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Sample records for examinations general principles

  1. [General principles of handling tissues and organs intended for examination in histopathology - pathologists requirements for surgeons].

    PubMed

    Trnková, M

    2014-03-01

    Histopathology has continued to develop into a complex discipline of laboratory medicine in the last 30 years. Implementation of new techniques such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, molecular pathology and gene profiling yields a large amount of information which is used not only to establish diagnosis, but also for prediction and prognosis. The basic conditions for precision and correctness of this information which directly influence the choice of therapy and the outcome for the patient, and eventually the health and the life of the patient, are obtaining a suitable specimen and the best laboratory processing. The first step in this procedure is collection of samples, fixation and submission to the pathology laboratory - the pre-analytical phase. Knowledge of the principles of this phase and their implementation in daily practice in surgery is of main importance for the quality and quantity of information obtained. We introduce the basic rules for proper handling of different specimens depending on the use of conventional and "new" histopathology methods.

  2. Itch Management: General Principles.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. PMID:27578069

  3. Itch Management: General Principles.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental.

  4. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  5. Teaching professionalism: general principles.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R

    2006-05-01

    There are educational principles that apply to the teaching of professionalism during undergraduate education and postgraduate training. It is axiomatic that there is a single cognitive base that applies with increasing moral force as students enter medical school, progress to residency or registrar training, and enter practice. While parts of this body of knowledge are easier to teach and learn at different stages of an individual's career, it remains a definable whole at all times and should be taught as such. While the principle that self-reflection on theoretical and real issues encountered in the life of a student, resident or practitioner is essential to the acquisition of experiential learning and the incorporation of the values and behaviors of the professional, the opportunities to provide situations where this can take place will change as an individual progresses through the system, as will the sophistication of the level of learning. Teaching the cognitive base of professionalism and providing opportunities for the internalization of its values and behaviors are the cornerstones of the organization of the teaching of professionalism at all levels. Situated learning theory appears to provide practical guidance as to how this may be implemented. While the application of this theory will vary with the type of curriculum, the institutional culture and the resources available, the principles outlined should remain constant.

  6. The Principle of General Tovariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  7. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-05-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  8. Rowlands' Duality Principle: A Generalization of Noether's Theorem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Sabah E.

    This paper will examine a physical principle that has been used in making valid predictions and generalizes established conservation laws. In a previous paper it was shown how Rowlands' zero-totality condition could be viewed as a generalization of Newton's third law of motion. In this paper it will be argued that Rowlands' Duality Principle is a generalization of Noether's Theorem and that the two principles taken together are truly foundational principles that have tamed Metaphysics.

  9. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  10. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community. PMID:21282489

  11. 21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles. 102.5 Section 102.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION COMMON OR USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS General Provisions § 102.5 General principles....

  12. Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S.

    2006-12-15

    The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

  13. Sedimentation equilibrium and the generalized Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Parola, Alberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto

    2013-03-21

    The buoyancy concept is critically re-examined for applications to dispersions of nano-particles, such as colloids, proteins, or macromolecules. It is shown that when the size of the buoyant particle is not too different (say, at most a factor of ten) from the size of the dispersed particles, new intriguing phenomena emerge, leading to the violation of the Archimedes' principle. The resulting buoyancy force depends not only on the volume of the particle and on the mass density of the dispersion, but also on the relative size of the particles, on their geometry, and on the interactions between the buoyant particle and the fluid. Explicit expressions for such a generalized Archimedes' principle are obtained and the results are tested against targeted experiments in colloidal dispersions.

  14. Sedimentation equilibrium and the generalized Archimedes' principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parola, Alberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    The buoyancy concept is critically re-examined for applications to dispersions of nano-particles, such as colloids, proteins, or macromolecules. It is shown that when the size of the buoyant particle is not too different (say, at most a factor of ten) from the size of the dispersed particles, new intriguing phenomena emerge, leading to the violation of the Archimedes' principle. The resulting buoyancy force depends not only on the volume of the particle and on the mass density of the dispersion, but also on the relative size of the particles, on their geometry, and on the interactions between the buoyant particle and the fluid. Explicit expressions for such a generalized Archimedes' principle are obtained and the results are tested against targeted experiments in colloidal dispersions.

  15. Sedimentation equilibrium and the generalized Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Parola, Alberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto

    2013-03-21

    The buoyancy concept is critically re-examined for applications to dispersions of nano-particles, such as colloids, proteins, or macromolecules. It is shown that when the size of the buoyant particle is not too different (say, at most a factor of ten) from the size of the dispersed particles, new intriguing phenomena emerge, leading to the violation of the Archimedes' principle. The resulting buoyancy force depends not only on the volume of the particle and on the mass density of the dispersion, but also on the relative size of the particles, on their geometry, and on the interactions between the buoyant particle and the fluid. Explicit expressions for such a generalized Archimedes' principle are obtained and the results are tested against targeted experiments in colloidal dispersions. PMID:23534662

  16. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  17. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  18. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  19. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In...

  20. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  1. Action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. David

    2011-10-15

    An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. An action principle for the Z4 formulation of general relativity has been proposed recently by Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic action and the Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela action is discussed in detail.

  2. 29 CFR 1604.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 1604.1 Section 1604.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... state principles that are applicable not only to employers but also to labor organizations and...

  3. 29 CFR 1604.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General principles. 1604.1 Section 1604.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... state principles that are applicable not only to employers but also to labor organizations and...

  4. 31 CFR 29.321 - General principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Split Benefits Service Performed After June 30, 1997 § 29.321 General principle. Any service performed after June 30, 1997, may never be credited toward...

  5. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an established method for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. It enables the identification of post-traumatic changes of nerves, neuropathies secondary to compression syndromes, inflammatory or neoplastic nerve lesions as well as the evaluation of postoperative complications. In certain situations, this technique is the imaging method of choice. It is increasingly used in anesthesiology for regional anesthesia. As in the case of other ultrasound imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. This article presents the histological structure of peripheral nerves and their appearance in ultrasonography. It also presents the examination technique, following the example of the median nerve, and includes a series of diagrams and ultrasound images. The interpretation of the shape, echogenicity, thickness and vascularity of nerves is described, as well as their relation to the surrounding tissues. The “elevator technique”, which consists of locating a set nerve at a characteristic anatomic point, and following it proximally or distally, has been explained. The undisputed benefits of the ultrasound examination have been presented, including its advantages over other diagnostic methods. These advantages include the dynamic component of the ultrasound examination and the possibility of correlating the patient's symptoms with the ultrasound images. As an example, the proper anatomy and the ultrasonographic appearance of the median nerve were described. This nerve's course is presented, its divisions, and characteristic reference points, so as to facilitate its location and identification, and enable subsequent use of the aforementioned “elevator technique”. This article opens a series of publications concerning anatomy, technique of examination and pathologies of peripheral nerves

  6. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on the label or in labeling representing, suggesting, or implying any nutritional or other... CONSUMPTION NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS General Provisions § 104.5 General principles. (a) A nutritional quality guideline prescribes the minimum level or range of nutrient composition...

  7. Pure connection action principle for general relativity.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2011-06-24

    It has already been known for two decades that general relativity can be reformulated as a certain gauge theory, so that the only dynamical field is an SO(3) connection and the spacetime metric appears as a derived object. However, no simple action principle realizing these ideas has been available. A new elegant action principle for such a "pure connection" formulation of GR is described.

  8. 39 CFR 268.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF CONDUCT § 268.1 General principles. In order to conduct its business, the Postal Service has the... handling it have a legal and ethical obligation to hold it in confidence and to actively protect it from... collected, maintained and used for official Postal Service business. Employees shall be held responsible...

  9. 39 CFR 268.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF CONDUCT § 268.1 General principles. In order to conduct its business, the Postal Service has the... handling it have a legal and ethical obligation to hold it in confidence and to actively protect it from... collected, maintained and used for official Postal Service business. Employees shall be held responsible...

  10. 23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL... permanent defense installations as they do for highways serving private industrial establishments or...

  11. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...

  12. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 104.5 Section 104.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... product shall bear nutrition labeling in accordance with §§ 101.2 and 101.9 of this chapter and all...

  13. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles. 104.5 Section 104.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... product shall bear nutrition labeling in accordance with §§ 101.2 and 101.9 of this chapter and all...

  14. Teaching General Principles and Applications of Dendrogeomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis in geomorphology can be incorporated into a number of undergraduate methods in order to reconstruct the history of a variety of geomorphic processes. Discusses dendrochronology, general principles of dendrogeomorphology, field sampling methods, laboratory techniques, and examples of applications. (TW)

  15. 20 CFR 401.140 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles. 401.140 Section 401.140 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND...) The public interest in the disclosure; (c) The rights and expectations of individuals to have...

  16. 20 CFR 401.140 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles. 401.140 Section 401.140 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND...) The public interest in the disclosure; (c) The rights and expectations of individuals to have...

  17. 20 CFR 401.140 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles. 401.140 Section 401.140 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND...) The public interest in the disclosure; (c) The rights and expectations of individuals to have...

  18. 20 CFR 401.140 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 401.140 Section 401.140 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND...) The public interest in the disclosure; (c) The rights and expectations of individuals to have...

  19. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...

  20. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...

  1. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...

  2. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gui-Lu

    2006-05-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  3. Postoperative infections: general principles and considerations.

    PubMed

    Downey, M S; Lamy, C J

    1990-07-01

    Every surgeon should have a thorough knowledge and awareness of the general principles of postoperative infections. The key to postoperative infections is in their prevention. Even with the most prudent and ardent regimens, however, postoperative wound infections will occasionally occur. Thus, the aforementioned knowledge will allow an improved clinical acumen and permit the early diagnosis of postoperative infection. Early and vigorous local wound care combined with systemic antibiotics are necessary to minimize the potentially debilitating sequelae of the postoperative wound infection.

  4. Lorentz invariance violation and generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Magdy, H.; Ali, A. Farag

    2016-01-01

    There are several theoretical indications that the quantum gravity approaches may have predictions for a minimal measurable length, and a maximal observable momentum and throughout a generalization for Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) is based on a momentum-dependent modification in the standard dispersion relation which is conjectured to violate the principle of Lorentz invariance. From the resulting Hamiltonian, the velocity and time of flight of relativistic distant particles at Planck energy can be derived. A first comparison is made with recent observations for Hubble parameter in redshift-dependence in early-type galaxies. We find that LIV has two types of contributions to the time of flight delay Δ t comparable with that observations. Although the wrong OPERA measurement on faster-than-light muon neutrino anomaly, Δ t, and the relative change in the speed of muon neutrino Δ v in dependence on redshift z turn to be wrong, we utilize its main features to estimate Δ v. Accordingly, the results could not be interpreted as LIV. A third comparison is made with the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR). It is found that an essential ingredient of the approach combining string theory, loop quantum gravity, black hole physics and doubly spacial relativity and the one assuming a perturbative departure from exact Lorentz invariance. Fixing the sensitivity factor and its energy dependence are essential inputs for a reliable confronting of our calculations to UHECR. The sensitivity factor is related to the special time of flight delay and the time structure of the signal. Furthermore, the upper and lower bounds to the parameter, a that characterizes the generalized uncertainly principle, have to be fixed in related physical systems such as the gamma rays bursts.

  5. A review of the generalized uncertainty principle.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied

    2015-12-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some 'thought' experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed. PMID:26512022

  6. A review of the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Magied Diab, Abdel

    2015-12-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some ‘thought’ experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed.

  7. A review of the generalized uncertainty principle.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied

    2015-12-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some 'thought' experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed.

  8. Dilaton cosmology, noncommutativity, and generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Vakili, Babak

    2008-02-15

    The effects of noncommutativity and of the existence of a minimal length on the phase space of a dilatonic cosmological model are investigated. The existence of a minimum length results in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a deformed Heisenberg algebra between the minisuperspace variables and their momenta operators. I extend these deformed commutating relations to the corresponding deformed Poisson algebra. For an exponential dilaton potential, the exact classical and quantum solutions in the commutative and noncommutative cases, and some approximate analytical solutions in the case of GUP, are presented and compared.

  9. Dose reduction in paediatric MDCT: general principles.

    PubMed

    Paterson, A; Frush, D P

    2007-06-01

    The number of multi-detector array computed tomography (MDCT) examinations performed per annum continues to increase in both the adult and paediatric populations. Estimates from 2003 suggested that CT contributed 17% of a radiology department's workload, yet was responsible for up to 75% of the collective population dose from medical radiation. The effective doses for some CT examinations today overlap with those argued to have an increased risk of cancer. This is especially pertinent for paediatric CT, as children are more radiosensitive than adults (and girls more radiosensitive than boys). In addition, children have a longer life ahead of them, in which radiation induced cancers may become manifest. Radiologists must be aware of these facts and practise the ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle, when it comes to deciding CT protocols and parameters. PMID:17467387

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The accounting provisions contained in this part are based on generally accepted accounting principles...

  11. General principles of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jose L

    2014-03-01

    Given the impact of antibiotic resistance on human health, its study is of great interest from a clinical view- point. In addition, antibiotic resistance is one of the few examples of evolution that can be studied in real time. Knowing the general principles involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance is therefore of interest to clinicians, evolutionary biologists and ecologists. The origin of antibiotic resistance genes now possessed by human pathogens can be traced back to environmental microorganisms. Consequently, a full understanding of the evolution of antibiotic resistance requires the study of natural environments as well as clinical ecosystems. Updated information on the evolutionary mechanisms behind resistance, indicates that ecological connectivity, founder effect and fitness costs are important bottle- necks that modulate the transfer of resistance from environmental microorganisms to pathogens. PMID:24847651

  12. Generalized uncertainty principle and black hole thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Dutta, Abhijit; Saha, Anirban

    2014-02-01

    We study the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black hole thermodynamics using the simplest form of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) proposed in the literature. The expressions for the mass-temperature relation, heat capacity and entropy are obtained in both cases from which the critical and remnant masses are computed. Our results are exact and reveal that these masses are identical and larger than the so called singular mass for which the thermodynamics quantities become ill-defined. The expression for the entropy reveals the well known area theorem in terms of the horizon area in both cases upto leading order corrections from GUP. The area theorem written in terms of a new variable which can be interpreted as the reduced horizon area arises only when the computation is carried out to the next higher order correction from GUP.

  13. Generalized uncertainty principle: implications for black hole complementarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-12-01

    At the heart of the black hole information loss paradox and the firewall controversy lies the conflict between quantum mechanics and general relativity. Much has been said about quantum corrections to general relativity, but much less in the opposite direction. It is therefore crucial to examine possible corrections to quantum mechanics due to gravity. Indeed, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is one profound feature of quantum mechanics, which nevertheless may receive correction when gravitational effects become important. Such generalized uncertainty principle [GUP] has been motivated from not only quite general considerations of quantum mechanics and gravity, but also string theoretic arguments. We examine the role of GUP in the context of black hole complementarity. We find that while complementarity can be violated by large N rescaling if one assumes only the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, the application of GUP may save complementarity, but only if certain N -dependence is also assumed. This raises two important questions beyond the scope of this work, i.e., whether GUP really has the proposed form of N -dependence, and whether black hole complementarity is indeed correct.

  14. The Overseas Registration Examination of the General Dental Council.

    PubMed

    Bissell, V; Chamberlain, S; Davenport, E; Dawson, L; Jenkins, S; Murphy, R

    2016-09-01

    The Overseas Registration Examination is a route to entry to the UK Dentists Register for dentists who have qualified outside the European Economic Area. The role of the examination is to protect the public by ensuring that such dentists meet minimum standards of competence. Candidates invest considerable time and resource in attempting the examination. For these reasons it is essential that the examination is both robust and fair. This paper describes the fundamental principles of assessment underpinning the design of the examination and the steps taken by the General Dental Council's ORE Advisory Group to assure its ongoing quality. PMID:27608580

  15. Examining the suitability of the principle of subsidiarity for bioethics.

    PubMed

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2010-12-01

    The political and social principle of subsidiarity can be useful as a general principle of bioethics. The principle states that only those decisions and tasks that cannot be effectively decided upon or performed by a supported or subsidized lower level authority ought to be relegated to a more central or higher authority. The concept of subsidiarity has been embedded tacitly in Western political thought for two millennia, but it has been articulated expressly only in the twentieth century. The principle has unique strengths: it is the only principle that addresses the issue of locus of decision making; it is strongly linked to human dignity, democracy, and solidarity; and it can assist in reaching agreements on the common good. There are also potential drawbacks that need to be taken into account when developing rules and guidelines for the principle's application in bioethics. The principle is particularly helpful in public health ethics, but it is also of use in the ethics of personal care and human research ethics. PMID:21338030

  16. Action principle combining electromagnetism and general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, H.G.

    1987-03-01

    The stationary action problem for a single, classical, point particle in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields is written in optimal control format. The relativistic interval is the independent variable and time, space, and action are the five dependent variables. A general metric is used for the space-time manifold so that the equations are manifestly covariant. The form of the system equations guarantees that the particle moves with unit speed with respect to interval. The Lagrangian is a function of the metric tensor and the electromagnetic four-potential, but not of particle parameters such as electric charge q and mass m. The Hamiltonian is not identically zero, unlike those derived in many earlier analyses. A constant of the motion is found that is identified with q/mc/sup 2/. An explanation is presented for the classical inequality mgreater than or equal to0. The trajectories can reduce to geodesics and even further to those governed by Fermat's principle of stationary time.

  17. Principle of least action; some possible generalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Broucke, R.

    1982-08-01

    In this article we draw the attention to an important variational principle in dynamics: the Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle (MJLAP). This principle compares varied paths with the same energy h. We give two new proofs of the MJLAP (Sections 3 and 8) as well as a new unified variational principle which contains both Hamilton's Principle (HP) and the MJLAP as particular cases (Sections 4 and 9). The article also shows several new methods for the construction of a Lagrangian for a conservative dynamical system. As an example, we illustrate the theory with the classical Harmonic Oscillator Problem (Section 10). Our method is based on the theory of changes of independent variables in a dynamical system. It indirectly shows how a change of independent variable affects the self-adjointness of a dynamical system (Sections 5, 6, 7). Our new Lagrangians contain an arbitrary constant ..cap alpha.., whose meaning needs to be studied, eventually in relation to the concepts of quantification or gauge transformations. The two important values of the constant ..cap alpha.. are 1 (Hamilton's principle) and 1/2 (Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle).

  18. Examining General Hospitals' Smoke-Free Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Marilyn V.; Harbison, Phillip Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the level of smoke-free policies in general hospitals and the barriers faced in implementing restrictive policies banning smoking inside buildings and on surrounding grounds. Design/methodology/approach; A survey was developed to gather data on hospitals' current smoke-free policies, including the challenges…

  19. Incorporation of generalized uncertainty principle into Lifshitz field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, Mir; Majumder, Barun

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into field theories with Lifshitz scaling. We will first construct both bosonic and fermionic theories with Lifshitz scaling based on generalized uncertainty principle. After that we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into a non-abelian gauge theory with Lifshitz scaling. We will observe that even though the action for this theory is non-local, it is invariant under local gauge transformations. We will also perform the stochastic quantization of this Lifshitz fermionic theory based generalized uncertainty principle.

  20. Obscie osnovy pedagogiki (General Principles of Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korelev, F. F., Ed.; Gmurman, V. E., Ed.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a book that forms part of a series of monographs compiled by the Principles of Pedagogy Section of the Institute of the Theory and History of Pedagogy of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR. It gives a comprehensive picture of the history, main categories,…

  1. 43 CFR 2.37 - What general principles govern fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What general principles govern fees? 2.37 Section 2.37 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY Fees § 2.37 What general principles govern fees? (a) The bureau will charge...

  2. 43 CFR 2.37 - What general principles govern fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What general principles govern fees? 2.37 Section 2.37 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY Fees § 2.37 What general principles govern fees? (a) The bureau will charge...

  3. 34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 76.530 Section 76.530 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants...

  4. 29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General... involve administrative hearings. If such administrative hearings are held, we encourage their audiovisual coverage. (b) Audiovisual coverage shall be excluded in adjudicatory proceedings involving the rights...

  5. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT.... The availability of deposit insurance is not limited to citizens and residents of the United States... deposit insurance provided by the Act and this part. In addition, deposits denominated in a...

  6. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT.... The availability of deposit insurance is not limited to citizens and residents of the United States... deposit insurance provided by the Act and this part. In addition, deposits denominated in a...

  7. 21 CFR 101.13 - general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    1996-04-01

    ... content claims FOOD AND DRUGS FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES--CONTINUED FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions Sec. 101.13 Nutrient content claims... supplements). (b) A claim that expressly or implicitly characterizes the level of a nutrient (nutrient...

  8. Effect of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on post-inflation preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Chemissany, Wissam; Das, Saurya; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Vagenas, Elias C. E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca E-mail: evagenas@academyofathens.gr

    2011-12-01

    We examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, predicted by various theories of quantum gravity to replace the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle near the Planck scale, on post inflation preheating in cosmology, and show that it can predict either an increase or a decrease in parametric resonance and a corresponding change in particle production. Possible implications are considered.

  9. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...

  10. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...

  11. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...

  12. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...

  13. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...

  14. Generalized principles of unchanging total concentration.

    PubMed

    Kottke, Peter A; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2005-09-01

    We consider the transport of multiple reacting species under the continuum assumption in situations such as those that frequently arise in electroanalytical chemistry. Under certain limitations, it has been shown that the total species concentration (as defined by Oldham and Feldberg) of such a system is uniform and constant. In this work, we extend the limits of the previous analysis to enable greater applicability. This is accomplished by using either of two new dependent variables, which are generalizations of the concept of total concentration. Then, conditions are determined under which the dependent variable will be uniform and constant in time. From a practical viewpoint, the described formalism allows one to simplify the multispecies transport problem formulation by eliminating one equation from the system of governing equations.

  15. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, Martin

    2010-10-15

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  16. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-09-01

    The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  17. Fluorescent-protein-based probes: general principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hui-Wang

    2015-01-01

    An important application of fluorescent proteins is to derive genetically encoded fluorescent probes that can actively respond to cellular dynamics such as pH change, redox signaling, calcium oscillation, enzyme activities, and membrane potential. Despite the large diverse group of fluorescent-protein-based probes, a few basic principles have been established and are shared by most of these probes. In this article, the focus is on these general principles and strategies that guide the development of fluorescent-protein-based probes. A few examples are provided in each category to illustrate the corresponding principles. Since these principles are quite straightforward, others may adapt them to create fluorescent probes for their own interest. Hopefully, the development of the ever-growing family of fluorescent-protein-based probes will no longer be limited to a small number of laboratories specialized in senor development, leading to the situation that biological studies will be bettered assisted by genetically encoded sensors.

  18. Examining the Generality of Self-Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Prompting students to self-explain during problem solving has proven to be an effective instructional strategy across many domains. However, despite being called "domain general", very little work has been done in areas outside of math and science. In this dissertation, I investigate whether the self-explanation effect holds when applied…

  19. Generalized Franck-Condon principle for resonant photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sałek, Paweł; Gel'mukhanov, Faris; Ågren, Hans; Björneholm, Olle; Svensson, Svante

    1999-10-01

    A generalized Franck-Condon (GFC) principle for resonant x-ray Raman scattering and for resonant photoemission in particular is derived and numerically investigated. The GFC amplitudes differ from ordinary FC amplitudes by the presence of photon and photoelectron phase factors which describe the coupling-or interference-of the x-ray photons or Auger electrons with the nuclear motion. With the GFC amplitudes, a Kramers-Heisenberg relation is obtained for vibronic transitions that corrects the so-called lifetime-vibrational interference formula. For resonant photoemission in the soft-x-ray region involving typical bound potential surfaces, the generalization gives a contribution to the FC factors that can amount to 20%. For core excitation above the dissociation threshold, the GFC principle relates to Doppler effects on the ejected photoelectron both for the so-called ``molecular'' and ``atomic'' bands. The role of the GFC principle in direct photoionization is briefly discussed.

  20. 23 CFR 627.5 - General principles and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... project meeting the project criteria in 23 CFR 627.1(a), the STDs shall fulfill the value engineering... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS VALUE ENGINEERING § 627.5 General principles and procedures. (a) State VE programs. State...

  1. 2 CFR 200.49 - Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). 200.49 Section 200.49 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...

  2. 34 CFR 75.530 - General cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 75.530 Section 75.530... determining costs applicable to grants and cost-type contracts under grants are specified at 34 CFR 74.27 (for administration of grants to institutions of higher education, and other non-profit organizations) and 34 CFR...

  3. Quaternionic quantization principle in general relativity and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kober, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A generalized quantization principle is considered, which incorporates nontrivial commutation relations of the components of the variables of the quantized theory with the components of the corresponding canonical conjugated momenta referring to other space-time directions. The corresponding commutation relations are formulated by using quaternions. At the beginning, this extended quantization concept is applied to the variables of quantum mechanics. The resulting Dirac equation and the corresponding generalized expression for plane waves are formulated and some consequences for quantum field theory are considered. Later, the quaternionic quantization principle is transferred to canonical quantum gravity. Within quantum geometrodynamics as well as the Ashtekar formalism, the generalized algebraic properties of the operators describing the gravitational observables and the corresponding quantum constraints implied by the generalized representations of these operators are determined. The generalized algebra also induces commutation relations of the several components of the quantized variables with each other. Finally, the quaternionic quantization procedure is also transferred to 𝒩 = 1 supergravity. Accordingly, the quantization principle has to be generalized to be compatible with Dirac brackets, which appear in canonical quantum supergravity.

  4. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-11-01

    A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  5. Examining Major Rankings According to the Berlin Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Nian Cai

    2008-01-01

    While the ranking of higher education institutions (HEIs) has become more and more popular, there are increasing concerns about the quality of such ranking. In response to such legitimate expectations, in May 2006, the International Ranking Expert Group (IREG) developed and endorsed a guideline document--the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher…

  6. Some General Principles in Cryogenic Design, Implementation, and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael James

    2015-01-01

    Brief Course Description: In 2 hours only the most basic principles of cryogenics can be presented. I will concentrate on the differences between a room temperature thermal analysis and cryogenic thermal analysis, namely temperature dependent properties. I will talk about practical materials for thermal contact and isolation. I will finish by describing the verification process and instrumentation used that is unique to cryogenic (in general less than 100K) systems.

  7. Quantum black hole in the generalized uncertainty principle framework

    SciTech Connect

    Bina, A.; Moslehi, A.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we study the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on canonical quantum gravity of black holes. Through the use of modified partition function that involves the effects of the GUP, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of the Schwarzschild black hole. We also calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy for the modification of the Schwarzschild black hole in the presence of the GUP.

  8. Generalized uncertainty principle in Bianchi type I quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, B.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2007-07-01

    We study a quantum Bianchi type I model in which the dynamical variables of the corresponding minisuperspace obey the generalized Heisenberg algebra. Such a generalized uncertainty principle has its origin in the existence of a minimal length suggested by quantum gravity and sting theory. We present approximate analytical solutions to the corresponding Wheeler DeWitt equation in the limit where the scale factor of the universe is small and compare the results with the standard commutative and noncommutative quantum cosmology. Similarities and differences of these solutions are also discussed.

  9. Constraining the generalized uncertainty principle with cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dongfeng; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2016-07-01

    Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which implies the Planck-scale modifications of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to a so-called generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Previous studies of the GUP focused on its implications for high-energy physics, cosmology, and astrophysics. Here the application of the GUP to low-energy quantum systems, and particularly cold atoms, is studied. Results from the 87Rb atom recoil experiment are used to set upper bounds on parameters in three different GUP proposals. A 1014-level bound on the Ali-Das-Vagenas proposal is found, which is the second best bound so far. A 1026-level bound on Maggiore's proposal is obtained, which turns out to be the best available bound on it.

  10. Minisuperspace dynamics in a generalized uncertainty principle framework

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, Marco Valerio; Montani, Giovanni

    2008-01-03

    The minisuperspace dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) and of the Taub Universes in the context of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle is analyzed in detail. In particular, the motion of the wave packets is investigated and, in both the models, the classical singularity appear to be probabilistic suppressed. Moreover, the FRW wave packets approach the Planckian region in a stationary way and no evidences for a Big-Bounce, as predicted in Loop Quantum Cosmology, appear. On the other hand, the Taub wave packets provide the right behavior in predicting an isotropic Universe.

  11. A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles

    SciTech Connect

    Dewar, Roderick C.

    2014-12-05

    Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential Ψ for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that Ψ is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of Ψ with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–Ψ are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in Ψ is given in terms of the second law, although min–Ψ itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law.

  12. Cosmological constant implementing Mach principle in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namavarian, Nadereh; Farhoudi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    We consider the fact that noticing on the operational meaning of the physical concepts played an impetus role in the appearance of general relativity (GR). Thus, we have paid more attention to the operational definition of the gravitational coupling constant in this theory as a dimensional constant which is gained through an experiment. However, as all available experiments just provide the value of this constant locally, this coupling constant can operationally be meaningful only in a local area. Regarding this point, to obtain an extension of GR for the large scale, we replace it by a conformal invariant model and then, reduce this model to a theory for the cosmological scale via breaking down the conformal symmetry through singling out a specific conformal frame which is characterized by the large scale characteristics of the universe. Finally, we come to the same field equations that historically were proposed by Einstein for the cosmological scale (GR plus the cosmological constant) as the result of his endeavor for making GR consistent with the Mach principle. However, we declare that the obtained field equations in this alternative approach do not carry the problem of the field equations proposed by Einstein for being consistent with Mach's principle (i.e., the existence of de Sitter solution), and can also be considered compatible with this principle in the Sciama view.

  13. Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Thermostatistics: A Semiclassical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasiyan-Motlaq, Mohammad; Pedram, Pouria

    2016-04-01

    We present an exact treatment of the thermodynamics of physical systems in the framework of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Our purpose is to study and compare the consequences of two GUPs that one implies a minimal length while the other predicts a minimal length and a maximal momentum. Using a semiclassical method, we exactly calculate the modified internal energies and heat capacities in the presence of generalized commutation relations. We show that the total shift in these quantities only depends on the deformed algebra not on the system under study. Finally, the modified internal energy for an specific physical system such as ideal gas is obtained in the framework of two different GUPs.

  14. Explaining Compound Generalization in Associative and Causal Learning Through Rational Principles of Dimensional Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Fabian A.; Gershman, Samuel J.; Niv, Yael

    2014-01-01

    How do we apply learning from one situation to a similar, but not identical, situation? The principles governing the extent to which animals and humans generalize what they have learned about certain stimuli to novel compounds containing those stimuli vary depending on a number of factors. Perhaps the best studied among these factors is the type of stimuli used to generate compounds. One prominent hypothesis is that different generalization principles apply depending on whether the stimuli in a compound are similar or dissimilar to each other. However, the results of many experiments cannot be explained by this hypothesis. Here we propose a rational Bayesian theory of compound generalization that uses the notion of consequential regions, first developed in the context of rational theories of multidimensional generalization, to explain the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization. The model explains a large number of results from the compound generalization literature, including the influence of stimulus modality and spatial contiguity on the summation effect, the lack of influence of stimulus factors on summation with a recovered inhibitor, the effect of spatial position of stimuli on the blocking effect, the asymmetrical generalization decrement in overshadowing and external inhibition, and the conditions leading to a reliable external inhibition effect. By integrating rational theories of compound and dimensional generalization, our model provides the first comprehensive computational account of the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization, including spatial and temporal contiguity between components, which have posed longstanding problems for rational theories of associative and causal learning. PMID:25090430

  15. [General principles of tumour biology in visceral surgery].

    PubMed

    Emons, G; Ghadimi, M; Grade, M

    2015-02-01

    Within the last decade, there has been a tremendous progress in understanding the molecular basis of cancer. In particular, the development and the characteristic features of cancer cells are being increasingly understood. The understanding of these molecular characteristics is mandatory for the development of novel, targeted therapeutic strategies and their integration into clinical practice. In addition, tumour genetics play a critically important role for hereditary cancer syndromes, with respect to both diagnostics and clinical decision-making. The aim of this review is to highlight general principles of tumour genetics from a visceral surgeon's point of view, although a comprehensive summary of all aspects would be beyond the scope of this article due to the complexity of the topic.

  16. Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Parikh-Wilczek Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid

    We investigate the modifications of the Hawking radiation by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) and the tunneling process. By using the GUP-corrected de Broglie wavelength, the squeezing of the fundamental momentum cell, and consequently a GUP-corrected energy, we find the nonthermal effects which lead to a nonzero statistical correlation function between probabilities of tunneling of two massive particles with different energies. Then the recovery of part of the information from the black hole radiation is feasible. From the other point of view, the inclusion of the effects of quantum gravity as the GUP expression can halt the evaporation process, so that a stable black hole remnant is left behind, including the other part of the black hole information content. Therefore, these features of the Planck-scale corrections may solve the information problem in black hole evaporation.

  17. An interesting consequence of the general principle of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøn, Øyvind; Jemterud, Torkild

    2016-04-01

    We show that Einstein's general theory of relativity, together with the assumption that the principle of relativity encompasses rotational motion, predicts that in a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe model with dust and Lorentz Invariant Vacuum Energy (LIVE), the density parameter of vacuum energy must have the value Ω_{Λ 0}=0.737. The physical mechanism connecting the relativity of rotational motion with the energy density of dark energy is the inertial dragging effect. The predicted value is necessary in order to have perfect inertial dragging, which is required for rotational motion to be relative. If one accepts that due to the impossibility of defining motion for a single particle in an otherwise empty universe, the universe must be constructed so that all types of motion are relative, then this solves the so-called cosmological constant problem.

  18. Principles and Practices: An Empirical Examination of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William T.; Bhati, Kuldhir S.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the 50 qualitative studies published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP) over a 15-year period in light of methodological principles advocated by qualitative theorists. The match between practices and principles is not high. In the modal investigation, coders (most of whom did not interact with or observe…

  19. Entropy principle, non-regular processes, and generalized exploitation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, V.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The classical Coleman-Noll approach to the exploitation of the entropy principle regards the classical balances of mass, linear and angular momentum and energy as differential constraints for the entropy inequality, and presupposes that the second law of thermodynamics is a restriction on the constitutive equations describing the material properties [B. D. Coleman and W. Noll, "The thermodynamics of elastic materials with heat conduction and viscosity," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 13, 167-178 (1963), 10.1007/BF01262690]. In 1996, Muschik and Ehrentraut proved that this presupposition may be confirmed by a rigorous proof, provided that an amendment to the classical second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that, except in equilibria, reversible process directions in state space do not exist, is postulated ["An amendment to the second law," J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 21, 175-192 (1996), 10.1515/jnet.1996.21.2.175]. In their paper, the authors considered regular processes only. In a recent article [V. Triani and V. A. Cimmelli, "Interpretation of second law of thermodynamics in the presence of interfaces," Continuum. Mech. Thermodyn. 24, 165-174 (2012), 10.1007/s00161-011-0231-8], we proved that the result above remains valid in the presence of interfaces across which the unknown fields suffer jump discontinuities. Here, we show that the same conclusions achieved by Muschik and Ehrentraut and Triani and Cimmelli hold when the classical Coleman-Noll and Liu ["Method of Lagrange multipliers for exploitation of the entropy principle," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 46, 131-148 (1972), 10.1007/BF00250688] procedures for the exploitation of the second law, are generalized by considering also the gradients of the fundamental balance equations as constraints for the entropy inequality.

  20. Examining the Principles of Influence on Safer Sex Communication During Casual and Committed Sexual Encounters.

    PubMed

    Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Rinaldi-Miles, Anna; Quick, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Teens and young people are at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. Understanding how relationship context may moderate the effectiveness of safer sex communication strategies among this demographic is important information for practitioners striving to promote safer sex behaviors. In this study, focus groups (N = 9) with college students were conducted and analyzed to examine the relation between 6 principles of influence (authority, consistency, liking, reciprocity, scarcity, and social proof) and safer sex communication during committed and casual sexual encounters. Results revealed that with the exceptions of social proof and consistency, the principles of influence were endorsed more frequently for casual than committed sexual encounters. For casual sexual encounters, the principles of authority, reciprocity, and scarcity arose as influential principles. For committed sexual encounters, the principles of consistency, liking, and reciprocity arose as influential principles. These results are discussed with an emphasis on the theoretical and practical implications.

  1. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    2016-07-01

    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  2. General principles and stages of optimal AFCS design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, A.; Zaitsev, Ie.

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the paper is a discussion of general principle and stages of the optimal analog feedback communication systems (AFCS) design. Previous research devoted to the analysis of particularities of AFCS functioning gave necessary analytical basis for transition to practical design of optimal AFCS. This is new class of communication systems (CS) transmitting the signals, under given bit error rate (BER), with bit rate equal to the capacity of the forward channel and power-bandwidth efficiency attaining the theoretical limit. In the paper, we describe the ordered sequence of the stages of transition from the abstract results to designing of the pre-commercial versions of optimal AFCS considering them as the basic communication link "sensor node (SN)" - "base station" (BS) of the wireless sensor network (WSN). We also show that verified theoretical results enable analytically argued decision making at different stages of designing of the high quality and energy efficient WSN communication links. This facilitates optimisation of the project works schedule, distribution of the tasks and resources for their realization, reduce the time and cost of design.

  3. Oral Sexual Experience among Young Adolescents Receiving General Health Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…

  4. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  5. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.3 Application of generally accepted accounting principles. Each institution shall: (a) Prepare...

  6. General rule for boundary conditions from the action principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Roee

    2016-03-01

    We construct models where initial and boundary conditions can be found from the fundamental rules of physics, without the need to assume them, they will be derived from the action principle. Those constraints are established from physical viewpoint, and it is not in the form of Lagrange multipliers. We show some examples from the past and some new examples that can be useful, where constraint can be obtained from the action principle. Those actions represent physical models. We show that it is possible to use our rule to get those constraints directly.

  7. Thermodynamics of Black Holes and the Symmetric Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black holes using the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle which contains correction terms involving momentum and position uncertainty. The mass-temperature relationship and the heat capacity for these black holes have been computed using which the critical and remnant masses have been obtained. The entropy is found to satisfy the area law upto leading order logarithmic corrections and corrections of the form A 2 (which is a new finding in this paper) from the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle.

  8. Path Integral for Dirac oscillator with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Benzair, H.; Boudjedaa, T.; Merad, M.

    2012-12-15

    The propagator for Dirac oscillator in (1+1) dimension, with deformed commutation relation of the Heisenberg principle, is calculated using path integral in quadri-momentum representation. As the mass is related to momentum, we then adapt the space-time transformation method to evaluate quantum corrections and this latter is dependent from the point discretization interval.

  9. Utilization of the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education in general chemistry by community college instructors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panther Bishoff, Jennifer

    In recent years, higher education has undergone many changes. The advent of assessment, accountability, and a newfound focus on teaching have required faculty to examine how they are teaching. Administrators and faculty are beginning to recognize that learning is not a "one size fits all" enterprise. To this end, Chickering and Gamson developed an inventory that examined faculty utilization of the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. The seven principles included by the authors included faculty-student interaction, cooperative learning, active learning, giving prompt feedback, emphasizing time on task, communicating high expectations, and respecting diverse talents and ways of learning. It was determined by Chickering and Gamson, as well as many other researchers, that these seven principles were hallmarks of successful undergraduate education. Community colleges are important institutions to study, as many students begin their higher education at two-year colleges. Most students are also required to take one or more science classes for their general education requirements; therefore, many students must take at least one general chemistry course. Both community colleges and chemistry are rarely studied in literature, which makes this study important. Community college general chemistry instructors were surveyed using an online version of Chickering and Gamson's Faculty Inventory for the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. Responses were analyzed, and it was discovered that not only did instructors utilize the principles to a different extent, but there were also differences between genders as well as between the specific actions related to each principle.

  10. Principle of reciprocity solves the most important problems in bioimpedance and in general in bioelectromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmivuo, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    Though the principle of reciprocity was invented by Hermann von Helmholtz already over 150 years ago, and though it is a very powerful tool in solving various important problems in bioelectromagnetism, it is not generally used. In impedance tomography the measurement sensitivity distribution has generally been misunderstood. This can be easily demonstrated with the principle of reciprocity. Some other applications of the principle of reciprocity are also discussed.

  11. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...

  12. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...

  13. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...

  14. [Gynecological ultrasound examination at the general health care emergency department].

    PubMed

    Forsbom, Otto; Väyrynen, Tapio; Hurskainen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal ultrasound examination is a possible addition for the general health care emergency department. It gives additional information of gynecological illnesses and pregnancy. Ultrasound can guide treatment and make consulting the right specialty easier when treating women with acute abdominal pain. Correctly used ultrasound can also reduce the need for consultation and speed up treatment, especially in early pregnancy. The physician performing the ultrasound should know the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound and compare findings to the clinical status and history. Ultrasound can't replace clinical history and status in any situation. A pregnancy test, hemoglobin or CRP are often required to achieve diagnosis.

  15. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    PubMed

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    nonmonetary variables was developed. In it the radiologist, radiographer and examination-specific equipment costs were allocated to the examinations applying estimated cost equivalents. Some minor cost items were replaced by a general cost factor (GCF). The program is suitable for internal cost accounting of radiological departments as well as regional planning. If more accurate cost information is required, cost assignment employing the actual consumption of the resources and applying the principles of activity-based cost accounting is recommended. As an application of the cost accounting formula the average costs of the radiological examinations were calculated. In conventional radiography the average proportion of the cost factors in the total material was: personnel costs 43%, equipment costs 26%, material costs 7%, real estate costs 11%, administration and overheads 14%. The average total costs including radiologist costs in the hospitals were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 188, contrast medium examinations 695, ultrasound 296, mammography 315, roentgen examinations with mobile equipment 1578. The average total costs without radiologist costs in the public health centres were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 107, contrast medium examinations 988, ultrasound 203, mammography 557. The average currency rate of exchange in 1991 was USD 1 = FIM 4.046. The following formula is proposed for calculating the cost of a radiological examination (or a group of examinations) performed with a certain piece of equipment during a period of time (e.g. 1 year): a2/ sigma ax*ax+ b2/ sigma bx*bx+ d1/d5*dx+ e1 + [(c1+ c2) + d4 + (e2 - e3) + f5 + g1+ g2+ i]/n.

  16. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    PubMed

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    nonmonetary variables was developed. In it the radiologist, radiographer and examination-specific equipment costs were allocated to the examinations applying estimated cost equivalents. Some minor cost items were replaced by a general cost factor (GCF). The program is suitable for internal cost accounting of radiological departments as well as regional planning. If more accurate cost information is required, cost assignment employing the actual consumption of the resources and applying the principles of activity-based cost accounting is recommended. As an application of the cost accounting formula the average costs of the radiological examinations were calculated. In conventional radiography the average proportion of the cost factors in the total material was: personnel costs 43%, equipment costs 26%, material costs 7%, real estate costs 11%, administration and overheads 14%. The average total costs including radiologist costs in the hospitals were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 188, contrast medium examinations 695, ultrasound 296, mammography 315, roentgen examinations with mobile equipment 1578. The average total costs without radiologist costs in the public health centres were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 107, contrast medium examinations 988, ultrasound 203, mammography 557. The average currency rate of exchange in 1991 was USD 1 = FIM 4.046. The following formula is proposed for calculating the cost of a radiological examination (or a group of examinations) performed with a certain piece of equipment during a period of time (e.g. 1 year): a2/ sigma ax*ax+ b2/ sigma bx*bx+ d1/d5*dx+ e1 + [(c1+ c2) + d4 + (e2 - e3) + f5 + g1+ g2+ i]/n. PMID:8804226

  17. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  18. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  19. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  20. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  1. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  2. General health screening as part of a periodontal examination.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sarah L

    2010-12-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are common systemic illnesses with reliable, predictive risk factors. CVD is the number one killer worldwide accounting for nearly 30% of deaths and type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in many western industrialized countries. Both of these illnesses can go undiagnosed in an alarming number of people for significant periods of time. The relationship between oral health and systemic health has become the focus of much discussion and research in recent times. It is now widely accepted that periodontal disease is associated with systemic illnesses such as CVD and type 2 diabetes. Cigarette smoking and obesity are major risk factors accounting for a large portion of the global disease burden. Many periodontal patients may be at risk of systemic conditions but be asymptomatic and undiagnosed. With an aging population who are mostly retaining their natural dentition, the need for periodontal management will continue to rise in the future. Dental professionals are well placed to perform general health screening for their patients. Therefore, risk assessment during the periodontal examination may facilitate the early identification of the large proportion of people who are unaware of their risk status. As identification and intervention of patients with increased risk factors is key to lowering the systemic disease burden, general health screening during periodontal examinations may present an important opportunity for many patients.

  3. A generalized energy principle for a magnetorotational instability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, Emanuele; Morrison, Phil; Tronko, Natalia

    2012-03-01

    We study the equilibria of the Magnetorotational Instability system by using the noncanonical Hamiltonian approach [1], since it provides variational principles for equilibria that can be used to assess stability. We show that a reduced system of equations derived in [2] is an infinite-dimensional noncanonical Hamiltonian system. The noncanonical Poisson bracket is identified and shown to obey the Jacobi identity, and families of Casimir invariants are obtained. Explicit sufficient conditions for the energy stability of two classes of equilibria are identified by means of the Energy-Casimir method. Comparison between the stability conditions obtained in the two cases indicates that the presence of an equilibirum magnetic field along the direction of the ignorable coordinate does not introduce destabilizing effects. An analogy is found and physically interpreted between terms of the MRI perturbation energy and terms appearing in the energy principle stability analysis of CRMHD for tokamaks [3].[4pt] [1] P. J. Morrison, Rev. Mod. Phys., 70, 467 (1998).[0pt] [2] K. Julien and E. Knobloch, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 386A,1607 (2010).[0pt] [3] R.D. Hazeltine, et. al, Phys. Fluids 28, 2466 (1985).

  4. Physical anthropology: the search for general processes and principles.

    PubMed

    Lasker, G W

    1970-02-01

    Physical anthropology consists of two interdependent types of study: (1) the biological history of man and (2) general biological processes in man (such as mechanisms of evolution and growth). Popular interest may focus on the former, the fascinating story of the origin of man and of specific people, but the latter affords physical anthropology potential practical value in respect to medicine, dentistry, public health, and population policy. The study of general processes is the study of human beings in particular situations, not for what we can learn about these particular populations but for the sake of generalization about mankind anywhere in comparable situations. This is, of course, the purpose of experimental science in general, but in anthropology the method is usually comparative. Long ago the study of the growth of the two sexes and of children in different countries was started on a comparative basis as was the study of the so-called secular change in adult stature. By 1911 Franz Boas had compared the changes in stature and head form of children of several different immigrant groups in the United States. There have since been comparative studies of the amount and distribution of body fat (but not yet adequate comparative measurements of the relation of tissue components to diet and to diseases). Demographic patterns, inbreeding, outbreeding, and their effects are other general problems. The Human Adaptability Project of the International Biological Program promises studies of human response to heat, cold, altitude, and other conditions on a wide international basis. If supported, these could turn physical anthropology's search in a useful direction. The functional biology of people of even out-of-the-way communities will be compared with each other. These studies can yield general statements concerning human response to types of ecological situation including such sociocultural conditions as those of hunting-gathering tribes and urban slums. PMID:19681215

  5. Physical anthropology: the search for general processes and principles.

    PubMed

    Lasker, G W

    1970-02-01

    Physical anthropology consists of two interdependent types of study: (1) the biological history of man and (2) general biological processes in man (such as mechanisms of evolution and growth). Popular interest may focus on the former, the fascinating story of the origin of man and of specific people, but the latter affords physical anthropology potential practical value in respect to medicine, dentistry, public health, and population policy. The study of general processes is the study of human beings in particular situations, not for what we can learn about these particular populations but for the sake of generalization about mankind anywhere in comparable situations. This is, of course, the purpose of experimental science in general, but in anthropology the method is usually comparative. Long ago the study of the growth of the two sexes and of children in different countries was started on a comparative basis as was the study of the so-called secular change in adult stature. By 1911 Franz Boas had compared the changes in stature and head form of children of several different immigrant groups in the United States. There have since been comparative studies of the amount and distribution of body fat (but not yet adequate comparative measurements of the relation of tissue components to diet and to diseases). Demographic patterns, inbreeding, outbreeding, and their effects are other general problems. The Human Adaptability Project of the International Biological Program promises studies of human response to heat, cold, altitude, and other conditions on a wide international basis. If supported, these could turn physical anthropology's search in a useful direction. The functional biology of people of even out-of-the-way communities will be compared with each other. These studies can yield general statements concerning human response to types of ecological situation including such sociocultural conditions as those of hunting-gathering tribes and urban slums.

  6. General principles of medical interconsultation for hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Montero-Ruiz, E; Gil-Díaz, A; Castiella-Herrero, J

    2016-01-01

    Medical interconsultation for hospitalised patients is a regular activity among internal medicine specialists. However, despite its growing impact and importance, a model that defines its characteristics, objectives and information has not been established. This study, conducted by the Shared Care and Interconsultations Group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, proposes a number of general recommendations concerning the method for requesting and responding to hospital medical interconsultations, as well as a format for these interconsultations.

  7. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... principles; status of old target and new target. (a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections...

  8. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... principles; status of old target and new target. (a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections...

  9. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... principles; status of old target and new target. (a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections...

  10. Students' Misunderstandings about the Energy Conservation Principle: A General View to Studies in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Munir

    2007-01-01

    This paper serves to review previously reported studies on students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle (the first law of thermodynamics). Generally, studies in literature highlighted students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle stem from preliminaries about energy concept in daily life. Since prior…

  11. Guiding Principles for Including High School Students with Intellectual Disabilities in General Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Mary Beth; Giangreco, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides teachers and administrators with a description of foundational principles and curricular approaches to create meaningful educational experiences for secondary students with intellectual disabilities in inclusive general education classes. The four principles provide: (a) the least dangerous assumption, (b) partial…

  12. A generalized Poisson solver for first-principles device simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; Brück, Sascha; Luisier, Mathieu; VandeVondele, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of atomistic systems based on density functional theory involve solving the Poisson equation. In this paper, we present a plane-wave based algorithm for solving the generalized Poisson equation subject to periodic or homogeneous Neumann conditions on the boundaries of the simulation cell and Dirichlet type conditions imposed at arbitrary subdomains. In this way, source, drain, and gate voltages can be imposed across atomistic models of electronic devices. Dirichlet conditions are enforced as constraints in a variational framework giving rise to a saddle point problem. The resulting system of equations is then solved using a stationary iterative method in which the generalized Poisson operator is preconditioned with the standard Laplace operator. The solver can make use of any sufficiently smooth function modelling the dielectric constant, including density dependent dielectric continuum models. For all the boundary conditions, consistent derivatives are available and molecular dynamics simulations can be performed. The convergence behaviour of the scheme is investigated and its capabilities are demonstrated.

  13. A generalized Poisson solver for first-principles device simulations.

    PubMed

    Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; Brück, Sascha; Luisier, Mathieu; VandeVondele, Joost

    2016-01-28

    Electronic structure calculations of atomistic systems based on density functional theory involve solving the Poisson equation. In this paper, we present a plane-wave based algorithm for solving the generalized Poisson equation subject to periodic or homogeneous Neumann conditions on the boundaries of the simulation cell and Dirichlet type conditions imposed at arbitrary subdomains. In this way, source, drain, and gate voltages can be imposed across atomistic models of electronic devices. Dirichlet conditions are enforced as constraints in a variational framework giving rise to a saddle point problem. The resulting system of equations is then solved using a stationary iterative method in which the generalized Poisson operator is preconditioned with the standard Laplace operator. The solver can make use of any sufficiently smooth function modelling the dielectric constant, including density dependent dielectric continuum models. For all the boundary conditions, consistent derivatives are available and molecular dynamics simulations can be performed. The convergence behaviour of the scheme is investigated and its capabilities are demonstrated. PMID:26827208

  14. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.3 Application of generally accepted...

  15. Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

  16. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, David

    2016-01-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray’s law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray’s law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows. PMID:27493583

  17. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2016-07-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray's law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray's law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows.

  18. Examining kinesin processivity within a general gating framework

    PubMed Central

    Andreasson, Johan OL; Milic, Bojan; Chen, Geng-Yuan; Guydosh, Nicholas R; Hancock, William O; Block, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Kinesin-1 is a dimeric motor that transports cargo along microtubules, taking 8.2-nm steps in a hand-over-hand fashion. The ATP hydrolysis cycles of its two heads are maintained out of phase by a series of gating mechanisms, which lead to processive runs averaging ∼1 μm. A key structural element for inter-head coordination is the neck linker (NL), which connects the heads to the stalk. To examine the role of the NL in regulating stepping, we investigated NL mutants of various lengths using single-molecule optical trapping and bulk fluorescence approaches in the context of a general framework for gating. Our results show that, although inter-head tension enhances motor velocity, it is crucial neither for inter-head coordination nor for rapid rear-head release. Furthermore, cysteine-light mutants do not produce wild-type motility under load. We conclude that kinesin-1 is primarily front-head gated, and that NL length is tuned to enhance unidirectional processivity and velocity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07403.001 PMID:25902401

  19. Entropy of the Randall-Sundrum brane world with the generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Wontae; Park, Young-Jai; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2006-11-15

    By introducing the generalized uncertainty principle, we calculate the entropy of the bulk scalar field on the Randall-Sundrum brane background without any cutoff. We obtain the entropy of the massive scalar field proportional to the horizon area. Here, we observe that the mass contribution to the entropy exists in contrast to all previous results of the usual black hole cases with the generalized uncertainty principle.

  20. Generalized energy principle for flute perturbations in axisymmetric mirror machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lansky, I.M.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1993-01-20

    Axial symmetry is a very desirable property of the mirror devices both for fusion and neutron source applications. The main obstacle to be circumvented in the development of such systems, is the flute instability of axisymmetric mirrors. In recent years there appeared a number of proposals, devoted to the stabilization of the flute perturbations in the framework of axisymmetric magnetic configurations, which are based on the combining of the MHD unstable central cell with various types of end-cell stabilizers. In the present paper we concentrate ourselves just on this scheme, including long solenoid with a uniform field, conjugated with the end stabilizing anchor, intended to provide MHD stability of the system as a whole. The attractive feature of such a configuration is that it allows to exploit finite larmor radius (FLR) effects for the stabilization of the flute perturbations. As is well known, FLR effects, being strong, stabilize all flute modes, except the one with azimuthal number m = 1, corresponding to the ``rigid`` displacement of the plasma column (the ``global`` mode). Consequently, in the conditions when FLR effects dominate, the anchor has to stabilize the ``global` mode only. Bearing in mind a favorable influence of FLR effects we, however, don`t restrict our paper by discussion of only ``global`` mode stability and consider a general case of an arbitrary azimuthal mode.

  1. Examining the principles in principled conservatism: the role of responsibility stereotypes as cues for deservingness in racial policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Christine; Henry, P J; Korfmacher, William; Tucker, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Why do educated conservatives oppose affirmative action? Those in the "principled conservatism" camp say opposition is based on principled judgments of fairness about the policies. Others, however, argue that opposition is based on racism. The present article offers an alternative perspective that may reconcile these contradictory points of view. In 2 studies, the authors show 2 major findings: (a) that conservatives oppose affirmative action more for Blacks than for other groups, in this case women, and (b) that the relationship between conservatism and affirmative action attitudes is mediated best by group-based stereotypes that offer deservingness information and not by other potential mediators like old-fashioned racism or the perceived threat that affirmative action poses to oneself. The authors conclude that educated conservatives are indeed principled in their opposition to affirmative action, but those principles are group based not policy based.

  2. Examining the principles in principled conservatism: the role of responsibility stereotypes as cues for deservingness in racial policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Christine; Henry, P J; Korfmacher, William; Tucker, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Why do educated conservatives oppose affirmative action? Those in the "principled conservatism" camp say opposition is based on principled judgments of fairness about the policies. Others, however, argue that opposition is based on racism. The present article offers an alternative perspective that may reconcile these contradictory points of view. In 2 studies, the authors show 2 major findings: (a) that conservatives oppose affirmative action more for Blacks than for other groups, in this case women, and (b) that the relationship between conservatism and affirmative action attitudes is mediated best by group-based stereotypes that offer deservingness information and not by other potential mediators like old-fashioned racism or the perceived threat that affirmative action poses to oneself. The authors conclude that educated conservatives are indeed principled in their opposition to affirmative action, but those principles are group based not policy based. PMID:16448313

  3. A generalization of Chetaev's principle for a class of higher order nonholonomic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendra, Hernán; Ibort, Alberto; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David

    2004-07-01

    The constraint distribution in nonholonomic mechanics has a double role. On the one hand, it is a kinematic constraint, that is, it is a restriction on the motion itself. On the other hand, it is also a restriction on the allowed variations when using D'Alembert's principle to derive the equations of motion. We will show that many systems of physical interest where D'Alembert's principle does not apply can be conveniently modeled within the general idea of the principle of virtual work by the introduction of both kinematic constraints and variational constraints as being independent entities. This includes, for example, elastic rolling bodies and pneumatic tires. Also, D'Alembert's principle and Chetaev's principle fall into this scheme. We emphasize the geometric point of view, avoiding the use of local coordinates, which is the appropriate setting for dealing with questions of global nature, like reduction.

  4. Generalized Fermat's principle and action for light rays in a curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-09-01

    We start with formulation of the generalized Fermat’s principle for light propagation in a curved spacetime. We apply Pontryagin’s minimum principle of the optimal control theory and obtain an effective Hamiltonian for null geodesics in a curved spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that dynamical equations for this Hamiltonian correctly reproduce null geodesic equations. Other forms of the action for light rays in a curved spacetime are also discussed.

  5. Communication: Maximum caliber is a general variational principle for nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hazoglou, Michael J; Walther, Valentin; Dixit, Purushottam D; Dill, Ken A

    2015-08-01

    There has been interest in finding a general variational principle for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We give evidence that Maximum Caliber (Max Cal) is such a principle. Max Cal, a variant of maximum entropy, predicts dynamical distribution functions by maximizing a path entropy subject to dynamical constraints, such as average fluxes. We first show that Max Cal leads to standard near-equilibrium results—including the Green-Kubo relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations of coupled flows, and Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production—in a way that is particularly simple. We develop some generalizations of the Onsager and Prigogine results that apply arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Because Max Cal does not require any notion of "local equilibrium," or any notion of entropy dissipation, or temperature, or even any restriction to material physics, it is more general than many traditional approaches. It also applicable to flows and traffic on networks, for example. PMID:26254635

  6. The entropy of the noncommutative acoustic black hole based on generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.; Santos, W. P.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we investigate statistical entropy of a 3-dimensional rotating acoustic black hole based on generalized uncertainty principle. In our results we obtain an area entropy and a correction term associated with the noncommutative acoustic black hole when λ introduced in the generalized uncertainty principle takes a specific value. However, in this method, it is not needed to introduce the ultraviolet cut-off and divergences are eliminated. Moreover, the small mass approximation is not necessary in the original brick-wall model.

  7. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-09-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice.

  8. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-12-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice.

  9. What buoyancy really is. A generalized Archimedes' principle for sedimentation and ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Parola, Alberto

    Particle settling is a pervasive process in nature, and centrifugation is a much versatile separation technique. Yet, the results of settling and ultracentrifugation experiments often appear to contradict the very law on which they are based: Archimedes Principle - arguably, the oldest Physical Law. The purpose of this paper is delving at the very roots of the concept of buoyancy by means of a combined experimental-theoretical study on sedimentation profiles in colloidal mixtures. Our analysis shows that the standard Archimedes' principle is only a limiting approximation, valid for mesoscopic particles settling in a molecular fluid, and we provide a general expression for the actual buoyancy force. This "Generalized Archimedes Principle" accounts for unexpected effects, such as denser particles floating on top of a lighter fluid, which in fact we observe in our experiments.

  10. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for work for the week for which UC is claimed. (b) Whether an individual is able to work and available for... for an individual under its UC law. (c) The requirement that an individual be able to work...

  11. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for work for the week for which UC is claimed. (b) Whether an individual is able to work and available for... for an individual under its UC law. (c) The requirement that an individual be able to work...

  12. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for work for the week for which UC is claimed. (b) Whether an individual is able to work and available for... for an individual under its UC law. (c) The requirement that an individual be able to work...

  13. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for work for the week for which UC is claimed. (b) Whether an individual is able to work and available for... for an individual under its UC law. (c) The requirement that an individual be able to work...

  14. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for work for the week for which UC is claimed. (b) Whether an individual is able to work and available for... for an individual under its UC law. (c) The requirement that an individual be able to work...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance Programs E Appendix E to Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... reliability beyond the design reliability. (e) When a maintenance program is developed, it includes tasks...

  16. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of old target and new target. (a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections are available...

  17. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of old target and new target. (a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections are available...

  18. 43 CFR 419.3 - What general principles govern implementation of the TROA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergencies presenting a clear and immediate danger to public health, life, property, or essential public... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What general principles govern implementation of the TROA? 419.3 Section 419.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  19. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  20. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  2. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  4. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  5. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  6. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  7. The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

    1988-01-01

    Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)

  8. Using Domain-General Principles to Explain Children's Causal Reasoning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, James L.; Thompson, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    A connectionist model of causal attribution is presented, emphasizing the use of domain-general principles of processing and learning previously employed in models of semantic cognition. The model categorizes objects dependent upon their observed 'causal properties' and is capable of making several types of inferences that 4-year-old children have…

  9. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Maintenance Programs E Appendix E to Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... reliability beyond the design reliability. (e) When a maintenance program is developed, it includes tasks...

  10. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles of the IND submission. 312.22 Section 312.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug...

  11. Victim Injury and Social Distance: A National Test of a General Principle of Conflict.

    PubMed

    Rennison, Callie Marie; Jacques, Scott; Allen, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Our inquiry focuses on why some violent offenses but not others result in injury to the victim. Building on existing theory nested in the paradigm of pure sociology, we propose and test a general principle of conflict: Victim injury varies directly with social distance. This principle predicts that offenders are more likely to harm victims with whom they are less well acquainted and less similar culturally. We test three hypotheses derived from this principle with data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and find little support for the theory. Rather, findings suggest exactly the opposite of that predicted: As social distance between offender and victim increases, the odds of victim injury decreases. Recommendations of additional research are made. PMID:27302957

  12. Energy distribution of massless particles on black hole backgrounds with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhongheng

    2009-10-15

    We derive new formulas for the spectral energy density and total energy density of massless particles in a general spherically symmetric static metric from a generalized uncertainty principle. Compared with blackbody radiation, the spectral energy density is strongly damped at high frequencies. For large values of r, the spectral energy density diminishes when r grows, but at the event horizon, the spectral energy density vanishes and therefore thermodynamic quantities near a black hole, calculated via the generalized uncertainty principle, do not require any cutoff parameter. We find that the total energy density can be expressed in terms of Hurwitz zeta functions. It should be noted that at large r (low local temperature), the difference between the total energy density and the Stefan-Boltzmann law is too small to be observed. However, as r approaches an event horizon, the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle becomes more and more important, which may be observable. As examples, the spectral energy densities in the background metric of a Schwarzschild black hole and of a Schwarzschild black hole plus quintessence are discussed. It is interesting to note that the maximum of the distribution shifts to higher frequencies when the quintessence equation of state parameter w decreases.

  13. Maximum Principle for General Controlled Systems Driven by Fractional Brownian Motions

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yuecai; Hu Yaozhong; Song Jian

    2013-04-15

    We obtain a maximum principle for stochastic control problem of general controlled stochastic differential systems driven by fractional Brownian motions (of Hurst parameter H>1/2). This maximum principle specifies a system of equations that the optimal control must satisfy (necessary condition for the optimal control). This system of equations consists of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by both fractional Brownian motions and the corresponding underlying standard Brownian motions. In addition to this backward equation, the maximum principle also involves the Malliavin derivatives. Our approach is to use conditioning and Malliavin calculus. To arrive at our maximum principle we need to develop some new results of stochastic analysis of the controlled systems driven by fractional Brownian motions via fractional calculus. Our approach of conditioning and Malliavin calculus is also applied to classical system driven by standard Brownian motions while the controller has only partial information. As a straightforward consequence, the classical maximum principle is also deduced in this more natural and simpler way.

  14. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays. PMID:26218496

  15. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.

  16. Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Dupre, M.J.

    2013-12-15

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.

  17. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991

  18. On the reduction principle for differential equations with piecewise constant argument of generalized type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet, M. U.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we introduce a new type of differential equations with piecewise constant argument (EPCAG), more general than EPCA [K.L. Cooke, J. Wiener, Retarded differential equations with piecewise constant delays, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 99 (1984) 265-297; J. Wiener, Generalized Solutions of Functional Differential Equations, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993]. The Reduction Principle [V.A. Pliss, The reduction principle in the theory of the stability of motion, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Mat. 27 (1964) 1297-1324 (in Russian); V.A. Pliss, Integral Sets of Periodic Systems of Differential Equations, Nauka, Moskow, 1977 (in Russian)] is proved for EPCAG. The structure of the set of solutions is specified. We establish also the existence of global integral manifolds of quasilinear EPCAG in the so-called critical case and investigate the stability of the zero solution.

  19. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  20. Web-Assisted Courses for Business Education: An Examination of Two Sections of Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priluck, Randi

    2004-01-01

    This research investigates student responses to two technologically different teaching methods for two sections of a Principles of Marketing course. A traditional method of teaching using lectures, in-class discussions, assignments, and exams is compared to a "Web-assisted" method in which 7 of the 14 class sessions met asynchronously online.…

  1. Nonlinear Schrödinger equation from generalized exact uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Inspired by the generalized uncertainty principle, which adds gravitational effects to the standard description of quantum uncertainty, we extend the exact uncertainty principle approach by Hall and Reginatto (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 3289), and obtain a (quasi)nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This quantum evolution equation of unusual form, enjoys several desired properties like separation of non-interacting subsystems or plane-wave solutions for free particles. Starting with the harmonic oscillator example, we show that every solution of this equation respects the gravitationally induced minimal position uncertainty proportional to the Planck length. Quite surprisingly, our result successfully merges the core of classical physics with non-relativistic quantum mechanics in its extremal form. We predict that the commonly accepted phenomenon, namely a modification of a free-particle dispersion relation due to quantum gravity might not occur in reality.

  2. Analysis of Score Change Patterns of Examinees Repeating the Graduate Record Examinations General Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal; Turner, Nancy

    This investigation examines the impact the l98l Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test Format Revision had on the stability over time of the verbal, quantitative, and analytical scores. Scores were used from the self-selected group of repeaters who took the GRE General Test twice between October 1980 and June 1982. Examinees were divided…

  3. Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb

    2011-02-15

    Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.

  4. [Protection of genetic data in Spain. Analysis based on the general principles of personal data protection].

    PubMed

    García Amez, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The genetic data is Spain is not regulated specifically, rather, we must look at the regulation on the protection of data of a personal nature. This is turn, establishes a series of general principles to apply to any type of data. Analysing this with other regulations that are dispersed both in the national and international regulations, we can deduce the rights and obligations in this field. This highlights the fact that one can't dispose of the genetic data in the same manner as the personal data.

  5. Impacts of generalized uncertainty principle on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfik, A.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the impacts of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Utilizing Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperature, Bekenstein entropy, specific heat, emission rate and decay time are calculated. As the evaporation entirely eats up the black hole mass, the specific heat vanishes and the temperature approaches infinity with an infinite radiation rate. It is found that the GUP approach prevents the black hole from the entire evaporation. It implies the existence of remnants at which the specific heat vanishes. The same role is played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in constructing the hydrogen atom. We discuss how the linear GUP approach solves the entire-evaporation-problem. Furthermore, the black hole lifetime can be estimated using another approach; the Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Assuming that the quantum position uncertainty is limited to the minimum wavelength of measuring signal, Wigner second inequality can be obtained. If the spread of quantum clock is limited to some minimum value, then the modified black hole lifetime can be deduced. Based on linear GUP approach, the resulting lifetime difference depends on black hole relative mass and the difference between black hole mass with and without GUP is not negligible.

  6. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  7. General proof of the entropy principle for self-gravitating fluid in f ( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiongjun; Guo, Minyong; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-08-01

    The discussions on the connection between gravity and thermodynamics attract much attention recently. We consider a static self-gravitating perfect fluid system in f ( R) gravity, which is an important theory could explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We first show that the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of f ( R) theories can be obtained by thermodynamical method in spherical symmetric spacetime. Then we prove that the maximum entropy principle is also valid for f ( R) gravity in general static spacetimes beyond spherical symmetry. The result shows that if the constraint equation is satisfied and the temperature of fluid obeys Tolmans law, the extrema of total entropy implies other components of gravitational equations. Conversely, if f ( R) gravitational equation hold, the total entropy of the fluid should be extremum. Our work suggests a general and solid connection between f ( R) gravity and thermodynamics.

  8. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed.

  9. A general principle governs vision-dependent dendritic patterning of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Ping; Sun, Jin Hao; Tian, Ning

    2014-10-15

    Dendritic arbors of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) collect information over a certain area of the visual scene. The coverage territory and the arbor density of dendrites determine what fraction of the visual field is sampled by a single cell and at what resolution. However, it is not clear whether visual stimulation is required for the establishment of branching patterns of RGCs, and whether a general principle directs the dendritic patterning of diverse RGCs. By analyzing the geometric structures of RGC dendrites, we found that dendritic arbors of RGCs underwent a substantial spatial rearrangement after eye-opening. Light deprivation blocked both the dendritic growth and the branch patterning, suggesting that visual stimulation is required for the acquisition of specific branching patterns of RGCs. We further showed that vision-dependent dendritic growth and arbor refinement occurred mainly in the middle portion of the dendritic tree. This nonproportional growth and selective refinement suggest that the late-stage dendritic development of RGCs is not a passive stretching with the growth of eyes, but rather an active process of selective growth/elimination of dendritic arbors of RGCs driven by visual activity. Finally, our data showed that there was a power law relationship between the coverage territory and dendritic arbor density of RGCs on a cell-by-cell basis. RGCs were systematically less dense when they cover larger territories regardless of their cell type, retinal location, or developmental stage. These results suggest that a general structural design principle directs the vision-dependent patterning of RGC dendrites.

  10. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management.

  11. Stacking Principle and Magic Sizes of Transition Metal Nanoclusters Based on Generalized Wulff Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Xu, X. S.; Gao, Y. F.; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2013-09-01

    Nanoclusters with extra stability at certain cluster sizes are known as magic clusters with exotic properties. The classic Wulff construction principle, which stipulates that the preferred structure of a cluster should minimize its total surface energy, is often invoked in determining the cluster magicity, resulting in close-shelled Mackay icosahedronal clusters with odd-numbered magic sizes of 13, 55, 147, etc. Here we use transition metal clusters around size 55 as prototypical examples to demonstrate that, in the nanometer regime, the classic Wulff construction principle needs to be generalized to primarily emphasize the edge atom effect instead of the surface energy. Specifically, our detailed calculations show that nanoclusters with much shorter total edge lengths but substantially enlarged total surface areas are energetically much more stable. As a consequence, a large majority of the nanoclusters within the 3d-, 4d-, and 5d-transition metal series are found to be fcc or hcp crystal fragments with much lower edge energies, and the widely perceived magic size of 55 is shifted to its nearby even numbers.

  12. Stacking principle and magic sizes of transition metal nanoclusters based on generalized Wulff construction.

    PubMed

    Li, S F; Zhao, X J; Xu, X S; Gao, Y F; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2013-09-13

    Nanoclusters with extra stability at certain cluster sizes are known as magic clusters with exotic properties. The classic Wulff construction principle, which stipulates that the preferred structure of a cluster should minimize its total surface energy, is often invoked in determining the cluster magicity, resulting in close-shelled Mackay icosahedronal clusters with odd-numbered magic sizes of 13, 55, 147, etc. Here we use transition metal clusters around size 55 as prototypical examples to demonstrate that, in the nanometer regime, the classic Wulff construction principle needs to be generalized to primarily emphasize the edge atom effect instead of the surface energy. Specifically, our detailed calculations show that nanoclusters with much shorter total edge lengths but substantially enlarged total surface areas are energetically much more stable. As a consequence, a large majority of the nanoclusters within the 3d-, 4d-, and 5d-transition metal series are found to be fcc or hcp crystal fragments with much lower edge energies, and the widely perceived magic size of 55 is shifted to its nearby even numbers.

  13. Robotic and mathematical modeling reveal general principles of appendage control and coordination in terrestrial locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInroe, Benjamin; Astley, Henry; Gong, Chaohui; Kawano, Sandy; Schiebel, Perrin; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.

    The transition from aquatic to terrestrial life presented new challenges to early walkers, necessitating robust locomotion on complex, flowable substrates (e.g. sand, mud). Locomotion on such substrates is sensitive to limb morphology and kinematics. Although early walker morphologies are known, principles of appendage control remain elusive. To reveal limb control strategies that facilitated the invasion of land, we study both robotic and mathematical models. Robot experiments show that an active tail is critical for robust locomotion on granular media, enabling locomotion even with poor foot placement and limited ability to lift the body. Using a granular resistive force theory model, we construct connection vector fields that reveal how appendage coordination and terrain inclination impact locomotor performance. This model replicates experimental results, showing that moving limbs/tail in phase is most effective (suggesting a locomotor template). Varying limb trajectories and contacts, we find gaits for which tail use can be neutral or harmful, suggesting limb-tail coordination to be a nontrivial aspect of locomotion. Our findings show that robot experiments coupled with geometric mechanics provide a general framework to reveal principles of robust terrestrial locomotion. This work was supported by NSF PoLS.

  14. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants. PMID:21922505

  15. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  16. Examination of Turkish Junior High-School Students' Perceptions of the General Problem-Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Didem Inel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process. The Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process were examined in relation to their gender, grade level, age and their grade point with regards to the science course identified in the…

  17. Enhancement of the capabilities of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with derivatization: general principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fengguo; Zou, Li; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zunjian; Ong, Choon Nam

    2011-01-01

    The integration of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with derivatization is a relatively new and unique strategy that could add value and could enhance the capabilities of LC-MS-based technologies. The derivatization process could be carried out in various analytical steps, for example, sampling, storage, sample preparation, HPLC separation, and MS detection. This review presents an overview of derivatization-based LC-MS strategy over the past 10 years and covers both the general principles and applications in the fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, biomarker and metabolomic research, environmental analysis, and food-safety evaluation. The underlying mechanisms and theories for derivative reagent selection are summarized and highlighted to guide future studies.

  18. Galilean and Lorentz Transformations in a Space with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a space with Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which can be obtained in the frame of the deformed commutation relations. In the space with GUP we have found transformations relating coordinates and times of moving and rest frames of reference in the first order over the parameter of deformation. In the non-relativistic case we find the deformed Galilean transformation which is rotation in Euclidian space-time. This transformation is similar to the Lorentz one but written for Euclidean space-time where the speed of light is replaced by some velocity related to the parameter of deformation. We show that for relativistic particle in the space with GUP the coordinates of the rest and moving frames of reference satisfy the Lorentz transformation with some effective speed of light.

  19. Quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. W.; Li, H. L.; Zu, X. T.; Yang, S. Z.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The corrections to the Hawking temperature, entropy and the heat capacity are obtained via the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These modifications show that the GUP changes the evolution of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. Specially, the GUP effect becomes susceptible when the radius or mass of the black hole approaches the order of Planck scale, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. Meanwhile, the Planck scale remnant can be confirmed through the analysis of the heat capacity. Those phenomena imply that the GUP may give a way to solve the information paradox. Besides, we also investigate the possibilities to observe the black hole at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the results demonstrate that the black hole cannot be produced in the recent LHC.

  20. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed. PMID:25938394

  1. Ensuring reliability in UK written tests of general practice: the MRCGP examination 1998-2003.

    PubMed

    Munro, Neil; Denney, Mei Ling; Rughani, Amar; Foulkes, John; Wilson, Andrew; Tate, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Reliability in written examinations is taken very seriously by examination boards and candidates alike. Within general education many factors influence reliability including variations between markers, within markers, within candidates and within teachers. Mechanisms designed to overcome, or at least minimize, the impact of such variables are detailed. Methods of establishing reliability are also explored in the context of a range of assessment situations. In written tests of general practice within the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioner (MRCGP) examination considerable effort has put been put into achieving acceptable levels of reliability. Current mechanisms designed to ensure high reliability are described and related to the evolution of the written component of the examination. In addition to description of marker selection and training, question development including construct a detailed example of specific and generic marking schedules is provided. Examination results for the Written Paper of the MRCGP from 1998 to 2003 are reported including Cronbach's alpha coefficients and standard error of measurements, mean scores (and SD) and pass rates. In addition individual discrimination scores for each question in the October 2002 paper are shown. Consistent high reliability of the written component of the MRCGP examination provides valuable lessons in terms of selection, training and monitoring of markers as well as practical methods of moderating factors affecting candidate variability. The challenge for examination developers is to carry these important lessons forward into a modernized assessment structure of UK general practice. PMID:16147769

  2. General principles and approaches to wound prevention and care at end of life: an overview .

    PubMed

    Langemo, Diane

    2012-05-01

    The incidence and prevalence of wounds in persons at the end of life is largely unknown, but wounds are estimated to occur in at least one third of hospice patients. At the end of life, healthcare professionals must help the patient and/ or family decide whether the goals of wound prevention and care should focus on healing or palliation. At all times, it is important to consider that a palliative approach does not negate the potential for wound improvement or even closing before death. A review of the literature suggests that, in general, few differences exist between the general principles of wound prevention and care and an optimal palliative care plan. For example, maintenance of a moist wound environment is recommended to facilitate healing in general protocols of care. In end-of-life patients, dressings should be used for general comfort and prevention of skin exposure to wound exudate and to reduce the number of potentially painful dressing changes. Risk factors for tissue breakdown and pressure ulcer development are also similar. Palliative care patients with limited mobility and physical activity are at highest risk for developing pressure ulcers, but measures to help prevent these wounds may have to be adjusted to meet the overall goals of palliative care for a particular patient. Wounds encountered mainly in cancer patients - eg, fungating and radiation wounds - can pose important challenges for healthcare professionals and are very stressful for the patient. Pressure ulcers, fungating, and radiation wounds at the end of life are to be managed palliatively with the overall goal to minimize pain and odor, enhance comfort, and potentially improve the condition of the ulcer. Although research remains limited, it is clear the clinician and patient must balance best wound prevention and management practices while promoting patient dignity, self-esteem, and quality of life.

  3. Perceptions of Interns and General Medicine Examiners Regarding Cardiovascular Case Presentation in Practical Exams of General Medicine in Final MBBS Summative Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Nimbal, Naren; Rekha, M C; Patil, Giridhar; Padaki, Samata; Dambal, Amrut; Pise, Gajanan; Kalsad, S T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of cardiovascular cases in practical exit exam is limited to simple history taking and physical examination. Standards of assessment are not uniform. This makes assessment less valid and reliable. Aim To explore the perceptions of Internees and General Medicine Examiners about current practices in Cardio Vascular system (CVS) case presentation in final MBBS exit exams and the necessity to change some of the practices. Materials and Methods A set questions pertaining to the preparation for exams, validity, reliability, feasibility and educational impact were prepared to guide in obtaining the perceptions of internees and internal medicine examiners. Focus group discussions were conducted. Data Analysis was done by immersion-crystallization process. Results Most of the internees admitted to feeling concerned because of difficulty in diagnosing murmurs by auscultation. Most of the examiners felt concerned about the logistics involved in arranging practical exams. Both admitted to the lack of uniform standards in assessment. Both agreed that the present system thrived as it was relatively feasible. Some internees suggested that the exam may be conducted in two parts by splitting the syllabus instead of once. Some internees suggested incorporating a student-doctor program to improve practical skills just like the on-going student nurse program. Conclusion There is a need for overhauling the assessment of cardiovascular system in final MBBS summative exams towards one aligned to the competencies as required in an Indian Medical Graduate. Blueprinting of practical assessment with due weightage assigned to epidemiologically important topics is the need of the hour. PMID:26816933

  4. Clinical examination for abdominal aortic aneurysm in general practice: report from the Medical Research Council's General Practice Research Framework.

    PubMed Central

    Zuhrie, S R; Brennan, P J; Meade, T W; Vickers, M

    1999-01-01

    At the time of the 1992-1994 annual reviews in the thrombosis prevention trial, general practitioners (GPs) carried out clinical examination for aneurysms by abdominal palpation in 4171 men. When an aneurysm was suspected, the patient was referred to hospital for further investigation. Aneurysm was suspected in 60 men (1.4%) and confirmed in 25 (0.6%), the mean diameter of confirmed aneurysms being 5.0 cm (range = 3.1-8.0 cm). Of the 25 men in whom aneurysm was confirmed, 10 (40%) underwent elective surgery and one died while under investigation. Examination by abdominal palpation for aortic aneurysm, which is not widely used in either general practice or in hospital practice, other than vascular surgery, is clinically worthwhile even though not all aneurysms will be detected by this means. PMID:10756617

  5. General properties on applying the principle of minimum sensitivity to high-order perturbative QCD predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Hong-Hao; Han, Hua-Yong

    2015-02-01

    As one of the key components of perturbative QCD theory, it is helpful to find a systematic and reliable way to set the renormalization scale for a high-energy process. The conventional treatment is to take a typical momentum as the renormalization scale, which assigns an arbitrary range and an arbitrary systematic error to pQCD predictions, leading to the well-known renormalization scheme and scale ambiguities. As a practical solution for such a scale setting problem, the "principle of minimum sensitivity" (PMS) has been proposed in the literature. The PMS suggests to determine an optimal scale for the pQCD approximant of an observable by requiring its slope over the scheme and scale changes to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion on general properties of the PMS by utilizing three quantities Re+e-, Rτ and Γ (H →b b ¯) up to four-loop QCD corrections. After applying the PMS, the accuracy of pQCD prediction, the pQCD convergence, the pQCD predictive power, etc., are discussed. Furthermore, we compare the PMS with another fundamental scale setting approach, i.e. the principle of maximum conformality (PMC). The PMC is theoretically sound, which follows the renormalization group equation to determine the running behavior of the coupling constant and satisfies the standard renormalization group invariance. Our results show that PMS does provide a practical way to set the effective scale for high-energy process, and the PMS prediction agrees with the PMC one by including enough high-order QCD corrections, both of which shall be more accurate than the prediction under the conventional scale setting. However, the PMS pQCD convergence is an accidental, which usually fails to achieve a correct prediction of unknown high-order contributions with next-to-leading order QCD correction only, i.e. it is always far from the "true" values predicted by including more high-order contributions.

  6. Elucidating the general principles of cell adhesion with a coarse-grained simulation model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiawen; Xie, Zhong-Ru; Wu, Yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an indispensable role in coordinating physiological functions in multicellular organisms. During this process, specific types of cell adhesion molecules interact with each other from the opposite sides of neighboring cells. Following this trans-interaction, many cell adhesion molecules further aggregate into clusters through cis interactions. Beyond the molecule level, adhesion can be affected by multiple cellular factors due to the complexity of membrane microenvironments, including its interplay with cell signaling. However, despite tremendous advances in experimental developments, little is understood about the general principles of cell adhesion and its functional impacts. Here a mesoscopic simulation method is developed to tackle this problem. We illustrated that specific spatial patterns of membrane protein clustering are originated from different geometrical arrangements of their binding interfaces, while the size of clusters is closely regulated by molecular flexibility. Different scenarios of cooperation between trans and cis interactions of cell adhesion molecules were further tested. Additionally, impacts of membrane environments on cell adhesion were evaluated, such as the presence of a cytoskeletal meshwork, the membrane tension and the size effect of different membrane proteins on cell surfaces. Finally, by simultaneously simulating adhesion and oligomerization of signaling receptors, we found that the interplay between these two systems can be either positive or negative, closely depending on the spatial and temporal patterns of their molecular interactions. Therefore, our computational model pave the way for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and its biological functions in regulating cell signaling pathways.

  7. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  8. Pleasure and pain: teaching neuroscientific principles of hedonism in a large general education undergraduate course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first

  9. Pleasure and Pain: Teaching Neuroscientific Principles of Hedonism in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first

  10. Pleasure and pain: teaching neuroscientific principles of hedonism in a large general education undergraduate course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first

  11. Precautionary Principles: General Definitions and Specific Applications to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2002-01-01

    Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find…

  12. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 225 - General Principles for Determining Allowable Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Contents A. Purpose and Scope 1. Objectives 2. Policy guides 3. Application B. Definitions 1. Approval or... appendix and other appendices to 2 CFR part 225 as “Federal awards”). The principles are for the purpose of... is outside the scope of 2 CFR part 225. 2. Policy guides. a. The application of these principles...

  13. Phase-space-Lagrangian action principle and the generalized K-X theorem. [in covariant coupled equations for plasma dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Allan N.

    1987-01-01

    The covariant coupled equations for plasma dynamics and the Maxwell field are expressed as a phase-space-Lagrangian action principle. The linear interaction is transformed to the bilinear beat Hamiltonian by a gauge-invariant Lagrangian Lie transform. The result yields the generalized linear susceptibility directly.

  14. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species.

    PubMed

    Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize across species, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of investigators coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of 'reference species' to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and across species, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be supported

  15. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species.

    PubMed

    Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize across species, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of investigators coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of 'reference species' to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and across species, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be supported

  16. [Periodic health examination: a collaboration between an academic institution, a private firm and general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Jacot, Sadowski I; Cornuz, J; Abetel, G

    2005-10-26

    A Swiss private company decided to launch a healthy lifestyle-oriented medical visit for its employees. Participating general practitioners had prior training through a one-day course. A brief physical examination, cholesterol and glucose analyses were included in the consultation. Half of the employees participated in the project. Health habits were similar to the general Swiss population. Four months later, 61% reported having changed at least one lifestyle health habit in order to improve their health. Most of participants and practitioners were satisfied with this type of consultation, that confirms the interest and the feasibility of such a project.

  17. 77 FR 7125 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on General Principles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Principles (CCGP) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held in Paris, France, April 2... Committee is hosted by France. Issues To Be Discussed at the Public Meeting The following items on...

  18. A Life Below the Threshold?: Examining Conflict Between Ethical Principles and Parental Values in Neonatal Treatment Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas V

    2016-01-01

    Three common ethical principles for establishing the limits of parental authority in pediatric treatment decision-making are the harm principle, the principle of best interest, and the threshold view. This paper considers how these principles apply to a case of a premature neonate with multiple significant co-morbidities whose mother wanted all possible treatments, and whose health care providers wondered whether it would be ethically permissible to allow him to die comfortably despite her wishes. Whether and how these principles help in understanding what was morally right for the child is questioned. The paper concludes that the principles were of some value in understanding the moral geography of the case; however, this case reveals that common bioethical principles for medical decision-making are problematically value-laden because they are inconsistent with the widespread moral value of medical vitalism.

  19. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing

  20. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 225 - General Principles for Determining Allowable Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with the Federal Government (collectively referred to in this appendix and other appendices to 2 CFR... in the financing of a particular program or project. The principles are designed to provide that... prohibited by law. Provision for profit or other increment above cost is outside the scope of 2 CFR part...

  1. [General principles of clinical and therapeutic management in postoperative external enteral fistulas].

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Iulia; Stefan, S; Burcoveanu, C; Pădureanu, S; Bulat, C

    2008-01-01

    Postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas represent a frequent complication in the emergency or cancerous digestive surgery. As to the high level of mortality and morbidity caused by this type of postoperative complication (4%), efforts are made to establish the principles of therapeutic management, on the purpose of decreasing these indicators and thus lowering the prolonged hospitalisation afferent costs. PMID:20201248

  2. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Psoter, Walter J.; Morse, Douglas E.; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L.; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A.; Kerr, Alexander R.; Lane, Christina M.; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. Methods The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. Results To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily-available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and relicensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. Conclusions General dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities. PMID:24894606

  3. The linear co-variance between joint muscle torques is not a generalized principle.

    PubMed

    Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci; Dionísio, Valdeci Carlos; Lerena, Mario Adrian Misailidis; Marconi, Nadia Fernanda; Almeida, Gil Lúcio

    2009-06-01

    In 1996, Gottlieb et al. [Gottlieb GL, Song Q, Hong D, Almeida GL, Corcos DM. Coordinating movement at two joints: A principle of linear covariance. J Neurophysiol 1996;75(4):1760-4] identified a linear co-variance between the joint muscle torques generated at two connected joints. The joint muscle torques changed directions and magnitudes in a synchronized and linear fashion and called it the principle of linear co-variance. Here we showed that this principle cannot hold for some class of movements. Neurologically normal subjects performed multijoint movements involving elbow and shoulder with reversal towards three targets in the sagittal plane without any constraints. The movement kinematics was calculated using the X and Y coordinates of the markers positioned over the joints. Inverse dynamics was used to calculate the joint muscle, interaction and net torques. We found that for the class of voluntary movements analyzed, the joint muscle torques of the elbow and the shoulder were not linearly correlated. The same was observed for the interaction torques. But, the net torques at both joints, i.e., the sum of the interaction and the joint muscle torques were linearly correlated. We showed that by decoupling the joint muscle torques, but keeping the net torques linearly correlated, the CNS was able to generate fast and accurate movements with straight fingertip paths. The movement paths were typical of the ones in which the joint muscle torques were linearly correlated.

  4. Wave function formalism in quantum optics and generalized Huygens-Fresnel principle for N-photon states: derivation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainis, E.; Emplit, Ph.

    2010-06-01

    Few-photon systems are best described by their wave function rather than by the usual quantum field formalism. In this work, we develop a photon wave function (PWF) formalism suitable for analyzing a wide variety of quantum optical problems related to propagation, diffraction and imaging with quantum states of light. We establish a generalized Huygens-Fresnel (GH-F) principle that describes the propagation of any paraxial N-photon state. This tool is very helpful for predicting photo-detection correlations in space and time due to an initial N-particle entanglement, even in complex situation. The effect of lenses, beam splitters, filters ... on the photon paths can be easily taken into account. We apply the PWF formalism and the GH-F principle to three specific problems in quantum optics. First, we revisit the Hong-Ou-Mandel two-photon interference effect and analyze the effect of photon shape mismatch in space, time and polarization using the PWF formalism. Second, we show how to use the GH-F principle to analyze "ghost" imaging and diffraction experiments with entangled photon pairs such as those realized by Strekalov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600 (1995)] and Pittman et al. [Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995)] in the nineties. Finally, we use the GH-F principle to analyze the resolution enhancement in a recent quantum imaging proposal based on N incoherent single-photon sources [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 133603 (2007) and Phys. Rev. A 80, 013820 (2009)].

  5. An examination of generalized anxiety disorder and dysthymia utilizing the Rorschach inkblot method.

    PubMed

    Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Clements, Alyssa; Hilsenroth, Mark; Charnas, Jocelyn; Zodan, Jennifer

    2016-06-30

    This study examined transdiagnostic features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and dysthymia in an outpatient clinical sample. Fifteen patients who met DSM-IV criteria for GAD and twenty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for dysthymia but who did not have comorbid anxiety disorder were evaluated utilizing the Rorschach. Salient clinical variables were then compared. Results showed that patients with GAD scored significantly higher on variables related to cognitive agitation and a desire/need for external soothing. In addition, there was a trend for patients with GAD to produce higher scores on a measure of ruminative focus on negative aspects of the self. Thus, not surprisingly, GAD patients' experienced more distress than the dysthymic patients. The implications of these findings are discussed with regards to better understanding the shared and distinct features of GAD and dysthymia.

  6. Examining the Accuracy of Astrophysical Disk Simulations with a Generalized Hydrodynamical Test Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation-only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extension of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly reduces this error.

  7. An examination of generalized anxiety disorder and dysthymia utilizing the Rorschach inkblot method.

    PubMed

    Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Clements, Alyssa; Hilsenroth, Mark; Charnas, Jocelyn; Zodan, Jennifer

    2016-06-30

    This study examined transdiagnostic features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and dysthymia in an outpatient clinical sample. Fifteen patients who met DSM-IV criteria for GAD and twenty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for dysthymia but who did not have comorbid anxiety disorder were evaluated utilizing the Rorschach. Salient clinical variables were then compared. Results showed that patients with GAD scored significantly higher on variables related to cognitive agitation and a desire/need for external soothing. In addition, there was a trend for patients with GAD to produce higher scores on a measure of ruminative focus on negative aspects of the self. Thus, not surprisingly, GAD patients' experienced more distress than the dysthymic patients. The implications of these findings are discussed with regards to better understanding the shared and distinct features of GAD and dysthymia. PMID:27107389

  8. Operant Principles Applied to the Acquisition and Generalization of Nonlittering Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltes, Margaret M.

    The investigator felt that littering is a behavior contingent upon certain environmental conditions and that these conditions should be examined systematically. Specifically, this study sought to examine the effects of a behavior modification approach to littering with eight four-year-old subjects. Using token positive reinforcement, token…

  9. Quantum statistical entropy and minimal length of 5D Ricci-flat black string with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.

  10. General Principles for Measuring Resting Membrane Potential and Ion Concentration Using Fluorescent Bioelectricity Reporters

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Dany Spencer; Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This overview provides the basic information needed to understand, choose, and use fluorescent bioelectricity reporters (FBRs), where bioelectricity is defined as cell processes that involve ions or ion flux. While traditional methods of measuring these characteristics are still valid and necessary, the utility of FBRs has facilitated measurement of these properties under circumstances that are not possible with microelectrodes. Specifically, these dyes can be used to achieve subcellular resolution, to measure many cells simultaneously in vivo, and to track bioelectric gradients over long time periods despite cell movements and divisions. This article covers the basic principles underlying the interpretation of the dye signals, describes essential steps for troubleshooting, optimizing data collection, analysis, and presentation, and provides compilations of information that are useful for choosing FBRs for particular projects. PMID:22474653

  11. Water, Resilience and the Law: From General Concepts and Governance Design Principles to Actionable Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill Clarvis, M.; Allan, A.; Hannah, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has significant ramifications for water law and governance, yet, there is strong evidence that legal regulations have often failed to protect environments or promote sustainable development. Scholars have increasingly suggested that the preservation and restoration paradigms of legislation and regulation are no longer adequate for climate change related challenges in complex and cross-scale social-ecological systems. This is namely due to past assumptions of stationarity, uniformitarianism and the perception of ecosystem change as predictable and reversible. This paper reviews the literature on law and resilience and then presents and discusses a set of practical examples of legal mechanisms from the water resources management sector, identified according to a set of guiding principles from the literature on adaptive capacity, adaptive governance as well as adaptive and integrated water resources management. It then assesses the aptness of these different measures according to scientific evidence of increased uncertainty and changing ecological baselines. A review of the best practice examples demonstrates that there are a number of best practice examples attempting to integrate adaptive elements of flexibility, iterativity, connectivity and subsidiarity into a variety of legislative mechanisms, suggesting that there is not as significant a tension between resilience and the law as many scholars have suggested. However, while many of the mechanisms may indeed be suitable for addressing challenges relating to current levels of change and uncertainty, analysis across a broader range of uncertainty highlights challenges relating to more irreversible changes associated with greater levels of warming. Furthermore the paper identifies a set of pre-requisites that are fundamental to the successful implementation of such mechanisms, namely monitoring and data sharing, financial and technical capacity, particularly in nations that are most at risk with the

  12. General Education for the 21st Century: A Quest for Common Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In the early years of the 21st century, general education programs in U.S. postsecondary institutions stand at the center of multiple competing pressures, from demands for accountability to calls for increasing assurances of articulation across institutions. Complicating potential responses to these normative pressures is the challenge inherent in…

  13. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage. PMID:25622799

  14. Finding simplicity in complexity: general principles of biological and nonbiological organization.

    PubMed

    Perez Velazquez, Jose L

    2009-08-01

    What differentiates the living from the nonliving? What is life? These are perennial questions that have occupied minds since the beginning of cultures. The search for a clear demarcation between animate and inanimate is a reflection of the human tendency to create borders, not only physical but also conceptual. It is obvious that what we call a living creature, either bacteria or organism, has distinct properties from those of the normally called nonliving. However, searching beyond dichotomies and from a global, more abstract, perspective on natural laws, a clear partition of matter into animate and inanimate becomes fuzzy. Based on concepts from a variety of fields of research, the emerging notion is that common principles of biological and nonbiological organization indicate that natural phenomena arise and evolve from a central theme captured by the process of information exchange. Thus, a relatively simple universal logic that rules the evolution of natural phenomena can be unveiled from the apparent complexity of the natural world. PMID:19669573

  15. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage.

  16. The effect of generalized uncertainty principle on square well, a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2014-08-15

    According to a special case (β = 0) of the generalized uncertainty relation we derive the energy eigenvalues of the infinite potential well. It is shown that the obtained energy levels are different from the usual result with some correction terms. And the correction terms of the energy eigenvalues are independent of other parameters except α. But the eigenstates will depend on another two parameters besides α.

  17. A Z{sub 3} generalization of Pauli's principle, quark algebra and the Lorentz invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Kerner, Richard

    2012-09-24

    The fundamental difference between bosons and fermions is that they obey two alternative representations of the Z{sub 2} group, resulting in symmetric or anti-symmetric binary commutation relations. Our aim is to explore possibilities offered by ternary Z{sub 3} generalization commutation relations. This leads to cubic and ternary algebras which are a direct generalization of usual commutation relations, with Z{sub 3}-grading replacing the usual Z{sub 2}-grading. Properties and structure of such algebras are discussed, with special interest in a low-dimensional one, with two generators. Invariant cubic forms on such algebras are introduced, and it is shown how the SL(2,C) group arises naturally as the symmetry group preserving these forms. In the case of lowest dimension, with only two generators, it is shown how the cubic combinations of elements of the same Z{sub 3} grade behave like Lorentz spinors, while binary products of elements of this algebra with an element of the conjugate algebra behave like Lorentz vectors. The wave equation generalizing the Dirac operator to the Z{sub 3}-graded case is introduced, whose diagonalization leads to a third-order equation. The solutions of this equation cannot propagate because their exponents always contain non-oscillating real damping factor. We show how certain cubic products can propagate nevertheless. The model suggests the origin of the color SU(3) symmetry obeyed by quark states.

  18. Lipid Cooperativity as a General Membrane-Recruitment Principle for PH Domains.

    PubMed

    Vonkova, Ivana; Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Deghou, Samy; Anand, Kanchan; Ceschia, Stefano; Doerks, Tobias; Galih, Augustinus; Kugler, Karl G; Maeda, Kenji; Rybin, Vladimir; van Noort, Vera; Ellenberg, Jan; Bork, Peer; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Many cellular processes involve the recruitment of proteins to specific membranes, which are decorated with distinctive lipids that act as docking sites. The phosphoinositides form signaling hubs, and we examine mechanisms underlying recruitment. We applied a physiological, quantitative, liposome microarray-based assay to measure the membrane-binding properties of 91 pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, the most common phosphoinositide-binding target. 10,514 experiments quantified the role of phosphoinositides in membrane recruitment. For most domains examined, the observed binding specificity implied cooperativity with additional signaling lipids. Analyses of PH domains with similar lipid-binding profiles identified a conserved motif, mutations in which-including some found in human cancers-induced discrete changes in binding affinities in vitro and protein mislocalization in vivo. The data set reveals cooperativity as a key mechanism for membrane recruitment and, by enabling the interpretation of disease-associated mutations, suggests avenues for the design of small molecules targeting PH domains.

  19. On extracting design principles from biology: I. Method-General answers to high-level design questions for bioinspired robots.

    PubMed

    Haberland, M; Kim, S

    2015-02-02

    When millions of years of evolution suggest a particular design solution, we may be tempted to abandon traditional design methods and copy the biological example. However, biological solutions do not often translate directly into the engineering domain, and even when they do, copying eliminates the opportunity to improve. A better approach is to extract design principles relevant to the task of interest, incorporate them in engineering designs, and vet these candidates against others. This paper presents the first general framework for determining whether biologically inspired relationships between design input variables and output objectives and constraints are applicable to a variety of engineering systems. Using optimization and statistics to generalize the results beyond a particular system, the framework overcomes shortcomings observed of ad hoc methods, particularly those used in the challenging study of legged locomotion. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in a case study of the relative running efficiency of rotary-kneed and telescoping-legged robots.

  20. [General principles of treatment of mine-explosive wounds of ENT-organs].

    PubMed

    Beliakin, S A; Egorov, V I; Luk'ianenko, A V

    2011-11-01

    The relevance of diagnosis and treatment of mine-explosive wounds ENT high. Treatment of explosives, Russian Academy of Sciences-the challenge and consists of a series of sequential steps that need to be applied, taking into account all the particularities of each injury. Concepts of specialized surgical care of the wounded are formulated. The main are: 1) one-stage surgical treatment of comprehensive primary wounds with detent of bone fragments, reconstruction of defects of soft tissue with positive wound and related fascial spatium drainage; 2) general intensive care during the postoperative period, including water-electrolytic balance correction, sympathetic block, controlled hemodilution and adequate analgesia; 3) intensive therapy of postoperative wounds, aimed at creating favorable conditions for its healing and includes targeted selective influence on hemophoresis in the wound and the local proteoclastic processes.

  1. Three-year-olds obey the sample size principle of induction: the influence of evidence presentation and sample size disparity on young children's generalizations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Chris A

    2014-07-01

    Three experiments with 81 3-year-olds (M=3.62years) examined the conditions that enable young children to use the sample size principle (SSP) of induction-the inductive rule that facilitates generalizations from large rather than small samples of evidence. In Experiment 1, children exhibited the SSP when exemplars were presented sequentially but not when exemplars were presented simultaneously. Results from Experiment 3 suggest that the advantage of sequential presentation is not due to the additional time to process the available input from the two samples but instead may be linked to better memory for specific individuals in the large sample. In addition, findings from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that adherence to the SSP is mediated by the disparity between presented samples. Overall, these results reveal that the SSP appears early in development and is guided by basic cognitive processes triggered during the acquisition of input.

  2. Self-Organization of Meiotic Recombination Initiation: General Principles and Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Scott; Lange, Julian; Mohibullah, Neeman

    2015-01-01

    Recombination in meiosis is a fascinating case study for the coordination of chromosomal duplication, repair, and segregation with each other and with progression through a cell-division cycle. Meiotic recombination initiates with formation of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at many places across the genome. DSBs are important for successful meiosis but are also dangerous lesions that can mutate or kill, so cells ensure that DSBs are made only at the right times, places, and amounts. This review examines the complex web of pathways that accomplish this control. We explore how chromosome breakage is integrated with meiotic progression and how feedback mechanisms spatially pattern DSB formation and make it homeostatic, robust, and error-correcting. Common regulatory themes recur in different organisms or in different contexts in the same organism. We review this evolutionary and mechanistic conservation but also highlight where control modules have diverged. The framework that emerges helps explain how meiotic chromosomes behave as a self-organizing system. PMID:25421598

  3. Self-organization of meiotic recombination initiation: general principles and molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Scott; Lange, Julian; Mohibullah, Neeman

    2014-01-01

    Recombination in meiosis is a fascinating case study for the coordination of chromosomal duplication, repair, and segregation with each other and with progression through a cell-division cycle. Meiotic recombination initiates with formation of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at many places across the genome. DSBs are important for successful meiosis but are also dangerous lesions that can mutate or kill, so cells ensure that DSBs are made only at the right times, places, and amounts. This review examines the complex web of pathways that accomplish this control. We explore how chromosome breakage is integrated with meiotic progression and how feedback mechanisms spatially pattern DSB formation and make it homeostatic, robust, and error correcting. Common regulatory themes recur in different organisms or in different contexts in the same organism. We review this evolutionary and mechanistic conservation but also highlight where control modules have diverged. The framework that emerges helps explain how meiotic chromosomes behave as a self-organizing system.

  4. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, "Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions," is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in…

  5. Perceived Influencers of the Decline on Performance of Students in Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education's Agriculture Examination Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Clyde; Hulela, Keba; Tselaesele, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors perceived to contribute to the decline of students' performance in the Botswana's General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) agriculture results. Ninety-one agriculture examiners were randomly sampled out of 100 teachers who were invited to mark the 2012 end of year examination scripts. A…

  6. River and Wetland Food Webs in Australia's Wet-Dry Tropics: General Principles and Implications for Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M. M.; Bunn, S. E.; Davies, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    The tropical rivers of northern Australia are internationally recognised for their high ecological and cultural values. They have largely unmodified flow regimes and are comparatively free of the impacts associated with intensive land use. However, there is growing demand for agricultural development and existing pressures, such as weeds and feral animals, threaten their ecological integrity. Using the international literature to provide a conceptual framework and drawing on limited published and unpublished data on rivers in northern Australia, we have derived five general principles about food webs and related ecosystem processes that both characterise tropical rivers of northern Australia and have important implications for their management. These are: (1) Seasonal hydrology is a strong driver of ecosystem processes and food web structure; (2) Hydrological connectivity is largely intact and underpins important terrestrial-aquatic food web subsidies; (3) River and wetland food webs are strongly dependent on algal production; (4) A few common macroconsumers species have a strong influence on benthic food webs; (5) Omnivory is widespread and food chains are short. These principles have implications for the management and protection of tropical rivers and wetlands of northern Australia and provide a framework for the formation of testable hypotheses in future research programs.

  7. Is there a need to re-examine the approval of bismuth shotshell as a non-toxic alternative to lead based on the precautionary principle?

    PubMed

    Fahey, Nathan S C; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2006-12-01

    In 1997, the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) approved bismuth shotshell as an alternative to lead. We assessed whether there is a need to re-examine the toxicity of bismuth issue using the initial CWS toxicity guideline criteria. Review of the literature suggests that in the context of the precautionary principle, a re-examination of the approval of bismuth shotshell should be undertaken based on animal health issues, associated deficiencies in the analytical data used in the original assessment, and to a lesser extent, human health concerns.

  8. Inclusive Classrooms: An Examination of the Attitudes and Perspectives of K-5 General Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion has altered the teaching and learning environment in many ways. General education teachers face increasing challenges as their role becomes more complex to meet the demands of teaching both general and special education students in the same classroom. Teachers are pivotal in the success of inclusion and exploring how teachers feel about…

  9. The Examining of Generalization Quantitative Scientific Findings by Using the Jackknife Method: An Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyari, Murat; Buyukozturk, Sener

    2009-01-01

    The outcomes which cannot be generalized are specific for a sample but are unable to be reflected to the rest of the population. The parameters that are reached at the end of the statistics that are scarce in sample arise doubts in the aspect of generalization. In these cases, parameter estimation may not be very stable and outlier values can…

  10. To Pay or Not to Pay: Examining Underlying Principles in the Debate on Financial Support for Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Janice

    2007-01-01

    In many countries one approach to supporting family-and-friend caregivers is direct financial or monetary support. Debates about the benefits and consequences of such policies pervade the literature. Building on the premise that values underlie public policy, the paper examines four policy paradoxes in the literature and uses selected examples…

  11. Examining Teachers' Self-Described Responses to Student Behavior through the Lens of Catholic Social Teaching Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucci, Angela Marie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how teacher beliefs about the tenets of Catholic Social Teaching (CST)--dignity of the human person, seeking the common good, and preferential option for the poor and vulnerable--affected self-described responses to student behavior problems. In-depth interviews with seven secondary Catholic school teachers were analyzed…

  12. Examining the Effects of Combining Self-Explanation Principles with an Educational Game on Learning Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Educational researchers have indicated that although computer games have the potential to promote students' motivation and engagement, the work on how to design effective games that fulfil educational purposes is still in its infancy. This study aimed to examine how integration of self-explanation into a computer game affected primary…

  13. Are rural general practitioner-obstetricians performing too many prenatal ultrasound examinations? Evidence from western Labrador.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E; Freake, D; Worrall, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of prenatal ultrasonography (PNU) in western Labrador in 1994, assess the appropriateness of the ultrasound examinations according to current guidelines and determine whether there was any relation between number of PNU examinations and patient management and obstetric outcomes. DESIGN: Review of all obstetric charts and PNU requisition forms for all deliveries in one hospital in 1994. SETTING: Labrador City and Wabush, Newfoundland. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 103 singleton deliveries, and these mothers underwent a total of 225 PNU studies (mean 2.16 studies per delivery). More than half (53.3%) of the examinations were classified as inappropriate. There were no significant differences in the number of studies between low- and high-risk pregnancies or between uncomplicated deliveries and those in which induction or instrumental or operative delivery occurred, nor was there any relation between number of PNU examinations and maternal or neonatal outcome. CONCLUSION: Compared with PNU use as recommended by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, this type of examination was overused in Labrador City and Wabush, although the rate of use was comparable to that reported in other Canadian studies. This overuse was not associated with any identifiable effect on maternal or neonatal outcome or on the management of pregnancy and labour. More judicious use of PNU, in accordance with evidence-based guidelines, is recommended. PMID:9484254

  14. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  15. Examination of Bond Properties through Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    A concerted effort has been made to increase the opportunities for undergraduate students to address scientific problems employing the processes used by practicing chemists. As part of this effort, an infrared (IR) spectroscopy and molecular modeling experiment was developed for the first-year general chemistry laboratory course. In the…

  16. Curriculum Guide for General Education Development or High School Equivalency Examination in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shobha; Escalona, Margaret Boyter

    This curriculum guide was developed as part of the Worker Education Program for workers in the garment industry. The program was jointly developed by the workers, their employer, their union, and Northeastern Illinois University. It contains the materials required to teach a course to help Spanish-speaking individuals pass the General Educational…

  17. Over-constraints and a unified mobility method for general spatial mechanisms Part 2: Application of the principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjuan; Zeng, Daxing; Huang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The pre-research on mobility analysis presented a unified-mobility formula and a methodology based on reciprocal screw theory by HUANG, which focused on classical and modern parallel mechanisms. However its range of application needs to further extend to general multi-loop spatial mechanism. This kind of mechanism is not only more complex in structure but also with strong motion coupling among loops, making the mobility analysis even more complicated, and the relevant research has long been ignored. It is focused on how to apply the new principle for general spatial mechanism to those various multi-loop spatial mechanisms, and some new meaningful knowledge is further found. Several typical examples of the general multi-loop spatial mechanisms with motion couple even strong motion couple are considered. These spatial mechanisms include different closing way: over-constraint appearing in rigid closure, in movable closure, and in dynamic closure as well; these examples also include two different new methods to solve this kind of issue: the way to recognize over-constraints by analyzing relative movement between two connected links and by constructing a virtual loop to recognize over-constraints. In addition, over-constraint determination tabulation is brought to analyze the motion couple. The researches above are all based upon the screw theory. All these multi-loop spatial mechanisms with different kinds of structures can completely be solved by following the directions and examples, and the new mobility theory based on the screw theory is also proved to be valid. This study not only enriches and develops the theory and makes the theory more universal, but also has a special meaning for innovation in mechanical engineering.

  18. A FOLIO OF ILLUSTRATIVE EXERCISES FROM CHICAGO CITY JUNIOR COLLEGE ENGLISH AND GENERAL COURSE FINAL EXAMINATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENGLEHART, MAX D.; MOUGHAMIAN, HENRY

    THESE EXAMPLES OF FINAL EXAMINATION ITEMS INCLUDE ENGLISH, BIOLOGY, HUMANITIES, PHYSICAL SCIENCE, AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. THEY ARE INTENDED FOR USE IN EVALUATING THE STUDENT'S INTELLECTUAL SKILL RATHER THAN HIS MEMORY. ALMOST ALL ITEMS ARE OF THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE AND KEY-LIST TYPES, WITH NO TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS. TO SOME EXTENT, USE IS MADE OF EXERCISES…

  19. To pay or not to pay: examining underlying principles in the debate on financial support for family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Janice; Rajnovich, Beth

    2007-01-01

    In many countries one approach to supporting family-and-friend caregivers is direct financial or monetary support. Debates about the benefits and consequences of such policies pervade the literature. Building on the premise that values underlie public policy, the paper examines four policy paradoxes in the literature and uses selected examples from an international policy analysis to illustrate the underlying objectives and values upon which many of the policies were developed. These include the responsibility to care, economic or social objectives, gender equity, and the autonomy of care receivers. The authors conclude that policy makers need to be cautious about the unintended effects of financial support policy and develop a menu of policies and services to support caregivers. Future policy development in Canada must enable legitimate choice across the life course and ensure that neither the caregiver nor the care receiver will experience short- or long-term financial consequences of his or her choice. PMID:21598748

  20. The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Explaining Examination Performance of College Students in First-Semester General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of…

  1. Examining the Relationships between Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion, Professional Development, and Support from Special Education Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogamon, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    This correlational research study examined the relationships between secondary general education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion, hours of professional development in topics related to special education and hours of support from special education personnel addressing the needs of students with disabilities received weekly. The research also…

  2. Deciding to Provide a Reader in Examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE): Questions About Validity and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) was designed as an inclusive qualification, access to which has been supported by providing a reader to some candidates during examinations. A candidate reading age criterion of ten years has been employed by the GCSE awarding bodies to determine…

  3. Examining Collaboration and Constrains on Collaboration between Special and General Education Teachers in Mainstream Schools in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Natour, Mayada; Amr, Muna; Al-Zboon, Eman; Alkhamra, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines collaboration between general and special education teachers in mainstream schools in Jordan from their own points of view. It explores the extent to which teachers work collaboratively throughout the different stages of the special educational programs of students with special needs (i.e. referral, assessment, planning, and…

  4. Examining the Perceptions of Secondary School General Education Administrators Regarding the Supervision and Management of Special Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation includes a report of the results of a quantitative and qualitative research project that examined the perceptions of 58 secondary general education administrators regarding the supervision and management of special education programs in their buildings. Data were gathered through an online survey that requested participants to…

  5. GReAT (General Relativity Accuracy Test): a free fall test of Weak Equivalence Principle from stratospheric balloon altitude .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Persichini, M.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Ashenberg, J.; Bombardelli, C.; Glashow, S.

    GReAT (General Relativity Accuracy Test) is a free fall experiment from stratospheric balloon altitude to test the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) with an accuracy of (5 \\cdot 10^{-15}). The key components of the experiments are a very high accuracy (sensitivity close to (10^{-14}) g/(\\sqrt{Hz}) in a 25-s integration time) differential acceleration detector to detect a possible violation of the WEP and the facility necessary to perform the experiment. The detector will be released to free fall inside an evacuated capsule (Einstein elevator) which has been previously dropped from a stratospheric balloon, and will be slowly rotated about a horizontal axis to modulate the gravity signal and then released inside the capsule, immediately after the capsule's release from the balloon. In this paper, we report the progress in the development of the differential accelerometer that must be able to test the WEP with the declared accuracy. Following a brief description of the overall experiment, we present experimental results obtained with a differential accelerometer prototype, in particular the ability of the sensor to reject common-mode noise components. Finally, we present a new configuration of the differential accelerometer which is less sensitive to higher-order mass moments generated by nearby masses.

  6. Examining the reciprocal relation between academic motivation and substance use: effects of family relationships, self-esteem, and general deviance.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J A; Duncan, S C

    1997-12-01

    The present study examined the reciprocal relation between academic motivation and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use across four annual assessments during adolescence. Data were obtained from 435 adolescents, 13 to 17 years of age at the first assessment, and their mothers. The results of generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis suggested inverse reciprocal relations across time between academic motivation and both cigarette and marijuana use. Reciprocal relations between academic motivation and alcohol use were not found, possibly due to the normative use of this substance. The examination of mediational mechanisms, including general deviance, self-esteem and family relationships, suggested that the relation between marijuana use and, for younger adolescents, cigarette use and academic motivation is not direct but is indirect, mediated through the general deviance of the adolescent. Deviance, self-esteem, and, for the youngest adolescents, family relationships mediated the relation between academic motivation and subsequent marijuana use.

  7. Qualitative uncertainty principles for the generalized Fourier transform associated to a Dunkl type operator on the real line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejjaoli, Hatem; Trimèche, Khalifa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we prove various mathematical aspects of the qualitative uncertainty principle, including Hardy's, Cowling-Price's theorem, Morgan's theorem, Beurling, Gelfand-Shilov, Miyachi theorems.

  8. Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Natalie H.; Grenell, Amanda; Barr, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The specificity of the bilingual advantage in memory was examined by testing groups of monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual 24-month-olds on tasks tapping cued recall, memory generalization and working memory. For the cued recall and memory generalization conditions, there was a 24-h delay between time of encoding and time of retrieval. In addition to the memory tasks, parent-toddler dyads completed a picture-book reading task, in order to observe emotional responsiveness, and a parental report of productive vocabulary. Results indicated no difference between language groups on cued recall, working memory, emotional responsiveness, or productive vocabulary, but a significant difference was found in the memory generalization condition with only the bilingual group outperforming the baseline control group. These results replicate and extend results from past studies (Brito and Barr, 2012, 2014; Brito et al., 2014) and suggest a bilingual advantage specific to memory generalization. PMID:25520686

  9. [Cytological-energetic principle of the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes - up to now experiences and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Müllerová, K; Kelbich, P; Švecová, M

    2015-12-01

    In our study we have dealt with the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). For one of the most important task in the feto-maternal medicine we consider the discovered method of amniotic fluid examination which is capable of the earliest possible detection in an intraamniotic inflammatory response. Unnoticed could harm or in the most serious cases threat the life of fetus or its mother. This was also the main reason why we chose this topic for our study. We have not been interested only in already known interleu-kin-6 (IL-6), but we have approached the examination comprehensively. We used the cytological-energetic principle supplemented by the examination of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), in which already are long-term experiences in investigating other extracellular fluids. We have monitored values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocytes in maternal serum, IL-6, AST and energetic score ratio (KEB) in amniotic fluid. Further we have investigated which imunocompetent cells have been dominant in amniotic fluid at different types of inflamantory reaction. According to the results of the examination of the control groups, it was necessary to correct the KEB limit in comparison to KEB limits of other extracellular fluids. Although our study includes untill now only 44 patients - 21 controls and 23 investigated persons, we have been already able to find out some trends of changes in observed parametres. As a very impotant discovery we consider the fact, that KEB, AST and cytological examination of amniotic fluid seem to be the methods for prediction of chorioamnionitis as reliable as the examination of IL-6. These methods are besides less expensive and therefore more suitable for the use in the small hospitals and developing countries. We continue in our study to confirm the previously found trends on the larger numbers of patients.

  10. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  11. Sleeping like a baby: Examining relations between habitual infant sleep, recall memory, and generalization across cues at 10 months.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep is related to cognitive functioning in infants and adults. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in infant sleep habits over the seven days prior to elicited imitation testing were associated with variability in (a) the encoding of 2-step event sequences and (b) memory for the presented information and generalization across cues after a 2-h delay in 10-month-olds. Significant correlations indicated that both daytime napping and nighttime sleep were related to encoding and generalization across cues after the 2-h delay; significant findings were not found in relation to baseline or delayed recall performance. We suggest that individual differences in infant sleep habits may be one mechanism underlying the observed variability in recall memory and generalization as these abilities are coming online late in the first year of life.

  12. Correlation Between An Email Based Board Review Program and American Board of Pediatrics General Pediatrics Certifying Examination Scores

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, Erik E.; Fogel, Joshua; Schaeffer, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of a weekly email based board review course on individual resident performance on the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) General Pediatrics Certifying Examination for pediatric residents and, specifically, residents with low ABP In-training Examination (ITE) scores. Methods Weekly board-type questions were emailed to all pediatric residents from 2004–2007. Responses to board-type questions were tracked, recorded, and correlated with ITE scores and ABP General Pediatrics Certifying Examination Scores. Results With regard to total number of questions answered, only total number of questions answered correctly had a significant positive correlation with standard board scores (n = 71, r = 0.24, p = 0.047). For “at risk” residents with ITE scores ≤ 200 (n = 21), number of questions answered in PL 3 year (r = 0.51, p = 0.018) and number of questions answered correctly for all PL years (r = 0.59, p = 0.005) had significant positive correlations with standard board scores. Conclusions Participating regularly in the email-based board review course, answering board style questions, and answering correctly to board style questions were associated with higher standard board scores. This benefit existed for all but was especially prominent among those with poor in-training examination scores. PMID:20101279

  13. Transmembrane Communication: General Principles and Lessons from the Structure and Function of the M2 Proton Channel, K+ Channels, and Integrin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Gevorg; Moore, David T.; DeGrado, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction across biological membranes is central to life. This process generally happens through communication between different domains and hierarchical coupling of information. Here, we review structural and thermodynamic principles behind transmembrane (TM) signal transduction and discuss common themes. Communication between signaling domains can be understood in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic principles, and complex signaling patterns can arise from simple wiring of thermodynamically coupled domains. We relate this to functions of several signal transduction systems: the M2 proton channel from influenza A virus, potassium channels, integrin receptors, and bacterial kinases. We also discuss key features in the structural rearrangements responsible for signal transduction in these systems. PMID:21548783

  14. Transmembrane communication: general principles and lessons from the structure and function of the M2 proton channel, K⁺ channels, and integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, Gevorg; Moore, David T; DeGrado, William F

    2011-01-01

    Signal transduction across biological membranes is central to life. This process generally happens through communication between different domains and hierarchical coupling of information. Here, we review structural and thermodynamic principles behind transmembrane (TM) signal transduction and discuss common themes. Communication between signaling domains can be understood in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic principles, and complex signaling patterns can arise from simple wiring of thermodynamically coupled domains. We relate this to functions of several signal transduction systems: the M2 proton channel from influenza A virus, potassium channels, integrin receptors, and bacterial kinases. We also discuss key features in the structural rearrangements responsible for signal transduction in these systems.

  15. Examining General Versus Condition-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Across Weight Categories in an Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Autumn G; Smith, Courtney; Dalton Iii, William T; Slawson, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across weight categories in adolescents using both a general and a condition-specific measure sensitive to fatigue symptoms. Participants (N = 918) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory and PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale measures. Actual height and weight were used to calculate body mass index for age and sex percentiles and assign weight categories. No interaction effects between total HRQoL and weight category and gender were found; however, main effects were found for both weight category and gender. Future research should examine the impact of using different measures to assess HRQoL outcomes across weight categories.

  16. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  17. How Is Examination Stress Experienced by Secondary Students Preparing for Their General Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations and How Can It Be Explained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William

    2011-01-01

    High stakes examinations have been identified as a significant source of stress for secondary school students; however, there is little data accounting for, and explaining, the experiences of examination stress. This study aimed to further the understanding of examination stress in secondary school students by conducting interviews with 34…

  18. Applicability of Markets to Global Scheduling in Grids: Critical Examination of General Equilibrium Theory and Market Folklore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.

  19. Examining the Use of First Principles of Instruction by Instructional Designers in a Short-Term, High Volume, Rapid Production of Online K-12 Teacher Professional Development Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Merrill (2002a) created a set of fundamental principles of instruction that can lead to effective, efficient, and engaging (e[superscript 3]) instruction. The First Principles of Instruction (Merrill, 2002a) are a prescriptive set of interrelated instructional design practices that consist of activating prior knowledge, using specific portrayals…

  20. Application of HACCP principles to control visitor health threats on dairy farms open to the general public.

    PubMed

    Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes.

  1. [The Relation between the Height of Radiographic Table and Workloads of Radiologic Technologist in General X-ray Examinations].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akiko; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Arimura, Hisao; Fukano, Yuuichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Yabuuchi, Hidetake

    2015-12-01

    Workloads of radiological technologists under different conditions of heights of radiographic table and/or X-ray tube assembly were calculated using a software for preventing musculoskeletal complaint to investigate optimal working environment for general X-ray examinations. In the patient positioning, compressive force of lumbar disc decreased at higher radiographic table within the range of 45-90 cm. On the other hand, workload of the shoulder joint increased with increase in the height of radiographic table. Load of the shoulder joint similarly increased as the height of the X-ray tube assembly increased. Compressive force of lumbar disc reduced by approximately 10-30% as the height ratio of the radiographic table to body height increased by approximately 40%, compared to the lowest table of 45 cm. Muscle load of a 50-years-old woman was approximately double compared to a 30-year-old man, even in the same workload. It is important to keep suitable height of radiographic table for reduction of the workloads of lumbar rather than shoulder joint, because floating-type radiographic table is generally used. PMID:26685834

  2. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions, is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in small student groups without peer leader intervention. The findings of this study revealed that students were mostly engaged in co-constructed arguments, that a discrepancy in the participation of the group members existed, and students were able to correct most of the incorrect claims on their own via argumentation. The second study, Exploration of peer leader verbal behaviors as they intervene with small groups in college general chemistry, examines the interactive discourse of the peer leaders and the students during peer leader intervention. The relationship between the verbal behaviors of the peer leaders and the student argumentation is explored in this study. The findings of this study demonstrated that peer leaders used an array of verbal behaviors to guide students to construct chemistry concepts, and that a relationship existed between student argument components and peer leader verbal behaviors. The third study, Use of Tolumin's Argumentation Scheme for student discourse to gain insight about guided inquiry activities in college chemistry , is focused on investigating the relationship between student arguments without peer leader intervention and the structure of published guided inquiry ChemActivities. The relationship between argumentation and the structure of the activities is explored with respect to prompts, questions, and the segmented Learning Cycle structure of the ChemActivities. Findings of this study revealed that prompts were effective in eliciting arguments, that convergent questions produced more arguments than directed questions, and that the structure of the Learning Cycle successfully scaffolded arguments. A

  3. An extremum principle for computation of the zone of tooth contact and generalized transmission error of spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    For a given set of forces transmitted by the gears, each of the three components of the generalized transmission error of spiral bevel gears is shown to be stationary with respect to small independent variations in the positions of the endpoints of the lines of tooth contact about their true values. The tangential generalized transmission error component is shown to take on a minimum value at the true endpoint positions. A computational procedure based on the method of steepest descent is described for computing the true line of contact endpoint positions and the three components of the generalized transmission error. A method for computing the Fourier series coefficients of the tooth meshing harmonics of the three generalized transmission error components also is provided.

  4. Comparability of Computer and Paper-and-Pencil Scores for Two CLEP General Examinations. College Board Report No. 91-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, John; And Others

    Two studies investigated the comparability of scores from paper-and-pencil and computer-administered versions of the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examinations in mathematics and English composition. The first study used a prototype computer-administered version on each examination for 94 students for mathematics and 116 for…

  5. First principles approach to the Abraham-Minkowski controversy for the momentum of light in general linear non-dispersive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Tomás; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2015-02-01

    We study the problem of the definition of the energy-momentum tensor of light in general moving non-dispersive media with linear constitutive law. Using the basic principles of classical field theory, we show that for the correct understanding of the problem, one needs to carefully distinguish situations when the material medium is modeled either as a background on which light propagates or as a dynamical part of the total system. In the former case, we prove that the (generalized) Belinfante-Rosenfeld (BR) tensor for the electromagnetic field coincides with the Minkowski tensor. We derive a complete set of balance equations for this open system and show that the symmetries of the background medium are directly related to the conservation of the Minkowski quantities. In particular, for isotropic media, the angular momentum of light is conserved despite of the fact that the Minkowski tensor is non-symmetric. For the closed system of light interacting with matter, we model the material medium as a relativistic non-dissipative fluid and we prove that it is always possible to express the total BR tensor of the closed system either in the Abraham or in the Minkowski separation. However, in the case of dynamical media, the balance equations have a particularly convenient form in terms of the Abraham tensor. Our results generalize previous attempts and provide a first principles basis for a unified understanding of the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy without ad hoc arguments.

  6. 26 CFR 1.336-1 - General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... combination thereof, five percent or more, by value, of the stock of target in the qualified stock disposition... of another corporation. Seller includes both a transferor and a distributor of target stock. Generally, all members of a consolidated group that dispose of target stock are treated as a single...

  7. Acute traumatic death of a 17th century general based on examination of mummified remains found in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Sun; Lee, Eun-Joo; Park, Jun Bum; Baek, Seung Hee; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Soong Deok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Hong, Jung Won; Lim, Do-Sun; Shin, Myung Ho; Seo, Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2009-06-01

    Recently, we examined one of the most perfectly preserved mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) ever found in Korea. The individual was an elderly man and a high-ranking general who had lived sometime during the 16th or 17th century in Korea. When computerized tomography (CT) radiographs were taken, a fracture line was observed on the left side of the mandible. A post-factum dissection also provided crucial clues to the cause of death. First of all, blood clots were still evident at the fracture site, indicating that the mandibular fracture had occurred just before death. Second, we also found feces exclusively in the sigmoid colon or rectum, but not in the stomach, small intestine or colon. This told us that our subject had not eaten anything during his final 2 days (even though there was no indication that he would have had any difficulty eating during that time). Therefore, we presume that this case might not be one of chronic or wasting disease, but rather a case of sudden death. By virtue of the varied specialties of the researchers involved in this study, we were able to piece together a partly very clear and partly very plausible story for our 17th century mummy subject. Considering the high level of preservation of remains and artifacts found in lime soil mixture barrier (LSMB) tombs, not to mention the rich supplementary information available from historical documents, similarly successful studies are promised in forthcoming days and years. PMID:19345566

  8. The discovery of the principles of reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and differentiation of conditional reflexes in Pavlov's laboratories.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and differentiation with the conditional reflex method in Pavlov's laboratories is described. Modern American introductory texts show that contemporary understanding of the experimental work on conditioning in Pavlov's laboratories is derived from a 1927 English translation of Pavlov's lectures on the conditional reflexes. The lectures present the discoveries topically, not chronologically. In contrast, this article presents a chronological account of the contributions of S.G. Vul'fson, I.F. Tolochinov, and B.P. Babkin, which led to the conceptualization of reinforcement and extinction, and the work of V.N. Boldyrev and N.A. Kashereninova, which led to the formulation of the concepts of generalization and differentiation. This historical approach avoids giving the impression that the development of the Pavlovian paradigm was a highly systematic pursuit.

  9. An Application of Educational Theories and Principles of Teaching and Learning Communication Skills for General Practitioners in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahaibi, Ahmed; Almahrezi, Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the crucial role of teaching and learning communication skills for general practitioners, based on the theory of experiential and self-directed learning. It also outlines the proposed ways and methods to teach these communication skills in this project. The patient-doctor interview or what is known as office visit in some countries and consultation in others is the cornerstone of the entire General Practice (GP) or Family Medicine. It is from this process and outcome that the reputation is gained or destroyed. The analysis of the consultation is complicated and varied but is most usefully employed to assess effecacy in terms of achieving the means that are mutually desired by patients and their carers. PMID:22334856

  10. The hypothesis of neuronal interconnectivity as a function of brain size—a general organization principle of the human connectome

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Fövenyi, Laszlo; Liem, Franziskus; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Ringo and colleagues proposed that maintaining absolute connectivity in larger compared with smaller brains is computationally inefficient due to increased conduction delays in transcallosal information transfer and expensive with respect to the brain mass needed to establish these additional connections. Therefore, they postulated that larger brains are relatively stronger connected intrahemispherically and smaller brains interhemispherically, resulting in stronger functional lateralization in larger brains. We investigated neuronal interconnections in 138 large and small human brains using diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tractography. We found a significant interaction between brain size and the type of connectivity. Structural intrahemispheric connectivity is stronger in larger brains, whereas interhemispheric connectivity is only marginally increased in larger compared with smaller brains. Although brain size and gender are confounded, this effect is gender-independent. Additionally, the ratio of interhemispheric to intrahemispheric connectivity correlates inversely with brain size. The hypothesis of neuronal interconnectivity as a function of brain size might account for shorter and more symmetrical interhemispheric transfer times in women and for empirical evidence that visual and auditory processing are stronger lateralized in men. The hypothesis additionally shows that differences in interhemispheric and intrahemispheric connectivity are driven by brain size and not by gender, a finding contradicting a recently published study. Our findings are also compatible with the idea that the more asymmetric a region is, the smaller the density of interhemispheric connections, but the larger the density of intrahemispheric connections. The hypothesis represents an organization principle of the human connectome that might be applied also to non-human animals as suggested by our cross-species comparison. PMID:25426059

  11. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th–10th Grades

    PubMed Central

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population—adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to represent these constructs with minimal error and to examine whether residual variance unaccounted for by oral language can be captured by specific factors of syntax and vocabulary. A 1-, 3-, 4-, and bifactor model were tested with 1,792 students in 18 schools in 2 large urban districts in the Southeast. Students were individually administered measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntax, and decoding fluency in mid-year. At the end of the year students took the state reading test as well as a group-administered, norm-referenced test of reading comprehension. The bifactor model fit the data best in all 7 grades and explained 72% to 99% of the variance in reading comprehension. The specific factors of syntax and vocabulary explained significant unique variance in reading comprehension in 1 grade each. The decoding fluency factor was significantly correlated with the reading comprehension and oral language factors in all grades, but, in the presence of the oral language factor, was not significantly associated with the reading comprehension factor. Results support a bifactor model of lexical knowledge rather than the 3-factor model of the Simple View of Reading, with the vast amount of variance in reading comprehension explained by a general oral language factor. PMID:26346839

  12. Physical principles of hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Psychophysical properties of hearing * The cochlear amplifier * Mechanosensory hair cells * The "critical" oscillator as a general principle of auditory detection * Bibliography

  13. Principles of Catholic Social Teaching, Critical Pedagogy, and the Theory of Intersectionality: An Integrated Framework to Examine the Roles of Social Status in the Formation of Catholic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Caroline Marie; Ryan, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of an analytic framework that integrates principles of Catholic social teaching, critical pedagogy, and the theory of intersectionality to explain attitudes toward marginalized youth held by Catholic students preparing to become teachers. The framework emerges from five years of action research data collected…

  14. First-principles calculation of defect free energies: General aspects illustrated in the case of bcc Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, D.; Posselt, M.; Schiwarth, M.

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of nanostructure evolution in solids requires comprehensive data on the properties of defects such as the vacancy and foreign atoms. Since most processes occur at elevated temperatures, not only the energetics of defects in the ground state, but also their temperature-dependent free energies must be known. The first-principles calculation of contributions of phonon and electron excitations to free formation, binding, and migration energies of defects is illustrated in the case of bcc Fe. First of all, the ground-state properties of the vacancy, the foreign atoms Cu, Y, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, Mo, Si, Al, Co, O, and the O-vacancy pair are determined under constant volume (CV) as well as zero-pressure (ZP) conditions, and relations between the results of both kinds of calculations are discussed. Second, the phonon contribution to defect free energies is calculated within the harmonic approximation using the equilibrium atomic positions determined in the ground state under CV and ZP conditions. In most cases, the ZP-based free formation energy decreases monotonously with temperature, whereas for CV-based data both an increase and a decrease were found. The application of a quasiharmonic correction to the ZP-based data does not modify this picture significantly. However, the corrected data are valid under zero-pressure conditions at higher temperatures than in the framework of the purely harmonic approach. The difference between CV- and ZP-based data is mainly due to the volume change of the supercell since the relative arrangement of atoms in the environment of the defects is nearly identical in the two cases. A simple transformation similar to the quasiharmonic approach is found between the CV- and ZP-based frequencies. Therefore, it is not necessary to calculate these quantities and the corresponding defect free energies separately. In contrast to ground-state energetics, the CV- and ZP-based defect free energies do not become equal with increasing supercell

  15. General principles for the formation and proliferation of a wall-free (L-form) state in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Romain; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Errington, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall is a defining structural feature of the bacterial kingdom. Curiously, some bacteria have the ability to switch to a wall-free or ‘L-form’ state. Although known for decades, the general properties of L-forms are poorly understood, largely due to the lack of systematic analysis of L-forms in the molecular biology era. Here we show that inhibition of peptidoglycan precursor synthesis promotes the generation of L-forms from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We show that the L-forms generated have in common a mechanism of proliferation involving membrane blebbing and tubulation, which is dependent on an altered rate of membrane synthesis. Crucially, this mode of proliferation is independent of the essential FtsZ based division machinery. Our results suggest that the L-form mode of proliferation is conserved across the bacterial kingdom, reinforcing the idea that it could have been used in primitive cells, and opening up its use in the generation of synthetic cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04629.001 PMID:25358088

  16. Designing and Interpreting Limiting Dilution Assays: General Principles and Applications to the Latent Reservoir for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Elliott, Oliver; Hill, Alison L; Henrich, Timothy J; Siliciano, Janet M; Siliciano, Robert F

    2015-12-01

    Limiting dilution assays are widely used in infectious disease research. These assays are crucial for current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 cure research in particular. In this study, we offer new tools to help investigators design and analyze dilution assays based on their specific research needs. Limiting dilution assays are commonly used to measure the extent of infection, and in the context of HIV they represent an essential tool for studying latency and potential curative strategies. Yet standard assay designs may not discern whether an intervention reduces an already miniscule latent infection. This review addresses challenges arising in this setting and in the general use of dilution assays. We illustrate the major statistical method for estimating frequency of infectious units from assay results, and we offer an online tool for computing this estimate. We recommend a procedure for customizing assay design to achieve desired sensitivity and precision goals, subject to experimental constraints. We consider experiments in which no viral outgrowth is observed and explain how using alternatives to viral outgrowth may make measurement of HIV latency more efficient. Finally, we discuss how biological complications, such as probabilistic growth of small infections, alter interpretations of experimental results.

  17. Averting a Disaster with Groundwater Depletion in India: The General Case of Water Management Principles and Development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    Many countries, including the USA, China, and India are experiencing chronic groundwater depletion. In part this unsustainable water use results from climatic factors that reduce surface water availability and also the recharge to the aquifer system. However, a more critical factor is uncontrolled use for agriculture and energy and mineral processing. Interestingly in places such as India endowments have been politically created that lead to ever increasing use, through the provision of free energy for pumping. Reversing the situation is considered politically challenging, and the concept of metering and payment for what is essentially economic use of water is also considered difficult to apply. In this talk I use the Indian situation as a general example and discuss the role central planning strategies for demand and resource management can play recognizing the private action by millions of users as an inevitable tool that needs to be leveraged without necessarily the high transaction costs that come with monitoring and fee collection for monitored use. Specifically, targeting and stimulating potential cropping strategies and on farm water and energy management emerge as a choice in a difficult management environment. In a broader development context, I argue that the role of private sector aggregators in developing farm to market procurement strategies can play a role in both improving rural economies and providing a trajectory for more efficient water use through technology and crop choice.

  18. The Utility of General and School-Specific Personality Traits and an Examination of Their Relationship over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschleman, Kevin J.; Burns, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A university student sample was used to compare school-specific (i.e., personality at school) and general personality (i.e., personality across all life domains) over eight weeks. School-specific and general personality incrementally predicted change in school-specific criteria (i.e., school satisfaction and school citizenship behaviors). Less…

  19. Examining Gender with General Creativity and Preferences for Creative Persons in College Students within the Sciences and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; Basham, Kimberly M.; Elliott, John O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to investigate gender similarities and differences in general creativity constructs with their preferences for creative persons. Data were collected from 247 participants (87 engineering, 24 psychology students with a psychology major, 51 psychology students with a major other than psychology, 30 English, and 55…

  20. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  1. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  2. Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…

  3. Factors Associated with General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and…

  4. General Principles for Brain Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Brian D.

    2006-06-01

    The task of understanding how the brain works has met with only limited success since important design concepts are not as yet incorporated in the analysis. Relevant concepts can be uncovered by studying the powerful methodologies that have evolved in the context of computer programming, raising the question of how the concepts involved there can be realised in neural hardware. Insights can be gained in regard to such issues through the study of the role played by models and representation. These insights lead on to an appreciation of the mechanisms underlying subtle capacities such as those concerned with the use of language. A precise, essentially mathematical account of such capacities is in prospect for the future.

  5. Emotional Reactions to Stress among Adolescent Boys and Girls: An Examination of the Mediating Mechanisms Proposed by General Strain Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigfusdottir, Inga-Dora; Silver, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of negative life events on anger and depressed mood among a sample of 7,758 Icelandic adolescents, measured as part of the National Survey of Icelandic Adolescents (Thorlindsson, Sigfusdottir, Bernburg, & Halldorsson, 1998). Using multiple linear regression and multinomial logit regression, we find that (a) girls…

  6. Disruption of long-range gene regulation in human genetic disease: a kaleidoscope of general principles, diverse mechanisms and unique phenotypic consequences.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shipra; Kleinjan, Dirk A

    2014-07-01

    The precise control of gene expression programs is crucial for the establishment of the diverse gene activity patterns required for the correct development, patterning and differentiation of the myriad of cell types within an organism. The crucial importance of non-coding regions of the genome in the control of gene regulation is well established and depends on a diverse group of sequence fragments called cis-regulatory elements that reside in these regions. Advances in novel genome-wide techniques have greatly increased the ability to identify potential regulatory elements. In contrast, their functional characterisation and the determination of their diverse modes of action remain a major bottleneck. Greater knowledge of gene expression control is of major importance for human health as disruption of gene regulation has become recognised as a significant cause of human disease. Appreciation of the role of cis-regulatory polymorphism in natural variation and susceptibility to common disease is also growing. While novel techniques such as GWAS and NGS provide the ability to collect large genomic datasets, the challenge for the twenty-first century will be to extract the relevant sequences and how to investigate the functional consequences of disease-associated changes. Here, we review how studies of transcriptional control at selected paradigm disease gene loci have revealed general principles of cis-regulatory logic and regulatory genome organisation, yet also demonstrate how the variety of mechanisms can combine to result in unique phenotypic outcomes. Integration of these principles with the emerging wealth of genome-wide data will provide enhanced insight into the workings of our regulatory genome.

  7. Factors Associated With General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Justin F; Pedersen, Eric R; Mirza, Tehniat; Labrie, Joseph W

    2010-12-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), predeparture expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and perceived disparity between home and host cultures differentially predicted consequences abroad. The findings include important implications for student affairs professionals in developing study abroad-specific interventions and resources to maintain student well-being while abroad. PMID:23505594

  8. Factors Associated With General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Justin F; Pedersen, Eric R; Mirza, Tehniat; Labrie, Joseph W

    2010-12-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), predeparture expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and perceived disparity between home and host cultures differentially predicted consequences abroad. The findings include important implications for student affairs professionals in developing study abroad-specific interventions and resources to maintain student well-being while abroad.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Administered Analytical Questions for the Graduate Record Examinations General Test. GRE Board Professional Report No. 88-06P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Rock, Donald A.

    Three new computer-administered item types for the analytical scale of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test were developed and evaluated. One item type was a free-response version of the current analytical reasoning item type. The second item type was a somewhat constrained free-response version of the pattern identification (or…

  10. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  11. An Application of Unfolding and Cumulative Item Response Theory Models for Noncognitive Scaling: Examining the Assumptions and Applicability of the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sgammato, Adrienne N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of a relatively new unidimensional, unfolding item response theory (IRT) model called the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM; Roberts, Donoghue, & Laughlin, 2000). A total of four scaling methods were applied. Two commonly used cumulative IRT models for polytomous data, the Partial Credit Model and the…

  12. University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options. World Bank Technical Paper Number 78. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Uses of Standardized Tests and Selection Examinations (Beijing, China, April 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; Fagerlind, Ingemar, Ed.

    In September 1984, the Chinese government asked the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to assist the officials of the Chinese Ministry of Education in thinking through some policy options for examinations and standardized testing. This document summarizes the descriptions of testing programs and advice provided to these Chinese…

  13. Examining Individual Differences in Interpersonal Influence: On the Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Opinion Leadership Scale (GOLS).

    PubMed

    Batinic, Bernad; Appel, Markus; Gnambs, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Opinion leadership describes an individual's tendency to informally influence others' attitudes and overt behaviors. In contrast to contemporary views of opinion leadership as a highly domain-specific trait, this paper introduces a multi-faceted personality trait, generalized opinion leadership (GOL) that characterizes exceptionally influential individuals independent of a specific subject area. Two studies report on the psychometric properties of a scale to assess GOL. Study 1 is based on three independent samples (N = 1,575, N = 1,275, and N = 231) and demonstrates the factorial structure of the instrument and its measurement invariance across sex, age, and educational levels. Study 2 (N = 310) analyzes multitrait-multiinformant data to highlight the scale's discriminant validity with regard to innovativeness and trendsetting.

  14. The MEDIGATE graphical user interface for entry of physical findings: design principles and implementation. Medical Examination Direct Iconic and Graphic Augmented Text Entry System.

    PubMed

    Yoder, J W; Schultz, D F; Williams, B T

    1998-10-01

    The solution to many of the problems of the computer-based recording of the medical record has been elusive, largely due to difficulties in the capture of those data elements that comprise the records of the Present Illness and of the Physical Findings. Reliable input of data has proven to be more complex than originally envisioned by early work in the field. This has led to more research and development into better data collection protocols and easy to use human-computer interfaces as support tools. The Medical Examination Direct Iconic and Graphic Augmented Text Entry System (MEDIGATE System) is a computer enhanced interactive graphic and textual record of the findings from physical examinations designed to provide ease of user input and to support organization and processing of the data characterizing these findings. The primary design objective of the MEDIGATE System is to develop and evaluate different interface designs for recording observations from the physical examination in an attempt to overcome some of the deficiencies in this major component of the individual record of health and illness.

  15. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  16. History of the national licensing examination for the health professions under the Japanese Government-General of Korea (1910-1945)

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Soon

    2015-01-01

    During the reign of Japanese Government-General of Korea (Joseon) from 1910 to 1945, the main health professionals who were educated about modern medicine were categorized into physicians, dentists, pharmacists, midwives, and nurses. They were clearly distinguished from traditional health professionals. The regulations on new health professionals were enacted, and the licensing system was enforced in earnest. There were two kinds of licensing systems: the license without examination through an educational institution and the license with the national examination. The Japanese Government-General of Korea (Joseon) combined education with a national examination system to produce a large number of health professionals rapidly; however, it was insufficient to fulfill the increasing demand for health services. Therefore, the government eased the examination several times and focused on quantitative expansion of the health professions. The proportion of professionals licensed through national examination had increased. This system had produced the maximum number of available professionals at low cost. Furthermore, this system was significant in three respects: first, the establishment of the framework of the national licensing examination still used today for health professionals; second, the protection of people from the poor practices of unqualified practitioners; and third, the standardization of the quality of health. PMID:26013111

  17. History of the national licensing examination for the health professions under the Japanese Government-General of Korea (1910-1945).

    PubMed

    Park, In-Soon

    2015-01-01

    During the reign of Japanese Government-General of Korea (Joseon) from 1910 to 1945, the main health professionals who were educated about modern medicine were categorized into physicians, dentists, pharmacists, midwives, and nurses. They were clearly distinguished from traditional health professionals. The regulations on new health professionals were enacted, and the licensing system was enforced in earnest. There were two kinds of licensing systems: the license without examination through an educational institution and the license with the national examination. The Japanese Government-General of Korea (Joseon) combined education with a national examination system to produce a large number of health professionals rapidly; however, it was insufficient to fulfill the increasing demand for health services. Therefore, the government eased the examination several times and focused on quantitative expansion of the health professions. The proportion of professionals licensed through national examination had increased. This system had produced the maximum number of available professionals at low cost. Furthermore, this system was significant in three respects: first, the establishment of the framework of the national licensing examination still used today for health professionals; second, the protection of people from the poor practices of unqualified practitioners; and third, the standardization of the quality of health.

  18. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the C: The Use of Microbial Mats to Demonstrate General Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Microbial Ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively compact (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, we have developed curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. Our web site (http://microbes.arc.nasa.gov) includes reference materials, lesson plans, and a "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium. The site also provides information as to how research on microbial mats supports NASA's goals, and various NASA missions. A photo gallery contains images of mats, microscopic views of the organisms that form them, and our own research activities. An animated educational video on the web site uses computer graphic and video microscopy to take students on a journey into a microbial mat. These activities are targeted to a middle school audience and are aligned with the National Science Standards.

  19. Relationship of osteopathic medical licensure examinations with undergraduate admission measures and predictive value of identifying future performance in osteopathic principles and practice/osteopathic manipulative medicine courses and rotations.

    PubMed

    Meoli, Frederick G; Wallace, Warren S; Kaiser-Smith, Joanne; Shen, Linjun

    2002-11-01

    Two hundred sixty-five students from four classes at one school of osteopathic medicine were studied to determine the correlation between several frequently used premedical admission criteria to predict performance on the early and current versions of the osteopathic medical licensure examinations. Further analysis evaluated the predictive value of the examination of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) and its successor, the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) in determining subsequent performance in the ascending levels of the examination sequence, as well as to predict performance in the courses and rotations of osteopathic principles and practice (OPP) and osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). This study also investigated the relationship between the early and later parts of the osteopathic medical licensure examinations. Analysis showed that of all premedical parameters, only the Medical College Aptitude Test score was positively correlated with performance on COMLEX-USA. In addition, a positive correlation was demonstrated between the performance in either Level 1 of COMLEX-USA or in the earlier form of the NBOME examination Part I and subsequent performance on the current Level 2 of COMLEX-USA or the old NBOME Part II. Finally, analysis indicated that COMLEX-USA predicted performance in OPP knowledge and skills.

  20. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices.

  1. An examination of the divergent general, specific, and other criminogenic risk/needs across neuropathic and psychopathic pathways to homicide.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, D G; Lennings, C J

    2011-08-01

    The social learning theory underlying Andrews and Bonta's Psychology of Criminal Conduct model has generally been seen as guiding risk assessment, with good relevance to mentally ill as well as non-mentally ill offenders. The current study reports a novel approach to qualitative assessment of 26 murderers found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI), divided into two groups--neuropathic offenders characterised by frontal lobe deficits and psychosis and psychopathic murderers characterised by high scores on psychopathy and an absence of neuropathic factors. The findings of the present research support the notion that the two pathways are embedded in two diverging theoretical frameworks of psychopathology and social learning theory, with each corresponding to the neuropathic and psychopathic pathways, respectively. Models of social learning theory may have limited utility to the total mentally disordered offender population overall as they apply more specifically to offenders within special offender groups or perhaps more specifically to offenders with psychopathic characteristics. However, the significantly greater association of the other social, physical, and mental health risk/needs with the neuropathic pathway suggests that pathological models are important for understanding the neuropathic pathway in relation to homicide offence and risk of future violence in NGRI samples.

  2. An examination of the Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment principles and practices: a brief commentary on section 4.1.3 of the EPA March 2004 Staff Paper.

    PubMed

    Mundt, K A

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a Staff Paper that articulates current risk assessment practices. In section 4.1.3, EPA states, "... effects that appear to be adaptive, non-adverse, or beneficial may not be mentioned." This statement may be perceived as precluding risk assessments based on non-default risk models, including the hormetic--or biphasic--dose-response model. This commentary examines several potential interpretations of this statement and the anticipated impact of ignoring hormesis, if present, in light of necessary conservatism for protecting human and environmental health, and the potential for employing alternative risk assessment approaches.

  3. An examination of the Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment principles and practices: a brief commentary on section 4.1.3 of the EPA March 2004 Staff Paper.

    PubMed

    Mundt, K A

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a Staff Paper that articulates current risk assessment practices. In section 4.1.3, EPA states, "... effects that appear to be adaptive, non-adverse, or beneficial may not be mentioned." This statement may be perceived as precluding risk assessments based on non-default risk models, including the hormetic--or biphasic--dose-response model. This commentary examines several potential interpretations of this statement and the anticipated impact of ignoring hormesis, if present, in light of necessary conservatism for protecting human and environmental health, and the potential for employing alternative risk assessment approaches. PMID:16459710

  4. Recommendations by the EACD for examination, diagnosis, and management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain by the general dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    De Boever, J A; Nilner, M; Orthlieb, J-D; Steenks, M H

    2008-01-01

    The Council of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders charged the Educational Committee with the task of establishing Guidelines and Recommendations for the examination, diagnosis, and management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain by the general dental practitioner. It was not their purpose to present a thorough and critical review of the vast amount of literature available but to summarize the at-present generally accepted clinical approach. These recommendations are based as much as possible on scientific evidence and on sound clinical judgment in cases where only partial evidence or contradictory data were found.

  5. Principles of learning.

    PubMed

    Voith, V L

    1986-12-01

    This article discusses some general principles of learning as well as possible constraints and how such principles can apply to horses. A brief review is presented of experiments that were designed to assess learning in horses. The use of behavior modification techniques to treat behavior problems in horses is discussed and several examples of the use of these techniques are provided. PMID:3492241

  6. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the Classroom: The Use of Microbial Mats to Illustrate and Demonstrate General Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Microbial Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebout, B. M.; Bucaria, R.

    2004-12-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively small (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can even be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, provided as a supplement to our research funding, we are developing curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. A web site with useful background information and links is now on-line. The curriculum, now in the pilot phase, is an integrated module having Science, Math and Language Art threads. A "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium, and complete with remotely-operable instrumentation not commonly available in classrooms, will be available to classrooms over the Internet. Using that system, the responses of the mat community to changes in environmental parameters, (e.g., light, pH, flow, and temperature) can be monitored using microsensors. Students will be able to develop hypotheses and propose experiments in the Web Lab to test them. Data from these experiments will be posted in real time and students will be able to collect the data, analyze it, and post results and conclusions back to the web page in a true implementation of the scientific inquiry process. The web site

  7. Entrance surface dose and image quality: comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Ahmad Shariff; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Wang, Hwee-Beng; Jamal, Noriah; Spelic, David C; Suleiman, Orhan H

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia.

  8. "C.R.E.A.T.E."-ing Unique Primary-Source Research Paper Assignments for a Pleasure and Pain Course Teaching Neuroscientific Principles in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Rotella, Francis M; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Coke, Tricia; Olsson, Kerstin; Barrientos, Alicia; Blachorsky, Lauren; Warshaw, Deena; Buras, Agata; Sanchez, Ciara M; Azad, Raihana; Stellar, James R

    2016-01-01

    A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles. Although well-registered and well-received, 18% of the students received Incomplete grades, primarily due to failing to submit the paper that went largely unresolved and eventually resulted in a failing grade. To rectify this issue, a modified version of the C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method replaced the paper with eight structured assignments focusing on an initial general-topic article, the introduction-methods, and results-discussion of each of three related peer-review neuroscience-related articles, and a final summary. Compliance in completing these assignments was very high, resulting in only 11 INC grades out of 228 students. Thus, use of the C.R.E.A.T.E. method reduced the percentage of problematic INC grades from 18% to 4.8%, a 73% decline, without changing the overall grade distribution. Other analyses suggested the students achieved a deeper understanding of the scientific process using the C.R.E.A.T.E. method relative to the original term paper assignment. PMID:27385918

  9. "C.R.E.A.T.E."-ing Unique Primary-Source Research Paper Assignments for a Pleasure and Pain Course Teaching Neuroscientific Principles in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Rotella, Francis M; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Coke, Tricia; Olsson, Kerstin; Barrientos, Alicia; Blachorsky, Lauren; Warshaw, Deena; Buras, Agata; Sanchez, Ciara M; Azad, Raihana; Stellar, James R

    2016-01-01

    A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles. Although well-registered and well-received, 18% of the students received Incomplete grades, primarily due to failing to submit the paper that went largely unresolved and eventually resulted in a failing grade. To rectify this issue, a modified version of the C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method replaced the paper with eight structured assignments focusing on an initial general-topic article, the introduction-methods, and results-discussion of each of three related peer-review neuroscience-related articles, and a final summary. Compliance in completing these assignments was very high, resulting in only 11 INC grades out of 228 students. Thus, use of the C.R.E.A.T.E. method reduced the percentage of problematic INC grades from 18% to 4.8%, a 73% decline, without changing the overall grade distribution. Other analyses suggested the students achieved a deeper understanding of the scientific process using the C.R.E.A.T.E. method relative to the original term paper assignment.

  10. “C.R.E.A.T.E.”-ing Unique Primary-Source Research Paper Assignments for a Pleasure and Pain Course Teaching Neuroscientific Principles in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Rotella, Francis M.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Coke, Tricia; Olsson, Kerstin; Barrientos, Alicia; Blachorsky, Lauren; Warshaw, Deena; Buras, Agata; Sanchez, Ciara M.; Azad, Raihana; Stellar, James R.

    2016-01-01

    A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles. Although well-registered and well-received, 18% of the students received Incomplete grades, primarily due to failing to submit the paper that went largely unresolved and eventually resulted in a failing grade. To rectify this issue, a modified version of the C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method replaced the paper with eight structured assignments focusing on an initial general-topic article, the introduction-methods, and results-discussion of each of three related peer-review neuroscience-related articles, and a final summary. Compliance in completing these assignments was very high, resulting in only 11 INC grades out of 228 students. Thus, use of the C.R.E.A.T.E. method reduced the percentage of problematic INC grades from 18% to 4.8%, a 73% decline, without changing the overall grade distribution. Other analyses suggested the students achieved a deeper understanding of the scientific process using the C.R.E.A.T.E. method relative to the original term paper assignment. PMID:27385918

  11. Core pathology of eating disorders as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): the predictive role of a nested general (g) and primary factors.

    PubMed

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Reas, Deborah L; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Øyvind

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined several factor models of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and in particular, whether a nested general factor ('g') was present, hence supporting a common pathology factor. A total of 1094 women were randomly selected by Statistics Norway and mailed a questionnaire packet. The sample was randomly split, using the first half for exploratory analyses and the second for confirmatory validation purposes. A four-factor solution received the best support, but the structure deviated from the original model of Fairburn. The internal consistency was high for the first three factors (.93, .82 and .86) and satisfactory for the fourth (.78). The additional specification of a general (g) factor improved model fit significantly, implying that the EDE-Q scores are indicators of both a general core and four primary symptom patterns. Furthermore, the g was more strongly related to predictors like age and body mass index (BMI) than the four primary factors in a full structural equation model. The validity of interpreting the global EDE-Q score as indicative of g was supported. A brief Shape and Weight Concern subscale of 11 items was strongly related to the g-factor, and may provide an abbreviated measure of overall eating disorder pathology.

  12. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership.

    PubMed

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  13. The Impact of the Hospital Volume on the Performance of Residents on the General Medicine In-Training Examination: A Multicenter Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Shimizu, Taro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Okubo, Tomoya; Tanoue, Yusuke; Konishi, Ryota; Shiojiri, Toshiaki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although several studies have been conducted worldwide on factors that might improve residents' knowledge, the relationship between the hospital volume and the internal medicine residents' knowledge has not been fully understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the relationships of the hospital volume and hospital resources with the residents' knowledge assessed by the In-training Examination. Methods We conducted a retrospective survey and a clinical knowledge evaluation of postgraduate year 1 and 2 (PGY-1 and -2) resident physicians in Japan by using the General Medicine In-training Examination (GM-ITE) in 2014. We compared the ITE score and the hospital volume. Results A total of 2,015 participants (70.6% men; age, 27.3±2.9 years old) from 208 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used, and the results revealed that an increasing number of hospitalizations, decreasing staff number, decreasing age and PGY-2 were significantly associated with higher GM-ITE scores. Conclusion The hospital volume, such as the number of hospitalizations, is thus considered to have a positive impact on the GM-ITE scores. PMID:27301504

  14. Impact of inpatient caseload, emergency department duties, and online learning resource on General Medicine In-Training Examination scores in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Shimizu, Taro; Tanoue, Yusuke; Konishi, Ryota; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shiojiri, Toshiaki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Background Both clinical workload and access to learning resource are important components of educational environment and may have effects on clinical knowledge of residents. Methods We conducted a survey with a clinical knowledge evaluation involving postgraduate year (PGY)-1 and -2 resident physicians at teaching hospitals offering 2-year postgraduate training programs required for residents in Japan, using the General Medicine In-Training Examination (GM-ITE). An individual-level analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the number of assigned patients and emergency department (ED) duty on the residents’ GM-ITE scores by fitting a multivariable generalized estimating equations. In hospital-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between for the number of UpToDate reviews for each hospital and for the hospitals’ mean GM-ITE score. Results A total of 431 PGY-1 and 618 PGY-2 residents participated. Residents with four or five times per month of the ED duties exhibited the highest mean scores compared to those with greater or fewer ED duties. Those with largest number of inpatients in charge exhibited the highest mean scores compared to the residents with fewer inpatients in charge. Hospitals with the greater UpToDate topic viewing showed significantly greater mean score. Conclusion Appropriate ED workload and inpatient caseload, as well as use of evidence-based electronic resources, were associated with greater clinical knowledge of residents. PMID:26586961

  15. The Impact of the Hospital Volume on the Performance of Residents on the General Medicine In-Training Examination: A Multicenter Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Shimizu, Taro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Okubo, Tomoya; Tanoue, Yusuke; Konishi, Ryota; Shiojiri, Toshiaki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although several studies have been conducted worldwide on factors that might improve residents' knowledge, the relationship between the hospital volume and the internal medicine residents' knowledge has not been fully understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the relationships of the hospital volume and hospital resources with the residents' knowledge assessed by the In-training Examination. Methods We conducted a retrospective survey and a clinical knowledge evaluation of postgraduate year 1 and 2 (PGY-1 and -2) resident physicians in Japan by using the General Medicine In-training Examination (GM-ITE) in 2014. We compared the ITE score and the hospital volume. Results A total of 2,015 participants (70.6% men; age, 27.3±2.9 years old) from 208 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used, and the results revealed that an increasing number of hospitalizations, decreasing staff number, decreasing age and PGY-2 were significantly associated with higher GM-ITE scores. Conclusion The hospital volume, such as the number of hospitalizations, is thus considered to have a positive impact on the GM-ITE scores.

  16. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  17. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  18. Principles of Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Danielle; Hammert, Warren C

    2016-08-01

    Tendon transfers provide a substitute, either temporary or permanent, when function is lost due to neurologic injury in stroke, cerebral palsy or central nervous system lesions, peripheral nerve injuries, or injuries to the musculotendinous unit itself. This article reviews the basic principles of tendon transfer, which are important when planning surgery and essential for an optimal outcome. In addition, concepts for coapting the tendons during surgery and general principles to be followed during the rehabilitation process are discussed. PMID:27387072

  19. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  20. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly. PMID:17077702

  1. A critical examination of the predictive capabilities of a new type of general laminated plate theory in the inelastic response regime

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Todd O

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a new type of general, multiscale plate theory was developed for application to the analysis of the history-dependent response of laminated plates (Williams). In particular, the history-dependent behavior in a plate was considered to arise from both delamination effects as well as history-dependent material point responses (such as from viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, damage, etc.). The multiscale nature of the theoretical framework is due to the use of a superposition of both general global and local displacement effects. Using this global-local displacement field the governing equations of the theory are obtained by satisfying the governing equations of nonlinear continuum mechanics referenced to the initial configuration. In order to accomplish the goal of conducting accurate analyses in the history-dependent response regimes the formulation of the theory has been carried out in a sufficiently general fashion that any cohesive zone model (CZM) and any history-dependent constitutive model for a material point can be incorporated into the analysis without reformulation. Recently, the older multiscale theory of Williams has been implemented into the finite element (FE) framework by Mourad et al. and the resulting capabilities where used to shown that in a qualitative sense it is important that the local fields be accurately obtained in order to correctly predict even the overall response characteristics of a laminated plate in the inelastic regime. The goal of this work is to critically examine the predictive capabilities of this theory, as well as the older multiscale theory of Williams and other types of laminated plate theories, with recently developed exact solutions for the response of inelastic plates in cylindrical bending (Williams). These exact solutions are valid for both nonlinear CZMs as well as inelastic material responses obtained from different constitutive theories. In particular, the accuracy with which the different plate theories

  2. Self-Directed Violence Aboard U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers: An Examination of General and Shipboard-Specific Risk and Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Saitzyk, Arlene; Vorm, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Self-directed violence (SDV), which includes suicidal ideation with and without intent, suicidal preparatory behaviors and attempts with and without harm, non-suicidal self-directed violence, and completed suicide, has been a rising concern in the military. Military shipboard personnel may represent a unique subset of this population due to the distinct nature of deployment stressors and embedded supports. As such, one might expect differences in the prevalence of SDV between this group and other active duty personnel, signifying a distinct operational impact. This study analyzed the prevalence of SDV among personnel assigned or deployed to U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, and examined whether occurrences varied by descriptors commonly identified in the literature (e.g., age, gender, marital status, pay grade/rank). This study also examined characteristics specific to life aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier in order to better understand the issues particular to this population. Descriptive analyses and relative risk findings suggested similarities in demographic risk factors to the general military population, but also striking differences related to occupational specialty and assigned department. This study is the first to shed light on risk and protective factors relevant to shipboard personnel. PMID:27046180

  3. Self-Directed Violence Aboard U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers: An Examination of General and Shipboard-Specific Risk and Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Saitzyk, Arlene; Vorm, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Self-directed violence (SDV), which includes suicidal ideation with and without intent, suicidal preparatory behaviors and attempts with and without harm, non-suicidal self-directed violence, and completed suicide, has been a rising concern in the military. Military shipboard personnel may represent a unique subset of this population due to the distinct nature of deployment stressors and embedded supports. As such, one might expect differences in the prevalence of SDV between this group and other active duty personnel, signifying a distinct operational impact. This study analyzed the prevalence of SDV among personnel assigned or deployed to U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, and examined whether occurrences varied by descriptors commonly identified in the literature (e.g., age, gender, marital status, pay grade/rank). This study also examined characteristics specific to life aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier in order to better understand the issues particular to this population. Descriptive analyses and relative risk findings suggested similarities in demographic risk factors to the general military population, but also striking differences related to occupational specialty and assigned department. This study is the first to shed light on risk and protective factors relevant to shipboard personnel.

  4. BACTEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on basic elements of water bacteriology. The presentation will be part of a seminar entitled, "Microbiology 101." This seminar is designed to provide general information regarding various microorganisms, e.g., bacteria, virus, protozoa. Basic principl...

  5. Examining reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs and over-general autobiographical memory as mechanisms of change in classroom prevention programs for adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip; Riglin, Lucy; Lewis, Gemma; Lewis, Glyn; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective methods to prevent adolescent depressive symptoms could reduce suffering and burden across the lifespan. However, psychological interventions delivered to adolescents show efficacy only in symptomatic or high-risk youth. Targeting causal risk factors and assessing mechanistic change can help devise efficacious universal or classroom based prevention programs. Methods A non-randomized longitudinal design was used to compare three classroom-based prevention programs for adolescent depression (Behavioral Activation with Reward Processing, “Thinking about Reward in Young People” (TRY); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)), and determine cognitive mechanisms of change in these programs. Cognitive mechanisms examined were reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs (assessed with behavioral tasks) and over-general autobiographical memory. 256 healthy adolescents aged 13–14 participated with 236 (92%) and 227 (89%) completing the pre- and post-assessments. Results TRY was the only intervention associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Reward-seeking increased following TRY. In the other programs there were non-significant changes in cognitive mechanisms, with more reflective negative self-beliefs in CBT and fewer over-general autobiographical memories in MBCT In the TRY program, which focused on increasing sensitivity to rewarding activities, reward seeking increased and this was associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Limitations Due to the infeasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial, a non-randomized design was used. Conclusions Increased reward-seeking was associated with decreased depressive symptoms and may be a mechanism of depressive symptom change in the intervention with a focus on enhancing sensitivity and awareness of reward. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that incorporating activities to enhance reward sensitivity may be fruitful in

  6. Prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies in general population: estimates from annual physical examinations of residents of a small town over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhide; Koshiba, Masahiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Tomoko; Morinobu, Sahoko; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the types and prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and their relationship to rheumatic diseases in the general Japanese population. An immunofluorescence (IF) method was used for the first screening of ANA levels in serum samples obtained from 2181 residents of a small Japanese town. Individuals positive for IF-ANA were then further tested for disease-specific ANAs using eight enzyme immunoassays. Physical status and the presence of illness were determined by means of questionnaires and medical examinations. Based on the result of the IF-ANA assay, the rates of positive samples at 1:40 and 1:160 dilutions were 26.0 and 9.5%, respectively, with females have significantly higher positivity rates than males (P < 0.0001). Among 566 IF-ANA-positive individuals, 100 individuals were found to have 114 disease-specific ANAs. Anti-SSA/Ro, anti-centromere, and anti-U1RNP antibodies were detected in 58, 30, and 11 individuals, respectively, but anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were undetectable. Questionnaires and medical examinations revealed that among 60 disease-specific ANA-positive individuals that were available for testing, six had Sjögren's syndrome (SS), five were suspected of having SS, and five had rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly, 34 (57%) of the disease-specific ANA-positive individuals were clinically healthy. Anti-SSA/Ro, anti-centromere, and anti-U1RNP antibodies were quite frequent among clinically healthy Japanese subjects, although anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were not. Of the 60 individuals who tested positive for disease-specific ANAs, 30% (18/60) actually manifested systemic rheumatic diseases, while 50% showed no detectable signs or symptoms of rheumatic diseases.

  7. Developments of the general relativity accuracy test (GReAT): a ground-based experiment to test the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Milyukov, V.

    2000-06-01

    Some future tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) with laboratory-size proof masses are likely to be conducted in freefall conditions in order to improve the test accuracy substantially. Some years ago the authors of this paper proposed to test the WEP in a vertical freefall inside a capsule released from a high-altitude balloon. The estimated accuracy in testing the WEP, with a 95% confidence level, is a few parts in 1015 in a 30 s freefall. When compared with other proposed orbital freefall experiments and ground-based tests, the vertical freefall retains some key advantages of the former without some of the disadvantages of the latter. Moreover, a two orders of magnitude increase in the accuracy of testing the WEP could be achieved with an affordable experiment that allows us to recover the detector and repeat the launches at short time intervals.

  8. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the Classroom: The Use of Microbial Mats to Teach General Principles in Microbial Ecology, and Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beboutl, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on earth, and may also be useful models for the search for life elsewhere. They are centrally important to Astrobiology. In this lecture, we will present an introduction to microbial mats, as well as an introduction to our web-based educational module on the subject of microbial ecology, featuring living mats maintained in a mini "Web Lab" complete with remotely-operable instrumentation. We have partnered with a number of outreach specialists in order to produce an informative and educational web-based presentation, aspects of which will be exported to museum exhibits reaching a wide audience. On our web site, we will conduct regularly scheduled experimental manipulations, linking the experiments to our research activities, and demonstrating fundamental principles of scientific research.

  9. Variational principles of irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyanagi, Masakazu

    1994-07-01

    This article reviews developments of variational principles in the study of irreversible processes during the past three decades or so. The variational principles we consider here are related to entropy production. The purpose of this article is to explicate that we can formulate a variational principle which relates the transport coefficients to microscopic dynamics of fluctuations. The quantum variational principle restricts the nonequilibrium density matrix to a class conforming to the requirement demanded by the second law of thermodynamics. These are various kinds of variational principles according to different stages of a macroscopic system. The three stages are known, which are dynamical, kinetic, and thermodynamical stages. The relationships among these variational principles are discussed from the point of view of the contraction of information about irrelevant components. Nakano's variational principle has close similarity to the Lippmann-Schwinger theory of scattering, in which some incoming and outgoing disturbances have to be considered in a pair. It is also shown that the variational principle of Onsager's type can be reformulated in the form of Hamilton's principle if a generalization of Hamilton's principle proposed by Djukic and Vujanovic is used. A variational principle in the diagrammatic method is also reviewed, which utilizes the generalized Ward-Takahashi relations.

  10. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  11. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the..., negotiating, or determining costs relevant to termination settlements under contracts with other...

  12. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  13. Genetic principles.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  14. Yielding Unexpected Results: Precipitation of Ba[subscript3](PO[subscript4])[subscript2] and Implications for Teaching Solubility Principles in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Jeffery L.; Cleary, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation of barium phosphate from aqueous solutions of a barium salt and a phosphate salt forms the basis for a number of conclusions drawn in general chemistry. For example, the formation of a solid white precipitate is offered as evidence that barium phosphate is insoluble. Furthermore, analysis of the supernatant is used to illustrate the…

  15. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P < 0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P < 0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P < 0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P = 0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population. PMID:27631208

  16. A multifunction network of computers in a large pathology department. Integration of word processing, data base management, and general purpose computing using network principles.

    PubMed

    Cechner, R L

    1983-04-01

    We report the strategies for design and implementation of a system of compatible mini- and microcomputers intended to improve efficiency of data handling and research in several clinical and academic divisions of a large university hospital department of Pathology. A dedicated, preprogrammed, multiuser, word processing computer and small standalone word processing stations connected to a general purpose minicomputer, using standard network protocols for communication, permit virtually error-free movement of data between computers doing functionally distinct tasks of word processing, data base management, and general scientific computing. User programming is minimized and is done in a simple, well-known, high-level language. We show that cost, thruput, speed, document volume, document size, revision cycle frequency, data base size, and frequency of use are important design criteria and that existing staff can be trained easily to operate the systems.

  17. Principles and the Development of Physical Theory: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, Robert Corby

    Three separate articles make up the chapters of this dissertation. They were written with different aims and audiences in mind, but each deals in some way with one or more "principles" that have been invoked in argumentation and explanation in the physical sciences. The principles of concern are propositions which have an "aesthetic" or "foundational" or "philosophical" character and which are (or have been) generally believed to be widely applicable or particularly powerful--for example, the Principle of Plenitude, the Principle of Mathematical Beauty, Occam's Razor, the Cosmological Principle, and the Copernican Principle. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the nature and uses of principles in scientific reasoning and examines in some detail the use of the Principle of Plenitude in the introduction of "tachyons" (faster-than-light particles) into theoretical physics during the 1960s. Chapter 2 is a short biography of P. A. M. Dirac (1902-1984), one of the founders of quantum mechanics, who believed that the Principle of Mathematical Beauty should serve as physicists' guide to truth. Chapter 3 traces the history of the idea of faster-than-light particles in physics since the late 1800s; this idea matured with the rise of the subfield of tachyon physics in the 1960s, and (as mentioned above) physicists appealed to the Principle of Plenitude to argue for the existence of the particles, which are still only hypothetical. According to the thesis developed in these chapters, the epistemological status of principles has evolved over the history of science. While they were once hallowed as a priori truths, in modern science they have increasingly been employed critically, in light of the results of scientific inquiry. That is, science has moved toward making principles testable, subject to rejection or revision, on a par with other scientific propositions.

  18. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  19. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  20. Urinary Concentrations of Metabolites of Pyrethroid Insecticides in the General U.S. Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Olsson, Anders O.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Udunka, Simeon; Baker, Samuel E.; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid insecticides are the most commonly used residential insecticides in the United States. Objectives Our objective was to assess human exposure via biomonitoring to pyrethroid insecticides in a representative sample of the general U.S. population ≥ 6 years of age. Methods By using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, we measured five urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in 5,046 samples collected as a part of the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Univariate, multivariate, and Pearson correlation analyses were performed using SUDAAN and SAS software, incorporating the appropriate sample weights into the analyses. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, race/ethnicity, creatinine, fasting status, and urine collection time as covariates. Results We detected 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), a metabolite common to many pyrethroid insecticides, in more than 70% of the samples. The least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) concentration (corrected for covariates) of 3PBA and the frequency of detection increased from 1999–2000 (0.292 ng/mL) to 2001–2002 (0.318 ng/mL) but not significantly. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher LSGM 3PBA concentrations than did non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans in the 2001–2002 survey period and in the combined 4-year survey periods but not in the 1999–2000 survey period. Children had significantly higher LSGM concentrations of 3PBA than did adolescents in both NHANES periods and than adults in NHANES 1999–2000. Cis- and trans-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were highly correlated with each other and with 3PBA, suggesting that urinary 3PBA was derived primarily from exposure to permethrin, cypermethrin, or their degradates. Conclusions Pyrethroid insecticide exposure in the U.S. population is widespread, and the presence of its metabolites in the

  1. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  2. Direct Linearization and Adjoint Approaches to Evaluation of Atmospheric Weighting Functions and Surface Partial Derivatives: General Principles, Synergy and Areas of Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustino, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

  3. LeChâtelier's Principle in the Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Volker B. E.

    2000-02-01

    LeChâtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium is actually a very general statement about systems in equilibrium and their behavior when subjected to external force or stress. Although one almost never finds mention of his name or law in other sciences, analogous principles and concepts do exist. In this note we examine some of the similar forms taken by this chemical principle in the fields of physics, geology, biology, and economics. Lenz's law in physics is an example of electromagnetic equilibrium and the geological principle of isostatic uplift concerns mechanical equilibrium. Both are strictly consequences of conservation of energy. LeChâtelier's principle deals with thermodynamic equilibrium and involves both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The concept of homeostasis in biology and the economic law of supply and demand are both equilibrium-like principles, but involve systems in the steady state. However, all these principles involve the stability of the system under consideration and the analogies presented may be useful in the teaching of LeChâtelier's principle.

  4. [Ancient DNA: principles and methodologies].

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Flavio; Scorrano, Gabriele; Rickards, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Paleogenetics is providing increasing evidence about the biological characteristics of ancient populations. This paper examines the guiding principles and methodologies to the study of ancient DNA with constant references to the state of the art in this fascinating disciplin.

  5. Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's principles. (LZ)

  6. Computational principles of memory.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila

    2016-03-01

    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory. PMID:26906506

  7. Parenting, self-control, and delinquency: examining the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime to South Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youngoh; Zhang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Limited studies have examined whether self-control fully mediates the effect of parenting on deviant behavior beyond Western cultures. Using a sample of 882 South Korean middle and high schools students, this article examines the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's argument about the role of parenting in self-control theory in the context of Asian culture. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) suggest the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency hold in South Korean culture: Parenting has only an indirect effect through self-control on delinquency. The findings of multigroup SEM, however, indicate that gender differences exist in the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency. This study provides support for cultural invariance of self-control theory but suggests that more studies examining gender differences and interaction between gender and race in the theory are required.

  8. Integrating Milton H. Erickson's Hypnotherapeutic Techniques into General Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otani, Akira

    1989-01-01

    Examines several basic hypnotherapeutic techniques (rapport building, problem assessment, resistance management, and behavior change) based on Milton H. Erickson's hypnotherapeutic principles that can be translated into the general framework of counseling. (Author/CM)

  9. Examining the Impact of Interaction Project with Students with Special Needs on Development of Positive Attitude and Awareness of General Education Teachers towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a project developed to promote interaction of teacher candidates from different areas with individuals with special needs within the scope of a Special Education course and examine the impact of this project on developing positive attitude and awareness on teacher candidates. In this study, a mixed…

  10. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  11. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, H.

    2015-09-01

    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax =c4 / 4 G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  12. Precautionary principle in international law.

    PubMed

    Saladin, C

    2000-01-01

    The deregulatory nature of trade rules frequently brings them into conflict with the precautionary principle. These rules dominate debate over the content and legal status of the precautionary principle at the international level. The World Trade Organization (WTO), because of its power in settling disputes, is a key player. Many States are concerned to define the precautionary principle consistent with WTO rules, which generally means defining it as simply a component of risk analysis. At the same time, many States, especially environmental and public health policymakers, see the principle as the legal basis for preserving domestic and public health measures in the face of deregulatory pressures from the WTO. The precautionary principle has begun to acquire greater content and to move into the operative articles of legally binding international agreements. It is important to continue this trend.

  13. Tetralogy of Fallot: General Principles of Management.

    PubMed

    Downing, Tacy E; Kim, Yuli Y

    2015-11-01

    Repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common diagnoses encountered when caring for adults with congenital heart disease. Although long-term survival after childhood TOF repair is excellent, morbidity is common and most patients require reintervention in adulthood. This review provides an overview of key surveillance and management issues for adults with TOF, including residual right ventricular outflow tract disease and timing of pulmonary valve replacement, arrhythmias and risk stratification, left-sided heart disease and heart failure, and pregnancy management.

  14. 39 CFR 268.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies, including the Postal Service, and their employees. In implementation of these requirements, the... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY OF INFORMATION-EMPLOYEE RULES... need to collect various types of personally identifiable information about its customers, employees...

  15. 16 CFR 260.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... our previous bathroom tiles.” Example 2: An advertiser claims that “our plastic diaper liner has the most recycled content.” The diaper liner has more recycled content, calculated as a percentage...

  16. 16 CFR 260.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... our previous bathroom tiles.” Example 2: An advertiser claims that “our plastic diaper liner has the most recycled content.” The diaper liner has more recycled content, calculated as a percentage...

  17. Chemoprevention--history and general principles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangwei; Patterson, Sherri; Hawk, Ernest

    2011-08-01

    Our current understanding of tumourigenesis suggests that cancer develops as a series of cumulative genetic and epigenetic derangements across time culminating in a clone of cells differing from its population of origin in terms of cellular identity, growth control, and its contextual relationship to its environment. Our increasing knowledge of the timing, sequence, frequency, and specific implications of these changes provides unique opportunities for earlier identification of aberrations and preventive interventions. Here we discuss the fundamentals of cancer prevention including the targets, cohorts, agents, endpoints, mechanistic biomarkers, designs, and strategies employed in preventive drug development. There have been many notable successes in this field such as the identification and development of tamoxifen and raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction, instillational BCG and valrubicin for treatment of preinvasive bladder cancer, and a variety of topical and systemic agents that effectively treat preinvasive neoplastic lesions of the skin. A variety of null or negative developmental endeavours have occurred as well, including trials of beta-carotene for lung cancer prevention, nutritional modifications for colorectal adenoma prevention, and most recently, selenium and alpha-tocopherol for prostate cancer prevention. A third category of prevention trials can be summarized as investigationally successful, but not achieving regulatory success. The development of finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention, and celecoxib for colorectal neoplasia prevention fall into this category. In less than four decades, cancer chemoprevention has transformed from a concept to an achievable reality. PMID:22122762

  18. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce, or with respect to the wholesale sale of natural gas or of electric energy in interstate commerce. (b) As more fully described and implemented in subsequent....2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  19. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce, or with respect to the wholesale sale of natural gas or of electric energy in interstate commerce. (b) As more fully described and implemented in subsequent....2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  20. 20 CFR 401.140 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND... would result in a “clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.” To decide whether a disclosure would be a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy we consider— (a) The sensitivity of...

  1. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Example 4: A package of paper coffee filters is labeled “These filters were made with a chlorine-free..., but still significant, amount of the same harmful byproducts associated with chlorine bleaching. The... chlorine bleaching. A claim, however, that the filters were “bleached with a process that...

  2. 21 CFR 502.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise create an erroneous impression... or absence of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price...

  3. 21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise... of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise create an erroneous...

  4. 21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise... of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise create an erroneous...

  5. 21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise... of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise create an erroneous...

  6. 21 CFR 502.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or consumer acceptance or when the labeling or the appearance of the food may otherwise create an erroneous impression... or absence of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price...

  7. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bleaching process.” The filters are bleached with a process that releases into the environment a reduced, but still significant, amount of the same harmful byproducts associated with chlorine bleaching. The... chlorine bleaching. A claim, however, that the filters were “bleached with a process that...

  8. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bleaching process.” The filters are bleached with a process that releases into the environment a reduced, but still significant, amount of the same harmful byproducts associated with chlorine bleaching. The... chlorine bleaching. A claim, however, that the filters were “bleached with a process that...

  9. Guideline 4: Medication Treatment: General Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The fourth in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on medication treatment. Guidelines cover strategies of medication management, when to include a medication in the initial treatment plan, and reasons for long-term medication…

  10. General Principles of Organisation of Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazvina, A.

    Briefly described with accompanying photographs are development of employment opportunities for the blind and the current status of production by the blind in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It is explained that with the founding of the All-Russia Society for the Blind in 1925, efforts were made to train the blind in workshops. The return…

  11. 21 CFR 502.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or consumer... or absence of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price...

  12. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  13. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  14. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  15. Principles of Natural Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-01-01

    Nature relies on a unique and intricate biochemical setup to achieve sunlight-driven water splitting. Combined experimental and computational efforts have produced significant insights into the structural and functional principles governing the operation of the water-oxidizing enzyme Photosystem II in general, and of the oxygen-evolving manganese-calcium cluster at its active site in particular. Here we review the most important aspects of biological water oxidation, emphasizing current knowledge on the organization of the enzyme, the geometric and electronic structure of the catalyst, and the role of calcium and chloride cofactors. The combination of recent experimental work on the identification of possible substrate sites with computational modeling have considerably limited the possible mechanistic pathways for the critical O-O bond formation step. Taken together, the key features and principles of natural photosynthesis may serve as inspiration for the design, development, and implementation of artificial systems. PMID:26099285

  16. Association of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus in the South Korean general population according to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Young-Il

    2011-10-01

    We examined the association of serum ferritin levels with metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population using data from the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 6311 adults older than 20 years who participated in the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following: elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, elevated plasma glucose, and abdominal obesity. Diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance. In a representative sample of the adult Korean population, MS was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in women following adjustments for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in premenopausal women and men. The geometric means of fasting insulin and insulin resistance determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in the fourth serum ferritin quartiles of postmenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared with those in the first quartile of the respective groups. The present study demonstrates that elevated serum ferritin concentrations are associated with an increased risk of MS and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population.

  17. Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Moessbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10{sup -6} level.

  18. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for the elderly - exploring the lessons from other sectors and examining the general characteristics of the programmes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Portugal, there are several physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people developed by the local government. The importance of these programmes has been increasing since the evidence has shown that this type of health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. However, no study has already identified the general characteristics of these programmes nor if they use any scheme to assess the quality of the service provided. A widely-used scheme is the EFQM Excellence Model, which will be in the core of our present work. Thus, the main aims of this preliminary study were 1) to identify the general characteristics of the PA programmes developed by the Portuguese Local Public Administration 2) to determine the extent of implementation of quality initiatives in these programmes. Methods Data were collected by an on-line questionnaire sent to all Continental Municipalities (n = 278). Categorical data were expressed as absolute counts and percentages. Continuous data were expressed as the mean and SD. An open-ended question was analysed using qualitative content analysis with QSR NVivo software. Associations between categorical variables were tested by the use of contingency tables and the calculation of chi-square tests. Significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results Results showed: i) a total of 125 PA programmes were identified in the 18 districts of the Portugal mainland; ii) the main goal of the majority (95.2%) was the participants' health promotion; iii) different characteristics of the programmes were found according to different regions of the country; iv) certain characteristics of the programmes were associated to the existence of other features; v) only one PA programme developed quality initiatives. Conclusions In conclusion, although there are many PA programmes for elderly people spread throughout the country, aiming at improving the health of participants, the overwhelming majority does not adopt

  19. The average enzyme principle.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Ed; Chaudhary, Osman; Segrè, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The Michaelis-Menten equation for an irreversible enzymatic reaction depends linearly on the enzyme concentration. Even if the enzyme concentration changes in time, this linearity implies that the amount of substrate depleted during a given time interval depends only on the average enzyme concentration. Here, we use a time re-scaling approach to generalize this result to a broad category of multi-reaction systems, whose constituent enzymes have the same dependence on time, e.g. they belong to the same regulon. This "average enzyme principle" provides a natural methodology for jointly studying metabolism and its regulation.

  20. Examination of the interrelations between the factors of PTSD, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder in a heterogeneous trauma-exposed sample using DSM 5 criteria.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traumatic events places individuals at high risk for multiple psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The high rates of comorbidity among these conditions merit evaluation in order to improve diagnosis and treatment approaches. The current study evaluated the association between PTSD, MDD, and GAD factors as presented in the DSM 5. 602 trauma-exposed individuals who experienced an event that met Criterion A for the DSM 5 PTSD diagnosis were recruited through Amazon.com, Inc.'s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to complete an assessment of the impact of stressful events on their lives. High interrelations were detected among the 4 PTSD factors, 2 MDD factors that corresponded to somatic and affective symptoms, and the single GAD factor. The affective factor of MDD was most strongly related to the emotional numbing factor of PTSD, whereas the somatic factor of MDD was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD. The GAD factor was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD, relative to the other PTSD factors. The strength of the interrelations between factors of the three disorders is largely a function of the overlap in symptoms and calls into question the uniqueness of negative affective symptoms of PTSD, MDD and GAD. Results suggest that improved understanding of the trauma reaction requires a focus on the unique presentation of each individual and assessment of multiple disorders.

  1. General Recognition Theory with Individual Differences: A New Method for Examining Perceptual and Decisional Interactions with an Application to Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Fabian A.; Vucovich, Lauren; Musgrave, Robert; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A common question in perceptual science is to what extent different stimulus dimensions are processed independently. General recognition theory (GRT) offers a formal framework via which different notions of independence can be defined and tested rigorously, while also dissociating perceptual from decisional factors. This article presents a new GRT model that overcomes several shortcomings with previous approaches, including a clearer separation between perceptual and decisional processes and a more complete description of such processes. The model assumes that different individuals share similar perceptual representations, but vary in their attention to dimensions and in the decisional strategies they use. We apply the model to the analysis of interactions between identity and emotional expression during face recognition. The results of previous research aimed at this problem have been disparate. Participants identified four faces, which resulted from the combination of two identities and two expressions. An analysis using the new GRT model showed a complex pattern of dimensional interactions. The perception of emotional expression was not affected by changes in identity, but the perception of identity was affected by changes in emotional expression. There were violations of decisional separability of expression from identity and of identity from expression, with the former being more consistent across participants than the latter. One explanation for the disparate results in the literature is that decisional strategies may have varied across studies and influenced the results of tests of perceptual interactions, as previous studies lacked the ability to dissociate between perceptual and decisional interactions. PMID:24841236

  2. Examination of the interrelations between the factors of PTSD, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder in a heterogeneous trauma-exposed sample using DSM 5 criteria.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traumatic events places individuals at high risk for multiple psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The high rates of comorbidity among these conditions merit evaluation in order to improve diagnosis and treatment approaches. The current study evaluated the association between PTSD, MDD, and GAD factors as presented in the DSM 5. 602 trauma-exposed individuals who experienced an event that met Criterion A for the DSM 5 PTSD diagnosis were recruited through Amazon.com, Inc.'s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to complete an assessment of the impact of stressful events on their lives. High interrelations were detected among the 4 PTSD factors, 2 MDD factors that corresponded to somatic and affective symptoms, and the single GAD factor. The affective factor of MDD was most strongly related to the emotional numbing factor of PTSD, whereas the somatic factor of MDD was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD. The GAD factor was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD, relative to the other PTSD factors. The strength of the interrelations between factors of the three disorders is largely a function of the overlap in symptoms and calls into question the uniqueness of negative affective symptoms of PTSD, MDD and GAD. Results suggest that improved understanding of the trauma reaction requires a focus on the unique presentation of each individual and assessment of multiple disorders. PMID:26241663

  3. General recognition theory with individual differences: a new method for examining perceptual and decisional interactions with an application to face perception.

    PubMed

    Soto, Fabian A; Vucovich, Lauren; Musgrave, Robert; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-02-01

    A common question in perceptual science is to what extent different stimulus dimensions are processed independently. General recognition theory (GRT) offers a formal framework via which different notions of independence can be defined and tested rigorously, while also dissociating perceptual from decisional factors. This article presents a new GRT model that overcomes several shortcomings with previous approaches, including a clearer separation between perceptual and decisional processes and a more complete description of such processes. The model assumes that different individuals share similar perceptual representations, but vary in their attention to dimensions and in the decisional strategies they use. We apply the model to the analysis of interactions between identity and emotional expression during face recognition. The results of previous research aimed at this problem have been disparate. Participants identified four faces, which resulted from the combination of two identities and two expressions. An analysis using the new GRT model showed a complex pattern of dimensional interactions. The perception of emotional expression was not affected by changes in identity, but the perception of identity was affected by changes in emotional expression. There were violations of decisional separability of expression from identity and of identity from expression, with the former being more consistent across participants than the latter. One explanation for the disparate results in the literature is that decisional strategies may have varied across studies and influenced the results of tests of perceptual interactions, as previous studies lacked the ability to dissociate between perceptual and decisional interactions.

  4. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landé, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  5. Applying General Strain Theory to Examine Perceived Discrimination’s Indirect Relation to Mexican-Heritage Youth’s Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to test four hypotheses. First, this study hypothesized that acculturation-related variables (e.g., Mexican-heritage youth’s country of origin, time spent in the U.S., and language preference with family and friends) would be associated with initial levels of perceived discrimination. Guided by general strain theory (GST), this study then posed a second hypothesis: Initial levels of perceived discrimination would be indirectly related to initial levels of substance use through initial levels of acculturation stress. Third, this study hypothesized that changes in perceived discrimination would be indirectly related to changes in substance use through changes in acculturation stress. As a fourth hypothesis, it was postulated that initial levels of perceived discrimination would be indirectly related to changes in substance use through changes in acculturation stress. Mexican-heritage youth (N=1,106) from 29 schools in Phoenix, AZ completed surveys at six waves from 5th through 8th grades. In partial support of the first hypothesis, more time spent in the U.S. and speaking English with friends were associated with lower levels of perceived discrimination. The second hypothesis was not supported. Initial levels of perceived discrimination were positively associated with initial levels of acculturation stress; however, this association was not found between initial levels of acculturation stress and substance use. The third and fourth hypotheses were supported, which buttressed predictions derived from GST. Both initial levels and increases in perceived discrimination were indirectly related to increases in substance use through increases in acculturation stress. PMID:20490921

  6. An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice.

  7. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. Methods Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg). Results The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. PMID:24627828

  8. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  9. Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Molimard, Mathieu; Bernaud, Corine; Lechat, Philippe; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Benattia, Cherif; Benkritly, Amel; Braunstein, David; Cabut, Sandrine; David, Nadine; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Gallet, Benoit; Gersberg, Marta; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Lamarque-Garnier, Véronique; Le Jeunne, Claire; Leurs, Irina; Liard, François; Malbezin, Muriel; Micallef, Joelle; Nguon, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use.

  10. Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Molimard, Mathieu; Bernaud, Corine; Lechat, Philippe; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Benattia, Cherif; Benkritly, Amel; Braunstein, David; Cabut, Sandrine; David, Nadine; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Gallet, Benoit; Gersberg, Marta; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Lamarque-Garnier, Véronique; Le Jeunne, Claire; Leurs, Irina; Liard, François; Malbezin, Muriel; Micallef, Joelle; Nguon, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use. PMID:25099666

  11. Fundamental ethical principles in health care.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I E

    1987-12-01

    In an attempt to clarify which requirements of morality are logically primary to the ethics of health care, two questions are examined: is there sufficient common ground among the medical, nursing, paramedical, chaplaincy, and social work professions to justify looking for ethical principles common to health care? Do sufficient logical grounds or consensus among health workers and the public exist to speak of "fundamental ethical principles in health care"? While respect for persons, justice, and beneficence are fundamental principles in a formal sense, how we view these principles in practice will depend on our particular culture and experience and the kinds of metaethical criteria we use for applying these principles.

  12. Principles of programming languages: design

    SciTech Connect

    MacLennan, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    An excellent pedagogically oriented text on programming languages in which principles are emphasized more than details, methods more than results, and semantics more than syntax. Many chapter exercises, uniquely constructed and worded. Contents: Emphasis on efficiency: FORTRAN. Elegance and generality: ALGOL-60. Syntactic issues: ALGOL-60. Modularity and data abstraction: ADA. List processing LISP. Object-oriented programming. SMALLTALK. Logic programming: PROLOG. INDEX.

  13. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  14. Psychological Principles in Materials Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cynthia M.

    Those psychological principles which might aid the teacher in the selection of instructional materials are examined. Since learning is a process which builds sequentially on past learning, beginning reading materials should include words that have personal relevance for the individual child. Meaningful material is learned more quickly than…

  15. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    PubMed Central

    Durston, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210

  16. Principle of least wave change.

    PubMed

    Abramson, N

    1989-05-01

    Fermat's principle of least time has some well-known limitations. It does not, for example, apply to diffraction gratings and holograms, because it does not include the concept of waves. The substitution of least number of waves in flight for least time of flight and the addition of a term that is a function of the grating frequency result in a generalized principle. It is easy to remember because it is based on only the number of waves minus the number of grooves, and it would be especially useful when refraction and diffraction are combined, as, for example, in some holographic optical elements. PMID:2723846

  17. Kepler and Mach's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Julian

    The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

  18. Accounting Principles 30G. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide was developed for a senior-level introductory accounting course for students in high schools in Manitoba. The course introduces Canadian accounting principles and practices; it applies Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to introductory financial accounting. The guide includes the following components: (1) an…

  19. On nonholonomic systems and variational principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronström, Christofer; Raita, Tommi

    2009-04-01

    We consider the compatibility of the equations of motion which follow from d'Alembert's principle in the case of a general autonomous nonholonomic mechanical system in N dimensions with those equations which follow for the same system by assuming the validity of a specific variational action principle, in which the nonholonomic conditions are implemented by means of the multiplication rule in the calculus of variations. The equations of motion which follow from the principle of d'Alembert are not identical to the equations which follow from the variational action principle. We give a proof that the solutions to the equations of motion which follow from d'Alembert's principle do not in general satisfy the equations which follow from the action principle with nonholonomic constraints. Thus the principle of d'Alembert and the minimal action principle involving the multiplication rule are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraints. For simplicity the proof is given for autonomous systems only, with one general nonholonomic constraint, which is linear in the generalized velocities of the system.

  20. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  1. Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

  2. The Israeli "Bagrut" Examination in BSCS Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, E.; Dreyfus, A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the rationale, construction, administration, and analysis of an externally set examination for BSCS students at the end of the twelfth grade. Three areas covered in the examination were: functional information, identification and application of principles, and contributory mode understanding of the principles of biological enquiry.…

  3. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  4. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  5. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  6. Intuitions, principles and consequences.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A B

    2001-02-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences.

  7. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  8. Magnetism: Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craik, Derek J.

    2003-09-01

    If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.

  9. Extrapolation, uncertainty factors, and the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    This essay examines the relationship between the precautionary principle and uncertainty factors used by toxicologists to estimate acceptable exposure levels for toxic chemicals from animal experiments. It shows that the adoption of uncertainty factors in the United States in the 1950s can be understood by reference to the precautionary principle, but not by cost-benefit analysis because of a lack of relevant quantitative data at that time. In addition, it argues that uncertainty factors continue to be relevant to efforts to implement the precautionary principle and that the precautionary principle should not be restricted to cases involving unquantifiable hazards.

  10. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  11. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  12. Energy principles in architectural design

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, E.

    1981-01-01

    A foundation of basic information pertaining to design and energy use in buildings is presented with emphasis on principles and concepts rather than applications of particular solution. Energy impacts of landforms and topography, vegetation, wind and ventilation, and sun on planning and designing the site are discused. General design considerations involving passive heating, cooling, and lighting systems are detailed. For the design of active building systems, heating, cooling, lighting, and HVAC systems are described. (MCW)

  13. Grice's cooperative principle in the psychoanalytic setting.

    PubMed

    Ephratt, Michal

    2014-12-01

    Grice's "cooperative principle," including conversational implicatures and maxims, is commonplace in current pragmatics (a subfield of linguistics), and is generally applied in conversational analysis. The author examines the unique contribution of Grice's principle in considering the psychotherapeutic setting and its discourse. Such an investigation is called for chiefly because of the central role of speech in psychoanalytic practice (the "talking cure"). Symptoms and transference, which are characterized as forms of expression that are fundamentally deceptive, must be equivocal and indirect, and must breach all four of Grice's categories and maxims: truth (Quality), relation (Relevance), Manner (be clear), and Quantity. Therapeutic practice, according to Freud's "fundamental rule of psychoanalysis," encourages the parties (analysand and analyst) to breach each and every one of Grice's maxims. Using case reports drawn from the literature, the author shows that these breachings are essential for therapeutic progress. They serve as a unique and important ground for revealing inner (psychic) contents, and demarcating real self from illusive self, which in turn constitutes leverage for integrating these contents with the self.

  14. Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA' multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community.

    PubMed

    Holm, Margo B; Baird, Joanne M; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  15. Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA' multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community.

    PubMed

    Holm, Margo B; Baird, Joanne M; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community.

  16. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA′ Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D’Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6–8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70 % of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63 % of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  17. A prospective study to examine the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile contamination in the general environment of three community hospitals in southern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The hospital environment has been suggested as playing an important role in the transmission of hospital-associated (HA) pathogens. However, studies investigating the contamination of the hospital environment with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Clostridium difficile have generally focused on point prevalence studies of only a single pathogen. Research evaluating the roles of these two pathogens, concurrently, in the general hospital environment has not been conducted. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with MRSA and C. difficile contamination in the general environment of three community hospitals, prospectively. Methods Sampling of environmental surfaces distributed over the medicine and surgical wards at each hospital was conducted once a week for four consecutive weeks. Sterile electrostatic cloths were used for environmental sampling and information regarding the surface sampled was recorded. For MRSA, air sampling was also conducted. Enrichment culture was performed and spa typing was performed for all MRSA isolates. For C. difficile, isolates were characterized by ribotyping and investigated for the presence of toxin genes by PCR. Using logistic regression, the following risk factors were examined for MRSA or C. difficile contamination: type of surface sampled, surface material, surface location, and the presence/absence of the other HA pathogen under investigation. Results Overall, 11.8% (n=612) and 2.4% (n=552) of surfaces were positive for MRSA and C. difficile, respectively. Based on molecular typing, five different MRSA strains and eight different C. difficile ribotypes, including ribotypes 027 (15.4%) and 078 (7.7%), were identified in the hospital environment. Results from the logistic regression model indicate that compared to computer keyboards, the following surfaces had increased odds of being contaminated with MRSA: chair backs, hand rails, isolation

  18. 17 CFR 37.6 - Compliance with core principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... principles. 37.6 Section 37.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.6 Compliance with core principles. (a) In general. To... transaction execution facility must have the capacity to be, and be, in compliance with the core principles...

  19. 17 CFR 37.6 - Compliance with core principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... principles. 37.6 Section 37.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.6 Compliance with core principles. (a) In general. To... transaction execution facility must have the capacity to be, and be, in compliance with the core principles...

  20. Maximum principles for second order dynamic equations on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, Petr; Thompson, Bevan

    2007-07-01

    This paper establishes some new maximum principles for second order dynamic equations on time scales, including: a strong maximum principle; a generalized maximum principle; and a boundary point lemma. The new results include, as special cases, well-known ideas for ordinary differential equations and difference equations.

  1. 47 CFR 36.2 - Fundamental principles underlying procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-kilometers is the basic fundamental allocation factor for interexchange circuit plant and exchange trunk... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental principles underlying procedures... Fundamental principles underlying procedures. (a) The following general principles underlie the...

  2. Complementary Huygens Principle for Geometrical and Nongeometrical Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    We develop a fundamental principle depicting the generalized ray formulation of optics provided by the Wigner function. This principle is formally identical to the Huygens-Fresnel principle but in terms of opposite concepts, rays instead of waves, and incoherent superpositions instead of coherent ones. This ray picture naturally includes…

  3. Report on the CDE Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haga, Enoch J.

    1971-01-01

    The Certificate in Data Education (Basic) examination is designed to certify that successful candidates are academically proficient in those principles and concepts of automation, computing, and data processing (including social and user implications) which are usually taught in basic introductory courses at the college or university level. (CK)

  4. Organizing principles for dense packings of nonspherical hard particles: Not all shapes are created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore; Jiao, Yang

    2012-07-01

    We have recently devised organizing principles to obtain maximally dense packings of the Platonic and Archimedean solids and certain smoothly shaped convex nonspherical particles [Torquato and Jiao, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.041310 81, 041310 (2010)]. Here we generalize them in order to guide one to ascertain the densest packings of other convex nonspherical particles as well as concave shapes. Our generalized organizing principles are explicitly stated as four distinct propositions. All of our organizing principles are applied to and tested against the most comprehensive set of both convex and concave particle shapes examined to date, including Catalan solids, prisms, antiprisms, cylinders, dimers of spheres, and various concave polyhedra. We demonstrate that all of the densest known packings associated with this wide spectrum of nonspherical particles are consistent with our propositions. Among other applications, our general organizing principles enable us to construct analytically the densest known packings of certain convex nonspherical particles, including spherocylinders, “lens-shaped” particles, square pyramids, and rhombic pyramids. Moreover, we show how to apply these principles to infer the high-density equilibrium crystalline phases of hard convex and concave particles. We also discuss the unique packing attributes of maximally random jammed packings of nonspherical particles.

  5. The Application of Ecological Principles in Establishing an Environmental Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicak, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines four ecological principles and their misapplication in common models of environmental ethics. The principles include balance in nature, the fragility of nature, high diversity yielding high stability, and interdependence in nature. Also suggests an alternative way to incorporate each principle in a working environmental ethic. (AIM)

  6. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  7. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  8. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  9. A critique of principlism.

    PubMed

    Clouser, K D; Gert, B

    1990-04-01

    The authors use the term "principlism" to refer to the practice of using "principles" to replace both moral theory and particular moral rules and ideals in dealing with the moral problems that arise in medical practice. The authors argue that these "principles" do not function as claimed, and that their use is misleading both practically and theoretically. The "principles" are in fact not guides to action, but rather they are merely names for a collection of sometimes superficially related matters for consideration when dealing with a moral problem. The "principles" lack any systematic relationship to each other, and they often conflict with each other. These conflicts are unresolvable, since there is no unified moral theory from which they are all derived. For comparison the authors sketch the advantages of using a unified moral theory. PMID:2351895

  10. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  11. [The precautionary principle and the environment].

    PubMed

    de Cózar Escalante, José Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The precautionary principle is a response to uncertainty in the face of risks to health or the environment. In general, it involves taking measures to avoid potential harm, despite lack of scientific certainty. In recent years it has been applied, not without difficulties, as a legal and political principle in many countries, particularly on the European and International level. In spite of the controversy, the precautionary principle has become an integral component of a new paradigm for the creation of public policies needed to meet today's challenges and those of the future.

  12. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

  13. A New Principle in Physiscs: the Principle "Finiteness", and Some Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham Sternlieb

    2010-06-25

    In this paper I propose a new principle in physics: the principle of "finiteness". It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals (among other things) with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results, including their errors, are always finite, the principle of finiteness postulates that the mathematical formulation of "legitimate" laws of physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. Some consequences of the principle of finiteness are discussed, in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The consequences are derived independently of any other theory or principle in physics. I propose "finiteness" as a postulate (like the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, "c"), as opposed to a notion whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories, or principles.

  14. What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.

  15. Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…

  16. 46 CFR 232.2 - General instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other regulatory agencies, or reports using other acceptable accounting methods differing from methods... accepted accounting principles. All contractors shall conform their accounting policies to generally accepted accounting principles (promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board of the...

  17. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  18. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  19. [Impact of indirect factors on the growing prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in periodic general health examinations: a survey on the definition and detection of such abnormal workers by occupational health organizations].

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, T; Takahashi, K; Fujishiro, K; Uchida, K; Okubo, T

    2000-05-01

    The prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in periodic general health examinations (PGHEx) has been growing recently in Japan and reached 41.2% in 1998. To clarify the indirect factors related to such an increase in workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx, we carried out a questionnaire survey on the content of the statutory notification form of results of the PGHEx among a representative sample of 136 Occupational Health Organizations (OHOs). Questions on how those workers with abnormal findings were defined and detected and when the definition and the reference intervals for total cholesterol became available were included. Of the 107 OHOs which answered the questionnaire, 85 were included in the analyses because they actually calculated the number of workers with abnormal findings in each company and helped the employer fill out the notification form. The results revealed that there was no standardized definition of workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx. Both reference intervals of items in the PGHEx and algorithm in detecting workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx varied among the OHOs. When detecting the workers, 13 OHOs (15.3%) selected them taking into consideration medical background factors such as previous results of the PGHEx and current medical treatment. From the late 1980s to the early 1990s, many OHOs modified the definition of workers with abnormal findings, and have tended to reduce the upper limit of the reference interval for serum cholesterol. This is mainly due to amendment of the Industrial Safety and Health Law and a new recommendation for a reference interval/value proposed by the related scientific society. Although the prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx has continuously increased, it is not valid to compare the prevalence over the years because of modification in the definition of such workers. The prevalence of workers with abnormal findings in the PGHEx, which is one of the most important

  20. Political tolerance of homosexuals: the role of group attitudes and legal principles.

    PubMed

    Riggle, E D; Ellis, A L

    1994-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes toward and acceptance of general legal principles were assessed along with their willingness to extend application of these principles to various social and political groups, including homosexuals. Respondents then indicated their attitudes toward various social and political groups, including the groups to whom they had applied the general principles. Regression analyses were used to determine to what degree acceptance of the general principle and attitude toward the social group predicted application of the general principle to the group. For disliked groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and Nazis, individuals' acceptance of the general principle alone predicted the specific application. For homosexuals, however, the application of the general principle was affected both by acceptance of the general principle and by individuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. The implications of this difference in light of research addressing the cognitive and affective nature of attitudes and attitude change is discussed. PMID:8006417

  1. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  2. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

  3. Archimedes' principle in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireš, Marián

    2007-09-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers.

  4. Principles Underlying the Use of Multiple Informants’ Reports

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Thomas, Sarah A.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kundey, Shannon M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers use multiple informants’ reports to assess and examine behavior. However, informants’ reports commonly disagree. Informants’ reports often disagree in their perceived levels of a behavior (“low” vs. “elevated” mood), and examining multiple reports in a single study often results in inconsistent findings. Although researchers often espouse taking a multi-informant assessment approach, they frequently address informant discrepancies using techniques that treat discrepancies as measurement error. Yet, recent work indicates that researchers in a variety of fields often may be unable to justify treating informant discrepancies as measurement error. In this paper, the authors advance a framework (Operations Triad Model) outlining general principles for using and interpreting informants’ reports. Using the framework, researchers can test whether or not they can extract meaningful information about behavior from discrepancies among multiple informants’ reports. The authors provide supportive evidence for this framework and discuss its implications for hypothesis testing, study design, and quantitative review. PMID:23140332

  5. Ethical principles and concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical ethics is the application of ethical theories, principles, rules, and guidelines to clinical situations in medicine. Therefore, clinical ethics is analogous to clinical medicine in that general principles and concepts must be applied intelligently and thoughtfully to unique clinical circumstances. The three major ethical theories are consequentialism, whereby the consequences of an action determine whether it is ethical; deontology, whereby to be ethical is to do one's duty, and virtue ethics, whereby ethics is a matter of cultivating appropriate virtues. In the real world of medicine, most people find that all three perspectives offer useful insights and are complementary rather than contradictory. The most common approach to clinical ethical analysis is principlism. According to principlism, the medical practitioner must attempt to uphold four important principles: respect for patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. When these principles conflict, resolving them depends on the details of the case. Alternative approaches to medical ethics, including the primacy of beneficence, care-based ethics, feminist ethics, and narrative ethics, help to define the limitations of principlism and provide a broader perspective on medical ethics.

  6. The traveltime holographic principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  7. Teaching/learning principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  8. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, agencies shall credit hours of work under § 410.402 of this chapter, part 532 of this...

  9. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, agencies shall credit hours of work under § 410.402 of this chapter, part 532 of this...

  10. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, agencies shall credit hours of work under § 410.402 of this chapter, part 532 of this...

  11. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, agencies shall credit hours of work under § 410.402 of this chapter, part 532 of this...

  12. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, agencies shall credit hours of work under § 410.402 of this chapter, part 532 of this...

  13. 7 CFR 2500.021 - Guiding principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guiding principles. 2500.021 Section 2500.021 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE...

  14. 7 CFR 2500.021 - Guiding principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guiding principles. 2500.021 Section 2500.021 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE...

  15. 7 CFR 2500.021 - Guiding principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guiding principles. 2500.021 Section 2500.021 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OAO FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE...

  16. Principles for Teaching Problem Solving. Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, Rob; Kirkley, Jamie

    This Technical Paper focuses on principles for teaching problem solving. Part 1 addresses the need to teach problem solving. Part 2 defines problem solving skills, and describes: general problem solving models of the 1960s and 1970s, current problem solving models, declarative knowledge, mental models, expert versus novice knowledge, procedural…

  17. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  18. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  19. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  20. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  1. The 5-Step Method: Principles and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copello, Alex; Templeton, Lorna; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article includes a description of the 5-Step Method. First, the origins and theoretical basis of the method are briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the general principles that guide the delivery of the method. Each step is then described in more detail, including the content and focus of each of the five steps that include:…

  2. Standards for Quality? A Citical Appraisal of the Berlin Principles for International Rankings of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hägg, Ingemund; Wedlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the principles developed to assure the quality of international ranking practices for higher education, the so-called Berlin Principles, and the role given to them in the higher education community. While the principles are generally regarded as proper quality assurance principles, they are problematic both in their content…

  3. Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence for within- and between-Language Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Method: Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant,…

  4. Describing Examination Performance: Grade Criteria in Public Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the introduction of grade criteria into the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination as an effort to make clearer the competency and knowledge levels expected of examination candidates in Great Britain. Concludes by exploring problems with this concept and by calling for further clarification of the purpose for this…

  5. [Clinical forms of chronic neuroinfections (organization of research, etiology and pathogenesis, therapeutic principles)].

    PubMed

    Umanskiĭ, K G; Dekonenko, E P; Shishov, A S; Rudometov, Iu P; Andreeva, L S

    1982-01-01

    The results of complex examination of 489 patients suffering from chronic neuroinfections (progressing forms of tick-borne encephalitis, disseminated sclerosis, disseminated encephalomyelitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, etc.) are presented. An analysis of the results of virological, immunological, genetic and electrophysiological examinations, as well as the results of kinesotherapy has demonstrated a definite role of hereditary peculiarities of the immune mechanisms and the nervous system in the genesis of those diseases, as well as certain common features of the pathogenetic mechanisms. This enables one to outline some general principles of the therapy of those diseases.

  6. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

    2014-03-18

    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  7. Extended Mach Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of symmetry of the laws of physics and symmetry of the universe and the connection between symmetries and asymmetries of the laws of physics and those of the universe. An explanation of Hamilton's principle is offered. The material is suitable for informal discussions with students. (Author/SK)

  8. Matters of Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    1999-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…

  9. The Denver principles.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    The Denver principles articulate the self empowerment movement of People With AIDS (PWA). The statements, written in 1983 by the Advisory Committee of the People With AIDS, include recommendations on how to support those with disease. It also includes suggestions for people who have AIDS. It concludes by listing the "rights of people with AIDS."

  10. Reprographic Principles Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, J. B.

    Means for reproducing graphic materials are explained. There are several types of processes: those using light sensitive material, those using heat sensitive material, those using photo conductive materials (electrophotography), and duplicating processes using ink. For each of these, the principles behind them are explained, the necessary…

  11. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  12. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  13. Principles of Teaching. Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Joseph W.

    This module on principles of teaching is 1 in a series of 10 modules written for vocational education teacher education programs. It is designed to enable the teacher to do the following: (1) identify subject matter and integrate that subject matter with thought-provoking questions; (2) organize and demonstrate good questioning techniques; and (3)…

  14. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  15. Hydrogen evolution: Guiding principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhenhai

    2016-10-01

    Lower-cost alternatives to platinum electrocatalysts are being explored for the sustainable production of hydrogen, but often trial-and-error approaches are used for their development. Now, principles are elucidated that suggest pathways to rationally design efficient metal-free electrocatalysts based on doped graphene.

  16. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

  17. Standing on Principle: Values Trump Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natural, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Effective group programs with challenging youth need to be grounded in a clear understanding of core principles that guide effective practice. This article examines the operating philosophy of an established outdoor education and therapy program which combines the Re-ED philosophy of Nicholas Hobbs (1994) with adventure education developed by…

  18. Writing Better Software for Economics Principles Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walbert, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines computer software currently available with most introductory economics textbooks. Compares what is available with what should be available in order to meet the goal of effectively using the microcomputer to teach economic principles. Recommends 14 specific pedagogical changes that should be made in order to improve current designs. (LS)

  19. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  20. [Human rights and genetics: the fundamental principles of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights].

    PubMed

    Bergel, S D

    1998-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights sets out generally agreed criteria in response to the human rights challenges posed by advances in molecular biology and genetics. The lynchpin of these criteria is respect for human dignity, a premise from which other principles are derived. The author examines and gives the justification for these principles, and refers to another crucial bioethics text, the recent Council of Europe Convention on the protection of human rights and the dignity of the human person in regard to applications of biology and medicine.