Science.gov

Sample records for examinations general principles

  1. [General principles of handling tissues and organs intended for examination in histopathology - pathologists requirements for surgeons].

    PubMed

    Trnková, M

    2014-03-01

    Histopathology has continued to develop into a complex discipline of laboratory medicine in the last 30 years. Implementation of new techniques such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, molecular pathology and gene profiling yields a large amount of information which is used not only to establish diagnosis, but also for prediction and prognosis. The basic conditions for precision and correctness of this information which directly influence the choice of therapy and the outcome for the patient, and eventually the health and the life of the patient, are obtaining a suitable specimen and the best laboratory processing. The first step in this procedure is collection of samples, fixation and submission to the pathology laboratory - the pre-analytical phase. Knowledge of the principles of this phase and their implementation in daily practice in surgery is of main importance for the quality and quantity of information obtained. We introduce the basic rules for proper handling of different specimens depending on the use of conventional and "new" histopathology methods.

  2. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  3. [Catastrophe medicine. General principles].

    PubMed

    Linde, H

    1980-10-17

    Catastrophe medicine is the organization of masses under difficult conditions. The present article is concerned with the competence and organization in the event of a catastrophe and describes the phasic course of a catastrophe situation. The most important element of effective first aid measures, screening for shock and pain treatment, and first surgical treatment and the principles of ballistic factors are dealt with. Particular attention is given to the evacuation of emergency patients from the scene of the catastrophe. A request is made for " Catastrophe medicine" to be included by the medical faculties and educational institutes in their course of study for paramedical personnel.

  4. Rowlands' Duality Principle: A Generalization of Noether's Theorem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Sabah E.

    This paper will examine a physical principle that has been used in making valid predictions and generalizes established conservation laws. In a previous paper it was shown how Rowlands' zero-totality condition could be viewed as a generalization of Newton's third law of motion. In this paper it will be argued that Rowlands' Duality Principle is a generalization of Noether's Theorem and that the two principles taken together are truly foundational principles that have tamed Metaphysics.

  5. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  6. Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S.

    2006-12-15

    The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

  7. Sedimentation equilibrium and the generalized Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Parola, Alberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto

    2013-03-21

    The buoyancy concept is critically re-examined for applications to dispersions of nano-particles, such as colloids, proteins, or macromolecules. It is shown that when the size of the buoyant particle is not too different (say, at most a factor of ten) from the size of the dispersed particles, new intriguing phenomena emerge, leading to the violation of the Archimedes' principle. The resulting buoyancy force depends not only on the volume of the particle and on the mass density of the dispersion, but also on the relative size of the particles, on their geometry, and on the interactions between the buoyant particle and the fluid. Explicit expressions for such a generalized Archimedes' principle are obtained and the results are tested against targeted experiments in colloidal dispersions.

  8. 39 CFR 268.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 268.1 Section 268.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY OF INFORMATION-EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT § 268.1 General principles. In order to conduct its business, the Postal Service has...

  9. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  10. [Physical principles and general considerations].

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F; Mollet Sánchez, J; Cerezo López, E

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous ultrasound is based on the application of the physical properties of ultrasound to the skin and cutaneous adnexae. Knowledge of ultrasound semiology, artifacts and the application of Doppler examination allows deeper study of the biology and diseases of the skin and its adnexae.

  11. Action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. David

    2011-10-15

    An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. An action principle for the Z4 formulation of general relativity has been proposed recently by Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic action and the Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela action is discussed in detail.

  12. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 358... principles. (a) As more fully described and implemented in subsequent sections of this part, a transmission... independently from its marketing function employees, except as permitted in this part or otherwise permitted...

  13. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an established method for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. It enables the identification of post-traumatic changes of nerves, neuropathies secondary to compression syndromes, inflammatory or neoplastic nerve lesions as well as the evaluation of postoperative complications. In certain situations, this technique is the imaging method of choice. It is increasingly used in anesthesiology for regional anesthesia. As in the case of other ultrasound imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. This article presents the histological structure of peripheral nerves and their appearance in ultrasonography. It also presents the examination technique, following the example of the median nerve, and includes a series of diagrams and ultrasound images. The interpretation of the shape, echogenicity, thickness and vascularity of nerves is described, as well as their relation to the surrounding tissues. The “elevator technique”, which consists of locating a set nerve at a characteristic anatomic point, and following it proximally or distally, has been explained. The undisputed benefits of the ultrasound examination have been presented, including its advantages over other diagnostic methods. These advantages include the dynamic component of the ultrasound examination and the possibility of correlating the patient's symptoms with the ultrasound images. As an example, the proper anatomy and the ultrasonographic appearance of the median nerve were described. This nerve's course is presented, its divisions, and characteristic reference points, so as to facilitate its location and identification, and enable subsequent use of the aforementioned “elevator technique”. This article opens a series of publications concerning anatomy, technique of examination and pathologies of peripheral nerves

  14. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS General Provisions § 104.5 General principles. (a) A... quality) appropriate for a given class of food. (b) Labeling for a product which complies with all of...

  15. Pure connection action principle for general relativity.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2011-06-24

    It has already been known for two decades that general relativity can be reformulated as a certain gauge theory, so that the only dynamical field is an SO(3) connection and the spacetime metric appears as a derived object. However, no simple action principle realizing these ideas has been available. A new elegant action principle for such a "pure connection" formulation of GR is described.

  16. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...

  17. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...

  18. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...

  19. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...

  20. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...

  1. Teaching General Principles and Applications of Dendrogeomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis in geomorphology can be incorporated into a number of undergraduate methods in order to reconstruct the history of a variety of geomorphic processes. Discusses dendrochronology, general principles of dendrogeomorphology, field sampling methods, laboratory techniques, and examples of applications. (TW)

  2. 39 CFR 602.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.1 General principles. It is the policy of the Postal Service to secure full ownership rights for its intellectual...

  3. 39 CFR 602.1 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.1 General principles. It is the policy of the Postal Service to secure full ownership rights for its intellectual...

  4. Generalized convective quasi-equilibrium principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi; Plant, Robert S.

    2016-03-01

    A generalization of Arakawa and Schubert's convective quasi-equilibrium principle is presented for a closure formulation of mass-flux convection parameterization. The original principle is based on the budget of the cloud work function. This principle is generalized by considering the budget for a vertical integral of an arbitrary convection-related quantity. The closure formulation includes Arakawa and Schubert's quasi-equilibrium, as well as both CAPE and moisture closures as special cases. The formulation also includes new possibilities for considering vertical integrals that are dependent on convective-scale variables, such as the moisture within convection. The generalized convective quasi-equilibrium is defined by a balance between large-scale forcing and convective response for a given vertically-integrated quantity. The latter takes the form of a convolution of a kernel matrix and a mass-flux spectrum, as in the original convective quasi-equilibrium. The kernel reduces to a scalar when either a bulk formulation is adopted, or only large-scale variables are considered within the vertical integral. Various physical implications of the generalized closure are discussed. These include the possibility that precipitation might be considered as a potentially-significant contribution to the large-scale forcing. Two dicta are proposed as guiding physical principles for the specifying a suitable vertically-integrated quantity.

  5. 23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL... permanent defense installations as they do for highways serving private industrial establishments or...

  6. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 104.5 Section 104.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... product shall bear nutrition labeling in accordance with §§ 101.2 and 101.9 of this chapter and all...

  7. 21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or usual name of a food shall include a statement of the presence or absence of any characterizing... component(s) when the presence or absence of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 102.5 Section 102.5 Food...

  8. 21 CFR 502.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or absence of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or... misled about the presence or absence of the ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food. The following... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 502.5 Section 502.5 Food...

  9. Lorentz invariance violation and generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Magdy, H.; Ali, A. Farag

    2016-01-01

    There are several theoretical indications that the quantum gravity approaches may have predictions for a minimal measurable length, and a maximal observable momentum and throughout a generalization for Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) is based on a momentum-dependent modification in the standard dispersion relation which is conjectured to violate the principle of Lorentz invariance. From the resulting Hamiltonian, the velocity and time of flight of relativistic distant particles at Planck energy can be derived. A first comparison is made with recent observations for Hubble parameter in redshift-dependence in early-type galaxies. We find that LIV has two types of contributions to the time of flight delay Δ t comparable with that observations. Although the wrong OPERA measurement on faster-than-light muon neutrino anomaly, Δ t, and the relative change in the speed of muon neutrino Δ v in dependence on redshift z turn to be wrong, we utilize its main features to estimate Δ v. Accordingly, the results could not be interpreted as LIV. A third comparison is made with the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR). It is found that an essential ingredient of the approach combining string theory, loop quantum gravity, black hole physics and doubly spacial relativity and the one assuming a perturbative departure from exact Lorentz invariance. Fixing the sensitivity factor and its energy dependence are essential inputs for a reliable confronting of our calculations to UHECR. The sensitivity factor is related to the special time of flight delay and the time structure of the signal. Furthermore, the upper and lower bounds to the parameter, a that characterizes the generalized uncertainly principle, have to be fixed in related physical systems such as the gamma rays bursts.

  10. A review of the generalized uncertainty principle.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied

    2015-12-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some 'thought' experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed.

  11. Generalized uncertainty principle: Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A.; Diab, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we review some highlights from the String theory, the black hole physics and the doubly special relativity and some thought experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distances and/or maximum momentum at the Planck scale. Furthermore, all models developed in order to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analyzed and compared. They entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) assuming modified dispersion relation, and therefore are allowed for a wide range of applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker-Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high-energy collisions. One of the higher-order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. A second one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length uncertainty, simultaneously. An extensive comparison between the different GUP approaches is summarized. We also discuss the GUP impacts on the equivalence principles including the universality of the gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action and on the kinetic energy of composite system. The existence of a minimal length and a maximum momentum accuracy is preferred by various physical observations. The concern about the compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action should be addressed. We conclude that the value of the GUP parameters remain a puzzle to be verified.

  12. What Do the CLEP General Examinations Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.

    Factor analysis was used to test the hypothesis that College Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examinations, when administered to students who have completed 2 years of college, do not measure anything different from that measured by the traditional battery of pre-college aptitude examinations. The CLEP examinations were taken in the fall…

  13. Generalized uncertainty principle: implications for black hole complementarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-12-01

    At the heart of the black hole information loss paradox and the firewall controversy lies the conflict between quantum mechanics and general relativity. Much has been said about quantum corrections to general relativity, but much less in the opposite direction. It is therefore crucial to examine possible corrections to quantum mechanics due to gravity. Indeed, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is one profound feature of quantum mechanics, which nevertheless may receive correction when gravitational effects become important. Such generalized uncertainty principle [GUP] has been motivated from not only quite general considerations of quantum mechanics and gravity, but also string theoretic arguments. We examine the role of GUP in the context of black hole complementarity. We find that while complementarity can be violated by large N rescaling if one assumes only the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, the application of GUP may save complementarity, but only if certain N -dependence is also assumed. This raises two important questions beyond the scope of this work, i.e., whether GUP really has the proposed form of N -dependence, and whether black hole complementarity is indeed correct.

  14. Use of General Principles in Teaching Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Rolando Hernandez; Tomey, Agustin Vicedo

    1991-01-01

    Presents Principles of Biochemistry for use as main focus of a biochemistry course. The nine guiding ideas are the principles of continual turnover, macromolecular organization, molecular recognition, multiplicity of utilization, maximum efficiency, gradual change, interrelationship, transformational reciprocity, and information transfer. In use…

  15. 14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...). Persons subject to this part are authorized to implement, as prescribed by the Financial Accounting... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a)...

  16. 14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The accounting provisions contained in this part are based on generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP... guidance for maintaining the integrity of the Department's air carrier accounting provisions....

  17. Incorporation of generalized uncertainty principle into Lifshitz field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir; Majumder, Barun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into field theories with Lifshitz scaling. We will first construct both bosonic and fermionic theories with Lifshitz scaling based on generalized uncertainty principle. After that we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into a non-abelian gauge theory with Lifshitz scaling. We will observe that even though the action for this theory is non-local, it is invariant under local gauge transformations. We will also perform the stochastic quantization of this Lifshitz fermionic theory based generalized uncertainty principle.

  18. Incorporation of generalized uncertainty principle into Lifshitz field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, Mir; Majumder, Barun

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into field theories with Lifshitz scaling. We will first construct both bosonic and fermionic theories with Lifshitz scaling based on generalized uncertainty principle. After that we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into a non-abelian gauge theory with Lifshitz scaling. We will observe that even though the action for this theory is non-local, it is invariant under local gauge transformations. We will also perform the stochastic quantization of this Lifshitz fermionic theory based generalized uncertainty principle.

  19. Examining General Hospitals' Smoke-Free Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Marilyn V.; Harbison, Phillip Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the level of smoke-free policies in general hospitals and the barriers faced in implementing restrictive policies banning smoking inside buildings and on surrounding grounds. Design/methodology/approach; A survey was developed to gather data on hospitals' current smoke-free policies, including the challenges…

  20. Examining the Social Benefits Principle in Research with Human Participants.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2016-07-04

    The idea that research with human participants should benefit society has become firmly entrenched in various regulations, policies, and guidelines, but there has been little in-depth analysis of this ethical principle in the bioethics literature. In this paper, I distinguish between strong and weak versions and the social benefits principle and examine six arguments for it. I argue that while it is always ethically desirable for research with human subjects to offer important benefits to society (or the public), the reasonable expectation of substantial public benefit should be a necessary condition for regarding research as ethical only when (a) it imposes more than minimal risks on non-consenting subjects; or (b) it is supported by public resources.

  1. Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.G.

    2007-11-04

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  2. 21 CFR 101.13 - general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-04-01

    ... content claims FOOD AND DRUGS FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES--CONTINUED FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions Sec. 101.13 Nutrient content claims... supplements). (b) A claim that expressly or implicitly characterizes the level of a nutrient (nutrient...

  3. Effect of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on post-inflation preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Chemissany, Wissam; Das, Saurya; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Vagenas, Elias C. E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca E-mail: evagenas@academyofathens.gr

    2011-12-01

    We examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, predicted by various theories of quantum gravity to replace the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle near the Planck scale, on post inflation preheating in cosmology, and show that it can predict either an increase or a decrease in parametric resonance and a corresponding change in particle production. Possible implications are considered.

  4. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...

  5. 23 CFR 627.5 - General principles and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS VALUE ENGINEERING § 627.5 General principles and procedures. (a) State VE programs. State transportation... studies. (2) Studies. Value engineering studies shall follow the widely recognized systematic...

  6. 23 CFR 627.5 - General principles and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS VALUE ENGINEERING § 627.5 General principles and procedures. (a) State VE programs. State transportation... studies. (2) Studies. Value engineering studies shall follow the widely recognized systematic...

  7. Kinship categories across languages reflect general communicative principles.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Charles; Regier, Terry

    2012-05-25

    Languages vary in their systems of kinship categories, but the scope of possible variation appears to be constrained. Previous accounts of kin classification have often emphasized constraints that are specific to the domain of kinship and are not derived from general principles. Here, we propose an account that is founded on two domain-general principles: Good systems of categories are simple, and they enable informative communication. We show computationally that kin classification systems in the world's languages achieve a near-optimal trade-off between these two competing principles. We also show that our account explains several specific constraints on kin classification proposed previously. Because the principles of simplicity and informativeness are also relevant to other semantic domains, the trade-off between them may provide a domain-general foundation for variation in category systems across languages.

  8. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, Martin

    2010-10-15

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  9. “Stringy” coherent states inspired by generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Pinaki

    2012-05-01

    Coherent States with Fractional Revival property, that explicitly satisfy the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), have been constructed in the context of Generalized Harmonic Oscillator. The existence of such states is essential in motivating the GUP based phenomenological results present in the literature which otherwise would be of purely academic interest. The effective phase space is Non-Canonical (or Non-Commutative in popular terminology). Our results have a smooth commutative limit, equivalent to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Fractional Revival time analysis yields an independent bound on the GUP parameter. Using this and similar bounds obtained here, we derive the largest possible value of the (GUP induced) minimum length scale. Mandel parameter analysis shows that the statistics is Sub-Poissonian. Correspondence Principle is deformed in an interesting way. Our computational scheme is very simple as it requires only first order corrected energy values and undeformed basis states.

  10. Examining the Generality of Self-Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Prompting students to self-explain during problem solving has proven to be an effective instructional strategy across many domains. However, despite being called "domain general", very little work has been done in areas outside of math and science. In this dissertation, I investigate whether the self-explanation effect holds when applied…

  11. Relativistic Particle in Electromagnetic Fields with a Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merad, M.; Zeroual, F.; Falek, M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we propose to solve the relativistic Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations subjected to the action of a uniform electromagnetic field with a generalized uncertainty principle in the momentum space. In both cases, the energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained. The limit case is then deduced for a small parameter of deformation.

  12. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). f. Not be included as a cost or used to meet... operations should be treated as applicable credits. Specifically, the concept of netting such credit items... administrative requirements for expending and accounting for all funds, which are consistent with the...

  13. Quaternionic quantization principle in general relativity and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kober, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A generalized quantization principle is considered, which incorporates nontrivial commutation relations of the components of the variables of the quantized theory with the components of the corresponding canonical conjugated momenta referring to other space-time directions. The corresponding commutation relations are formulated by using quaternions. At the beginning, this extended quantization concept is applied to the variables of quantum mechanics. The resulting Dirac equation and the corresponding generalized expression for plane waves are formulated and some consequences for quantum field theory are considered. Later, the quaternionic quantization principle is transferred to canonical quantum gravity. Within quantum geometrodynamics as well as the Ashtekar formalism, the generalized algebraic properties of the operators describing the gravitational observables and the corresponding quantum constraints implied by the generalized representations of these operators are determined. The generalized algebra also induces commutation relations of the several components of the quantized variables with each other. Finally, the quaternionic quantization procedure is also transferred to 𝒩 = 1 supergravity. Accordingly, the quantization principle has to be generalized to be compatible with Dirac brackets, which appear in canonical quantum supergravity.

  14. Examining Major Rankings According to the Berlin Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Nian Cai

    2008-01-01

    While the ranking of higher education institutions (HEIs) has become more and more popular, there are increasing concerns about the quality of such ranking. In response to such legitimate expectations, in May 2006, the International Ranking Expert Group (IREG) developed and endorsed a guideline document--the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher…

  15. Some General Principles in Cryogenic Design, Implementation, and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael James

    2015-01-01

    Brief Course Description: In 2 hours only the most basic principles of cryogenics can be presented. I will concentrate on the differences between a room temperature thermal analysis and cryogenic thermal analysis, namely temperature dependent properties. I will talk about practical materials for thermal contact and isolation. I will finish by describing the verification process and instrumentation used that is unique to cryogenic (in general less than 100K) systems.

  16. Remarks on Generalized Uncertainty Principle Induced from Constraint System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eune, Myungseok; Kim, Wontae

    2014-12-01

    The extended commutation relations for generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) have been based on the assumption of the minimal length in position. Instead of this assumption, we start with a constrained Hamiltonian system described by the conventional Poisson algebra and then impose appropriate second class constraints to this system. Consequently, we can show that the consistent Dirac brackets for this system are nothing, but the extended commutation relations describing the GUP.

  17. Generalized uncertainty principle in Bianchi type I quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, B.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2007-07-01

    We study a quantum Bianchi type I model in which the dynamical variables of the corresponding minisuperspace obey the generalized Heisenberg algebra. Such a generalized uncertainty principle has its origin in the existence of a minimal length suggested by quantum gravity and sting theory. We present approximate analytical solutions to the corresponding Wheeler DeWitt equation in the limit where the scale factor of the universe is small and compare the results with the standard commutative and noncommutative quantum cosmology. Similarities and differences of these solutions are also discussed.

  18. Factorization in the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) where the commutation relation is given by [x̂,p̂] = iℏ(1 + αp̂ + βp̂2). For this algebra, we obtain the eigenfunction of the momentum operator. We also study the GUP corrected quantum particle in a box. Finally, we apply the factorization method to the harmonic oscillator in the presence of a minimal observable length and obtain the energy eigenvalues by applying the perturbation method.

  19. General cognitive principles for learning structure in time and space.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Michael H; Waterfall, Heidi R; Lotem, Arnon; Halpern, Joseph Y; Schwade, Jennifer A; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-06-01

    How are hierarchically structured sequences of objects, events or actions learned from experience and represented in the brain? When several streams of regularities present themselves, which will be learned and which ignored? Can statistical regularities take effect on their own, or are additional factors such as behavioral outcomes expected to influence statistical learning? Answers to these questions are starting to emerge through a convergence of findings from naturalistic observations, behavioral experiments, neurobiological studies, and computational analyses and simulations. We propose that a small set of principles are at work in every situation that involves learning of structure from patterns of experience and outline a general framework that accounts for such learning.

  20. Cosmological constant implementing Mach principle in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namavarian, Nadereh; Farhoudi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    We consider the fact that noticing on the operational meaning of the physical concepts played an impetus role in the appearance of general relativity (GR). Thus, we have paid more attention to the operational definition of the gravitational coupling constant in this theory as a dimensional constant which is gained through an experiment. However, as all available experiments just provide the value of this constant locally, this coupling constant can operationally be meaningful only in a local area. Regarding this point, to obtain an extension of GR for the large scale, we replace it by a conformal invariant model and then, reduce this model to a theory for the cosmological scale via breaking down the conformal symmetry through singling out a specific conformal frame which is characterized by the large scale characteristics of the universe. Finally, we come to the same field equations that historically were proposed by Einstein for the cosmological scale (GR plus the cosmological constant) as the result of his endeavor for making GR consistent with the Mach principle. However, we declare that the obtained field equations in this alternative approach do not carry the problem of the field equations proposed by Einstein for being consistent with Mach's principle (i.e., the existence of de Sitter solution), and can also be considered compatible with this principle in the Sciama view.

  1. A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles

    SciTech Connect

    Dewar, Roderick C.

    2014-12-05

    Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential Ψ for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that Ψ is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of Ψ with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–Ψ are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in Ψ is given in terms of the second law, although min–Ψ itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law.

  2. The most general form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra from the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Syed; Faizal, Mir; Zaz, Zaid; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Raza, Jamil; Shah, Mushtaq B.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.

  3. Explaining Compound Generalization in Associative and Causal Learning Through Rational Principles of Dimensional Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Fabian A.; Gershman, Samuel J.; Niv, Yael

    2014-01-01

    How do we apply learning from one situation to a similar, but not identical, situation? The principles governing the extent to which animals and humans generalize what they have learned about certain stimuli to novel compounds containing those stimuli vary depending on a number of factors. Perhaps the best studied among these factors is the type of stimuli used to generate compounds. One prominent hypothesis is that different generalization principles apply depending on whether the stimuli in a compound are similar or dissimilar to each other. However, the results of many experiments cannot be explained by this hypothesis. Here we propose a rational Bayesian theory of compound generalization that uses the notion of consequential regions, first developed in the context of rational theories of multidimensional generalization, to explain the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization. The model explains a large number of results from the compound generalization literature, including the influence of stimulus modality and spatial contiguity on the summation effect, the lack of influence of stimulus factors on summation with a recovered inhibitor, the effect of spatial position of stimuli on the blocking effect, the asymmetrical generalization decrement in overshadowing and external inhibition, and the conditions leading to a reliable external inhibition effect. By integrating rational theories of compound and dimensional generalization, our model provides the first comprehensive computational account of the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization, including spatial and temporal contiguity between components, which have posed longstanding problems for rational theories of associative and causal learning. PMID:25090430

  4. Generalized uncertainty principle and analogue of quantum gravity in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Musslimani, Ziad H.; Conti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    The design of optical systems capable of processing and manipulating ultra-short pulses and ultra-focused beams is highly challenging with far reaching fundamental technological applications. One key obstacle routinely encountered while implementing sub-wavelength optical schemes is how to overcome the limitations set by standard Fourier optics. A strategy to overcome these difficulties is to utilize the concept of a generalized uncertainty principle (G-UP) which has been originally developed to study quantum gravity. In this paper we propose to use the concept of G-UP within the framework of optics to show that the generalized Schrödinger equation describing short pulses and ultra-focused beams predicts the existence of a minimal spatial or temporal scale which in turn implies the existence of maximally localized states. Using a Gaussian wavepacket with complex phase, we derive the corresponding generalized uncertainty relation and its maximally localized states. Furthermore, we numerically show that the presence of nonlinearity helps the system to reach its maximal localization. Our results may trigger further theoretical and experimental tests for practical applications and analogues of fundamental physical theories.

  5. First Principles Structure Calculations Using the General Potential Lapw Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Su-Huai

    We have developed a completely general first principles self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented-plane -wave (LAPW) method program within the density functional formalism to calculate electronic band structure, total energy, pressure and other quantities. No symmetry assumptions are used for the crystal structure. Shape unrestricted charge densities and potentials are calculated inside muffin -tin (MT) spheres as well as in the interstitial regions. All contributions to the Hamiltonian matrix elements are completely taken into account. The core states are treated fully relativistically using the spherical part of the potential only. Scalar relativistic effects are included for the band-states, and spin-orbit coupling is included using a second variation procedure. Both core states and valence states are treated self-consistently, the frozen core approximation is not required. The fast Fourier transformation method is used wherever it is applicable, and this greatly improves the efficiency. This state-of-the-art program has been tested extensively to check the accuracy and convergence properties by comparing calculated electronic band structures, ground state properties, equations of state and cohesive energies for bulk W and GaAs with other theoretical calculations and experimental results. It has been successfully applied to calculate and predict structural and metal-insulator phase transitions for close-packed crystal BaSe and BaTe and the geometric structure of the d-band metal W(001) surface. The results are in generally good agreement with experiment.

  6. Entropy principle, non-regular processes, and generalized exploitation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, V.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The classical Coleman-Noll approach to the exploitation of the entropy principle regards the classical balances of mass, linear and angular momentum and energy as differential constraints for the entropy inequality, and presupposes that the second law of thermodynamics is a restriction on the constitutive equations describing the material properties [B. D. Coleman and W. Noll, "The thermodynamics of elastic materials with heat conduction and viscosity," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 13, 167-178 (1963), 10.1007/BF01262690]. In 1996, Muschik and Ehrentraut proved that this presupposition may be confirmed by a rigorous proof, provided that an amendment to the classical second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that, except in equilibria, reversible process directions in state space do not exist, is postulated ["An amendment to the second law," J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 21, 175-192 (1996), 10.1515/jnet.1996.21.2.175]. In their paper, the authors considered regular processes only. In a recent article [V. Triani and V. A. Cimmelli, "Interpretation of second law of thermodynamics in the presence of interfaces," Continuum. Mech. Thermodyn. 24, 165-174 (2012), 10.1007/s00161-011-0231-8], we proved that the result above remains valid in the presence of interfaces across which the unknown fields suffer jump discontinuities. Here, we show that the same conclusions achieved by Muschik and Ehrentraut and Triani and Cimmelli hold when the classical Coleman-Noll and Liu ["Method of Lagrange multipliers for exploitation of the entropy principle," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 46, 131-148 (1972), 10.1007/BF00250688] procedures for the exploitation of the second law, are generalized by considering also the gradients of the fundamental balance equations as constraints for the entropy inequality.

  7. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    2016-07-01

    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  8. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part I: general principles.

    PubMed

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to improve the basis upon which advice on pregnancy is given to women with renal disease and to address issues of obstetric management by drawing upon the accumulated world experience. To ensure the proper rapport between the respect for patient's autonomy and the ethical principle of beneficence, the review attempts to impart up-to-date, evidence-based information on the predictable outcomes and hazards of pregnancy in women with chronic renal disease. The physiology of pregnancy from the perspective of the affected kidney will be discussed as well as the principal predictors of maternal and fetal outcomes and general recommendations of management. The available evidence supports the implication that the degree of renal function impairment is the major determinant for pregnancy outcome. In addition, the presence of hypertension further compounds the risks. On the contrary, the degree of proteinuria does not demonstrate a linear correlation with obstetric outcomes. Management and outcome of pregnancies occurring in women on dialysis and after renal transplant are also discussed. Although the outcome of pregnancies under chronic dialysis has markedly improved in the past decade, the chances of achieving a viable pregnancy are much higher after transplantation. But even in renal transplant recipients, the rate of maternal and fetal complications remains high, in addition to concerns regarding possible adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs on the developing embryo and fetus.

  9. General principles of rhythmogenesis in central pattern generator networks.

    PubMed

    Harris-Warrick, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The cellular and ionic mechanisms that generate the rhythm in central pattern generator (CPG) networks for simple movements are not well understood. Using vertebrate locomotion, respiration and mastication as exemplars, I describe four main principles of rhythmogenesis: (1) rhythmogenic ionic currents underlie all CPG networks, regardless of whether they are driven by a network pacemaker or an endogenous pacemaker neuron kernel; (2) fast synaptic transmission often evokes slow currents that can affect cycle frequency; (3) there are likely to be multiple and redundant mechanisms for rhythmogenesis in any essential CPG network; and (4) glial cells may participate in CPG network function. The neural basis for rhythmogenesis in simple behaviors has been studied for almost 100 years, yet we cannot identify with certainty the detailed mechanisms by which rhythmic behaviors are generated in any vertebrate system. Early studies focused on whether locomotor rhythms were generated by a chain of coupled reflexes that require sensory feedback, or by a central neural network. By now there is general agreement that for the major rhythmic behaviors (including locomotion, respiration, and mastication, the subjects of this book), there exist CPG networks within the central nervous system that are able to drive the basic rhythmic behavior in the complete absence of sensory feedback. This of course does not eliminate an important role for sensory feedback, which certainly affects cycle frequency and for some behaviors determines the timing of one phase of the behavior (Borgmann et al., 2009; Pearson, 2008). Given the existence of CPGs, the question of rhythmogenesis can be rephrased to ask how these networks determine the timing of the rhythmic behavior. In this chapter, I focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms that could underlie rhythmogenesis in CPG networks, especially those that drive locomotion, respiration, and mastication.

  10. General Principles of Rhythmogenesis in Central Pattern Networks

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Warrick, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular and ionic mechanisms that generate the rhythm in central pattern generator (CPG) networks for simple movements are not well understood. Using vertebrate locomotion, respiration and mastication as exemplars, I describe four main principles of rhythmogenesis: (1) rhythmogenic ionic currents underlie all CPG networks, regardless of whether they are driven by a network pacemaker or an endogenous pacemaker neuron kernel; (2) fast synaptic transmission often evokes slow currents that can affect cycle frequency; (3) there are likely to be multiple and redundant mechanisms for rhythmogenesis in any essential CPG network; and (4) glial cells may participate in CPG network function. The neural basis for rhythmogenesis in simple behaviors has been studied for almost 100 years, yet we cannot identify with certainty the detailed mechanisms by which rhythmic behaviors are generated in any vertebrate system. Early studies focused on whether locomotor rhythms were generated by a chain of coupled reflexes that require sensory feedback, or by a central neural network. By now there is general agreement that for the major rhythmic behaviors (including locomotion, respiration, and mastication, the subjects of this book), there exist CPG networks within the central nervous system that are able to drive the basic rhythmic behavior in the complete absence of sensory feedback. This of course does not eliminate an important role for sensory feedback, which certainly affects cycle frequency and for some behaviors determines the timing of one phase of the behavior. Given the existence of CPGs, the question of rhythmogenesis can be rephrased to ask how these networks determine the timing of the rhythmic behavior. In this chapter, I focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms that could underlie rhythmogenesis in CPG networks, especially those that drive locomotion, respiration, and mastication. PMID:21111210

  11. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  12. Path Integral for Dirac oscillator with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Benzair, H.; Boudjedaa, T.; Merad, M.

    2012-12-15

    The propagator for Dirac oscillator in (1+1) dimension, with deformed commutation relation of the Heisenberg principle, is calculated using path integral in quadri-momentum representation. As the mass is related to momentum, we then adapt the space-time transformation method to evaluate quantum corrections and this latter is dependent from the point discretization interval.

  13. A Computer Tutorial on the Principles of Stimulus Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a computer tutorial that teaches the fundamentals of stimulus generalization in operant learning. Concepts covered include reinforcement, discrimination learning, stimulus continua, generalization, generalization gradients, and peak shift. The tutorial also reviews applications in human and animal situations. The content is appropriate…

  14. Utilization of the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education in general chemistry by community college instructors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panther Bishoff, Jennifer

    In recent years, higher education has undergone many changes. The advent of assessment, accountability, and a newfound focus on teaching have required faculty to examine how they are teaching. Administrators and faculty are beginning to recognize that learning is not a "one size fits all" enterprise. To this end, Chickering and Gamson developed an inventory that examined faculty utilization of the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. The seven principles included by the authors included faculty-student interaction, cooperative learning, active learning, giving prompt feedback, emphasizing time on task, communicating high expectations, and respecting diverse talents and ways of learning. It was determined by Chickering and Gamson, as well as many other researchers, that these seven principles were hallmarks of successful undergraduate education. Community colleges are important institutions to study, as many students begin their higher education at two-year colleges. Most students are also required to take one or more science classes for their general education requirements; therefore, many students must take at least one general chemistry course. Both community colleges and chemistry are rarely studied in literature, which makes this study important. Community college general chemistry instructors were surveyed using an online version of Chickering and Gamson's Faculty Inventory for the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. Responses were analyzed, and it was discovered that not only did instructors utilize the principles to a different extent, but there were also differences between genders as well as between the specific actions related to each principle.

  15. Principle of reciprocity solves the most important problems in bioimpedance and in general in bioelectromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmivuo, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    Though the principle of reciprocity was invented by Hermann von Helmholtz already over 150 years ago, and though it is a very powerful tool in solving various important problems in bioelectromagnetism, it is not generally used. In impedance tomography the measurement sensitivity distribution has generally been misunderstood. This can be easily demonstrated with the principle of reciprocity. Some other applications of the principle of reciprocity are also discussed.

  16. 75 FR 10205 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on General Principles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...-0002] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on General Principles AGENCY... agenda items and draft United States positions that will be discussed at the 26th session of the Codex Committee on General Principles (CCGP) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held...

  17. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles of the IND submission. 312.22... (IND) § 312.22 General principles of the IND submission. (a) FDA's primary objectives in reviewing an... likelihood that the investigations will yield data capable of meeting statutory standards for...

  18. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING... reports to the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting...

  19. Community and job satisfactions: an argument for reciprocal influence based on the principle of stimulus generalization

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, J.; Montgomery, J.C.

    1982-10-01

    The principle of stimulus generalization provided the underlying argument for a test of hypotheses regarding the association of community and job satisfactions and a critique of related theory and research. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) analysis made possible the examination of reciprocal causation, a notion inherent in the theoretical argument. Data were obtained from 276 employees of a Western U.S. coal mine as part of a work attitudes survey. The 2SLS analysis indicated a significant impact of community satisfaction on job satisfaction and an effect of borderline significance of job on community satisfaction. Theory-based correlational comparisons were made on groups of employees residing in four distinct communities, high and low tenure groups, males and females, and different levels in the mine's hierarchy. The pattern of correlations was generally consistent with predictions, but significance tests for differences yielded equivocal support. When considered in the context of previous studies, the data upheld a reciprocal causal model and the explanatory principle of stimulus generalization for understanding the relation of community and job satisfactions. Sample characteristics necessitate cautious interpretation and the model per se might best be viewed as a heuristic framework for more definitive research.

  20. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  1. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  2. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  3. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  4. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.138 Application of the general... incident to or in conjunction with his farming operations. Such arrangements are distinguished from those... incorporated association of farmers that does not itself engage in farming operations is not engaged...

  5. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    PubMed

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    nonmonetary variables was developed. In it the radiologist, radiographer and examination-specific equipment costs were allocated to the examinations applying estimated cost equivalents. Some minor cost items were replaced by a general cost factor (GCF). The program is suitable for internal cost accounting of radiological departments as well as regional planning. If more accurate cost information is required, cost assignment employing the actual consumption of the resources and applying the principles of activity-based cost accounting is recommended. As an application of the cost accounting formula the average costs of the radiological examinations were calculated. In conventional radiography the average proportion of the cost factors in the total material was: personnel costs 43%, equipment costs 26%, material costs 7%, real estate costs 11%, administration and overheads 14%. The average total costs including radiologist costs in the hospitals were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 188, contrast medium examinations 695, ultrasound 296, mammography 315, roentgen examinations with mobile equipment 1578. The average total costs without radiologist costs in the public health centres were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 107, contrast medium examinations 988, ultrasound 203, mammography 557. The average currency rate of exchange in 1991 was USD 1 = FIM 4.046. The following formula is proposed for calculating the cost of a radiological examination (or a group of examinations) performed with a certain piece of equipment during a period of time (e.g. 1 year): a2/ sigma ax*ax+ b2/ sigma bx*bx+ d1/d5*dx+ e1 + [(c1+ c2) + d4 + (e2 - e3) + f5 + g1+ g2+ i]/n.

  6. General principles regarding the use of adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    de Paula, I Carrasco

    2008-02-01

    With only a few, almost inevitable exceptions, biomedical research has developed within the last 50 years under the tutelage of ethical standards of notable precision. In the vast world of scientific investigation, few disciplines can boast of having realized documents of such ethical rigour, and respect for the integrity and intrinsic value of the human person has been one of the cardinal principles of the researcher. Research is intrinsic to the medical profession; the reward of research is knowledge and its techniques are ordered towards maintenance of human health. Since this end concerns human beings, it demands an extremely rigorous ethical approach. Ethical aspects are present from the first moments of the experimental project and occur on three levels: choice of the objectives, selection and use of the appropriate means for the study, and application of resultant new discoveries. Today, our moral attention cannot be reduced to a cost-benefit analysis. Biomedical sciences and medicine have overlapping areas of interest that can be sources of tension: the good of the subject versus scientific utility; profit versus complexity of research; liberty versus ethical and juridical bonds; the public versus the private; and the individual versus the community. Here, I attempt to formulate some essential principles that should guarantee humane measures for research on humans.

  7. General health screening as part of a periodontal examination.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sarah L

    2010-12-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are common systemic illnesses with reliable, predictive risk factors. CVD is the number one killer worldwide accounting for nearly 30% of deaths and type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in many western industrialized countries. Both of these illnesses can go undiagnosed in an alarming number of people for significant periods of time. The relationship between oral health and systemic health has become the focus of much discussion and research in recent times. It is now widely accepted that periodontal disease is associated with systemic illnesses such as CVD and type 2 diabetes. Cigarette smoking and obesity are major risk factors accounting for a large portion of the global disease burden. Many periodontal patients may be at risk of systemic conditions but be asymptomatic and undiagnosed. With an aging population who are mostly retaining their natural dentition, the need for periodontal management will continue to rise in the future. Dental professionals are well placed to perform general health screening for their patients. Therefore, risk assessment during the periodontal examination may facilitate the early identification of the large proportion of people who are unaware of their risk status. As identification and intervention of patients with increased risk factors is key to lowering the systemic disease burden, general health screening during periodontal examinations may present an important opportunity for many patients.

  8. General health screening as part of a periodontal examination

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are common systemic illnesses with reliable, predictive risk factors. CVD is the number one killer worldwide accounting for nearly 30% of deaths and type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in many western industrialized countries. Both of these illnesses can go undiagnosed in an alarming number of people for significant periods of time. The relationship between oral health and systemic health has become the focus of much discussion and research in recent times. It is now widely accepted that periodontal disease is associated with systemic illnesses such as CVD and type 2 diabetes. Cigarette smoking and obesity are major risk factors accounting for a large portion of the global disease burden. Many periodontal patients may be at risk of systemic conditions but be asymptomatic and undiagnosed. With an aging population who are mostly retaining their natural dentition, the need for periodontal management will continue to rise in the future. Dental professionals are well placed to perform general health screening for their patients. Therefore, risk assessment during the periodontal examination may facilitate the early identification of the large proportion of people who are unaware of their risk status. As identification and intervention of patients with increased risk factors is key to lowering the systemic disease burden, general health screening during periodontal examinations may present an important opportunity for many patients. PMID:21523218

  9. Ethical principles and the rationing of health care: a qualitative study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Feder, Gene; Griffiths, Chris; Jones, Ian Rees

    2005-01-01

    Background Researching sensitive topics, such as the rationing of treatments and denial of care, raises a number of ethical and methodological problems. Aim To describe the methods and findings from a number of focus group discussions that examined how GPs apply ethical principles when allocating scarce resources. Design of study A small-scale qualitative study involving purposive sampling, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Setting Twenty-four GPs from two contrasting areas of London: one relatively affluent and one relatively deprived. Method Initial interviews asked GPs to identify key resource allocation issues. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified. A number of case studies, each illustrative of an ethical issue related to rationing, were written up in the form of vignettes. In focus group discussions, GPs were given a number of these vignettes to debate. Results With respect to the ethical basis for decision making, the findings from this part of the study emphasised the role of social and psychological factors, the influence of the quality of the relationship between GPs and patients and confusion among GPs about their role in decision making. Conclusion The use of vignettes developed from prior interviews with GPs creates a non-threatening environment to discuss sensitive or controversial issues. The acceptance by GPs of general moral principles does not entail clarity of coherence of the application of these principles in practice. PMID:16105371

  10. General principles for the clinical use of the LCP.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael

    2003-11-01

    The basic principles of an internal fixation procedure using a conventional plate and screw system (compression method) are direct, anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation of the fracture. Wide exposure of the bone is usually necessary to gain access to and provide good visibility of the fracture zone to allow reduction and plate fixation to be performed. This procedure requires pre-contouring of the plate to match the anatomy of the bone. The screws are tightened to fix the plate onto the bone, which then compresses the plate onto the bone. The actual stability results from the friction between the plate and the bone. Anatomical reduction of the fracture was the goal of conventional plating technique, but over time a technique for bridging plate osteosynthesis has been developed for multifragmentary shaft fractures that, thanks to a reduction of vascular damage to the bone, permits healing with callus formation, as seen after locked nailing. Since the damage to the soft tissues and the blood supply is less extensive, more rapid fracture healing can be achieved. The newly developed, so-called locked internal fixators (e.g.PC-Fix and Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS)), consist of plate and screw systems where the screws are locked in the plate. This locking minimizes the compressive forces exerted by the plate on the bone. This method of screw-plate fixation means that the plate does not need to touch the bone at all, which is of particular advantage in so-called Minimal Invasive Percutaneous Osteosynthesis (MIPO). Precise anatomical contouring of a plate is no longer necessary thanks to these new screws and because the plate does not need to be pressed on to the bone to achieve stability. This prevents primary dislocation of the fracture caused by inexact contouring of a plate. The LISS plates are precontoured to match the average anatomical form of the relevant site and, therefore, do not have to be further adapted intraoperatively. The

  11. Vesicle coats: structure, function, and general principles of assembly.

    PubMed

    Faini, Marco; Beck, Rainer; Wieland, Felix T; Briggs, John A G

    2013-06-01

    The transport of proteins and lipids between distinct cellular compartments is conducted by coated vesicles. These vesicles are formed by the self-assembly of coat proteins on a membrane, leading to collection of the vesicle cargo and membrane bending to form a bud. Scission at the bud neck releases the vesicle. X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy (EM) have recently generated models of isolated coat components and assembled coats. Here, we review these data to present a structural overview of the three main coats: clathrin, COPII, and COPI. The three coats have similar function, common ancestry, and structural similarities, but exhibit fundamental differences in structure and assembly. We describe the implications of structural similarities and differences for understanding the function, assembly principles, and evolution of vesicle coats.

  12. Evolutionary Process: An Organizing Principle for General Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a science-oriented general education core, stressing the importance of serious scientific study in understanding contemporary human existence. Describes the four courses comprising the core, which use the evolutionary process as the unifying concept for the study of physics, astronomy, geology, chemistry, biology, anthropology,…

  13. Comparison of Principles of Technology and Traditional Physics Secondary Students' Scores on a Physics Examination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Beacher Bert

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate comparatively the performance of students enrolled in principles of technology and traditional physics classes in Alabama on a physics examination. The subjects included 226 students enrolled in the first year of the principles of technology course at eight pilot school systems in Alabama during the 1988 -89 year as well as 251 students enrolled in randomly selected, intact physics classes from the same school systems. Data were collected utilizing demographic questionnaires developed by the researcher and a physics examination developed by a jury of Auburn University physics professors. Six graduate assistants, including the researcher, administered the examination and the demographic questionnaires in the school systems. Data pertaining to the students' standardized scores were obtained from school counselors. The data were statistically analyzed by a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test and by a multivariate analysis of partial variance model. Results from the statistical analyses indicate that no significant difference in the two groups of students exist after adjustment for pre-existing differences and selected student and teacher variables. Significant interactions between course and both mathematics and science scores exists. While the physics students' scores were above the grand mean for both mathematics and science and the principles of technology students' scores were below the mean in both cases, the interactions indicate that the relationship between the scores on mathematics and science and course vary more than would be expected by chance for the two groups of students. The most significant conclusion was that the principles of technology course appears to be academically sound and may be the kind of course to successfully bridge the gap between academics and vocational education for a large segment of students.

  14. General principles of medical interconsultation for hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Montero-Ruiz, E; Gil-Díaz, A; Castiella-Herrero, J

    2016-01-01

    Medical interconsultation for hospitalised patients is a regular activity among internal medicine specialists. However, despite its growing impact and importance, a model that defines its characteristics, objectives and information has not been established. This study, conducted by the Shared Care and Interconsultations Group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, proposes a number of general recommendations concerning the method for requesting and responding to hospital medical interconsultations, as well as a format for these interconsultations.

  15. Category and Word Search: Generalizing Search Principles to Complex Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    development, overlearning, attention , secondary tasks 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) The research...search without deficit .;However, combining V category earch and the digit-span task resulted in substantial performance deficit . The generality of...concurrent serial recall digit-span task. Subjects could simultaneously perform the digit-span task and CH category search without deficit . However

  16. [Mastitis in general practice. Is bacteriologic examination useful?].

    PubMed

    Aabø, O; Matheson, I; Aursnes, I; Horgen, M; Lagerløv, P; Melby, K

    1990-06-20

    For a period of 22 months, postpartial women in Oslo were asked to consult one of several specific general practitioners in the event of mastitis. Clinical symptoms, bacteriological findings in breast milk and treatment were recorded in 43 patients. Patients with a favourable (n = 35) and with an unfavourable outcome (n = 8) defined as abscess, relapse and/or relief of symptoms after more than seven days, were compared. Unfavourable outcome was characterized by higher score of clinical symptoms and a higher isolation frequency of Staphylococcus aureus. The occurrence of fever did not differ between the groups. Bacteriological findings in milk from both breasts were compared with the findings from 100 milk donors. Staphylococcus aureus was more frequently isolated in milk from affected breasts than from unaffected and control breasts (17/40 versus 4/40 versus 4/100). Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains (70%) were betalactamase producers. Coagulase negative staphylococci were a frequent finding in all milk samples, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were frequent only in the controls. The presence of pathogenic bacteria, as well as high bacterial counts, were associated with a higher number of symptoms. However, the predictive value of the bacteriological examination was low. Our study indicates that bacteriological examination of breast milk is justified only in patients with severe, acute symptoms and recurrences when betalactamase producing Staphylococcus aureus are suspected.

  17. General principles of institutional risks influence on pension systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepp, A. N.; Shilkov, A. A.; Sheveleva, A. Y.; Mamedbakov, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the tools used to study the influence of institutional factors on investment returns. The research object are the tools used in the evaluation of institutional risks in the pension system, in particular, the correlation model of factors impacting on the `anti-director' index, econometric estimates combining the different determinants of savings, the model of endogenous institutional change, etc. Research work focusing on issues of institutional factors affecting pension systems (authored by La Porta, Guiso, Gianetti, El-Mekkaouide Freitas, Neyapti B., and others) is reviewed. The model is examined in terms of the impact of institutional risks on pension systems, especially with regard to the funded part. The study identified the following factors that affect financial institutions, including pension institutions: management quality, regulation quality, rule of law, political stability, and corruption control.

  18. Students' Misunderstandings about the Energy Conservation Principle: A General View to Studies in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Munir

    2007-01-01

    This paper serves to review previously reported studies on students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle (the first law of thermodynamics). Generally, studies in literature highlighted students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle stem from preliminaries about energy concept in daily life. Since prior…

  19. A generalized Poisson solver for first-principles device simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; VandeVondele, Joost; Brück, Sascha; Luisier, Mathieu

    2016-01-28

    Electronic structure calculations of atomistic systems based on density functional theory involve solving the Poisson equation. In this paper, we present a plane-wave based algorithm for solving the generalized Poisson equation subject to periodic or homogeneous Neumann conditions on the boundaries of the simulation cell and Dirichlet type conditions imposed at arbitrary subdomains. In this way, source, drain, and gate voltages can be imposed across atomistic models of electronic devices. Dirichlet conditions are enforced as constraints in a variational framework giving rise to a saddle point problem. The resulting system of equations is then solved using a stationary iterative method in which the generalized Poisson operator is preconditioned with the standard Laplace operator. The solver can make use of any sufficiently smooth function modelling the dielectric constant, including density dependent dielectric continuum models. For all the boundary conditions, consistent derivatives are available and molecular dynamics simulations can be performed. The convergence behaviour of the scheme is investigated and its capabilities are demonstrated.

  20. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Universe of Chemicals and General Validation Principles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document was developed by the EPA to provide guidance to staff and managers regarding the EDSP universe of chemicals and general validation principles for consideration of computational toxicology tools for chemical prioritization.

  1. Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Nassar, Ali

    2017-02-01

    We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.

  2. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2016-07-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray's law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray's law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows.

  3. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, David

    2016-01-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray’s law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray’s law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows. PMID:27493583

  4. Generalized energy principle for flute perturbations in axisymmetric mirror machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lansky, I.M.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1993-01-20

    Axial symmetry is a very desirable property of the mirror devices both for fusion and neutron source applications. The main obstacle to be circumvented in the development of such systems, is the flute instability of axisymmetric mirrors. In recent years there appeared a number of proposals, devoted to the stabilization of the flute perturbations in the framework of axisymmetric magnetic configurations, which are based on the combining of the MHD unstable central cell with various types of end-cell stabilizers. In the present paper we concentrate ourselves just on this scheme, including long solenoid with a uniform field, conjugated with the end stabilizing anchor, intended to provide MHD stability of the system as a whole. The attractive feature of such a configuration is that it allows to exploit finite larmor radius (FLR) effects for the stabilization of the flute perturbations. As is well known, FLR effects, being strong, stabilize all flute modes, except the one with azimuthal number m = 1, corresponding to the ``rigid`` displacement of the plasma column (the ``global`` mode). Consequently, in the conditions when FLR effects dominate, the anchor has to stabilize the ``global` mode only. Bearing in mind a favorable influence of FLR effects we, however, don`t restrict our paper by discussion of only ``global`` mode stability and consider a general case of an arbitrary azimuthal mode.

  5. [Principles of rational cooperation of general practitioners and other specialists with nephrologist].

    PubMed

    Sułowicz, Władysław

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents general principles of rational cooperation of general practitioners and other specialists with nephrologist dedicate special attention concerning the slowing progression of renal failure and beneficts for patients as a result of early referral to nephrologist. The management of patients with chronic renal failure in the predialysis period and their preparation for renal replacement therapy was also described.

  6. Communication: Maximum caliber is a general variational principle for nonequilibrium statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazoglou, Michael J.; Walther, Valentin; Dixit, Purushottam D.; Dill, Ken A.

    2015-08-01

    There has been interest in finding a general variational principle for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We give evidence that Maximum Caliber (Max Cal) is such a principle. Max Cal, a variant of maximum entropy, predicts dynamical distribution functions by maximizing a path entropy subject to dynamical constraints, such as average fluxes. We first show that Max Cal leads to standard near-equilibrium results—including the Green-Kubo relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations of coupled flows, and Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production—in a way that is particularly simple. We develop some generalizations of the Onsager and Prigogine results that apply arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Because Max Cal does not require any notion of "local equilibrium," or any notion of entropy dissipation, or temperature, or even any restriction to material physics, it is more general than many traditional approaches. It also applicable to flows and traffic on networks, for example.

  7. A General Stochastic Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-field Type

    SciTech Connect

    Buckdahn, Rainer; Djehiche, Boualem; Li Juan

    2011-10-15

    We study the optimal control for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of mean-field type, in which the coefficients depend on the state of the solution process as well as of its expected value. Moreover, the cost functional is also of mean-field type. This makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. For a general action space a Peng's-type stochastic maximum principle (Peng, S.: SIAM J. Control Optim. 2(4), 966-979, 1990) is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. This maximum principle differs from the classical one in the sense that here the first order adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE, while the second order adjoint equation remains the same as in Peng's stochastic maximum principle.

  8. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-09-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice.

  9. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-12-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice.

  10. Application of the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle to the fluid-solid coupling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Li-Fu; Liu, Zong-Min; Guo, Qing-Yong

    2009-03-01

    The fluid-solid coupling theory, an interdisciplinary science between hydrodynamics and solid mechanics, is an important tool for response analysis and direct design of structures in naval architecture and ocean engineering. By applying the corresponding relations between generalized forces and generalized displacements, convolutions were performed between the basic equations of elasto-dynamics in the primary space and corresponding virtual quantities. The results were integrated and then added algebraically. In light of the fact that body forces and surface forces are both follower forces, the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle with two kinds of variables for an initial value problem is established in non-conservative systems. Using the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle to deal with the fluid-solid coupling problem and to analyze the dynamic response of structures, a method for using two kinds of variables simultaneously for calculation of force and displacement was derived.

  11. Generalized uncertainty principle corrections to the simple harmonic oscillator in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Saurya; Robbins, Matthew P. G.; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We compute Wigner functions for the harmonic oscillator including corrections from generalized uncertainty principles (GUPs), and study the corresponding marginal probability densities and other properties. We show that the GUP corrections to the Wigner functions can be significant, and comment on their potential measurability in the laboratory.

  12. 77 FR 7125 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on General Principles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on... States (U.S.) positions that will be discussed at the 27th session of the Codex Committee on General Principles (CCGP) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held in Paris, France, April...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... minimum total cost, including maintenance costs and the costs of residual failures. (b) Reliability-based... result of the undetected failure of a hidden function. (c) In a reliability-based maintenance...

  14. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Unemployment Tax Act); and (iii) Old target and new target must use the same employer identification number. (c... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Unemployment Tax Act); and (iii) Old target and new target must use the same employer identification number. (c... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Unemployment Tax Act); and (iii) Old target and new target must use the same employer identification number. (c... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  17. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Unemployment Tax Act); and (iii) Old target and new target must use the same employer identification number. (c... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reinsurance transaction for the insurance contracts deemed transferred from old target to new target. See... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  19. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for...) Upon written request describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to... additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

  20. The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

    1988-01-01

    Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)

  1. 26 CFR 1.336-1 - General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles, nomenclature, and... § 1.336-1 General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election. (a... election. This section provides the definitions and nomenclature. Generally, except to the...

  2. Energy distribution of massless particles on black hole backgrounds with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhongheng

    2009-10-15

    We derive new formulas for the spectral energy density and total energy density of massless particles in a general spherically symmetric static metric from a generalized uncertainty principle. Compared with blackbody radiation, the spectral energy density is strongly damped at high frequencies. For large values of r, the spectral energy density diminishes when r grows, but at the event horizon, the spectral energy density vanishes and therefore thermodynamic quantities near a black hole, calculated via the generalized uncertainty principle, do not require any cutoff parameter. We find that the total energy density can be expressed in terms of Hurwitz zeta functions. It should be noted that at large r (low local temperature), the difference between the total energy density and the Stefan-Boltzmann law is too small to be observed. However, as r approaches an event horizon, the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle becomes more and more important, which may be observable. As examples, the spectral energy densities in the background metric of a Schwarzschild black hole and of a Schwarzschild black hole plus quintessence are discussed. It is interesting to note that the maximum of the distribution shifts to higher frequencies when the quintessence equation of state parameter w decreases.

  3. Maximum Principle for General Controlled Systems Driven by Fractional Brownian Motions

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yuecai; Hu Yaozhong; Song Jian

    2013-04-15

    We obtain a maximum principle for stochastic control problem of general controlled stochastic differential systems driven by fractional Brownian motions (of Hurst parameter H>1/2). This maximum principle specifies a system of equations that the optimal control must satisfy (necessary condition for the optimal control). This system of equations consists of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by both fractional Brownian motions and the corresponding underlying standard Brownian motions. In addition to this backward equation, the maximum principle also involves the Malliavin derivatives. Our approach is to use conditioning and Malliavin calculus. To arrive at our maximum principle we need to develop some new results of stochastic analysis of the controlled systems driven by fractional Brownian motions via fractional calculus. Our approach of conditioning and Malliavin calculus is also applied to classical system driven by standard Brownian motions while the controller has only partial information. As a straightforward consequence, the classical maximum principle is also deduced in this more natural and simpler way.

  4. Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Dupre, M.J.

    2013-12-15

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.

  5. On the reduction principle for differential equations with piecewise constant argument of generalized type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet, M. U.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we introduce a new type of differential equations with piecewise constant argument (EPCAG), more general than EPCA [K.L. Cooke, J. Wiener, Retarded differential equations with piecewise constant delays, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 99 (1984) 265-297; J. Wiener, Generalized Solutions of Functional Differential Equations, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993]. The Reduction Principle [V.A. Pliss, The reduction principle in the theory of the stability of motion, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Mat. 27 (1964) 1297-1324 (in Russian); V.A. Pliss, Integral Sets of Periodic Systems of Differential Equations, Nauka, Moskow, 1977 (in Russian)] is proved for EPCAG. The structure of the set of solutions is specified. We establish also the existence of global integral manifolds of quasilinear EPCAG in the so-called critical case and investigate the stability of the zero solution.

  6. On the maximum principle for complete second-order elliptic operators in general domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitolo, Antonio

    This paper is concerned with the maximum principle for second-order linear elliptic equations in a wide generality. By means of a geometric condition previously stressed by Berestycki-Nirenberg-Varadhan, Cabré was very able to improve the classical ABP estimate obtaining the maximum principle also in unbounded domains, such as infinite strips and open connected cones with closure different from the whole space. Now we introduce a new geometric condition that extends the result to a more general class of domains including the complements of hypersurfaces, as for instance the cut plane. The methods developed here allow us to deal with complete second-order equations, where the admissible first-order term, forced to be zero in a preceding result with Cafagna, depends on the geometry of the domain.

  7. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991

  8. 7 CFR 1806.4 - Examining and general servicing of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examining and general servicing of insurance. 1806.4..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.4 Examining and general servicing...

  9. 7 CFR 1806.4 - Examining and general servicing of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examining and general servicing of insurance. 1806.4..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.4 Examining and general servicing...

  10. Real processing II: Extremal principles of irreversible thermodynamics, relations, generalizations and time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    We start presenting the extremal principles we will consider: The Statement of Helmholtz 1868 and Rayleigh (SHR) 1913, generalized by Reiser 1996, the Statement of Kelvin (SK) 1849, the Principle of Minimal Entropy Production (PME) of Prigogine 1947 for linear processes, that of Prigogine and Glansdorff 1954 for non-linear processes and finally, the Principle of Maximal Entropy (MEF) of Jaynes, 1957. First we show the relation between SHR and SK. This is a particular example for the property of Irreversible Thermodynamics (TIP) to treat all kinds of movements of fluids, compounds or any type of energy under the engineering term loss, or accurately spoken, entropy production. This possibility to treat different physical effects in the same manner causes by its simplification, considerable economical advantages of treating processes in the frame of TIP. For example, whereas a balance like the momentum balance (Navier-Stokes equation) has to distinguish between inertial, viscous or pressure effects, the PME treats the movements these effects cause with one term, and no pressure coupling or non-linearity is enclosed. Then we generalize the SK from potential velocity fields to general ones and show that it fits into the MEF. We continue with the generalization of the SHR from 1996 to compressible and non-Newtonian fluids. Further, we notice that these principles hold for time-dependent (non-stationary) processes. Therefore, the general fluid dynamical part of the PME 1947 can be generalized from stationary to time-dependent processes. We show that this is possible not only for velocity fields but also for scalar fields using as an example, the temperature in the case of heat conduction. We see that scalar fields need a transformation well known in mathematics. Comparing the PME 1954 with the completely generalized SHR we see that it holds also for non-linear processes. The same holds for the generalized SK. We close the consideration of extremal principles with the

  11. Web-Assisted Courses for Business Education: An Examination of Two Sections of Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priluck, Randi

    2004-01-01

    This research investigates student responses to two technologically different teaching methods for two sections of a Principles of Marketing course. A traditional method of teaching using lectures, in-class discussions, assignments, and exams is compared to a "Web-assisted" method in which 7 of the 14 class sessions met asynchronously online.…

  12. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  13. Infinite dimensional Morse theory and Fermat's principle in general relativity. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlick, Volker

    1995-12-01

    The following theorem may be viewed as the general relativistic version of Fermat's principle. Among all lightlike curves connecting a given point p to a given timelike curve γ in a Lorentzian manifold, the geodesics are characterized by stationary arrival time. Here ``arrival time'' refers to a smooth parametrization of γ. In this article the first steps are taken to make infinite dimensional Morse theory applicable to this variational problem. The space of trial curves is made into a Hilbert manifold by imposing an H2 Sobolev condition and Fermat's principle is reformulated in this infinite dimensional setting. Moreover, a Morse index theorem is presented. The mathematical formalism developed here aims at applications to the gravitational lens effect.

  14. Nonlinear Schrödinger equation from generalized exact uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Inspired by the generalized uncertainty principle, which adds gravitational effects to the standard description of quantum uncertainty, we extend the exact uncertainty principle approach by Hall and Reginatto (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 3289), and obtain a (quasi)nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This quantum evolution equation of unusual form, enjoys several desired properties like separation of non-interacting subsystems or plane-wave solutions for free particles. Starting with the harmonic oscillator example, we show that every solution of this equation respects the gravitationally induced minimal position uncertainty proportional to the Planck length. Quite surprisingly, our result successfully merges the core of classical physics with non-relativistic quantum mechanics in its extremal form. We predict that the commonly accepted phenomenon, namely a modification of a free-particle dispersion relation due to quantum gravity might not occur in reality.

  15. Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb

    2011-02-15

    Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.

  16. Impacts of generalized uncertainty principle on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfik, A.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the impacts of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Utilizing Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperature, Bekenstein entropy, specific heat, emission rate and decay time are calculated. As the evaporation entirely eats up the black hole mass, the specific heat vanishes and the temperature approaches infinity with an infinite radiation rate. It is found that the GUP approach prevents the black hole from the entire evaporation. It implies the existence of remnants at which the specific heat vanishes. The same role is played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in constructing the hydrogen atom. We discuss how the linear GUP approach solves the entire-evaporation-problem. Furthermore, the black hole lifetime can be estimated using another approach; the Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Assuming that the quantum position uncertainty is limited to the minimum wavelength of measuring signal, Wigner second inequality can be obtained. If the spread of quantum clock is limited to some minimum value, then the modified black hole lifetime can be deduced. Based on linear GUP approach, the resulting lifetime difference depends on black hole relative mass and the difference between black hole mass with and without GUP is not negligible.

  17. Supramolecular chemistry—general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the “chemistry of the noncovalent bond.” Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the “key-and-lock” principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self- assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  18. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  19. [The Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guidelines, "Examination of the neonate": response from the perspective of general practice medicine].

    PubMed

    Springer, M P

    2002-11-09

    With the publication of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline 'Examination of the neonate', a discussion which has lasted several decades has been brought to an end. Up to now a second neonatal examination by the general practitioner on the third, fourth or fifth day after a midwife-assisted birth was recommended. The arguments in support of this recommendation were based on the following: (a) the limited expertise of midwives in the past, (b) the experience that general practitioners had in examining children, although this experience was not specifically related to the defects for which neonates should be checked, and (c) the government bodies' wish to restrict the number of hospital deliveries by giving greater structure to the organisation of midwife care, which in practice, did not lead to large changes. Based on three studies, the practice guideline recommends that a second examination is of no added value.

  20. General proof of the entropy principle for self-gravitating fluid in f ( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiongjun; Guo, Minyong; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-08-01

    The discussions on the connection between gravity and thermodynamics attract much attention recently. We consider a static self-gravitating perfect fluid system in f ( R) gravity, which is an important theory could explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We first show that the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of f ( R) theories can be obtained by thermodynamical method in spherical symmetric spacetime. Then we prove that the maximum entropy principle is also valid for f ( R) gravity in general static spacetimes beyond spherical symmetry. The result shows that if the constraint equation is satisfied and the temperature of fluid obeys Tolmans law, the extrema of total entropy implies other components of gravitational equations. Conversely, if f ( R) gravitational equation hold, the total entropy of the fluid should be extremum. Our work suggests a general and solid connection between f ( R) gravity and thermodynamics.

  1. Structural Evolutions of STOCK Markets Controlled by Generalized Entropy Principles of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi Jiao; Feng, Qing Yi; Chai, Li He

    As one of the most important financial markets and one of the main parts of economic system, the stock market has become the research focus in economics. The stock market is a typical complex open system far from equilibrium. Many available models that make huge contribution to researches on market are strong in describing the market however, ignoring strong nonlinear interactions among active agents and weak in reveal underlying dynamic mechanisms of structural evolutions of market. From econophysical perspectives, this paper analyzes the complex interactions among agents and defines the generalized entropy in stock markets. Nonlinear evolutionary dynamic equation for the stock markets is then derived from Maximum Generalized Entropy Principle. Simulations are accordingly conducted for a typical case with the given data, by which the structural evolution of the stock market system is demonstrated. Some discussions and implications are finally provided.

  2. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed.

  3. A general principle governs vision-dependent dendritic patterning of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Ping; Sun, Jin Hao; Tian, Ning

    2014-10-15

    Dendritic arbors of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) collect information over a certain area of the visual scene. The coverage territory and the arbor density of dendrites determine what fraction of the visual field is sampled by a single cell and at what resolution. However, it is not clear whether visual stimulation is required for the establishment of branching patterns of RGCs, and whether a general principle directs the dendritic patterning of diverse RGCs. By analyzing the geometric structures of RGC dendrites, we found that dendritic arbors of RGCs underwent a substantial spatial rearrangement after eye-opening. Light deprivation blocked both the dendritic growth and the branch patterning, suggesting that visual stimulation is required for the acquisition of specific branching patterns of RGCs. We further showed that vision-dependent dendritic growth and arbor refinement occurred mainly in the middle portion of the dendritic tree. This nonproportional growth and selective refinement suggest that the late-stage dendritic development of RGCs is not a passive stretching with the growth of eyes, but rather an active process of selective growth/elimination of dendritic arbors of RGCs driven by visual activity. Finally, our data showed that there was a power law relationship between the coverage territory and dendritic arbor density of RGCs on a cell-by-cell basis. RGCs were systematically less dense when they cover larger territories regardless of their cell type, retinal location, or developmental stage. These results suggest that a general structural design principle directs the vision-dependent patterning of RGC dendrites.

  4. Pearson's principle inspired generalized strategy for the fabrication of metal hydroxide and oxide nanocages.

    PubMed

    Nai, Jianwei; Tian, Yu; Guan, Xin; Guo, Lin

    2013-10-30

    Designing a general route for rational synthesis of a series or families of nanomaterials for emerging applications has become more and more fascinating and vital in the view of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we explore a general strategy for fabricating uniform nanocages of metal hydroxides (MHs) and metal oxides (MOs). A template-assisted route inspired by Pearson's hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) principle was employed for synthesizing MH nanocages via meticulous selection of the coordinating etchant as well as optimization of the reaction conditions. The concept of "coordinating etching" is successfully achieved in this work. This unique route shows potential in designing well-defined and high-quality MH nanocages with varying components, shell thicknesses, shapes, and sizes at room temperature. Consequently, porous MO nanocages can be obtained readily just through appropriate thermal treament of the respective MH nanocages. The overall strategy present in this work extends the application of the HSAB principle in nanoscience and offers a unqiue clue for rational fabrication of hollow (porous) and/or amorphous structures on the nanoscale, where these nanocages may present promising potential for various applications.

  5. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  6. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  7. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics,...

  8. Cooperative Learning: The Benefits of Participatory Examinations in Principles of Marketing Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Reginald A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  9. Massive vector particles tunneling from black holes influenced by the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Qian

    2016-12-01

    This study considers the generalized uncertainty principle, which incorporates the central idea of large extra dimensions, to investigate the processes involved when massive spin-1 particles tunnel from Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes under the effects of quantum gravity. For the black hole, the quantum gravity correction decelerates the increase in temperature. Up to O (1Mf/2), the corrected temperatures are affected by the mass and angular momentum of the emitted vector bosons. In addition, the temperature of the Kerr black hole becomes uneven due to rotation. When the mass of the black hole approaches the order of the higher dimensional Planck mass Mf, it stops radiating and yields a black hole remnant.

  10. Galilean and Lorentz Transformations in a Space with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a space with Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which can be obtained in the frame of the deformed commutation relations. In the space with GUP we have found transformations relating coordinates and times of moving and rest frames of reference in the first order over the parameter of deformation. In the non-relativistic case we find the deformed Galilean transformation which is rotation in Euclidian space-time. This transformation is similar to the Lorentz one but written for Euclidean space-time where the speed of light is replaced by some velocity related to the parameter of deformation. We show that for relativistic particle in the space with GUP the coordinates of the rest and moving frames of reference satisfy the Lorentz transformation with some effective speed of light.

  11. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  12. Examination of Turkish Junior High-School Students' Perceptions of the General Problem-Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Didem Inel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process. The Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process were examined in relation to their gender, grade level, age and their grade point with regards to the science course identified in the…

  13. Over-constraint and a unified mobility method for general spatial mechanisms part 1: Essential principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Daxing; Lu, Wenjuan; Huang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Compared with the parallel mechanisms, the mobility analysis of the general multi-loop spatial mechanisms(GMSMs) is more difficult to obtain correct results. The reason is that its multi-loop is formed through several times of closings and there also exists motion coupling even strong coupling, where the over-constraints are concealed. However, the mobility analysis for this kind of mechanisms has been paid few attentions. A new systemic methodology for analyzing mobility is proposed for GMSMs also based on the screw theory. The key issue for mobility analysis is to recognize the over-constraint. Firstly, three theorems are given and point out: the reason and site of over-constraint occurrence, calculating the number of over-constraints by the screw theory, and how to analyze the over-constraints for a single-loop mechanism as well. Then, three closing forms for GMSMs are proposed including rigid closure, movable closure and dynamic closure, and for the three different forms the different analysis methods are also given. Especially, for the most difficult issue of GMSMs with the multi-loop closure in many times and the inevitable motion coupling, two important methods are proposed: "recognizing over-constraints by analyzing relative movement" and "recognizing over-constraints by virtual loop". The two methods are well used to solve the issue. Above-mentioned principles are not only systematic and effective but also unified. They provide a theoretical basis for the general multi-loop spatial mechanisms.

  14. Generalizing Murray's law: An optimization principle for fluidic networks of arbitrary shape and scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Patronis, Alexander; Holland, David M.; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2015-11-01

    Murray's law states that the volumetric flow rate is proportional to the cube of the radius in a cylindrical channel optimized to require the minimum work to drive and maintain the fluid. However, application of this principle to the biomimetic design of micro/nano fabricated networks requires optimization of channels with arbitrary cross-sectional shape (not just circular) and smaller than is valid for Murray's original assumptions. We present a generalized law for symmetric branching that (a) is valid for any cross-sectional shape, providing that the shape is constant through the network; (b) is valid for slip flow and plug flow occurring at very small scales; and (c) is valid for networks with a constant depth, which is often a requirement for lab-on-a-chip fabrication procedures. By considering limits of the generalized law, we show that the optimum daughter-parent area ratio Γ, for symmetric branching into N daughter channels of any constant cross-sectional shape, is Γ=N-2 /3 for large-scale channels, and Γ=N-4 /5 for channels with a characteristic length scale much smaller than the slip length. Our analytical results are verified by comparison with a numerical optimization of a two-level network model based on flow rate data obtained from a variety of sources, including Navier-Stokes slip calculations, kinetic theory data, and stochastic particle simulations.

  15. Perceptions of Interns and General Medicine Examiners Regarding Cardiovascular Case Presentation in Practical Exams of General Medicine in Final MBBS Summative Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Nimbal, Naren; Rekha, M C; Patil, Giridhar; Padaki, Samata; Dambal, Amrut; Pise, Gajanan; Kalsad, S T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of cardiovascular cases in practical exit exam is limited to simple history taking and physical examination. Standards of assessment are not uniform. This makes assessment less valid and reliable. Aim To explore the perceptions of Internees and General Medicine Examiners about current practices in Cardio Vascular system (CVS) case presentation in final MBBS exit exams and the necessity to change some of the practices. Materials and Methods A set questions pertaining to the preparation for exams, validity, reliability, feasibility and educational impact were prepared to guide in obtaining the perceptions of internees and internal medicine examiners. Focus group discussions were conducted. Data Analysis was done by immersion-crystallization process. Results Most of the internees admitted to feeling concerned because of difficulty in diagnosing murmurs by auscultation. Most of the examiners felt concerned about the logistics involved in arranging practical exams. Both admitted to the lack of uniform standards in assessment. Both agreed that the present system thrived as it was relatively feasible. Some internees suggested that the exam may be conducted in two parts by splitting the syllabus instead of once. Some internees suggested incorporating a student-doctor program to improve practical skills just like the on-going student nurse program. Conclusion There is a need for overhauling the assessment of cardiovascular system in final MBBS summative exams towards one aligned to the competencies as required in an Indian Medical Graduate. Blueprinting of practical assessment with due weightage assigned to epidemiologically important topics is the need of the hour. PMID:26816933

  16. Predicting Scores on the College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examinations from Scores Earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi

    The study was conducted to provide formulae by which College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examination scores may be predicted from scores earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment. Five basic areas of liberal arts achievement are measured by the CLEP General Examinations: English Composition, Humanities, Mathematics, Natural…

  17. First-principles local density approximation + U and generalized gradient approximation + U study of plutonium oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2008-02-28

    The electronic structure and properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 have been studied from first principles by the all-electron projector-augmented-wave method. The local density approximation+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U formalisms have been used to account for the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Pu 5f electrons. We discuss how the properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 are affected by the choice of U as well as the choice of exchange-correlation potential. Also, oxidation reaction of Pu2O3, leading to formation of PuO2, and its dependence on U and exchange-correlation potential have been studied. Our results show that by choosing an appropriate U, it is promising to correctly and consistently describe structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3, which enable the modeling of redox process involving Pu-based materials possible.

  18. Pleasure and Pain: Teaching Neuroscientific Principles of Hedonism in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first

  19. Pleasure and pain: teaching neuroscientific principles of hedonism in a large general education undergraduate course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first

  20. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  1. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in a General Academic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Sara J.; Pieper, Suzanne L.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ), when modified for a general academic context, were examined. Previous research has found evidence of a four-factor structure of achievement goal orientation when this measure was used in a course-specific context. This study is an important addition to goal orientation…

  2. Precautionary Principles: General Definitions and Specific Applications to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2002-01-01

    Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find…

  3. The effect of a forensic fellowship program on general psychiatry residents' in-training examination outcomes.

    PubMed

    McBain, Stacy M; Hinton, Jeremy A; Thrush, Carol R; Williams, D Keith; Guise, J Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the establishment and existence of a forensic psychiatry fellowship program was associated with improvements in general psychiatry residents' scores on the Psychiatry Resident In-training Examination (PRITE). Four consecutive years of general psychiatry residents' PRITE scores spanning 2 years before and 2 years after implementation of the forensic fellowship program at our institution were compared. Mixed-model statistical analyses accounting for repeated measurements of individual residents across the periods indicated statistically significant improvement in forensic content scores and several other subspecialty areas in which our institution offers educational fellowship programs. External indicators of program outcomes such as standardized examination scores may provide a useful indication of the effects that an educational fellowship program can have on general psychiatry education.

  4. [GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF THE CORPUS CALLOSUM INTERNAL STRUCTURE IN ADULT HUMAN].

    PubMed

    Boiagina, O

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the corpus callosum is a certain form of order of the nerve fibers, glial cells and blood microvessels and it is actually unexplored. We set the goal to understand the general constructive principle of the myeloarchitectonics of human corpus callosum. We used whole mounts of the corpus callosum (5 men and 5 women aged from 36 to 60 years) after their two-week fixation in 10% formalin solution. The next stage was to dissect plate sections of the corpus callosum brainstem in two mutually perpendicular planes. Some of them were subjected to impregnation in 1% osmium tetroxide solution, according to the method adopted in transmission electron microscopy. To prepare these plate sections of the corpus callosum for further study in the light microscope we used the method of plastination in epoxy resin. After complete polymerization plastinated mounts were used for making slices. For further research at high magnification light microscopy they were thinned up to 0.3 mm thickness and were subjected to coloration using 1% solution of methylene blue on 1% borax solution. They were studied using a binocular microscope МБС-9 and microscope "Konus" equipped with digital camera. It was found that the human corpus callosum consists of a number of transversely oriented bands of nerve fibers (commissural cords). Each of them consists of a tightly appressed stratified sections, fascicular rations, which are separated by interstitial layers. In turn, these interfascicular layers give short lateral spurs that divide fascicular rations into individual segments - subfascicular rations. Multiple cells containing interfascicular oligodendrocytes associated with individual subfascicular sets of nerve tracts are dispersed in the cluster order among myelinated nerve fibers of fascicular rations. Fundamentally important point is that the interstitial layers in the corpus callosum as a whole form a complex three-dimensional network structure which is subordinated to the

  5. NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps across Species

    PubMed Central

    Striedter, Georg F.; Belgard, T. Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P.; Finlay, Barbara L.; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E.; Harris, Julie A.; Hecht, Erin E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Karten, Harvey J.; Katz, Paul S.; Kristan, William B.; Macagno, Eduardo R.; Mitra, Partha P.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Preuss, Todd M.; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Stevens, Charles F.; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system ‘maps’ comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize across species, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of investigators coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of ‘reference species’ to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and across species, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be

  6. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species.

    PubMed

    Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize across species, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of investigators coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of 'reference species' to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and across species, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be supported

  7. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species.

    PubMed

    Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize across species, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of investigators coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of 'reference species' to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and across species, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be supported

  8. Ecosystem management: Principles and applications. Volume 2. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.E.; Bourgeron, P.S.

    1994-02-01

    The document provides land managers with practical suggestions for implementing ecosystem management. It contains 28 papers organized into five sections; historical perspectives, ecological principles, sampling design, case studies, and implementation strategies.

  9. Stochastic Geomorphology: A Framework for Creating General Principles on Erosion and Sedimentation in River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic geomorphology refers to the interaction of the stochastic field of sediment supply with hierarchically branching river networks where erosion, sediment flux and sediment storage are described by their probability densities. There are a number of general principles (hypotheses) that stem from this conceptual and numerical framework that may inform the science of erosion and sedimentation in river basins. Rainstorms and other perturbations, characterized by probability distributions of event frequency and magnitude, stochastically drive sediment influx to channel networks. The frequency-magnitude distribution of sediment supply that is typically skewed reflects strong interactions among climate, topography, vegetation, and geotechnical controls that vary between regions; the distribution varies systematically with basin area and the spatial pattern of erosion sources. Probability densities of sediment flux and storage evolve from more to less skewed forms downstream in river networks due to the convolution of the population of sediment sources in a watershed that should vary with climate, network patterns, topography, spatial scale, and degree of erosion asynchrony. The sediment flux and storage distributions are also transformed downstream due to diffusion, storage, interference, and attrition. In stochastic systems, the characteristically pulsed sediment supply and transport can create translational or stationary-diffusive valley and channel depositional landforms, the geometries of which are governed by sediment flux-network interactions. Episodic releases of sediment to the network can also drive a system memory reflected in a Hurst Effect in sediment yields and thus in sedimentological records. Similarly, discreet events of punctuated erosion on hillslopes can lead to altered surface and subsurface properties of a population of erosion source areas that can echo through time and affect subsequent erosion and sediment flux rates. Spatial patterns of

  10. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing

  11. Examining the robustness of first-principles calculations for metal hydride reaction thermodynamics by detection of metastable reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Chul; Kulkarni, Anant D; Johnson, J Karl; Sholl, David S

    2011-12-28

    First principles calculations have played a useful role in screening mixtures of complex metal hydrides to find systems suitable for H(2) storage applications. Standard methods for this task efficiently identify the lowest energy reaction mechanisms among all possible reactions involving collections of materials for which DFT calculations have been performed. The resulting mechanism can potentially differ from physical reality due to inaccuracies in the DFT functionals used, or due to other approximations made in estimating reaction free energies. We introduce an efficient method to probe the robustness of DFT-based predictions that relies on identifying reactions that are metastable relative to the lowest energy reaction path predicted with DFT. An important conclusion of our calculations is that in many examples DFT cannot unambiguously predict a single reaction mechanism for a well defined metal hydride mixture because two or more mechanisms have reaction energies that differ by a small amount. Our approach is illustrated by analyzing a series of single step reactions identified in our recent work that examined reactions with a large database of solids [Kim et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 7218].

  12. 76 FR 69333 - Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... November 8, 2011 Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Parts 1, 21, 39 et al. Derivatives... , No. 216 / Tuesday, November 8, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... and Core Principles AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  13. Education in Vietnam: Fundamental Principles and Curricula. General Information Series, No. 3. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    This guide reconstructs the curricula taught in Vietnam at the elementary level. It includes the underlying educational principles and lists the subjects along with the number of hours they are taught. The curriculum for each of the first five compulsory grades is presented separately, and four charts give overall statistics. The intent of the…

  14. Educational Principles and Techniques for Interpreters. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, F. David; Smith, John P.

    This guide, designed for use by educators and interpreters, outlines principles and techniques for effective talks and discussions. Four main headings are included. The first, Introduction, describes the major premises of the guide, mainly (1) teaching is an art as well as a skill; (2) teaching involves a relationship between teacher and learner…

  15. Predictions in the light of your own action repertoire as a general computational principle.

    PubMed

    König, Peter; Wilming, Niklas; Kaspar, Kai; Nagel, Saskia K; Onat, Selim

    2013-06-01

    We argue that brains generate predictions only within the constraints of the action repertoire. This makes the computational complexity tractable and fosters a step-by-step parallel development of sensory and motor systems. Hence, it is more of a benefit than a literal constraint and may serve as a universal normative principle to understand sensorimotor coupling and interactions with the world.

  16. Examining the latent structure of worry and generalized anxiety in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Kertz, Sarah J; McHugh, R Kathryn; Lee, Josephine; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2014-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by "pathological" worry, suggesting that GAD worriers differ qualitatively from non-GAD worriers. However, results from taxometric studies of worry in undergraduate and community samples have been mixed and to date, no studies have utilized clinical samples. The current study examined the latent structure of worry and GAD symptoms in a diagnostically heterogeneous clinical sample. Indicators were selected from the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (n=1175) and the GAD-7 (n=638) and submitted to three taxometric procedures: MAXCOV, MAMBAC, and L-Mode. Results from all three procedures suggested that both worry and generalized anxiety are best conceptualized as dimensional constructs. Findings also indicated that ongoing conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of worry and GAD may be hampered by the application of a categorical framework.

  17. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Psoter, Walter J; Morse, Douglas E; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A; Kerr, Alexander R; Lane, Christina M; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed a small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and re-licensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. In conclusion, general dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities.

  18. Threatened miscarriage in general practice: diagnostic value of history taking and physical examination.

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet; Bonsel, Gouke J; Ankum, Willem M; Vos, Jeroen; Bindels, Patrick J E

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography, the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis in first-trimester vaginal bleeding, is not always readily avaliable. Medical history and gynaecological examination are then used instead, to make a provisional diagnosis. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of history taking and physical examination in first-trimester bleeding, to differentiate between patients requiring immediate further diagnostic examination from those in whom an expectant policy will initially suffice. DESIGN OF STUDY: Prospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Seventy-four general practices in Amsterdam. METHOD: Two hundred and twenty-five patients with first trimester vaginal bleeding were referred for an early pregnancy assessment. The data from 204 patients were analysed. Two diagnostic models were constructed based on symptoms and the results of gynaecological examination to identify diagnostic subgroups relevant to clinical practice. RESULTS: Model 1, which separates viable pregnancies from other diagnoses, increased pre-test probability from 47% to a post-test probability of 70%. Model 2, which enabled the identification of complete miscarriages, resulted in a post-test probability of 41% of a complete miscarriage, given a pre-test sample probability of 25%. The tentative diagnosis of a general practitioner, based entirely on clinical judgement, turned out to be a poor predictor for the ultrasonographically confirmed diagnosis (pre-test probability of 47% changed to a post-test probability of 58%). CONCLUSION: This study shows that, in first trimester bleeding, neither statistical prediction models based on signs and symptoms, nor clinical judgement, are valid replacements for ultrasonographic assessment in establishing a diagnosis. PMID:12392123

  19. Proposal to change General Consideration 5 and Principle 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2014-01-01

    A proposal is submitted to the ICSP to change the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), deleting the words Schizophycetes, Cyanophyceae and Cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is covered by the Code. It is further proposed to change the terms Zoological Code and International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in General Consideration 5 and in Principle 2 to International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, respectively.

  20. General principles of describing second- and higher-order null points of a potential magnetic field in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashenko, A. T.; Veselovsky, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    General principles of describing secondand higher-order null points of a potential magnetic field are formulated. The potential near a second-order null of the general form can be specified by a linear combination of four basic functions, the list of which is presented. Near secondand higher-order null points, field line equations often cannot be integrated analytically; however, in some cases, it is possible to present a qualitative description of the geometry of null vicinities with consideration of the behavior of field lines near rays outgoing from null, at which the field is radial or equals zero.

  1. General hypothesis for nanowire synthesis. I. Extended principles and evidential (experimental and theoretical) demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor Mohammad, S.

    2011-09-01

    Nanowires, nanotubes, and nanodots (quantum dots) are nanomaterials (NMTs). While nanodots are miniaturized nanowires, nanotubes are hollow nanowires. A universal model for basic science of the synthesis and characteristics of NMTs must be established. To achieve this goal, a general hypothesis has been presented. This hypothesis makes use of the concept of droplets from seeds, the fundamentals of the adhesive properties of droplets, and a set of droplet characteristics. Fundamentals underlying the droplet formation from nanoparticle seeds under various physicochemical and thermodynamic conditions have been articulated. A model of thermodynamic imbalance of seeds at the growth temperature has been formulated. The dependence of thermodynamic imbalance on parameters such as surface energy, temperature, seed dimension, etc. has been described. The role of thermodynamic imbalance of seeds and of the foreign element catalytic agent (FECA) on NMT growth has been examined. Three different NMT growths, namely, FECA-free NMT growth; FECA-mediated non-eutectic NMT growth; and FECA-mediated eutectic NMT growth, have been considered. FECA-free NMT growth, and non-eutectic but FECA-mediated NMT growth, have been assumed to involve nanopores, grains, and grain boundaries in the seed. The basic science of all the NMT growths utilizes the concept of the creation of tiny component droplets (CODs). Extensive evidential (experimental and theoretical) demonstration of the hypothesis has been put forth. Both theoretical and experimental results lend support to the hypothesis. Calculated results address the roles of both the FECA-mediated and FECA-free droplets for NMT growths. The basics of multiple nucleation and biphasic structures have been spelled out. Possible relationship between the activation energy and the precursor decomposition on the droplet surface at the lowest possible temperature has been elucidated. The differences between the eutectic and no-eutectic seeds, the

  2. Examining the Attitudes of Secondary General Education and Special Education Teachers toward Inclusion of Children with Autism in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Morghan E.

    2016-01-01

    Academic environments, such as general education classrooms, have increasingly become important learning environments for children with autism. The purpose of the study was to examine the attitudes of secondary general education and special education teachers toward inclusion of children with autism in general education classrooms. The research…

  3. Operant Principles Applied to the Acquisition and Generalization of Nonlittering Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltes, Margaret M.

    The investigator felt that littering is a behavior contingent upon certain environmental conditions and that these conditions should be examined systematically. Specifically, this study sought to examine the effects of a behavior modification approach to littering with eight four-year-old subjects. Using token positive reinforcement, token…

  4. Quantum statistical entropy and minimal length of 5D Ricci-flat black string with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.

  5. An examination of generalized anxiety disorder and dysthymia utilizing the Rorschach inkblot method.

    PubMed

    Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Clements, Alyssa; Hilsenroth, Mark; Charnas, Jocelyn; Zodan, Jennifer

    2016-06-30

    This study examined transdiagnostic features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and dysthymia in an outpatient clinical sample. Fifteen patients who met DSM-IV criteria for GAD and twenty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for dysthymia but who did not have comorbid anxiety disorder were evaluated utilizing the Rorschach. Salient clinical variables were then compared. Results showed that patients with GAD scored significantly higher on variables related to cognitive agitation and a desire/need for external soothing. In addition, there was a trend for patients with GAD to produce higher scores on a measure of ruminative focus on negative aspects of the self. Thus, not surprisingly, GAD patients' experienced more distress than the dysthymic patients. The implications of these findings are discussed with regards to better understanding the shared and distinct features of GAD and dysthymia.

  6. Examining the Accuracy of Astrophysical Disk Simulations with a Generalized Hydrodynamical Test Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation-only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extension of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly reduces this error.

  7. Health communication, information technology and the public's attitude toward periodic general health examinations.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs) are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT), health communications and the public's attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps) reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government's subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%.

  8. [Diseases of civilization and a nosological principle of medicine in terms of general pathology].

    PubMed

    Khitrov, N K; Saltykov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The last 100-150 years are marked by the spread of so-called "diseases of civilization" (primarily psychosomatic and mental diseases) which earlier have been encountered rarely. These diseases present quite novel pathogenic factors, adaptation to which in the course of evolution is lacking. Development of civilization constantly stimulates the emergence of numerous qualitatively new pathogenic factors, on the one hand, and changes the conditions for impact of conventional factors, on the other hand. This process is becoming more and more intensive and makes the sequence "cause-specific pathogenesis-clinical symptoms-nosological unity-relevant etiotropic and pathogenetic treatment" less obvious. From this follow difficulties in application of routine methods of diagnosis, etiotropic and pathogenetic therapy based on the nosological principle as well as interest to methods of "alternative' (complementary) medicine which are nonspecific and, therefore, in some cases effective against some "diseases of civilization".

  9. [Organization of experimental microsurgery research at the General Hospital in Maribor--principles and personal experience].

    PubMed

    Bervar, M; Bunc, G

    1991-01-01

    In this report, the authors discuss the organization of experimental microsurgical activities from the standpoint of their own experience. Their opinion is that elementary microsurgical technique and routine could be obtained only in the experimental laboratory. Each institution dealing with microsurgery should organize such a functional unit. The importance of an experimental laboratory is not only for education, but also for basic microsurgical research. To attain adequate results, specially in nonclinical institutions, it is necessary to follow consequently clearly defined principles of organization and provide adequate conditions. The competence of such a concept is illustrated with the results of the authors' own researches during 1987. They completed 44 microvascular anastomoses in rats, on vessels of approximately 1 mm in diameter and obtained initial and early patency rates of 88.6 and 93.2% respectively. These patency rates could be sufficient for the safe clinical application of the microvascular technique.

  10. Generalized principles of stochasticity can be used to control dynamic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, David; Estévez-Salmerón, Luis; Tlsty, Thea D.

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that phenotypic stochasticity plays fundamental roles in biological systems at the cellular level and that a variety of mechanisms generates phenotypic interconversion over a broad range of time scales. The ensuing dynamic heterogeneity can be used to understand biological and clinical processes involving diverse phenotypes in different cell populations. The same principles can be applied, not only to populations composed of cells, but also to populations composed of molecules, tissues, and multicellular organisms. Stochastic units generating dynamic heterogeneity can be integrated across various length scales. We propose that a graphical tool we have developed, called a metronomogram, will allow us to identify factors that suitably influence the restoration of homeostatic heterogeneity so as to modulate the consequences of dynamic heterogeneity for desired outcomes. PMID:23197162

  11. Water, Resilience and the Law: From General Concepts and Governance Design Principles to Actionable Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill Clarvis, M.; Allan, A.; Hannah, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has significant ramifications for water law and governance, yet, there is strong evidence that legal regulations have often failed to protect environments or promote sustainable development. Scholars have increasingly suggested that the preservation and restoration paradigms of legislation and regulation are no longer adequate for climate change related challenges in complex and cross-scale social-ecological systems. This is namely due to past assumptions of stationarity, uniformitarianism and the perception of ecosystem change as predictable and reversible. This paper reviews the literature on law and resilience and then presents and discusses a set of practical examples of legal mechanisms from the water resources management sector, identified according to a set of guiding principles from the literature on adaptive capacity, adaptive governance as well as adaptive and integrated water resources management. It then assesses the aptness of these different measures according to scientific evidence of increased uncertainty and changing ecological baselines. A review of the best practice examples demonstrates that there are a number of best practice examples attempting to integrate adaptive elements of flexibility, iterativity, connectivity and subsidiarity into a variety of legislative mechanisms, suggesting that there is not as significant a tension between resilience and the law as many scholars have suggested. However, while many of the mechanisms may indeed be suitable for addressing challenges relating to current levels of change and uncertainty, analysis across a broader range of uncertainty highlights challenges relating to more irreversible changes associated with greater levels of warming. Furthermore the paper identifies a set of pre-requisites that are fundamental to the successful implementation of such mechanisms, namely monitoring and data sharing, financial and technical capacity, particularly in nations that are most at risk with the

  12. The Effects of Violating Standard Item Writing Principles on Tests and Students: The Consequences of Using Flawed Test Items on Achievement Examinations in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of violations of standard multiple-choice item writing principles on test characteristics, student scores, and pass-fail outcomes. Four basic science examinations, administered to year-one and year-two medical students, were randomly selected for study. Test items were classified as either…

  13. Generalization of the Aoki-Yoshikawa sectoral productivity model based on extreme physical information principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Ilona; Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan; Syska, Jacek

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a continuous variable generalization of the Aoki-Yoshikawa sectoral productivity model. Information theoretical methods from the Frieden-Soffer extreme physical information statistical estimation methodology were used to construct exact solutions. Both approaches coincide in first order approximation. The approach proposed here can be successfully applied in other fields of research.

  14. The equivalence principle as a stepping stone from special to general relativity: A Socratic dialog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    We show how students can be led to an understanding of the connection between special relativity and general relativity by considering the time dilation effect of clocks placed on the surface of the Earth. This paper is written as a Socratic dialog between a lecturer and a student.

  15. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 312.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application... the general investigational plan and the protocols for specific human studies. Subsequent...

  16. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 312.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application... the general investigational plan and the protocols for specific human studies. Subsequent...

  17. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 312.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application... the general investigational plan and the protocols for specific human studies. Subsequent...

  18. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 312.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application... the general investigational plan and the protocols for specific human studies. Subsequent...

  19. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage.

  20. The effect of generalized uncertainty principle on square well, a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2014-08-15

    According to a special case (β = 0) of the generalized uncertainty relation we derive the energy eigenvalues of the infinite potential well. It is shown that the obtained energy levels are different from the usual result with some correction terms. And the correction terms of the energy eigenvalues are independent of other parameters except α. But the eigenstates will depend on another two parameters besides α.

  1. Do general relativistic effects limit experiments to test the universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.

    2016-12-01

    The universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle, which are at the basis of general relativity, have been confirmed to 1 part in 1 013. Space experiments with macroscopic test masses of different composition orbiting Earth inside a low altitude satellite aim to improve this precision by 2 orders of magnitude (with the Microscope satellite launched on April 25, 2016) and up to 4 orders of magnitude (with the Galileo Galilei satellite). At such a high precision, many tiny effects must be taken into account in order to be ruled out as the source of a spurious violation signal. In this work, we investigate the general relativistic effects, including those which involve the rotation of both Earth and the test masses, and show that they are by far too small to be considered even in the most challenging experiment.

  2. Intensive care and pregnancy: Epidemiology and general principles of management of obstetrics ICU patients during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zieleskiewicz, Laurent; Chantry, Anne; Duclos, Gary; Bourgoin, Aurelie; Mignon, Alexandre; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Leone, Marc

    2016-10-01

    In developed countries, the rate of obstetric ICU admissions (admission during pregnancy or the postpartum period) is between 0.5 and 4 per 1000 deliveries and the overall case-fatality rate is about 2%. The most two common causes of obstetric ICU admissions concerned direct obstetric pathologies: obstetric hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. This review summarized the principles of management of critically ill pregnant patient. Its imply taking care of two patients in the same time. A coordinated multidisciplinary team including intensivists, anesthesiologists, obstetricians, pediatricians and pharmacists is therefore necessary. This team must work effectively together with regular staff aiming to evaluate daily the need to maintain the patient in intensive care unit or to prompt delivery. Keeping mother and baby together and fetal well-being must be balanced with the need of specialized advanced life support for the mother. The maternal physiological changes imply various consequences on management. The uterus aorto-caval compression implies tilting left the parturient. In case of cardiac arrest, uterus displacement and urgent cesarean delivery are needed. The high risk of aspiration and difficult tracheal intubation must be anticipated. Even during acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxemia and permissive hypercapnia must be avoided due to their negative impact on the fetus. Careful analysis of the benefit-risk ratio is needed before all drug administration. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and perineal fasciitis must be feared and a high level of suspicion of sepsis must be maintained. Finally the potential benefits of an ultrasound-based management are detailed.

  3. Lipid Cooperativity as a General Membrane-Recruitment Principle for PH Domains.

    PubMed

    Vonkova, Ivana; Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Deghou, Samy; Anand, Kanchan; Ceschia, Stefano; Doerks, Tobias; Galih, Augustinus; Kugler, Karl G; Maeda, Kenji; Rybin, Vladimir; van Noort, Vera; Ellenberg, Jan; Bork, Peer; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Many cellular processes involve the recruitment of proteins to specific membranes, which are decorated with distinctive lipids that act as docking sites. The phosphoinositides form signaling hubs, and we examine mechanisms underlying recruitment. We applied a physiological, quantitative, liposome microarray-based assay to measure the membrane-binding properties of 91 pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, the most common phosphoinositide-binding target. 10,514 experiments quantified the role of phosphoinositides in membrane recruitment. For most domains examined, the observed binding specificity implied cooperativity with additional signaling lipids. Analyses of PH domains with similar lipid-binding profiles identified a conserved motif, mutations in which-including some found in human cancers-induced discrete changes in binding affinities in vitro and protein mislocalization in vivo. The data set reveals cooperativity as a key mechanism for membrane recruitment and, by enabling the interpretation of disease-associated mutations, suggests avenues for the design of small molecules targeting PH domains.

  4. Generalization of the variational principle and the Hohenberg and Kohn theorems for excited states of Fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonis, A.

    2017-01-01

    Through the entanglement of a collection of K non-interacting replicas of a system of N interacting Fermions, and making use of the properties of reduced density matrices the variational principle and the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn are generalized to excited states. The generalization of the variational principle makes use of the natural orbitals of an N-particle density matrix describing the state of lowest energy of the entangled state. The extension of the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn is based on the ground-state formulation of density functional theory but with a new interpretation of the concept of a ground state: It is the state of lowest energy of a system of KN Fermions that is described in terms of the excited states of the N-particle interacting system. This straightforward implementation of the line of reasoning of ground-state density functional theory to a new domain leads to a unique and logically valid extension of the theory to excited states that allows the systematic treatment of all states in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of an interacting system.

  5. An examination of distress intolerance in undergraduate students high in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Emma M; Pawluk, Elizabeth J; Koerner, Naomi; Goodwill, Alasdair M

    2015-01-01

    People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) engage in maladaptive coping strategies to reduce or avoid distress. Evidence suggests that uncertainty and negative emotions are triggers for distress in people with GAD; however, there may also be other triggers. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted six types of experiences that people report having difficulty withstanding: uncertainty, negative emotions, ambiguity, frustration, physical discomfort, and the perceived consequences of anxious arousal. The present study examined the extent to which individuals high in symptoms of GAD are intolerant of these distress triggers, compared to individuals high in depressive symptoms, and individuals who are low in GAD and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate students (N = 217) completed self-report measures of GAD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and distress intolerance. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of all of the distress triggers compared to people low in symptoms of GAD and depression. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of physical discomfort compared to those high in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, intolerance of physical discomfort was the best unique correlate of GAD status, suggesting that it may be specific to GAD (versus depression). These findings support continued investigation of the transdiagnosticity and specificity of distress intolerance.

  6. Health communication, information technology and the public’s attitude toward periodic general health examinations

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs) are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT), health communications and the public’s attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps) reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government’s subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%. PMID:28163904

  7. Maltreatment and Delinquency in China: Examining and Extending the Intervening Process of General Strain Theory.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunjiao; Wong, Dennis S W; Yu, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 1,163 adolescents from four middle schools in China, this study explores the intervening process of how adolescent maltreatment is related to delinquency within the framework of general strain theory (GST) by comparing two models. The first model is Agnew's integrated model of GST, which examines the mediating effects of social control, delinquent peer affiliation, state anger, and depression on the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency. Based on this model, with the intent to further explore the mediating effects of state anger and depression and to investigate whether their effects on delinquency can be demonstrated more through delinquent peer affiliation and social control, an extended model (Model 2) is proposed by the authors. The second model relates state anger to delinquent peer affiliation and state depression to social control. By comparing the fit indices and the significance of the hypothesized paths of the two models, the study found that the extended model can better reflect the mechanism of how maltreatment contributes to delinquency, whereas the original integrated GST model only receives partial support because of its failure to find the mediating effects of state negative emotions.

  8. Management of animal health emergencies: general principles and legal and international obligations.

    PubMed

    Marabelli, R; Ferri, G; Bellini, S

    1999-04-01

    The Eighth Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade led to the creation of the World Trade Organization and to the adoption of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement, thus considerably changing the rules of international trade in animals and animal products. Animal health measures may result in trade restrictions, but governments accept that these restrictions may sometimes be necessary and appropriate to ensure food safety and animal health protection. The SPS Agreement acknowledges the rights of governments to adopt measure to protect human, animal and plant health. To ensure effective animal health protection, without unjustifiable discrimination, the operational procedures of Veterinary Services must be standardised, especially those concerning disease notification, epidemiological information, certification for international trade and management of animal health emergencies. Veterinary Services must be further supported by a proper legislative framework and adequate financial resources.

  9. New aspects of absorption line formation in intervening turbulent clouds - I. General principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.

    1997-07-01

    We study the formation of absorption lines in intervening clouds with stochastic velocity fields, accounting for the fact that actually only one line of sight is observed. Our results show that the introduction of the finite velocity correlation length leads to a new type of absorption line profiles which are asymmetric in general, may have different shifts of the centres of gravity, and look like barely resolved blends, i.e. could be interpreted in a standard Voigt fitting analysis as being caused by several independent clouds with different physical parameters. Numerical results are presented for the HI Lyalpha line with N_Hi=10^12,10^14,10^15 and 10^16cm^-2, T_kin=10^4 K, and different sets of turbulent parameters. The intensity fluctuations within the line profile caused by `turbulent noise' are investigated and the confidence belts for the absorption lines are calculated. We conclude that an exact measurement of the column densities of the absorbing atoms N_a from the observed values of the optical depths tau lambda is actually impossible for the case of the correlated velocity field. One can only determine a range of values within which N_a is to be found with a certain probability.

  10. [Physical rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: general principles and high-tech approaches].

    PubMed

    Peresedova, A V; Chernikova, L A; Zavalishin, I A

    2013-01-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation programs are of major importance for the preservation of physical, physiological, social and professional functioning and improvement of quality of life. Currently, it is generally assumed that physical activity is an important component of non-pharmacological rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis. Properly organized exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements in a number of physiological functions. A multidisciplinary rehabilitative approach should be recommended. The main recommendations for the use of exercise for patients with multiple sclerosis have been listed. An important aspect of the modern physical rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis is the usage of high-tech methods. The published results of robot-assisted training to improve the hand function and walking impairment have been represented. An important trend in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis is the reduction of postural disorders through training balance coordination. The role of transcranial magnetic stimulation in spasticity reducing is being investigated. The use of telemedicine capabilities is quite promising. Due to the fact that the decline in physical activity can lead to the deterioration of many aspects of physiological functions and, ultimately, to mobility decrease, further research of the role of physical rehabilitation as an important therapeutic approach in preventing the progression of disability in multiple sclerosis is required.

  11. Self-Organization of Meiotic Recombination Initiation: General Principles and Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Scott; Lange, Julian; Mohibullah, Neeman

    2015-01-01

    Recombination in meiosis is a fascinating case study for the coordination of chromosomal duplication, repair, and segregation with each other and with progression through a cell-division cycle. Meiotic recombination initiates with formation of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at many places across the genome. DSBs are important for successful meiosis but are also dangerous lesions that can mutate or kill, so cells ensure that DSBs are made only at the right times, places, and amounts. This review examines the complex web of pathways that accomplish this control. We explore how chromosome breakage is integrated with meiotic progression and how feedback mechanisms spatially pattern DSB formation and make it homeostatic, robust, and error-correcting. Common regulatory themes recur in different organisms or in different contexts in the same organism. We review this evolutionary and mechanistic conservation but also highlight where control modules have diverged. The framework that emerges helps explain how meiotic chromosomes behave as a self-organizing system. PMID:25421598

  12. Evaluation research in occupational health services: general principles and a systematic review of empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, C. T.; Verbeek, J. H.; van Dijk, F. J.; van der Weide, W. E.; Braam, I. T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the nature and extent of evaluation research in occupational health services (OHSs). METHODS: Literature review of evaluation research in OHSs. On the basis of a conceptual model of OHS evaluation, empirical studies are categorised into aspects of input, process, output, outcome, and OHS core activities. RESULTS: Many methods to evaluate OHSs or OHS activities exist, depending on the objective and object of evaluation. The amount of empirical studies on evaluation of OHSs or OHS activities that met the non-restrictive inclusion criteria, was remarkably limited. Most of the 52 studies were more descriptive than evaluative. The methodological quality of most studies was not high. A differentiated picture of the evidence of effectiveness of OHSs arises. Occupational health consultations and occupational rehabilitation are hardly studied despite much time spent on the consultation by occupational physicians in most countries. The lack of effectiveness and efficiency of the pre-employment examination should lead to its abandonment as a means of selection of personnel by OHSs. Periodic health monitoring or surveillance, and education on occupational health hazards can be carried out with reasonable process quality. Identification and evaluation of occupational health hazards by a workplace survey can be done with a high output quality, which, however, does not guarantee a favourable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although rigorous study designs are not always applicable or feasible in daily practice, much more effort should be directed at the scientific evaluation of OHSs and OHS instruments. To develop evidence-based occupational health care the quality of evaluation studies should be improved. In particular, process and outcome of consultation and rehabilitation activities of occupational physicians need to be studied more.   PMID:10474531

  13. The effects of violating standard item writing principles on tests and students: the consequences of using flawed test items on achievement examinations in medical education.

    PubMed

    Downing, Steven M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of violations of standard multiple-choice item writing principles on test characteristics, student scores, and pass-fail outcomes. Four basic science examinations, administered to year-one and year-two medical students, were randomly selected for study. Test items were classified as either standard or flawed by three independent raters, blinded to all item performance data. Flawed test questions violated one or more standard principles of effective item writing. Thirty-six to sixty-five percent of the items on the four tests were flawed. Flawed items were 0-15 percentage points more difficult than standard items measuring the same construct. Over all four examinations, 646 (53%) students passed the standard items while 575 (47%) passed the flawed items. The median passing rate difference between flawed and standard items was 3.5 percentage points, but ranged from -1 to 35 percentage points. Item flaws had little effect on test score reliability or other psychometric quality indices. Results showed that flawed multiple-choice test items, which violate well established and evidence-based principles of effective item writing, disadvantage some medical students. Item flaws introduce the systematic error of construct-irrelevant variance to assessments, thereby reducing the validity evidence for examinations and penalizing some examinees.

  14. River and Wetland Food Webs in Australia's Wet-Dry Tropics: General Principles and Implications for Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M. M.; Bunn, S. E.; Davies, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    The tropical rivers of northern Australia are internationally recognised for their high ecological and cultural values. They have largely unmodified flow regimes and are comparatively free of the impacts associated with intensive land use. However, there is growing demand for agricultural development and existing pressures, such as weeds and feral animals, threaten their ecological integrity. Using the international literature to provide a conceptual framework and drawing on limited published and unpublished data on rivers in northern Australia, we have derived five general principles about food webs and related ecosystem processes that both characterise tropical rivers of northern Australia and have important implications for their management. These are: (1) Seasonal hydrology is a strong driver of ecosystem processes and food web structure; (2) Hydrological connectivity is largely intact and underpins important terrestrial-aquatic food web subsidies; (3) River and wetland food webs are strongly dependent on algal production; (4) A few common macroconsumers species have a strong influence on benthic food webs; (5) Omnivory is widespread and food chains are short. These principles have implications for the management and protection of tropical rivers and wetlands of northern Australia and provide a framework for the formation of testable hypotheses in future research programs.

  15. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, "Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions," is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in…

  16. Perceived Influencers of the Decline on Performance of Students in Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education's Agriculture Examination Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Clyde; Hulela, Keba; Tselaesele, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors perceived to contribute to the decline of students' performance in the Botswana's General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) agriculture results. Ninety-one agriculture examiners were randomly sampled out of 100 teachers who were invited to mark the 2012 end of year examination scripts. A…

  17. Some consequences of the generalized uncertainty principle induced ultraviolet wave-vector cutoff in one-dimensional quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, K.; Péli, Z.; Nagy, S.

    2013-04-01

    A projection method is proposed to treat the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for a single particle when the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) generates an ultraviolet (UV) wave-vector cutoff. The existence of a unique coordinate representation called the naive one is derived from the one-parameter family of discrete coordinate representations. In this bandlimited quantum mechanics a continuous potential is reconstructed from discrete sampled values observed by means of a particle in maximally localized states. It is shown that bandlimitation modifies the speed of the center and the spreading time of a Gaussian wave packet moving in free space. Indication is found that GUP accompanied by bandlimitation may cause departures of the low-lying energy levels of a particle in a box from those in ordinary quantum mechanics to be much less suppressed than commonly thought when GUP without bandlimitation is at work.

  18. Inclusive Classrooms: An Examination of the Attitudes and Perspectives of K-5 General Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion has altered the teaching and learning environment in many ways. General education teachers face increasing challenges as their role becomes more complex to meet the demands of teaching both general and special education students in the same classroom. Teachers are pivotal in the success of inclusion and exploring how teachers feel about…

  19. The Examining of Generalization Quantitative Scientific Findings by Using the Jackknife Method: An Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyari, Murat; Buyukozturk, Sener

    2009-01-01

    The outcomes which cannot be generalized are specific for a sample but are unable to be reflected to the rest of the population. The parameters that are reached at the end of the statistics that are scarce in sample arise doubts in the aspect of generalization. In these cases, parameter estimation may not be very stable and outlier values can…

  20. To Pay or Not to Pay: Examining Underlying Principles in the Debate on Financial Support for Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Janice

    2007-01-01

    In many countries one approach to supporting family-and-friend caregivers is direct financial or monetary support. Debates about the benefits and consequences of such policies pervade the literature. Building on the premise that values underlie public policy, the paper examines four policy paradoxes in the literature and uses selected examples…

  1. Examining the Effects of Combining Self-Explanation Principles with an Educational Game on Learning Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Educational researchers have indicated that although computer games have the potential to promote students' motivation and engagement, the work on how to design effective games that fulfil educational purposes is still in its infancy. This study aimed to examine how integration of self-explanation into a computer game affected primary schoolers'…

  2. First-principle calculation of reduced masses in vibrational analysis using generalized internal coordinates: some crucial aspects and examples.

    PubMed

    Stare, Jernej

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyze the most essential aspects of reduced masses along generalized internal coordinates. The definition of reduced masses in the internal coordinate formalism is established through the Wilson G-matrix concept and includes sophisticated relations between internal and Cartesian coordinates. Moreover, reduced masses in internal coordinates are, in general, no longer constant but coordinate-dependent. Based on the approach presented earlier [Stare, J.; Balint-Kurti, G. G. J. Phys. Chem. A 2003, 107, 7204-7214] and on our experience with reduced masses discussed in this paper, we have developed a robust program for the calculation of Wilson G-matrix elements and their functional coordinate dependence. The approach is based on the first principles and can be used in virtually any (internal) coordinate set. Since the program allows for projection of any kind of nuclear motion on the selected internal coordinates, the method is particularly suitable for ab initio or DFT potential energy functions calculated by partial geometry optimization. Moreover, reduced masses obtained by this program can be used as a decision tool for selecting the most appropriate internal coordinates for the considered vibrational problem and for the inclusion or omission of the kinetic coupling terms in the vibrational Hamiltonian.

  3. Recognition of dementia in general practice: comparison of general practitioners' opinions with assessments using the mini-mental state examination and the Blessed dementia rating scale.

    PubMed

    Mant, A; Eyland, E A; Pond, D C; Saunders, N A; Chancellor, A H

    1988-09-01

    In a study of 226 elderly residents in a retirement village in Sydney, Australia, general practitioners' opinions about dementia status had high positive and negative predictive values and high specificity, but low sensitivity when evaluated against the mini-mental state examination and the Blessed dementia rating scale. General practitioners were found to disagree with these two measures more often when patients were in advanced old age, and when they considered the patients to be depressed. We conclude that the general practitioner can increase his or her sensitivity to dementia in the elderly by use of either measure.

  4. Examining the ethical boundaries of harm reduction: from addictions to general psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ran, Shaul; Nitzan, Uri; Fennig, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Harm reduction is a general term for pragmatic interventions aimed at reducing problematic behaviors. Emerging from addiction treatments, it is based on the understanding that people will continue to behave in ways that pose a risk to them and their communities, and that an important goal of any treatment program is to minimize the harm associated with these behaviors. Despite its evidence based background, harm reduction is not readily applied in general psychiatry. This is mainly due to the complex ethical dilemmas arising within harm reduction practices, as well as a lack of scientific knowledge and theoretical frameworks essential for dealing with such ethical dilemmas. In this paper we introduce the fundamental theoretical and scientific base of harm reduction strategies, and present three clinical examples of the complex ethical dilemmas arising when working within a harm reduction practice. We finally present a theoretical framework for dealing with the ethical dilemmas and argue this may make harm reduction strategies more accessible in general psychiatry.

  5. Over-constraints and a unified mobility method for general spatial mechanisms Part 2: Application of the principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjuan; Zeng, Daxing; Huang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The pre-research on mobility analysis presented a unified-mobility formula and a methodology based on reciprocal screw theory by HUANG, which focused on classical and modern parallel mechanisms. However its range of application needs to further extend to general multi-loop spatial mechanism. This kind of mechanism is not only more complex in structure but also with strong motion coupling among loops, making the mobility analysis even more complicated, and the relevant research has long been ignored. It is focused on how to apply the new principle for general spatial mechanism to those various multi-loop spatial mechanisms, and some new meaningful knowledge is further found. Several typical examples of the general multi-loop spatial mechanisms with motion couple even strong motion couple are considered. These spatial mechanisms include different closing way: over-constraint appearing in rigid closure, in movable closure, and in dynamic closure as well; these examples also include two different new methods to solve this kind of issue: the way to recognize over-constraints by analyzing relative movement between two connected links and by constructing a virtual loop to recognize over-constraints. In addition, over-constraint determination tabulation is brought to analyze the motion couple. The researches above are all based upon the screw theory. All these multi-loop spatial mechanisms with different kinds of structures can completely be solved by following the directions and examples, and the new mobility theory based on the screw theory is also proved to be valid. This study not only enriches and develops the theory and makes the theory more universal, but also has a special meaning for innovation in mechanical engineering.

  6. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  7. Curriculum Guide for General Education Development or High School Equivalency Examination in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shobha; Escalona, Margaret Boyter

    This curriculum guide was developed as part of the Worker Education Program for workers in the garment industry. The program was jointly developed by the workers, their employer, their union, and Northeastern Illinois University. It contains the materials required to teach a course to help Spanish-speaking individuals pass the General Educational…

  8. Examination of Bond Properties through Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    A concerted effort has been made to increase the opportunities for undergraduate students to address scientific problems employing the processes used by practicing chemists. As part of this effort, an infrared (IR) spectroscopy and molecular modeling experiment was developed for the first-year general chemistry laboratory course. In the…

  9. Investigation of errors by radiological technologists and evaluation of preventive measures: general and mobile X-ray examinations.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shinoda, Naoki; Miyamoto, Akira; Hirata, Masaharu; Ishidate, Miyako; Kuraishi, Masahiko; Doi, Kunio

    2010-07-01

    The first objective in this study was to identify the errors of incidents and accidents that occurred in general and mobile X-ray examinations. Based on the analysis of results, the second purpose in this study was to propose useful measures to prevent such errors. As much as 553 radiological technologists in the Gunma Prefecture were surveyed on their experience with errors related to general and mobile X-ray examinations. The questionnaire asked for descriptions of errors experienced during examinations and the responses given (multiple answers possible), and evaluations of the degree of busyness on a five-point scale. A total of 115 questionnaires were returned. Analysis revealed that there was no significant relationship between errors and degree of busyness for either general or mobile examinations. The most frequent error both in general and in mobile examinations was to X-ray a patient mistakenly, the cause of which was cited as failure to confirm the patient's name. After the use of solution priority number to evaluate proposed preventive measures, such as finger-pointing and call, independent double-checks, and verbal self-confirmation would be the simplest and most easily implemented countermeasure.

  10. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Schmidt, Christa K.; Meek, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Explored variability in reliability scores on a career scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (K. Taylor and N. Betz, 1983). Of the 49 studies examined, 41% reported score reliabilities. Of the five subscales, Problem Solving shows the lowest score reliability. Higher score reliability is associated with age, racial/ethnic…

  11. First-principles model potentials for lattice-dynamical studies: general methodology and example of application to ferroic perovskite oxides.

    PubMed

    Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hermet, Patrick; Ljungberg, Mathias P; Ghosez, Philippe; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2013-07-31

    We present a scheme to construct model potentials, with parameters computed from first principles, for large-scale lattice-dynamical simulations of materials. We mimic the traditional solid-state approach to the investigation of vibrational spectra, i.e., we start from a suitably chosen reference configuration of the compound and describe its energy as a function of arbitrary atomic distortions by means of a Taylor series. Such a form of the potential-energy surface is general, trivial to formulate for any material, and physically transparent. Further, such models involve clear-cut approximations, their precision can be improved in a systematic fashion, and their simplicity allows for convenient and practical strategies to compute/fit the potential parameters. We illustrate our scheme with two challenging cases in which the model potential is strongly anharmonic, namely, the ferroic perovskite oxides PbTiO3 and SrTiO3. Studying these compounds allows us to better describe the connection between the so-called effective-Hamiltonian method and ours (which may be seen as an extension of the former), and to show the physical insight and predictive power provided by our approach-e.g., we present new results regarding the factors controlling phase-transition temperatures, novel phase transitions under elastic constraints, an improved treatment of thermal expansion, etc.

  12. Chemical potential for the interacting classical gas and the ideal quantum gas obeying a generalized exclusion principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, F. J.; Olivares-Quiroz, L.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential μ in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state μ = μ(n, T) where n is the particle density and T the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are presented with detailed calculations. The first one refers to the explicit calculation of μ for the interacting classical gas exemplified by van der Waals gas. For this purpose, we used the method described by van Kampen (1961 Physica 27 783). The second one refers to the calculation of μ for ideal quantum gases that obey a generalized Pauli's exclusion principle that leads to statistics that go beyond the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac cases. The audience targeted in this work corresponds mainly to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical-chemical sciences but it is not restricted to them. In regard of this, we have put a special emphasis on showing some additional details of calculations that usually do not appear explicitly in textbooks.

  13. Examining the Perceptions of Secondary School General Education Administrators Regarding the Supervision and Management of Special Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation includes a report of the results of a quantitative and qualitative research project that examined the perceptions of 58 secondary general education administrators regarding the supervision and management of special education programs in their buildings. Data were gathered through an online survey that requested participants to…

  14. The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Explaining Examination Performance of College Students in First-Semester General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of…

  15. Examining the Relationships between Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion, Professional Development, and Support from Special Education Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogamon, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    This correlational research study examined the relationships between secondary general education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion, hours of professional development in topics related to special education and hours of support from special education personnel addressing the needs of students with disabilities received weekly. The research also…

  16. An examination of underlying physical principles. The interaction of power-line electromagnetic fields with the human body.

    PubMed

    King, R W

    1998-01-01

    A detailed examination of the scientific foundations contained in a number of recent articles has revealed some serious errors. The careful application of advanced mathematical-physical methods to study the penetration of externally applied electric fields into the organs and cells of the human body has obtained new and significant results [8, 9, 32]. Specifically, Eqs. (11) and (12) establish a definite relationship between an incident low-frequency electric field and the current, current density, and electric field induced in the body when the arms are in contact with it and the incident field is parallel to its length. Corresponding formulas with the arms raised are available [10] as are formulas for the current density and electric field in the organs of the body [9]. It is these currents and electric fields that must be used by biomedical research workers to determine their effect on living cells. The proposed interpretation of epidemiological data [31] indicates a risk of leukemia in children when the incident 50-60-Hz electric field generated by a high-voltage transmission line is Einc > or = 61 V/m. (23). The corresponding maximum electric field at approximately 10 m from a 440-kV transmission line is Einc approximately 2100 V/m [8, 9]. The electric fields induced in the different organs of the body by these electric fields are in the range 25.2 < or = E1z < or = 119 microV/m for Einc2z = 61 V/m and 0.87 < or = E1z < or = 4.1 mV/m for Einc2z = 2100 V/m [9]. These are in the range of applied fields in in vitro experiments, which showed significant effects on cells [4], and should serve as guidelines for such experiments.

  17. An examination of the prescribed therapeutic experience of five-year-olds in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Grace, J. F.; Goulds, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    The number and therapeutic grouping of prescriptions given to children before reaching their fifth birthday were examined. The records of 92 children were looked at. Between them they had received 1,241 individual prescriptions of which 33 per cent were for antibiotics, and 31 per cent for an antihistamine or cough linctus. Ninety-six per cent of the children had received at least one course of antibiotics and the average child 4·5 courses (SD ± 3·9); 89 per cent had received an antihistamine or cough linctus, and 50 per cent a skin preparation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:7452589

  18. Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Natalie H.; Grenell, Amanda; Barr, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The specificity of the bilingual advantage in memory was examined by testing groups of monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual 24-month-olds on tasks tapping cued recall, memory generalization and working memory. For the cued recall and memory generalization conditions, there was a 24-h delay between time of encoding and time of retrieval. In addition to the memory tasks, parent-toddler dyads completed a picture-book reading task, in order to observe emotional responsiveness, and a parental report of productive vocabulary. Results indicated no difference between language groups on cued recall, working memory, emotional responsiveness, or productive vocabulary, but a significant difference was found in the memory generalization condition with only the bilingual group outperforming the baseline control group. These results replicate and extend results from past studies (Brito and Barr, 2012, 2014; Brito et al., 2014) and suggest a bilingual advantage specific to memory generalization. PMID:25520686

  19. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  20. Relevance of ultrasound examination in general practice. A case report of a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cwojdzińska-Jankowska, Izabela; Plewa, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder which results in the development of multiple cysts in the kidneys and other parenchymal organs. The two genes in which mutations are known to cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are PKD1 and PKD2. Approximately 50% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease will develop end-stage renal disease by the age of 60. Early stages of the disease are usually asymptomatic and at the moment of establishing a definitive diagnosis, complications and associated disorders, including end-stage renal disease, occur frequently. About 95% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease have an affected parent and about 5% have a de novo mutation. Each child of an affected individual has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. The first symptoms of disease usually develop in the third or fourth decades of life. Imaging examinations of relatives at risk allow for an early detection when no clinical symptoms are present as well as enable treatment of complications and associated disorders. Ultrasound examination as a basic and minimally invasive imaging technique can be easily used in general practice. In the majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, sonography allows for a certain and reliable diagnosis of this disease. Additionally, it enables to perform follow-up examinations both of the patient and their family. The possibility of ultrasound imaging in general practice broadens clinical examination and facilitates establishing a proper diagnosis. The paper presents a case report of a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Its aim was to present the relevance of ultrasound examination in general practice.

  1. Sleeping like a baby: Examining relations between habitual infant sleep, recall memory, and generalization across cues at 10 months.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep is related to cognitive functioning in infants and adults. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in infant sleep habits over the seven days prior to elicited imitation testing were associated with variability in (a) the encoding of 2-step event sequences and (b) memory for the presented information and generalization across cues after a 2-h delay in 10-month-olds. Significant correlations indicated that both daytime napping and nighttime sleep were related to encoding and generalization across cues after the 2-h delay; significant findings were not found in relation to baseline or delayed recall performance. We suggest that individual differences in infant sleep habits may be one mechanism underlying the observed variability in recall memory and generalization as these abilities are coming online late in the first year of life.

  2. Correlation Between An Email Based Board Review Program and American Board of Pediatrics General Pediatrics Certifying Examination Scores

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, Erik E.; Fogel, Joshua; Schaeffer, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of a weekly email based board review course on individual resident performance on the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) General Pediatrics Certifying Examination for pediatric residents and, specifically, residents with low ABP In-training Examination (ITE) scores. Methods Weekly board-type questions were emailed to all pediatric residents from 2004–2007. Responses to board-type questions were tracked, recorded, and correlated with ITE scores and ABP General Pediatrics Certifying Examination Scores. Results With regard to total number of questions answered, only total number of questions answered correctly had a significant positive correlation with standard board scores (n = 71, r = 0.24, p = 0.047). For “at risk” residents with ITE scores ≤ 200 (n = 21), number of questions answered in PL 3 year (r = 0.51, p = 0.018) and number of questions answered correctly for all PL years (r = 0.59, p = 0.005) had significant positive correlations with standard board scores. Conclusions Participating regularly in the email-based board review course, answering board style questions, and answering correctly to board style questions were associated with higher standard board scores. This benefit existed for all but was especially prominent among those with poor in-training examination scores. PMID:20101279

  3. Auxiliary principle technique and iterative algorithm for a perturbed system of generalized multi-valued mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mijanur; Pang, Chin-Tzong; Ishtyak, Mohd; Ahmad, Rais

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a perturbed system of generalized mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems involving multi-valued mappings in Hilbert spaces. To calculate the approximate solutions of the perturbed system of generalized multi-valued mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems, firstly we develop a perturbed system of auxiliary generalized multi-valued mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems, and then by using the celebrated Fan-KKM technique, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the perturbed system of auxiliary generalized multi-valued mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems. By deploying an auxiliary principle technique and an existence result, we formulate an iterative algorithm for solving the perturbed system of generalized multi-valued mixed quasi-equilibrium-like problems. Lastly, we study the strong convergence analysis of the proposed iterative sequences under monotonicity and some mild conditions. These results are new and generalize some known results in this field.

  4. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  5. How Is Examination Stress Experienced by Secondary Students Preparing for Their General Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations and How Can It Be Explained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William

    2011-01-01

    High stakes examinations have been identified as a significant source of stress for secondary school students; however, there is little data accounting for, and explaining, the experiences of examination stress. This study aimed to further the understanding of examination stress in secondary school students by conducting interviews with 34…

  6. Applicability of Markets to Global Scheduling in Grids: Critical Examination of General Equilibrium Theory and Market Folklore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.

  7. Examining the Continuity of Juvenile Sex Offending Into Adulthood and Subsequent Patterns of Sex and General Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Beaudry-Cyr, Maude; Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M; Tewksbury, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Current sex offending legislation and public opinion present an image of sexual offenders as specialized predators who are likely to exhibit continued sexually deviant behavior over the life-course. Although sex offending continuity and post-release recidivism has been independently assessed in prior research, the potential link between sex offending continuity and post-release recidivism has yet to be investigated. Using data collected at two different time points from a sample of sex offenders who served a prison sentence for an adult sex offense, the present study examines the prevalence of sex offending continuity, and its potential linkages with subsequent sex and general recidivism as well as identifying risk factors related to these outcomes. The multivariate results indicate a low rate of sex offending continuity in general but suggest the presence of identifiable risk factors that predict sex offending continuity. Specifically, non-sexual juvenile offending is the most notable of the numerous risk factors found to be associated with those displaying sex offending continuity from adolescence into adulthood. Subsequent analyses also reveal a significant association between sex offending continuity and sexual recidivism but not general recidivism. Policy implications, study limitations, and directions for future research are also discussed.

  8. Measurement scales in clinical research of the upper extremity, part 1: general principles, measures of general health, pain, and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Badalamente, Marie; Coffelt, Laureen; Elfar, John; Gaston, Glenn; Hammert, Warren; Huang, Jerry; Lattanza, Lisa; Macdermid, Joy; Merrell, Greg; Netscher, David; Panthaki, Zubin; Rafijah, Greg; Trczinski, Douglas; Graham, Brent

    2013-02-01

    Measurement is a fundamental cornerstone in all aspects of scientific discovery, including clinical research. To be useful, measurement instruments must meet several key criteria, the most important of which are satisfactory reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Part 1 of this article reviews the general concepts of measurement instruments and describes the measurement of general health, pain, and patient satisfaction.

  9. Examining the Use of First Principles of Instruction by Instructional Designers in a Short-Term, High Volume, Rapid Production of Online K-12 Teacher Professional Development Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Merrill (2002a) created a set of fundamental principles of instruction that can lead to effective, efficient, and engaging (e[superscript 3]) instruction. The First Principles of Instruction (Merrill, 2002a) are a prescriptive set of interrelated instructional design practices that consist of activating prior knowledge, using specific portrayals…

  10. Application of HACCP principles to control visitor health threats on dairy farms open to the general public.

    PubMed

    Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes.

  11. Mood regulation and quality of life in social anxiety disorder: an examination of generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sharon C; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald J; Marks, Elizabeth H; Marques, Luana M; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined negative mood regulation expectancies, anxiety symptom severity, and quality of life in a sample of 167 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 165 healthy controls with no DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Participants completed the Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMR), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. SAD symptom severity was assessed using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Individuals with SAD scored significantly lower than controls on the NMR. Among SAD participants, NMR scores were negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms and SAD severity, and positively correlated with quality of life. NMR expectancies positively predicted quality of life even after controlling for demographic variables, comorbid diagnoses, anxiety symptoms, and SAD severity. Individuals with SAD may be less likely to engage in emotion regulating strategies due to negative beliefs regarding their effectiveness, thereby contributing to poorer quality of life.

  12. An outline for a vocabulary of nominal properties and examinations--basic and general concepts and associated terms.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Gunnar; Dybkaer, René; Forsum, Urban; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Schadow, Gunther; Pontet, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    Scientists of disciplines in clinical laboratory sciences have long recognized the need for a common language for efficient and safe request of investigations, reporting of results, and communication of experience and scientific achievements. Widening the scope, most scientific disciplines, not only clinical laboratory sciences, rely to some extent on various nominal examinations, in addition to measurements. The 'International vocabulary of metrology--Basic and general concepts and associated terms' (VIM) is designed for metrology, science of measurement. The aim of the proposed vocabulary is to suggest definitions and explanations of concepts and terms related to nominal properties, i.e., properties that can be compared for identity with other properties of the same kind-of-property, but that have no magnitude.

  13. Re-examining the general positivity model of subjective well-being: the discrepancy between specific and global domain satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Oishi, S; Diener, E

    2001-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the role of global life satisfaction in the discrepancy between specific and global domain satisfaction. Participants rated both global (e.g., education) and the corresponding, specific domain (e.g., professors, textbooks) satisfactions. In 3 studies, we found that individuals with higher life satisfaction evaluated global domain as a whole as more satisfying than those with lower life satisfaction, given the same level of satisfaction with specific domains. In Study 3, we also found that, given the same level of satisfaction during the previous 2 weeks, individuals with higher life satisfaction rated the global domains in general as more satisfying than those with lower life satisfaction. Overall, the association between globallife satisfaction and evaluative enhancement of global domains was most consistent in "self" and "social relationships." Finally, the effect of global life satisfaction on evaluative enhancement remained significant, controlling for extraversion and neuroticism.

  14. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations.

  15. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions, is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in small student groups without peer leader intervention. The findings of this study revealed that students were mostly engaged in co-constructed arguments, that a discrepancy in the participation of the group members existed, and students were able to correct most of the incorrect claims on their own via argumentation. The second study, Exploration of peer leader verbal behaviors as they intervene with small groups in college general chemistry, examines the interactive discourse of the peer leaders and the students during peer leader intervention. The relationship between the verbal behaviors of the peer leaders and the student argumentation is explored in this study. The findings of this study demonstrated that peer leaders used an array of verbal behaviors to guide students to construct chemistry concepts, and that a relationship existed between student argument components and peer leader verbal behaviors. The third study, Use of Tolumin's Argumentation Scheme for student discourse to gain insight about guided inquiry activities in college chemistry , is focused on investigating the relationship between student arguments without peer leader intervention and the structure of published guided inquiry ChemActivities. The relationship between argumentation and the structure of the activities is explored with respect to prompts, questions, and the segmented Learning Cycle structure of the ChemActivities. Findings of this study revealed that prompts were effective in eliciting arguments, that convergent questions produced more arguments than directed questions, and that the structure of the Learning Cycle successfully scaffolded arguments. A

  16. An extremum principle for computation of the zone of tooth contact and generalized transmission error of spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    For a given set of forces transmitted by the gears, each of the three components of the generalized transmission error of spiral bevel gears is shown to be stationary with respect to small independent variations in the positions of the endpoints of the lines of tooth contact about their true values. The tangential generalized transmission error component is shown to take on a minimum value at the true endpoint positions. A computational procedure based on the method of steepest descent is described for computing the true line of contact endpoint positions and the three components of the generalized transmission error. A method for computing the Fourier series coefficients of the tooth meshing harmonics of the three generalized transmission error components also is provided.

  17. Utilization of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education in General Chemistry by Community College Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panther Bishoff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, higher education has undergone many changes. The advent of assessment, accountability, and a newfound focus on teaching have required faculty to examine how they are teaching. Administrators and faculty are beginning to recognize that learning is not a "one size fits all" enterprise. To this end, Chickering and Gamson developed an…

  18. First-principles calculation of defect free energies: General aspects illustrated in the case of bcc Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, D.; Posselt, M.; Schiwarth, M.

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of nanostructure evolution in solids requires comprehensive data on the properties of defects such as the vacancy and foreign atoms. Since most processes occur at elevated temperatures, not only the energetics of defects in the ground state, but also their temperature-dependent free energies must be known. The first-principles calculation of contributions of phonon and electron excitations to free formation, binding, and migration energies of defects is illustrated in the case of bcc Fe. First of all, the ground-state properties of the vacancy, the foreign atoms Cu, Y, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, Mo, Si, Al, Co, O, and the O-vacancy pair are determined under constant volume (CV) as well as zero-pressure (ZP) conditions, and relations between the results of both kinds of calculations are discussed. Second, the phonon contribution to defect free energies is calculated within the harmonic approximation using the equilibrium atomic positions determined in the ground state under CV and ZP conditions. In most cases, the ZP-based free formation energy decreases monotonously with temperature, whereas for CV-based data both an increase and a decrease were found. The application of a quasiharmonic correction to the ZP-based data does not modify this picture significantly. However, the corrected data are valid under zero-pressure conditions at higher temperatures than in the framework of the purely harmonic approach. The difference between CV- and ZP-based data is mainly due to the volume change of the supercell since the relative arrangement of atoms in the environment of the defects is nearly identical in the two cases. A simple transformation similar to the quasiharmonic approach is found between the CV- and ZP-based frequencies. Therefore, it is not necessary to calculate these quantities and the corresponding defect free energies separately. In contrast to ground-state energetics, the CV- and ZP-based defect free energies do not become equal with increasing supercell

  19. Principles of Catholic Social Teaching, Critical Pedagogy, and the Theory of Intersectionality: An Integrated Framework to Examine the Roles of Social Status in the Formation of Catholic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Caroline Marie; Ryan, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of an analytic framework that integrates principles of Catholic social teaching, critical pedagogy, and the theory of intersectionality to explain attitudes toward marginalized youth held by Catholic students preparing to become teachers. The framework emerges from five years of action research data collected…

  20. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th–10th Grades

    PubMed Central

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population—adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to represent these constructs with minimal error and to examine whether residual variance unaccounted for by oral language can be captured by specific factors of syntax and vocabulary. A 1-, 3-, 4-, and bifactor model were tested with 1,792 students in 18 schools in 2 large urban districts in the Southeast. Students were individually administered measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntax, and decoding fluency in mid-year. At the end of the year students took the state reading test as well as a group-administered, norm-referenced test of reading comprehension. The bifactor model fit the data best in all 7 grades and explained 72% to 99% of the variance in reading comprehension. The specific factors of syntax and vocabulary explained significant unique variance in reading comprehension in 1 grade each. The decoding fluency factor was significantly correlated with the reading comprehension and oral language factors in all grades, but, in the presence of the oral language factor, was not significantly associated with the reading comprehension factor. Results support a bifactor model of lexical knowledge rather than the 3-factor model of the Simple View of Reading, with the vast amount of variance in reading comprehension explained by a general oral language factor. PMID:26346839

  1. General principles for the formation and proliferation of a wall-free (L-form) state in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Romain; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Errington, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall is a defining structural feature of the bacterial kingdom. Curiously, some bacteria have the ability to switch to a wall-free or ‘L-form’ state. Although known for decades, the general properties of L-forms are poorly understood, largely due to the lack of systematic analysis of L-forms in the molecular biology era. Here we show that inhibition of peptidoglycan precursor synthesis promotes the generation of L-forms from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We show that the L-forms generated have in common a mechanism of proliferation involving membrane blebbing and tubulation, which is dependent on an altered rate of membrane synthesis. Crucially, this mode of proliferation is independent of the essential FtsZ based division machinery. Our results suggest that the L-form mode of proliferation is conserved across the bacterial kingdom, reinforcing the idea that it could have been used in primitive cells, and opening up its use in the generation of synthetic cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04629.001 PMID:25358088

  2. Designing and Interpreting Limiting Dilution Assays: General Principles and Applications to the Latent Reservoir for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Daniel I. S.; Elliott, Oliver; Hill, Alison L.; Henrich, Timothy J.; Siliciano, Janet M.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Limiting dilution assays are widely used in infectious disease research. These assays are crucial for current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 cure research in particular. In this study, we offer new tools to help investigators design and analyze dilution assays based on their specific research needs. Limiting dilution assays are commonly used to measure the extent of infection, and in the context of HIV they represent an essential tool for studying latency and potential curative strategies. Yet standard assay designs may not discern whether an intervention reduces an already miniscule latent infection. This review addresses challenges arising in this setting and in the general use of dilution assays. We illustrate the major statistical method for estimating frequency of infectious units from assay results, and we offer an online tool for computing this estimate. We recommend a procedure for customizing assay design to achieve desired sensitivity and precision goals, subject to experimental constraints. We consider experiments in which no viral outgrowth is observed and explain how using alternatives to viral outgrowth may make measurement of HIV latency more efficient. Finally, we discuss how biological complications, such as probabilistic growth of small infections, alter interpretations of experimental results. PMID:26478893

  3. Heterogeneity-mediated cellular adaptation and its trade-off: searching for the general principles of diseases.

    PubMed

    Heng, Henry H

    2016-07-15

    Big-data-omics have promised the success of precision medicine. However, most common diseases belong to adaptive systems where the precision is all but difficult to achieve. In this commentary, I propose a heterogeneity-mediated cellular adaptive model to search for the general model of diseases, which also illustrates why in most non-infectious non-Mendelian diseases the involvement of cellular evolution is less predictable when gene profiles are used. This synthesis is based on the following new observations/concepts: 1) the gene only codes "parts inheritance" while the genome codes "system inheritance" or the entire blueprint; 2) the nature of somatic genetic coding is fuzzy rather than precise, and genetic alterations are not just the results of genetic error but are in fact generated from internal adaptive mechanisms in response to environmental dynamics; 3) stress-response is less specific within cellular evolutionary context when compared to known biochemical specificities; and 4) most medical interventions have their unavoidable uncertainties and often can function as negative harmful stresses as trade-offs. The acknowledgment of diseases as adaptive systems calls for the action to integrate genome- (not simply individual gene-) mediated cellular evolution into molecular medicine.

  4. Averting a Disaster with Groundwater Depletion in India: The General Case of Water Management Principles and Development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    Many countries, including the USA, China, and India are experiencing chronic groundwater depletion. In part this unsustainable water use results from climatic factors that reduce surface water availability and also the recharge to the aquifer system. However, a more critical factor is uncontrolled use for agriculture and energy and mineral processing. Interestingly in places such as India endowments have been politically created that lead to ever increasing use, through the provision of free energy for pumping. Reversing the situation is considered politically challenging, and the concept of metering and payment for what is essentially economic use of water is also considered difficult to apply. In this talk I use the Indian situation as a general example and discuss the role central planning strategies for demand and resource management can play recognizing the private action by millions of users as an inevitable tool that needs to be leveraged without necessarily the high transaction costs that come with monitoring and fee collection for monitored use. Specifically, targeting and stimulating potential cropping strategies and on farm water and energy management emerge as a choice in a difficult management environment. In a broader development context, I argue that the role of private sector aggregators in developing farm to market procurement strategies can play a role in both improving rural economies and providing a trajectory for more efficient water use through technology and crop choice.

  5. School Functioning and Psychological Well-Being of International Baccalaureate and General Education Students: A Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Hardesty, Robin B.; Shaffer, Emily J.

    2006-01-01

    The current study compared the school and psychological functioning of 122 gifted and high-achieving students to that of 176 general education students educated in the same school. Relative to their peers in general education, gifted and high-achieving students served in the school's International Baccalaureate (IB) program reported more positive…

  6. The Utility of General and School-Specific Personality Traits and an Examination of Their Relationship over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschleman, Kevin J.; Burns, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A university student sample was used to compare school-specific (i.e., personality at school) and general personality (i.e., personality across all life domains) over eight weeks. School-specific and general personality incrementally predicted change in school-specific criteria (i.e., school satisfaction and school citizenship behaviors). Less…

  7. An examination of the predictions and explanations of pre-service nurses across a range of contexts involving the same principles of fluid physics: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greive, Cedric; de Berg, Kevin

    1994-12-01

    Fifteen first-year nursing students individually took part in structured interviews in which a range of devices related to nursing practice and fluid physics was considered. Analysis of the transcripts of these interviews revealed that although respondents had already completed the section of their course related to fluid physics, the majority still exhibited inconsistent and naive ideas about the fluid state, pressure and fluid flow. After structured intervention however, some responses in the latter portion of the interviews gave evidence of conceptual development and an increasing ability to generalise physical principles in contexts not previously encountered.

  8. Study of the Knowledge and Attitude about Principles and Practices of Orthodontic Treatment among General Dental Practitioners and Non-orthodontic Specialties

    PubMed Central

    Sastri, Murlidhar R; Tanpure, Vijaysinh Ramchandra; Palagi, Firoz Babu; Shinde, Sagar Kundlik; Ladhe, Kapil; Polepalle, Tejaswin

    2015-01-01

    Background: General dental practitioners and non-orthodontic specialty can play an essential role of education and motivation of their patients about the principles and practice of orthodontic treatment; which can be very beneficial to the patient’s lifestyle. It is, therefore, important to identify their level of knowledge and attitude toward orthodontic treatment. This study was planned to study this aspect in the form of comparative analysis in general dental practitioners and other specialties (except orthodontia) in dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 78 dentists, which was divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 46 general dental practitioners and Group II consisted of 32 non-orthodontic specialties. The study was carried out with the help of 21 questionnaires, which consisted of 13 questions of orthodontic knowledge and 08 questions about the attitude toward orthodontic practice. The scores were calculated, and statistical analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS statistics 20, using Student’s t-test. Results: The comparative analysis showed highly significant difference of knowledge and attitude score between general dental practitioners and non-orthodontic specialties (Student’s t-test, P < 0.001). Also the comparison was made between male and female practitioners, who showed more scores in case of male practitioners; but the difference was not significant statistically (Student’s t-test, P > 0.01). Conclusion: The results of the study were moderately satisfactory, and it showed the need for increased clinically oriented education of practice and concepts of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25878478

  9. An Examination of the Relationship between General Life Stress, Racism-Related Stress, and Psychological Health among Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relationship among general life stress, racism-related stress, and psychological health in a sample of 220 Black men. Participants completed a personal data form, the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), a modified version of the Schedule of Racist Events (H. Landrine & E. A. Klonoff,…

  10. Examining Gender with General Creativity and Preferences for Creative Persons in College Students within the Sciences and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; Basham, Kimberly M.; Elliott, John O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to investigate gender similarities and differences in general creativity constructs with their preferences for creative persons. Data were collected from 247 participants (87 engineering, 24 psychology students with a psychology major, 51 psychology students with a major other than psychology, 30 English, and 55…

  11. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  12. Factors Associated with General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and…

  13. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  14. Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…

  15. Emotional Reactions to Stress among Adolescent Boys and Girls: An Examination of the Mediating Mechanisms Proposed by General Strain Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigfusdottir, Inga-Dora; Silver, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of negative life events on anger and depressed mood among a sample of 7,758 Icelandic adolescents, measured as part of the National Survey of Icelandic Adolescents (Thorlindsson, Sigfusdottir, Bernburg, & Halldorsson, 1998). Using multiple linear regression and multinomial logit regression, we find that (a)…

  16. Time in Computerized Tests: A Multitrait, Multimethod Investigation of General-Knowledge and Mathematical-Reasoning On-Line Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Tractinsky, Noam

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of time-related measures in computerized ability tests focuses on a study of college students that used two intelligence test item types to develop a multitrait, multimethod assessment of response time measures. Convergent and discriminant validation are discussed, correlations between response time and accuracy are examined, and…

  17. Biochemistry in the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 Content Outline: Organ Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Murray

    1997-01-01

    Examines the Organ Systems part of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 Content Outline for its biochemical components. The General Principles part of the Content Outline of the examination does not match the basic science teaching in medical schools with organ system curricula. Suggests a place where the basic principles in…

  18. Information Literacy: Philosophy, Principles, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a philosophical framework for the development of information literacy programs integrated into school curriculums; reports on research in Australia that examines the impact of integrated information literacy programs on secondary school student learning and attitudes; and explores general principles for information literacy instructional…

  19. The neural circuits for arithmetic principles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Han; Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Hui; Cui, Jiaxin; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-15

    Arithmetic principles are the regularities underlying arithmetic computation. Little is known about how the brain supports the processing of arithmetic principles. The current fMRI study examined neural activation and functional connectivity during the processing of verbalized arithmetic principles, as compared to numerical computation and general language processing. As expected, arithmetic principles elicited stronger activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus than did language processing, and stronger activation in left middle temporal lobe and left orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus than did computation. In contrast, computation elicited greater activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus (extending to posterior superior parietal lobule) than did either arithmetic principles or language processing. Functional connectivity analysis with the psychophysiological interaction approach (PPI) showed that left temporal-parietal (MTG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principle and language than during computation, whereas parietal-occipital connectivities were stronger during computation than during the processing of arithmetic principles and language. Additionally, the left fronto-parietal (orbital IFG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principles than during computation. The results suggest that verbalized arithmetic principles engage a neural network that overlaps but is distinct from the networks for computation and language processing.

  20. Factors Associated With General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric. R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), predeparture expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and perceived disparity between home and host cultures differentially predicted consequences abroad. The findings include important implications for student affairs professionals in developing study abroad–specific interventions and resources to maintain student well-being while abroad. PMID:23505594

  1. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked and that both are influenced by environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The present study examines the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of…

  2. Is Inclusion Really Beneficial for Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities? An Examination of Perspectives from Secondary General Education Teachers, Special Education Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouer, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The perceptions of general education teachers, "special education teachers," and site administrators' regarding the benefits of "inclusion", or "mainstreaming", for students with mild to moderate disabilities at the secondary level were examined using the lenses of psychological benefit, academic benefit, behavioral…

  3. Examining the Effects of General Level Course Elimination and Tracking on Student Growth and Achievement in a Suburban High School Mathematics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decade of reform driven by the NCLB legislation, there continues to be a significant gap in mathematics achievement between race/ethnicity and socioeconomic groupings of students. This study examines the practice of tracking and an effort to improve mathematics achievement by eliminating the general level mathematics track. The suburban…

  4. University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options. World Bank Technical Paper Number 78. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Uses of Standardized Tests and Selection Examinations (Beijing, China, April 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; Fagerlind, Ingemar, Ed.

    In September 1984, the Chinese government asked the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to assist the officials of the Chinese Ministry of Education in thinking through some policy options for examinations and standardized testing. This document summarizes the descriptions of testing programs and advice provided to these Chinese…

  5. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  6. A correlation between low back pain and associated factors: a study involving 772 patients who had undergone general physical examination.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min A; Shim, Woo Seok; Kim, Myung Hee; Gwak, Mi Sook; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Gaab Soo; Kim, Chung Su; Choi, Yoon Ho; Park, Jeong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Hyeong

    2006-12-01

    Many factors are associated with the development of low back pain. Among them, exercise, obesity, smoking, age, educational level and stress are the most common. This study examined the association of these factors with low back pain. An additional aim was to determine a procedure for preventing low back pain. This study analyzed the responses to a questionnaire sent to 772 individuals who had undergone a medical examination at this hospital in 2003 and excluded the individuals who had shown symptoms or their test results indicated a particular disease. Assuming that there were no variables, individuals who exercised regularly 3-4 times per week would have a lower chance of having low back pain than those who did not exercise regularly. The analysis revealed that individuals with a college degree or higher education have a lower chance of experiencing low back pain than those with only a high school education or even college drop-outs. When the other variables were constant, age, extent of obesity (body mass index), smoking and level of stress were not found to affect the development of low back pain. The level of education was associated with the development of low back pain. However, regular exercise 3-4 times per week or more would be most effective in reducing the incidence and duration of low back pain.

  7. Examining variations in prescribing safety in UK general practice: cross sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Akbarov, Artur; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom, and what is the variation between practices? Methods A cross sectional study included all adult patients potentially at risk of a prescribing or monitoring error defined by a combination of diagnoses and prescriptions in 526 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) up to 1 April 2013. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of potentially hazardous prescriptions of anticoagulants, anti-platelets, NSAIDs, β blockers, glitazones, metformin, digoxin, antipsychotics, combined hormonal contraceptives, and oestrogens and monitoring by blood test less frequently than recommended for patients with repeated prescriptions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and loop diuretics, amiodarone, methotrexate, lithium, or warfarin. Study answer and limitations 49 927 of 949 552 patients at risk triggered at least one prescribing indicator (5.26%, 95% confidence interval 5.21% to 5.30%) and 21 501 of 182 721 (11.8%, 11.6% to 11.9%) triggered at least one monitoring indicator. The prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing ranged from almost zero to 10.2%, and for inadequate monitoring ranged from 10.4% to 41.9%. Older patients and those prescribed multiple repeat medications had significantly higher risks of triggering a prescribing indicator whereas younger patients with fewer repeat prescriptions had significantly higher risk of triggering a monitoring indicator. There was high variation between practices for some indicators. Though prescribing safety indicators describe prescribing patterns that can increase the risk of harm to the patient and should generally be avoided, there will always be exceptions where the indicator is clinically justified. Furthermore there is the possibility that some information is not captured by CPRD for some practices—for example, INR results in

  8. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the C: The Use of Microbial Mats to Demonstrate General Principles of Scientific Inquiry and Microbial Ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively compact (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, we have developed curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. Our web site (http://microbes.arc.nasa.gov) includes reference materials, lesson plans, and a "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium. The site also provides information as to how research on microbial mats supports NASA's goals, and various NASA missions. A photo gallery contains images of mats, microscopic views of the organisms that form them, and our own research activities. An animated educational video on the web site uses computer graphic and video microscopy to take students on a journey into a microbial mat. These activities are targeted to a middle school audience and are aligned with the National Science Standards.

  9. Generalized-stacking-fault energy and twin-boundary energy of hexagonal close-packed Au: A first-principles calculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Huang, Tianlong; Xue, Xuena; Qiu, Feng; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-05-22

    Although solid Au is usually most stable as a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Au has been successfully fabricated recently. However, the phase stability and mechanical property of this new material are unclear, which may restrict its further applications. Here we present the evidence that hcp → fcc phase transformation can proceed easily in Au by first-principles calculations. The extremely low generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy in the basal slip system implies a great tendency to form basal stacking faults, which opens the door to phase transformation from hcp to fcc. Moreover, the Au lattice extends slightly within the superficial layers due to the self-assembly of alkanethiolate species on hcp Au (0001) surface, which may also contribute to the hcp → fcc phase transformation. Compared with hcp Mg, the GSF energies for non-basal slip systems and the twin-boundary (TB) energies for and twins are larger in hcp Au, which indicates the more difficulty in generating non-basal stacking faults and twins. The findings provide new insights for understanding the nature of the hcp → fcc phase transformation and guide the experiments of fabricating and developing materials with new structures.

  10. Generalized-stacking-fault energy and twin-boundary energy of hexagonal close-packed Au: A first-principles calculation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Huang, Tianlong; Xue, Xuena; Qiu, Feng; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-01-01

    Although solid Au is usually most stable as a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, pure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Au has been successfully fabricated recently. However, the phase stability and mechanical property of this new material are unclear, which may restrict its further applications. Here we present the evidence that hcp → fcc phase transformation can proceed easily in Au by first-principles calculations. The extremely low generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy in the basal slip system implies a great tendency to form basal stacking faults, which opens the door to phase transformation from hcp to fcc. Moreover, the Au lattice extends slightly within the superficial layers due to the self-assembly of alkanethiolate species on hcp Au (0001) surface, which may also contribute to the hcp → fcc phase transformation. Compared with hcp Mg, the GSF energies for non-basal slip systems and the twin-boundary (TB) energies for and twins are larger in hcp Au, which indicates the more difficulty in generating non-basal stacking faults and twins. The findings provide new insights for understanding the nature of the hcp → fcc phase transformation and guide the experiments of fabricating and developing materials with new structures. PMID:25998415

  11. Examining Individual Differences in Interpersonal Influence: On the Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Opinion Leadership Scale (GOLS).

    PubMed

    Batinic, Bernad; Appel, Markus; Gnambs, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Opinion leadership describes an individual's tendency to informally influence others' attitudes and overt behaviors. In contrast to contemporary views of opinion leadership as a highly domain-specific trait, this paper introduces a multi-faceted personality trait, generalized opinion leadership (GOL) that characterizes exceptionally influential individuals independent of a specific subject area. Two studies report on the psychometric properties of a scale to assess GOL. Study 1 is based on three independent samples (N = 1,575, N = 1,275, and N = 231) and demonstrates the factorial structure of the instrument and its measurement invariance across sex, age, and educational levels. Study 2 (N = 310) analyzes multitrait-multiinformant data to highlight the scale's discriminant validity with regard to innovativeness and trendsetting.

  12. Examining the generality of children's preference for contingent reinforcement via extension to different responses, reinforcers, and schedules.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have assessed whether children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) or noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) have shown that they prefer CR. Preference for CR has, however, been evaluated only under continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedules. The prevalence of intermittent reinforcement (INT) warrants an evaluation of whether preference for CR persists as the schedule of reinforcement is thinned. In the current study, we evaluated 2 children's preference for contingent versus noncontingent delivery of highly preferred edible items for academic task completion under CRF and INT schedules. Children (a) preferred CR to NCR under the CRF schedule, (b) continued to prefer CR as the schedule of reinforcement became intermittent, and (c) exhibited a shift in preference from CR to NCR as the schedule became increasingly thin. These findings extend the generality of and provide one set of limits to the preference for CR. Applied implications, variables controlling preferences, and future research are discussed.

  13. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. Methodology To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Results Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. Conclusions This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit

  14. History of the national licensing examination for the health professions under the Japanese Government-General of Korea (1910-1945)

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Soon

    2015-01-01

    During the reign of Japanese Government-General of Korea (Joseon) from 1910 to 1945, the main health professionals who were educated about modern medicine were categorized into physicians, dentists, pharmacists, midwives, and nurses. They were clearly distinguished from traditional health professionals. The regulations on new health professionals were enacted, and the licensing system was enforced in earnest. There were two kinds of licensing systems: the license without examination through an educational institution and the license with the national examination. The Japanese Government-General of Korea (Joseon) combined education with a national examination system to produce a large number of health professionals rapidly; however, it was insufficient to fulfill the increasing demand for health services. Therefore, the government eased the examination several times and focused on quantitative expansion of the health professions. The proportion of professionals licensed through national examination had increased. This system had produced the maximum number of available professionals at low cost. Furthermore, this system was significant in three respects: first, the establishment of the framework of the national licensing examination still used today for health professionals; second, the protection of people from the poor practices of unqualified practitioners; and third, the standardization of the quality of health. PMID:26013111

  15. An examination of the Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment principles and practices: a brief commentary on section 4.1.3 of the EPA March 2004 Staff Paper.

    PubMed

    Mundt, K A

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a Staff Paper that articulates current risk assessment practices. In section 4.1.3, EPA states, "... effects that appear to be adaptive, non-adverse, or beneficial may not be mentioned." This statement may be perceived as precluding risk assessments based on non-default risk models, including the hormetic--or biphasic--dose-response model. This commentary examines several potential interpretations of this statement and the anticipated impact of ignoring hormesis, if present, in light of necessary conservatism for protecting human and environmental health, and the potential for employing alternative risk assessment approaches.

  16. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices.

  17. Mind your manners. Part II: General results from the National Association of Medical Examiners Manner of Death Questionnaire, 1995.

    PubMed

    Goodin, J; Hanzlick, R

    1997-09-01

    More than 700 physician medical examiner/coroners (ME/Cs) were surveyed to assess differences in manner of death classifications for typical but often controversial death scenarios: 198 physicians participated by choosing the manner of death (homicide, suicide, accident, natural, undetermined) for 23 such scenarios. Sixteen questions related to death certificate training, work location, and manner of death issues were also asked. The classification of manner of death by ME/Cs was highly variable. For some challenging death scenarios, majority agreement was lacking. Agreement was > or = 80% for only 11 of the 23 scenarios and was 100% for only 1. Manner of death classification method was not influenced by forensic pathology board certification status, by whether or not the physician actually completed death certificates, or by previous threats of lawsuits over manner of death classification. However, there were some differences by state. No textbook or individual was widely recognized as authoritative on manner of death issues. Few ME/Cs had formal death certification training in medical school or residency. The data lend credence to the practice of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of classifying manner of death for statistical purposes by using coding and classification rules and selection criteria rather than solely on the basis of the classification of manner chosen by ME/Cs. The data also indicate that caution is in order when one compares manner of death statistics of one ME/C with those of another Published guidelines and more uniform training are needed so that ME/Cs may become more consistent in their manner of death classifications. Further information is presented in Part I (history of manner of death classification) and in Part III (individual death scenarios and their analysis) companion articles in this issue of the Journal.

  18. Entrance surface dose and image quality: comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Ahmad Shariff; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Wang, Hwee-Beng; Jamal, Noriah; Spelic, David C; Suleiman, Orhan H

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia.

  19. “C.R.E.A.T.E.”-ing Unique Primary-Source Research Paper Assignments for a Pleasure and Pain Course Teaching Neuroscientific Principles in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Rotella, Francis M.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Coke, Tricia; Olsson, Kerstin; Barrientos, Alicia; Blachorsky, Lauren; Warshaw, Deena; Buras, Agata; Sanchez, Ciara M.; Azad, Raihana; Stellar, James R.

    2016-01-01

    A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles. Although well-registered and well-received, 18% of the students received Incomplete grades, primarily due to failing to submit the paper that went largely unresolved and eventually resulted in a failing grade. To rectify this issue, a modified version of the C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method replaced the paper with eight structured assignments focusing on an initial general-topic article, the introduction-methods, and results-discussion of each of three related peer-review neuroscience-related articles, and a final summary. Compliance in completing these assignments was very high, resulting in only 11 INC grades out of 228 students. Thus, use of the C.R.E.A.T.E. method reduced the percentage of problematic INC grades from 18% to 4.8%, a 73% decline, without changing the overall grade distribution. Other analyses suggested the students achieved a deeper understanding of the scientific process using the C.R.E.A.T.E. method relative to the original term paper assignment. PMID:27385918

  20. "C.R.E.A.T.E."-ing Unique Primary-Source Research Paper Assignments for a Pleasure and Pain Course Teaching Neuroscientific Principles in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Rotella, Francis M; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Coke, Tricia; Olsson, Kerstin; Barrientos, Alicia; Blachorsky, Lauren; Warshaw, Deena; Buras, Agata; Sanchez, Ciara M; Azad, Raihana; Stellar, James R

    2016-01-01

    A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles. Although well-registered and well-received, 18% of the students received Incomplete grades, primarily due to failing to submit the paper that went largely unresolved and eventually resulted in a failing grade. To rectify this issue, a modified version of the C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method replaced the paper with eight structured assignments focusing on an initial general-topic article, the introduction-methods, and results-discussion of each of three related peer-review neuroscience-related articles, and a final summary. Compliance in completing these assignments was very high, resulting in only 11 INC grades out of 228 students. Thus, use of the C.R.E.A.T.E. method reduced the percentage of problematic INC grades from 18% to 4.8%, a 73% decline, without changing the overall grade distribution. Other analyses suggested the students achieved a deeper understanding of the scientific process using the C.R.E.A.T.E. method relative to the original term paper assignment.

  1. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  2. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  3. The Effect of General and Drug-Specific Family Environments on Comorbid and Drug-Specific Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Examination

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the development of alcohol and tobacco dependence is linked, and that both are influenced by family environmental and intrapersonal factors, many of which likely interact over the life course. The current study identifies general and substance-specific predictors of comorbid problem behavior, tobacco dependence, and alcohol abuse and dependence. Specifically, we examine the effects of general and alcohol- and tobacco-specific environmental influences in the family of origin (ages 10 – 18) and family of cohabitation (ages 27 – 30) on problem behavior and alcohol- and tobacco-specific outcomes at age 33. General environmental factors include family monitoring, conflict, bonding, and involvement. Alcohol environment includes parental alcohol use, parents’ attitudes toward alcohol, and children’s involvement in family drinking. Tobacco-specific environment is assessed analogously. Additionally, analyses include the effect of childhood behavioral disinhibition and control for demographics and initial behavior problems. Analyses were based on 469 participants drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample. Results indicated that (a) environmental factors within the family of origin and the family of cohabitation are both important predictors of problem behavior at age 33; (b) family of cohabitation influences partially mediate the effects of family of origin environments; (c) considerable continuity exists between adolescent and adult general and tobacco (but not alcohol) environments; age 18 alcohol and tobacco use partially mediates these relationships; and (d) childhood behavioral disinhibition, contributed to age 33 outcomes, over and above the effects of family of cohabitation mediators. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:22799586

  4. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  5. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  6. Examining the accuracy of astrophysical disk simulations with a generalized hydrodynamical test problem [The role of pressure and viscosity in SPH simulations of astrophysical disks

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-10-24

    Here, we discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation-only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extension of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly reduces this error.

  7. Examining the accuracy of astrophysical disk simulations with a generalized hydrodynamical test problem [The role of pressure and viscosity in SPH simulations of astrophysical disks

    DOE PAGES

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-10-24

    Here, we discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation-only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extensionmore » of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly reduces this error.« less

  8. Examining the utility of general models of personality in the study of psychopathy: a comparison of the HEXACO-PI-R and NEO PI-R.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Eric T; Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2012-08-01

    The Five-Factor model is one of the most popular models of general personality but recently a competing model, the HEXACO, has been put forth as an alternative. In the current study, we compare the two models by examining the interrelations between their primary measures, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Revised HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI-R), and their relations with psychopathy in a sample of undergraduates (N = 290). Results revealed good convergence between conceptually related personality traits. Both inventories accounted for substantial proportions of variance in psychopathy scores although the HEXACO-PI-R accounted for a larger proportion. The findings are discussed in relation to the HEXACO domain of Emotionality, which functions differently than NEO PI-R Neuroticism. The results suggest that both measures assess psychopathy-related traits, but the HEXACO-PI-R may offer a slight advantage.

  9. BACTEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on basic elements of water bacteriology. The presentation will be part of a seminar entitled, "Microbiology 101." This seminar is designed to provide general information regarding various microorganisms, e.g., bacteria, virus, protozoa. Basic principl...

  10. A critical examination of the predictive capabilities of a new type of general laminated plate theory in the inelastic response regime

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Todd O

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a new type of general, multiscale plate theory was developed for application to the analysis of the history-dependent response of laminated plates (Williams). In particular, the history-dependent behavior in a plate was considered to arise from both delamination effects as well as history-dependent material point responses (such as from viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, damage, etc.). The multiscale nature of the theoretical framework is due to the use of a superposition of both general global and local displacement effects. Using this global-local displacement field the governing equations of the theory are obtained by satisfying the governing equations of nonlinear continuum mechanics referenced to the initial configuration. In order to accomplish the goal of conducting accurate analyses in the history-dependent response regimes the formulation of the theory has been carried out in a sufficiently general fashion that any cohesive zone model (CZM) and any history-dependent constitutive model for a material point can be incorporated into the analysis without reformulation. Recently, the older multiscale theory of Williams has been implemented into the finite element (FE) framework by Mourad et al. and the resulting capabilities where used to shown that in a qualitative sense it is important that the local fields be accurately obtained in order to correctly predict even the overall response characteristics of a laminated plate in the inelastic regime. The goal of this work is to critically examine the predictive capabilities of this theory, as well as the older multiscale theory of Williams and other types of laminated plate theories, with recently developed exact solutions for the response of inelastic plates in cylindrical bending (Williams). These exact solutions are valid for both nonlinear CZMs as well as inelastic material responses obtained from different constitutive theories. In particular, the accuracy with which the different plate theories

  11. Self-Directed Violence Aboard U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers: An Examination of General and Shipboard-Specific Risk and Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Saitzyk, Arlene; Vorm, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Self-directed violence (SDV), which includes suicidal ideation with and without intent, suicidal preparatory behaviors and attempts with and without harm, non-suicidal self-directed violence, and completed suicide, has been a rising concern in the military. Military shipboard personnel may represent a unique subset of this population due to the distinct nature of deployment stressors and embedded supports. As such, one might expect differences in the prevalence of SDV between this group and other active duty personnel, signifying a distinct operational impact. This study analyzed the prevalence of SDV among personnel assigned or deployed to U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, and examined whether occurrences varied by descriptors commonly identified in the literature (e.g., age, gender, marital status, pay grade/rank). This study also examined characteristics specific to life aboard a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier in order to better understand the issues particular to this population. Descriptive analyses and relative risk findings suggested similarities in demographic risk factors to the general military population, but also striking differences related to occupational specialty and assigned department. This study is the first to shed light on risk and protective factors relevant to shipboard personnel.

  12. Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score among the general adult population: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Paprott, Rebecca; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Mensink, Gert B M; Thiele, Silke; Schulze, Matthias B; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Heidemann, Christin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) among the general adult German population for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes. Methods The longitudinal sample for prediction of incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes included 3625 persons who participated both in the examination survey in 1997–1999 and the examination survey in 2008–2011. Incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes was defined as first-time physician diagnosis or antidiabetic medication during 5 years of follow-up excluding potential incident type 1 and gestational diabetes. The cross-sectional sample for detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes included 6048 participants without diagnosed diabetes of the examination survey in 2008–2011. Prevalent undiagnosed diabetes was defined as glycated haemoglobin ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). We assessed discrimination as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC (95% CI)) and calibration through calibration plots. Results In longitudinal analyses, 82 subjects with incident diagnosed type 2 diabetes were identified after 5 years of follow-up. For prediction of incident diagnosed diabetes, the GDRS yielded an ROC-AUC of 0.87 (0.83 to 0.90). Calibration plots indicated excellent prediction for low diabetes risk and overestimation for intermediate and high diabetes risk. When considering the entire follow-up period of 11.9 years (ROC-AUC: 0.84 (0.82 to 0.86)) and including incident undiagnosed diabetes (ROC-AUC: 0.81 (0.78 to 0.84)), discrimination decreased somewhat. A previously simplified paper version of the GDRS yielded a similar predictive ability (ROC-AUC: 0.86 (0.82 to 0.89)). In cross-sectional analyses, 128 subjects with undiagnosed diabetes were identified. For detection of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes, the ROC-AUC was 0.84 (0.81 to 0.86). Again, the simplified version yielded a similar result (ROC-AUC: 0.83 (0.80 to 0.86)). Conclusions The GDRS might be applied

  13. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the..., negotiating, or determining costs relevant to termination settlements under contracts with other...

  14. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  15. Earth's Earliest Ecosystems in the Classroom: The Use of Microbial Mats to Teach General Principles in Microbial Ecology, and Scientific Inquiry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beboutl, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on earth, and may also be useful models for the search for life elsewhere. They are centrally important to Astrobiology. In this lecture, we will present an introduction to microbial mats, as well as an introduction to our web-based educational module on the subject of microbial ecology, featuring living mats maintained in a mini "Web Lab" complete with remotely-operable instrumentation. We have partnered with a number of outreach specialists in order to produce an informative and educational web-based presentation, aspects of which will be exported to museum exhibits reaching a wide audience. On our web site, we will conduct regularly scheduled experimental manipulations, linking the experiments to our research activities, and demonstrating fundamental principles of scientific research.

  16. Examining reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs and over-general autobiographical memory as mechanisms of change in classroom prevention programs for adolescent depression

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip; Riglin, Lucy; Lewis, Gemma; Lewis, Glyn; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective methods to prevent adolescent depressive symptoms could reduce suffering and burden across the lifespan. However, psychological interventions delivered to adolescents show efficacy only in symptomatic or high-risk youth. Targeting causal risk factors and assessing mechanistic change can help devise efficacious universal or classroom based prevention programs. Methods A non-randomized longitudinal design was used to compare three classroom-based prevention programs for adolescent depression (Behavioral Activation with Reward Processing, “Thinking about Reward in Young People” (TRY); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)), and determine cognitive mechanisms of change in these programs. Cognitive mechanisms examined were reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs (assessed with behavioral tasks) and over-general autobiographical memory. 256 healthy adolescents aged 13–14 participated with 236 (92%) and 227 (89%) completing the pre- and post-assessments. Results TRY was the only intervention associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Reward-seeking increased following TRY. In the other programs there were non-significant changes in cognitive mechanisms, with more reflective negative self-beliefs in CBT and fewer over-general autobiographical memories in MBCT In the TRY program, which focused on increasing sensitivity to rewarding activities, reward seeking increased and this was associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Limitations Due to the infeasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial, a non-randomized design was used. Conclusions Increased reward-seeking was associated with decreased depressive symptoms and may be a mechanism of depressive symptom change in the intervention with a focus on enhancing sensitivity and awareness of reward. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that incorporating activities to enhance reward sensitivity may be fruitful in

  17. [An examination of "Minamata disease general investigation and research liaison council"--The process of making uncertain the organic mercury causal theory].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Minamata disease occurred because inhabitants consumed the polluted seafood. The official confirmation of Minamata disease was in 1956. However, the material cause of that disease was uncertain at that time. The Minamata Food Poisoning Sub-committee, under authority of the Food Hygiene Investigation Committee of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, determined the material cause of Minamata disease to be a certain kind of organic mercury in 1959. The sub-committee was dissolved after their report. The discussion about the investigation of the cause was performed in a conference initiated by the Economic Planning Agency, which was titled "Minamata Disease General Investigation and Research Liaison Council". The Participants were eight scientists; four fishery scientists, two chemists, and only two medical scientists, which implied that only examination of the organic mercury was to be discussion. The conference was held four times from 1960 to 1961. In the first and second conferences, the organic mercury research from a medical perspective progressed in cooperation with fishery sciences. In the third conference, it was reported that UCHIDA Makio, professor of Kumamoto University, had found organic mercury crystal in the shellfish found in Minamata-bay. Authorities of biochemistry and medicine in the third conference criticized UCHIDA's research. At the fourth conference, reports contradicting his research were presented. Although those anti-UCHIDA reports were not verified, AKAHORI Shiro, the highest authority of biochemistry, not only accepted them, but also expressed doubt in the organic mercury causal theory. Therefore, this theory was recognized as uncertain.

  18. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  19. Yielding Unexpected Results: Precipitation of Ba[subscript3](PO[subscript4])[subscript2] and Implications for Teaching Solubility Principles in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Jeffery L.; Cleary, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation of barium phosphate from aqueous solutions of a barium salt and a phosphate salt forms the basis for a number of conclusions drawn in general chemistry. For example, the formation of a solid white precipitate is offered as evidence that barium phosphate is insoluble. Furthermore, analysis of the supernatant is used to illustrate the…

  20. Principles and the Development of Physical Theory: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, Robert Corby

    Three separate articles make up the chapters of this dissertation. They were written with different aims and audiences in mind, but each deals in some way with one or more "principles" that have been invoked in argumentation and explanation in the physical sciences. The principles of concern are propositions which have an "aesthetic" or "foundational" or "philosophical" character and which are (or have been) generally believed to be widely applicable or particularly powerful--for example, the Principle of Plenitude, the Principle of Mathematical Beauty, Occam's Razor, the Cosmological Principle, and the Copernican Principle. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the nature and uses of principles in scientific reasoning and examines in some detail the use of the Principle of Plenitude in the introduction of "tachyons" (faster-than-light particles) into theoretical physics during the 1960s. Chapter 2 is a short biography of P. A. M. Dirac (1902-1984), one of the founders of quantum mechanics, who believed that the Principle of Mathematical Beauty should serve as physicists' guide to truth. Chapter 3 traces the history of the idea of faster-than-light particles in physics since the late 1800s; this idea matured with the rise of the subfield of tachyon physics in the 1960s, and (as mentioned above) physicists appealed to the Principle of Plenitude to argue for the existence of the particles, which are still only hypothetical. According to the thesis developed in these chapters, the epistemological status of principles has evolved over the history of science. While they were once hallowed as a priori truths, in modern science they have increasingly been employed critically, in light of the results of scientific inquiry. That is, science has moved toward making principles testable, subject to rejection or revision, on a par with other scientific propositions.

  1. Action Principle for Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avignon, Eric; Morrison, Philip; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    A covariant action principle for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in terms of natural Eulerian field variables is given. This is done by generalizing the covariant Poisson bracket theory of Marsden et al., which uses a noncanonical bracket to implement constrained variations of an action functional. Various implications and extensions of this action principle are also discussed.

  2. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  3. Relationships between HDL-C, hs-CRP, with Central Arterial Stiffness in Apparently Healthy People Undergoing a General Health Examination

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Ye, Ping; Yuan, Ying; Lu, XueChun; Wang, Fan; Zeng, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Some cardiovascular risk factors have been confirmed to be positively correlated with arterial stiffness. However, it is unclear whether HDL-C, a well-established anti-risk factor, has an independent association with arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HDL-C levels and arterial stiffness and the possible role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in this potential correlation in apparently healthy adults undergoing a general health examination in China. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. In total, 15,302 participants (age range, 18–82 years; mean, 43.88±8.44 years) were recruited during routine health status examinations. A questionnaire was used and we measured the body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose, and serum lipid, uric acid, hs-CRP, and serum creatinine levels of each participant. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Results HDL-C levels decreased as cf-PWV increased. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that HDL-C levels were associated with cf-PWV (r=−0.18, P<0.001). hs-CRP levels were positively associated with cf-PWV (r=0.13). After adjustment for all confounders, HDL-C was inversely independently associated with all quartiles of cf-PWV. Furthermore, HDL-C was associated with cf-PWV in different quartiles of hs-CRP, and the correlation coefficients (r) gradually decreased with increasing hs-CRP levels (quartiles 1–4). Conclusions HDL-C is inversely independently associated with central arterial stiffness. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C may mediate its relationship with cf-PWV. Further, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate whether high HDL-C levels are protective against central artery stiffening through the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL-C. PMID:24312587

  4. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population.We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3-8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough.The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities.This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the epidemiology.

  5. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P < 0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P < 0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P < 0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P = 0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population.

  6. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  7. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  8. Principles of Effective Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silcock, Anne

    1981-01-01

    Examines the role of day care in the Australian community and offers six principles of effective day care. The principles are based on the assumption that good quality day care facilitates and enhances child development and does not jeopardize the attachment between mothers and their children. (Author/CM)

  9. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  10. Direct Linearization and Adjoint Approaches to Evaluation of Atmospheric Weighting Functions and Surface Partial Derivatives: General Principles, Synergy and Areas of Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustino, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

  11. Get Provoked: Applying Tilden's Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    This address given to the Division of Interpretation, Yellowstone National Park, Interpretive Training, June 1993, examines successes and failures in interpretive programs for adults and children in light of Tilden's principles. (LZ)

  12. Urinary Concentrations of Metabolites of Pyrethroid Insecticides in the General U.S. Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Olsson, Anders O.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Udunka, Simeon; Baker, Samuel E.; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid insecticides are the most commonly used residential insecticides in the United States. Objectives Our objective was to assess human exposure via biomonitoring to pyrethroid insecticides in a representative sample of the general U.S. population ≥ 6 years of age. Methods By using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, we measured five urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in 5,046 samples collected as a part of the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Univariate, multivariate, and Pearson correlation analyses were performed using SUDAAN and SAS software, incorporating the appropriate sample weights into the analyses. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, race/ethnicity, creatinine, fasting status, and urine collection time as covariates. Results We detected 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), a metabolite common to many pyrethroid insecticides, in more than 70% of the samples. The least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) concentration (corrected for covariates) of 3PBA and the frequency of detection increased from 1999–2000 (0.292 ng/mL) to 2001–2002 (0.318 ng/mL) but not significantly. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher LSGM 3PBA concentrations than did non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans in the 2001–2002 survey period and in the combined 4-year survey periods but not in the 1999–2000 survey period. Children had significantly higher LSGM concentrations of 3PBA than did adolescents in both NHANES periods and than adults in NHANES 1999–2000. Cis- and trans-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were highly correlated with each other and with 3PBA, suggesting that urinary 3PBA was derived primarily from exposure to permethrin, cypermethrin, or their degradates. Conclusions Pyrethroid insecticide exposure in the U.S. population is widespread, and the presence of its metabolites in the

  13. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    Noting that the Federal adult education program, Adult Performance Level Program (APL), only affects 1% of its target population, the author examines the program and concludes with seven major observations: (1) Increased attention should be given to the admonition, "Users of the instrument should have a general knowledge of the principles of…

  14. Report: Examination of Pilot Peer Review Process for Inspectors General That Follow “Blue Book” Quality Standards for Inspection and Evaluation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-N-0317, Sept 21, 2016. A peer review process that measures adherence to all the quality standards for federal Inspector General Inspection and Evaluation offices provides assurance that participating offices are being adequately evaluated.

  15. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  16. Integrating Milton H. Erickson's Hypnotherapeutic Techniques into General Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otani, Akira

    1989-01-01

    Examines several basic hypnotherapeutic techniques (rapport building, problem assessment, resistance management, and behavior change) based on Milton H. Erickson's hypnotherapeutic principles that can be translated into the general framework of counseling. (Author/CM)

  17. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  18. Parenting, self-control, and delinquency: examining the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime to South Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youngoh; Zhang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Limited studies have examined whether self-control fully mediates the effect of parenting on deviant behavior beyond Western cultures. Using a sample of 882 South Korean middle and high schools students, this article examines the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's argument about the role of parenting in self-control theory in the context of Asian culture. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) suggest the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency hold in South Korean culture: Parenting has only an indirect effect through self-control on delinquency. The findings of multigroup SEM, however, indicate that gender differences exist in the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency. This study provides support for cultural invariance of self-control theory but suggests that more studies examining gender differences and interaction between gender and race in the theory are required.

  19. Examining the Case for Functional Behavior Assessment as an Evidence-Based Practice for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a review of functional behavior assessment studies in general education setting for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The studies were assessed in accordance with published standards for evidence-based practices. Overall, few studies met criteria for inclusion in this review and even fewer studies included all three…

  20. Examination of a Peer-Mediated Intervention as a Method for the Generalization of Social Skills among Youth with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinert, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a peer-mediated intervention on the generalization of acquired social skills for high-functioning youth with social competence deficits. The literature underscores the importance of providing opportunities for students with social competence deficits to engage in social interactions across…

  1. Probing Mach's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto

    2012-06-01

    The principle of least action in its original form á la Maupertuis is used to explain geodetic and frame-dragging precessions which are customarily accounted for a curved space-time in general relativity. The least-time equations of motion agree with observations and are also in concert with general relativity. Yet according to the least-time principle, gravitation does not relate to the mathematical metric of space-time, but to a tangible energy density embodied by photons. The density of free space is in balance with the total mass of the Universein accord with the Planck law. Likewise, a local photon density and its phase distribution are in balance with the mass and charge distribution of a local body. Here gravitational force is understood as an energy density difference that will diminish when the oppositely polarized pairs of photons co-propagate from the energy-dense system of bodies to the energy-sparse system of the surrounding free space. Thus when the body changes its state of motion, the surrounding energy density must accommodate the change. The concurrent resistance in restructuring the surroundings, ultimately involving the entire Universe, is known as inertia. The all-around propagating energy density couples everything with everything else in accord with Mach’s principle.

  2. Precautionary principle in international law.

    PubMed

    Saladin, C

    2000-01-01

    The deregulatory nature of trade rules frequently brings them into conflict with the precautionary principle. These rules dominate debate over the content and legal status of the precautionary principle at the international level. The World Trade Organization (WTO), because of its power in settling disputes, is a key player. Many States are concerned to define the precautionary principle consistent with WTO rules, which generally means defining it as simply a component of risk analysis. At the same time, many States, especially environmental and public health policymakers, see the principle as the legal basis for preserving domestic and public health measures in the face of deregulatory pressures from the WTO. The precautionary principle has begun to acquire greater content and to move into the operative articles of legally binding international agreements. It is important to continue this trend.

  3. Examining the Impact of Interaction Project with Students with Special Needs on Development of Positive Attitude and Awareness of General Education Teachers towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a project developed to promote interaction of teacher candidates from different areas with individuals with special needs within the scope of a Special Education course and examine the impact of this project on developing positive attitude and awareness on teacher candidates. In this study, a mixed…

  4. Examining the Attitudes and Concerns of the Kenyan Teachers toward the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odongo, George; Davidson, Roseanna

    2016-01-01

    The philosophy of inclusive education aims at enabling all children to learn in the regular education classrooms. It is widely believed that the successful implementation of any inclusive policy is largely influenced by teachers being positive about the expectations. Grounded in Positioning Theory, this study was conducted to examine the attitude,…

  5. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution. The exchange rates to be used for such conversions are the 12 PM rates (the “noon buying rates for cable transfers”) quoted for major currencies by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on... some other widely recognized exchange rates are to be used for all purposes under that agreement,...

  6. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... depository institution. The exchange rates to be used for such conversions are the 12 PM rates (the “noon buying rates for cable transfers”) quoted for major currencies by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on... some other widely recognized exchange rates are to be used for all purposes under that agreement,...

  7. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution. The exchange rates to be used for such conversions are the 12 PM rates (the “noon buying rates for cable transfers”) quoted for major currencies by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on... some other widely recognized exchange rates are to be used for all purposes under that agreement,...

  8. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution. The exchange rates to be used for such conversions are the 12 PM rates (the “noon buying rates for cable transfers”) quoted for major currencies by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on... some other widely recognized exchange rates are to be used for all purposes under that agreement,...

  9. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... quality) appropriate for a given class of food. (b) Labeling for a product which complies with all of the requirements of the nutritional quality guideline established for its class of food may state “This product provides nutrients in amounts appropriate for this class of food as determined by the U.S....

  10. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...” claim is made and the presence of the incidental component significantly limits the ability to recycle... recycled. Example 2: A soft drink bottle is labeled “recycled.” The bottle is made entirely from recycled materials, but the bottle cap is not. Because reasonable consumers are likely to consider the bottle cap...

  11. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” claim is made and the presence of the incidental component significantly limits the ability to recycle... recycled. Example 2: A soft drink bottle is labeled “recycled.” The bottle is made entirely from recycled materials, but the bottle cap is not. Because reasonable consumers are likely to consider the bottle cap...

  12. 16 CFR 260.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the ability to recycle the product, the claim would be deceptive. Example 1: A plastic package... components, cannot be recycled. Example 2: A soft drink bottle is labeled “recycled.” The bottle is made entirely from recycled materials, but the bottle cap is not. Because the bottle cap is a minor,...

  13. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” claim is made and the presence of the incidental component significantly limits the ability to recycle... recycled. Example 2: A soft drink bottle is labeled “recycled.” The bottle is made entirely from recycled materials, but the bottle cap is not. Because reasonable consumers are likely to consider the bottle cap...

  14. 16 CFR 260.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the ability to recycle the product, the claim would be deceptive. Example 1: A plastic package... components, cannot be recycled. Example 2: A soft drink bottle is labeled “recycled.” The bottle is made entirely from recycled materials, but the bottle cap is not. Because the bottle cap is a minor,...

  15. General principles of magnetic fusion confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    A few of the areas are described in which there is close interaction between atomic/molecular (A and M) and magnetic fusion physics. The comparisons between predictions of neoclassical transport theory and experiment depend on knowledge of ionization and recombination rate coefficients. Modeling of divertor/scrapeoff plasmas requires better low energy charge exchange cross sections for H + A/sup n+/ collisions. The range of validity of neutral beam trapping cross sections must be broadened, both to encompass the energies typical of present injection experiments and to deal with the problem of prompt trapping of highly excited beam atoms at high energy. Plasma fueling models present certain anomalies that could be resolved by calculation and measurement of low energy (<1 keV) charge exchange cross sections.

  16. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... depository institution. The exchange rates to be used for such conversions are the 12 PM rates (the “noon buying rates for cable transfers”) quoted for major currencies by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on... which case, the rates so specified shall be used for such conversions. (d) Deposits in insured...

  17. Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-30

    taxpayer’s place of business for purposes of an income tax deduction,25 and relied on Black’s Law Dictionary for the more specialized meaning of the...2d 281 (2d Cir. 1934). 149 SUTHERLAND, STATUTES AND STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION § 23:18 (Norman J. Singer ed., 6th ed. 2002 rev.). 150 Id. 151 TVA v. Hill ...for illegitimate purposes, and is not limited to legitimate businesses that are infiltrated by organized crime.184 It is easy, however, to place too

  18. Tetralogy of Fallot: General Principles of Management.

    PubMed

    Downing, Tacy E; Kim, Yuli Y

    2015-11-01

    Repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common diagnoses encountered when caring for adults with congenital heart disease. Although long-term survival after childhood TOF repair is excellent, morbidity is common and most patients require reintervention in adulthood. This review provides an overview of key surveillance and management issues for adults with TOF, including residual right ventricular outflow tract disease and timing of pulmonary valve replacement, arrhythmias and risk stratification, left-sided heart disease and heart failure, and pregnancy management.

  19. 21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... properties or ingredients. The name shall be uniform among all identical or similar products and may not be... shall include the percentage(s) of any characterizing ingredient(s) or component(s) when the proportion of such ingredient(s) or component(s) in the food has a material bearing on price or...

  20. Professors and Examinations: Ideas of the University in Nineteenth-Century Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The separation of examining from teaching, pushed furthest in the "examining university" of which London University, founded in 1836, was the model, was a much-debated principle in nineteenth-century Britain. This separation was generally rejected in Scotland, but only after complex controversies that illustrate how Scots defined their…

  1. Presentation of respiratory symptoms prior to diagnosis in general practice: a case–control study examining free text and morbidity codes

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Richard A; Chen, Ying; Croft, Peter; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2015-01-01

    Objective General practitioners can record patients’ presenting symptoms by using a code or free text. We compared breathlessness and wheeze symptom codes and free text recorded prior to diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Design A case–control study. Setting 11 general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, contributing to the Consultations in Primary Care Archive consultation database. Participants Cases with an incident diagnosis of IHD, COPD or asthma in 2010 were matched to controls (four per case) with no such diagnosis. All prior consultations with codes for breathlessness or wheeze symptoms between 2004 and 2010 were identified. Free text of cases and controls were also searched for mention of these symptoms. Results 592 cases were identified, 194 (33%) with IHD, 182 (31%) with COPD and 216 (37%) with asthma. 148 (25%) cases and 125 (5%) controls had a prior coded consultation for breathlessness. Prevalence of a prior coded symptom of breathlessness or wheeze was 30% in cases, 6% in controls. Median time from first coded symptom to diagnosis among cases was 57 weeks. After adding symptoms recorded in text, prevalence rose to 62% in cases and 25% in controls. Median time from first recorded symptom increased to 144 weeks. The associations between diagnosis of cases and prior symptom codes was strong IHD relative risk ratio (RRR) 3.21 (2.15 to 4.79); COPD RRR 9.56 (6.74 to 13.60); asthma RRR 10.30 (7.17 to 14.90). Conclusions There is an association between IHD, COPD and asthma diagnosis and earlier consultation for respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are often noted in free text by GPs long before they are coded. Free text searching may aid investigation of early presentation of long-term conditions using GP databases, and may be an important direction for future research. PMID:26070795

  2. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landé, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  3. Principles of Environmental Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Ruth A.

    2007-07-01

    Roy M. Harrison, Editor RSC Publishing; ISBN 0854043713; × + 363 pp.; 2006; $69.95 Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes chemistry of the air, water, and soil. Although it may be confused with green chemistry, which deals with potential pollution reduction, environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical principles that occur in nature. Therefore, it is the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, water, and soil environments, and the effect of human activity on them. Environmental chemistry not only explores each of these environments, but also closely examines the interfaces and boundaries where the environments intersect.

  4. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for the elderly - exploring the lessons from other sectors and examining the general characteristics of the programmes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Portugal, there are several physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people developed by the local government. The importance of these programmes has been increasing since the evidence has shown that this type of health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. However, no study has already identified the general characteristics of these programmes nor if they use any scheme to assess the quality of the service provided. A widely-used scheme is the EFQM Excellence Model, which will be in the core of our present work. Thus, the main aims of this preliminary study were 1) to identify the general characteristics of the PA programmes developed by the Portuguese Local Public Administration 2) to determine the extent of implementation of quality initiatives in these programmes. Methods Data were collected by an on-line questionnaire sent to all Continental Municipalities (n = 278). Categorical data were expressed as absolute counts and percentages. Continuous data were expressed as the mean and SD. An open-ended question was analysed using qualitative content analysis with QSR NVivo software. Associations between categorical variables were tested by the use of contingency tables and the calculation of chi-square tests. Significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results Results showed: i) a total of 125 PA programmes were identified in the 18 districts of the Portugal mainland; ii) the main goal of the majority (95.2%) was the participants' health promotion; iii) different characteristics of the programmes were found according to different regions of the country; iv) certain characteristics of the programmes were associated to the existence of other features; v) only one PA programme developed quality initiatives. Conclusions In conclusion, although there are many PA programmes for elderly people spread throughout the country, aiming at improving the health of participants, the overwhelming majority does not adopt

  5. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  6. Examination of the interrelations between the factors of PTSD, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder in a heterogeneous trauma-exposed sample using DSM 5 criteria.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traumatic events places individuals at high risk for multiple psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The high rates of comorbidity among these conditions merit evaluation in order to improve diagnosis and treatment approaches. The current study evaluated the association between PTSD, MDD, and GAD factors as presented in the DSM 5. 602 trauma-exposed individuals who experienced an event that met Criterion A for the DSM 5 PTSD diagnosis were recruited through Amazon.com, Inc.'s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to complete an assessment of the impact of stressful events on their lives. High interrelations were detected among the 4 PTSD factors, 2 MDD factors that corresponded to somatic and affective symptoms, and the single GAD factor. The affective factor of MDD was most strongly related to the emotional numbing factor of PTSD, whereas the somatic factor of MDD was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD. The GAD factor was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD, relative to the other PTSD factors. The strength of the interrelations between factors of the three disorders is largely a function of the overlap in symptoms and calls into question the uniqueness of negative affective symptoms of PTSD, MDD and GAD. Results suggest that improved understanding of the trauma reaction requires a focus on the unique presentation of each individual and assessment of multiple disorders.

  7. Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Molimard, Mathieu; Bernaud, Corine; Lechat, Philippe; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Benattia, Cherif; Benkritly, Amel; Braunstein, David; Cabut, Sandrine; David, Nadine; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Gallet, Benoit; Gersberg, Marta; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Lamarque-Garnier, Véronique; Le Jeunne, Claire; Leurs, Irina; Liard, François; Malbezin, Muriel; Micallef, Joelle; Nguon, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use.

  8. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  9. Covert checks by standardised patients of general practitioners' delivery of new periodic health examinations: clustered cross-sectional study from a consumer organisation

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Kylie; Harris, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess if data collected by a consumer organisation are valid for a health service research study on physicians' performance in preventive care. To report first results of the analysis of physicians performance like consultation time and guideline adherence in history taking. Design Secondary data analysis of a clustered cross-sectional direct observation survey. Setting General practitioners (GPs) in Vienna, Austria, visited unannounced by mystery shoppers (incognito standardised patients (ISPs)). Participants 21 randomly selected GPs were visited by two different ISPs each. 40 observation protocols were realised. Main outcome measures Robustness of sampling and data collection by the consumer organisation. GPs consultation and waiting times, guideline adherence in history taking. Results The double stratified random sampling method was robust and representative for the private and contracted GPs mix of Vienna. The clinical scenarios presented by the ISPs were valid and believable, and no GP realised the ISPs were not genuine patients. The average consultation time was 46 min (95% CI 37 to 54 min). Waiting times differed more than consultation times between private and contracted GPs. No differences between private and contracted GPs in terms of adherence to the evidence-based guidelines regarding history taking including questions regarding alcohol use were found. According to the analysis, 20% of the GPs took a perfect history (95% CI 9% to 39%). Conclusions The analysis of secondary data collected by a consumer organisation was a valid method for drawing conclusions about GPs preventive practice. Initial results, like consultation times longer than anticipated, and the moderate quality of history taking encourage continuing the analysis on available clinical data. PMID:22872721

  10. An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice.

  11. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  12. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Zaida; Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  13. On the variational principles in linear elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Luo; Cheung, Y. K.

    1988-11-01

    A new approach is proposed for the systematic derivation of varïous variational principles in linear elastodynamics. Based on an important integral relation in terms of convolutions given by the authors, the new approach can be used to derive the complementary functionals for the five-field, four-field, three-field, two-field and one-field variational principles more simply and directly. Furthermore, with this approach, it is possible not only to derive the variational principles given by Herrera and Bielak, Oden and Reddy, but also to develop new more general variational principles. And the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  14. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  16. Psychological Principles in Materials Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cynthia M.

    Those psychological principles which might aid the teacher in the selection of instructional materials are examined. Since learning is a process which builds sequentially on past learning, beginning reading materials should include words that have personal relevance for the individual child. Meaningful material is learned more quickly than…

  17. The strong maximum principle revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  18. Action principle for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avignon, Eric; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2015-04-01

    A covariant action principle for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in terms of natural Eulerian field variables is given. This is done by generalizing the covariant Poisson bracket theory of Marsden et al. [Ann. Phys. 169, 29 (1986)], which uses a noncanonical bracket to effect constrained variations of an action functional. Various implications and extensions of this action principle are also discussed. Two significant byproducts of this formalism are the introduction of a new divergence-free 4-vector variable for the magnetic field, and a new Lie-dragged form for the theory.

  19. Kepler and Mach's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Julian

    The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

  20. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

    2013-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  1. Beneficence as a principle in human research.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ian; Thomson, Colin J H

    2016-06-01

    Beneficence is one of the four principles that form the basis of the Australian National Statement. The aim of this paper is to explore the philosophical development of this principle and to clarify the role that beneficence plays in contemporary discussions about human research ethics. By examining the way that guidance documents, particularly the National Statement, treats beneficence we offer guidance to researchers and human research ethics committee members on the practical application of what can be a conceptually difficult principle.

  2. Nonextensive entropies derived from Gauss' principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Tatsuaki

    2011-05-01

    Gauss' principle in statistical mechanics is generalized for a q-exponential distribution in nonextensive statistical mechanics. It determines the associated stochastic and statistical nonextensive entropies which satisfy Greene-Callen principle concerning on the equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles.

  3. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  4. Accounting Principles 30G. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide was developed for a senior-level introductory accounting course for students in high schools in Manitoba. The course introduces Canadian accounting principles and practices; it applies Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to introductory financial accounting. The guide includes the following components: (1) an…

  5. Intuitions, principles and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, A

    2001-01-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences. Key Words: Intuitions • principles • consequences • utilitarianism PMID:11233371

  6. Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

  7. The Effectiveness of Core ER Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun-Young; Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion piece continues the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) from the April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language." In that forum, a number of the discussions were concerned with the principles of ER (Day & Bamford, 2002) in implementing ER. Our discussion also concerns the principles; we examine ER programs…

  8. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  9. Paediatric short case examination.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2014-11-01

    The short case is a highly artificial scenario, in which the examination candidate is given little or no history and instructed to examine one system or one aspect of a patient and draw conclusions. Despite their artificiality, short cases test clinical skills which senior paediatricians value and consider essential qualities of a competent physician. This article presents some general suggestions on an approach to doing short case examinations.

  10. The European Principles of Haemophilia Care: a pilot investigation of adherence to the principles in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Hermans, C

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 the 10 Principles of Haemophilia Care were outlined to provide a benchmark for haemophilia treatment. The EHTSB performed a survey to establish to what extent the Principles of Haemophilia Care were being applied throughout Europe. In total, 21 centres from 14 countries (France, UK, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Greece and Italy), were surveyed. A central organization of haemophilia care (principle 1) was present in 79%, and a central patient registry in 57% (principle 2). National haemophilia care decision-making was performed by clinicians, ministries and patient organizations (principle 4). All had designated comprehensive care centres (CCC--principle 3), responsible the majority of severe patients, but in 36% some patients were treated outside CCC/haemophilia treatment centres (HTC)s. Clotting factor concentrates were available everywhere, without dosing restraints (principle 5), including recombinant products in 86% of countries. Prophylactic treatment was available for all children but not for all adults (principle 7). Immune tolerance was available in all countries (principle 9). Home treatment was supported and taught by all centres (principle 6). At centre level, 86% had 24-h laboratory facilities and all participated in education and research (principle 10). An experienced haematologist was available at all centres, a paediatrician in 47%, and prompt out of hours review was available in all (principle 8). The Principles of Haemophilia Care were generally applied throughout Europe. Some aspects of centralization, national organization of care, use of registries, formal paediatric care and prophylaxis for adults may be improved.

  11. New Patterns of Teacher Education and Tasks. General Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This monograph includes three papers that discuss ways teachers can respond to new teaching and learning demands. Part 1, "Initial and Continuing Training of Teachers: New Trends and Concepts," examines (a) general principles of the development of teacher education, (b) implications of new trends and concepts for recruiting members of the teaching…

  12. LOGO and the Development of General Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasnor, Linda R.; Mitterer, John O.

    1984-01-01

    Provides framework for assessing the extent to which problem-solving skills learned through LOGO, a children's graphics-oriented-structured computer language, may be transferred to other contexts. Examines principles governing generalization of learning. Discusses learning transfer and components of the LOGO experience that may affect transfer.…

  13. A Content Analysis of the TEFL M.A. Entrance Examinations (Case Study: Majors Courses)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Heydari Tabrizi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The MA Entrance Examinations (MAEE) held in Iran since 1990 are frequently criticized as being invalid, unstandardized exams with lots of problem in terms of principles of testing in general and test construction in particular (for instance, Jafarpur, 1996). To make sound judgments about such objections, the present study dealt with a content…

  14. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  15. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4A on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4A: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  17. Finite Frames and Graph Theoretic Uncertainty Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Paul J.

    The subject of analytical uncertainty principles is an important field within harmonic analysis, quantum physics, and electrical engineering. We explore uncertainty principles in the context of the graph Fourier transform, and we prove additive results analogous to the multiplicative version of the classical uncertainty principle. We establish additive uncertainty principles for finite Parseval frames. Lastly, we examine the feasibility region of simultaneous values of the norms of a graph differential operator acting on a function f ∈ l2(G) and its graph Fourier transform.

  18. Extrapolation, uncertainty factors, and the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    This essay examines the relationship between the precautionary principle and uncertainty factors used by toxicologists to estimate acceptable exposure levels for toxic chemicals from animal experiments. It shows that the adoption of uncertainty factors in the United States in the 1950s can be understood by reference to the precautionary principle, but not by cost-benefit analysis because of a lack of relevant quantitative data at that time. In addition, it argues that uncertainty factors continue to be relevant to efforts to implement the precautionary principle and that the precautionary principle should not be restricted to cases involving unquantifiable hazards.

  19. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  20. Hamilton's principle as inequality for inelastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Lv, Q. C.; Liu, Y. R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies with conservative external forces. Inelasticity is described by internal variable theory by Rice (J Mech Phys Solids 19:433-455, 1971), and the influence of strain change on the temperature field is ignored. Unlike Hamilton's principle for elastic bodies which has an explicit Lagrangian, Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies generally has no an explicit Lagrangian. Based on the entropy inequality, a quasi Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies is established in the form of inequality and with an explicit Lagrangian, which is just the Lagrangian for elastic bodies by replacing the strain energy with free energy. The quasi Hamilton's principle for inelastic bodies states that the actual motion is distinguished by making the action an maximum. The evolution equations of internal variables can not be recovered from the quasi Hamilton's principle.

  1. A time-dependent variational principle and the time-dependent Hartree approximation in hydrodynamical form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J. V.; Haftel, M. I.; Herling, G. H.

    1989-05-01

    A quantum mechanical time-dependent variational principle is generalized using the classical theory of fluids to obtain a variational principle suitable for the fluid dynamical description of mixed state quantum mechanics. A newly derived set of moment equations, in both standard and renormalized form, can be derived with the aid of this principle through minimization of the error in expressing the total derivative of the Wigner function. Coupled systems are studied in the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) approximation using a novel variational principle, and the renormalization procedure used earlier in the examination of single particle dynamics is extended to the TDH analysis. Use of a local Maxwellian ansatz for each particle results in a particularly simple ``two-fluid'' theory, the TDH/LM approximation, which does not violate the standard and renormalized energy conservation theorems derived earlier for the single particle equations. The fluid dynamical TDH/LM approximation is shown to possess a simple semiclassical interpretation.

  2. Principlism and communitarianism.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    2003-10-01

    The decline in the interest in ethical theory is first outlined, as a background to the author's discussion of principlism. The author's own stance, that of a communitarian philosopher, is then described, before the subject of principlism itself is addressed. Two problems stand in the way of the author's embracing principlism: its individualistic bias and its capacity to block substantive ethical inquiry. The more serious problem the author finds to be its blocking function. Discussing the four scenarios the author finds that the utility of principlism is shown in the two scenarios about Jehovah's Witnesses but that when it comes to selling kidneys for transplantation and germline enhancement, principlism is of little help.

  3. Driving Toward Guiding Principles

    PubMed Central

    Buckovich, Suzy A.; Rippen, Helga E.; Rozen, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate. PMID:10094065

  4. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA′ Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D’Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6–8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70 % of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63 % of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  5. Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA' multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community.

    PubMed

    Holm, Margo B; Baird, Joanne M; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community.

  6. Design principles for achieving integrated healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-03-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed 'Standardized pull of patient data' expanded and is now used on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii) identification of key healthcare actors to provide them with immediate benefits.

  7. Complementary Huygens Principle for Geometrical and Nongeometrical Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    We develop a fundamental principle depicting the generalized ray formulation of optics provided by the Wigner function. This principle is formally identical to the Huygens-Fresnel principle but in terms of opposite concepts, rays instead of waves, and incoherent superpositions instead of coherent ones. This ray picture naturally includes…

  8. Vedic principles of therapy.

    PubMed

    Boyer, R W

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces Vedic principles of therapy as a holistic integration of healing and human development. The most integrative aspect is a "consciousness-based" approach in which the bottom line of the mind is consciousness itself, accessed by transcending mental activity to its simplest ground state. This directly contrasts with "unconscious-based" approaches that hold the basis of conscious mind is the unconscious, such as analytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Although not presented as a specific therapeutic approach, interventions associated with this Vedic approach have extensive support in the applied research literature. A brief review of experimental research toward a general model of mind-and cutting-edge developments in quantum physics toward nonlocal mind-shows a convergence on the ancient Vedic model of mind. Comparisons with contemporary therapies further show that the simplicity, subtlety, and holistic nature of the Vedic approach represent a significant advance over approaches which have overlooked the fundamental ground state of the mind.

  9. Instructional Software Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Margret

    1985-01-01

    Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective principles for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)

  10. Organizing principles for dense packings of nonspherical hard particles: Not all shapes are created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore; Jiao, Yang

    2012-07-01

    We have recently devised organizing principles to obtain maximally dense packings of the Platonic and Archimedean solids and certain smoothly shaped convex nonspherical particles [Torquato and Jiao, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.041310 81, 041310 (2010)]. Here we generalize them in order to guide one to ascertain the densest packings of other convex nonspherical particles as well as concave shapes. Our generalized organizing principles are explicitly stated as four distinct propositions. All of our organizing principles are applied to and tested against the most comprehensive set of both convex and concave particle shapes examined to date, including Catalan solids, prisms, antiprisms, cylinders, dimers of spheres, and various concave polyhedra. We demonstrate that all of the densest known packings associated with this wide spectrum of nonspherical particles are consistent with our propositions. Among other applications, our general organizing principles enable us to construct analytically the densest known packings of certain convex nonspherical particles, including spherocylinders, “lens-shaped” particles, square pyramids, and rhombic pyramids. Moreover, we show how to apply these principles to infer the high-density equilibrium crystalline phases of hard convex and concave particles. We also discuss the unique packing attributes of maximally random jammed packings of nonspherical particles.

  11. Sticking to its principles.

    PubMed

    1992-03-27

    Planned Parenthood says that rather than accept the Bush administration's gag rule it will give up federal funding of its operations. The gag rule forbids professionals at birth control clinics from even referring to abortion as an option to a pregnant woman, much less recommending one. President Bush has agreed to a policy which allows physicians but no one else at clinics to discuss abortion in at least some cases. In his view, according to White House officials, this was an admitted attempt to straddle the issue. Why he would want to straddle is understandable. The right wing of his party, which has always been suspicious of Mr. Bush, is pushing him to uphold what it regards as the Reagan legacy on this issue. The original gag rule, which prevented even physicians from discussing abortion as an option in almost all cases, was issued in the last presidents's 2nd term and upheld last year by the Supreme Court. Give Planned Parenthood credit for sticking to its principles. A lot of recipients of all sorts of federal funds want it both ways, take the money but not accept federal policy guidelines. When they find they can't, many "rise above principle," take the money and adjust policy accordingly. It is not going to be easy for Planned Parenthood now. Federal funds account for a significant portion of the organizations's budgets. Planned Parenthood of Maryland, for example, gets about $500,000 a year from the federal government, or about 12-13% of its total budget. It will either have to cut back on its services or increase its fundraising from other sources or charge women more for services--or all of those things. This is not the end of the story. It is certainly not the end of the political story. Pat Buchanan said of the new regulations, "I like the old position, to be quite candid." Thank goodness he never won a primary. George Bush would not have moved even as far as he hid on the gag rule. There will be a lot of agreement with the Buchanan view at the

  12. [Examining victims of interpersonal violence].

    PubMed

    Laberke, Patrick J; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Mauf, Sabrina; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-01-14

    Interpersonal violence represents a widespread phenomenon with a high prevalence. Consequences of these acts of violence are serious and extensive to the victims and from a socio-economic point of view. Physical examination of the victims is a key aspect in the medic-legal expertise. This article describes the basic principles and the standard procedures in conjunction with the examination of violent crime victims.

  13. Principles of JTIDS Relative Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, J. F. O.

    This paper describes one of the key features of the JTIDS/Link 16 tactical data-link, namely its relative navigation facility. A brief overview of the general features of the JTIDS system is given to provide the necessary background to the navigation aspects, and some mention is made of the message-exchange facilities. The main part of the paper describes how the JTIDS system provides the capability to perform accurate navigation, and discusses the basic principles of its operation. Some applications of the navigation function which enhance operational effectiveness are then described. The following topics are covered:(ii) JTIDS Architecture(i) Definition of JTIDS/Link 16(iii) Principles of Relative Navigation(iv) Source Selection(v) The Kalman Filter(vi) Time Synchronization(vii) The Use of Relative Navigation(viii) The Relative Grid

  14. Core principles in treating suicidal patients.

    PubMed

    Fowler, James Christopher

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of suicidal individuals requires special attention to therapist interventions that promote a viable treatment alliance in the context of shared responsibilities for patient safety. Three core principles in the treatment process (alliance building, enhancing curiosity about the function of suicidal thoughts and urges, as well as enhancing experience and expression of intense emotions) are articulated and brief case vignettes are used to illuminate the principles. Results from open trails and randomized control trials involving suicidal patients are examined to support the evidence-based practice of these principles. The overarching principle undergirding the utility of the principles is a collaborative joining with the patient to decrease isolation and alienation when facing intense and overwhelming emotions.

  15. Triangulating Speech Sound Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miccio, Adele W.; Powell, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Generalization refers to the extension of learned behaviours to novel conditions, and it is one of the criteria by which the effectiveness and efficiency of a remediation programme may be judged. This article extracts principles of generalization from the treatment literature, and provides examples of how this information may be used to help guide…

  16. Assessment Principles and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Golnik, Karl C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described. PMID:24791100

  17. Einstein's equivalence principle in quantum mechanics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The gravitational equivalence principle in quantum mechanics is of considerable importance, but it is generally not included in physics textbooks. In this note, we present a precise quantum formulation of this principle and comment on its verification in a neutron diffraction experiment. The solution of the time dependent Schrödinger equation for this problem also gives the wave function for the motion of a charged particle in a homogeneous electric field, which is also usually ignored in textbooks on quantum mechanics.

  18. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  19. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  20. A New Principle in Physiscs: the Principle "Finiteness", and Some Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham Sternlieb

    2010-06-25

    In this paper I propose a new principle in physics: the principle of "finiteness". It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals (among other things) with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results, including their errors, are always finite, the principle of finiteness postulates that the mathematical formulation of "legitimate" laws of physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. Some consequences of the principle of finiteness are discussed, in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The consequences are derived independently of any other theory or principle in physics. I propose "finiteness" as a postulate (like the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, "c"), as opposed to a notion whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories, or principles.

  1. The Examination of the Musculoskeletal System Based Only on the Evaluation of Pelvic-Hip Complex Muscle and Trunk Flexibility May Lead to Failure to Screen Children for Generalized Joint Hypermobility

    PubMed Central

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Kędra, Agnieszka; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kolwicz-Gańko, Aleksandra; Leszczewska, Justyna; Tyrakowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the clinical assessment of the pelvic-hip complex muscle and trunk flexibility is sufficient for diagnosing generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Center of Body Posture in Olsztyn, North East Poland. Participants The study included 136 females and 113 males aged 10–13 years. Main outcome measures In order to assess muscle flexibility, the straight leg raise (SLR) test (for hamstring) and modified Thomas test for one- (O-JHF) and two-joint (T-JHF) hip flexors were performed. To evaluate trunk flexibility the fingertip-to-floor (FTF) and lateral trunk flexion (LTF) tests were used. The GJH occurrence was assessed with the use of nine-point Beighton scale (threshold value ≥5 points for females, ≥4 for males). The analysis was carried out separately for females and males. Results There were no significant differences between females with versus without GJH, and males with versus without GJH regarding SLR (p = 0.86, p = 0.19 for females and males, respectively), O-JHF (p = 0.89, p = 0.35 for females and males, respectively), T-JHF (p = 0.77, p = 0.4 for females and males, respectively), FTF (p = 0.19, p = 0.84 for females and males, respectively) and LTF (p = 0.58, p = 0.35 for females and males, respectively) tests results. Conclusions Clinical examination of the pelvic-hip complex muscles and trunk flexibility by use of SLR, O-JHF, T-JHF, FTF and LTF revealed to be insufficient in diagnosing GJH in children aged 10–13 years. Thus, the Beighton scale should be considered a standard element of physiotherapeutic examination of the musculoskeletal system in children and youth. PMID:25786251

  2. Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reybold, L Earle

    2009-01-01

    Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures.

  3. Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…

  4. What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.

  5. Global versus local — Mach’s principle versus the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Douglas; Wilburn, Steve

    2016-08-01

    The equivalence principle is the conceptual basis for general relativity. In contrast, Mach’s principle, although said to have been influential on Einstein in his formulation of general relativity, has not been shown to be central to the structure of general relativity. In this paper, we suggest that the quantum effects of Hawking and Unruh radiation are a manifestation of a thermal Mach’s principle, where the local thermodynamic properties of the system are determined by the nonlocal structure of the quantum fields which determine the vacuum of a given spacetime. By comparing Hawking and Unruh temperatures for the same local acceleration we find a violation of the Einstein elevator version of the equivalence principle, which vanishes in the limit that the horizon is approached.

  6. Principles of periodontology.

    PubMed

    Dentino, Andrew; Lee, Seokwoo; Mailhot, Jason; Hefti, Arthur F

    2013-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting humans. Dental biofilm is a contributor to the etiology of most periodontal diseases. It is also widely accepted that immunological and inflammatory responses to biofilm components are manifested by signs and symptoms of periodontal disease. The outcome of such interaction is modulated by risk factors (modifiers), either inherent (genetic) or acquired (environmental), significantly affecting the initiation and progression of different periodontal disease phenotypes. While definitive genetic determinants responsible for either susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease have yet to be identified, many factors affecting the pathogenesis have been described, including smoking, diabetes, obesity, medications, and nutrition. Currently, periodontal diseases are classified based upon clinical disease traits using radiographs and clinical examination. Advances in genomics, molecular biology, and personalized medicine may result in new guidelines for unambiguous disease definition and diagnosis in the future. Recent studies have implied relationships between periodontal diseases and systemic conditions. Answering critical questions regarding host-parasite interactions in periodontal diseases may provide new insight in the pathogenesis of other biomedical disorders. Therapeutic efforts have focused on the microbial nature of the infection, as active treatment centers on biofilm disruption by non-surgical mechanical debridement with antimicrobial and sometimes anti-inflammatory adjuncts. The surgical treatment aims at gaining access to periodontal lesions and correcting unfavorable gingival/osseous contours to achieve a periodontal architecture that will provide for more effective oral hygiene and periodontal maintenance. In addition, advances in tissue engineering have provided innovative means to regenerate/repair periodontal defects, based upon principles of guided tissue regeneration and utilization

  7. Political tolerance of homosexuals: the role of group attitudes and legal principles.

    PubMed

    Riggle, E D; Ellis, A L

    1994-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes toward and acceptance of general legal principles were assessed along with their willingness to extend application of these principles to various social and political groups, including homosexuals. Respondents then indicated their attitudes toward various social and political groups, including the groups to whom they had applied the general principles. Regression analyses were used to determine to what degree acceptance of the general principle and attitude toward the social group predicted application of the general principle to the group. For disliked groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and Nazis, individuals' acceptance of the general principle alone predicted the specific application. For homosexuals, however, the application of the general principle was affected both by acceptance of the general principle and by individuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. The implications of this difference in light of research addressing the cognitive and affective nature of attitudes and attitude change is discussed.

  8. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  9. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  10. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

  11. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  12. Improving Otolaryngology Residency Selection Using Principles from Personnel Psychology.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M; Gray, Stacey T

    2017-03-01

    There has been a heightened focus on improving the resident selection process, particularly within highly competitive specialties. Previous research, however, has generally lacked a theoretical background, leading to inconsistent and biased results. Our recently published systematic review examining applicant characteristics and performance in residency can provide historical insight into the predictors (ie, constructs) and outcomes (ie, criteria) previously deemed pertinent by the otolaryngology community. Personnel psychology uses evidence-based practices to identify the most qualified candidates for employment using a variety of selection methods. Extensive research in this discipline has shown that integrity tests, structured interviews, work samples, and conscientiousness offer the greatest increase in validity when combined with general cognitive ability. Blending past research knowledge with the principles of personnel selection can provide the necessary foundation with which to engage in theory-driven, longitudinal studies on otolaryngology resident selection moving forward.

  13. Principles Underlying the Use of Multiple Informants’ Reports

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Thomas, Sarah A.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kundey, Shannon M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers use multiple informants’ reports to assess and examine behavior. However, informants’ reports commonly disagree. Informants’ reports often disagree in their perceived levels of a behavior (“low” vs. “elevated” mood), and examining multiple reports in a single study often results in inconsistent findings. Although researchers often espouse taking a multi-informant assessment approach, they frequently address informant discrepancies using techniques that treat discrepancies as measurement error. Yet, recent work indicates that researchers in a variety of fields often may be unable to justify treating informant discrepancies as measurement error. In this paper, the authors advance a framework (Operations Triad Model) outlining general principles for using and interpreting informants’ reports. Using the framework, researchers can test whether or not they can extract meaningful information about behavior from discrepancies among multiple informants’ reports. The authors provide supportive evidence for this framework and discuss its implications for hypothesis testing, study design, and quantitative review. PMID:23140332

  14. Maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element scheme applied to compressible multifluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hua; Wen, Chih-Yung; Parsani, Matteo; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2017-02-01

    A maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is constructed to solve a reduced five-equation model coupled with the stiffened equation of state for compressible multifluids. We first derive a sufficient condition for CE/SE schemes to satisfy maximum-principle when solving a general conservation law. And then we introduce a slope limiter to ensure the sufficient condition which is applicative for both central and upwind CE/SE schemes. Finally, we implement the upwind maximum-principle-satisfying CE/SE scheme to solve the volume-fraction-based five-equation model for compressible multifluids. Several numerical examples are carried out to carefully examine the accuracy, efficiency, conservativeness and maximum-principle-satisfying property of the proposed approach.

  15. Ethical principles and concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical ethics is the application of ethical theories, principles, rules, and guidelines to clinical situations in medicine. Therefore, clinical ethics is analogous to clinical medicine in that general principles and concepts must be applied intelligently and thoughtfully to unique clinical circumstances. The three major ethical theories are consequentialism, whereby the consequences of an action determine whether it is ethical; deontology, whereby to be ethical is to do one's duty, and virtue ethics, whereby ethics is a matter of cultivating appropriate virtues. In the real world of medicine, most people find that all three perspectives offer useful insights and are complementary rather than contradictory. The most common approach to clinical ethical analysis is principlism. According to principlism, the medical practitioner must attempt to uphold four important principles: respect for patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. When these principles conflict, resolving them depends on the details of the case. Alternative approaches to medical ethics, including the primacy of beneficence, care-based ethics, feminist ethics, and narrative ethics, help to define the limitations of principlism and provide a broader perspective on medical ethics.

  16. Is the Precautionary Principle Really Incoherent?

    PubMed

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas

    2017-02-28

    The Precautionary Principle has been an increasingly important principle in international treaties since the 1980s. Through varying formulations, it states that when an activity can lead to a catastrophe for human health or the environment, measures should be taken to prevent it even if the cause-and-effect relationship is not fully established scientifically. The Precautionary Principle has been critically discussed from many sides. This article concentrates on a theoretical argument by Peterson (2006) according to which the Precautionary Principle is incoherent with other desiderata of rational decision making, and thus cannot be used as a decision rule that selects an action among several ones. I claim here that Peterson's argument fails to establish the incoherence of the Precautionary Principle, by attacking three of its premises. I argue (i) that Peterson's treatment of uncertainties lacks generality, (ii) that his Archimedian condition is problematic for incommensurability reasons, and (iii) that his explication of the Precautionary Principle is not adequate. This leads me to conjecture that the Precautionary Principle can be envisaged as a coherent decision rule, again.

  17. A Principle of Intentionality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  18. Applying the four principles.

    PubMed

    Macklin, R

    2003-10-01

    Gillon is correct that the four principles provide a sound and useful way of analysing moral dilemmas. As he observes, the approach using these principles does not provide a unique solution to dilemmas. This can be illustrated by alternatives to Gillon's own analysis of the four case scenarios. In the first scenario, a different set of factual assumptions could yield a different conclusion about what is required by the principle of beneficence. In the second scenario, although Gillon's conclusion is correct, what is open to question is his claim that what society regards as the child's best interest determines what really is in the child's best interest. The third scenario shows how it may be reasonable for the principle of beneficence to take precedence over autonomy in certain circumstances, yet like the first scenario, the ethical conclusion relies on a set of empirical assumptions and predictions of what is likely to occur. The fourth scenario illustrates how one can draw different conclusions based on the importance given to the precautionary principle.

  19. A Principle of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  20. Principles of multisensory behavior.

    PubMed

    Otto, Thomas U; Dassy, Brice; Mamassian, Pascal

    2013-04-24

    The combined use of multisensory signals is often beneficial. Based on neuronal recordings in the superior colliculus of cats, three basic rules were formulated to describe the effectiveness of multisensory signals: the enhancement of neuronal responses to multisensory compared with unisensory signals is largest when signals occur at the same location ("spatial rule"), when signals are presented at the same time ("temporal rule"), and when signals are rather weak ("principle of inverse effectiveness"). These rules are also considered with respect to multisensory benefits as observed with behavioral measures, but do they capture these benefits best? To uncover the principles that rule benefits in multisensory behavior, we here investigated the classical redundant signal effect (RSE; i.e., the speedup of response times in multisensory compared with unisensory conditions) in humans. Based on theoretical considerations using probability summation, we derived two alternative principles to explain the effect. First, the "principle of congruent effectiveness" states that the benefit in multisensory behavior (here the speedup of response times) is largest when behavioral performance in corresponding unisensory conditions is similar. Second, the "variability rule" states that the benefit is largest when performance in corresponding unisensory conditions is unreliable. We then tested these predictions in two experiments, in which we manipulated the relative onset and the physical strength of distinct audiovisual signals. Our results, which are based on a systematic analysis of response time distributions, show that the RSE follows these principles very well, thereby providing compelling evidence in favor of probability summation as the underlying combination rule.

  1. Standards for Quality? A Citical Appraisal of the Berlin Principles for International Rankings of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hägg, Ingemund; Wedlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the principles developed to assure the quality of international ranking practices for higher education, the so-called Berlin Principles, and the role given to them in the higher education community. While the principles are generally regarded as proper quality assurance principles, they are problematic both in their content…

  2. 29 CFR 779.101 - Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption... Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.101 Guiding principles for...; Fleming v. Hawkeye Pearl Button Co., 113 F. 2d 52.) Conditions specified in the language of the Act...

  3. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time... or in excess of another applicable overtime work standard under section 7(k) of the Fair Labor... direction of the agency is “hours of work.” Such time includes: (1) Time during which an employee...

  4. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  5. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  6. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  7. 43 CFR 1601.0-8 - Principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principles. 1601.0-8 Section 1601.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  8. Devising Principles of Design for Numeracy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Vince; Forgasz, Helen; Goos, Merrilyn; Bennison, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Numeracy is a fundamental component of the Australian National Curriculum as a General Capability identified in each F-10 subject. In this paper, we consider the principles of design necessary for the development of numeracy tasks specific to subjects other than mathematics--in this case, the subject of English. We explore the nature of potential…

  9. [Ethical principles in electronvulsivotherapy].

    PubMed

    Richa, S; De Carvalho, W

    2016-12-01

    ECT or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a therapeutic technique invented in 1935 but which was really developed after World War II and then spreading widely until the mid 1960s. The source of this technique, and some forms of stigma including films, have participated widely to make it suspect from a moral point of view. The ethical principles that support the establishment of a treatment by ECT are those relating to any action in psychiatry and are based on the one hand on the founding principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice, and on the other hand on the information on the technical and consent to this type of care.

  10. Teaching/learning principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  11. Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence for within- and between-Language Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Method: Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant,…

  12. [Human rights and genetics: the fundamental principles of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights].

    PubMed

    Bergel, S D

    1998-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights sets out generally agreed criteria in response to the human rights challenges posed by advances in molecular biology and genetics. The lynchpin of these criteria is respect for human dignity, a premise from which other principles are derived. The author examines and gives the justification for these principles, and refers to another crucial bioethics text, the recent Council of Europe Convention on the protection of human rights and the dignity of the human person in regard to applications of biology and medicine.

  13. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  14. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  15. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike.

  16. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  17. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

    2014-03-18

    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  18. Standing on Principle: Values Trump Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natural, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Effective group programs with challenging youth need to be grounded in a clear understanding of core principles that guide effective practice. This article examines the operating philosophy of an established outdoor education and therapy program which combines the Re-ED philosophy of Nicholas Hobbs (1994) with adventure education developed by…

  19. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

  20. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  1. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  2. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  3. General Drafting. Technical Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    The manual provides instructional guidance and reference material in the principles and procedures of general drafting and constitutes the primary study text for personnel in drafting as a military occupational specialty. Included is information on drafting equipment and its use; line weights, conventions and formats; lettering; engineering charts…

  4. Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Hirvijoki, Eero

    2016-09-14

    In this study, an action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas is proposed. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd potentials. Conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles.

  5. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  6. A variational principle for turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, M. E.

    1980-11-01

    A general control theory is proposed to select the realized stationary state whenever the equations of motion are densely nonunique (degenerate). For the turbulent flow in a pipe with given pressure gradient, the theory implies that the discharge is an extremum. Quantitative results, such as von Karman's constant, emerge when this variational principle is combined with inequalities pertaining to the mean field. The control theory is also applied to fully turbulent thermal convection, and a variational principle for this problem is obtained which is also consistent with measurements.

  7. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, R; Kersten, H; Vinkka-Puhakka, H; Alpasan, G; Bearn, D; Cema, I; Delap, E; Dummer, P; Goulet, J P; Gugushe, T; Jeniati, E; Jerolimov, V; Kotsanos, N; Krifka, S; Levy, G; Neway, M; Ogawa, T; Saag, M; Sidlauskas, A; Skaleric, U; Vervoorn, M; White, D

    2008-02-01

    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and horizontal integration. It discusses the use of competence, learning outcomes, level of degree and assessment and provides a number of recommendations. It does not seek to be prescriptive of time allocation to disciplines within a curriculum. Although this report has been written primarily for those who will develop an undergraduate curriculum, the information may be sufficiently generic to apply to the recent development in graduate entry ('shortened dental' or 'accelerated') courses and to postgraduate degree planning and higher education certificate or diploma courses for other dental care professionals (auxiliaries). The report may have a European bias as progress is made to converge and enhance educational standards in 29 countries with different educational approaches - a microcosm of global collaboration.

  8. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco

    2014-05-19

    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease.

  9. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease. PMID:24686937

  10. A Simple Model of Entrepreneurship for Principles of Economics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    The critical roles of entrepreneurs in creating, operating, and destroying markets, as well as their importance in driving long-term economic growth are still generally either absent from principles of economics texts or relegated to later chapters. The primary difficulties in explaining entrepreneurship at the principles level are the lack of a…

  11. 17 CFR 37.6 - Compliance with core principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with core... DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.6 Compliance with core principles. (a) In general. To... transaction execution facility must have the capacity to be, and be, in compliance with the core principles...

  12. Robertson-Schrödinger formulation of Ozawa's uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Costa Dias, Nuno; Nuno Prata, João

    2015-07-01

    A more general measurement disturbance uncertainty principle is presented in a Robertson-Schrödinger formulation. It is shown that it is stronger and having nicer properties than Ozawa's uncertainty relations. In particular it is invariant under symplectic transformations. One shows also that there are states of the probe (measuring device) that saturate the matrix formulation of measurement disturbance uncertainty principle.

  13. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4... ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All... wrongful if it is done without justification or excuse cognizable under applicable law. The element...

  14. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4... ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All... wrongful if it is done without justification or excuse cognizable under applicable law. The element...

  15. Principles and Practices for Championship Performances in Wheelchair Field Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses training and competing in wheelchair sports. General principles of training, including scheduling and content considerations, are listed. Principles for specific wheelchair events (shotput, discus, and javelin) are detailed. A final part addresses training for the wheelchair pentathlon, which includes archery, swimming,…

  16. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

  17. Principles of Glacier Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, Edwin D.

    Glaciers are awesome in size and move at a majestic pace, and they frequently occupy spectacular mountainous terrain. Naturally, many Earth scientists are attracted to glaciers. Some of us are even fortunate enough to make a career of studying glacier flow. Many others work on the large, flat polar ice sheets where there is no scenery. As a leader of one of the foremost research projects now studying the flow of mountain glaciers (Storglaciaren, Norway), Roger Hooke is well qualified to describe the principles of glacier mechanics. Principles of Glacier Mechanics is written for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students with an interest in glaciers and the landforms that glaciers produce. While most of the examples in the text are drawn from valley glacier studies, much of the material is also relevant to “glacier flatland” on the polar ice sheets.

  18. Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A principle of quantum theory, devised in 1925 by Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58), which states that no two fermions may exist in the same quantum state. The quantum state of a particle is defined by a set of numbers that describe quantities such as energy, angular momentum and spin. Fermions are particles such as quarks, protons, neutrons and electrons, that have spin = ½ (in units of h/2π, where h is ...

  19. Software Engineering Principles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    but many differences as well . ct goal: Develop a family of military message systems using 2nt software engineering principles :ovide useful product to...The hard copy could then be manually scanned , distributed, and logged. SMP would be useful in developing and testing MP. It would provide minimal...design decisions.t4 C. Alternative ways to develop the program 1. Start from scratch. 2. Start with Stage 3. Scan line by line and make required changes. 3

  20. A correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  1. Principles of thermoacoustic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avent, A. W.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustics exploit a temperature gradient to produce powerful acoustic pressure waves. The technology has a key role to play in energy harvesting systems. A time-line in the development of thermoacoustics is presented from its earliest recorded example in glass blowing through to the development of the Sondhauss and Rijke tubes to Stirling engines and pulse-tube cryo-cooling. The review sets the current literature in context, identifies key publications and promising areas of research. The fundamental principles of thermoacoustic phenomena are explained; design challenges and factors influencing efficiency are explored. Thermoacoustic processes involve complex multi-physical coupling and transient, highly non-linear relationships which are computationally expensive to model; appropriate numerical modelling techniques and options for analyses are presented. Potential methods of harvesting the energy in the acoustic waves are also examined.

  2. Heisenberg's observability principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Johanna

    2014-02-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper 'Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations' marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be 'founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable'. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpretations of 'observability' along empiricist or positivist lines I argue that such readings are philosophically unsatisfying. Moreover, a careful comparison of Heisenberg's reinterpretation of classical kinematics with Einstein's argument against absolute simultaneity reveals that the positivist reading does not fit with Heisenberg's strategy in the paper. Instead the appeal to observability should be understood as a specific criticism of the causal inefficacy of orbital electron motion in Bohr's atomic model. I conclude that the tacit philosophical principle behind Heisenberg's argument is not a positivistic connection between observability and meaning, but the idea that a theory should not contain causally idle wheels.

  3. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2016-04-04

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  4. Introducing the Principles of Vegetation Sampling in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, George J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a sampling board that has been used in an introductory general ecology course that is inexpensive to construct and that effectively illustrates the principles of vegetation sampling. (Author/BB)

  5. Applying Behaviorological Principles in the Classroom: Creating Responsive Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulman, Jerome D.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the basic principles of behaviorology, beginning with the work of B.F. Skinner, examining how these principles can be applied in creating responsive learning environments and delineating a system of steps needed to transform an ineffective instructional situation, characterized by chronic failure, into a learning environment that is…

  6. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendericks, R. C.; Sengers, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    The principle of similarity applied to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. The concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow is examined. The usefulness of the procedure is illustrated by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle.

  7. Use of Invertebrate Animals to Teach Physiological Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyrup-Olsen, Ingrith; Linder, Thomas M.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages of using invertebrates in teaching physiological principles are discussed. The ability to illustrate with greater clarity physiological principles, the range and variety of physiological processes available for examination, and the unlimited possibilities for student research are topics of discussion. (KR)

  8. Sources of Funding and Academic Performance in Economics Principles Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…

  9. Proficiency-Based Curriculum Design: Principles Derived from Government Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes principles for designing a proficiency-based course to prepare students for the ACTFL/ETS Advanced Plus/Superior level according to Interagency Language Roundtable guidelines. Proposes ways to combine grammatical and "functional/notional" syllabuses with a proficiency approach. Examines the implications of these principles for…

  10. Treatment of coupled fluid-structure interaction problems by a mixed variational principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Ohayon, Roger

    1989-01-01

    A general three-field variational principle is obtained for the motion of an acoustic fluid enclosed in a rigid or flexible container by the method of canonical decomposition applied to a modified form of the wave equation in the displacement potential. The general principle is specialized to a mixed two-field principle that contains the fluid displacement potential and pressure as independent fields. Semidiscrete finite-element equations of motion based on this principle are displayed.

  11. [Definitions of general and professional working ability].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A V

    2003-01-01

    The regulating documents and published data were analyzed to define the general and professional working-capacity. New principles were formulated, on this basis, to compose a table of a persistent loss of general working-capacity expressed in percentage.

  12. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  13. Quantum black hole and the modified uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Barun

    2011-07-01

    Recently Ali et al. (2009) [13] proposed a Generalized Uncertainty Principle (or GUP) with a linear term in momentum (accompanied by Planck length). Inspired by this idea we examine the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for a Schwarzschild black hole with a modified Heisenberg algebra which has a linear term in momentum. We found that the leading contribution to mass comes from the square root of the quantum number n which coincides with Bekenstein's proposal. We also found that the mass of the black hole is directly proportional to the quantum number n when quantum gravity effects are taken into consideration via the modified uncertainty relation but it reduces the value of mass for a particular value of the quantum number.

  14. Principles of assembly reveal a periodic table of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, Sebastian E; Marsh, Joseph A; Hernández, Helena; Robinson, Carol V; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2015-12-11

    Structural insights into protein complexes have had a broad impact on our understanding of biological function and evolution. In this work, we sought a comprehensive understanding of the general principles underlying quaternary structure organization in protein complexes. We first examined the fundamental steps by which protein complexes can assemble, using experimental and structure-based characterization of assembly pathways. Most assembly transitions can be classified into three basic types, which can then be used to exhaustively enumerate a large set of possible quaternary structure topologies. These topologies, which include the vast majority of observed protein complex structures, enable a natural organization of protein complexes into a periodic table. On the basis of this table, we can accurately predict the expected frequencies of quaternary structure topologies, including those not yet observed. These results have important implications for quaternary structure prediction, modeling, and engineering.

  15. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

  16. Current fluctuations in nonequilibrium diffusive systems: an additivity principle.

    PubMed

    Bodineau, T; Derrida, B

    2004-05-07

    We formulate a simple additivity principle allowing one to calculate the whole distribution of current fluctuations through a large one dimensional system in contact with two reservoirs at unequal densities from the knowledge of its first two cumulants. This distribution (which in general is non-Gaussian) satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry and generalizes the one predicted recently for the symmetric simple exclusion process. The additivity principle can be used to study more complex diffusive networks including loops.

  17. Current Fluctuations in Nonequilibrium Diffusive Systems: An Additivity Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2004-05-01

    We formulate a simple additivity principle allowing one to calculate the whole distribution of current fluctuations through a large one dimensional system in contact with two reservoirs at unequal densities from the knowledge of its first two cumulants. This distribution (which in general is non-Gaussian) satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry and generalizes the one predicted recently for the symmetric simple exclusion process. The additivity principle can be used to study more complex diffusive networks including loops.

  18. Equipartition Principle for Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhinandan; Park, In-Hee; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2012-08-14

    The principle of equipartition of (kinetic) energy for all-atom Cartesian molecular dynamics states that each momentum phase space coordinate on the average has ½kT of kinetic energy in a canonical ensemble. This principle is used in molecular dynamics simulations to initialize velocities, and to calculate statistical properties such as entropy. Internal coordinate molecular dynamics (ICMD) models differ from Cartesian models in that the overall kinetic energy depends on the generalized coordinates and includes cross-terms. Due to this coupled structure, no such equipartition principle holds for ICMD models. In this paper we introduce non-canonical modal coordinates to recover some of the structural simplicity of Cartesian models and develop a new equipartition principle for ICMD models. We derive low-order recursive computational algorithms for transforming between the modal and physical coordinates. The equipartition principle in modal coordinates provides a rigorous method for initializing velocities in ICMD simulations thus replacing the ad hoc methods used until now. It also sets the basis for calculating conformational entropy using internal coordinates.

  19. Classification: Purposes, Principles, Progress, Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Robert R.

    1974-01-01

    Clustering and other new techniques have changed classificatory principles and practice in many sciences. Discussed are defintions, purposes of classification, principles of classification, and recent trends. (Author/RH)

  20. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.