to have the highest level of contribution. A significant correlation was found between the sub-dimensions of the testicular self-examination planned behavior theory scale and those of CHBMS (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that the Turkish version of the testicular self-examination Planned Behavior Theory Scale is a valid and reliable measurement for Turkish society.

  14. Investigation of a comprehensive confidence measure in NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Portia; Safdarnejad, Seyed; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative assessment of reliability of classification results is critical in detection and characterization of anomalies in any non-destructive evaluation (NDE) application. Particularly in automated data analysis systems, such a measure enables the system to automatically flag indications where operator intervention is required, and reduces maintenance costs and risks. Classification results are affected by inherent ambiguity of defect classes, non-discriminative features, inadequate training samples and poor data quality. Although these sources of uncertainties in classification have been studied, formulating a single measure which quantifies all of them together has not been done to date. Generally, from Bayesian point of view, the posterior probability is considered as a confidence measure. Posterior probability of occurrence of an event is representative of inter-class similarities and intra-class distance and thus, may be used as a measure of inherent ambiguity of classes and discriminative quality of features. However, estimation of posterior probability itself is affected by size of available training samples. In this paper, we develop a framework to incorporate these two major sources of classification error in a single quantity. In lieu of the simplistic assumption, we assume that parameters of the distribution of a class are random variables. We utilize bootstrap method to find empirical distribution of parameters of the class conditional densities based on which a distribution of confidence is found. Utilizing this distribution, different interpretations of the confidence measure may be provided. Analytical results show how statistical properties of the confidence distribution depend on number of training samples and quality of features. Initial results of the approach on eddy current data is presented.

  15. [Examining the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the 12-item Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (the 5th stage)].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Kai; Sugimura, Kazumi; Nakama, Reiko; Mizokami, Shinichi; Tsuzuki, Manabu

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a 12-item version of the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (the 5th stage) (EPSI (5th)) and examine its reliability and validity. University students (N = 545) participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor model provided a better fit than alternative one-factor models. An analysis of Cronbach's α coefficients and the test-retest method showed acceptable scale reliability. In accordance with our hypotheses, correlation analyses revealed that the EPSI (5th) subscale scores (i.e., synthesis and confusion) were significantly related to measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction with life, and identity confusion. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  16. How reliable are the risk estimates for X-ray examinations in forensic age estimations? A safety update.

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, F; Proschek, P; Betz, W; Verhoff, M A

    2009-05-01

    Possible biological side effects of exposure to X-rays are stochastic effects such as carcinogenesis and genetic alterations. In recent years, a number of new studies have been published about the special cancer risk that children may suffer from diagnostic X-rays. Children and adolescents who constitute many of the probands in forensic age-estimation proceedings are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic risks of ionizing radiation than adults. Established doses for X-ray examinations in forensic age estimations vary from less than 0.1 microSv (left hand X-ray) up to more than 800 microSv (computed tomography). Computed tomography in children, as a relatively high-dose procedure, is of particular interest because the doses involved are near to the lower limit of the doses observed and analyzed in A-bombing survivor studies. From these studies, direct epidemiological data exist concerning the lifetime cancer risk. Since there is no medical indication for forensic age examinations, it should be stressed that only safe methods are generally acceptable. This paper reviews current knowledge on cancer risks associated with diagnostic radiation and aims to help forensic experts, dentists, and pediatricians evaluate the risk from radiation when using X-rays in age-estimation procedures.

  17. The reliability and predictive validity of a sixth-semester OSPE in conservative dentistry regarding performance on the state examination

    PubMed Central

    Petko, Petkov; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Hoefer, Sebastian; Stehle, Sebastian; Scherer, Sonja; Steffen, Björn; Scherzer, Stephan; Ochsendorf, Falk; Horz, Holger; Sader, Robert; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the testing format of an OSPE (Objective Structured Practical Examination) in conservative dentistry (sixth semester) predicts the scores on the practical section of the state examination (11th semester) in the same subject. Taking general student profiles into consideration (score on the school-leaving exam [Abitur], score on the preliminary exam in dental medicine [Physikum], length of university study, cohorts, and sex), we also investigated if any correlations or differences exist in regard to the total and partial scores on the OSPE and the corresponding state examination. Methods: Within the scope of this longitudinal retrospective study, exam-specific data spanning 11 semesters for dental students (N=223) in Frankfurt am Main were collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out by calculating Spearman rank correlations, partial correlations, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and multiple regressions (SPSS Statistics 21, IBM Corporation, New York). Results: The results show that the OSPE (Cronbach’s α=.87) correlates with level of success on the practical section of the state exam in conservative dentistry (p=.01, r=.17). Length of university study also emerged to correlate significantly with the state exam score (p=.001, r=.23). Together, these two variables contribute significantly to predicting the state exam score (p=.001, R2=.076). This was seen extensively among female students. It was also discovered that these female students had higher school-leaving exam scores than male students (F=6.09, p=.01, η2=.027), and that a significant correlation between scores on the Physikum (preliminary exam in dental medicine) and OSPE scores existed only for male students (r=.17, p=.01). Conclusion: This study was able to demonstrate the predictive effect of a clinical OSPE regarding scores achieved on the state exam. Taking the limitations of this study into account, we are able to

  18. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  19. The History and Future of NDE in the Management of Nuclear Power Plant Materials Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-04-01

    The author has spent more than 25 years conducting engineering and research studies to quantify the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in nuclear power plant (NPP) applications and identifying improvements to codes and standards for NDE to manage materials degradation. This paper will review this fundamental NDE engineering/research work and then look to the future on how NDE can be optimized for proactively managing materials degradation in NPP components.

  20. Reliability, diagnostic efficiency, and validity of the Millon adolescent clinical inventory: examination of selected scales in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Michelle; Grilo, Carlos M

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the internal consistency, diagnostic efficiency, and validity of selected scales of the Millon adolescent clinical inventory (MACI; Millon et al., Manual for the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory, National Computer Systems, Minneapolis, MN, 1993). 241 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were administered the MACI and a battery of established self-report measures and a multidisciplinary team independently assigned DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses at the time of discharge. The internal consistency of MACI scales ranged from 0.71 to 0.93. Conditional probabilities (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power) were calculated for selected disorders using independently generated clinical diagnoses as the standard. The diagnostic efficiencies for the selected scales were variable, with adequate performance for predicting classes of diagnoses but not for specific diagnoses. The MACI showed good criterion validity for most disorders, with participants with a clinical diagnosis having a significantly higher corresponding MACI scale score than participants not assigned that diagnosis. Concurrent validity, tested by correlating MACI scale scores with those of relevant, validated measures, was generally good. The MACI appears to be a psychometrically sound self-report instrument and appears valuable as a screening instrument for many problems found in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

  1. Serial physical examinations, a simple and reliable tool for managing neonates at risk for early-onset sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, Alberto; Buffagni, Anna Maria; Rossi, Cecilia; Vaccina, Eleonora; Cattelani, Chiara; Gambini, Lucia; Baccilieri, Federica; Varioli, Francesca; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether serial physical examinations (SPEs) are a safe tool for managing neonates at risk for early-onset sepsis (EOS). METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of neonates (≥ 34 wks’ gestation) delivered in three high-volume level IIIbirthing centres in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) during a 4-mo period (from September 1 to December 31, 2015). Neonates at risk for EOS were managed according to the SPEs strategy, these were carried out in turn by bedside nursing staff and physicians. A standardized form detailing general wellbeing, skin colour and vital signs was filled in and signed at standard intervals (at age 3, 6, 12, 18, 36 and 48 h) in neonates at risk for EOS. Three independent reviewers reviewed all charts of neonates and abstracted data (gestational age, mode of delivery, group B streptococcus status, risk factors for EOS, duration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, postpartum evaluations, therapies and outcome). Rates of sepsis workups, empirical antibiotics and outcome of neonates at-risk (or not) for EOS were evaluated. RESULTS There were 2092 live births and 1 culture-proven EOS (Haemophilus i) (incidence rates of 0.48/1000 live births). Most newborns with signs of illness (51 out of 101, that is 50.5%), and most of those who received postpartum antibiotics (17 out of 29, that is 58.6%) were not at risk for EOS. Compared to neonates at risk, neonates not at risk for EOS were less likely to have signs of illness (51 out of 1442 vs 40 out of 650, P = 0.009) or have a sepsis workup (25 out of 1442 vs 28 out of 650, P < 0.001). However, they were not less likely to receive empirical antibiotics (17 out of 1442 vs 12 out of 650, P = 0.3). Thirty-two neonates were exposed to intrapartum fever or chorioamnionitis: 62.5% (n = 20) had a sepsis workup and 21.9% (n = 7) were given empirical antibiotics. Among 216 neonates managed through the SPEs strategy, only 5.6% (n = 12) had subsequently a sepsis workup and only 1.9% (n = 4) were

  2. Summary of NDE of Additive Manufacturing Efforts in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor; Parker, Bradford; Hodges, Kenneth; Burke, Eric; Taminger, Karen

    2014-01-01

    (1) General Rationale for Additive Manufacturing (AM): (a) Operate under a 'design-to-constraint' paradigm, make parts too complicated to fabricate otherwise, (b) Reduce weight by 20 percent with monolithic parts, (c) Reduce waste (green manufacturing), (e) Eliminate reliance on Original Equipment Manufacturers for critical spares, and (f) Extend life of in-service parts by innovative repair methods; (2) NASA OSMA NDE of AM State-of-the-Discipline Report; (3) Overview of NASA AM Efforts at Various Centers: (a) Analytical Tools, (b) Ground-Based Fabrication (c) Space-Based Fabrication; and (d) Center Activity Summaries; (4) Overview of NASA NDE data to date on AM parts; and (5) Gap Analysis/Recommendations for NDE of AM.

  3. A 35 MHz PCMUT phased array for NDE ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snook, Kevin; Jiang, Xiaoning; Hu, Changhong; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Ruibin; Welter, John; Shung, Kirk; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, the development of a 35 MHz 64-channel Piezoelectric Composite based Micromachined Ultrasound Transducer (PCMUT) phased array for NDE ultrasound application is presented. A 35 MHz PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite based PC-MUT phased array was designed with extensive acoustic field and 1D modeling. The initial modeling results demonstrated that the focused detection resolution (10% of -3 dB beam width) could be as small as 30 μm in the azimuth direction. The maximum imaging depth for ceramic samples is around 20 mm. The PC-MUT array being developed will extend the state-of-art NDE phased array technology from approximately 20 MHz to 35 MHz, which will greatly enhance the imaging resolution for a broad range of NDE ultrasound applications.

  4. NASA NDE Applications for Mobile MEMS Devices and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.; Barclay, R. O.

    2008-01-01

    NASA would like new devices and sensors for performing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace vehicles. These devices must be small in size/volume, mass, and power consumption. The devices must be autonomous and mobile so they can access the internal structures of aircraft and spacecraft and adequately monitor the structural health of these craft. The platforms must be mobile in order to transport NDE sensors for evaluating structural integrity and determining whether further investigations will be required. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is crucial to the development of the mobile platforms and sensor systems. This paper presents NASA s needs for micro mobile platforms and MEMS sensors that will enable NDE to be performed on aerospace vehicles.

  5. Best practices for evaluating the capability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques for damage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Annis, Charles; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Lindgren, Eric A.

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive approach to NDE and SHM characterization error (CE) evaluation is presented that follows the framework of the `ahat-versus-a' regression analysis for POD assessment. Characterization capability evaluation is typically more complex with respect to current POD evaluations and thus requires engineering and statistical expertise in the model-building process to ensure all key effects and interactions are addressed. Justifying the statistical model choice with underlying assumptions is key. Several sizing case studies are presented with detailed evaluations of the most appropriate statistical model for each data set. The use of a model-assisted approach is introduced to help assess the reliability of NDE and SHM characterization capability under a wide range of part, environmental and damage conditions. Best practices of using models are presented for both an eddy current NDE sizing and vibration-based SHM case studies. The results of these studies highlight the general protocol feasibility, emphasize the importance of evaluating key application characteristics prior to the study, and demonstrate an approach to quantify the role of varying SHM sensor durability and environmental conditions on characterization performance.

  6. Single crystal piezoelectric composite transducers for ultrasound NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Snook, Kevin; Walker, Thomas; Portune, Andrew; Haber, Richard; Geng, Xuecang; Welter, John; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2008-03-01

    Single crystal piezoelectric composite transducers including 75 MHz PC-MUT (piezoelectric composite micromachined ultrasound transducers), diced 10 MHz and 15 MHz 1-3 composite transducers were successfully demonstrated with broad bandwidth and high sensitivity. In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of composite transducers are reported. C-scan experiments for SiC ceramic samples were performed using these composite transducers as well as some commercial NDE transducers. The results suggest that significant improvements in resolution and penetration depth can be achieved in C-scan NDE imaging using single crystal composite broadband transducers.

  7. Eddy current NDE performance demonstrations using simulation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, L.; Costan, V.; Guillot, E.; Thomas, P.

    2013-01-01

    To carry out performance demonstrations of the Eddy-Current NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, EDF studies the possibility of using simulation tools as an alternative to measurements on steam generator tube mocks-up. This paper focuses on the strategy led by EDF to assess and use code_Carmel3D and Civa, on the case of Eddy-Current NDE on wears problem which may appear in the U-shape region of steam generator tubes due to the rubbing of anti-vibration bars.

  8. Preview of the NASA NNWG NDE Sample Preparation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presents a step-by-step how-to fabrication documentation of every kind of sample that is fabricated for MSFC by UA Huntsville, including photos and illustrations. The tabulation of what kind of samples are being fabricated for what NDE method, detailed instructions/documentation of the inclusion/creation of defects, detailed specifications for materials, processes, and equipment, case histories and/or experiences with the different fabrication methods and defect inclusion techniques, discussion of pitfalls and difficulties associated with sample fabrication and defect inclusion techniques, and a discussion of why certain fabrication techniques are needed as related to the specific NDE methods are included in this presentation.

  9. A Destructive Validation of NDE Responses of Service-Induced PWSCC Found in North Anna 2 Control Rod Drive Nozzle 31

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Harris, Robert V.; Crawford, Susan L.; Seffens, Rob J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Moyer, C.

    2009-07-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments, and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies.

  10. Accounting for Dynamic Fluctuations across Time when Examining fMRI Test-Retest Reliability: Analysis of a Reward Paradigm in the EMBARC Study

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Henry W.; Fournier, Jay C.; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Almeida, Jorge R.; Stiffler, Richelle; Zevallos, Carlos R.; Aslam, Haris; Cooper, Crystal; Deckersbach, Thilo; Weyandt, Sarah; Adams, Phillip; Toups, Marisa; Carmody, Tom; Oquendo, Maria A.; Peltier, Scott; Fava, Maurizio; McGrath, Patrick J.; Weissman, Myrna; Parsey, Ramin; McInnis, Melvin G.; Kurian, Benji; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal investigation of the neural correlates of reward processing in depression may represent an important step in defining effective biomarkers for antidepressant treatment outcome prediction, but the reliability of reward-related activation is not well understood. Thirty-seven healthy control participants were scanned using fMRI while performing a reward-related guessing task on two occasions, approximately one week apart. Two main contrasts were examined: right ventral striatum (VS) activation fMRI BOLD signal related to signed prediction errors (PE) and reward expectancy (RE). We also examined bilateral visual cortex activation coupled to outcome anticipation. Significant VS PE-related activity was observed at the first testing session, but at the second testing session, VS PE-related activation was significantly reduced. Conversely, significant VS RE-related activity was observed at time 2 but not time 1. Increases in VS RE-related activity from time 1 to time 2 were significantly associated with decreases in VS PE-related activity from time 1 to time 2 across participants. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) in VS were very low. By contrast, visual cortex activation had much larger ICCs, particularly in individuals with high quality data. Dynamic changes in brain activation are widely predicted, and failure to account for these changes could lead to inaccurate evaluations of the reliability of functional MRI signals. Conventional measures of reliability cannot distinguish between changes specified by algorithmic models of neural function and noisy signal. Here, we provide evidence for the former possibility: reward-related VS activations follow the pattern predicted by temporal difference models of reward learning but have low ICCs. PMID:25961712

  11. Examining the quality of the 'Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Schools' (HEPS) quality checklist: German results on usability and reliability.

    PubMed

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Boye, Jutta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the usability and reliability of the HEPS quality checklist (Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Schools), an instrument developed to assess the quality of school-based programmes on healthy eating and physical activity. With regard to usability, health promotion experts (n = 15) were asked to apply the HEPS quality checklist and to fill out a questionnaire about its comprehensibility and usability. To examine inter-rater reliability (IRR) a criteria-based selection of German school programmes on healthy eating and physical activity (n = 14) was randomly allocated to two programme pools and assessed independently by the authors. Results of the pilot testing revealed a high overall satisfaction with the HEPS quality checklist and a high willingness to use it or to recommend it to others. Furthermore, the checklist was perceived to be comprehensive and clearly structured. The assessment results of programme pool 1 revealed unsatisfactory Cohen's Kappa coefficients (IRR) and moderate intra-class correlations (ICC). After the HEPS manual guide had been amended with regard to its anchoring, the results of programme pool 2 showed substantial improvements with regard to IRR and ICC. In summary, the adapted HEPS quality checklist is a usable and reliable instrument for the quality assessment of school-based programmes on healthy eating and physical activity. The findings suggest that the HEPS checklist should be applied by two sufficiently trained raters. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fresh-frozen, optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound-embedded bone marrow aspirates: a reliable resource for morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular examinations.

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Kim, Y; Lee, W; Kim, M; Lee, E J; Kang, C S; Han, K

    2010-02-01

    The usefulness of fresh-frozen, optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound-embedded (FFOE) bone marrow (BM) aspirates was evaluated as a reliable resource for morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular examinations. One hundred BM aspirates were collected in polypropylene tubes and immediately frozen for 2 h in a deep freezer. Frozen BM was transferred to a cryomold filled with OCT compound and the prepared samples were stored in a deep freezer. Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were performed to evaluate the quality of the FFOE BM sections in 10% of randomly selected samples. FFOE BM sections revealed better morphologies than paraffin-embedded clot sections in haematoxylin and eosin staining because mature erythrocytes were removed during the staining process in frozen BM sections. Immunohistochemical staining for CD34 revealed excellent staining quality and oil red O staining showed that fat vacuoles in cells were well preserved. The quality of genomic DNA in FFOE BM sections was suitable for obtaining about 2000 bp PCR product for the human leucocyte antigen-A locus followed by direct sequencing of the sample, and the quality of total RNA was suitable for detection of BCR-ABL fusion transcript. FFOE BM aspirates are a reliable resource for various laboratory tests of diagnostic and research arenas.

  13. The sensitivity, specificity and reliability of the GALS (gait, arms, legs and spine) examination when used by physiotherapists and physiotherapy students to detect rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Karen A; Macintyre, Norma J; Pierobon, Jessica; Coombs, Jennifer; Horobetz, Diana; Petric, Alexis; Pimm, Mara; Kean, Walter; Larché, Maggie J; Cividino, Alfred

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and reliability of the gait, arms, legs and spine (GALS) examination to detect signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis when used by physiotherapy students and physiotherapists. Two physiotherapy students and two physiotherapists were trained to perform the GALS examination by viewing an instructional DVD and attending a workshop. Two rheumatologists familiar with the GALS examination also participated in the workshop. All healthcare professionals performed the GALS examination on 25 participants with rheumatoid arthritis recruited through a rheumatology practice and 23 participants without any arthritides recruited from a primary care centre. Each participant was assessed by one rheumatologist, one physiotherapist and one physiotherapy student. Abnormalities of gait, arms, legs and spine, including their location and description, were recorded, along with whether or not a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was suspected. Healthcare professionals understood the study's objective to be their agreement on GALS findings and were unaware that half of the participants had rheumatoid arthritis. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios were calculated to determine the ability of the GALS examination to screen for rheumatoid arthritis. Using rheumatologists' findings on the study day as the standard for comparison, sensitivity and specificity were 71 to 86% and 69 to 93%, respectively. Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 2.74 to 10.18, while negative likelihood ratios ranged from 0.21 to 0.38. The GALS examination may be a useful tool for physiotherapists to rule out rheumatoid arthritis in a direct access setting. Differences in duration and type of experience of each healthcare professional may contribute to the variation in results. The merits of introducing the GALS examination into physiotherapy curricula and practice should be explored. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  14. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 4 - Tribological materials and NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L. (Editor); Achenbach, J. D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume on tribological materials and NDE discusses liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines, a liquid lubricant for space applications, solid lubricants for aeronautics, and thin solid-lubricant films in space. Attention is given to the science and technology of NDE, tools for an NDE engineering base, experimental techniques in ultrasonics for NDE and material characterization, and laser ultrasonics. Topics addressed include thermal methods of NDE and quality control, digital radiography in the aerospace industry, materials characterization by ultrasonic methods, and NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites. Also discussed are smart materials and structures, intelligent processing of materials, implementation of NDE technology on flight structures, and solid-state weld evaluation.

  15. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 4 - Tribological materials and NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L. (Editor); Achenbach, J. D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume on tribological materials and NDE discusses liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines, a liquid lubricant for space applications, solid lubricants for aeronautics, and thin solid-lubricant films in space. Attention is given to the science and technology of NDE, tools for an NDE engineering base, experimental techniques in ultrasonics for NDE and material characterization, and laser ultrasonics. Topics addressed include thermal methods of NDE and quality control, digital radiography in the aerospace industry, materials characterization by ultrasonic methods, and NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites. Also discussed are smart materials and structures, intelligent processing of materials, implementation of NDE technology on flight structures, and solid-state weld evaluation.

  16. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 4 - Tribological materials and NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Achenbach, J. D.

    The present volume on tribological materials and NDE discusses liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines, a liquid lubricant for space applications, solid lubricants for aeronautics, and thin solid-lubricant films in space. Attention is given to the science and technology of NDE, tools for an NDE engineering base, experimental techniques in ultrasonics for NDE and material characterization, and laser ultrasonics. Topics addressed include thermal methods of NDE and quality control, digital radiography in the aerospace industry, materials characterization by ultrasonic methods, and NDE of ceramics and ceramic composites. Also discussed are smart materials and structures, intelligent processing of materials, implementation of NDE technology on flight structures, and solid-state weld evaluation.

  17. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  18. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  19. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, Dennis C.

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing

  20. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  1. Advanced NDE techniques for quantitative characterization of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center and their applications that have resulted in quantitative assessment of material properties based on thermal and ultrasonic measurements are reviewed. Specific applications include ultrasonic determination of bolt tension, ultrasonic and thermal characterization of bonded layered structures, characterization of composite materials, and disbonds in aircraft skins.

  2. NDE for Material Characterization in Aeronautic and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Kautz, Harold E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Martin, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes selected nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches that were developed or tailored at the NASA Glenn Research Center for characterizing advanced material systems. The emphasis is on high-temperature aerospace propulsion applications. The material systems include monolithic ceramics, superalloys, and high temperature composites. In the aeronautic area, the highlights are cooled ceramic plate structures for turbine applications, F-TiAl blade materials for low-pressure turbines, thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) for residual stress measurements in titanium based and nickel based engine materials, and acousto ultrasonics (AU) for creep damage assessment in nickel-based alloys. In the space area, examples consist of cooled carbon-carbon composites for gas generator combustors and flywheel rotors composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites for energy storage on the international space station (ISS). The role of NDE in solving manufacturing problems, the effect of defects on structural behavior, and the use of NDE-based finite element modeling are discussed. NDE technology needs for improved microelectronic and mechanical systems as well as health monitoring of micro-materials and components are briefly discussed.

  3. Sparse signal representation and its applications in ultrasonic NDE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Harvey, David M

    2012-03-01

    Many sparse signal representation (SSR) algorithms have been developed in the past decade. The advantages of SSR such as compact representations and super resolution lead to the state of the art performance of SSR for processing ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) signals. Choosing a suitable SSR algorithm and designing an appropriate overcomplete dictionary is a key for success. After a brief review of sparse signal representation methods and the design of overcomplete dictionaries, this paper addresses the recent accomplishments of SSR for processing ultrasonic NDE signals. The advantages and limitations of SSR algorithms and various overcomplete dictionaries widely-used in ultrasonic NDE applications are explored in depth. Their performance improvement compared to conventional signal processing methods in many applications such as ultrasonic flaw detection and noise suppression, echo separation and echo estimation, and ultrasonic imaging is investigated. The challenging issues met in practical ultrasonic NDE applications for example the design of a good dictionary are discussed. Representative experimental results are presented for demonstration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Platform for Post-Processing Waveform-Based NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.

    2010-01-01

    Signal- and image-processing methods are commonly needed to extract information from the waves, improve resolution of, and highlight defects in an image. Since some similarity exists for all waveform-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, it would seem that a common software platform containing multiple signal- and image-processing techniques to process the waveforms and images makes sense where multiple techniques, scientists, engineers, and organizations are involved. NDE Wave & Image Processor Version 2.0 software provides a single, integrated signal- and image-processing and analysis environment for total NDE data processing and analysis. It brings some of the most useful algorithms developed for NDE over the past 20 years into a commercial-grade product. The software can import signal/spectroscopic data, image data, and image series data. This software offers the user hundreds of basic and advanced signal- and image-processing capabilities including esoteric 1D and 2D wavelet-based de-noising, de-trending, and filtering. Batch processing is included for signal- and image-processing capability so that an optimized sequence of processing operations can be applied to entire folders of signals, spectra, and images. Additionally, an extensive interactive model-based curve-fitting facility has been included to allow fitting of spectroscopy data such as from Raman spectroscopy. An extensive joint-time frequency module is included for analysis of non-stationary or transient data such as that from acoustic emission, vibration, or earthquake data.

  5. Advanced NDE techniques for quantitative characterization of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center and their applications that have resulted in quantitative assessment of material properties based on thermal and ultrasonic measurements are reviewed. Specific applications include ultrasonic determination of bolt tension, ultrasonic and thermal characterization of bonded layered structures, characterization of composite materials, and disbonds in aircraft skins.

  6. Human NDE1 splicing and mammalian brain development

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, S.; Raponi, M.; Meneghello, A.; Buratti, E.; Woods, C. G.; Baralle, D.

    2017-01-01

    Exploring genetic and molecular differences between humans and other close species may be the key to explain the uniqueness of our brain and the selective pressures under which it evolves. Recent discoveries unveiled the involvement of Nuclear distribution factor E-homolog 1 (NDE1) in human cerebral cortical neurogenesis and suggested a role in brain evolution; however the evolutionary changes involved have not been investigated. NDE1 has a different gene structure in human and mouse resulting in the production of diverse splicing isoforms. In particular, mouse uses the terminal exon 8 T, while Human uses terminal exon 9, which is absent in rodents. Through chimeric minigenes splicing assay we investigated the unique elements regulating NDE1 terminal exon choice. We found that selection of the terminal exon is regulated in a cell dependent manner and relies on gain/loss of splicing regulatory sequences across the exons. Our results show how evolutionary changes in cis as well as trans acting signals have played a fundamental role in determining NDE1 species specific splicing isoforms supporting the notion that alternative splicing plays a central role in human genome evolution, and possibly human cognitive predominance. PMID:28266585

  7. Human NDE1 splicing and mammalian brain development.

    PubMed

    Mosca, S; Raponi, M; Meneghello, A; Buratti, E; Woods, C G; Baralle, D

    2017-03-07

    Exploring genetic and molecular differences between humans and other close species may be the key to explain the uniqueness of our brain and the selective pressures under which it evolves. Recent discoveries unveiled the involvement of Nuclear distribution factor E-homolog 1 (NDE1) in human cerebral cortical neurogenesis and suggested a role in brain evolution; however the evolutionary changes involved have not been investigated. NDE1 has a different gene structure in human and mouse resulting in the production of diverse splicing isoforms. In particular, mouse uses the terminal exon 8 T, while Human uses terminal exon 9, which is absent in rodents. Through chimeric minigenes splicing assay we investigated the unique elements regulating NDE1 terminal exon choice. We found that selection of the terminal exon is regulated in a cell dependent manner and relies on gain/loss of splicing regulatory sequences across the exons. Our results show how evolutionary changes in cis as well as trans acting signals have played a fundamental role in determining NDE1 species specific splicing isoforms supporting the notion that alternative splicing plays a central role in human genome evolution, and possibly human cognitive predominance.

  8. NDE Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites are increasingly replacing metallic alloys as structural materials for primary components of fracture-critical structures. This trend is a result of the growing understanding of material behavior and recognition of the desirable properties of composites. A research program was conducted on NDE methods for determining the elastic properties of composites.

  9. A CAD Approach to Integrating NDE With Finite Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Downey, James; Ghosn, Louis J.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2004-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is one of several technologies applied at NASA Glenn Research Center to determine atypical deformities, cracks, and other anomalies experienced by structural components. NDE consists of applying high-quality imaging techniques (such as x-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT)) to discover hidden manufactured flaws in a structure. Efforts are in progress to integrate NDE with the finite element (FE) computational method to perform detailed structural analysis of a given component. This report presents the core outlines for an in-house technical procedure that incorporates this combined NDE-FE interrelation. An example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of this analytical procedure. FE analysis of a test specimen is performed, and the resulting von Mises stresses and the stress concentrations near the anomalies are observed, which indicates the fidelity of the procedure. Additional information elaborating on the steps needed to perform such an analysis is clearly presented in the form of mini step-by-step guidelines.

  10. Validation of a standard forensic anthropology examination protocol by measurement of applicability and reliability on exhumed and archive samples of known biological attribution.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Raffaela Arrabaça; Evison, Martin Paul; Costa Junior, Moacyr Lobo da; Silveira, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi; Secchieri, José Marcelo; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations. Methods based on them must be validated when applied to novel populations. This study describes the validation of a standardized forensic anthropology examination protocol by application to two contemporary Brazilian skeletal samples of known attribution. One sample (n=90) was collected from exhumations following 7-35 years of burial and the second (n=30) was collected following successful investigations following routine case work. The study presents measurement of (1) the applicability of each of the methods: used and (2) the reliability with which the biographic parameters were assigned in each case. The results are discussed with reference to published assessments of methodological reliability regarding sex, age and-in particular-ancestry estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Miniaturized hand held microwave interference scanning system for NDE of dielectric armor and armor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-06-23

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  12. Rocket center Peenemünde — Personal memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Konrad; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    Von Braun built his first rockets as a young teenager. At 14, he started making plans for rockets for human travel to the Moon and Mars. The German Army began a rocket program in 1929. Two years later, Colonel (later General) Becker contacted von Braun who experimented with rockets in Berlin, gave him a contract in 1932, and, jointly with the Air Force, in 1936 built the rocket center Peenemünde where von Braun and his team developed the A-4 (V-2) rocket under Army auspices, while the Air Force developed the V-1 (buzz bomb), wire-guided bombs, and rocket planes. Albert Speer, impressed by the work of the rocketeers, allowed a modest growth of the Peenemünde project; this brought Dannenberg to the von Braun team in 1940. Hitler did not believe in rockets; he ignored the A-4 project until 1942 when he began to support it, expecting that it could turn the fortunes of war for him. He drastically increased the Peenemünde work force and allowed the transfer of soldiers from the front to Peenemünde; that was when Stuhlinger, in 1943, came to Peenemünde as a Pfc.-Ph.D. Later that year, Himmler wrenched the authority over A-4 production out of the Army's hands, put it under his command, and forced production of the immature rocket at Mittelwerk, and its military deployment against targets in France, Belgium, and England. Throughout the development of the A-4 rocket, von Braun was the undisputed leader of the project. Although still immature by the end of the war, the A-4 had proceeded to a status which made it the first successful long-range precision rocket, the prototype for a large number of military rockets built by numerous nations after the war, and for space rockets that launched satellites and traveled to the Moon and the planets.

  13. Measurement of body dissatisfaction in college-enrolled Mexican American Women: A Rasch-based examination of the validity and reliability of the EDI-III.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Riley, Barth Brian; Hoyland-Domenico, Lisa; Lee, Chia-Kuei

    2015-12-01

    Measures of body dissatisfaction have not been validated for Mexican American (MA) women, who evaluate their bodies differently than Caucasian women. In this study, the psychometric properties of the EDI-III, Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (BDS) were examined in a sample of college-enrolled MA women using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Criterion validity was also addressed. BDS evidenced good item fit, person and item reliability, once poorly correlated items were removed. Two qualitatively distinct dimensions of body dissatisfaction were identified: (1) overall body shape and stomach, and (2) the lower body. Validity of the scales was supported. Results suggest: MA women's satisfaction with overall body shape is not synonymous with attitudes toward their lower body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability analysis of visual examinations carried out by school-teachers and a dental assistant in the detection of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Hecksher, A S; Luiz, R R; Costa, A J L; Moraes, N M

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the reliability of examinations performed by teachers and by a dental assistant in detection of cavitated surfaces. A sample of 168 students, aged 5-14 years, attending a public school in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, was examined by persons with three different training backgrounds: a dentist, a dental assistant, and schoolteachers. Examinations were performed in the school with the aid of a tongue blade under natural light. Kappa statistics were estimated to assess agreement between the observers. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value tests helped validate observations performed by the group of laypersons. The findings suggest satisfactory agreement with the dentist, with kappa values of 0.730 and 0.781 for the teachers and the dental assistant, respectively. The absence of cavities was easily detected (specificity = 96%). More caution is required in positive results indicated by the teachers or the dental assistant because these were not always confirmed subsequently (sensitivity = 76%) by the dentist. The aid of untrained personnel in dental epidemiology was shown to be a valid alternative for a signposting role.

  15. Automation of NDE on RSRM Metal Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, John; Kirby, Mark; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An automated eddy current system has been designed and built, and is being implemented to inspect RSRM (Space Shuttle) metal components. The system provides a significant increase in inspection reliability, as well as other benefits such as data storage, chemical waste reduction and reduction in overall process time. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  16. Preparing the NDE engineers of the future: Education, training, and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen D.

    2017-02-01

    As quantitative NDE has matured and entered the mainstream, it has created an industry need for engineers who can select, evaluate, and qualify NDE techniques to satisfy quantitative engineering requirements. NDE as a field is cross-disciplinary with major NDE techniques relying on a broad spectrum of physics disciplines including fluid mechanics, electromagnetics, mechanical waves, and high energy physics. An NDE engineer needs broad and deep understanding of the measurement physics across modalities, a general engineering background, and familiarity with shop-floor practices and tools. While there are a wide range of certification and training programs worldwide for NDE technicians, there are few programs aimed at engineers. At the same time, substantial demographic shifts are underway with many experienced NDE engineers and technicians nearing retirement, and with new generations coming from much more diverse backgrounds. There is a need for more and better education opportunities for NDE engineers. Both teaching and learning NDE engineering are inherently challenging because of the breadth and depth of knowledge required. At the same time, sustaining the field in a more diverse era will require broadening participation of previously underrepresented groups. The QNDE 2016 conference in Atlanta, GA included a session on NDE education, training, and diversity. This paper summarizes the outcomes and discussion from this session.

  17. An examination of the linearity and reliability of the electromyographic amplitude versus dynamic constant external resistance relationships using monopolar and bipolar recording methods.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linearity and reliability of the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude versus dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) relationships for monopolar and bipolar recording techniques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions. Nineteen healthy men (mean ± SD age = 22.9 ± 2.5 years) performed a series of randomly ordered, submaximal to maximal, unilateral DCER muscle actions of the dominant forearm flexors on two occasions separated by at least 48 h. Specifically, the subjects lifted and lowered weights corresponding to 10-100% of the one repetition maximum (1-RM) in 10% increments. During each muscle action, monopolar and bipolar surface EMG signals were detected simultaneously from the biceps brachii. For the monopolar and bipolar methods, the coefficients of determination for the EMG amplitude versus DCER relationships ranged from 0.64-0.98 and 0.38-0.98 for the concentric muscle actions and 0.45-0.98 and 0.45-0.98 for the eccentric muscle actions, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and corresponding standard errors of measurement (SEM) for the linear slope coefficients for the EMG amplitude versus DCER relationships were 0.682 (18.4%) and 0.594 (21.8%) with the monopolar method and 0.810 (25.6%) and 0.774 (17.6%) with the bipolar method for the concentric and eccentric muscle actions, respectively. These findings indicated that monopolar and bipolar recording techniques may be used with a similar degree of linearity and reliability for the EMG amplitude versus concentric and eccentric DCER relationships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Replacing methyl chloroform for cleaning turbine generator components and NDE applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.P.; O'Shanka, J.J.; Corley, T.J. . Power Generation Business Unit); Sadhir, R.K. )

    1993-08-01

    Industrial applications of methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane) have proven to be a significant concern to the environment. As a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), the chemical is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as an ozone-layer-depleting substance (OLDS). CFCs are effective cleaners of organic-based materials (oils, greases, cutting fluids, etc.). The Westinghouse Power Generation Business Unit (PGBU) has taken a proactive approach to this problem and instituted two programs in 1991 and 1992 to eliminate their consumption of CFCs. The scope of the first program was to establish an alternate cleaner for the removal of oil on generator stator windings. The second program built on the work of the first program, extending the scope to include general purpose cleaning of various contaminants prior to and at the completion of nondestructive examinations (NDE). The article that follows details the methodology, results, discussions, and conclusions of the second program and the data extrapolated from the first program. The specific NDE qualification requirements are highlighted in the methodology section.

  19. Mechanics aspects of NDE by sound and ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is considered as a means to detect the energy release mechanism of defects and the interaction of microstructures within materials with sound waves and/or ultrasonic waves. Ultrasonic inspection involves the frequency range 20 kHz-1 GHz with amplitudes depending on the sensitivity of the test instrumentation. Pulse echo systems are most frequently used in NDE. Information is extracted from the signals through measurements of the signal velocity, attenuation, the acoustic emission when stress is applied, and calculation of the acoustoelastic coefficients. Fracture properties, tensile and shear strengths, the interlaminar shear strength, the cohesive strength, yield and impact strengths, the hardness, and the residual stress can be assayed by ultrasonic methods. Finally, attention is given to analytical treatment of the derived data, with mention given to transition matrix, integral equation, and eigenstrain approaches.

  20. System for NDE of thermal spray coating bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Wandling, C.R.; Gatto, F.B.; Rogers, F.S.

    1984-09-01

    A nondestructive testing system that is especially well suited to NDE of bonds between coatings and substrates has been developed. It injects heat into the test specimen surface from a hot gas pulse and detects and other coating problems by means of an emissivity independent infrared scanning method. This method is very practical and has been proven in numerous demonstrations. It is the only method known by the authors to be applicable to such a wide variety of coatings. Qualitative correlation between bond strength and scan results from the system was demonstrated on one small group of test specimens. Due to its emissivity independence, the method yields results that are, in many cases, far superior to other infrared-thermal NDE methods. It can be applied to coatings having tough surfaces, and no physical contact with the test specimen is required.

  1. Mechanics aspects of NDE by sound and ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is considered as a means to detect the energy release mechanism of defects and the interaction of microstructures within materials with sound waves and/or ultrasonic waves. Ultrasonic inspection involves the frequency range 20 kHz-1 GHz with amplitudes depending on the sensitivity of the test instrumentation. Pulse echo systems are most frequently used in NDE. Information is extracted from the signals through measurements of the signal velocity, attenuation, the acoustic emission when stress is applied, and calculation of the acoustoelastic coefficients. Fracture properties, tensile and shear strengths, the interlaminar shear strength, the cohesive strength, yield and impact strengths, the hardness, and the residual stress can be assayed by ultrasonic methods. Finally, attention is given to analytical treatment of the derived data, with mention given to transition matrix, integral equation, and eigenstrain approaches.

  2. Technology Transfer of Plate Wave NDE to Ultrasonic Rotary Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Plate waves have been the subject of NDE research and applications. These waves, also known as guided waves of Lamb waves, are formed in two distinct modes--symmetric and antisymmetric --depending on their vibration characteristics in relation to the plate geometry. Experiments have corroborated the predictions for various plate wave modes, allowing the elastic properties of composite materials and adhesive bonded joints to be determined.

  3. NDE Software Developed at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Donald J.; Martin, Richard E.; Rauser, Richard W.; Nichols, Charles; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has developed several important Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) related software packages for different projects in the last 10 years. Three of the software packages have been created with commercial-grade user interfaces and are available to United States entities for download on the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office server (https://sr.grc.nasa.gov/). This article provides brief overviews of the software packages.

  4. Ultrasound NDE of Adhesive Bond Integrity: A Quantitative Measure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-28

    Patriot rocket requires adhesive attachment of the ceramic-dome to the Kevlar ring . Similarly, titanium components must be bonded to phenolic-based...R. Ludwig, R. Anustasi, and G. Charron , "Comparison of Adhesive Bond Thick- ness Measurements using Experimental and Numerical Ultrasonic NDE Systems...voids that are off of the centerline which are modeled as circular rings . If the emphasis of the analysis is on the wave interaction between layered

  5. Ultrasonic Scattering and NDE of Surface Breaking Cracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    TOKYO TORONTO Ultrasonic Scattering and NDE of Surface Breaking Cracks KHAIRY R. KHAIR and SUBHENDU K. DATTA Department of Mechanical Engineering and...surface) and us is the scattered field. The scattered displacement field in R,~ is represented by a surface integral ( Khair et al.. 1988), after dropping...clockwise direction. Expressions for G and Z S have been derived before ( Khair et al., 1988). 3177 The Interior Region R, This region is divided into

  6. Dry electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for NDE of bonded composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Mark J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper discusses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as an NDE approach to analyze bonds in joined composites for moisture and corrosion levels. Electrical circuit models are investigated and simulations are shown for metals, graphite epoxy and honeycomb composites as electrical circuit parameters change as functions of bond moisture content and corrosion state. Electrochemical impedance instrumentation is proposed using dry contact sensors to eliminate the traditional requirement of submerging test samples in an electrolytic solution.

  7. Proceedings: 20th Steam Generator NDE Workshop: Orlando, Florida, July 9-11, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    The 2001 workshop took place in Orlando, Florida, from July 9 to 11, 2001. It covered one full day and two half-days of presentations. Attendees included representatives from domestic and overseas nuclear utilities, NSSS vendors, NDE service and equipment organizations, research laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This annual workshop serves as a forum for NDE specialists to gather and discuss current steam generator NDE issues and means for their resolution.

  8. NDE for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter s thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using NDE methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating. The results of that study are briefly reviewed in this article as well. Additionally, a short discussion on the future role of simulation to aid in these studies is provided.

  9. Probability of detection models for eddy current NDE methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, S. N.

    1993-04-30

    The development of probability of detection (POD) models for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is motivated by a desire to quantify the variability introduced during the process of testing. Sources of variability involved in eddy current methods of NDE include those caused by variations in liftoff, material properties, probe canting angle, scan format, surface roughness and measurement noise. This thesis presents a comprehensive POD model for eddy current NDE. Eddy current methods of nondestructive testing are used widely in industry to inspect a variety of nonferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. The development of a comprehensive POD model is therefore of significant importance. The model incorporates several sources of variability characterized by a multivariate Gaussian distribution and employs finite element analysis to predict the signal distribution. The method of mixtures is then used for estimating optimal threshold values. The research demonstrates the use of a finite element model within a probabilistic framework to the spread in the measured signal for eddy current nondestructive methods. Using the signal distributions for various flaw sizes the POD curves for varying defect parameters have been computed. In contrast to experimental POD models, the cost of generating such curves is very low and complex defect shapes can be handled very easily. The results are also operator independent.

  10. Processing and Probability Analysis of Pulsed Terahertz NDE of Corrosion under Shuttle Tile Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Ely, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines data processing and probability analysis of pulsed terahertz NDE scans of corrosion defects under a Shuttle tile. Pulsed terahertz data collected from an aluminum plate with fabricated corrosion defects and covered with a Shuttle tile is presented. The corrosion defects imaged were fabricated by electrochemically etching areas of various diameter and depth in the plate. In this work, the aluminum plate echo signal is located in the terahertz time-of-flight data and a threshold is applied to produce a binary image of sample features. Feature location and area are examined and identified as corrosion through comparison with the known defect layout. The results are tabulated with hit, miss, or false call information for a probability of detection analysis that is used to identify an optimal processing threshold.

  11. The cognitive disorders examination (Codex) is a reliable 3-minute test for detection of dementia in the elderly (validation study on 323 subjects).

    PubMed

    Belmin, Joël; Pariel-Madjlessi, Sylvie; Surun, Philomène; Bentot, Caroline; Feteanu, Dorin; Lefebvre des Noettes, Véronique; Onen, Fannie; Drunat, Olivier; Trivalle, Christophe; Chassagne, Philippe; Golmard, Jean-Louis

    2007-09-01

    Dementia often remains undiagnosed until it has reached moderate or severe stages, thereby preventing patients and their families from obtaining optimal care. Tools that are easy to use in primary care might facilitate earlier detection of dementia. Develop and validate a very brief test for the detection of dementia. In the derivation study, we recorded educational level, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and subscores and results of a simplified clock-drawing test (sCDT) for consecutive patients attending a single memory clinic over a two-year period,. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. The independent variables related to dementia were determined by a multivariable logistic model (MLM) and used to develop a decision tree to predict this diagnosis. In the validation study, the decision tree was applied to consecutive patients of six memory clinics for whom status about dementia was previously determined with DSM-IV criteria. The decision tree, MLM, and MMSE were applied to detect dementia in these patients. The sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic tool were estimated and compared. Of 242 patients in the derivation study, the following independent variables were correlated with dementia: sex, sCDT, and two MMSE subscores - the 3-word recall test and spatial orientation. We used Bayesian statistics to develop a brief 2-step decision analysis tree (2-3 min.), which we named Codex (cognitive disorders examination). The validation study applied Codex to 323 patients. Sensitivity was 93% and specificity 85%. The corresponding values were 88% and 87% for the MLM, 94% and 67% or 91% and 70% for the MMSE, depending on the MMSE cutoff score. The sensitivity of Codex was significantly higher than that of MLM, and its specificity was significantly greater than that of MMSE. Codex is a simple, brief, and reliable test for detecting dementia and requires three minutes or less to administer. Its simplicity and brevity make it appropriate

  12. Toward automated interpretation of integrated information: Managing "big data" for NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Elizabeth; Lesthaeghe, Tyler; Holland, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Large scale automation of NDE processes is rapidly maturing, thanks to recent improvements in robotics and the rapid growth of computer power over the last twenty years. It is fairly straightforward to automate NDE data collection itself, but the process of NDE remains largely manual. We will discuss three threads of technological needs that must be addressed before we are able to perform automated NDE. Spatial context, the first thread, means that each NDE measurement taken is accompanied by metadata that locates the measurement with respect to the 3D physical geometry of the specimen. In this way, the geometry of the specimen acts as a database key. Data context, the second thread, means that we record why the data was taken and how it was measured in addition to the NDE data itself. We will present our software tool that helps users interact with data in context, Databrowse. Condition estimation, the third thread, is maintaining the best possible knowledge of the condition (serviceability, degradation, etc.) of an object or part. In the NDE context, we can prospectively use Bayes' Theorem to integrate the data from each new NDE measurement with prior knowledge. These tools, combined with robotic measurements and automated defect analysis, will provide the information needed to make high-level life predictions and focus NDE measurements where they are needed most.

  13. NDE for the 21st century: industry 4.0 requires NDE 4.0 (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, Norbert G.

    2017-04-01

    Industry 4.0 stands for the fourth industrial revolution that is ongoing at present. Industry 4.0 is a terminology preferred used in Europe to characterize the integration of production and communication technologies, the so called "smart factory". The first industrial revolution was the mechanization of work. The second was mass production and the assembly line. While the third revolution was the computer integrated manufacturing. Industry 4.0 encompasses the complete networking of all industrial areas. Lowering costs and efficient in-time production will be possible also for low numbers of very unique parts for example by additive manufacturing (3D printing). A significant aspect is also quality and maintainability of these sometimes unique structures and components. NDE has to follow these trends, not only by adapting NDE techniques to the new technologies, but also introducing the capability of cyber systems into the inspection and maintenance processes. The requirements and challenges for this new technological area will be discussed. Chances for applications of new technologies and systems for NDE will be demonstrated online.

  14. The assessment of vibration sense in the musculoskeletal examination: Moving towards a valid and reliable quantitative approach to vibration testing in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    O' Conaire, Eoin; Rushton, Alison; Wright, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Impairment of vibration sense is an early sign of nerve pathology. A range of devices can evaluate vibration sense, with moderate to excellent reliability demonstrated for the Somedic Vibrameter. However, devices are expensive and time-consuming for use in practice, and tuning forks are used but not supported by rigorous research. The aims of this study were to evaluate the inter-rater reliability and precision of a novel device to improve use of a tuning fork, and to evaluate its concurrent validity with the Vibrameter. Following a power calculation, a double-blinded, prospective, reliability and validity study recruited 19 healthy subjects who were tested by two physiotherapists using both instruments testing over the median nerve distribution. Inter-rater reliability was determined using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients, 2.1 (0.798 for the Vibrameter and 0.520 for the tuning fork), and precision using Bland Altman plots and Standard Error of Measurement (Vibrameter 0.289 μm, tuning fork 2.55 s). Concurrent validity using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation was 0.515-0.634. The Vibrameter results support previous reliability studies. The tuning fork and novel device demonstrated a strong correlation with the Vibrameter supporting concurrent validity; although it possesses moderate inter-rater reliability. Further research exploring reliability in pathological populations is now indicated.

  15. Comparison of experimental results with numerical simulations for pulsed thermographic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripragash, Letchuman; Sundaresan, Mannur

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines pulse thermographic nondestructive evaluation of flat bottom holes of isotropic materials. Different combinations of defect diameters and depths are considered. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) method is used to analyze these results. In addition, a new normalization procedure is used to remove the dependence of thermographic results on the material properties and instrumentation settings during these experiments. Hence the normalized results depend only on the geometry of the specimen and the defects. These thermographic NDE procedures were also simulated using finite element technique for a variety of defect configurations. The data obtained from numerical simulations were also processed using the normalization scheme. Excellent agreement was seen between the results obtained from experiments and numerical simulations. Therefore, the scheme is extended to introduce a correlation technique by which numerical simulations are used to quantify the defect parameters.

  16. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  17. Optimal matched filter design for ultrasonic NDE of coarse grain materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minghui; Hayward, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Coarse grain materials are widely used in a variety of key industrial sectors like energy, oil and gas, and aerospace due to their attractive properties. However, when these materials are inspected using ultrasound, the flaw echoes are usually contaminated by high-level, correlated grain noise originating from the material microstructures, which is time-invariant and demonstrates similar spectral characteristics as flaw signals. As a result, the reliable inspection of such materials is highly challenging. In this paper, we present a method for reliable ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of coarse grain materials using matched filters, where the filter is designed to approximate and match the unknown defect echoes, and a particle swarm optimization (PSO) paradigm is employed to search for the optimal parameters in the filter response with an objective to maximise the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experiments with a 128-element 5MHz transducer array on mild steel and INCONEL Alloy 617 samples are conducted, and the results confirm that the SNR of the images is improved by about 10-20 dB if the optimized matched filter is applied to all the A-scan waveforms prior to image formation. Furthermore, the matched filter can be implemented in real-time with low extra computational cost.

  18. Iowa State University's undergraduate minor, online graduate certificate and resource center in NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Nicola; Larson, Brian F.; Gray, Joseph N.

    2014-02-01

    Nondestructive evaluation is a `niche' subject that is not yet offered as an undergraduate or graduate major in the United States. The undergraduate minor in NDE offered within the College of Engineering at Iowa State University (ISU) provides a unique opportunity for undergraduate aspiring engineers to obtain a qualification in the multi-disciplinary subject of NDE. The minor requires 16 credits of course work within which a core course and laboratory in NDE are compulsory. The industrial sponsors of Iowa State's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, and others, strongly support the NDE minor and actively recruit students from this pool. Since 2007 the program has graduated 10 students per year and enrollment is rising. In 2011, ISU's College of Engineering established an online graduate certificate in NDE, accessible not only to campus-based students but also to practicing engineers via the web. The certificate teaches the fundamentals of three major NDE techniques; eddy-current, ultrasonic and X-ray methods. This paper describes the structure of these programs and plans for development of an online, coursework-only, Master of Engineering in NDE and thesis-based Master of Science degrees in NDE.

  19. Recent advancements in the electromechanical (E/M) impedance method for structural health monitoring and NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Rogers, Craig A.

    1998-07-01

    -mechanical impedance method is warranted. A further examination of the complex interaction between wave propagation, drive-point impedance, structural damage and electro-mechanical impedance of the piezo-electric wafer transducer is needed. Once these aspects are better understood, the E/M impedance method has the potential to become a widely used NDE technique with large applicability in diverse engineering fields (aerospace, automotive, infrastructure and biomedical implants).

  20. The Development of NDE Techniques for Large Cryogenic Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stan; Parker, Don

    2008-01-01

    Objectives of this project are: (1) Develop and demonstrate NDE techniques to evaluate the condition of large cryogenic Dewars (typically 50,000 to 900,000 gaL). (2) These tanks are used across NASA for launch pads, engine test stands, cryogenic wind tunnels and other facilities: they represent a major investment. (3) Issues addressed: (1) Insulation integrity of existing Dewars (powdered insulation under vacuum or sometimes ambient pressure (LO2), (2) Post fabrication insulation verification without full chill-down to avoid thermal cycling the tank (fatigue limitation of piping and compaction of Perlite).

  1. Graphics processing unit based computation for NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahas, C. A.; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2012-05-01

    Advances in parallel processing in recent years are helping to improve the cost of numerical simulation. Breakthroughs in Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) based computation now offer the prospect of further drastic improvements. The introduction of 'compute unified device architecture' (CUDA) by NVIDIA (the global technology company based in Santa Clara, California, USA) has made programming GPUs for general purpose computing accessible to the average programmer. Here we use CUDA to develop parallel finite difference schemes as applicable to two problems of interest to NDE community, namely heat diffusion and elastic wave propagation. The implementations are for two-dimensions. Performance improvement of the GPU implementation against serial CPU implementation is then discussed.

  2. Ultrasonic Phased-Array Characterization for NDE Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, John J.; Tennis, Richard F.; Pickens, Keith S.

    1995-01-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) recently fabricated and delivered the 100-channel Ultrasonic Phased-Array Testbed System (UPATS) for NASA's Langley Research Center. NASA prepared the specifications and provided the funding to develop UPATS in order to provide a tool for the improvement of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and characterization of materials. UPATS incorporates state-of-the-art phased-array concepts such as beam steering, focusing, apodization, and phase-sensitive detection which make it possible to develop more sophisticated testing methodologies. It also can be used to investigate fundamental ultrasonic propagation and detection phenomena such as refraction, diffraction, scattering, and beam broadening.

  3. Advances in Modeling Eddy-Current NDE of Ferromagnetic Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.

    2003-03-01

    We apply our proprietary volume-integral eddy-current code, VIC-3D©, to the solution of challenging NDE problems that involve ferromagnetic anomalies or workpieces. These include problems with "wear scars and permeable crusts" in steam-generator tubing, characterization of coatings with electrical and magnetic layers, and flaws in ferromagnetic workpieces. Validation of the code by the use of benchmark experiments will also be described. Finally, we will explain the development of the mathematical model in terms of volume-integral equations through the use of Amperian currents for magnetic effects.

  4. The work role functioning questionnaire 2.0 (Dutch version): examination of its reliability, validity and responsiveness in the general working population.

    PubMed

    Abma, Femke I; van der Klink, Jac J L; Bültmann, Ute

    2013-03-01

    The promotion of a sustainable, healthy and productive working life attracts more and more attention. Recently the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (WRFQ) has been cross-culturally translated and adapted to Dutch. This questionnaire aims to measure the health-related work functioning of workers with health problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability, validity (including five new items) and responsiveness of the WRFQ 2.0 in the working population. A longitudinal study was conducted among workers. The reliability (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error), validity (structural validity-factor analysis, construct validity by means of hypotheses testing) and responsiveness of the WRFQ 2.0 were evaluated. A total of N = 553 workers completed the survey. The final WRFQ 2.0 has four subscales and showed very good internal consistency, moderate test-retest reliability, good construct validity and moderate responsiveness in the working population. The WRFQ was able to distinguish between groups with different levels of mental health, physical health, fatigue and need for recovery. A moderate correlation was found between WRFQ and related constructs respectively work ability and work productivity. A weak relationship was found with general self-rated health, work engagement and work involvement. The WRFQ 2.0 is a reliable and valid instrument to measure health-related work functioning in the working population. Further validation in larger samples is recommended, especially for test-retest reliability, responsiveness and the questionnaire's ability to predict the future course of health-related work functioning.

  5. Predicting software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlewood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed look is given to software reliability techniques. A conceptual model of the failure process is examined, and some software reliability growth models are discussed. Problems for which no current solutions exist are addressed, emphasizing the very difficult problem of safety-critical systems for which the reliability requirements can be enormously demanding.

  6. Can Physicians Identify Inappropriate Nuclear Stress Tests? An Examination of Inter-rater Reliability for the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for Radionuclide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siqin; Rabbani, LeRoy E.; Kelly, Christopher R.; Kelly, Maureen R.; Lewis, Matthew; Paz, Yehuda; Peck, Clara L.; Rao, Shaline; Bokhari, Sabahat; Weiner, Shepard D.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine inter-rater reliability of the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for radionuclide imaging (RNI) and whether physicians at various levels of training can effectively identify nuclear stress tests with inappropriate indications. Methods and Results Four hundred patients were randomly selected from a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing nuclear stress testing at an academic medical center. Raters with different levels of training (including cardiology attending physicians, cardiology fellows, internal medicine hospitalists, and internal medicine interns) classified individual nuclear stress tests using the 2009 AUC. Consensus classification by two cardiologists was considered the operational gold standard, and sensitivity and specificity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests was calculated. Inter-rater reliability of the AUC was assessed using Cohen’s kappa statistics for pairs of different raters. The mean age of patients was 61.5 years; 214 (54%) were female. The cardiologists rated 256 (64%) of 400 NSTs as appropriate, 68 (18%) as uncertain, 55 (14%) as inappropriate; 21 (5%) tests were unable to be classified. Inter-rater reliability for non-cardiologist raters was modest (unweighted Cohen’s kappa, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.55). Sensitivity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests ranged from 47% to 82%, while specificity ranged from 85% to 97%. Conclusions Inter-rater reliability for the 2009 AUC for RNI is modest, and there is considerable variation in the ability of raters at different levels of training to identify inappropriate tests. PMID:25563660

  7. Can physicians identify inappropriate nuclear stress tests? An examination of inter-rater reliability for the 2009 appropriate use criteria for radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Siqin; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Kelly, Christopher R; Kelly, Maureen R; Lewis, Matthew; Paz, Yehuda; Peck, Clara L; Rao, Shaline; Bokhari, Sabahat; Weiner, Shepard D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine inter-rater reliability of the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for radionuclide imaging and whether physicians at various levels of training can effectively identify nuclear stress tests with inappropriate indications. Four hundred patients were randomly selected from a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing nuclear stress testing at an academic medical center. Raters with different levels of training (including cardiology attending physicians, cardiology fellows, internal medicine hospitalists, and internal medicine interns) classified individual nuclear stress tests using the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria. Consensus classification by 2 cardiologists was considered the operational gold standard, and sensitivity and specificity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests were calculated. Inter-rater reliability of the Appropriate Use Criteria was assessed using Cohen κ statistics for pairs of different raters. The mean age of patients was 61.5 years; 214 (54%) were female. The cardiologists rated 256 (64%) of 400 nuclear stress tests as appropriate, 68 (18%) as uncertain, 55 (14%) as inappropriate; 21 (5%) tests were unable to be classified. Inter-rater reliability for noncardiologist raters was modest (unweighted Cohen κ, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.55). Sensitivity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests ranged from 47% to 82%, while specificity ranged from 85% to 97%. Inter-rater reliability for the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for radionuclide imaging is modest, and there is considerable variation in the ability of raters at different levels of training to identify inappropriate tests. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 1. Technical Report #1216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Park, Jasmine, Bitnara; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest/and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easy CBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due…

  9. Normal conducting transfer coil for SQUID NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Tadayuki; Itozaki, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    We have investigated the performance of a normal conducting transfer coil (n-coil) for nondestructive evaluation with a SQUID. The transfer efficiency, which depends on frequency and wire impedance, has been calculated for several coil designs to determine the performance of the n-coil. We have fabricated a 30 mm diameter n-coil and examined its performance with a high-TC SQUID. If both the pick-up coil and the input coil have 50 turns, then at high frequencies the magnetic field produced by the input coil becomes 50% of the magnetic field at the pick-up coil, with a low cut-off frequency of 2 kHz. The experimental result agrees well with a numerical calculation, which suggests a magnitude of magnetic field detected by our SQUID equal to the magnitude of the quasi-uniform magnetic field produced by the input coil. We also confirmed that the thermal noise of the n-coil, produced by its normal resistance, does not become higher than the intrinsic magnetic field noise of the SQUID.

  10. Piezoelectric paint sensor for ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with a distributed acoustic emission sensing method, which is especially suitable for piezoelectric paint. Piezoelectric paint is a composite piezoelectric material that is comprised of tiny piezoelectric particles randomly dispersed within a polymer matrix phase. An overview of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for defect monitoring is given in this paper. The use of piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic signal measurements is next discussed along with a series of ultrasonic tests performed to verify the ultrasonic sensing capability of piezoelectric paint. To examine the mechanism of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for crack initiation detection, the results of a finite element simulation based study is presented in this paper. The finite element model used in the parametric study is calibrated with experimental data. The effect of sensor numbers included in the array has been studied using both simulation and experimental data. Based on the preliminary results of this study, piezoelectric paint sensor appears to hold a potential for use in on-line monitoring of cracks such as those caused by fatigue in metal structures although more work is still needed before successful practical application can be made.

  11. Simulation of Phase Effects in Imaging for Mesoscale NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, Maurice B. III; Barty, Anton; Martz, Harry E. Jr.

    2005-04-09

    High energy density experiments, such as those planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), use mesoscale targets with the goals of studying high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, and the support of national security needs. Mesoscale targets are typically several millimeters in size and have complex micrometer-sized structures composed of high-density metals and low-density foams and ices. These targets are designed with exacting tolerances that are difficult to achieve at present. Deviation from these tolerances can result in compromise of experimental goals and thus it is necessary to determine as-built properties of these targets using NDE techniques. Radiography and computed tomography are being used to investigate these targets, but the mix between phase and absorption information is difficult to separate, making interpretation of results difficult. We have recently improved the HADES radiographic simulation code to include phase in simulations, as an aid for doing NDE on mesoscale targets. In this paper we report on how we extended HADES to incorporate phase effects, and compare simulations with a variety of experimental test results.

  12. Study Methods to Characterize and Implement Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    1998-01-01

    The limits and conditions under which an infrared thermographic nondestructive evaluation can be utilized to assess the quality of aerospace hardware is demonstrated in this research effort. The primary focus of this work is on applying thermography to the inspection of advanced composite structures such as would be found in the International Space Station Instrumentation Racks, Space Shuttle Cargo Bay Doors, Bantam RP-1 tank or RSRM Nose Cone. Here, the detection of delamination, disbond, inclusion and porosity type defects are of primary interest. In addition to composites, an extensive research effort has been initiated to determine how well a thermographic evaluation can detect leaks and disbonds in pressurized metallic systems "i.e. the Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzles". In either case, research into developing practical inspection procedures was conducted and thermographic inspections were performed on a myriad of test samples, subscale demonstration articles and "simulated" flight hardware. All test samples were fabricated as close to their respective structural counterparts as possible except with intentional defects for NDE qualification. As an added benefit of this effort to create simulated defects, methods were devised for defect fabrication that may be useful in future NDE qualification ventures.

  13. Advanced reflector characterization with ultrasonic phased arrays in NDE applications.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Paul D; Holmes, Caroline; Drinkwater, Bruce W

    2007-08-01

    Ultrasonic arrays are increasingly widely used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their greater flexibility and potentially superior performance compared to conventional monolithic probes. The characterization of small defects remains a challenge for NDE and is of great importance for determining the impact of a defect on the integrity of a structure. In this paper, a technique for characterizing reflectors with subwavelength dimensions is described. This is achieved by post-processing the complete data set of time traces obtained from an ultrasonic array using two algorithms. The first algorithm is used to obtain information about reflector orientation and the second algorithm is used to distinguish between point-like reflectors that reflect uniformly in all directions and specular reflectors that have distinct orientations. Experimental results are presented using a commercial 64-element, 5-MHZ array on two aluminum test specimens that contain a number of machined slots and side-drilled holes. The results show that the orientation of 1-mm-long slots can be determined to within a few degrees and that the signals from 1-mm-long slots can be distinguished from that from a 1-mm-diameter circular hole. Techniques for quantifying both the orientation and the specularity of measured signals are presented and the effect of processing parameters on the accuracy of results is discussed.

  14. FROM NDE WITH A Q TO SHM AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect

    Achenbach, J. D.

    2009-03-03

    In the nineteen-sixties, a significant limitation of NDI and NDE became apparent with the advent of fracture mechanics. Fracture mechanics requires quantitative information on defects, which has to be obtained from quantitative non-destructive testing. A DARPA Program directed by Don Thompson provided the point of departure for the journey to put the Q with NDE. The DARPA Program, and subsequent DOD, FAA and industrial programs produced seminal results for diagnostics and prognostics. In diagnostics, measurement models, probability of detection considerations and techniques of defect characterization were developed, which were complemented by damage evolution laws, probabilistic failure analysis and damage progression estimates, for methods of prognostication. The new results in QNDE naturally led to the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM), whereby sensors are permanently installed on structures. An SHM system can provide on-demand (or continuous) information on the state of a structure, so that an assessment of the structural integrity can be made at any time, and timely remedial actions can be taken. In this paper, we review the development of QNDE towards SHM. Sensor development, data processing, materials engineering and solid mechanics play dominant roles in both the diagnostic and the prognostic components of SHM. A probabilistic approach is essential, as will be shown by examples of pre-crack fatigue damage, crack growth and optimization of an inspection schedule.

  15. NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2007-03-21

    Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown.

  16. Simulation of Phase Effects in Imaging for Mesoscale NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, III, M B; Barty, A; Martz, Jr., H E

    2004-08-26

    High energy density experiments, such as those planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), use mesoscale targets with the goals of studying high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, and the support of national security needs. Mesoscale targets are typically several millimeters in size and have complex micrometer-sized structures composed of high-density metals and low-density foams and ices. These targets are designed with exacting tolerances that are difficult to achieve at present. Deviation from these tolerances can result in compromise of experimental goals and thus it is necessary to determine as-built properties of these targets using NDE techniques. Radiography and computed tomography are being used to investigate these targets, but the mix between phase and absorption information is difficult to separate, making interpretation of results difficult. We have recently improved the HADES radiographic simulation code to include phase in simulations, as an aid for doing NDE on mesoscale targets. In this paper we report on how we extended HADES to incorporate phase effects, and compare simulations with a variety of experimental test results.

  17. Microstructural characterization of ferromagnetic materials using magnetic NDE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, R.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic NDE techniques, namely, the acoustic Barkhausen noise, the magnetic Barkhausen noise, and the magnetic hysteresis curves were simultaneously used for microstructural characterization of nickel and steels. Results showed that, in nickel, the non-180/sup 0/ domain walls interact more strongly with dislocations than the 180/sup 0/ domain walls. A study of the grain-size effect on the magnetic and acoustic Barkhausen noises showed a great potential as a NDE grain-size-measurement tool. Moreover, the Barkhausen signals indicate that the 180/sup 0/ domain walls in nickel seem to have a stronger interaction with grain boundaries than the non-180/sup 0/ domain walls, as indicated by the acoustic Barkhausen signal. Based on the experimental observations, a theoretical model is being proposed to explain the grain size effect on the Barkhausen signals. The model takes into account the density of magnetic domain walls and their initial velocity, with both quantities being strongly dependent on microstructure. The acoustic and magnetic Barkhausen noises were also found to be very sensitive to the change in carbide morphology. It is proposed that the magnetic Barkhausen peak signal is caused by mainly domain nucleation and the acoustic Barkhausen peak signal due to domain growth.

  18. Microstructural characterization of ferromagnetic materials using magnetic NDE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, R.

    1987-06-01

    Magnetic NDE techniques, namely, the acoustic Barkhausen noise, the magnetic Barkhausen noise and the magnetic hysteresis curves, were simultaneously used for microstructural characterization of nickel and steels. Results showed that, in nickel, the non-180/sup 0/ domain walls interact more strongly with dislocations than the 180/sup 0/ domain walls. A study of the grain size effect on the magnetic and acoustic Barkhausen noises showed a great potential as a NDE grain size measurement tool. Moreover, the Barkhausen signals indicate that the 180/sup 0/ domain walls in nickel seem to have a stronger interaction with grain boundaries than the non-180/sup 0/ domain walls, as indicated by the acoustic Barkhausen signal. A theoretical model is being proposed to explain the grain size effect on the Barkhausen signals. The model takes into account the density of magnetic domain walls and their initial velocity, with both quantities being strongly dependent on microstructure. The acoustic and magnetic Barkhausen noises were also found to be very sensitive to the change in carbide morphology. It is proposed that the magnetic Barkhausen peak signal is caused by mainly domain nucleation and the acoustic Barkhausen peak signal due to domain growth.

  19. On-Line NDE for Advanced Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Inanc, F.; Thompson, R. B.; Junker, W. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Beatty, J. M.; Arlia, N. G.

    2003-03-01

    This expository paper introduces the concept of on-line sensor methodologies for monitoring the integrity of components in next generation power systems, and explains general benefits of the approach, while describing early conceptual developments of suitable NDE methodologies. The paper first explains the philosophy behind this approach (i.e. the design-for-inspectability concept). Specifically, we describe where and how decades of accumulated knowledge and experience in nuclear power system maintenance are utilized in Generation IV power system designs, as the designs are being actively developed, in order to advance their safety and economy. Second, we explain that Generation IV reactor design features call for the replacement of the current outage-based maintenance by on-line inspection and monitoring. Third, the model-based approach toward design and performance optimization of on-line sensor systems, using electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and radiation detectors, will be explained. Fourth, general types of NDE inspections that are considered amenable to on-line health monitoring will be listed. Fifth, we will describe specific modeling developments to be used for radiography, EMAT UT, and EC detector design studies.

  20. Correlation Between NDE Measurements and Elongation of Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Margetan, Frank J.; Nakagawa, Norio; Haldipur, Pranaam

    2007-03-21

    Complex aluminum forgings can have engineering properties which vary with position due to changes in the underlying local metal microstructure. Consequently, the material properties may be in compliance with production requirements in some regions of the forging, but out of compliance in others. One conical Al-7050 forging of interest was found to have elongation properties which failed required tests in certain regions. NDE measurements sensitive to microstructural changes were carried out to search for correlations with elongation properties. The results of a set of initial feasibility experiments will be reported. Both ultrasonic and eddy current NDE methods were used, with the goal being to determine which properties were sensitive to the elongation. Ultrasonic testing included the measurement of longitudinal and shear-wave velocity, longitudinal wave attenuation, and longitudinal and shear-wave backscattered grain noise. All tests were performed with the sonic beam entering through the coupon face that would be adjacent to the outer surface of the forging. Only modest differences in wave speed and attenuation values were seen among the suite of coupons, but significant differences were seen in backscattered noise levels. These appeared to indicate changes in grain structure but only exhibited partial correlation with elongation. The eddy current measurements were designed to be sensitive to the electrical resistivity. Included were a number of measurement configurations and frequencies. The signals exhibited a significant correlation with elongation.

  1. Correlation Between NDE Measurements and Elongation of Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Margetan, Frank J.; Nakagawa, Norio; Haldipur, Pranaam

    2007-03-01

    Complex aluminum forgings can have engineering properties which vary with position due to changes in the underlying local metal microstructure. Consequently, the material properties may be in compliance with production requirements in some regions of the forging, but out of compliance in others. One conical Al-7050 forging of interest was found to have elongation properties which failed required tests in certain regions. NDE measurements sensitive to microstructural changes were carried out to search for correlations with elongation properties. The results of a set of initial feasibility experiments will be reported. Both ultrasonic and eddy current NDE methods were used, with the goal being to determine which properties were sensitive to the elongation. Ultrasonic testing included the measurement of longitudinal and shear-wave velocity, longitudinal wave attenuation, and longitudinal and shear-wave backscattered grain noise. All tests were performed with the sonic beam entering through the coupon face that would be adjacent to the outer surface of the forging. Only modest differences in wave speed and attenuation values were seen among the suite of coupons, but significant differences were seen in backscattered noise levels. These appeared to indicate changes in grain structure but only exhibited partial correlation with elongation. The eddy current measurements were designed to be sensitive to the electrical resistivity. Included were a number of measurement configurations and frequencies. The signals exhibited a significant correlation with elongation.

  2. NDE of Friction Stir Welds in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.; Aldahir, Esma

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process, which utilizes a cylindrical, shouldered pin tool with a radiused tip that is rotated and plunged into the weld joint. Frictional heating beneath the shoulder, and surrounding the pin tip causes the material to plasticize, intermix and consolidate into a weldment without melting the parent material. FSW in aluminum alloys has many advantages such as low distortion and shrinkage, excellent mechanical properties, and no porosity. However, the propensity of the FSW process to create detrimental defects does exist, and is dependent on FSW parameter limits and controls. Inspection processes for FSW must also be selected and implemented concurrent with the new weld process. This paper describes the efforts by Lockheed Martin and NASA to find proper NDE techniques for detecting and characterizing the anomalies that may be caused by operating outside the envelope of optimized FSW parameters. Potential defects are identified and the results of the exploration of numerous NDE techniques including visual, liquid penetrant, multiple ultrasonic methods, eddy current and conductivity are discussed.

  3. Computational NDE as an integrated component of ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackshire, James L.; Pilchak, Adam

    2015-03-01

    A current area of intense research involves the development and use of integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches, which promise to develop next-generation material systems with significant cost and time savings. At its core, ICME synergistically combines material-centric models related to materials development, processing, manufacturing, and property/performance assessment, where key material property information is shared between the various models to enhance process and product outcomes. The integration of computational NDE models within the ICME framework represents an additional opportunity to advance material science and engineering processes through the development of advanced material state awareness (MSA) sensing methods. In particular, nondestructive sensing methods are needed for ICME model and process validation at all stages of the material development process. Several examples of this are presented, which show model-driven sensing for in-process monitoring, microstructure quality assurance, and damage state sensing in a dynamic loading environment. The results illustrate opportunities, challenges, and key linking opportunities for NDE and MSA within the ICME framework.

  4. NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2007-03-01

    Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown.

  5. Bond strength evaluation in adhesive joints using NDE and DIC methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Anish

    Adhesive bonding of graphite epoxy composite laminates to itself or traditional metal alloys in modern aerospace and aircraft structural applications offers an excellent opportunity to use the most efficient and intelligent combination of materials available thus providing an attractive package for efficient structural designs. However, one of the major issues of adhesive bonding is the occasional formation of interfacial defects such as kissing or weak bonds in the bondline interface. Also, there are shortcomings of existing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to non-destructively detect/characterize these interfacial defects and reliably predicting the bond shear strength. As a result, adhesive bonding technology is still not solely implemented in primary structures of an aircraft. Therefore, there is a greater demand for a novel NDE tool that can meet the existing aerospace requirement for adhesive bondline characterization. This research implemented a novel Acoustography ultrasonic imaging and digital image correlation (DIC) technique to detect and characterize interfacial defects in the bondline and determine bond shear strength in adhesively bonded composite-metal joints. Adhesively bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate and 2024-T3 Aluminum single lap shear panels subjected to various implanted kissing/weak bond defects were the primary focus of this study. Kissing/weak bonds were prepared by controlled surface contamination in the composite bonding surface and also by improperly mixing the adhesive constituent. SEM analyses were also conducted to understand the surface morphology of substrates and their interaction with the contaminants. Morphological changes were observed in the microscopic scale and the chemical analysis confirmed the stability of the contaminant at or very close to the interface. In addition, it was also demonstrated that contaminants migrated during the curing of the adhesive from CFRP substrate which caused a

  6. VLSI reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Sabnis, A.G. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents major topics in IC reliability from basic concepts to packaging issues. Other topics covered include failure analysis techniques, radiation effects, and reliability assurance and qualification. This book offers insight into the practical aspects of VLSI reliability.

  7. Three-dimensional NDE of VHTR core components via simulation-based testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guzina, Bojan; Kunerth, Dennis

    2014-09-30

    A next generation, simulation-driven-and-enabled testing platform is developed for the 3D detection and characterization of defects and damage in nuclear graphite and composite structures in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs). The proposed work addresses the critical need for the development of high-fidelity Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) technologies for as-manufactured and replaceable in-service VHTR components. Centered around the novel use of elastic (sonic and ultrasonic) waves, this project deploys a robust, non-iterative inverse solution for the 3D defect reconstruction together with a non-contact, laser-based approach to the measurement of experimental waveforms in VHTR core components. In particular, this research (1) deploys three-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (3D SLDV) as a means to accurately and remotely measure 3D displacement waveforms over the accessible surface of a VHTR core component excited by mechanical vibratory source; (2) implements a powerful new inverse technique, based on the concept of Topological Sensitivity (TS), for non-iterative elastic waveform tomography of internal defects - that permits robust 3D detection, reconstruction and characterization of discrete damage (e.g. holes and fractures) in nuclear graphite from limited-aperture NDE measurements; (3) implements state-of-the art computational (finite element) model that caters for accurately simulating elastic wave propagation in 3D blocks of nuclear graphite; (4) integrates the SLDV testing methodology with the TS imaging algorithm into a non-contact, high-fidelity NDE platform for the 3D reconstruction and characterization of defects and damage in VHTR core components; and (5) applies the proposed methodology to VHTR core component samples (both two- and three-dimensional) with a priori induced, discrete damage in the form of holes and fractures. Overall, the newly established SLDV-TS testing platform represents a next-generation NDE tool that surpasses

  8. Improving the reliability of automated non-destructive inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, Nick; Tippetts, Trevor; Cawley, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Advances in NDE technology have led to more automation in data acquisition, and hence an increase in the volume of data collected. The data analysis remains a mostly manual task, performed by a skilled operator. Partial automation, using software to prioritise regions of interest, could simultaneously increase inspection reliability and decrease data analysis time, by optimising the use of the operator's time. This paper outlines the work completed to date in the development of such analysis software.

  9. Examining Reliability and Validity of an Online Score (ALiEM AIR) for Rating Free Open Access Medical Education Resources.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa Man-Yee; Grock, Andrew; Paddock, Michael; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Yarris, Lalena M; Lin, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Since 2014, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) has used the Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) score to critically appraise online content. The primary goals of this study are to determine the interrater reliability (IRR) of the ALiEM AIR rating score and determine its correlation with expert educator gestalt. We also determine the minimum number of educator-raters needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Eight educators each rated 83 online educational posts with the ALiEM AIR scale. Items include accuracy, usage of evidence-based medicine, referencing, utility, and the Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine rating score. A generalizability study was conducted to determine IRR and rating variance contributions of facets such as rater, blogs, posts, and topic. A randomized selection of 40 blog posts previously rated through ALiEM AIR was then rated again by a blinded group of expert medical educators according to their gestalt. Their gestalt impression was subsequently correlated with the ALiEM AIR score. The IRR for the ALiEM AIR rating scale was 0.81 during the 6-month pilot period. Decision studies showed that at least 9 raters were required to achieve this reliability. Spearman correlations between mean AIR score and the mean expert gestalt ratings were 0.40 for recommendation for learners and 0.35 for their colleagues. The ALiEM AIR scale is a moderately to highly reliable, 5-question tool when used by medical educators for rating online resources. The score displays a fair correlation with expert educator gestalt in regard to the quality of the resources. The score displays a fair correlation with educator gestalt. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Passage Reading Fluency Assessments: Grade 4. Technical Report #1219

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  11. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 5. Technical Report #1220

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  12. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Reading Assessments: Grade 2. Technical Report #1217

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheg-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest an alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from the convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest. Due to…

  13. Overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance sponsors an Agency-wide NDE Program that supports Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology, Human Exploration and Development of Space, Earth Science, and Space Science Enterprises. For each of these Enterprises, safety is the number one priority. Development of the next generation aero-space launch and transportation vehicles, satellites, and deep space probes have highlighted the enabling role that NDE plays in these advanced technology systems. Specific areas of advanced component development, component integrity, and structural heath management are critically supported by NDE technologies. The simultaneous goals of assuring safety, maintaining overall operational efficiency, and developing and utilizing revolutionary technologies to expand human activity and space-based commerce in the frontiers of air and space places increasing demands on the Agencies NDE infrastructure and resources. In this presentation, an overview of NASA's NDE Program will be presented, that includes a background and status of current Enterprise NDE issues, and the NDE investment areas being developed to meet Enterprise safety and mission assurance needs through the year 2009 and beyond.

  14. nde1 deletion improves mitochondrial DNA maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae coenzyme Q mutants.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernando; Tahara, Erich B; Busso, Cleverson; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Barros, Mario H

    2013-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has three distinct inner mitochondrial membrane NADH dehydrogenases mediating the transfer of electrons from NADH to CoQ (coenzyme Q): Nde1p, Nde2p and Ndi1p. The active site of Ndi1p faces the matrix side, whereas the enzymatic activities of Nde1p and Nde2p are restricted to the intermembrane space side, where they are responsible for cytosolic NADH oxidation. In the present study we genetically manipulated yeast strains in order to alter the redox state of CoQ and NADH dehydrogenases to evaluate the consequences on mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) maintenance. Interestingly, nde1 deletion was protective for mtDNA in strains defective in CoQ function. Additionally, the absence of functional Nde1p promoted a decrease in the rate of H2O2 release in isolated mitochondria from different yeast strains. On the other hand, overexpression of the predominant NADH dehydrogenase NDE1 elevated the rate of mtDNA loss and was toxic to coq10 and coq4 mutants. Increased CoQ synthesis through COQ8 overexpression also demonstrated that there is a correlation between CoQ respiratory function and mtDNA loss: supraphysiological CoQ levels were protective against mtDNA loss in the presence of oxidative imbalance generated by Nde1p excess or exogenous H2O2. Altogether, our results indicate that impairment in the oxidation of cytosolic NADH by Nde1p is deleterious towards mitochondrial biogenesis due to an increase in reactive oxygen species release.

  15. NDE of copper canisters for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2003-07-01

    Sweden has been intensively developing methods for long term storage of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants for twenty-five years. A dedicated research program has been initiated and conducted by the Swedish company SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuels and Waste Management Co.). After the interim storage SKB plans to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel in copper canisters that will be placed at a deep repository located in bedrock. The canisters filled with fuel rods will be sealed by an electron beam weld. This paper presents three complementary NDE techniques used for assessing the sealing weld in copper canisters, radiography, ultrasound, and eddy current. A powerful X-ray source and a digital detector are used for the radiography. An ultrasonic array system consisting of a phased ultrasonic array and a multi-channel electronics is used for the ultrasonic examination. The array system enables electronic focusing and rapid electronic scanning eliminating the use of a complicated mechanical scanner. A specially designed eddy current probe capable of detecting small voids at the depth up to 4 mm in copper is used for the eddy current inspection. Presently, all the NDE techniques are verified in SKB's Canister Laboratory where full scale canisters are welded and examined.

  16. Ensemble of classifiers for confidence-rated classification of NDE signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Portia; Safdarnejad, Seyed; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-02-01

    Ensemble of classifiers in general, aims to improve classification accuracy by combining results from multiple weak hypotheses into a single strong classifier through weighted majority voting. Improved versions of ensemble of classifiers generate self-rated confidence scores which estimate the reliability of each of its prediction and boost the classifier using these confidence-rated predictions. However, such a confidence metric is based only on the rate of correct classification. In existing works, although ensemble of classifiers has been widely used in computational intelligence, the effect of all factors of unreliability on the confidence of classification is highly overlooked. With relevance to NDE, classification results are affected by inherent ambiguity of classifica-tion, non-discriminative features, inadequate training samples and noise due to measurement. In this paper, we extend the existing ensemble classification by maximizing confidence of every classification decision in addition to minimizing the classification error. Initial results of the approach on data from eddy current inspection show improvement in classification performance of defect and non-defect indications.

  17. Development of a nonlinear ultrasonic NDE technique for detection of kissing bonds in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alston, Jonathan; Croxford, Anthony; Potter, Jack; Blanloeuil, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The development of low-cost bonded assembly of composite aerospace structures ideally requires an NDE method to detect the presence of poor quality, weak bonds or kissing bonds. Such interfaces can introduce nonlinearity as a result of contact nonlinearity where an ultrasonic wave is distorted when it interacts with the interface. In general, the nonlinear elastic behaviour of these interfaces will generate harmonics but they can be lost among the harmonics generated by other nonlinearities present in the experimental system. The technique developed in this research is a non-collinear method; this involves the interaction of two ultrasonic beams, and it allows the removal of virtually all system nonlinearity except for that produced in the region where the two beams overlap. The frequencies of the two beams and the angle between are varied during the experiment. By measuring the nonlinear mixing response as these two parameters are swept through a `fingerprint' of the nonlinear properties in the interaction region can be obtained. This fingerprint has been shown to contain information about the bulk material and the interface status. Work is ongoing to understand which features in the fingerprints reliably correlate with particular material or interface properties. To build this understanding a greatly simplified kissing bond, a compression loaded aluminium-aluminium interface, has been tested. Modelling of the nonlinear behaviour of the aluminium interface has also been conducted.

  18. Extending the use of the Web-based HIV Testing Belief Inventory to students attending historically Black colleges and universities: an examination of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Su-I

    2009-02-01

    This study sought to extend the use of a Web-based HIV Testing Belief Inventory (wHITBI), developed and validated in a majority White university in the southeastern United States, to students attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). The 19-item wHITBI was reviewed by experts to qualitatively assess its construct validity, clarity, relevancy, and comprehensiveness to HBCU students. Participants were recruited from 15 HBCUs (valid N = 372). Mean age was 20.5 years (SD = 2.4), 80% were females, 92% were heterosexual-oriented, and 58% had prior HIV test(s). Reliability coefficients revealed satisfactory internal consistencies (Cronbach's alphas: .58 approximately .85). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that items were loaded consistently with the four constructs: perceived benefits, concerns of HIV risk, stigma, and testing availability/accessibility. Data indicated good model fits (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .93; IFI = .93; RMS = .07), with all items loaded significantly. Findings showed that the psychometrics of wHITBI appears to maintain its integrity in this sample with satisfactory reliability coefficients and validities.

  19. Advanced NDE research in electromagnetic, thermal, and coherent optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1992-09-01

    A new inspection technology called magneto-optic/eddy current imaging was investigated. The magneto-optic imager makes readily visible irregularities and inconsistencies in airframe components. Other research observed in electromagnetics included (1) disbond detection via resonant modal analysis; (2) AC magnetic field frequency dependence of magnetoacoustic emission; and (3) multi-view magneto-optic imaging. Research observed in the thermal group included (1) thermographic detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft aluminum; (2) a multipurpose infrared imaging system for thermoelastic stress detection; (3) thermal diffusivity imaging of stress induced damage in composites; and (4) detection and measurement of ice formation on the space shuttle main fuel tank. Research observed in the optics group included advancements in optical nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  20. HEXAGONAL ARRAY STRUCTURE FOR 2D NDE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewierz, J.; Ramadas, S. N.; Gachagan, A.; O'Leary, R. L.

    2010-02-22

    This paper describes a combination of simulation and experimentation to evaluate the advantages offered by utilizing a hexagonal shaped array element in a 2D NDE array structure. The active material is a 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric composite structure incorporating triangular shaped pillars--each hexagonal array element comprising six triangular pillars. A combination of PZFlex, COMSOL and Matlab has been used to simulate the behavior of this device microstructure, for operation around 2.25 MHz, with unimodal behavior and low levels of mechanical cross-coupling predicted. Furthermore, the application of hexagonal array elements enables the array aperture to increase by approximately 30%, compared to a conventional orthogonal array matrix and hence will provide enhanced volumetric coverage and SNR. Prototype array configurations demonstrate good corroboration of the theoretically predicted mechanical cross-coupling between adjacent array elements (approx23 dB).

  1. Development of an IEC neutron source for NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A,; Hartwell, J.K.; Nadler, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    This paper concerns the development of a neutron so based on the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) of a low density fusion plasma in a gridded, spherically-focusing device. With the motivation of using such sources for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, the focus of the development is on : Small size devices, sealed operation with D{sub 2} or D{sub 2}/T{sub 2} mixtures, Power-utilization and neutron-output optimization, and integration into an assay system. In this paper, we describe an experimental system that has been established for the development and testing of IEC neutron sources, and we present preliminary results of tests conducted for 25-cm and 15-cm diameter IEC devices.

  2. Development of acoustography for NDE of aging structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Jaswinder S.; Wang, Honghui; Popek, Witold J.; Sincebaugh, Patrick J.

    2001-07-01

    Military and commercial aircraft structures are being fielded well beyond their designed life cycle, resulting in escalating maintenance costs. The principle driver behind these costs is the need to nondestructively interrogate large areas to detect and quantify anomalies such as corrosion, cracks, and delaminations. Manual ultrasonic techniques are routinely applied to inspect aircraft structures, but these techniques are time consuming, laborious, and are prone to errors such as operator fatigue and subjectivity. Automated ultrasonic systems require costly, complex scanning systems that are often difficult to adapt to complex shaped structures. Acoustography can provide full-field ultrasonic images in near real-time, making it a suitable method for high-speed, wide area inspection applications. This paper will report on progress being made toward developing acoustography for NDE of aging aircraft structures.

  3. Modeling of Terahertz Ray Signals for Nde Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Thompson, R. Bruce; Blackshire, James L.

    2008-02-01

    Recently, terahertz ray (T-ray) imaging has emerged as one of the most promising new techniques for NDE applications. This technique, however, is still in its early development, and requires further studies. This work explores the use of state-of-the-art computer modeling technologies to study T-ray radiation in media. A series of point source synthesis models have been developed, using both the classic Fresnel-Kirchhoff and the refined Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formulations. The flexibility of these models enables us to investigate T-ray propagation through interfaces of various geometry and morphology. That in turn allows us to simulate T-ray interaction with flaws and hence to predict the flaw responses. In this paper, we present preliminary results of simulating T-ray inspection of space shuttle's spray-on foam insulation structure. Included are comparisons with experimental data of drilled holes embedded in foam sample.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  5. Composite Flywheels Assessed Analytically by NDE and FEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    2000-01-01

    As an alternative to expensive and short-lived lead-acid batteries, composite flywheels are being developed to provide an uninterruptible power supply for advanced aerospace and industrial applications. Flywheels can help prevent irregularities in voltage caused by power spikes, sags, surges, burnout, and blackouts. Other applications include load-leveling systems for wind and solar power facilities, where energy output fluctuates with weather. Advanced composite materials are being considered for these components because they are significantly lighter than typical metallic alloys and have high specific strength and stiffness. However, much more research is needed before these materials can be fully utilized, because there is insufficient data concerning their fatigue characteristics and nonlinear behavior, especially at elevated temperatures. Moreover, these advanced types of structural composites pose greater challenges for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques than are encountered with typical monolithic engineering metals. This is particularly true for ceramic polymer and metal matrix composites, where structural properties are tailored during the processing stages. Current efforts involving the NDE group at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field are focused on evaluating many important structural components, including the flywheel system. Glenn's in-house analytical and experimental capabilities are being applied to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans to help assess the damage and defects of high-temperature structural composite materials. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to model the effects of static and dynamic loading on aerospace propulsion components. This technique allows the use of complicated loading schemes by breaking the complex part geometry into many smaller, geometrically simple elements.

  6. Considerations for ultrasonic testing application for on-orbit NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper addresses some on-orbit nondestructive evaluation (NDE) needs of NASA for International Space Station (ISS). The presentation gives NDE requirements for inspecting suspect damage due to micro-meteoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impact on the pressure wall of the ISS. This inspection is meant to be conducted from inside of the ISS module. The metallic wall of the module has a fixed wall thickness but also has integral orthogrid ribs for reinforcement. Typically, a single MMOD hit causes localized damage in a small area causing loss of material similar to pitting corrosion, but cracks may be present too. The impact may cause bulging of the wall. Results of the ultrasonic and eddy current demonstration scans on test samples are provided. The ultrasonic technique uses shear wave scans to interrogate the localized damage area from the surrounding undamaged area. The scanning protocol results in multiple scans, each with multiple "vee" paths. A superimposition and mosaic of the three-dimensional ultrasonic data from individual scans is desired to create C-scan images of the damage. This is a new data reduction process which is not currently implemented in state-of-art ultrasonic instruments. Results of ultrasonic scans on the simulated MMOD damage test plates are provided. The individual C-scans are superimposed manually creating mosaic of the inspection. The resulting image is compared with visibly detected damage boundaries, X-ray images, and localized ultrasonic and eddy current scans for locating crack tips to assess effectiveness of the ultrasonic scanning. The paper also discusses developments needed in improving ergonomics of the ultrasonic testing for on-orbit applications.

  7. Nondestructive examination technologies for inspection of radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Kunerth, D.C.; Davidson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of underground radioactive waste storage tank structural integrity poses a unique set of challenges. Radiation fields, limited access, personnel safety and internal structures are just some of the problems faced. To examine the internal surfaces a sensor suite must be deployed as an end effector on a robotic arm. The purpose of this report is to examine the potential failure modes of the tanks, rank the viability of various NDE technologies for internal surface evaluation, select a technology for initial EE implementation, and project future needs for NDE EE sensor suites.

  8. New International Program to Asses the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-01-25

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of the PARENT is to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks (PWSCC) and applying the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

  9. An Examination of the Reliability and Factor Structure of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) Among Individuals Living With Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Pardo, J; Holmes, J D; Jenkins, M E; Johnson, A M

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity is generally thought to be beneficial to individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). There is, however, limited information regarding current rates of physical activity among individuals with PD, possibly due to a lack of well-validated measurement tools. In the current study we sampled 63 individuals (31 women) living with PD between the ages of 52 and 87 (M = 70.97 years, SD = 7.53), and evaluated the amount of physical activity in which they engaged over a 7-day period using a modified form of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD was demonstrated to be a reliable measure within this population, with three theoretically defensible factors: (1) housework and home-based outdoor activities; (2) recreational and fitness activities; and (3) occupational activities. These results suggest that the PASIPD may be useful for monitoring physical activity involvement among individuals with PD, particularly within large-scale questionnaire-based studies.

  10. The Development of NDE TEchniques for Payload Fairings and Other Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Bartha, Bence; Hope, Dale; Carlson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The Objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate NDE techniques to assist in the fabrication and operational monitoring of expendable vehicle payload fairings and other composite structures.

  11. Composite Stress Rupture NDE Research and Development Project (Kevlar[R] and Carbon)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to develop and demonstrate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques capable of assessing stress rupture related strength degradation for carbon composite pressure vessels, either in a structural health monitoring (SHM) or periodic inspection mode.

  12. The Taste and Smell Protocol in the 2011-2014 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): Test-Retest Reliability and Validity Testing.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Honda, Mallory; Huedo-Medin, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2015-09-01

    The US NHANES 2011-2014 protocol includes a taste and smell questionnaire (CSQ) in home-based interviews and brief assessments in mobile exam centers. We report the short- and longer-term test-retest reliability and validity of this protocol against broader chemosensory measures. A convenience sample of 73 adults (age=39.5±20.8 years) underwent the NHANES protocol at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months. For taste, participants rated intensities of two tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine) applied to the tongue tip and three tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine, 0.32 M NaCl) sampled with the whole mouth. Smell function was assessed with a Pocket Smell Test™ (PST; eight-item odor identification test). The CSQ asked about chemosensory problems, distortions, and age-related changes. Broader baseline measurements were a 40-item olfactometer-generated identification task and additional whole-mouth taste intensities (1 M sucrose, 32 mM citric acid, 3.2 mM propylthiouracil). Intraclass correlations (ICCs) for NHANES taste measures showed moderate-to-good agreement after 2 weeks and 6 months (ICCs 0.42-0.71). Whole-mouth quinine intensity was significantly correlated with other taste intensities, supporting its utility as a marker for overall taste functioning. Olfactory classification from PSTs agreed for 98.5 % of participants across 2 weeks (κ=0.85; 95 % CI 0.71-0.99) and had good correspondence with the olfactometer task. CSQ items showed good-to-excellent agreement over 6 months (ICCs 0.66-0.90). These findings further support that the NHANES chemosensory protocol has moderate-to-good test-retest reliability when administered to healthy, educated adults. Despite being a brief procedure with limited measures, the NHANES taste and smell assessments provided good information when compared to broader measures of taste and smell function.

  13. NDE of a 3-D surface crack using closely coupled probes for DCPD technique

    SciTech Connect

    Saka, M.; Abe, H.; Hirota, D.; Komura, I.

    1998-11-01

    A procedure of applying the d-c potential drop technique using the closely coupled probes to NDE of a 3-D surface crack is newly developed. The calibration equation for three sensors which differ in the distance between the probes is derived. Experiments validated the use of the calibration equation for the NDE of cracks. The method to use the three sensors properly based on the measuring sensitivity is shown.

  14. Identification of NDE Methods for Inspection Multi-Layer Ceramic Composite Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    composite armor The NDE methods under evaluation include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through- transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging...results in very long data acquisition times as compare to phased array scans. 5. Air Coupled Ultrasonic methods The last NDE method...include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning microwaves, 4)-air

  15. The Taste and Smell Protocol in the 2011–2014 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): Test–Retest Reliability and Validity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Honda, Mallory; Huedo-Medin, Tania B.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The US NHANES 2011–2014 protocol includes a taste and smell questionnaire (CSQ) in home-based interviews and brief assessments in mobile exam centers. We report the short- and longer-term test–retest reliability and validity of this protocol against broader chemosensory measures. Methods A convenience sample of 73 adults (age=39.5±20.8 years) underwent the NHANES protocol at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months. For taste, participants rated intensities of two tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine) applied to the tongue tip and three tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine, 0.32 M NaCl) sampled with the whole mouth. Smell function was assessed with a Pocket Smell Test™ (PST; eight-item odor identification test). The CSQ asked about chemosensory problems, distortions, and age-related changes. Broader baseline measurements were a 40-item olfactometer-generated identification task and additional whole-mouth taste intensities (1 M sucrose, 32 mM citric acid, 3.2 mM propylthiouracil). Results Intraclass correlations (ICCs) for NHANES taste measures showed moderate-to-good agreement after 2 weeks and 6 months (ICCs 0.42–0.71). Whole-mouth quinine intensity was significantly correlated with other taste intensities, supporting its utility as a marker for overall taste functioning. Olfactory classification from PSTs agreed for 98.5 % of participants across 2 weeks (κ=0.85; 95 % CI 0.71–0.99) and had good correspondence with the olfactometer task. CSQ items showed good-to-excellent agreement over 6 months (ICCs 0.66–0.90). Conclusions These findings further support that the NHANES chemosensory protocol has moderate-to-good test–retest reliability when administered to healthy, educated adults. Despite being a brief procedure with limited measures, the NHANES taste and smell assessments provided good information when compared to broader measures of taste and smell function. PMID:27833669

  16. Validation of the French version of the yale food addiction scale: an examination of its factor structure, reliability, and construct validity in a nonclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Brunault, Paul; Ballon, Nicolas; Gaillard, Philippe; Réveillère, Christian; Courtois, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The concept of food addiction has recently been proposed by applying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for substance dependence to eating behaviour. Food addiction has received increased attention given that it may play a role in binge eating, eating disorders, and the recent increase in obesity prevalence. Currently, there is no psychometrically sound tool for assessing food addiction in French. Our study aimed to test the psychometric properties of a French version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) by establishing its factor structure and construct validity in a nonclinical population. A total of 553 participants were assessed for food addiction (French version of the YFAS) and binge eating behaviour (Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh and Binge Eating Scale). We tested the scale's factor structure (factor analysis for dichotomous data based on tetrachoric correlation coefficients), internal consistency, and construct validity with measures of binge eating. Our results supported a 1-factor structure, which accounted for 54.1% of the variance. This tool had adequate reliability and high construct validity with measures of binge eating in this population, both in its diagnosis and symptom count version. A 2-factor structure explained an additional 9.1% of the variance, and could differentiate between patients with high, compared with low, levels of insight regarding addiction symptoms. In our study, we validated a psychometrically sound French version of the YFAS, both in its symptom count and diagnostic version. Future studies should validate this tool in clinical samples.

  17. Using Generalizability Theory to Assess the Score Reliability of the Special Ability Selection Examinations for Music Education Programmes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atilgan, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    The "Special Ability Selection Examination" (SASE), which is used to select appropriate students for the music education departments of educational faculties in Turkey, has many subsections and must evaluate highly competitive cohorts of students according to a broad range of criteria. The test consists of three subsections, with a large…

  18. FAA center for aviation systems reliability: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1996-11-01

    The FAA Center for Aviation Systems Reliability has as its objectives: to develop quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for aircraft structures and materials, including prototype instrumentation, software, techniques and procedures; and to develop and maintain comprehensive education and training programs specific to the inspection of aviation structures. The program, which includes contributions from Iowa State University, Northwestern University, Wayne State University, Tuskegee University, AlliedSignal Propulsion Engines, General Electric Aircraft Engines and Pratt and Whitney, has been in existence since 1990. Efforts under way include: development of inspection for adhesively bonded structures; detection of corrosion; development of advanced NDE concepts that form the basis for an inspection simulator; improvements of titanium inspection as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium; development of education and training program. An overview of the efforts underway will be provided with focus on those technologies closest to technology transfer.

  19. How reliable are the effects of self-control training?: A re-examination using self-report and physical measures

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In light of recent challenges to the strength model of self-control, our study re-examines the effects of self-control training on established physical and self-report measures of self-control. We also examined whether beliefs about the malleability of self-control qualify any training effects. Participants in the training condition were assigned to increase use of their non-dominant hand for two weeks, and did comply mainly if they held high-malleability beliefs; yet, compared to a control condition, the physical measure of self-control did not improve. This was also evident in a secondary objective measure of self-control, a Stroop task, as well as in self-reported self-control. The discussion focuses on the lack of replication of training effects on self-control. PMID:28594933

  20. Detection of Core2 β-1,6-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase in Post-Digital Rectal Examination Urine Is a Reliable Indicator for Extracapsular Extension of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuta; Yoneyama, Tohru; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Mikami, Jotaro; Sato, Tendo; Mori, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara; Fukuda, Minoru; Tobisawa, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    To identify appropriate candidates for aggressive treatment such as radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy of localized prostate cancer (PCa), novel predictive biomarkers of PCa aggressiveness are essential. Core2 β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-1 (GCNT1) is a key enzyme that forms core 2-branched O-glycans. Its expression is associated with the progression of several cancers. We established a mouse IgG monoclonal antibody (mAb) against GCNT1 and examined the relationship of GCNT1 expression to the clinicopathological status of PCa. Paraffin-embedded PCa specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for GCNT1 expression using a newly established mouse anti-GCNT1 mAb by ourselves. GCNT1-positive tumor showed significantly higher Gleason score and larger tumor volume. The number of GCNT1-positive cases was significantly lower in cases of organ-confined disease than in cases of extracapsular extension. GCNT1-negative tumors were associated with significantly better prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-free survival compared with GCNT1-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis revealed that detection of GCNT1 expression was an independent risk factor for PSA recurrence. We established new methods for GCNT1 detection from PCa specimens. Immunoblotting was used to examine post-digital rectal examination (DRE) urine from PCa patients. Over 90% of GCNT1-positive PCa patients with high concentrations of PSA showed extracapsular extension. In conclusion, GCNT1 expression closely associates with the aggressive potential of PCa. Further research aims to develop GCNT1 detection in post-DRE urine as a marker for PCa aggressiveness.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with USA, points to an area of a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel just examined using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with USA, points to an area of a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel just examined using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), prepares equipment to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), prepares equipment to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance, sets up equipment to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance, sets up equipment to examine a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), examines a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Landy, NDE specialist with United Space Alliance (USA), examines a Reinforced Carbon Carbon panel using flash thermography. A relatively new procedure at KSC, thermography uses high intensity light to heat areas of the panels. The panels are then immediately scanned with an infrared camera. As the panels cool, any internal flaws are revealed. The gray carbon composite RCC panels are attached to the leading edge of the wing of the orbiters. They have sufficient strength to withstand the aerodynamic forces experienced during launch and reentry, which can reach as high as 800 pounds per square foot. The operating range of RCC is from minus 250º F to about 3,000º F, the temperature produced by friction with the atmosphere during reentry. The panels will be installed on the orbiter Discovery, designated for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114.

  5. A preliminary examination of the validity and reliability of a new brief rating scale for symptom domains of psychosis: Brief Evaluation of Psychosis Symptom Domains (BE-PSD).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Lee, Jimmy; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Brief assessments have the potential to be widely adopted as outcome measures in research but also routine clinical practice. Existing brief rating scales that assess symptoms of schizophrenia or psychosis have a number of limitations including inability to capture five symptom domains of psychosis and a lack of clearly defined operational anchor points for scoring. We developed a new brief rating scale for five symptom domains of psychosis with clearly defined operational anchor points - the Brief Evaluation of Psychosis Symptom Domains (BE-PSD). To examine the psychometric properties of the BE-PSD, fifty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were included in this preliminary cross-sectional study. To test the convergent and discriminant validity of the BE-PSD, correlational analyses were employed using the consensus Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) five-factor model. To examine the inter-rater reliability of the BE-PSD, single measures intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for 11 patients. The BE-PSD domain scores demonstrated high convergent validity with the corresponding PANSS factor score (rs = 0.81-0.93) as well as good discriminant validity, as evidenced by lower correlations with the other PANSS factors (rs = 0.23-0.62). The BE-PSD also demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability for each of the domain scores and the total scores (ICC(2,1) = 0.79-0.96). The present preliminary study found the BE-PSD measure to be valid and reliable; however, further studies are needed to establish the psychometric properties of the BE-PSD because of the limitations such as the small sample size and lacking data on test-retest reliability or sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of two screening tests in Alzheimer's disease. The correlation and reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the modified Blessed test.

    PubMed

    Fillenbaum, G G; Heyman, A; Wilkinson, W E; Haynes, C S

    1987-09-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test (BOMC), a six-item derivative of the Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test, were each administered to 36 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. In 24 patients, both tests were readministered a month later. The correlation between the MMSE and BOMC was -0.83 with a test-retest correlation of 0.89 (MMSE) and 0.77 (BOMC). Factor analysis indicated that the multiple MMSE cognitive components could be explained by two factors, which together accounted for 66% of the variance. These factors are conceptually similar to the components of the BOMC, and so may explain the substantial correlation between the two tests. Since these cognitive status tests seem to be equivalent for Alzheimer patients, the briefer measure (BOMC), which offers additional advantages, may be preferred.

  7. Reliability and validity of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey (CAPANS-C) questionnaire examining potential correlates of physical activity participation among Chinese-Australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, few questionnaires examining psychosocial influences of physical activity (PA) participation have been psychometrically tested among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) youth. An understanding of these influences may help explain the observed differences in PA among CALD youth. Therefore, this study examined the reliability and predictive validity of a brief self-report questionnaire examining potential psychological and social correlates of physical activity among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods Two Chinese-weekend cultural schools from eastern metropolitan Melbourne consented to participate in this study. In total, 505 students aged 11 to 16 years were eligible for inclusion in the present study, and of these, 106 students agreed to participate (21% response rate). Participants completed at 37-item self-report questionnaire examining perceived psychological and social influences on physical activity participation twice, with a test–retest interval of 7 days. Predictive validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability were evaluated using exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach’s α coefficient, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Predictive validity was assessed by correlating responses against duration spent in self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed a nine factor structure, with the majority of factors exhibiting high internal consistency (α ≥ 0.6). In addition, four of the nine factors had an ICC ≥ 0.6. Spearman rank-order correlations coefficients between the nine factors and self-reported minutes spent in MVPA ranged from -0.5 to 0.3 for all participants. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the psychometric properties of a potential psychological and social correlates questionnaire among Chinese-Australian youth. The questionnaire was found to provide reliable estimates on a range

  8. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Non-Destructive Examination of Dissimilar Metal Welds and Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Deborah A.

    2002-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has conducted research since 1977 in the areas of environmentally assisted cracking and assessment and reliability of non-destructive examination (NDE). Recent occurrences of cracking in Alloy 82/182 welds and Alloy 600 base metal at several domestic and overseas plants have raised several issues relating to both of these areas of NRC research. The occurrences of cracking were identified by the discovery of boric acid deposits resulting from through-wall cracking in the primary system pressure boundary. Analyses indicate that the cracking has occurred due to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 82/182 welds. This cracking has occurred in two different locations: in hot leg nozzle-to-safe end welds and in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzle welds. The cracking associated with safe-end welds is important due to the potential for a large loss of reactor coolant inventory, and the cracking of CRDM nozzle base metal and welds, particularly circumferential cracking of CRDM nozzle base metal, is important due to the potential for a control rod to eject resulting in a loss of coolant accident. The industry response in the U.S. to this cracking is being coordinated through the Electric Power Research Institute's Materials Reliability Project (EPRI-MRP) in a comprehensive, multifaceted effort. Although the industry program is addressing many of the issues raised by these cracking occurrences, confirmatory research is necessary for the staff to evaluate the work conducted by industry groups. Several issues requiring additional consideration regarding the generic implications of these isolated events have been identified. This paper will discuss the recent events of significant cracking in domestic and foreign plants, discuss the limitations of NDE in detecting SCC, identify deficiencies in information available in this area, discuss the USNRC approach to address these issues, and discuss the

  9. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  10. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  11. NDE of composite structures using microwave time reversal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Tamburrino, Antonello; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-02-01

    Composite materials are being increasingly used to replace metals, partially or completely, in aerospace, shipping and automotive industries because of their light weight, corrosion resistance, and mechanical strength. Integrity of these materials may be compromised during manufacturing or due to impact damage during usage, resulting in defects such as porosity, delamination, cracks and disbonds. Microwave NDE techniques have the ability to propagate through composite materials, without suffering much attenuation. The scattered fields depend on the dielectric properties of the medium, and hence provide information about the structural integrity of these materials. Time Reversal focusing is based on the fact that when a wave solution is reversed in time and back propagated it refocuses back at the source. This paper presents a model based parametric study of time reversal principles with microwave data in composite materials. A two dimensional FDTD model is developed to implement the forward and time reversed electromagnetic wave propagation in a test geometry comprising metal-composite structures. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to detect and characterize different defects.

  12. Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Applications of THz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimdars, David

    2005-03-01

    The technology and applications of time domain terahertz (THz) imaging to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) will be discussed. THz imaging has shown great promise in 2 and 3 dimensional non-contact inspection of non-conductive materials such as plastics, foam, composites, ceramics, paper, wood and glass. THz imaging employs safe low power non-ionizing electromagnetic pulses, with lateral resolution < 200 um, and depth resolution < 50 um. THz pulses can be analyzed spectroscopically to reveal chemical content. Recently, highly integrated turn-key THz imaging systems have been introduced commercially. We will demonstrate the detection of voids and disbonds intentionally incorporated within the sprayed on foam insulation of a space shuttle external tank mock-up segments. An industrially hardened THz scanning system which has been deployed to scan the space shuttle tank with small remote transceiver will be described. Additional terahertz security imaging applications for the detection of weapons and explosives will also be discussed, as well as the application of terahertz sensors for high speed industrial process monitoring and quality control.

  13. Preservation of benthic foraminifera and reliability of deep-sea temperature records: Importance of sedimentation rates, lithology, and the need to examine test wall structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Philip F.; Wilson, Paul A.

    2009-06-01

    Preservation of planktic foraminiferal calcite has received widespread attention in recent years, but the taphonomy of benthic foraminiferal calcite and its influence on the deep-sea palaeotemperature record have gone comparatively unreported. Numerical modeling indicates that the carbonate recrystallization histories of deep-sea sections are dominated by events in their early burial history, meaning that the degree of exchange between sediments and pore fluids during the early postburial phase holds the key to determining the palaeotemperature significance of diagenetic alteration of benthic foraminifera. Postburial sedimentation rate and lithology are likely to be important determinants of the paleoceanographic significance of this sediment-pore fluid interaction. Here we report an investigation of the impact of extreme change in sedimentation rate (a prolonged and widespread Upper Cretaceous hiatus in the North Atlantic Ocean) on the preservation and δ18O of benthic foraminifera of Middle Cretaceous age (nannofossil zone NC10, uppermost Albian/lowermost Cenomanian, ˜99 Ma ago) from multiple drill sites. At sites where this hiatus immediately overlies NC10, benthic foraminifera appear to display at least moderate preservation of the whole test. However, on closer inspection, these tests are shown to be extremely poorly preserved internally and yield δ18O values substantially higher than those from contemporaneous better preserved benthic foraminifera at sites without an immediately overlying hiatus. These high δ18O values are interpreted to indicate alteration close to the seafloor in cooler waters during the Late Cretaceous hiatus. Intersite differences in lithology modulate the diagenetic impact of this extreme change in sedimentation rate. Our results highlight the importance of thorough examination of benthic foraminiferal wall structures and lend support to the view that sedimentation rate and lithology are key factors controlling the paleoceanographic

  14. DISC1, PDE4B, and NDE1 at the centrosome and synapse

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Nicholas J.; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Chubb, Jennifer E.; Carlyle, Becky C.; Christie, Sheila; Claessens, Antoine; Porteous, David J.; Millar, J. Kirsty

    2008-12-26

    Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk factor for schizophrenia and other major mental illnesses. Its protein binding partners include the Nuclear Distribution Factor E Homologs (NDE1 and NDEL1), LIS1, and phosphodiesterases 4B and 4D (PDE4B and PDE4D). We demonstrate that NDE1, NDEL1 and LIS1, together with their binding partner dynein, associate with DISC1, PDE4B and PDE4D within the cell, and provide evidence that this complex is present at the centrosome. LIS1 and NDEL1 have been previously suggested to be synaptic, and we now demonstrate localisation of DISC1, NDE1, and PDE4B at synapses in cultured neurons. NDE1 is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependant Protein Kinase A (PKA), whose activity is, in turn, regulated by the cAMP hydrolysis activity of phosphodiesterases, including PDE4. We propose that DISC1 acts as an assembly scaffold for all of these proteins and that the NDE1/NDEL1/LIS1/dynein complex is modulated by cAMP levels via PKA and PDE4.

  15. NDE1 and NDEL1: twin neurodevelopmental proteins with similar 'nature' but different 'nurture'.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Nicholas J; Hennah, William; Soares, Dinesh C

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear distribution element 1 (NDE1, also known as NudE) and NDE-like 1 (NDEL1, also known as Nudel) are paralogous proteins essential for mitosis and neurodevelopment that have been implicated in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The two proteins possess high sequence similarity and have been shown to physically interact with one another. Numerous lines of experimental evidence in vivo and in cell culture have demonstrated that these proteins share common functions, although instances of differing functions between the two have recently emerged. We review the key aspects of NDE1 and NDEL1 in terms of recent advances in structure elucidation and cellular function, with an emphasis on their differing mechanisms of post-translational modification. Based on a review of the literature and bioinformatics assessment, we advance the concept that the twin proteins NDE1 and NDEL1, while sharing a similar 'nature' in terms of their structure and basic functions, appear to be different in their 'nurture', the manner in which they are regulated both in terms of expression and of post-translational modification within the cell. These differences are likely to be of significant importance in understanding the specific roles of NDE1 and NDEL1 in neurodevelopment and disease.

  16. Framework for incorporating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) into pavement and bridge management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobanjo, John O.; Tawfiq, Kamal S.

    1999-02-01

    One of the major components of an infrastructure management system is the condition assessment or deterioration modeling. With application to highway pavements and bridges, this paper presents conceptually how nondestructive evaluation (NDE) results can be utilized to provide a quantitative assessment of the infrastructure condition in a format usable for network-level pavement management systems and bridge management systems. NDE techniques typically applied to pavements include Visual Rating, Falling Weight Deflectometer, Dynaflect, Seismic Pavement Analyzer, and the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Bridges can also be evaluated using the GPR. NDE is particularly useful at the network level of infrastructure management because of the mobility of conducting the tests. Detailed mechanistic methods have been suggested for NDE interpretation but this method may not be practical at network level. Interpretation of NDE results, through knowledge-based systems and intelligent databases indicate the defects and residual capacity of infrastructures. Measured physical properties and defects in the infrastructure component materials can be correlated to existing scales of condition assessment such as in the NBI and PONTIS formats for bridge management and also to an index or rating such as the PSI in highway pavements.

  17. Nde1-mediated inhibition of ciliogenesis affects cell cycle re-entry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sehyun; Zaghloul, Norann A.; Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Oh, Edwin C.; Rankin, Susannah; Katsanis, Nicholas; Obara, Tomoko; Tsiokas, Leonidas

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is an antenna-like organelle that is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Ciliogenesis is initiated as cells enter quiescence, while cilium resorption precedes mitosis. The mechanisms coordinating ciliogenesis with the cell cycle are unknown. Here we identify the centrosomal protein, Nde1, as a negative regulator of ciliary length. Nde1 is expressed at high levels in mitosis, low levels in quiescence and localizes at the mother centriole, which nucleates the primary cilium. Cells depleted of Nde1 show longer cilia and a delay in cell cycle re-entry that correlates with ciliary length. Knockdown of Nde1 in zebrafish embryos results in increased ciliary length, suppression of cell division, reduction of the number of cells forming the Kupffer’s vesicle, and left-right patterning defects. These data suggest that Nde1 is an integral component of a network coordinating ciliary length with cell cycle progression and have implications in the transition from quiescence to a proliferative state. PMID:21394081

  18. Three-Dimensional Regulation of Radial Glial Functions by Lis1-Nde1 and Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Pawlisz, Ashley S.; Feng, Yuanyi

    2011-01-01

    Radial glial cells (RGCs) are distinctive neural stem cells with an extraordinary slender bipolar morphology and dual functions as precursors and migration scaffolds for cortical neurons. Here we show a novel mechanism by which the Lis1-Nde1 complex maintains RGC functions through stabilizing the dystrophin/dystroglycan glycoprotein complex (DGC). A direct interaction between Nde1 and utrophin/dystrophin allows for the assembly of a multi-protein complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix of RGCs to stabilize their lateral membrane, cell-cell adhesion, and radial morphology. Lis1-Nde1 mutations destabilized the DGC and resulted in deformed, disjointed RGCs and disrupted basal lamina. Besides impaired RGC self-renewal and neuronal migration arrests, Lis1-Nde1 deficiencies also led to neuronal over-migration. Additional to phenotypic resemblances of Lis1-Nde1 with DGC, strong synergistic interactions were found between Nde1 and dystroglycan in RGCs. As functional insufficiencies of LIS1, NDE1, and dystroglycan all cause lissencephaly syndromes, our data demonstrated that a three-dimensional regulation of RGC's cytoarchitecture by the Lis1-Nde1-DGC complex determines the number and spatial organization of cortical neurons as well as the size and shape of the cerebral cortex. PMID:22028625

  19. Effectiveness of Several NDE Technologies in Detecting Moisture Pockets and: Artificial Defects in Sawn Timber and Glulam

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Christopher Adam Senalik; Xiping Wang; Frank Jalinoos

    2016-01-01

    Several nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies were studied to determine their efficacy as scanning devices to detect internal moisture and artificial decay pockets. Large bridge-sized test specimens, including sawn timber and glued-laminated timber members, were fabricated with various internal defects. NDE Technologies evaluated in this research were ground...

  20. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  1. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1990-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predicitons for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates prodcued by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  2. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1989-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predictions for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates produced by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  3. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1990-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predicitons for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates prodcued by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  4. Advanced defect detection algorithm using clustering in ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    A range of materials used in industry exhibit scattering properties which limits ultrasonic NDE. Many algorithms have been proposed to enhance defect detection ability, such as the well-known Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) technique. Scattering noise usually cannot be fully removed and the remaining noise can be easily confused with real feature signals, hence becoming artefacts during the image interpretation stage. This paper presents an advanced algorithm to further reduce the influence of artefacts remaining in A-scan data after processing using a conventional defect detection algorithm. The raw A-scan data can be acquired from either traditional single transducer or phased array configurations. The proposed algorithm uses the concept of unsupervised machine learning to cluster segmental defect signals from pre-processed A-scans into different classes. The distinction and similarity between each class and the ensemble of randomly selected noise segments can be observed by applying a classification algorithm. Each class will then be labelled as `legitimate reflector' or `artefacts' based on this observation and the expected probability of defection (PoD) and probability of false alarm (PFA) determined. To facilitate data collection and validate the proposed algorithm, a 5MHz linear array transducer is used to collect A-scans from both austenitic steel and Inconel samples. Each pulse-echo A-scan is pre-processed using SSP and the subsequent application of the proposed clustering algorithm has provided an additional reduction to PFA while maintaining PoD for both samples compared with SSP results alone.

  5. Investigation of inductively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for NDE.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Croxford, Anthony J; Wilcox, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    Inductive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such an inductively coupled transducer system in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface is based on electromagnetic coupling between three coils; one of the coils is physically connected to the transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit, where they are connected to the transmit and receive channels of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as a three-port network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. The developed transmission line model is a function of the physical parameters of the electromagnetic system, such as the number of turns and diameter of each coil, and their separation. This model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance and pulse-echo response. The model has been validated experimentally and a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters performed. This has enabled optimization of the various parameters. Inductively coupled transducer systems have been built for both bulk and guided wave examples. By using chirped excitation and baseline subtraction, inspection distance of up to 700 mm is achieved in single-shot, guided-wave pulse-echo mode measurements with a 5 mm separation between the probing coils and transducer coil on an aluminum plate structure. In the bulk wave example, a delamination in an 8.9-mm-thick carbon fiber composite specimen is successfully identified from the changes in the arrival time of a reflected pulse.

  6. Normalization and sound zone determination in pulse thermographic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripragash, Letchuman; Sundaresan, Mannur

    2017-02-01

    Thermographic nondestructive evaluation is quick and effective in detecting damage particularly for composite structures. Pulse thermographic nondestructive evaluation (TNDE) technique can potentially provide information on defect dimensions, such as the depth at which the defect is located. However, there are a number of extraneous variables that affect the signal obtained during these tests, such as non-uniformity in the heat pulse applied and differences in the emissivity of the surfaces from specimen to specimen. In addition, the identification of defect free areas in the image is a challenge. As in other NDE procedures calibration specimens would be of help, but calibration specimens corresponding to complex damage states in composite materials are difficult to fabricate. Results from validated numerical simulations can complement calibration specimens. However, the thermo-mechanical properties of the test object as well as the amount of heat energy absorbed in the field tests are not readily available for such models. This paper presents an extension of the thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) procedure in which the temperature and the time scales are respectively normalized with equilibrium temperature and the break time. A benefit of such normalization is the ability to directly measure the defect depth as a fraction of plate thickness. In order to implement this normalization procedure, sound zone profile definition is required. A new approach for determining sound zone profile has been developed. Finally, determination of sound zone is affected by non-uniform heating, and a method of minimizing the effects of non-uniform heating is proposed. The performance of these new approaches on actual experimental results are presented.

  7. Structural assessment of metal foam using combined NDE and FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Young, Philippe G.; Rauser, Richard W.

    2005-05-01

    Metal foams are expected to find use in structural applications where weight is of particular concern, such as space vehicles, rotorcraft blades, car bodies or portable electronic devices. The obvious structural application of metal foam is for light weight sandwich panels, made up of thin solid face sheets and a metallic foam core. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a light weight foam core. The resulting high-stiffness structure is lighter than that constructed only out of the solid metal material. Since the face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. However, the metal foam core must resist transverse shear loads and compressive loads while remaining integral with the face sheets. Challenges relating to the fabrication and testing of these metal foam panels remain due to some mechanical properties falling short of their theoretical potential. Theoretical mechanical properties are based on an idealized foam microstructure and assumed cell geometry. But the actual testing is performed on as fabricated foam microstructure. Hence in this study, a high fidelity finite element analysis is conducted on as fabricated metal foam microstructures, to compare the calculated mechanical properties with the idealized theory. The high fidelity geometric models for the FEA are generated using series of 2D CT scans of the foam structure to reconstruct the 3D metal foam geometry. The metal foam material is an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. Tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties are deduced from the FEA model and compared with the theoretical values. The combined NDE/FEA provided insight in the variability of the mechanical properties compared to idealized theory.

  8. Person Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, James

    1977-01-01

    Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

  9. (abstract) Oblique Insonification Ultrasonic NDE of Composite Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Lih, S. S.; Mal, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of research has been exerted to developing NDE methods for the characterization of the material properties of composites as well as other space structural materials. The need for information about such parameters as the elastic properties, density, and thickness are critical to the safe design and operation of such structural materials. Ultrasonics using immersion methods has played an important role in these efforts due to its capability, cost effectiveness, and ease of use. The authors designed a series of ultrasonic oblique insonification experiments in order to develop a practical field applicable NDE method for space structures.

  10. Real-Time NDE Using Multi-Function Robotic Sonoscope (MSRF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    3 .2 Pre-Screen Samples 3 3 Theoretical Model 3 4 Post-Damage NDE 3 5 Data Correlation 3 6 Circuit Design 4 0 Acoustic Microscopy 4 1 Diode...Model 3 4 Post-Damage NDE 3 5 Data Correlation 3 6 Circuit Design 4 0 Acoustic Microscopy 4 1 Diode Laser Source 4 2 Pre-Screen Samples 4 3 System...included in the Phase II work. An electronic kit to build the plug-in circuit board to IBM PC computer was assembled and tested. A number of materials

  11. (abstract) Oblique Insonification Ultrasonic NDE of Composite Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Lih, S. S.; Mal, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of research has been exerted to developing NDE methods for the characterization of the material properties of composites as well as other space structural materials. The need for information about such parameters as the elastic properties, density, and thickness are critical to the safe design and operation of such structural materials. Ultrasonics using immersion methods has played an important role in these efforts due to its capability, cost effectiveness, and ease of use. The authors designed a series of ultrasonic oblique insonification experiments in order to develop a practical field applicable NDE method for space structures.

  12. Additive Manufacturing (AM) Activities and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Justin S.

    2017-01-01

    NASA personnel will be meeting with a delegation from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) at Langley Research Center on 2217 through 3217. The purpose of the meeting is a technical interchange between NASA and JAXA to discuss Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Additive Manufacturing (AM) parts and the HALT process (relates to accelerated life testing). The visitors will be a small group of Japanese citizens. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been asked to participate in the meeting, either in person or via teleconference. This presentation covers NDE efforts at GSFC and provides a cursory overview of AM and lab capabilities.

  13. Chapter 9: Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  14. Improving the reliability of silicon nitride: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, J.T.; Pasto, A.E.; Bowen, L.J. )

    1988-05-01

    Recent AGT engine test data indicate that, in prototype quantities, structural ceramics can be made capable of meeting the stringent mechanical constraints imposed by the turbine environment. Questions remain to be answered about the long-term capabilities of structural ceramics and their reliability in production quantities. The reliability of structural ceramics can be enhanced in three ways: by careful processing, improving fracture toughness using composites, and by appropriate NDE/proof-testing. Data generated by research in all three areas suggest that none of these alone is a panacea for the reliability problem. However, taken in combination, these data suggest that the necessary levels of reliability can be attained even in production ceramic turbine rotors. Research results on GTE AY6 sintered Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} are presented to support this viewpoint.

  15. Developing NDE Techniques for Large Cryogenic Tanks - Year 2 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; youngquist, Robert; McFall, Judith; Simmons, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program requires very large cryogenic ground storage tanks in which to store liquid oxygen and hydrogen. The existing Launch Complex-39 Pad tanks, which will be passed onto future launch programs, are over 40 years old and have received minimal refurbishment and only external inspections over the years. The majority of the structure is inaccessible without a full system drain of cryogenic liquid and insulation in the annular region. It was previously thought that there was a limit to the number of temperature cycles that the tanks could handle due to possible insulation compaction before undergoing a costly and time consuming complete overhaul; therefore the tanks were not drained and performance issues with these tanks, specifically the Pad B LH2 tank, were accepted. There is a need and an opportunity, as the Shuttle program ends and work to upgrade the launch pad progresses, to develop innovative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to analyze the current tanks. Techniques are desired that can aid in determining the extent of refurbishment required to keep the tanks in service for another 20+ years. A non-destructive technique would also be a significant aid in acceptance testing of new and refurbished tanks, saving significant time and money, if corrective actions can be taken before cryogen is introduced to the systems. Year one of this project concentrated on analysis of the current tanks located at LC-39 while cryogen was present. Year two of this project concentrated on analysis of detectable thermal variations on the outer surface of the tanks as the cryogen was drained and the inner vessel warmed to ambient conditions. Two techniques have been deployed in the field to monitor the tank. The first consisted of a displacement sensor to monitor for any expansions at the base of the tank during warm-up that could indicate a compaction issue with the insulation. The second technique was continued thermal monitoring of the tank through and

  16. Time-Domain Terahertz Computed Axial Tomography NDE System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimdars, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified the need for advanced non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to characterize aging and durability in aircraft materials to improve the safety of the nation's airline fleet. 3D THz tomography can play a major role in detection and characterization of flaws and degradation in aircraft materials, including Kevlar-based composites and Kevlar and Zylon fabric covers for soft-shell fan containment where aging and durability issues are critical. A prototype computed tomography (CT) time-domain (TD) THz imaging system has been used to generate 3D images of several test objects including a TUFI tile (a thermal protection system tile used on the Space Shuttle and possibly the Orion or similar capsules). This TUFI tile had simulated impact damage that was located and the depth of damage determined. The CT motion control gan try was designed and constructed, and then integrated with a T-Ray 4000 control unit and motion controller to create a complete CT TD-THz imaging system prototype. A data collection software script was developed that takes multiple z-axis slices in sequence and saves the data for batch processing. The data collection software was integrated with the ability to batch process the slice data with the CT TD-THz image reconstruction software. The time required to take a single CT slice was decreased from six minutes to approximately one minute by replacing the 320 ps, 100-Hz waveform acquisition system with an 80 ps, 1,000-Hz waveform acquisition system. The TD-THZ computed tomography system was built from pre-existing commercial off-the-shelf subsystems. A CT motion control gantry was constructed from COTS components that can handle larger samples. The motion control gantry allows inspection of sample sizes of up to approximately one cubic foot (.0.03 cubic meters). The system reduced to practice a CT-TDTHz system incorporating a COTS 80- ps/l-kHz waveform scanner. The incorporation of this scanner in the system allows acquisition of 3D

  17. Magnetic flux leakage-based steel cable NDE and damage visualization on a cable climbing robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee; Lee, Jong Jae

    2012-04-01

    The steel cables in long span bridges such as cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges are critical members which suspend the load of main girders and bridge floor slabs. Damage of cable members can occur in the form of crosssectional loss caused by fatigue, wear, and fracture, which can lead to structural failure due to concentrated stress in the cable. Therefore, nondestructive examination of steel cables is necessary so that the cross-sectional loss can be detected. Thus, an automated cable monitoring system using a suitable NDE technique and a cable climbing robot is proposed. In this study, an MFL (Magnetic Flux Leakage- based inspection system was applied to monitor the condition of cables. This inspection system measures magnetic flux to detect the local faults (LF) of steel cable. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, an 8-channel MFL sensor head prototype was designed and fabricated. A steel cable bunch specimen with several types of damage was fabricated and scanned by the MFL sensor head to measure the magnetic flux density of the specimen. To interpret the condition of the steel cable, magnetic flux signals were used to determine the locations of the flaws and the level of damage. Measured signals from the damaged specimen were compared with thresholds set for objective decision making. In addition, the measured magnetic flux signal was visualized into a 3D MFL map for convenient cable monitoring. Finally, the results were compared with information on actual inflicted damages to confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed cable monitoring method.

  18. Further development of image processing algorithms to improve detectability of defects in Sonic IR NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Sonic Infrared imaging (SIR) technology is a relatively new NDE technique that has received significant acceptance in the NDE community. SIR NDE is a super-fast, wide range NDE method. The technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in the structures under inspection. Defects become visible to the IR camera when the temperature in the crack vicinity increases due to various heating mechanisms in the specimen. Defect detection is highly affected by noise levels as well as mode patterns in the image. Mode patterns result from the superposition of sonic waves interfering within the specimen during the application of sound pulse. Mode patterns can be a serious concern, especially in composite structures. Mode patterns can either mimic real defects in the specimen, or alternatively, hide defects if they overlap. In last year's QNDE, we have presented algorithms to improve defects detectability in severe noise. In this paper, we will present our development of algorithms on defect extraction targeting specifically to mode patterns in SIR images.

  19. Space environmental effects, materials, and NDE/NDI presentation to SSTAC/ARTS Review Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, Samuel L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on space environmental effects, materials, and NDE/NDI for the integrated technology plan for the civil space program. Topics covered include: space materials; space durable polymers; simulated space environmental effects; space radiation effects on polymer matrix composites; advanced coatings for spacecraft; Long Duration Exposure Facility; meteoroid and debris velocity distribution; and space environmental effects.

  20. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  1. Challenges of NDE simulation tool validation, optimization, and utilization for composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Juarez, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Rapid, realistic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) simulation tools can aid in inspection optimization and prediction of inspectability for advanced aerospace materials and designs. NDE simulation tools may someday aid in the design and certification of aerospace components; potentially shortening the time from material development to implementation by industry and government. Furthermore, ultrasound modeling and simulation are expected to play a significant future role in validating the capabilities and limitations of guided wave based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. The current state-of-the-art in ultrasonic NDE/SHM simulation is still far from the goal of rapidly simulating damage detection techniques for large scale, complex geometry composite components/vehicles containing realistic damage types. Ongoing work at NASA Langley Research Center is focused on advanced ultrasonic simulation tool development. This paper discusses challenges of simulation tool validation, optimization, and utilization for composites. Ongoing simulation tool development work is described along with examples of simulation validation and optimization challenges that are more broadly applicable to all NDE simulation tools. The paper will also discuss examples of simulation tool utilization at NASA to develop new damage characterization methods for composites, and associated challenges in experimentally validating those methods.

  2. ANALYSIS OF EMERGING NDE TECHNIQUES: METHODS FOR EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ONLINE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Lupold, Timothy R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2009-08-05

    One of the goals of the program for the proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) is to manage proactively the in-service degradation of metallic components in aging NPPs. As some forms of degradation, such as stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase, new inspection or monitoring technologies may be required. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that may be needed include techniques to find stress corrosion cracking (SCC) precursors, on-line monitoring techniques to detect cracks as they initiate and grow, as well as advances in NDE technologies. This paper reports on the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology will draw from experience derived from evaluating techniques that have "emerged" in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will formalize the path taken for previous techniques and set a predictable course for future NDE techniques. This paper then applies the expert review section of the methodology to the acoustic emission technique to evaluate the use of acoustic emission in performing continuous online monitoring of reactor components.

  3. Experimental Enhancements of LLW Dispersion Data Acquisition and Implementation Challenges to NDE of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Liu, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Leaky Lamb Wave (LLW) technique is approaching a maturity level that is making it an attractive quantitative NDE tool for composites and bonded joints. Since it was first observed in 1982, the phenomenon has been studied extensively, particularly in composite materials.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation research progress in 1989: Proceedings from the tenth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Behravesh, M.M.; Gehl, S.M.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidity developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor (LWR) inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R D personnel, and utility representatives. As the eleventh in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Tenth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 14-15, 1989. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-6075-SR was issued in May 1989. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe and nozzle, pressure vessel, and boilers and steam generators. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  6. Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

  7. Nondestructive and Destructive Examination Studies on Removed-from-Service Control Rod Drive Mechanism Penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Seffens, Rob J.; Schuster, George J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Harris, Robert V.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2007-06-07

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objectives of this work are to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies. Two CRDM assemblies were removed from service, decontaminated, and then used in a series of NDE and destructive examination (DE) measurements; this report addresses the following questions: 1) What did each NDE technique detect? 2) What did each NDE technique miss? 3) How accurately did each NDE technique characterize the detected flaws? 4) Why did the NDE techniques perform or not perform? Two CRDM assemblies including the CRDM nozzle, the J-groove weld, buttering, and a portion of the ferritic head material were selected for this study. This report focuses on a CRDM assembly that contained suspected PWSCC, based on in-service inspection data and through-wall leakage. The NDE measurements used to examine the CRDM assembly followed standard industry techniques for conducting in-service inspections of CRDM nozzles and the crown of the J-groove welds and buttering. These techniques included eddy current testing (ET), time-of-flight diffraction ultrasound, and penetrant testing. In addition, laboratory-based NDE methods were employed to conduct inspections of the CRDM assembly with particular emphasis on inspecting the J-groove weld and buttering. These techniques included volumetric ultrasonic inspection of the J-groove weld metal and visual testing via replicant material of the J-groove weld. The results from these NDE studies were used to

  8. Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2014, Waste Tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2014-09-29

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examinations (NDE) were performed on waste storage tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33 at the Savannah River Site as a part of the “In-Service Inspection (ISI) Program for High Level Waste Tanks.” No reportable conditions were identified during these inspections. The results indicate that the implemented corrosion control program continues to effectively mitigate corrosion in the SRS waste tanks. Ultrasonic inspection (UT) is used to detect general wall thinning, pitting and interface attack, as well as vertically oriented cracks through inspection of an 8.5 inch wide strip extending over the accessible height of the primary tank wall and accessible knuckle regions. Welds were also inspected in tanks 27, 28 and 33 with no reportable indications. In a Type III/IIIA primary tank, a complete vertical strip includes scans of five plates (including knuckles) so five “plate/strips” would be completed at each vertical strip location. In FY 2014, a combined total of 79 plate/strips were examined for thickness mapping and crack detection, equating to over 45,000 square inches of area inspected on the primary tank wall. Of the 79 plate/strips examined in FY 2014 all but three have average thicknesses that remain at or above the construction minimum thickness which is nominal thickness minus 0.010 inches. There were no service induced reportable thicknesses or cracking encountered. A total of 2 pits were documented in 2014 with the deepest being 0.032 inches deep. One pit was detected in Tank 27 and one in Tank 33. No pitting was identified in Tanks 26 or 28. The maximum depth of any pit encountered in FY 2014 is 5% of nominal thickness, which is less than the minimum reportable criteria of 25% through-wall for pitting. In Tank 26 two vertical strips were inspected, as required by the ISI Program, due to tank conditions being outside normal chemistry controls for more than 3 months. Tank 28 had an area of localized thinning on the exterior wall of the

  9. Network reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1985-01-01

    Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

  10. Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    RELAV, a NASA-developed computer program, enables Systems Control Technology, Inc. (SCT) to predict performance of aircraft subsystems. RELAV provides a system level evaluation of a technology. Systems, the mechanism of a landing gear for example, are first described as a set of components performing a specific function. RELAV analyzes the total system and the individual subsystem probabilities to predict success probability, and reliability. This information is then translated into operational support and maintenance requirements. SCT provides research and development services in support of government contracts.

  11. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  12. Cloning of the promoter of NDE1, a gene implicated in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders through copy number variation.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, N J

    2016-06-02

    Copy number variation at 16p13.11 has been associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, with duplication of this region being more common in individuals with schizophrenia. A prominent candidate gene within this locus is NDE1 (Nuclear Distribution Element 1) given its known importance for neurodevelopment, previous associations with mental illness and its well characterized interaction with the Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein. In order to accurately model the effect of NDE1 duplication, it is important to first gain an understanding of how the gene is expressed. The complex promoter system of NDE1, which produces three distinct transcripts, each encoding for the same full-length NDE1 protein (also known as NudE), was therefore cloned and tested in human cell lines. The promoter for the longest of these three NDE1 transcripts was found to be responsible for the majority of expression in these systems, with its extended 5' untranslated region (UTR) having a limiting effect on its expression. These results thus highlight and clone the promoter elements required to generate systems in which the NDE1 protein is exogenously expressed under its native promoter, providing a biologically relevant model of 16p13.11 duplication in major mental illness. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the Reliability of a Solitary Wave Based Transducer to Determine the Characteristics of Some Materials

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen; Nasrollahi, Amir; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Li, Kaiyuan

    2015-01-01

    In the study presented in this article we investigated the feasibility and the reliability of a transducer design for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the stiffness of structural materials. The NDE method is based on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) along a one-dimensional chain of spherical particles that is in contact with the material to be assessed. The chain is part of a built-in system designed and assembled to excite and detect HNSWs, and to exploit the dynamic interaction between the particles and the material to be inspected. This interaction influences the time-of-flight and the amplitude of the solitary pulses reflected at the transducer/material interface. The results of this study show that certain features of the waves are dependent on the modulus of elasticity of the material and that the built-in system is reliable. In the future the proposed NDE method may provide a cost-effective tool for the rapid assessment of materials’ modulus. PMID:26703617

  14. Neural-Net Based Optical NDE Method for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper answers some performance and calibration questions about a non-destructive-evaluation (NDE) procedure that uses artificial neural networks to detect structural damage or other changes from sub-sampled characteristic patterns. The method shows increasing sensitivity as the number of sub-samples increases from 108 to 6912. The sensitivity of this robust NDE method is not affected by noisy excitations of the first vibration mode. A calibration procedure is proposed and demonstrated where the output of a trained net can be correlated with the outputs of the point sensors used for vibration testing. The calibration procedure is based on controlled changes of fastener torques. A heterodyne interferometer is used as a displacement sensor for a demonstration of the challenges to be handled in using standard point sensors for calibration.

  15. Automotive Lightweight Materials: the Roles of Nde in Bringing New Materials Into Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasch, Cameron J.

    2008-02-01

    The automotive industry is in the midst of a time of tremendous change. There is an almost perfect storm of changing governmental and market requirements seeking much higher fuel economy, low or no carbon dioxide emissions, and much higher crash and safety performance. Moreover, this occurs in a globe-spanning market that has more low-cost manufacturers than ever before. This confluence of factors leads to new vehicles with many new types of powertrains having unprecedented power densities and highly-engineered body structures with many new materials and joining methods. These are being turned out with shorter lead times, higher quality requirements, and continuous cost pressures. This talk will review the role in NDE in bringing new materials and processes to market, some of the applications in production, and to highlight some of the current NDE needs driven by these forces on the automotive industry.

  16. US Air Force Perspective on Validated NDE Past, Present, and Future (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0312 US AIR FORCE PERSPECTIVE ON VALIDATED NDE – PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE (POSTPRINT) Eric A. Lindgren...20176 AIP PUBLISHING (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE...OH 45433-7750 AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public

  17. NDE of spacecraft materials using 3D Compton backscatter x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, E. R.; Grubsky, V.; Romanov, V.; Shoemaker, K.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of testing of the NDE performance of a Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) system for single-sided, penetrating 3D inspection. The system was recently developed by Physical Optics Corporation (POC) and delivered to NASA for testing and evaluation. The CIT technology is based on 3D structure mapping by collecting the information on density profiles in multiple object cross sections through hard x-ray Compton backscatter imaging. The individual cross sections are processed and fused together in software, generating a 3D map of the density profile of the object which can then be analyzed slice-by-slice in x, y, or z directions. The developed CIT scanner is based on a 200-kV x-ray source, flat-panel x-ray detector (FPD), and apodized x-ray imaging optics. The CIT technology is particularly well suited to the NDE of lightweight aerospace materials, such as the thermal protection system (TPS) ceramic and composite materials, micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding, spacecraft pressure walls, inflatable habitat structures, composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), and aluminum honeycomb materials. The current system provides 3D localization of defects and features with field of view 20x12x8 cm3 and spatial resolution ˜2 mm. In this paper, we review several aerospace NDE applications of the CIT technology, with particular emphasis on TPS. Based on the analysis of the testing results, we provide recommendations for continued development on TPS applications that can benefit the most from the unique capabilities of this new NDE technology.

  18. Directed Design of Experiments (DOE) for Determining Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the issues that people who specialize in Non destructive evaluation (NDE) have with determining the statistics of the probability of detection. There is discussion of the use of the binominal distribution, and the probability of hit. The presentation then reviews the concepts of Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection of Inspection Systems (DOEPOD). Several cases are reviewed, and discussed. The concept of false calls is also reviewed.

  19. A Comparison of NDE Methods for Inspection of Composite Ceramic Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    NDE modalities under present study include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non...methods under evaluation include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through- transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning...include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning microwaves, 4)-air

  20. A Comparison of NDE Methods for Inspection of Composite Ceramic Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    NDE modalities under present study include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non...methods under evaluation include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through- transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning...methods include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning microwaves, 4)-air