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Sample records for exams alleviates pain

  1. Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension

  2. Thalamic pain alleviated by stellate ganglion block

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. Patient concerns: A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnoses: Thalamic pain was diagnosed. Interventions: After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. Outcomes: After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain. PMID:28151918

  3. Factors Influencing Parental Participation in Neonatal Pain Alleviation.

    PubMed

    Palomaa, Anna-Kaija; Korhonen, Anne; Pölkki, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Neonates are likely to experience numerous painful procedures in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Parents have expressed a wish to be more involved in their infants' pain alleviation. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' perceptions concerning the factors that influence parental participation in pain alleviation in an NICU. The qualitative study was conducted in level II and III NICUs (7 units) of Finland's four university hospitals. Data were collected through open-ended questionnaires and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Factors that promoted parental participation consisted of five main categories: parental counseling by staff, parents' awareness of their own role, parents' motivation to participate in pain relief, family-friendly facilities and good communication. Factors hindering parental participation consisted of eight categories, including restrictive environment, lack of knowledge, everyday life requirements, underestimation of parents, the nature of the medical procedures, procedure- and pain-related emotions, deteriorated health status of the child and mother and (8) uncertainty of parenting. This study revealed a number of factors that are important to take into account when improving parental involvement in neonatal pain alleviation. Especially, parental participation can be promoted by providing sufficient counseling based on the parents' needs and creating facilities that support parents' participation. Parents should be engaged as partners in caregiving and decision making, and they should be given space to assume the role of parents during their child's hospitalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical therapy for chronic scrotal content pain with associated pelvic floor pain on digital rectal exam.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M Ryan; Dugan, Sheila A; Levine, Laurence A

    2016-12-01

    Chronic scrotal content pain (CSCP) is a common condition that can be challenging to manage definitively. A cohort of patients with CSCP have referred pain from myofascial abnormalities of the pelvic floor and therefore require treatment modalities that specifically address the pelvic floor such as pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT). Retrospective chart review of all men with a pelvic floor component of CSCP presenting to our tertiary care medical center and undergoing PFPT from 2011-2014. Patients with CSCP and pain/tightness on pelvic floor evaluation with 360° digital rectal exam (DRE) were referred to a physiotherapist for PFPT. CSCP was defined as primary unilateral or bilateral pain of the testicle, epididymis and/or spermatic cord that was constant or intermittent, lasted greater than 3 months, and significantly interfered with daily activities. Long term follow up was conducted by office visit and physical therapy chart review. Thirty patients, mean age of 42 years (range 18-75), were followed for a median of 13 months (range 3-48). Median pre-PFPT pain score was 6/10 (range 2-10). After a mean of 12 PFPT sessions (IQR 6-16), pain improved in 50.0% of patients, median decrease in pain was 4.5/10 (range 1-10). Complete resolution of pain occurred in 13.3%, 44.0% had none to minor residual pain. Following PFPT, fewer subjects required pain medication compared with prior to PFPT (44.0% versus 73.3%, p = 0.03). For men with CSCP and a positive pelvic floor exam with DRE, we recommend a trial of PFPT as an effective and non-operative treatment modality.

  5. Statins alleviate experimental nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang Qun; Lim, Tony K Y; Lee, Seunghwan; Zhao, Yuan Qing; Zhang, Ji

    2011-05-01

    The statins are a well-established class of drugs that lower plasma cholesterol levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase. They are widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the prevention of coronary heart disease. Recent studies suggest that statins have anti-inflammatory effects beyond their lipid-lowering properties. We sought to investigate whether statins could affect neuropathic pain by mediating nerve injury-associated inflammatory responses. The effects of hydrophilic rosuvastatin and lipophilic simvastatin were examined in the mouse partial sciatic nerve ligation model. Systemic daily administration of either statin from days 0 to 14 completely prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. When administered from days 8 to 14 after injury, both statins dose-dependently reduced established hypersensitivity. After treatment, the effects of the statins were washed out within 2 to 7 days, depending on dose. Effects of both statins in alleviating mechanical allodynia were further confirmed in a different injury-associated neuropathic pain model, mental nerve chronic constriction, in rats. Both statins were able to abolish interleukin-1β expression in sciatic nerve triggered by nerve ligation. Additionally, quantitative analysis with Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acid protein immunoreactivity demonstrated that rosuvastatin and simvastatin significantly reduced the spinal microglial and astrocyte activation produced by sciatic nerve injury. The increase of interleukin-1β mRNA in the ipsilateral side of spinal cords was also reduced by the treatment of either statin. We identified a potential new application of statins in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The pain-alleviating effects of statins are likely attributable to their immunomodulatory effects.

  6. Non-pharmacological interventions for alleviating pain during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Strydom, Hardus; Katsaros, Christos; MacDonald, Lci; Curatolo, Michele; Fudalej, Piotr; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2016-12-23

    Pain is prevalent during orthodontics, particularly during the early stages of treatment. To ensure patient comfort and compliance during treatment, the prevention or management of pain is of major importance. While pharmacological means are the first line of treatment for alleviation of orthodontic pain, a range of non-pharmacological approaches have been proposed recently as viable alternatives. To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions to alleviate pain associated with orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 6 October 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 6 October 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 6 October 2016) and EThOS (to 6 October 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a non-pharmacological orthodontic pain intervention to a placebo, no intervention or another non-pharmacological pain intervention were eligible for inclusion. We included any type of orthodontic treatment but excluded trials involving the use of pre-emptive analgesia or pain relief following orthognathic (jaw) surgery or dental extractions in combination with orthodontic treatment. We excluded split-mouth trials (in which each participant receives two or more treatments, each to a separate section of the mouth) and cross-over trials. At least two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used the random-effects model and expressed results as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We investigated heterogeneity with reference to both clinical and methodological factors. We included 14

  7. Prisms for pain. Can visuo-motor rehabilitation strategies alleviate chronic pain?

    PubMed

    Torta, D M; Legrain, V; Rossetti, Y; Mouraux, A

    2016-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is a non-invasive procedure in which participants perform a visuo-motor pointing task while wearing prism goggles inducing a lateral displacement of the visual field and a mismatch between the seen and felt position of the pointing hand. PA is thought to induce a reorganization of sensorimotor coordination, and has been used successfully to rehabilitate neglect following right-hemisphere lesions. Because studies have shown that complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with neglect-like symptoms, it was proposed that PA could be used to alleviate pain in these patients. A search for peer-reviewed articles on neglect-like symptoms in CRPS and on the use of prisms in CRPS was conducted using the PubMed database. There is still no agreement as to whether CRPS patients really present neglect symptoms and, if they do, what it is that they neglect. Furthermore, there is insufficient data to determine whether PA exerts an effect on CRPS symptoms. Finally, it remains unknown whether neglect can be observed in other types of lateralized pain, or whether PA could be useful for these patients. By highlighting open issues, our review provides guidelines for future studies on the use of prisms in pain. The assessment of neglect in patients with CRPS as well as other types of lateralized chronic pain should be characterized using a combination of neuropsychological methods assessing the multiple aspects of neglect in a more refined manner. In addition, further studies should investigate the mechanisms through which PA may modulate pain. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. Prisms for pain. Can visuo-motor rehabilitation strategies alleviate chronic pain?

    PubMed Central

    Torta, DM; Legrain, V; Rossetti, Y; Mouraux, A

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Prism adaptation (PA) is a non-invasive procedure in which participants perform a visuo-motor pointing task while wearing prism goggles inducing a lateral displacement of the visual field and a mismatch between the seen and felt position of the pointing hand. PA is thought to induce a reorganization of sensorimotor coordination, and has been used successfully to rehabilitate neglect following right-hemisphere lesions. Because studies have shown that complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with neglect-like symptoms, it was proposed that PA could be used to alleviate pain in these patients. Database A search for peer-reviewed articles on neglect-like symptoms in CRPS and on the use of prisms in CRPS was conducted using the PubMed database. Results There is still no agreement as to whether CRPS patients really present neglect symptoms and, if they do, what it is that they neglect. Furthermore, there is insufficient data to determine whether PA exerts an effect on CRPS symptoms. Finally, it remains unknown whether neglect can be observed in other types of lateralized pain, or whether PA could be useful for these patients. Conclusion By highlighting open issues, our review provides guidelines for future studies on the use of prisms in pain. The assessment of neglect in patients with CRPS as well as other types of lateralized chronic pain should be characterized using a combination of neuropsychological methods assessing the multiple aspects of neglect in a more refined manner. In addition, further studies should investigate the mechanisms through which PA may modulate pain. PMID:26095341

  9. Alleviating Thoracotomy Pain With Intercostal Liposomal Bupivacaine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Saby, Adam; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Pangarkar, Sanjog; Tribuzio, Bianca

    2016-11-01

    Thoracotomy pain is common after chest surgery and may result from injury to the lung pleura, intercostal muscles, costovertebral joint, or intercostal nerves. Inappropriately controlled postoperative pain can hinder recovery and increase the risk of complications such as infection, atelectasis, blood clots, and development of post-thoracotomy pain syndrome. A number of treatment options for acute pain are available, most of which require systemic medications or indwelling catheters that may be contraindicated in patients on anticoagulants. We present the case of a patient with post-thoracotomy pain that effectively was treated with an ultrasound-guided nerve block with liposomal bupivacaine. The patient experienced pain relief without adverse event. Liposomal bupivacaine may be considered a potential treatment option for patients with severe acute post-thoracotomy pain in whom other modalities have not worked or are contraindicated. N/A. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The art of alleviating pain in greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Türe, Hatice; Türe, Uğur; Göğüş, F Yilmaz; Valavanis, Anton; Yaşargil, M Gazi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed many of the essential Greek myths to identify the methods used at that time to relieve the pain of both illness and surgery, and we discovered many pioneering methods. Both gods and demigods implemented these methods to ease pain, to conduct surgery, and, on occasion, to kill mythological beings. The myths describe the three most common components of anesthesia: hypnosis, amnesia, and (an)algesia. Drugs and music-aided hypnosis were two of the most common methods use to treat emotional and surgical pain. This article identifies highlights in the development of concepts to treat pain in Greek mythology. The examples found in the Greek myths remind us of the historical significance of pain treatment.

  11. Chronic spinal infusion of loperamide alleviates postsurgical pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Reeta, K H; Ray, Subrata Basu

    2014-04-01

    Plantar incision in rat generates spontaneous pain behaviour. The opioid drug, morphine used to treat postsurgical pain produces tolerance after long-term administration. Loperamide, a potent mu-opioid agonist, has documented analgesic action in various pain conditions. However, loperamide analgesia and associated tolerance following continuous spinal administration in postsurgical pain has not been reported. Chronic spinal infusion of drugs was achieved using intrathecal catheters connected to osmotic minipump. Coinciding with the onset of spinal infusion of loperamide or morphine, rats were subjected to plantar incision. Pain-related behaviour was assessed by Hargreaves apparatus (thermal hyperalgesia) and von Frey filaments (mechanical allodynia). Morphine and loperamide (0.5, 1 and 2 microL/h) induced analgesia was observed until 7th day post-plantar incision in Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphine and loperamide produced dose-dependent analgesia. Loperamide, in the highest dose, produced analgesia till 7th day. However, the highest dose of morphine produced inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia till 5th day and mechanical allodynia only till 3rd day post-plantar incision. Morphine and loperamide produced analgesia in postsurgical pain, which may be mediated through different mechanisms. Longer duration of analgesia with loperamide could probably be due sustained blockade of calcium channels.

  12. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation.

    PubMed

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms of muscle pain. Focusing on muscle activity patterns and musculoskeletal health it is pertinent to elucidate the more specific aspects regarding exposure profiles and body regional pain. Static sustained muscle contraction for prolonged periods often occurs in the neck/shoulder area during occupational tasks and may underlie muscle pain development in spite of rather low relative muscle load. Causal mechanisms include a stereotype recruitment of low threshold motor units (activating type 1 muscle fibers) characterized by a lack of temporal as well as spatial variation in recruitment. In contrast during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain development if adequate recovery is granted. However, delayed muscle soreness may develop following intensive eccentric muscle activity (e.g. down-hill skiing) with peak pain levels in thigh muscles 1-2 days after the exercise bout and a total recovery within 1 week. This acute pain profile is in contrast to the chronic muscle pain profile related to repetitive monotonous work tasks. The painful muscles show adverse functional, morphological, hormonal, as well as metabolic characteristics. Of

  13. Pelvic pain in endometriosis: painkillers or sport to alleviate symptoms?

    PubMed

    Koppan, A; Hamori, J; Vranics, I; Garai, J; Kriszbacher, I; Bodis, J; Rebek-Nagy, G; Koppan, M

    2010-06-01

    To assess potential individual factors influencing quality of life and pain scores of patients suffering from histologically confirmed endometriosis. Study using a questionnaire among patients of reproductive age undergoing laparoscopy with a presumed diagnosis of endometriosis. Details of fertility, previous treatments and quality of life, sexual activity, as well as linear pain scores for several symptoms, were recorded. Details of intraoperative findings were also collected and only those data were used where endometriosis was intraoperatively and histologically proven. A questionnaire before surgery gathered information from women on the following groups of variables: age, marital status, education, reproductive and medical history including previous pregnancies and parity, knowledge of accompanying pelvic disorders, regular sport activity, as well as general quality of life estimates including self-image. Pelvic pain was scored using a visual analogue scale. Data were statistically evaluated. Eighty-one patients complaining about persistent pelvic pain were later intraoperatively and histologically proven to have endometriosis. Thirty-one of them (38.2%) reported regular sport as part of their daily life schedule while 50 of them (61.8%) performed no physical activity at all. Fourteen patients among regular exercisers and 33 patients among those without physical activity reported the effectiveness of painkillers for pelvic pain, corresponding to 45.1% and 66% of these subgroups, respectively (difference statistically significant, p<0.05). Based on our results, we can conclude, that taking painkillers might be less effective among endometriosis patients performing regular daily sport activities, and, thus it might impose them to an unnecessary burden of possible side-effects.

  14. Intravenous phentolamine infusion alleviates the pain of abdominal visceral cancer, including pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Masako; Yasukawa, Ken'ichi; Kamiizumi, You; Yokoyama, Ryouji

    2007-01-01

    This case report series describes eight patients (four patients with pancreatic carcinoma, one patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, one patient with gastric and rectal carcinoma, one with sigmoid colon cancer, and one with rectal cancer), whose abdominal cancer pain was treated with intravenous phentolamine infusion at 80 mg x day(-1) for 2 days. All but one of the patients had already been treated with opioids. All eight patients complained of severe abdominal pain; in five patients the pain radiated to the back, and there was associated anal pain in two patients. Analgesia was achieved in three patients; pain alleviation was obtained in four patients, but was not sustained in two of these four patients; and the treatment in one patient could not be judged for efficacy because epidural morphine was used together with the phentolamine. Adverse effects of phentolamine were tachycardia and/or hypotension.

  15. Does going to an amusement park alleviate low back pain? A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Wang, Zhuo; Kasai, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Low back pain is often called nonspecific pain. In this type of low back pain, various emotions and stress are known to strongly affect pain perception. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the degree of low back pain changes in people with chronic mild low back pain when they are inside and outside of an amusement park where people are supposed to have physical and psychological enjoyment. Methods The subjects were 23 volunteers (13 males and 10 females) aged 18 to 46 years old with a mean age of 24.0 years who had chronic low back pain. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores of low back pain and salivary amylase levels (kIU/L) of all subjects were measured at five time points: immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park; 10 minutes, 1 hour (immediately after boarding the roller coaster), and 3 hours (immediately after exiting the haunted house) after arriving at the amusement park; and immediately before getting off the bus returning from the park. Results The three VAS values in the amusement park (10 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after arriving at the amusement park) measured were significantly lower (P < 0.05) when compared with the other two values measured immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park and immediately before getting off the return bus. In salivary amylase levels, there were no statistically significant differences among the values measured at the five time points. Conclusion Low back pain was significantly alleviated when the subjects were in the amusement park, which demonstrated that enjoyable activities, though temporarily, alleviated their low back pain. PMID:23118550

  16. Does going to an amusement park alleviate low back pain? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Wang, Zhuo; Kasai, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain is often called nonspecific pain. In this type of low back pain, various emotions and stress are known to strongly affect pain perception. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the degree of low back pain changes in people with chronic mild low back pain when they are inside and outside of an amusement park where people are supposed to have physical and psychological enjoyment. The subjects were 23 volunteers (13 males and 10 females) aged 18 to 46 years old with a mean age of 24.0 years who had chronic low back pain. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores of low back pain and salivary amylase levels (kIU/L) of all subjects were measured at five time points: immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park; 10 minutes, 1 hour (immediately after boarding the roller coaster), and 3 hours (immediately after exiting the haunted house) after arriving at the amusement park; and immediately before getting off the bus returning from the park. The three VAS values in the amusement park (10 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours after arriving at the amusement park) measured were significantly lower (P < 0.05) when compared with the other two values measured immediately after getting on the bus heading for the amusement park and immediately before getting off the return bus. In salivary amylase levels, there were no statistically significant differences among the values measured at the five time points. Low back pain was significantly alleviated when the subjects were in the amusement park, which demonstrated that enjoyable activities, though temporarily, alleviated their low back pain.

  17. Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Goktug, Asutay; Gulec, Handan; Takmaz, Suna Akin; Turkyilmaz, Esra; Basar, Hulya

    2015-01-01

    Injection pain after propofol administration is common and may disturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous (iv) nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand or antecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain. There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic administered. Metoprolol (n=31, Group M), lidocaine (n=32, Group L) and nitroglycerin (n=29, Group N) were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evaluated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 - light pain, 2 - mild pain, 3 - severe pain) in 5, 10, 15 and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathways for injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score. There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p=0.981). There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level, location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol (p=0.015) and nitroglycerin (p=0.001) among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metoprolol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein (p>0.05), nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lower pain scores (p=0.001). We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofol related pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. [Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin].

    PubMed

    Goktug, Asutay; Gulec, Handan; Takmaz, Suna Akin; Turkyilmaz, Esra; Basar, Hulya

    2015-01-01

    Injection pain after propofol administration is common and may disturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous (iv) nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand or antecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain. There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic administered. Metoprolol (n=31, Group M), lidocaine (n=32, Group L) and nitroglycerin (n=29, Group N) were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evaluated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 - light pain, 2 - mild pain, 3 - severe pain) in 5, 10, 15 and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathways for injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score. There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p=0.981). There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level, location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol (p=0.015) and nitroglycerin (p=0.001) among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metoprolol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein (p>0.05), nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lower pain scores (p=0.001). We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofol related pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain completely alleviated with loratadine: A case report.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Cristina; Li, Quan; Copeland, Larry

    2015-08-01

    Febrile neutropenia is an oncologic emergency that can result in serious consequences. Granulocyte colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs) are often used as prophylaxis for febrile neutropenia. Bone pain is the most notorious adverse effect caused by G-CSFs. Specifically, with pegfilgrastim (Neulasta(®)), the incidence of bone pain is higher in practice than was observed during clinical trials. Traditional analgesics, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids, can be ineffective in severe pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. With the high frequency of this adverse effect, it is clear that health practitioners need additional treatment options for patients who experience severe pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. The mechanisms of bone pain secondary to G-CSFs are not fully known, but research has shown that histamine release is involved in the inflammatory process. There is scant previous clinical data on antihistamine use in the management of G-CSF-induced pain. We present the first case report in which loratadine prophylaxis completely alleviated NSAID-resistant severe pain secondary to pegfilgrastim. The result showed that loratadine may be a promising option for severe, resistant pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. Further clinical studies are warranted and ongoing.

  20. Pain alleviation during castration of piglets: a comparative study of different farm options.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, F; Scollo, A; Contiero, B; Ravagnani, A; Tavella, G; Bernardini, D; De Benedictis, G M; Edwards, S A

    2016-12-01

    Pain alleviation associated with castration of piglets is an important welfare issue. The present study compares the effect of different approaches and products suitable for farmer use, with the aim to alleviate pain due to castration in piglets. A randomized within-litter design, with 28 replicate litters, compared 7 treatments: handling () restraint of the piglet and manipulation of the scrotum, castration without pain relief (), 2 treatments (, ) with different concentrations of tetracaine (2 and 6%) applied topically 10 min before and immediately post-surgery, and 3 treatments with i.m. injection of different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs () 10 min prior to surgery (-meloxicam, -ketoprofen, -tolfenamic acid). Efficacy of pain relief was assessed during a 300 min period after castration by serum cortisol, behavior (walking, lying, suckling, in the nest, isolated and pain related: tremors, rubbing the rear, hunching, wagging of the tail), facial expression and scrotal skin pressure sensitivity. C pigs had greater serum cortisol concentration than all other groups at 60 min post-surgery ( < 0.001), while H pigs had lower concentrations than pigs given topical anesthesia ( < 0.001) though not injected analgesia. No treatment differences were significant at 180 min, but at 300 min cortisol concentration was greater in T2 and T6 piglets than those given NSAIDs ( = 0.03). These treatment differences were mirrored by the pressure sensitivity of the scrotum; in comparison with C piglets, those given NSAIDs showed a reduced sensitivity ( 0.003) but those given local anesthesia did not ( = 0.15). C pigs showed increased frequency of pain-related behavior in the first 30 min in comparison with all other treatments, more time isolated than H or NSAID treatments, and more time standing inactive than H or K treatments. No behavioral differences were apparent after 60 min. No differences in facial expressions were observed among treatments. In conclusion, on

  1. MicroRNA-93 alleviates neuropathic pain through targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue-Tao; Ji, Li-Juan; Wang, Zhiyu; Wu, Xingjun; Wang, Quan; Sun, Shujie; Lu, Jing-Min; Zhang, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, the exact role of miRNAs in regulating neuropathic pain remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of miR-93 in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI). We found a significant decrease of miR-93 in the spinal cord of CCI rats compared with sham rats. Overexpression of miR-93 significantly alleviated neuropathic pain development and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 in CCI rats. By bioinformatic analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay, we found that miR-93 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an important regulator of inflammation. Overexpression of miR-93 markedly suppressed the expression of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 significantly reversed the miR-93 overexpression-induced suppressive effects on neuropathic pain development and neuroinflammation. Taken together, our study suggests that miR-93 inhibits neuropathic pain development of CCI rats possibly through inhibiting STAT3-mediated neuroinflammation. Our findings indicate that miR-93 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for neuropathic pain intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MiR-150 alleviates neuropathic pain via inhibiting toll-like receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li-Juan; Shi, Jing; Lu, Jing-Min; Huang, Qiang-Min

    2017-07-07

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as vital participators in the pathophysiological course of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms of the functional roles of miRNAs in neuropathic pain are largely unknown. This study was designed to explore the potential role of miR-150 in regulating the process of neuropathic pain in a rat model established by chronic sciatic nerve injury (CCI). Overexpression of miR-150 greatly alleviated neuropathic pain development and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, including COX-2, interleukin IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in CCI rats. By bioinformatic analysis, 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Toll-like receptor (TLR5) was predicted to be a target of miR-150. TLR5 commonly serves as an important regulator of inflammation. Overexpression of miR-150 significantly suppressed the expression of TLR5 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, upregulation of TLR5 decreased the miR-150 expression and downregulation of TLR5 increased miR-150, respectively. Overexpression of TLR5 significantly reversed the miR-150-induced suppressive effects on neuropathic pain. In conclusion, our current study indicates that miR-150 may inhibit neuropathic pain development of CCI rats through inhibiting TLR5-mediated neuroinflammation. Our findings suggest that miR-150 may provide a novel therapeutic target for neuropathic pain treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Blocking PAR2 Alleviates Bladder Pain and Hyperactivity via TRPA1 Signal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daihui; Liu, Nian; Li, Mao; Liang, Simin

    2016-01-01

    Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The goals of this study were to examine 1) the effects of blocking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and 2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of PAR2 in regulating cystic sensory activity. The protein expression of PAR2 was amplified in rats with cystitis by inducing it with systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP) as compared with control rats. Blocking PAR2 by intrathecal infusion of PAR2 antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PAR2 attenuated the transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) signal pathway, whereas inhibition of the TRPA1 decreased bladder hyperactivity and pain. The data revealed specific signaling pathways leading to CYP-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of PAR2 and TRPA1. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis.

  4. Acupuncture alleviates the affective dimension of pain in a rat model of inflammatory hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Meng, Xianze; Li, Aihui; Xin, Jiajia; Berman, Brian M.; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Rui-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Although studies demonstrate that electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates the sensory dimension of pain, they have not addressed EA’s effect on the affective dimension. An inflammatory pain rat model, produced by a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) injection into the hind paw, was combined with a conditioned place avoidance (CPA) test to determine EA’s effects and its underpinning mechanism on the affective dimension of pain. CFA-injected rats showed place aversion, i.e. the affective dimension of pain, by spending less time in a pain-paired compartment after conditioning than before, while saline-injected rats did not. CFA rats given EA treatment at GB30 before a postconditioning test showed no aversion to the pain-paired compartment, indicating that EA inhibited the affective response. Intra-rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) administration of a κ-, but not μ-opioid receptor antagonist, blocked EA action. These data demonstrate that EA activates opioid receptors in the rACC to inhibit the affective dimension of pain. PMID:21695393

  5. Blocking PAR2 Alleviates Bladder Pain and Hyperactivity via TRPA1 Signal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daihui; Liu, Nian; Li, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The goals of this study were to examine 1) the effects of blocking proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and 2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of PAR2 in regulating cystic sensory activity. The protein expression of PAR2 was amplified in rats with cystitis by inducing it with systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP) as compared with control rats. Blocking PAR2 by intrathecal infusion of PAR2 antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PAR2 attenuated the transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) signal pathway, whereas inhibition of the TRPA1 decreased bladder hyperactivity and pain. The data revealed specific signaling pathways leading to CYP-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of PAR2 and TRPA1. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis. PMID:28123833

  6. Blocking mammalian target of rapamycin alleviates bladder hyperactivity and pain in rats with cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Gou, Xin; Chen, Daihui

    2016-01-01

    Background Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the effects of blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and (2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of mTOR in regulating cystic sensory activity. Results The expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (p-S6K1), 4 E–binding protein 4 (p-4 E-BP1), as well as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway were amplified in cyclophosphamide rats as compared with control rats. Blocking mTOR by intrathecal infusion of rapamycin attenuated bladder hyperactivity and pain. In addition, blocking PI3K signal pathway attenuated activities of mTOR, which was accompanied with decreasing bladder hyperactivity and pain. Inhibition of either mTOR or PI3K blunted the enhanced spinal substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in cyclophosphamide rats. Conclusions The data for the first time revealed specific signaling pathways leading to cyclophosphamide-induced bladder hyperactivity and pain, including the activation of mTOR and PI3K. Inhibition of these pathways alleviates cystic pain. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of overactive bladder and pain often observed in cystitis. PMID:27780878

  7. Recombinant neural progenitor transplants in the spinal dorsal horn alleviate chronic central neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Jergova, Stanislava; Gajavelli, Shyam; Pathak, Nirmal; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Neuropathic pain induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) is clinically challenging with inadequate long-term treatment options. Partial pain relief offered by pharmacologic treatment is often counterbalanced by adverse effects after prolonged use in chronic pain patients. Cell-based therapy for neuropathic pain using GABAergic neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) has the potential to overcome untoward effects of systemic pharmacotherapy while enhancing analgesic potency due to local activation of GABAergic signaling in the spinal cord. However, multifactorial anomalies underlying chronic pain will likely require simultaneous targeting of multiple mechanisms. Here, we explore the analgesic potential of genetically modified rat embryonic GABAergic NPCs releasing a peptidergic NMDA receptor antagonist, Serine-histogranin (SHG), thus targeting both spinal hyperexcitability and reduced inhibitory processes. Recombinant NPCs were designed using either lentiviral or adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV2/8) encoding single and multimeric (6 copies of SHG) cDNA. Intraspinal injection of recombinant cells elicited enhanced analgesic effects compared with nonrecombinant NPCs in SCI-induced pain in rats. Moreover, potent and sustained antinociception was achieved, even after a 5-week postinjury delay, using recombinant multimeric NPCs. Intrathecal injection of SHG antibody attenuated analgesic effects of the recombinant grafts suggesting active participation of SHG in these antinociceptive effects. Immunoblots and immunocytochemical assays indicated ongoing recombinant peptide production and secretion in the grafted host spinal cords. These results support the potential for engineered NPCs grafted into the spinal dorsal horn to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain.

  8. Fat grafting for alleviating persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Juhl, Alexander A; Karlsson, Páll; Damsgaard, Tine E

    2016-09-01

    Persistent pain is a common side effect of breast cancer treatment, affecting 24-52% of women after mastectomy. Recent studies have described analgesic effects of fat grafting in various settings. We aimed to investigate whether fat grafting had an analgesic effect on persistent pain after mastectomy and whether fat grafting had a remodeling effect on the mastectomy scar. This study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to either receive fat grafting to the pain-afflicted area around the missing breast or a control group without any intervention. A total of 18 unilaterally mastectomized women with persistent pain ≥3 on the numerical rating scale were enrolled. Patients were examined at the baseline and at 3 and 6 months by using the DoloTest(®), visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, neuropathic pain symptom inventory, and patient and observer scar assessment scale. A total of 15 patients were analyzed (fat grafted n = 8, control n = 7). The average amount of grafted fat was 71 ± 24.6 mL. Fat grafting showed a significant improvement in the pain as measured on the VAS pain scale (p = 0.001) with an average reduction of 54.9% and as measured on the neuropathic pain symptom inventory (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a significant improvement was observed in health-related quality of life (p = 0.007) and the quality of the scar (p < 0.001). This is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effect of fat grafting. Fat grafting is a safe and effective technique for alleviating persistent pain after mastectomy. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of elcatonin for alleviating pain and inhibiting bone resorption in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinya; Yoshida, Akira; Kono, Shinjiro; Oguma, Tadanori; Hasegawa, Kyoichi; Ito, Manabu

    2016-11-09

    Elderly patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures often experience severe pain that reduces their quality of life (QOL). Calcitonin, a bone resorption inhibitor, has been reported to alleviate pain in such patients; however, few clinical studies have demonstrated this effect. The objective of this study was to compare changes in pain scores, activities of daily living (ADL), QOL, bone resorption, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture healing among patients with new vertebral fractures who received different treatment modalities. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized, parallel control group study comprising 107 female patients ≥55 years old with acute back pain from vertebral fracture. All subjects received either intramuscular injections of elcatonin, a derivative of calcitonin, or an oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) combined with an active vitamin D3 (VD3) analogue for 6 months. The pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale, and ADL and QOL were assessed using questionnaires. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A two-tailed significance level of 5% was used. The elcatonin IM group had significantly higher QOL score at 2 weeks and later, and significantly lower VAS and ADL scores than those in the NSAID + VD3 group at 1 month and later. The elcatonin IM group had significantly reduced TRACP-5b levels compared with those in the NSAID + VD3 group at 3 months and later and significantly higher percent changes in BMD than the NSAID + VD3 group. These results suggest that elcatonin significantly alleviated pain, inhibited bone resorption, and improved ADL, QOL, and BMD compared with NSAID + VD3.

  10. Electroacupuncture Treatment Alleviates Central Poststroke Pain by Inhibiting Brain Neuronal Apoptosis and Aberrant Astrocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Gui-Hua; Tao, Shan-Shan; Chen, Man-Tang; Li, Yu-Sang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Tang, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is reported to effectively relieve the central poststroke pain (CPSP). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the detailed mechanisms of action of EA treatment at different frequencies for CPSP. A CPSP model was established with a single collagenase injection to the left ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. The EA-treated groups then received EA treatment at frequency of 2, 2/15, or 15 Hz for 30 min daily for five days. The pain-related behavioral responses, neuronal apoptosis, glial activation, and the expression of pain signal transmission-related factors (β-catenin, COX-2, and NK-1R) were assessed using behavioral tests, Nissl staining, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The low-frequency EA treatment significantly (1) reduced brain tissue damage and hematoma sizes and (2) inhibited neuronal apoptosis, thereby exerting abirritative effects. Meanwhile, the high-frequency EA treatment induced a greater inhibition of the aberrant astrocyte activation, accompanied by the downregulation of the expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and subsequently NK-1R, thereby alleviating inflammation and producing strong analgesic effects. Together, these findings suggest that CPSP is closely related to pathological changes of the neocortex and hippocampus. EA treatments at different frequencies may exert abirritative effects by inhibiting brain neuronal apoptosis and aberrant astrocyte activation in the brain. PMID:27774321

  11. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD. PMID:25628905

  12. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.

  13. Inhibition of MicroRNA-221 Alleviates Neuropathic Pain Through Targeting Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Zhang, Yunlong; Dong, Tieli

    2016-07-01

    Neuropathic pain results in considerable trouble to people's physical and mental health. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying its occurrence and development remain unclear. A large number of experiments show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a major role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation resulting from nerve injury. Among various miRNAs, microRNA-221 (miR-221) overexpression has been reported in a chronic constrictive injury (CCI)-induced rat model of neuropathic pain. However, the role of miR-221 in the regulation of neuropathic pain is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role and underlying mechanism of miR-221 in regulating neuropathic pain. Our findings show that miR-221 is overexpressed in the spinal cord and the isolated microglia of CCI rats. Intrathecal injection of a miR-221 inhibitor attenuated CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in CCI rats. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we show that suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), an important regulator of inflammation, is a direct target of miR-221. Treatment with the miR-221 inhibitor significantly inhibited the expression of SOCS1. Furthermore, the miR-221 inhibitor markedly suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway. Knockdown of SOCS1 in CCI rats abrogated the inhibitory effect of the miR-221 inhibitor on CCI-induced neuropathic pain and the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of miR-221 alleviates neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation through increasing SOCS1 and by inhibiting the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, indicating that miR-221 may be a promising molecular target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  14. Optogenetic Silencing of Nav1.8-Positive Afferents Alleviates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain123

    PubMed Central

    Daou, Ihab; Beaudry, Hélène; Ase, Ariel R.; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a novel transgenic mouse model in which the terminals of peripheral nociceptors can be silenced optogenetically with high spatiotemporal precision, leading to the alleviation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inhibitory archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) proton pumps were delivered to Nav1.8+ primary afferents using the Nav1.8-Cre driver line. Arch expression covered both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic nociceptors and yellow light stimulation reliably blocked electrically induced action potentials in DRG neurons. Acute transdermal illumination of the hindpaws of Nav1.8-Arch+ mice significantly reduced mechanical allodynia under inflammatory conditions, while basal mechanical sensitivity was not affected by the optical stimulation. Arch-driven hyperpolarization of nociceptive terminals was sufficient to prevent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in double-transgenic Nav1.8-ChR2+-Arch+mice. Furthermore, prolonged optical silencing of peripheral afferents in anesthetized Nav1.8-Arch+ mice led to poststimulation analgesia with a significant decrease in mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity under inflammatory and neuropathic conditions. These findings highlight the role of peripheral neuronal inputs in the onset and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity, demonstrate the plasticity of pain pathways even after sensitization has occurred, and support the involvement of Nav1.8+ afferents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Together, we present a selective analgesic approach in which genetically identified subsets of peripheral sensory fibers can be remotely and optically inhibited with high temporal resolution, overcoming the compensatory limitations of genetic ablations. PMID:27022626

  15. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei Kevin; Tao, Shan-Shan; Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Yu-Sang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Tang, He-Bin; Cong, Ren-Huai; Ma, Fang-Li; Wan, Chu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain, or sometimes referred to as persistent pain, reduces the life quality of patients who are suffering from chronic diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer and diabetes. Hence, herbal medicines draw many attentions and have been shown effective in the treatment or relief of pain. Methods and Results Here in this study, we used the CFA-injected rats as a sustainable pain model to test the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of nutmeg oil, a spice flavor additive to beverages and baked goods produced from the seed of Myristica fragrans tree. Conclusions We have demonstrated that nutmeg oil could potentially alleviate the CFA-injection induced joint swelling, mechanical allodynia and heat hyperanalgesia of rats through inhibition of COX-2 expression and blood substance P level, which made it possible for nutmeg oil to be a potential chronic pain reliever. PMID:27121041

  16. Hyperbaric oxygenation alleviates chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and inhibits GABAergic neuron apoptosis in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiqun; Li, Fenghua; Thomas, Sebastian; Yang, Zhongjin

    2017-09-15

    Dysfunction of GABAergic inhibitory controls contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. We examined our hypotheses that (1) chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain is associated with increased spinal GABAergic neuron apoptosis, and (2) hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) alleviates CCI-induced neuropathic pain by inhibiting GABAergic neuron apoptosis. Male rats were randomized into 3 groups: CCI, CCI+HBO and the control group (SHAM). Mechanical allodynia was tested daily following CCI procedure. HBO rats were treated at 2.4 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 60min once per day. The rats were euthanized and the spinal cord harvested on day 8 and 14 post-CCI. Detection of GABAergic cells and apoptosis was performed. The percentages of double positive stained cells (NeuN/GABA), cleaved caspase-3 or Cytochrome C in total GABAergic cells or in total NeuN positive cells were calculated. HBO significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia. CCI-induced neuropathic pain was associated with significantly increased spinal apoptotic GABA-positive neurons. HBO considerably decreased these spinal apoptotic cells. Cytochrome-C-positive neurons and cleaved caspase-3-positive neurons were also significantly higher in CCI rats. HBO significantly decreased these positive cells. Caspase-3 mRNA was also significantly higher in CCI rats. HBO reduced mRNA expression of caspase-3. CCI-induced neuropathic pain was associated with increased apoptotic GABAergic neurons induced by activation of key proteins of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. HBO alleviated CCI-induced neuropathic pain and reduced GABAergic neuron apoptosis. The beneficial effect of HBO may be via its inhibitory role in CCI-induced GABAergic neuron apoptosis by suppressing mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in the spinal cord. Increased apoptotic GABAergic neurons induced by activation of key proteins of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in the dorsal horn of the spinal

  17. Quercetin alleviates thermal and cold hyperalgesia in a rat neuropathic pain model by inhibiting Toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chunmei; Xu, Yongsheng; Han, Fang; Sun, Dehai; Zhang, Hanli; Li, Xiumei; Yao, Xiaoyin; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Neuropathic pain is caused by lesion or disease of the nervous system, which results in abnormal spontaneous and evoked pain. It's common in clinical practice and greatly impairs the life quality of patients, but the effective treatment is still lacking. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of quercetin (QUE) on neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms. Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was performed in Sprague Dawley rats to establish the neuropathic pain model. Single or continuous oral administration of QUE after the operation or continuous administration before the operation was applied to evaluate the effects of QUE on SNL-induced thermal and cold hyperalgesia. Dorsal root ganglions from these rats were harvested to analyze the expression levels of some inflammatory mediators. Primary cultured astrocytes and HEK293 cells were used to further explore the downstream signaling pathways of QUE. Both single and continuous oral administration of QUE dose-dependently alleviated SNL-induced thermal and cold hyperalgesia. Pre-administration also attenuated neuropathic pain symptoms. Meanwhile, SNL-induced increase in protein or mRNA levels of some inflammatory mediators could be down-regulated by QUE treatment. Furthermore, QUE reduced the phosphorylation of TAK1, IKK and JNK2 in cultured astrocytes. Moreover, luciferase assay in HEK293 cells showed that QUE dose-dependently inhibited NF-κB activity only via TAK1. QUE exerts anti-inflammatory effects and alleviates neuropathic pain through the inhibition of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. It could shed some light on the potential applications of QUE in chronic pain therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chien-Yi; Liu, Shih-An; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Su, Hong-Lin; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs) for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model. Methods and Methods This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3–0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague—Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days. Results The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis. Conclusion Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response. PMID:27441756

  19. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chien-Yi; Liu, Shih-An; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Su, Hong-Lin; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs) for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model. This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days. The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis. Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  20. Pelvic Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Exam, Pelvic Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1500x1230 View Download Large: 3000x2460 View Download Title: Exam, Pelvic Description: Pelvic exam; drawing shows a side ...

  1. Restoring movement representation and alleviating phantom limb pain through short-term neurorehabilitation with a virtual reality system.

    PubMed

    Osumi, M; Ichinose, A; Sumitani, M; Wake, N; Sano, Y; Yozu, A; Kumagaya, S; Kuniyoshi, Y; Morioka, S

    2017-01-01

    We developed a quantitative method to measure movement representations of a phantom upper limb using a bimanual circle-line coordination task (BCT). We investigated whether short-term neurorehabilitation with a virtual reality (VR) system would restore voluntary movement representations and alleviate phantom limb pain (PLP). Eight PLP patients were enrolled. In the BCT, they repeatedly drew vertical lines using the intact hand and intended to draw circles using the phantom limb. Drawing circles mentally using the phantom limb led to the emergence of an oval transfiguration of the vertical lines ('bimanual-coupling' effect). We quantitatively measured the degree of this bimanual-coupling effect as movement representations of the phantom limb before and immediately after short-term VR neurorehabilitation. This was achieved using an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) for PLP intensity and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). During VR neurorehabilitation, patients wore a head-mounted display that showed a mirror-reversed computer graphic image of an intact arm (the virtual phantom limb). By intending to move both limbs simultaneously and similarly, the patients perceived voluntary execution of movement in their phantom limb. Short-term VR neurorehabilitation promptly restored voluntary movement representations in the BCT and alleviated PLP (NRS: p = 0.015; 39.1 ± 28.4% relief, SF-MPQ: p = 0.015; 61.5 ± 48.5% relief). Restoration of phantom limb movement representations and reduced PLP intensity were linearly correlated (p < 0.05). VR rehabilitation may encourage patient's motivation and multimodal sensorimotor re-integration of a phantom limb and subsequently have a potent analgesic effect. There was no objective evidence that restoring movement representation by neurorehabilitation with virtual reality alleviated phantom limb pain. This study revealed quantitatively that restoring movement representation with virtual reality

  2. A novel vibratory stimulation-based occlusal splint for alleviation of TMD painful symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hara, E S; Witzel, A L; de Luca, C E P; Ballester, R Y; Kuboki, T; Bolzan, M C

    2013-03-01

    This pilot study introduces a novel vibratory stimulation-based occlusal splint (VibOS) for management of pain related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study sample consisted of 10 patients (mean age: 40·5 ± 13·7 years, male/female: 3/7) who were using stabilisation splints for more than 2 months prior to the study onset and still complained of pain. Patients utilised the active and inactive VibOS during 15 days in a crossover designed clinical trial. The analysed variables were self-reported VAS pain levels and number of painful sites to palpation (PSP). Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures anova. At baseline, mean VAS pain levels for group I and II were 45·6 ± 21·0 mm and 37·4 ± 16·3 mm, respectively. Comparison between these baseline values showed no statistical difference (P > 0·05, unpaired t-test). In group I, the inactive VibOS caused a slight increase in VAS pain levels, whereas the active VibOS promoted a significant decrease in VAS pain levels and PSP (P < 0·01). In group II, which received the active VibOS first, a significant decrease in VAS levels (P < 0·05) and in PSP (P < 0·01) was observed. No significant decrease in VAS pain levels or PSP (P > 0·05) was observed with the use of the inactive VibOS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a good tendency of this novel VibOS in the alleviation of painful symptoms related to TMD after a 15-day management period compared to control VibOS.

  3. Fat Grafting in Burn Scar Alleviates Neuropathic Pain via Anti-Inflammation Effect in Scar and Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Lee, Su-Shin; Chang, Kao-Ping; Chai, Chee-Yin; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Lin, Sin-Daw; Kwan, Aij-Lie; David Wang, Hui-Min; Lai, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Burn-induced neuropathic pain is complex, and fat grafting has reportedly improved neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of fat grafting in improving neuropathic pain is unclear. Previous investigations have found that neuroinflammation causes neuropathic pain, and anti-inflammatory targeting may provide potential therapeutic opportunities in neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that fat grafting in burn scars improves the neuropathic pain through anti-inflammation. Burn-induced scar pain was confirmed using a mechanical response test 4 weeks after burn injuries, and autologous fat grafting in the scar area was performed simultaneously. After 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and specimens were collected for the inflammation test, including COX-2, iNOS, and nNOS in the injured skin and spinal cord dorsal horns through immunohistochemistry and Western assays. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF-α) in the spinal cord were collected. Double immunofluorescent staining images for measuring p-IκB, p-NFκB, p-JNK, and TUNEL as well as Western blots of AKT, Bax/Bcl-2 for the inflammatory process, and apoptosis were analyzed. Fat grafting significantly reduced COX2, nNOS, and iNOS in the skin and spinal cord dorsal horns, as well as IL-1β and TNF-α, compared with the burn group. Moreover, regarding the anti-inflammatory effect, the apoptosis cells in the spinal cord significantly decreased after the fat grafting in the burn injury group. Fat grafting was effective in treating burn-induced neuropathic pain through the alleviation of neuroinflammation and ameliorated spinal neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26368011

  4. Aromatherapy massage on the abdomen for alleviating menstrual pain in high school girls: a preliminary controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Myeong Soo; Seong, Ka-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of aromatherapy massage and acetaminophen on menstrual pain in Korean high school girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: the aromatherapy massage (treatment) group (n = 32) and the acetaminophen (control) group (n = 23). Aromatherapy massage was performed on subjects in the treatment group. The abdomen was massaged once using clary sage, marjoram, cinnamon, ginger, and geranium in a base of almond oil. The level of menstrual pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at baseline and twenty-four hours afterward. The reduction of menstrual pain was significantly higher in the aromatherapy group than in the acetaminophen group. Using multiple regression, aromatherapy massage was found to be more highly associated with reduction in the level of menstrual pain than acetaminophen. These finding suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment for menstrual pain in high school girls. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects derived from the aromatherapy, the massage, or both. Further rigorous studies should be conducted using more objective measures.

  5. Aromatherapy Massage on the Abdomen for Alleviating Menstrual Pain in High School Girls: A Preliminary Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Myeong Soo; Seong, Ka-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of aromatherapy massage and acetaminophen on menstrual pain in Korean high school girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: the aromatherapy massage (treatment) group (n = 32) and the acetaminophen (control) group (n = 23). Aromatherapy massage was performed on subjects in the treatment group. The abdomen was massaged once using clary sage, marjoram, cinnamon, ginger, and geranium in a base of almond oil. The level of menstrual pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at baseline and twenty-four hours afterward. The reduction of menstrual pain was significantly higher in the aromatherapy group than in the acetaminophen group. Using multiple regression, aromatherapy massage was found to be more highly associated with reduction in the level of menstrual pain than acetaminophen. These finding suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment for menstrual pain in high school girls. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects derived from the aromatherapy, the massage, or both. Further rigorous studies should be conducted using more objective measures. PMID:21949670

  6. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Shanely, R Andrew; Luo, Beibei; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Sha, Wei

    2013-11-25

    , interaction effect P = 0.081). Patterns of change in SF-36, systemic inflammation biomarkers, and the 6-minute walk test did not differ significantly between groups during the 8-week study Results from this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled community trial support the use of the Instaflex™ dietary supplement in alleviating joint pain severity in middle-aged and older adults, with mitigation of difficulty performing daily activities most apparent in subjects with knee pain.

  7. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    % versus ↓12%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.081). Patterns of change in SF-36, systemic inflammation biomarkers, and the 6-minute walk test did not differ significantly between groups during the 8-week study Conclusions Results from this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled community trial support the use of the Instaflex™ dietary supplement in alleviating joint pain severity in middle-aged and older adults, with mitigation of difficulty performing daily activities most apparent in subjects with knee pain. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01956500 PMID:24274358

  8. Exogenous induction of HO-1 alleviates vincristine-induced neuropathic pain by reducing spinal glial activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Ming-Di; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Yang, Tian; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2015-07-01

    Chemotherapy drugs such as vincristine can produce painful peripheral neuropathy for which is still lack of effective treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was shown to mediate the resolution of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the contribution of HO-1 in the modulation of vincristine-induced pain and the mechanisms implicated. Injection of vincristine induced persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. The expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein was increased in 2 weeks in the spinal cord. Immunostaining showed that HO-1 was mainly expressed in neurons of spinal cord dorsal horn in naïve animals, but induced in astrocytes and microglia after vincristine injection. Intraperitoneal injection of HO-1 inducer increased HO-1 expression in the spinal cord and attenuated vincristine-induced pain. Persistent induction of HO-1 by intraspinal injection of HO-1-expressing lentivirus alleviated vincristine-induced pain for more than 2 weeks. Furthermore, vincristine induced activation of glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38), and production of TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the spinal cord, which were all reduced by intrathecal injection of HO-1 inducer. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that induction of HO-1 attenuates vincristine-induced neuropathic pain via inhibition of glia-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. This suggests that exogenously induced HO-1 may have potential as therapy in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

  9. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151

  10. The effect of aromatherapy abdominal massage on alleviating menstrual pain in nursing students: a prospective randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Tyseer M F; El-Nemer, Amina M R; Baraka, Hany N

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding.

  11. Use of “Kangaroo Care” to Alleviate the Intensity of Vaccination Pain in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Reza; Asnaashari, Zahra; Amirnejad, Mohtaram; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Robatsangi, Mahboobe Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Objective It has been demonstrated that newborns feel pain completely. Thus, they should be treated with this in mind. Recent research showed that non-pharmacological interventions such as “Kangaroo Care” may be useful for decreasing pain in newborns. We tried to determine the effect of kangaroo care on the pain intensity of vaccination in healthy newborns. Methods This study was a randomized case-control clinical trial. Subjects were 60 healthy full-term newborns delivered in a general Hospital, in Iran, from March to July 2006. They were randomly assigned to case and control groups. The case group received 30 minutes skin to skin contact, whereas infants in the control group were put, wrapped in a blanket, aside the mothers. Behavioral changes of newborns were evaluated and observed 2 minutes before, during, and 3 minutes after the intervention. All procedures were filmed. An assistant who was blinded to the study, scored behavior changes using Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale. Heart rate and oxygen saturation levels as displayed on the pulse monitor and duration of crying were recorded using a stopwatch. Findings Mean pain intensity during the intervention v was significantly lower in the case group (P<0.006). Mean pain intensity 3 minutes after intervention was also significantly lower in the case group (P<0.021). Mean duration of crying was significantly lower in case group as well (P<0.001). Conclusion Kangaroo care may be used to decrease pain intensity in newborns undergoing painful procedures. PMID:23056772

  12. [Fetal pain and intrauterine analgesia/anesthesia--long-term pathologic effects, causes and alleviation of intrauterine pain].

    PubMed

    Deli, Tamás; Szeverényi, Péter

    2010-04-25

    The human fetus can suffer several presumably painful interventions perinatally and even before, during its intrauterine life. In the past years, scientific dispute concerning the existence of fetal pain and the need for its relief has expanded, and a heated social, political, religious, moral and philosophical debate has arisen, focusing mainly on the suffering experienced by the fetus during artificial abortion. In our two connected papers, medical scientific knowledge regarding fetal pain in the literature is reviewed. In the first article published in Orvosi Hetilap volume 150, issue 11, we defined pain and the neuroanatomical structures participating in subjective pain perception, as well as the development of these structures. Then, the objective indicators of intrauterine stress response (such as fetal neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, reflex and behavioral reactions) evoked by noxious stimuli were discussed. The present second article gathers the evidence of long-term pathologic effects caused by early-experienced pain and stress in animal models and humans. Finally, the potentially pain-evoking pre- and perinatal interventions are evaluated, as well as the analgetic/anesthetic methods that can be applied to intrauterine fetuses in everyday obstetrical practice.

  13. Laparoscopic uterosacral nerve ablation for alleviating chronic pelvic pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jane; Gray, Richard; Hills, Robert K; Latthe, Pallavi; Buckley, Laura; Gupta, Janesh; Selman, Tara; Adey, Elizabeth; Xiong, Tengbin; Champaneria, Rita; Lilford, Richard; Khan, Khalid S

    2009-09-02

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition with a major effect on health-related quality of life, work productivity, and health care use. Operative interruption of nerve trunks in the uterosacral ligaments by laparoscopic uterosacral nerve ablation (LUNA) is a treatment option for patients with chronic pelvic pain. To assess the effectiveness of LUNA in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Randomized controlled trial of 487 women with chronic pelvic pain lasting longer than 6 months without or with minimal endometriosis, adhesions, or pelvic inflammatory disease, who were recruited to the study by consultant gynecological surgeons from 18 UK hospitals between February 1998 and December 2005. Follow-up was conducted by questionnaires mailed at 3 and 6 months and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. Bilateral LUNA or laparoscopy without pelvic denervation (no LUNA); participants were blinded to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was pain, which was assessed by a visual analogue scale. Data concerning the 3 types of pain (noncyclical pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia) were analyzed separately as was the worst pain level experienced from any of these 3 types of pain. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life, which was measured using a generic instrument (EuroQoL EQ-5D and EQ-VAS). After a median follow-up of 69 months, there were no significant differences reported on the visual analogue pain scales for the worst pain (mean difference between the LUNA group and the no LUNA group, -0.04 cm [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.33 to 0.25 cm]; P = .80), noncyclical pain (-0.11 cm [95% CI, -0.50 to 0.29 cm]; P = .60), dysmenorrhea (-0.09 cm [95% CI, -0.49 to 0.30 cm]; P = .60), or dyspareunia (0.18 cm [95% CI, -0.22 to 0.62 cm]; P = .40). No differences were observed between the LUNA group and the no LUNA group for quality of life. Among women with chronic pelvic pain, LUNA did not result in improvements in pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, or quality of life

  14. The effectiveness of topical anesthesia and vibration in alleviating the pain of oral injections.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, H. S.; Young, F. A.; Lackland, D. T.; Fishburne, C. P.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the research was to compare the effectiveness of vibration with that of a topical anesthetic in reducing the pain of local anesthetic injections. Injections were given adjacent to maxillary premolars in four locations in 61 patients. Before injection, sites received either placebo or topical anesthetic with or without vibration. Patients rated the injection pain on a five-point scale. The topical anesthetic caused a statistically significant decrease in pain values; however, the amount of decrease was of questionable clinical significance. Images Figure 1 PMID:9481967

  15. Local anaesthetic cream for the alleviation of pain during venepuncture in Tanzanian schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Hellgren, U; Kihamia, C M; Premji, Z; Danielson, K

    1989-01-01

    The analgesic effect and the usefulness of EMLA cream 5% in connection with venous blood-sampling was investigated in 42 Tanzanian schoolchildren. Approximately 2.5 g EMLA was applied to the right cubital fossa for a minimum of 120 min. The analgesic effect was pronounced--93% of the venepunctures were pain-free and no child experienced severe pain. No adverse reactions were observed and the children could continue normal school work during the application time. PMID:2775627

  16. Shp-1 dephosphorylates TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and alleviates CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2015-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia.

  17. Alleviation of chronic pain following rat spinal cord compression injury with multimodal actions of huperzine A

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dou; Thakor, Devang K.; Han, Inbo; Ropper, Alexander E.; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Sidman, Richard L.; Zafonte, Ross; Schachter, Steven C.; Teng, Yang D.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms including activation of NMDA receptors, microglial activation, reactive astrogliosis, loss of descending inhibition, and spasticity are responsible for ∼40% of cases of intractable neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because conventional treatments blocking individual mechanisms elicit only short-term effectiveness, a multimodal approach with simultaneous actions against major pain-related pathways may have value for clinical management of chronic pain. We hypothesize that [-]-huperzine A (HUP-A), an alkaloid isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata, that is a potent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and NMDA receptors, could mitigate pain without invoking drug tolerance or dependence by stimulating cholinergic interneurons to impede pain signaling, inhibiting inflammation via microglial cholinergic activation, and blocking NMDA-mediated central hypersensitization. We tested our hypothesis by administering HUP-A i.p. or intrathecally to female Sprague–Dawley rats (200–235 g body weight) after moderate static compression (35 g for 5 min) of T10 spinal cord. Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits. PMID:23386718

  18. Chronic nerve injury-induced Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons alleviates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanting; Qin, Yue; Liu, Tuanjiang; Hao, Dingjun

    2015-12-01

    Neuropathic pain, which is characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain, is one of the most painful symptoms that can be experienced in the clinic. It often occurs as a result of injury to the peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord or brain. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in nociception. As an essential component of the RAS, the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis may be involved in antinociception. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression pattern of Mas in DRG neurons following chronic nerve injury and examine the effects of Mas inhibition and activation on neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model. The results showed, that compared with the sham group, CCI caused a time-dependent induction of Mas expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels in DRG neurons. Consistent with the results, isolated DRG neurons showed a time-dependent increase in Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane following the CCI surgery, but not the sham surgery. Compared with the sham control groups, CCI significantly decreased the paw withdrawal latency and threshold, and this was markedly improved and aggravated by intrathecal injection of the selective Mas agonist Ang-(1-7) and the selective Mas inhibitor D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7), respectively. In conclusion, this study has provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that the Mas expression in DRG neurons is time-dependently induced by chronic nerve injury and that the intrathecal activation and inhibition of Mas can improve and aggravate CCI-induced neuropathic pain, respectively. This study has provided novel insights into the pathophysiological process of neuropathic pain and suggests that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis could be an effective therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, warranting further study.

  19. Nitrous oxide persistently alleviates pain hypersensitivity in neuropathic rats: A dose-dependent effect

    PubMed Central

    Ben Boujema, Meric; Laboureyras, Emilie; Pype, Jan; Bessière, Baptiste; Simonnet, Guy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite numerous pharmacological approaches, there are no common analgesic drugs that produce meaningful relief for the majority of patients with neuropathic pain. Although nitrous oxide (N2O) is a weak analgesic that acts via opioid-dependent mechanisms, it is also an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The NMDAR plays a critical role in the development of pain sensitization induced by nerve injury. OBJECTIVE: Using the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in male rats as a preclinical model of neuropathic pain, the first aim of the present study was to evaluate the lowest N2O concentration and the shortest time of N2O postinjury exposure that would produce persistent relief of neuropathic pain. The second aim was to compare the effects of N2O with gabapentin, a reference drug used in human neuropathic pain relief. METHODS: Changes in the nociceptive threshold were evaluated using the paw pressure vocalization test in rats. RESULTS: Among the various N2O concentrations tested, which ranged from 25% to 50%, only 50% N2O single exposure for 1 h 15 min induced a persistent (minimum of three weeks) and significant (60%) reduction in pain hypersensitivity. A single gabapentin dose (75 mg/kg to 300 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) induced an acute (1 h to 1 h 30 min) dose-dependent effect, but not a persistent effect such as that observed with N2O. CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical results suggest that N2O is advantageous for long-lasting neuropathic pain relief after sciatic nerve injury compared with other drugs used in humans such as gabapentinoids or NMDAR antagonists. The present preclinical study provides a rationale for developing comparative clinical studies. PMID:26371891

  20. EMLA cream and nitrous oxide to alleviate pain induced by palivizumab (Synagis) intramuscular injections in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Biran, Valérie; Lenclen, Richard; Epaud, Ralph; Cimerman, Patricia; Thibault, Pascale; Annequin, Daniel; Gold, Francis; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2008-06-01

    Palivizumab (Synagis [Abbot Laboratories, Kent, United Kingdom]) is recommended for the prevention of severe lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in infants at high risk. These injections are very painful, and currently the use of analgesics is not systematic. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of EMLA with premixed 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen, used alone or combined with EMLA, for pain alleviation during palivizumab injections. This randomized, double-blind, multicenter study included children who were younger than 24 months. Each child randomly received during the first 3 monthly injections 3 different analgesic interventions: (1) EMLA: application of EMLA plus air inhalation; (2) nitrous oxide/oxygen: inhalation of 50/50 nitrous oxide/oxygen plus application of a placebo cream; and (3) nitrous oxide/oxygen plus EMLA: inhalation of 50/50 nitrous oxide/oxygen plus application of EMLA. Each child was his or her own control. Procedural pain was assessed through videotapes with the Modified Behavioral Pain Scale. The procedure itself was subdivided in 2 periods: (1) injection and (2) recovery (first 30 seconds after the removal of the needle). Modified Behavioral Pain Scale scores over time (injection and recovery periods) and among treatments were compared by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifty-five children were included. Mean +/- SD Modified Behavioral Pain Scale pain scores for EMLA, nitrous oxide/oxygen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen plus EMLA were, respectively, 9.3 +/- 1.0, 8.8 +/- 1.2, and 8.2 +/- 1.8 during the injection and 7.8 +/- 1.7, 7.4 +/- 1.9, and 6.9 +/- 2.4 during the recovery period. A significant time and treatment effect in favor of the combined nitrous oxide/oxygen plus EMLA was observed. The administration of 50/50 nitrous oxide/oxygen to infants and young children is effective in decreasing the pain associated with palivizumab intramuscular injections. The combined nitrous oxide

  1. Massage therapy for cervical degenerative disc disease: alleviating a pain in the neck?

    PubMed

    Avery, Rhonda-Marie

    2012-01-01

    A 66-year-old female client with cervical degenerative disc disease at lateral left facet joint C6/C7 was experiencing symptoms of chronic neck pain accompanied by limited cervical range of motion, as well as radicular left shoulder and arm pain. The objective of this case report was to describe the effect of therapeutic massage on the client's symptoms and impairments of cervical DDD. Therapeutic massage interventions included soft-tissue manipulation using petrissage and neuromuscular techniques, fascial work, facilitated stretching, joint play, hydrotherapy, education on self-stretching, and positive guidance about condition management. Assessment included pain-free cervical ROM and a subjective verbal pain scale. After several treatment sessions, client's symptoms had decreased and cervical ROM had improved moderately. There was also a decrease in reported pain and an increase in functional daily activities. Client showed a greater understanding of the physiologic barriers which degenerative changes may present. This client responded favorably to massage therapy as a treatment intervention for cervical DDD symptoms.

  2. Massage Therapy for Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease: Alleviating a Pain in the Neck?

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Rhonda-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background: A 66-year-old female client with cervical degenerative disc disease at lateral left facet joint C6/C7 was experiencing symptoms of chronic neck pain accompanied by limited cervical range of motion, as well as radicular left shoulder and arm pain. The objective of this case report was to describe the effect of therapeutic massage on the client’s symptoms and impairments of cervical DDD. Methods: Therapeutic massage interventions included soft-tissue manipulation using petrissage and neuromuscular techniques, fascial work, facilitated stretching, joint play, hydrotherapy, education on self-stretching, and positive guidance about condition management. Assessment included pain-free cervical ROM and a subjective verbal pain scale. Results: After several treatment sessions, client’s symptoms had decreased and cervical ROM had improved moderately. There was also a decrease in reported pain and an increase in functional daily activities. Client showed a greater understanding of the physiologic barriers which degenerative changes may present. Conclusions: This client responded favorably to massage therapy as a treatment intervention for cervical DDD symptoms. PMID:23087777

  3. Inhibiting the breakdown of endogenous opioids and cannabinoids to alleviate pain.

    PubMed

    Roques, Bernard P; Fournié-Zaluski, Marie-Claude; Wurm, Michel

    2012-04-01

    Chronic pain remains unsatisfactorily treated, and few novel painkillers have reached the market in the past century. Increasing the levels of the main endogenous opioid peptides - enkephalins - by inhibiting their two inactivating ectopeptidases, neprilysin and aminopeptidase N, has analgesic effects in various models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Stemming from the same pharmacological concept, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors have also been found to have analgesic effects in pain models by preventing the breakdown of endogenous cannabinoids. Dual enkephalinase inhibitors and FAAH inhibitors are now in early-stage clinical trials. In this Review, we compare the effects of these two potential classes of novel analgesics and describe the progress in their rational design. We also consider the challenges in their clinical development and opportunities for combination therapies.

  4. Reversal of TRESK Downregulation Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Activation of Gliocytes in the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Chen, Hongtao; Yang, Chengxiang; Zhong, Jiying; He, Wanyou; Xiong, Qingming

    2017-02-03

    Despite the consensus that activation of TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) might contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pain, the specific mechanisms underlying the transfer and development of pain signals still remain obscure. In the present study, we validated that TRESK was expressed in neurons instead of glial cells. Furthermore, in the SNI model of neuropathic pain (NP), downregulation of TRESK in spinal cord neurons resulted in upregulation of connexin 36 (Cx36) and connexin 43 (Cx43), both being subtypes of gap junctions in the spinal cord, with gliocytes in the spinal cord activated ultimately. Compared with SNI rats, intrathecal injection of TRESK gene recombinant adenovirus significantly downregulated the expression levels of Cx36 and Cx43 and suppressed the activation of gliocytes in the spinal cord, with hyperalgesia significantly reduced. In conclusion, TRESK contributes to the pathogenesis of NP by upregulation of synaptic transmission and activation of gliocytes.

  5. Pilot study: alleviation of pain in burning mouth syndrome with topical sucralose.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Alan R; Ziad, Alhumayyd; Kim, Ah Young; Lail, Navdeep Singh; Sharma, Sameer

    2011-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome affects 1-3% of the population The exact mechanism is unknown. Bartoshuk has demonstrated sweet hypogeusia in those with burning mouth syndrome. Intensification of sweet taste may compensate for this deficit and reduce the pain. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  6. Blindness, Diabetes, and Amputation: Alleviation of Depression and Pain through Thermal Biofeedback Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, W. E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A 39-year-old man who was blind, diabetic, and had a double amputation with chronic renal failure and peripheral vascular disease was treated with thermal biofeedback to reduce his depression through increased self-control, to minimize pain, and to facilitate healing of a pregangrenous hand. On treatment discharge, his mental and physical states…

  7. Blindness, Diabetes, and Amputation: Alleviation of Depression and Pain through Thermal Biofeedback Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, W. E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A 39-year-old man who was blind, diabetic, and had a double amputation with chronic renal failure and peripheral vascular disease was treated with thermal biofeedback to reduce his depression through increased self-control, to minimize pain, and to facilitate healing of a pregangrenous hand. On treatment discharge, his mental and physical states…

  8. A ‘toothache tree’ alkylamide inhibits Aδ mechanonociceptors to alleviate mechanical pain

    PubMed Central

    Tsunozaki, Makoto; Lennertz, Richard C; Vilceanu, Daniel; Katta, Samata; Stucky, Cheryl L; Bautista, D M

    2013-01-01

    In traditional medicine, the ‘toothache tree’ and other plants of the Zanthoxylum genus have been used to treat inflammatory pain conditions, such as toothache and rheumatoid arthritis. Here we examined the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic properties of hydroxy-α-sanshool, the active alkylamide produced by Zanthoxylum plants. Consistent with its analgesic effects in humans, sanshool treatment in mice caused a selective attenuation of mechanical sensitivity under naïve and inflammatory conditions, with no effect on thermal sensitivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which sanshool attenuates mechanical pain, we performed single fibre recordings, calcium imaging and whole-cell electrophysiology of cultured sensory neurons. We found that: (1) sanshool potently inhibits Aδ mechanonociceptors that mediate both sharp acute pain and inflammatory pain; (2) sanshool inhibits action potential firing by blocking voltage-gated sodium currents in a subset of somatosensory neurons, which express a unique combination of voltage-gated sodium channels; and (3) heterologously expressed Nav1.7 is most strongly inhibited by sanshool as compared to other sodium channels expressed in sensory neurons. These results suggest that sanshool targets voltage-gated sodium channels on Aδ mechanosensory nociceptors to dampen excitability and thus induce ‘fast pain’ analgesia. PMID:23652591

  9. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis contributes differentially to environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise in alleviating chronic inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Xu, Ling-Chi; Ma, Long-Yu; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cui, Shuang; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Wan, You; Yi, Ming

    2017-03-14

    Cognitive behavioral therapy, such as environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx), is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain. However, the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of EE-VEx remain unclear. In mice with intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), our results revealed that EE-VEx alleviated perceptual, affective and cognitive dimensions of chronic inflammatory pain. These effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain were contingent on the occurrence of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a functionally dissociated manner along the dorsoventral axis: neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participated in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas neurogenesis in the dorsal dentate gyrus was involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects. Chronic inflammatory pain was accompanied by decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the dentate gyrus, which were reversed by EE-VEx. Over-expression of BDNF in the dentate mimicked the effects of EE-VEx. Our results demonstrate distinct contribution of adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis to EE-VEx's beneficial effects on different dimensions of chronic pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTEnvironmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx) is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain, but its effectiveness and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, the present study demonstrates that the beneficial effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain depend on adult neurogenesis with a dorsoventral dissociation along the hippocampal axis. Adult neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participates in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas that in the dorsal pole is involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects in chronic pain.

  10. Gelsemine alleviates both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in partial sciatic nerve ligation mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-er; Li, Ya-dong; Luo, Yan-jia; Wang, Tian-xiao; Wang, Hui-jing; Chen, Shuo-nan; Qu, Wei-min; Huang, Zhi-li

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gelsemine, an alkaloid from the Chinese herb Gelsemium elegans (Gardn & Champ) Benth., is effective in mitigating chronic pain in rats. In the present study we investigated whether the alkaloid improved sleep disturbance, the most common comorbid symptoms of chronic pain, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Methods: Mice were subjected to partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). After the mice were injected with gelsemine or pregabalin (the positive control) intraperitoneally, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed, and electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) recording was performed. Motor performance of the mice was assessed using rota-rod test. c-Fos expression in the brain was analyzed with immunohistochemical staining. Results: In PSNL mice, gelsemine (2 and 4 mg/kg) increased the mechanical threshold for 4 h and prolonged the thermal latencies for 3 h. Furthermore, gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at 6:30 AM) increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, decreased wakefulness, but did not affect REM sleep during the first 3 h in PSNL mice. Sleep architecture analysis showed that gelsemine decreased the mean duration of wakefulness and increased the total number of episodes of NREM sleep during the first 3 h after the dosing. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg) did not impair motor coordination in PSNL mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that PSNL increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex, and gelsemine (4 mg/kg) decreased c-Fos expression by 58%. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at either 6:30 AM or 8:30 PM) did not produce hypnotic effect in normal mice. Pregabalin produced similar antinociceptive and hypnotic effects, but impaired motor coordination in PSNL mice. Conclusion: Gelsemine is an effective agent for treatment of both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in PSNL mice; anterior cingulate cortex might play a role in the hypnotic effects of gelsemine. PMID:26388157

  11. Topical treatment with Tong-Luo-San-Jie Gel alleviates bone cancer pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juyong; Zhang, Ruixin; Dong, Changsheng; Jiao, Liying; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jiyong; Wang, Zhengtao; Ying, Qi Liang Mao; Fong, Harry; Lao, Lixing

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The herbal analgesic gel Tong-Luo-San-Jie (TLSJ) and its modifications are used in traditional Chinese medicine to manage cancer pain. However, its mechanisms are still unknown. Aim of the study To investigate the effects and mechanisms of TLSJ gel on bone cancer pain in a rat model. Materials and Methods A bone cancer pain rat model was established by inoculating Walker 256 rat carcinoma cells directly into the right tibial medullary cavity of Sprague-Dawley rats (150–170 g); Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) tibial inoculation was used as control. Cancer-bearing rats were treated twice a day with external TLSJ gel (0.5 g/cm2/day) or inert gel control for 21 days (n=10/group). Behavioral tests such as mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were carried out. Osteoclastic activities were determined and carboxyterminal pyridinoline cross-linked type I collagen telopeptides (ICTP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) concentrations were detected with ELISA after treatment. Adverse effects were monitored, and biochemical and histological tests were performed in naïve rats treated with local TLSJ gel for six weeks. Results TLSJ treatment significantly restored bone cancer-induced decrease of PWL and mechanical threshold compared to inert gel. It also decreased the level of blood serum ICTP and BAP and inhibited osteoclast activities. No adverse effects or abnormal biochemical and histological changes were detected after TLSJ treatment. Conclusion The present study shows that TLSJ significantly inhibits bone cancer-induced thermal and mechanical sensitization. It suggests that the gel may be useful in managing cancer pain and that it may act by inhibiting osteoclastic activity. PMID:22960543

  12. Gelsemine alleviates both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in partial sciatic nerve ligation mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-er; Li, Ya-dong; Luo, Yan-jia; Wang, Tian-xiao; Wang, Hui-jing; Chen, Shuo-nan; Qu, Wei-min; Huang, Zhi-li

    2015-11-01

    Gelsemine, an alkaloid from the Chinese herb Gelsemium elegans (Gardn & Champ) Benth., is effective in mitigating chronic pain in rats. In the present study we investigated whether the alkaloid improved sleep disturbance, the most common comorbid symptoms of chronic pain, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Mice were subjected to partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). After the mice were injected with gelsemine or pregabalin (the positive control) intraperitoneally, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed, and electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) recording was performed. Motor performance of the mice was assessed using rota-rod test. c-Fos expression in the brain was analyzed with immunohistochemical staining. In PSNL mice, gelsemine (2 and 4 mg/kg) increased the mechanical threshold for 4 h and prolonged the thermal latencies for 3 h. Furthermore, gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at 6:30 AM) increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, decreased wakefulness, but did not affect REM sleep during the first 3 h in PSNL mice. Sleep architecture analysis showed that gelsemine decreased the mean duration of wakefulness and increased the total number of episodes of NREM sleep during the first 3 h after the dosing. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg) did not impair motor coordination in PSNL mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that PSNL increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex, and gelsemine (4 mg/kg) decreased c-Fos expression by 58%. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at either 6:30 AM or 8:30 PM) did not produce hypnotic effect in normal mice. Pregabalin produced similar antinociceptive and hypnotic effects, but impaired motor coordination in PSNL mice. Gelsemine is an effective agent for treatment of both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in PSNL mice; anterior cingulate cortex might play a role in the hypnotic effects of gelsemine.

  13. Phosphorylation state–dependent modulation of spinal glycine receptors alleviates inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Yévenes, Gonzalo E.; Ralvenius, William T.; Benke, Dietmar; Di Lio, Alessandra; Lara, Cesar O.; Muñoz, Braulio; Burgos, Carlos F.; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Diminished inhibitory neurotransmission in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord is thought to contribute to chronic pain. In inflammatory pain, reductions in synaptic inhibition occur partially through prostaglandin E2- (PGE2-) and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of a specific subtype of glycine receptors (GlyRs) that contain α3 subunits. Here, we demonstrated that 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP), a nonanesthetic propofol derivative, reverses inflammation-mediated disinhibition through a specific interaction with heteromeric αβGlyRs containing phosphorylated α3 subunits. We expressed mutant GlyRs in HEK293T cells, and electrophysiological analyses of these receptors showed that 2,6-DTBP interacted with a conserved phenylalanine residue in the membrane-associated stretch between transmembrane regions 3 and 4 of the GlyR α3 subunit. In native murine spinal cord tissue, 2,6-DTBP modulated synaptic, presumably αβ heteromeric, GlyRs only after priming with PGE2. This observation is consistent with results obtained from molecular modeling of the α-β subunit interface and suggests that in α3βGlyRs, the binding site is accessible to 2,6-DTBP only after PKA-dependent phosphorylation. In murine models of inflammatory pain, 2,6-DTBP reduced inflammatory hyperalgesia in an α3GlyR-dependent manner. Together, our data thus establish that selective potentiation of GlyR function is a promising strategy against chronic inflammatory pain and that, to our knowledge, 2,6-DTBP has a unique pharmacological profile that favors an interaction with GlyRs that have been primed by peripheral inflammation. PMID:27270175

  14. Thalidomide alleviates postoperative pain and spatial memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Hu, Si-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Pain is a major risk factor of post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aged population. We investigated the effects of thalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, on POCD in aged rats, and also explored the underlying mechanisms. Laparotomy was performed under anesthesia in aged rats (24-25 months) to establish POCD models. Thalidomide (5-50mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered immediately after laparotomy. Within 12h after the operation, pain symptoms were assessed by rat grimace scale (RGS). Within postoperative day (POD) 3-14, spatial memory was evaluated using performance errors in a radial arm maze. Protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were measured on POD 14. POCD rats treated with thalidomide showed decreased RGS and performance errors, compared with saline-treated POCD rats. Single administration of thalidomide significantly reduced production of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β) in serum but not in the brain, and attenuated upregulation of NMDA receptor (NR) 2A/B subunits in the hippocampus at POD 14. MK-801 abolished thalidomide-induced attenuation of spatial memory deficits. Our results support that thalidomide could disrupt the development of post-operative memory deficit in aged rats through its long-term regulation of NMDA receptors (NRs) in the hippocampus. Therefore, thalidomide might provide a new means to prevent the development of POCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Formulation of Novel Layered Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Film Wound Dressings with Ibuprofen for Alleviating Wound Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vinklárková, Lenka; Vetchý, David; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and management of wound pain can facilitate both improvements in healing rates and overall quality of life. From a pharmacological perspective, topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of film wound dressings may be a good choice. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop novel layered film wound dressings containing ibuprofen based on partially substituted fibrous sodium carboxymethylcellulose (nonwoven textile Hcel NaT). To this end, an innovative solvent casting method using a sequential coating technique has been applied. The concentration of ibuprofen which was incorporated as an acetone solution or as a suspension in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose dispersion was 0.5 mg/cm2 and 1.0 mg/cm2 of film. Results showed that developed films had adequate mechanical and swelling properties and an advantageous acidic surface pH for wound application. An in vitro drug release study implied that layered films retained the drug for a longer period of time and thus could minimize the frequency of changing the dressing. Films with suspended ibuprofen demonstrated higher drug content uniformity and superior in vitro drug release characteristics in comparison with ibuprofen incorporation as an acetone solution. Prepared films could be potential wound dressings for the effective treatment of wound pain in low exuding wounds. PMID:26090454

  16. Central P2Y12 receptor blockade alleviates inflammatory and neuropathic pain and cytokine production in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Gergely; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Csölle, Cecilia; Király, Kornél; Andó, Rómeó D.; Baranyi, Mária; Koványi, Bence; Máté, Zoltán; Hoffmann, Kristina; Algaier, Irina; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Von Kügelgen, Ivar; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    In this study the role of P2Y12 receptors (P2Y12R) was explored in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and in acute thermal nociception. In correlation with their activity to block the recombinant human P2Y12R, the majority of P2Y12R antagonists alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia dose-dependently, following intraplantar CFA injection, and after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. They also caused an increase in thermal nociceptive threshold in the hot plate test. Among the six P2Y12R antagonists evaluated in the pain studies, the selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist PSB-0739 was most potent upon intrathecal application. P2Y12R mRNA and IL-1β protein were time-dependently overexpressed in the rat hind paw and lumbar spinal cord following intraplantar CFA injection. This was accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in the hind paw. PSB-0739 (0.3 mg/kg i.t.) attenuated CFA-induced expression of cytokines in the hind paw and of IL-1β in the spinal cord. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist MLA occluded the effect of PSB-0739 (i.t.) on pain behavior and peripheral cytokine induction. Denervation of sympathetic nerves by 6-OHDA pretreatment did not affect the action of PSB-0739. PSB-0739, in an analgesic dose, did not influence motor coordination and platelet aggregation. Genetic deletion of the P2Y12R in mice reproduced the effect of P2Y12R antagonists on mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, on acute thermal nociception and on the induction of spinal IL-1β. Here we report the robust involvement of the P2Y12R in inflammatory pain. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of P2Y12R antagonism could be mediated by the inhibition of both central and peripheral cytokine production and involves α7-receptor mediated efferent pathways. PMID:24971933

  17. The essential oil from the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl alleviates pain and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Zong, Shao-Bo; Li, Jia-Chun; Lv, Yao-Zhong; Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Zheng-Zhong; Zhou, Jun; Cao, Liang; Kou, Jun-Ping; Xiao, Wei

    2016-12-24

    Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Lauraceae) can be found southern China and its bark is commonly used for centuries as ingredient in food and cosmetic industry. The twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl is popularly used in China to treat inflammatory processes, pain, menstrual disorders, hypertension, fever etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the essential oil (EO) from the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl. The chemical characterization of the EO was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO doses of 15, 30, and 60mg/kg were employed in the biological assays. The antinociceptive effects of the EO were evaluated using the models of acetic acid-induced writhing, oxytocin-induced writhing, and formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) -induced overt pain tests. we also investigated the effect of the EO in pain intensity to a mechanical stimulus (mechanical hyperalgesia) after carrageenan by using an electronic version of von Frey filaments. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity was based on paw edema induced by carrageenan (300µg/25µL/paw) in mice. The levels of cytokines, NO, and PGE2 in paw skin tissue were determined according to instructions. COX-2 and iNOS proteins in paw skin tissue were assessed by Western Blot. The EO (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) reduced the number of abdominal writhings induced by acetic acid with inhibition of 38.0%, 55.4% and 58.7%, respectively. The EO (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) also reduced the number of abdominal writhings induced by oxytocin with inhibition of 27.3%, 51.7% and 69.0%, respectively. The EO significant inhibited the inflammatory (second phase: 10-30min) phase of the formalin-induced paw flinching and licking at the doses of 15, 30, and 60mg/kg. The EO at the tested doses of 15, 30, and 60mg/kg showed inhibited CFA-induced paw flinching and licking. The EO (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and

  18. Dual Alleviation of Acute and Neuropathic Pain by Fused Opioid Agonist-Neurokinin 1 Antagonist Peptidomimetics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the synthesis and biological evaluation of dual opioid agonists–neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists is described. In these multitarget ligands, the two pharmacophores do not overlap, and this allowed maintaining high NK1R affinity and antagonist potency in compounds 12 and 13. Although the fusion of the two ligands resulted in slightly diminished opioid agonism at the μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOR and DOR, respectively), as compared to the opioid parent peptide, balanced MOR/DOR activities were obtained. Compared to morphine, compounds 12 and 13 produced more potent antinociceptive effects in both acute (tail-flick) and neuropathic pain models (von Frey and cold plate). Similarly to morphine, analgesic tolerance developed after repetitive administration of these compounds. To our delight, compound 12 did not produce cross-tolerance with morphine and high antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects could be reinstated after chronic administration of each of the two compounds. PMID:26713106

  19. Dual Alleviation of Acute and Neuropathic Pain by Fused Opioid Agonist-Neurokinin 1 Antagonist Peptidomimetics.

    PubMed

    Betti, Cecilia; Starnowska, Joanna; Mika, Joanna; Dyniewicz, Jolanta; Frankiewicz, Lukasz; Novoa, Alexandre; Bochynska, Marta; Keresztes, Attila; Kosson, Piotr; Makuch, Wioletta; Van Duppen, Joost; Chung, Nga N; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Schiller, Peter W; Janssens, Frans; Ceusters, Marc; Sommen, François; Meert, Theo; Przewlocka, Barbara; Tourwé, Dirk; Ballet, Steven

    2015-12-10

    Herein, the synthesis and biological evaluation of dual opioid agonists-neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists is described. In these multitarget ligands, the two pharmacophores do not overlap, and this allowed maintaining high NK1R affinity and antagonist potency in compounds 12 and 13. Although the fusion of the two ligands resulted in slightly diminished opioid agonism at the μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOR and DOR, respectively), as compared to the opioid parent peptide, balanced MOR/DOR activities were obtained. Compared to morphine, compounds 12 and 13 produced more potent antinociceptive effects in both acute (tail-flick) and neuropathic pain models (von Frey and cold plate). Similarly to morphine, analgesic tolerance developed after repetitive administration of these compounds. To our delight, compound 12 did not produce cross-tolerance with morphine and high antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects could be reinstated after chronic administration of each of the two compounds.

  20. Implication of Hypothalamus in Alleviating Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Andrew D.; King, Kevin; Deitermann, Annika; Miranpuri, Gurwattan S.; Resnick, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is common among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, and there remain clinical difficulties in treating NP due to the lack of understanding of underlying mechanisms. Extracellular proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase and β-catenin, have been shown to be activated in the spinal cord regions following an injury, and may play a key role in contributing to NP states. While these extracellular proteins have been used as therapeutic targets in the spinal cord, there has also been evidence of up-regulation in the hypothalamus following a SCI. We hypothesize that the hypothalamus is involved in regulating NP following a SCI, and hence should be researched further to determine if it is a viable target for future therapeutic treatments. PMID:27721586

  1. Peripheral and spinal activation of cannabinoid receptors by joint mobilization alleviates postoperative pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Martins, D F; Mazzardo-Martins, L; Cidral-Filho, F J; Gadotti, V M; Santos, A R S

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the relative contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) subtypes and to analyze cannabimimetic mechanisms involved in the inhibition of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol degradation on the antihyperalgesic effect of ankle joint mobilization (AJM). Mice (25-35g) were subjected to plantar incision (PI) and 24h after surgery animals received the following treatments, AJM for 9min, AEA (10mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), WIN 55,212-2 (1.5mg/kg, i.p.), URB937 (0.01-1mg/kg, i.p.; a fatty acid amide hydrolase [FAAH] inhibitor) or JZL184 (0.016-16mg/kg, i.p.; a monoacylglycerol lipase [MAGL] inhibitor). Withdrawal frequency to mechanical stimuli was assessed 24h after PI and at different time intervals after treatments. Receptor specificity was investigated using selective CB1R (AM281) and CB2R (AM630) antagonists. In addition, the effect of the FAAH and MAGL inhibitors on the antihyperalgesic action of AJM was investigated. AJM, AEA, WIN 55,212-2, URB937 and JZL184 decreased mechanical hyperalgesia induced by PI. The antihyperalgesic effect of AJM was reversed by pretreatment with AM281 given by intraperitoneal and intrathecal routes, but not intraplantarly. Additionally, intraperitoneal and intraplantar, but not intrathecal administration of AM630 blocked AJM-induced antihyperalgesia. Interestingly, in mice pretreated with FAAH or the MAGL inhibitor the antihyperalgesic effect of AJM was significantly longer. This article presents data addressing the CBR mechanisms underlying the antihyperalgesic activity of joint mobilization as well as of the endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors in the mouse postoperative pain model. Joint mobilization and these enzymes offer potential targets to treat postoperative pain.

  2. Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine alleviates neuropathic pain in the dorsal root ganglia by downregulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Gu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Juan; Ma, Zhengliang

    2014-09-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a member of the small proline-directed serine/threonine kinase family. Cdk5 is not involved in cell cycle regulation, but is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of Cdk5 in neuropathic pain remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Cdk5 is involved in neuropathic pain in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected intrathecally Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine in rat model of chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion and examined pain behaviors and the expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) but not NR2B or NR1 in DRG. We found that roscovitine alleviated neuropathic pain, causing decline in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency. Furthermore, roscovitine inhibited NR2A expression in DRG. These data suggest that Cdk5-NR2A pathway regulates neuropathic pain in DRG, and intrathecal injection of roscovitine could alleviate neuropathic pain. Our findings provide new insight into the analgesic effects of Roscovitine and identify Cdk5-NR2A pathway as a potential target for effective treatment of neuropathic pain.

  3. MicroRNA-16 Alleviates Inflammatory Pain by Targeting Ras-Related Protein 23 (RAB23) and Inhibiting p38 MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjin; Guo, Shengdong; Wang, Shenggang

    2016-10-22

    BACKGROUND The purpose of our study was to determine the functional role of microRNA (miR)-16 in chronic inflammatory pain and to disclose its underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to Wistar rats. The pWPXL-miR-16, PcDNA3.1- Ras-related protein (RAB23), and/or SB203580 were delivered intrathecally to the rats. Behavioral tests were detected at 0 h, 4 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d, and 14 d after CFA injection. After behavioral tests, L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord were obtained and the levels of miR-16, RAB23, and phosphorylation of p38 (p-p38) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, luciferase reporter assay was performed to explore whether RAB23 was a target of miR-16, and qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to confirm the regulation between RAB23 and miR-16. RESULTS The level of miR-16 was significantly decreased in the CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Intrathecal injection of miR-16 alleviates pain response and raised pain threshold. The level of RAB23 was significantly increased in the pain model, and intrathecal injection of RAB23 aggravated pain response. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that RAB23 was a direct target of miR-16, and RAB23 was negatively regulated by miR-16. In addition, we found that simultaneous administration of SB203580 and miR-16 further alleviates pain response compared to only administration of miR-16. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that miR-16 relieves chronic inflammatory pain by targeting RAB23 and inhibiting p38 MAPK activation.

  4. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  5. Decrease in neuroimmune activation by HSV-mediated gene transfer of TNFα soluble receptor alleviates pain in rats with diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Kathryn L Maier; Chattopadhyay, Munmun

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms of diabetic painful neuropathy are complicated and comprise of peripheral and central pathophysiological phenomena. A number of proinflammatory cytokines are involved in this process. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is considered to be one of the major contributors of neuropathic pain. In order to explore the potential role of inflammation in the peripheral nervous system of Type 1 diabetic animals with painful neuropathy, we investigated whether TNF-α is a key inflammatory mediator to the diabetic neuropathic pain and whether continuous delivery of TNFα soluble receptor from damaged axons achieved by HSV vector mediated transduction of DRG would block or alter the pain perception in animals with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic animals exhibited changes in threshold of mechanical and thermal pain perception compared to control rats and also demonstrated increases in TNFα in the DRG, spinal cord dorsal horn, sciatic nerve and in the foot skin, 6 weeks after the onset of diabetes. Therapeutic approaches by HSV mediated expression of p55 TNF soluble receptor significantly attenuated the diabetes-induced hyperalgesia and decreased the expression of TNFα with reduction in the phosphorylation of p38MAPK in the spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG. The overall outcome of this study suggests that neuroinflammatory activation in the peripheral nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of painful neuropathy in Type 1 diabetes which can be alleviated by local expression of HSV vector expressing p55 TNF soluble receptor.

  6. Decrease in neuroimmune activation by HSV-mediated gene transfer of TNFα soluble receptor alleviates pain in rats with diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Maier Ortmann, Kathryn L.; Chattopadhyay, Munmun

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of diabetic painful neuropathy are complicated and comprise of peripheral and central pathophysiological phenomena. A number of proinflammatory cytokines are involved in this process. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is considered to be one of the major contributors of neuropathic pain. In order to explore the potential role of inflammation in the peripheral nervous system of Type 1 diabetic animals with painful neuropathy, we investigated whether TNF-α is a key inflammatory mediator to the diabetic neuropathic pain and whether continuous delivery of TNFα soluble receptor from damaged axons achieved by HSV vector mediated transduction of DRG would block or alter the pain perception in animals with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic animals exhibited changes in threshold of mechanical and thermal pain perception compared to control rats and also demonstrated increases in TNFα in the DRG, spinal cord dorsal horn, sciatic nerve and in the foot skin, 6 weeks after the onset of diabetes. Therapeutic approaches by HSV mediated expression of p55 TNF soluble receptor significantly attenuated the diabetes-induced hyperalgesia and decreased the expression of TNFα with reduction in the phosphorylation of p38MAPK in the spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG. The overall outcome of this study suggests that neuroinflammatory activation in the peripheral nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of painful neuropathy in Type 1 diabetes which can be alleviated by local expression of HSV vector expressing p55 TNF soluble receptor. PMID:24880032

  7. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alleviate the pain experienced during bone marrow sampling in addition to standard techniques? A randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tucker, David L; Rockett, Mark; Hasan, Mehedi; Poplar, Sarah; Rule, Simon A

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow aspiration and trephine (BMAT) biopsies remain important tests in haematology. However, the procedures can be moderately to severely painful despite standard methods of pain relief. To test the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in alleviating the pain from BMAT in addition to standard analgesia using a numerical pain rating scale (NRS). 70 patients requiring BMAT were randomised (1:1) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. -35 patients received TENS impulses at a strong but comfortable amplitude (intervention group) and 35 patients received TENS impulses just above the sensory threshold (control group) (median pulse amplitude 20 and 7 mA, respectively). Patients and operators were blinded to group allocation. Pain assessments were made using a numerical pain scale completed after the procedure. No significant difference in NRS pain recalled after the procedure was detected (median pain score 5.7 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.6) in control vs 5.6 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.4) in the intervention group). However, 100% of patients who had previous experience of BMAT and >94% of participants overall felt they benefited from using TENS and would recommend it to others for this procedure. There were no side effects from the TENS device, and it was well tolerated. TENS is a safe, non-invasive adjunct to analgesia for reducing pain during bone marrow biopsy and provides a subjective benefit to most users; however, no objective difference in pain scores was detected when using TENS in this randomised controlled study. NCT02005354. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Breast Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... 210:314. Mac Bride MB, et al. The evolution of the breast self-examination to breast awareness. The Breast Journal. 2012;18:641. July 17, 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/breast-exam/basics/definition/PRC-20020418 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  9. Folic Acid Modulates Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression, Alleviates Neuropathic Pain, and Improves Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord-Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranpuri, Gurwattan S.; Meethal, Sivan Vadakkadath; Sampene, Emmanuel; Chopra, Abhishek; Buttar, Seah; Nacht, Carrie; Moreno, Neydis; Patel, Kush; Liu, Lisa; Singh, Anupama; Singh, Chandra K.; Hariharan, Nithya; Iskandar, Bermans; Resnick, Daniel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The molecular underpinnings of spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with neuropathic pain (NP) are unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP2 play a critical role in inducing NP following SCI. Promoter methylation of MMPs is known to suppress their transcription and reduce NP. In this context, it has been shown in rodents that folic acid (FA), an FDA approved dietary supplement and key methyl donor in the central nervous system (CNS), increases axonal regeneration and repair of injured CNS in part via methylation. Purpose Based on above observations, in this study, we test whether FA could decrease MMP2 expression and thereby decrease SCI-induced NP. Methods Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 250–270 g received contusion spinal cord injuries (cSCIs) with a custom spinal cord impactor device that drops a 10 g weight from a height of 12.5 mm. The injured rats received either i.p. injections of FA (80 µg/kg) or water (control) 3 days prior and 17 days post-cSCI (mid phase) or for 3 days pre-cSCI and 14 days post-cSCI ending on the 42nd day of cSCI (late phase). The functional neurological deficits due to cSCI were then assessed by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores either on post-impaction days 0 through 18 post-cSCI (mid phase) or on days 0, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 (late phase). Baseline measurements were taken the day before starting treatments. Thermal hyperalgesia (TH) testing for pain was performed on 4 days pre-cSCI (baseline data) and on days 18, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-cSCI. Following TH testing, animals were euthanized and spinal cords harvested for MMP-2 expression analysis. Result The FA-treated groups showed higher BBB scores during mid phase (day 18) and in late phase (day 42) of injury compared to controls, suggesting enhanced functional recovery. There is a transient decline in TH in animals from the FA-treated group compared to controls when tested on days 18, 21, 28, and 35

  10. Effect of lidocaine-prilocaine eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic cream compared with oral sucrose or both in alleviating pain in neonatal circumcision procedure.

    PubMed

    Al Qahtani, Reem; Abu-Salem, Laila Younis; Pal, Kamalesh

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal circumcision is one of the oldest and most frequently performed surgical procedures on males. Newborns demonstrate strong endogenous reaction to pain and therefore modalities are being explored for optimum pain relief during circumcision. Pediatric nurses have a vital role for the use of these modalities and minimising the pain response during the neonatal minor procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic (EMLA) cream compared with oral sucrose and both in alleviating pain in neonatal circumcision. This study was conducted in the Day Care Surgery Department of Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam City, KSA. 90 full-term newborn males who underwent circumcision were divided randomly into three groups (30 each). Each group was assigned to receive a different type of analgesics such as EMLA cream (Group A), oral sucrose (Group B) or combination of EMLA cream and oral sucrose (Group C). Neonatal pain agitation and sedation scale (N-PASS) was used 5 min before, during and 5 min after the circumcision procedure to assess the neonatal response to pain. N-PASS scores were significantly lower in Group C (median Group C = 5.2, Group A = 5.8, Group B = 8.5; P< 0.001). The endogenous response to pain in terms of escalation of heart rate and reduction in O 2 saturation were minimal among Group C (P < 0.0001). Duration of crying was comparable among all the groups. The combination of sucrose and EMLA cream revealed a higher analgesic effect and minimal adverse response to pain than either EMLA cream or sucrose alone during neonatal circumcision.

  11. Interleukin-1β pre-treated bone marrow stromal cells alleviate neuropathic pain through CCL7-mediated inhibition of microglial activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Deng, Guoying; Wang, Haowei; Yang, Mei; Yang, Rui; Li, Xiangnan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Although neuropathic pain is one of the most intractable diseases, recent studies indicate that systemic or local injection of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines release and alleviates neuropathic pain. However, it is still not clear whether pre-treated BMSCs have a strong anti-inflammatory and/or analgesia effect. Using the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain, IL-1β pre-treated BMSCs (IL-1β-BMSCs) were injected into rats followed by SNL in order to determine possible effects. Results indicated that IL-1β-BMSCs were more efficacious in both amelioration of neuropathic pain and inhibition of microglia activation. Specifically, microglia inhibition was found to be mediated by chemokine C-C motif ligand 7 (CCL7) but not CCL2. Results also showed that IL-1β-BMSCs had a stronger inhibitory effect on astrocyte activation as well as CCL7 release, which was found to be mediated by IL-10 not transforming growth factor-β1. In addition, we also found directional migration of IL-1β-BMSCs was mediated by inceased C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 13 expression following SNL. In conclusion, our results indicated IL-1β-BMSCs could inhibit microglia activation and neuropathic pain by decreasing CCL7 level in spinal cord. PMID:28195183

  12. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - ... You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your Skin. (NIH Publication No. ...

  13. Effect of light pressure stroking massage with sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil on alleviating acute traumatic limbs pain: A triple-blind controlled trial in emergency department.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Morteza; Farsi, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Due to adverse effects of common medications used for traumatic pain management, it is crucial to use complementary methods to alleviate this pain. Present study aimed to assess the effect of light pressure stroking massage with topical sesame oil on pain severity of patients with limbs trauma. This triple-blinded randomized trial was conducted on 40 patients with upper or lower extremities trauma in emergency department of Busheher Amir Al-Momenian Hospital, Busheher, Iran, in 2015-2016. Patients received a 5min massage with either liquid paraffin (placebo) or sesame oil on trauma site twice a day for 9days duration. Pain severity was assessed by visual analogue scale in first day (baseline), 3th, 6th and 9th days of intervention in the both groups. Mean changes of pain severity between two groups was significant in the 6th (-0.20±1.36; P=0.036) and 9th (-0.36±1.12; P<0.001) days of intervention. Regarding to intake of diclofenac, no significant difference was seen between sesame oil and placebo groups during 9days of intervention (575.23±3.11 and 625.13±4.23 respectively, P=0.601). There were no adverse effects during the study in the both groups. Massage with topical sesame oil was associated with significant reduction in pain severity of patients with limbs trauma. Therefore, it is suggested to use this oil on complementary medicine for pain relief due to low cost, easy usage and lack of adverse effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gabapentin alleviates facet-mediated pain in the rat through reduced neuronal hyperexcitability and astrocytic activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ling; Crosby, Nathan D.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Although joint pain is common, its mechanism(s) remain undefined, with little known about the spinal neuronal responses that contribute to this type of pain. Afferent activity and sustained spinal neuronal hyperexcitability correlate to facet joint loading and the extent of behavioral sensitivity induced after painful facet injury, suggesting spinal neuronal plasticity is induced in association with facet-mediated pain. This study used a rat model of painful C6/C7 facet joint stretch, together with intrathecal administration of gabapentin, to investigate the effects of one aspect of spinal neuronal function on joint pain. Gabapentin or saline vehicle was given via lumbar puncture prior to and at 1 day after painful joint distraction. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured in the forepaw for 7 days. Extracellular recordings of neuronal activity and astrocytic and microglial activation in the cervical spinal cord were evaluated at day 7. Gabapentin significantly (p=0.0001) attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia and the frequency of evoked neuronal firing also significantly decreased (p<0.047) with gabapentin treatment. Gabapentin also decreased (p<0.04) spinal GFAP expression. Although spinal Iba1 expression was doubled over sham, gabapentin did not reduce it. Facet joint-mediated pain appears to be sustained through spinal neuronal modifications that are also associated with astrocytic activation. PMID:24094695

  15. Spinal cord stimulation for Raynaud's syndrome: long-term alleviation of bilateral pain with a single cervical lead.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Tilman; Kieselbach, Kristin

    2011-01-01

      Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been described in a variety of neuropathic and vasospastic pain conditions including Raynaud's syndrome.   We report here the outcome of single lead SCS in the case of a 49-year-old woman with severe Raynaud's syndrome, which had failed to respond to medical therapy.   With a single quadripolar cervical lead in midline position at the C2/C3 level sustained pain relief of the bilateral pain was accomplished. Pain scores sank from 7/10 to 2-3/10 on the nominal analog scale and remained stable more than nearly four years by now.   Treatment of bilateral pain in Raynaud's syndrome with SCS in a single technique is feasible. Advantages and disadvantages as compared with stimulation with bilateral leads are discussed. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Magnesium Oxide for Alleviation of Chronic Low Back Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    place (Smith, 1996). The NMDA receptors are found throughout the brain and especially in the telencephalic structures. The hippocampus is heavily... morphine equivalents) 2. Dependent Variables: (a) Pain (as measured by a 10 point numeric pain intensity scale) (b) Quality of Life (as measured by a...analgesics has also been extensively researched. Miranda and Paeile (1989) reported a minireview of the interactions between calcium channel blockers and

  17. Duloxetine Inhibits Microglial P2X4 Receptor Function and Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shota; Zhang, Jiaming; Kometani, Miho; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Kohno, Keita; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) are a family of ATP-gated non-selective cation channels. We previously demonstrated that activation of P2X4R in spinal microglia is crucial for neuropathic pain, a highly debilitating chronic pain condition, suggesting that P2X4R is a potential therapeutic target for treating neuropathic pain. Thus, the identification of a compound that has a potent inhibitory effect on P2X4R is an important clinical challenge. In the present study, we screened a chemical library of clinically approved drugs and show for the first time that duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has an inhibitory effect on rodent and human P2X4R. In primary cultured microglial cells, duloxetine also inhibited P2X4R-, but not P2X7R-, mediated responses. Moreover, intrathecal administration of duloxetine in a model of neuropathic pain produced a reversal of nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia, a cardinal symptom of neuropathic pain. In rats that were pretreated with a serotonin-depleting agent and a noradrenaline neurotoxin, the antiallodynic effect of duloxetine was reduced, but still remained. Based on these results, we suggest that, in addition to duloxetine’s primary inhibitory action on serotonin and noradrenaline transporters, an inhibitory effect on P2X4R may be involved at least in part in an antiallodynic effect of intrathecal duloxetine in a model of neuropathic pain. PMID:27768754

  18. Preemptive analgesia by using celecoxib combined with tramadol/APAP alleviates post-operative pain of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Hua; Luo, Jiao; Zhou, Aiguo; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of preemptive analgesia (PA) by using celecoxib combined with low-dose tramadol/acetaminophen (tramadol/APAP) in treating post-operative pain of patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 132 patients scheduled for TKA were included in this study. Three-day pre-operative medication was administrated in PA group with subsequent effective intra- and post-operative multimodal analgesia, while control patients received multimodal analgesia without PA. Visual analog scale (VAS) was utilized to assess the pain intensity at rest and during movement. VAS scores of participants were recorded 3 days before surgery, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Moreover, the length of hospital stay, expense of hospitalization, C-reactive protein (CRP) values during hospitalization, and complications during medication were also recorded. PA showed superiority over control at 3 weeks (P = 0.013) and 6 weeks (P = 0.046) in resting pain, and 1 week (P = 0.015), 3 weeks (P = 0.003), 6 weeks (P = 0.003) and 3 months (P = 0.012) postoperatively in movement pain. There was no statistically significant difference in the length of hospital stay, total expense, CRP values, as well as complications. Based on satisfactory intra- and post-operative analgesia, PA by 3-day administration of celecoxib and low-dose tramadol/APAP might be an effective and safe therapy regarding patients undergoing TKA in terms of alleviating post-operative pain.

  19. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  20. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  1. Naringenin regulates production of matrix metalloproteinases in the knee-joint and primary cultured articular chondrocytes and alleviates pain in rat osteoarthritis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Guo, L; Tian, F D; An, N; Luo, L; Hao, R H; Wang, B; Zhou, Z H

    2017-03-23

    Inflammation of cartilage is a primary symptom for knee-joint osteoarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play an important role in the articular cartilage destruction related to osteoarthritis. Naringenin is a plant-derived flavonoid known for its anti-inflammatory properties. We studied the effect of naringenin on the transcriptional expression, secretion and enzymatic activity of MMP-3 in vivo in the murine monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) osteoarthritis model. The assessment of pain behavior was also performed in the MIA rats. The destruction of knee-joint tissues was analyzed microscopically. Moreover, the effect of naringenin was also studied in vitro in IL-1β activated articular chondrocytes. The transcriptional expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-4) and ADAMTS-5 was also studied in primary cultured chondrocytes of rats. Naringenin caused significant reduction in pain behavior and showed marked improvement in the tissue morphology of MIA rats. Moreover, a significant inhibition of MMP-3 expression in MIA rats was observed upon treatment with naringenin. In the in vitro tests, naringenin caused a significant reduction in the transcriptional expression, secretion and enzymatic activity of the studied degradative enzymes. The NF-κB pathway was also found to be inhibited upon treatment with naringenin in vitro. Overall, the study suggests that naringenin alleviated pain and regulated the production of matrix-metalloproteinases via regulation of NF-κB pathway. Thus, naringenin could be a potent therapeutic option for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  2. Viral vector mediated continuous expression of interleukin-10 in DRG alleviates pain in type 1 diabetic animals.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Vikram; Gonzalez, Mayra; Pennington, Kristen; Chattopadhyay, Munmun

    2016-04-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common and difficult to treat complication of diabetes. A growing body of evidence implicates the role of inflammatory mediators in the damage to the peripheral axons and in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the peripheral nervous system suggests the possibility of change in pain perception in diabetes. In this study we investigated that continuous delivery of IL10 in the nerve fibers achieved by HSV vector mediated transduction of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in animals with Type 1 diabetes, blocks the nociceptive and stress responses in the DRG neurons by reducing IL1β expression along with inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC). The continuous expression of IL10 also alters Toll like receptor (TLR)-4 expression in the DRG with increased expression of heat shock protein (HSP)-70 in conjunction with the reduction of pain. Taken together, this study suggests that macrophage activation in the peripheral nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of pain in Type 1 diabetes and therapeutic benefits of HSV mediated local expression of IL10 in the DRG with the reduction of a number of proinflammatory cytokines, subsequently inhibits the development of painful neuropathy along with a decrease in stress associated markers in the DRG. This basic and preclinical study provides an important evidence for a novel treatment strategy that could lead to a clinical trial for what is currently a treatment resistant complication of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Guide to postgraduate exams: Royal College exams.

    PubMed

    Holsgrove, G

    Postgraduate exams are important milestones (or barriers) in specialist careers. However, there are several peculiar features in the Royal Colleges' exams, and considerable differences between them. This is the first of three articles aimed at helping candidates make appropriate preparations.

  4. Silencing the NR2B gene in rat ACC neurons by lentivirus-delivered shRNA alleviates pain-related aversion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shou-Gang; Lv, Xiu-Hua; Guan, Shan-Hui; Li, Hui-Lu; Qiao, Yong; Feng, Hao; Cong, Lin; Wang, Gong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunit on neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in the affective response to noxious stimuli. Selectively silencing this NR2B subunit in ACC neurons could therefore alleviate pain-related aversion. However, to date, there is no optimal approach to selectively silence the NR2B gene in ACC neurons. In the present study, we constructed lentiviral vectors and delivered shRNA (NR2B-RNAi-LV) to effectively silence the NR2B gene in ACC neurons. The use of lentivirus resulted in 95% transfection efficiency and 83% silencing of the NR2B gene in ACC neurons. Electrophysiological experiments showed that the total INMDA was similarly reduced by 48% in lentivirus-transfected ACC neurons. The biochemical and functional data demonstrated that lentiviral shRNA delivery produced a high transfection and silencing efficiency in the ACC neurons. SNI rats weighting 220-250 g were randomly divided into three groups: normal saline group (NS), lenti-siRNA/NC (LV-NC) group, and lenti-siRNA/NR2B (LV-NR2B) group, and conditioned place avoidance was conducted. The results indicated that NR2B-RNAi-LV decreased greatly the conditioning scores of F-CPA while NC-GFP-LV has no effects. NR2B mRNA expression in the NR2B-RNAi-LV group was significantly lower than that in the control group and NC-GFP-LV group. This novel approach of silencing the NR2B gene in ACC neuron could potentially be used to alleviate pain-related aversion.

  5. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Screening - testicular cancer - self-exam; Testicular cancer - screening - self-exam ... A testicular self-exam is done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can make ...

  6. Knockdown of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) alleviates pain and restores opioid efficacy after nerve injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fundytus, Marian E; Yashpal, Kiran; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Osborne, Michael G; Lefebvre, Celeste D; Dray, Andy; Henry, James L; Coderre, Terence J

    2001-01-01

    Nerve injury often produces long-lasting spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia that are refractory to treatment, being only partially relieved by clinical analgesics, and often insensitive to morphine. With the aim of assessing its therapeutic potential, we examined the effect of antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) in neuropathic rats. We chronically infused rats intrathecally with either vehicle, or 50 μg day−1 antisense or missense oligonucleotides beginning either 3 days prior to or 5 days after nerve injury. Cold, heat and mechanical sensitivity was assessed prior to any treatment and again every few days after nerve injury. Here we show that knockdown of mGluR1 significantly reduces cold hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral (injured) hindpaw of neuropathic rats. Moreover, we show that morphine analgesia is reduced in neuropathic rats, but not in sham-operated rats, and that knockdown of mGluR1 restores the analgesic efficacy of morphine. We also show that neuropathic rats are more sensitive to the excitatory effects of intrathecally injected N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and have elevated protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the spinal cord dorsal horn, two effects that are reversed by knockdown of mGluR1. These results suggest that activity at mGluR1 contributes to neuropathic pain through interactions with spinal NMDA receptors and PKC, and that knockdown of mGluR1 may be a useful therapy for neuropathic pain in humans, both to alleviate pain directly, and as an adjunct to opioid analgesic treatment. PMID:11156596

  7. Evaluation of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate for alleviation of experimentally induced arthritic pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae)

    PubMed Central

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A.; Tourdot, Renee L.; Sladky, Kurt K.; Klauer, Julia M.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Brown, Carolyn S.; Heath, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate injection of microcrystalline sodium urate (MSU) for inducing articular pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae) and the analgesic efficacy of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate (LEBT) by use of weight load data, behavioral scores, and fecal corticosterone concentration. Animals 8 conures. Procedures In a crossover study, conures were randomly assigned to receive LEBT (15 mg/kg) or liposomal vehicle subsequent to experimental induction of arthritis or sham injection. The MSU was injected into 1 tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal (intertarsal) joint to induce arthritis (time 0). Weight-bearing load and behavioral scores were determined at 0, 2, 6, 26, and 30 hours. Results MSU injection into 1 intertarsal joint caused a temporary decrease in weight bearing on the affected limb. Treatment of arthritic conures with LEBT resulted in significantly more weight bearing on the arthritic limb than treatment with vehicle. Administration of vehicle to arthritic conures caused a decrease in activity and feeding behaviors during the induction phase of arthritis, but as the arthritis resolved, there was a significant increase in voluntary activity at 30 hours and feeding behaviors at 26 and 30 hours, compared with results for LEBT treatment of arthritic birds. Treatment with LEBT or vehicle in conures without arthritis resulted in similar measurements for weight bearing and voluntary and motivated behaviors. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Experimental induction of arthritis in conures was a good method for evaluating tonic pain. Weight-bearing load was the most sensitive measure of pain associated with induced arthritis. Pain associated with MSU-induced arthritis was alleviated by administration of LEBT. PMID:19795935

  8. Massage therapy reduces pain in pregnant women, alleviates prenatal depression in both parents and improves their relationships.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Figueiredo, Barbara; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela

    2008-04-01

    Prenatally depressed women (N=47) were randomly assigned to a group that received massage twice weekly from their partners from 20 weeks gestation until the end of pregnancy or a control group. Self-reported leg pain, back pain, depression, anxiety and anger decreased more for the massaged pregnant women than for the control group women. In addition, the partners who massaged the pregnant women versus the control group partners reported less depressed mood, anxiety and anger across the course of the massage therapy period. Finally, scores on a relationship questionnaire improved more for both the women and the partners in the massage group. These data suggest that not only mood states but also relationships improve mutually when depressed pregnant women are massaged by their partners.

  9. Upregulation of GLT-1 by treatment with ceftriaxone alleviates radicular pain by reducing spinal astrocyte activation and neuronal hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, K J; Gilliland, T M; Winkelstein, B A

    2014-01-01

    Cervical nerve root injury commonly leads to radicular pain. Normal sensation relies on regulation of extracellular glutamate in the spinal cord by glutamate transporters. The goal of this study was to define the temporal response of spinal glutamate transporters (glial glutamate transporter 1 [GLT-1], glutamate-aspartate transporter [GLAST], and excitatory amino acid carrier 1) following nerve root compressions that do or do not produce sensitivity in the rat and to evaluate the role of glutamate uptake in radicular pain by using ceftriaxone to upregulate GLT-1. Compression was applied to the C7 nerve root. Spinal glutamate transporter expression was evaluated at days 1 and 7. In a separate study, rats underwent a painful root compression and were treated with ceftriaxone or the vehicle saline. Glial glutamate transporter expression, astrocytic activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]), and neuronal excitability were assessed at day 7. Both studies measured behavioral sensitivity for 7 days after injury. Spinal GLT-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.04) and spinal GLAST significantly increased (P = 0.036) at day 7 after a root injury that also produced sensitivity to both mechanical and thermal stimuli. Within 1 day after ceftriaxone treatment (day 2), mechanical allodynia began to decrease; both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were attenuated (P < 0.006) by day 7. Ceftriaxone also reduced (P < 0.024) spinal GFAP and GLAST expression, and neuronal hyperexcitability in the spinal dorsal horn, restoring the proportion of spinal neurons classified as wide dynamic range to that of normal. These findings suggest that nerve root-mediated pain is maintained jointly by spinal astrocytic reactivity and neuronal hyperexcitability and that these spinal modifications are associated with reduced glutamate uptake by GLT-1. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, Reggie C; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck-Gibis, Joanne; Thorstad, Kelly; Raney, Ellen; Aiona, Michael; Platt, Robert; Finley, Allen; Mackenzie, William; McCarthy, James; Narayanan, Unni

    2007-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A), which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont). Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group) intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the

  11. Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Reggie C; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck-Gibis, Joanne; Thorstad, Kelly; Raney, Ellen; Aiona, Michael; Platt, Robert; Finley, Allen; Mackenzie, William; McCarthy, James; Narayanan, Unni

    2007-09-28

    Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A), which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5-21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont). Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group) intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and

  12. Evaluation of Transient Pin-Stress Requirements for Spacecraft Launching in Lightning Environments. Pain Free Analysis to Alleviate Those Pin Stress Headaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Paul; Terseck, Alex; Trout, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Spacecraft are generally protected from direct lightning attachment by encapsulation within the payload fairing of a launch vehicle and the ground structures that exist at the launch site. Regardless of where lightning strikes, potentially damaging indirect effects prevail from the coupling of electromagnetic fields into a loop created by outer shield of the payload umbilical. The energy coupled into individual spacecraft circuits is dependent on the umbilical current drive, the cable transfer impedance and the source/ load circuitry, and the reference potential used. Lightning induced transient susceptibility of the spacecraft avionics needs to be fully understood in order to define realistic re-test criteria in the event of a lightning occurrence during the launch campaign. Use of standards such as RTCA/DO-160 & SAE 5412 has some applicability but do not represent the indirect environment adequately. This paper evaluates the launch pad environments, the measurement data available, and computer simulations to provide pain-free analysis to alleviate the transient pin-stress headaches for spacecraft launching in Lightning environments.

  13. Digital rectal exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007069.htm Digital rectal exam To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower ...

  14. Topical Treatment with Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) Alleviates Bone Destruction and Bone Cancer Pain in a Rat Model of Prostate Cancer-Induced Bone Pain by Modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanju; Gao, Yebo; Du, Maobo; Hou, Wei; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Zheng, Honggang; Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects and mechanisms of Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) on bone cancer pain, Wistar rats were inoculated with vehicle or prostate cancer PC-3 into the tibia bone and treated topically with inert paste, XZP at 15.75, 31.5, or 63 g/kg twice per day for 21 days. Their bone structural damage, nociceptive behaviors, bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity, and the levels of OPG, RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were examined. In comparison with that in the placebo group, significantly reduced numbers of invaded cancer cells, decreased levels of bone damage and mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency, lower levels of serum TRACP5b, ICTP, PINP, and BAP, and less levels of bone osteoblast and osteoclast activity were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05). Moreover, significantly increased levels of bone OPG but significantly decreased levels of RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05 for all). Together, XZP treatment significantly mitigated the cancer-induced bone damage and bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity and alleviated prostate cancer-induced bone pain by modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway and bone cancer-related inflammation in rats. PMID:25691907

  15. Exams: The Secret Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    This year, many high-school teachers in the district where the author teaches experienced exam anxiety because midterms--as they had come to know and love them--were no more. For a variety of reasons, the semester exam schedule looked very different. More to the point is the new philosophy about exam content and format that underpinned the…

  16. Challenges When Introducing Electronic Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuikka, Matti; Kitola, Markus; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Time pressures often necessitate the use of more efficient exam tools, such as electronic exams (e-exams), instead of traditional paper exams. However, teachers may face challenges when introducing e-exams in a higher education context. This paper describes what kinds of challenges teachers may face when introducing e-exams, based on experiences…

  17. Challenges When Introducing Electronic Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuikka, Matti; Kitola, Markus; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Time pressures often necessitate the use of more efficient exam tools, such as electronic exams (e-exams), instead of traditional paper exams. However, teachers may face challenges when introducing e-exams in a higher education context. This paper describes what kinds of challenges teachers may face when introducing e-exams, based on experiences…

  18. Examining Exam Reviews: A Comparison of Exam Scores and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Cornell, Kathryn; Garczynski, Amy M.; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn E.; Tennial, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors commonly use exam reviews to help students prepare for exams and to increase student success. The current study compared the effects of traditional, trivia, and practice test-based exam reviews on actual exam scores, as well as students' attitudes toward each review. Findings suggested that students' exam scores were significantly…

  19. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  20. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  1. Cassidy eye exam

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-11

    ISS036-E-018262 (11 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, performs a visual exam using an eye chart (out of frame) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. Cassidy eye exam

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-11

    ISS036-E-018265 (11 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, performs a visual exam using an eye chart (out of frame) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. Breast self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Self-examination of the breast; BSE; Breast cancer - BSE; Breast cancer screening - self exam ... American Cancer Society. Recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms. Revised October 20, ... ...

  4. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  5. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  6. Physical exam frequency

    MedlinePlus

    How often you need a physical exam; Health maintenance visit; Health screening; Checkup ... All adults should visit their health care provider from time to time, even if they are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for diseases ...

  7. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  8. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling in the Insular Cortex Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Minjee; Han, Jeongsoo; Kim, Un Jeng; Cha, Myeounghoon; Um, Sun Woo; Bai, Sun Joon; Hong, Seong-Karp; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Injury of peripheral nerves can trigger neuropathic pain, producing allodynia and hyperalgesia via peripheral and central sensitization. Recent studies have focused on the role of the insular cortex (IC) in neuropathic pain. Because the IC is thought to store pain-related memories, translational regulation in this structure may reveal novel targets for controlling chronic pain. Signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is known to control mRNA translation and influence synaptic plasticity, has been studied at the spinal level in neuropathic pain, but its role in the IC under these conditions remains elusive. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the role of mTOR signaling in neuropathic pain and to assess the potential therapeutic effects of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, in the IC of rats with neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia was assessed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after neuropathic surgery and following microinjections of rapamycin into the IC on postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 7. Optical recording was conducted to observe the neural responses of the IC to peripheral stimulation. Rapamycin reduced mechanical allodynia and downregulated the expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), decreased neural excitability in the IC, thereby inhibiting neuropathic pain-induced synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling in the IC may be a critical molecular mechanism modulating neuropathic pain.

  9. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling in the Insular Cortex Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Minjee; Han, Jeongsoo; Kim, Un Jeng; Cha, Myeounghoon; Um, Sun Woo; Bai, Sun Joon; Hong, Seong-Karp; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Injury of peripheral nerves can trigger neuropathic pain, producing allodynia and hyperalgesia via peripheral and central sensitization. Recent studies have focused on the role of the insular cortex (IC) in neuropathic pain. Because the IC is thought to store pain-related memories, translational regulation in this structure may reveal novel targets for controlling chronic pain. Signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is known to control mRNA translation and influence synaptic plasticity, has been studied at the spinal level in neuropathic pain, but its role in the IC under these conditions remains elusive. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the role of mTOR signaling in neuropathic pain and to assess the potential therapeutic effects of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, in the IC of rats with neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia was assessed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after neuropathic surgery and following microinjections of rapamycin into the IC on postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 7. Optical recording was conducted to observe the neural responses of the IC to peripheral stimulation. Rapamycin reduced mechanical allodynia and downregulated the expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), decreased neural excitability in the IC, thereby inhibiting neuropathic pain-induced synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling in the IC may be a critical molecular mechanism modulating neuropathic pain. PMID:28377693

  10. Stop "Going Over" Exams! The Multiple Benefits of Team Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Gary

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of team exams as a means of postexam feedback and explains the benefits of their use. Team exams are a simple procedure for those who use exams in their classrooms. Team exams can be a valuable experiential exercise in management classes but offer educational benefits in any class. Among the benefits of team exams…

  11. The behavioral assessment and alleviation of pain associated with castration in beef calves treated with flunixin meglumine and caudal lidocaine epidural anesthesia with epinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Currah, Jan M.; Hendrick, Steven H.; Stookey, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the effects of flunixin megulmine in combination with caudal epidural anesthesia as a postoperative analgesic in beef calves following surgical castration, and 2) to consider stride length and pedometry as potential behavioral assessment tools for detecting postcastration pain. Surgical castration was performed in 101 beef calves randomly assigned to 3 treatment subgroups: 1) castration without anesthesia (SURG); 2) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia (SURG + EPI); 3) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia and flunixin meglumine (SURG + EPI + F). Several outcomes, including pedometer counts, changes in stride length, subjective visual assessment of pain, instantaneous scan sampling of the calves’ postoperative activities, and the amount of movement and vocalization during the castration procedure, were measured to identify and quantify pain. The results indicated that stride length and the number of steps taken by calves after castration appear to be good measures of pain. Significant differences found between treatment groups for stride length and visual assessments suggest that flunixin meglumine can be considered to provide visible pain relief up to 8 hours postcastration. PMID:19436444

  12. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  13. The behavioral assessment and alleviation of pain associated with castration in beef calves treated with flunixin meglumine and caudal lidocaine epidural anesthesia with epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Currah, Jan M; Hendrick, Steven H; Stookey, Joseph M

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the effects of flunixin megulmine in combination with caudal epidural anesthesia as a postoperative analgesic in beef calves following surgical castration, and 2) to consider stride length and pedometry as potential behavioral assessment tools for detecting postcastration pain. Surgical castration was performed in 101 beef calves randomly assigned to 3 treatment subgroups: 1) castration without anesthesia (SURG); 2) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia (SURG + EPI); 3) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia and flunixin meglumine (SURG + EPI + F). Several outcomes, including pedometer counts, changes in stride length, subjective visual assessment of pain, instantaneous scan sampling of the calves' postoperative activities, and the amount of movement and vocalization during the castration procedure, were measured to identify and quantify pain. The results indicated that stride length and the number of steps taken by calves after castration appear to be good measures of pain. Significant differences found between treatment groups for stride length and visual assessments suggest that flunixin meglumine can be considered to provide visible pain relief up to 8 hours postcastration.

  14. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yu, So Hyun; Seol, Geun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery.

  15. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramette, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a take-home exam story problem based on stoichiometry. Requires the student to determine the percentage of phosphoric acid in a large container of nitric acid if a man fell into it. Provides assumptions, clues, and an acceptable solution. (MVL)

  16. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramette, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a take-home exam story problem based on stoichiometry. Requires the student to determine the percentage of phosphoric acid in a large container of nitric acid if a man fell into it. Provides assumptions, clues, and an acceptable solution. (MVL)

  17. Expedition 49 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-31

    The interior of the Soyuz simulator is seen as Expedition 49 NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough, Russian cosmonauts Sergei Ryzhikov and Andrey Borisenko of Roscosmos take their Soyuz qualification exams, Wednesday, Aug. 31, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  19. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson answer reporter's questions ahead of their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson dons her Sokol suit ahead of her final qualification exams with fellow crew mates Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    A pair of Russian Sokol suit gloves are seen as Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, prepare for their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet pose for a group photograph ahead of their Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 backup crew members, NASA astronaut Jack Fisher, left, Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli, left, answer questions from the press ahead of their Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet dons his Sokol suit ahead of his final qualification exams with fellow crew mates NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Engineers in a nearby control room monitor Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson as they perform their final qualification exams in a Soyuz simulator, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson pose for a group photograph ahead of their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 backup crew members NASA astronaut Jack Fisher, left, and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, answer questions from the press ahead of their Soyuz qualification exams with ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet prepare for their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet listens to a reporter's question ahead of the final qualification exams with fellow crew mates Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet are monitored in a central room during the crew's Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos prepares to join ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, background, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson inside the Soyuz simulator for final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson are seen on the monitors of the Soyuz simulator control room during final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 backup crew members, ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli, left, Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, center, and NASA astronaut Jack Fisher don their Sokol suits ahead of their Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet are seen ahead of their Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet pose for a portrait ahead of their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 backup crew members, ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli, left, Russian Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin of Roscosmos, center, and NASA astronaut Jack Fisher meet with mission managers during their Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet walk out from suitup for their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet meet with mission managers ahead of their Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos dons his Sokol suit ahead of his final qualification exams with fellow crew mates NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet is seen inside the Soyuz simulator during final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Pesquet, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson are scheduled to launch in November 2016. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson is seen after donning her Sokol suit ahead of her final qualification exams with fellow crew mates Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson answers a reporter's question as Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos looks on, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Whitman, Novitskiy and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet performed their final qualification exams right after talking to the press. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson report to mission managers for their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 backup crew member, NASA astronaut Jack Fisher, dons his Sokol suit ahead of his Soyuz qualification exams with Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, and ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet report to mission managers for their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet laugh together as they prepare for their final qualification exams, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos smiles as he listens to a reporter's question ahead of the final qualification exams with fellow crew mates NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson smiles as she listens to a reporter's question ahead of the final qualification exams with fellow crew mates Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    Expedition 50 crew members ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, and NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson conduct their final qualification exams inside a Soyuz simulator, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    A bulletin board is seen with details about the qualification exams of the main and back-up crews for Expedition 50, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Expedition 50 crew member NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson is seen inside an International Space Station module mockup during her crew's Soyuz qualification exams, Monday, Oct. 24, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Maslinic acid in olive fruit alleviates mild knee joint pain and improves quality of life by promoting weight loss in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fukumitsu, Satoshi; Villareal, Myra O; Aida, Kazuhiko; Hino, Akihiro; Hori, Noriya; Isoda, Hiroko; Naito, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is associated with a low incidence of inflammation-related diseases. Olive fruit is rich in bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoids, mainly maslinic acid. This study, a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, examined the effects of an orally administered maslinic acid supplement, olive fruit extract, on 20 middle-aged and elderly volunteers with mild knee joint pain. Each subject (58 ± 7 years) received either olive fruit extract, containing 50 mg maslinic acid (n = 12), or placebo (n = 8) daily for 12 weeks and evaluated for pain and physical functions as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures included body composition and inflammatory biomarkers in serum. Although both groups exhibited improved pain visual analogue scale score and quality of life after supplementation, symptoms were better in the maslinic acid group than in the placebo group. After 12 weeks, maslinic acid group exhibited significant decrease in body weight and body mass index suggesting that maslinic acid affected the weight of volunteers with mild knee joint pain. Therefore, olive products containing maslinic acid may be useful as a new preventive and therapeutic food ingredient for arthritic diseases. Since this clinical study is a preliminary study, it was not registered in a publicly accessible database. PMID:27895390

  13. Curcumin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting p300/CBP Histone Acetyltransferase Activity-Regulated Expression of BDNF and Cox-2 in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Qian; Chang, Ruimin; Yang, Dong; Song, Zongbing; Guo, Qulian; Huang, Changsheng

    2014-01-01

    The management of neuropathic pain is still a major challenge because of its unresponsiveness to most common treatments. Curcumin has been reported to play an active role in the treatment of various neurological disorders, such as neuropathic pain. Curcumin has long been recognized as a p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP) inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. However, this mechanism has never been investigated for the treatment of neuropathic pain with curcumin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive role of curcumin in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, with this model we investigated the effect of curcumin on P300/CBP HAT activity-regulated release of the pro-nociceptive molecules, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). Treatment with 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight curcumin for 7 consecutive days significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, whereas 20 mg/kg curcumin showed no significant analgesic effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that curcumin dose-dependently reduced the recruitment of p300/CBP and acetyl-Histone H3/acetyl-Histone H4 to the promoter of BDNF and Cox-2 genes. A similar dose-dependent decrease of BDNF and Cox-2 in the spinal cord was also observed after curcumin treatment. These results indicated that curcumin exerted a therapeutic role in neuropathic pain by down-regulating p300/CBP HAT activity-mediated gene expression of BDNF and Cox-2. PMID:24603592

  14. Down-Regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 Expression Alleviates Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Glial TLR4 Activation in the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Zai-Li; Tan, Wen-Fei; Sun, Xi-Jia; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion. The effects of CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and TLR4 activation on inflammatory hyperalgesia were investigated by pretreatments with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody, CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100) and TLR4 antagonist (TAK-242) for 5 consecutive days before surgery. The results indicated that IR induced significant and sustained inflammatory pain, observed as decreases in paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL), throughout the post-injury period. The increased levels of TLR4 and proinflammatory chemokine CXCL12, as well as its receptor, CXCR4, were closely correlated with the PWT and PWL trends. Double immunostaining further suggested that TLR4, which is mainly expressed on astrocytes and microglia, was closely co-localized with CXCL12 and CXCR4 in spinal dorsal horn. As expected, intrathecal pretreatment with the TLR4 antagonist, TAK-242 markedly ameliorated pain by inhibiting astrocytic and microglial activation, as shown by decreases in TLR4 immunoreactivity and the percentage of double-labeled cells. These protective effects were likely due in part to the reduced production of the downstream cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as for the recruitment of CXCL12 and CXCR4. Additionally, intrathecal pretreatment with CXCL12-neutralizing antibody and AMD3100 resulted in similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects as those receiving TAK-242 pretreatment. These results suggest that

  15. Expedition 50 Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-25

    ESA Flight Surgeon Dr. Brigitte Godard, seated left, NASA Flight ‎Surgeon Jennifer Law, center, talk with Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson ahead of the final qualification exams with Whitson and her fellow crew mates Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Pain.

    PubMed

    Melzack, Ronald; Katz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pain has many valuable functions. It often signals injury or disease, generates a wide range of adaptive behaviors, and promotes healing through rest. Despite these beneficial aspects of pain, there are negative features that challenge our understanding of the puzzle of pain, including persistent phantom limb pain after amputation or total spinal cord transection. Pain is a personal, subjective experience influenced by cultural learning, the meaning of the situation, attention, and other psychological variables. Pain processes do not begin with the stimulation of receptors. Rather, injury or disease produces neural signals that enter an active nervous system that (in the adult organism) is the substrate of past experience, culture, and a host of other environmental and personal factors. These brain processes actively participate in the selection, abstraction, and synthesis of information from the total sensory input. Pain is not simply the end product of a linear sensory transmission system; it is a dynamic process that involves continuous interactions among complex ascending and descending systems. The neuromatrix theory guides us away from the Cartesian concept of pain as a sensation produced by injury, inflammation, or other tissue pathology and toward the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience produced by multiple influences. These influences range from the existing synaptic architecture of the neuromatrix-which is determined by genetic and sensory factors-to influences from within the body and from other areas in the brain. Genetic influences on synaptic architecture may determine-or predispose toward-the development of chronic pain syndromes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1-15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Novel mixed NOP/MOP agonist BU08070 alleviates pain and inhibits gastrointestinal motility in mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Marta; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Husbands, Stephen M; Fichna, Jakub

    2014-08-05

    The opioid and nociceptin systems play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of BU08070, a novel mixed MOP/NOP agonist, on mouse intestinal contractility in vitro and GI motility in vivo in physiological conditions and in animal models mimicking symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including diarrhea and abdominal pain. The effect of BU08070 on muscle contractility in vitro was characterized in the ileum and colon. To assess the effect of BU08070 in vivo, the following parameters were assessed: whole GI transit, gastric emptying, geometric center, colonic bead expulsion, fecal pellet output and time to castor oil-induced diarrhea. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was characterized in the mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain model and the writhing test, alone and in the presence of MOP and NOP antagonists. in vitro, BU08070 (10(-10)-10(-6) M) inhibited colonic and ileal smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. in vivo, BU08070 prolonged the whole GI transit and inhibited colonic bead expulsion. The antitransit and antidiarrheal effects of BU08070 were observed already at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). BU08070 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Our results suggest that BU08070 has a potential of becoming an efficient drug in IBS-D therapy. Here we also validate mixed NOP/MOP receptor targeting as possible future treatment of functional GI diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methyl-orvinol-Dual activity opioid receptor ligand inhibits gastrointestinal transit and alleviates abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Marta; Jarmuż, Agata; Wasilewski, Andrzej; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Husbands, Stephen; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The major IBS-D symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and discomfort. High density of opioid receptors (ORs) in the GI tract and their participation in the maintenance of GI homeostasis make ORs ligands an attractive option for developing new anti-IBS-D treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of methyl-orvinol on the GI motility and secretion and in mouse models mimicking symptoms of IBS-D. In vitro, the effects of methyl-orvinol on electrical field stimulated smooth muscle contractility and epithelial ion transport were characterized in the mouse colon. In vivo, the following tests were used to determine methyl-orvinol effect on mouse GI motility: colonic bead expulsion, whole GI transit and fecal pellet output. An antinociceptive action of methyl-orvinol was assessed in the mouse model of visceral pain induced by mustard oil. Methyl-orvinol (10(-10) to 10(-6)M) inhibited colonic smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was reversed by naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist) and β-funaltrexamine (selective MOP antagonist). Experiments with a selective KOP receptor agonist, U50488 revealed that methyl-orvinol is a KOP receptor antagonist in the GI tract. Methyl-orvinol enhanced epithelial ion transport. In vivo, methyl-orvinol inhibited colonic bead expulsion and prolonged GI transit. Methyl-orvinol improved hypermotility and reduced abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Methyl-orvinol could become a promising drug candidate in chronic therapy of functional GI diseases such as IBS-D. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel mixed NOP/MOP agonist BU08070 alleviates pain and inhibits gastrointestinal motility in mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Marta; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Husbands, Stephen M.; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background The opioid and nociceptin systems play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of BU08070, a novel mixed MOP/NOP agonist, on mouse intestinal contractility in vitro and GI motility in vivo in physiological conditions and in animal models mimicking symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including diarrhea and abdominal pain. Methods The effect of BU08070 on muscle contractility in vitro was characterized in the ileum and colon. To assess the effect of BU08070 in vivo, the following parameters were assessed: whole GI transit, gastric emptying, geometric center, colonic bead expulsion, fecal pellet output and time to castor oil-induced diarrhea. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was characterized in the mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain model and the writhing test, alone and in the presence of MOP and NOP antagonists. Results In vitro, BU08070 (10−10–10−6 M) inhibited colonic and ileal smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, BU08070 prolonged the whole GI transit and inhibited colonic bead expulsion. The antitransit and antidiarrheal effect of BU08070 was observed already at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). BU08070 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Conclusion Our results suggest that BU08070 has a potential of becoming an efficient drug in IBS-D therapy. Here we also validate mixed NOP/MOP receptor targeting as possible future treatment of functional GI diseases. PMID:24815321

  20. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesions adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion alleviate spasticity and pain in children with cerebral palsy: pilot study in 17 patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) may cause severe spasticity, requiring neurosurgical procedures. The most common neurosurgical procedures are continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen and selective dorsal rhizotomy. Both are invasive and complex procedures. We hypothesized that a percutaneous radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG) could be a simple and safe alternative treatment. We undertook a pilot study to test this hypothesis. Methods We performed an RF-DRG procedure in 17 consecutive CP patients with severe hip flexor/adductor spasms accompanied by pain or care-giving difficulties. Six children were systematically evaluated at baseline, and 1 month and 6 months after treatment by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and a self-made caregiver's questionnaire. Eleven subsequent children were evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for spasticity, pain and ease of care. Results A total of 19 RF-DRG treatments were performed in 17 patients. We found a small improvement in muscle tone measured by MAS, but no effect on the GMFM scale. Despite this, the caregivers of these six treated children unanimously stated that the quality of life of their children had indeed improved after the RF-DRG. In the subsequent 11 children we found improvements in all VAS scores, in a range comparable to the conventional treatment options. Conclusion RF-DRG is a promising new treatment option for severe spasticity in CP patients, and its definitive effectiveness remains to be defined in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:20569438

  1. Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to alleviate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Benson, Barbara; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in hemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life. Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice. Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to its side effects and ability to activate mast cells. We, therefore, examined cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to mitigate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor-2-deleted sickle mice. We show that cannabinoids mitigate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice. This study provides ‘proof of principle’ for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anemia. PMID:26703965

  2. Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to alleviate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Benson, Barbara; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in hemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life. Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice. Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to its side effects and ability to activate mast cells. We, therefore, examined cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to mitigate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor-2-deleted sickle mice. We show that cannabinoids mitigate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice. This study provides 'proof of principle' for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  4. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  5. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip A A A What's in this ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist A A A What's in this ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle A A A What's in this ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot A A A What's in this ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  15. Want to Reduce Guessing and Cheating While Making Students Happier? Give More Exams!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverty, James T.; Bauer, Wolfgang; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Gary

    2012-12-01

    It is almost universally agreed that more frequent formative assessment (homework, clicker questions, practice tests, etc.) leads to better student performance and generally better course evaluations. There is, however, only anecdotal evidence that the same would be true for more frequent summative assessment (exams). There maybe many arguments against giving more exams, including the general "pain" associated with examinations, as well as reduced teaching time, since classroom sessions are dedicated to exams rather than lecturing. We present evidence that increasing the number of exams in fact does lead to better learning success, less cheating and guessing on homework, and better student course evaluations.

  16. Ocular Health (OH) Fundoscope Exam

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-05

    Astronaut Karen Nyberg and Astronaut Chris Cassidy (partially visible), both Expedition 37 flight engineers, perform an Ocular Health (OH) Fundoscope Exam in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station

  17. Developing On-line Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

  18. Developing On-line Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn S.; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of online exams, describes available software tools for creating computer-based tests (CGI, JavaScript, commercial programs, course authoring tools), and offers suggestions for implementation. (JOW)

  19. Ocular Health (OH) Fundoscope Exam

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-05

    ISS036-E-006520 (5 June 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts an ocular health exam on herself in the Destiny laboratory of the Earth-orbiting International Space Station. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, flight engineer, nearby but out of frame, assisted in the testing, part of a suite of eye exams carried out over a two-day period on various crew members to gather information on intraocular pressure and eye anatomy.

  20. Treatment efficacy of virtual reality distraction in the reduction of pain and anxiety during cystoscopy.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marc R; Kallingal, George J S; Musser, John E; Folen, Raymond; Stetz, Melba C; Clark, Joseph Y

    2014-08-01

    Assessment of virtual reality (VR) distraction for alleviating pain and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a common ambulatory procedure performed in Urology and can be associated with moderate pain and anxiety. Sophisticated distraction techniques are not used with cystoscopy and VR has not been studied for this procedure. We designed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial assessing the efficacy of VR for alleviating pain and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy. Adult men referred for cystoscopy were randomized into a control or VR group. Subjects were given preprocedure and postprocedure questionnaires addressing anxiety, pain, and time spent thinking about pain. Vitals signs and galvanic skin monitors were used as objective measures. The control group underwent routine cystoscopy and the VR group underwent cystoscopy with VR. Physicians answered a postprocedure questionnaire assessing the difficulty of the exam. All questionnaires used a visual analog score for assessment. 23 patients enrolled in the control group and 22 in the VR group. Mean scores and Student's t-test were employed to analyze the data. No data endpoints showed a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. We concluded no benefit to VR distraction mitigating pain in male patients during cystoscopy. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions incorporated into physical exam.

    PubMed

    Steller, Jon; Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2-3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the integrated ultrasound in medicine curriculum

  2. USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions Incorporated into Physical Exam

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2–3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Results: Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Conclusion: Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the

  3. Are Online Exams an Invitation to Cheat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Oskar R.; Lambrinos, James; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors use data from two online courses in principles of economics to estimate a model that predicts exam scores from independent variables of student characteristics. In one course, the final exam was proctored, and in the other course, the final exam was not proctored. In both courses, the first three exams were unproctored.…

  4. From Exam to Education: The Math Exam/Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Carmen; Koch, Christina; Konrad, Bernhard; Lindstrom, Michael; Moyles, Iain; Thompson, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Math Exam/Education Resources (MER) is an open online learning resource hosted at The University of British Columbia (UBC), aimed at providing mathematics education resources for students and instructors at UBC. In this paper, there will be a discussion of the motivation for creating this resource on the MediaWiki platform, key features of the…

  5. From Exam to Education: The Math Exam/Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Carmen; Koch, Christina; Konrad, Bernhard; Lindstrom, Michael; Moyles, Iain; Thompson, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Math Exam/Education Resources (MER) is an open online learning resource hosted at The University of British Columbia (UBC), aimed at providing mathematics education resources for students and instructors at UBC. In this paper, there will be a discussion of the motivation for creating this resource on the MediaWiki platform, key features of the…

  6. PanOptic eye exam

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-14

    ISS032-E-018214 (14 Aug. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Sunita Williams, Expedition 32 flight engineer, performs the Health Maintenance System (HMS) Eye Exam - PanOptic in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, assisted Williams.

  7. Exam Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Hockett, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes called "exam schools," academically selective institutions have long been a part of the American secondary-education landscape. The schools are diverse in origin and purpose. No single catalyst describes why or how they began as or morphed into academically selective institutions. A number of them were products of the country's efforts…

  8. Exam Schools Versus Magnet Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information to two opposing viewpoints, presented in other articles in this issue, on the relative merits and problems of exam schools and magnet schools. The articles were prompted by events in the Boston public school system's elite schools. (LHW)

  9. Exit Exam as Academic Performance Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al Marzouqi, Ali H.; Hussien, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of exit exams on different elements of the educational process, namely: curriculum development, students and instructors. A 50-question multiple-choice Exit Exam was prepared by Electrical Engineering (EE) faculty members covering a poll of questions from EE core courses. A copy of the Exit Exam applied during each…

  10. Counseling for Pain Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Olivia M.; Ganikos, Mary L.

    1975-01-01

    New techniques are being developed that enhance the effectiveness of psychological forces in controlling bodily reactions. All of them are powerful tools for the psychological control of pain. This article reviews such techniques and addresses itself to the contributions that counselors can make to alleviate physical pain. (Author)

  11. [Chest pain in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Raiola, G; Galati, M C; De Sanctis, V; Salerno, D; Arcuri, V M; Mussari, A

    2002-12-01

    In children and in adolescents, chest pain is relatively common and self-limiting. The close association between chest pain, cardiopathies and sudden death is the cause of intense anxiety in boys and their parents and even doctors. The most frequent causes of chest pain, the diagnosis and the eventual treatment are examined. Finally, the causes of chest pain due to drug abuse (in particular cocaine) and to CO poisoning are also examined. Good knowledge of the problem, an accurate anamnesis and a careful objective exam are useful to choose the most suitable treatment.

  12. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  13. Predicting licensure success with a computerized comprehensive nursing exam: The HESI exit exam.

    PubMed

    Lauchner, Kathryn A; Newman, Mary; Britt, Robin B

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the accuracy of computerized comprehensive nursing exams, HESI Exit Exams (E2s), in predicting registered nurse and practical nurse students' success on the licensing exam. Schools of nursing that administered Els during the academic year 1996-97 were surveyed to determine how many students (n = 2809) predicted by the E2 to pass the licensure exam had failed, and if the exam administration was monitored or proctored. Based on the findings of this study, the E2 was determined to be an accurate-predictor of students' success on the licensing exam. However, it was significantly more accurate (P = .05) when the exam was monitored (99.49%) than unmonitored (96.82%}. The E2 was determined to be highly predictive of students' success on the licensing exam for all groups tested: associate degree, baccalaureate, diploma, and practical nursing students.

  14. Predicting licensure success with a computerized comprehensive nursing exam. The HESI Exit Exam.

    PubMed

    Lauchner, K A; Newman, M; Britt, R B

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the accuracy of computerized comprehensive nursing exams, HESI Exit Exams (E2s), in predicting registered nurse and practical nurse students success on the licensing exam. Schools of nursing that administered E2s during the academic year 1996-97 were surveyed to determine how many students (n = 2809) predicted by the E2 to pass the licensure exam had failed, and if the exam administration was monitored or proctored. Based on the findings of this study, the E2 was determined to be an accurate predictor of students' success on the licensing exam. However, it was significantly more accurate (P = .05) when the exam was monitored (99.49%) than unmonitored (96.82%). The E2 was determined to be highly predictive of students' success on the licensing exam for all groups tested: associate degree, baccalaureate, diploma, and practical nursing students.

  15. Predicting licensure success with a computerized comprehensive nursing exam: the HESI Exit Exam.

    PubMed

    Lauchner, Kathryn A; Newman, Mary; Britt, Robin B

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the accuracy of computerized comprehensive nursing exams, HESI Exit Exams (Es), in predicting registered nurse and practical nurse students' success on the licensing exam. Schools of nursing that administered Es during the academic year 1996-97 were surveyed to determine how many students (n = 2809) predicted by the E to pass the licensure exam had failed, and if the exam administration was monitored or proctored. Based on the findings of this study, the E was determined to be an accurate predictor of students' success on the licensing exam. However, it was significantly more accurate (P = .05) when the exam was monitored (99.49%) than unmonitored (96.82%). The E was determined to be highly predictive of students' success on the licensing exam for all groups tested: associate degree, baccalaureate, diploma, and practical nursing students.

  16. Marshburn performs Tonometry Eye Exam on Hadfield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-21

    ISS034-E-035949 (21 Jan. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn (right), Expedition 34 flight engineer, performs a Tonometry eye exam on Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, flight engineer, in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. The purpose of this exam is to measure intraocular eye pressure.

  17. Exam Question Sequencing Effects and Context Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Doris Bitler

    2017-01-01

    Providing two or more versions of multiple-choice exams has long been a popular strategy for reducing the opportunity for students to engage in academic dishonesty. While the results of studies comparing exam scores under different question-order conditions have been inconclusive, the potential importance of contextual cues to aid student recall…

  18. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Neck Print A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: cuello What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) Print A A A ... You Have Questions What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis Print A A A What's in ... You Have Questions What It Is A scoliosis X-ray is a relatively safe and painless test that ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A What's in this article? ... Radiografía: columna cervical What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  2. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  3. Theme-Based Exams in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato-Wierda, Carmela

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of theme-based exams in a one semester, advanced-level general chemistry course for physical science and engineering majors. Presents an example of a theme-based exam given at the beginning of the semester. (Author/CCM)

  4. Performing pediatric eye exams in primary care.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elaine F

    2017-08-17

    Early vision care is critical for all children. If undetected, eye disorders such as amblyopia and strabismus may result in permanent vision loss. Vision exams should include a careful history and physical including fix and follow, red reflex, and cover/uncover testing. Photo screening and visual acuity exams should be administered whenever possible.

  5. Making Exam Preparation An Enjoyable Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukosch, Stephan; Schummer, Till

    2006-01-01

    During oral exams at the German distance learning university, we noticed that students fear that they will be faced with questions that they have not anticipated. In our opinion, this is mainly because students have no chance to train and thereby gather positive experiences with exam situations as they are distributed all over Germany and thus it…

  6. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine A A A What's in this article? What ... Radiografía: columna cervical What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  7. Physics Exams that Promote Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl E.; Rieger, Georg W.; Heiner, Cynthia E.

    2014-01-01

    The two-stage exam is a relatively simple way to introduce collaborative learning and formative assessment into an exam. Their use is rapidly growing in the physics department at the University of British Columbia, as both students and faculty find them rewarding. In a two-stage exam students first complete and turn in the exam individually, and then, working in small groups, answer the exam questions again. During the second stage, the room is filled with spirited and effective debate with nearly every student participating. This provides students with immediate targeted feedback supplied by discussions with their peers. Furthermore, we see indications that the use of this exam format not only ensures consistency across interactive course components, but it also positively impacts how students approach the other collaborative course components. This is accomplished without losing the summative assessment of individual performance that is the expectation of exams for most instructors. In this paper we describe how to implement two-stage exams and provide arguments why they should be part of physics courses that use interactive engagement and social/collaborative learning methods.

  8. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  9. Pain management in neonates.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Gall, Olivier; Annequin, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest an increased sensitivity to pain in neonates. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may affect the subsequent development of pain systems, as well as potentially contribute to alterations in long-term development and behavior. Despite impressive gains in the knowledge of neonatal pain mechanisms and strategies to treat neonatal pain acquired during the last 15 years, a large gap still exists between routine clinical practice and research results. Accurate assessment of pain is crucial for effective pain management in neonates. Neonatal pain management should rely on current scientific evidence more than the attitudes and beliefs of care-givers. Parents should be informed of pain relief strategies and their participation in the health care plan to alleviate pain should be encouraged. The need for systemic analgesia for both moderate and severe pain, in conjunction with behavioral/environmental approaches to pain management, is emphasized. A main sources of pain in the neonate is procedural pain which should always be prevented and treated. Nonpharmacological approaches constitute important treatment options for managing procedural pain. Nonpharmacological interventions (environmental and preventive measures, non-nutritive sucking, sweet solutions, skin-skin contact, and breastfeeding analgesia) can reduce neonatal pain indirectly by reducing the total amount of noxious stimuli to which infants are exposed, and directly, by blocking nociceptive transduction or transmission or by activation of descending inhibitory pathways or by activating attention and arousal systems that modulate pain. Opioids are the mainstay of pharmacological pain treatment but there are other useful medications and techniques that may be used for pain relief. National guidelines are necessary to improve neonatal pain management at the institutional level, individual neonatal intensive care units need to develop specific practice guidelines regarding pain

  10. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Texas' high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  11. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alabama's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  12. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Idaho's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  13. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Delaware's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  14. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Indiana's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  15. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Missouri's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  16. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on California's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  17. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alaska's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  18. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Connecticut's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  19. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Georgia's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  20. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Arkansas' high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  1. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Virginia's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  2. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Mississippi's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  3. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Arizona's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  4. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Florida's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  5. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Washington's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  6. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Maryland's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  7. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Louisiana's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  8. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Oregon's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  9. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  10. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Oklahoma's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  11. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Nevada's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  12. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Minnesota's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  13. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Ohio's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  14. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New Jersey's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  15. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New York's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  16. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Tennessee's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  17. Pain and pain management in haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Auerswald, Günter; Dolan, Gerry; Duffy, Anne; Hermans, Cedric; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Ljung, Rolf; Morfini, Massimo; Lambert, Thierry; Šalek, Silva Zupančić

    2016-01-01

    Joint pain is common in haemophilia and may be acute or chronic. Effective pain management in haemophilia is essential to reduce the burden that pain imposes on patients. However, the choice of appropriate pain-relieving measures is challenging, as there is a complex interplay of factors affecting pain perception. This can manifest as differences in patients’ experiences and response to pain, which require an individualized approach to pain management. Prophylaxis with factor replacement reduces the likelihood of bleeds and bleed-related pain, whereas on-demand therapy ensures rapid bleed resolution and pain relief. Although use of replacement or bypassing therapy is often the first intervention for pain, additional pain relief strategies may be required. There is an array of analgesic options, but consideration should be paid to the adverse effects of each class. Nevertheless, a combination of medications that act at different points in the pain pathway may be beneficial. Nonpharmacological measures may also help patients and include active coping strategies; rest, ice, compression, and elevation; complementary therapies; and physiotherapy. Joint aspiration may also reduce acute joint pain, and joint steroid injections may alleviate chronic pain. In the longer term, increasing use of prophylaxis or performing surgery may be necessary to reduce the burden of pain caused by the degenerative effects of repeated bleeds. Whichever treatment option is chosen, it is important to monitor pain and adjust patient management accordingly. Beyond specific pain management approaches, ongoing collaboration between multidisciplinary teams, which should include physiotherapists and pain specialists, may improve outcomes for patients. PMID:27439216

  18. A New Comprehensive Final Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu P.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors aspire for students to master all the material covered. The final exam should assess the breadth and depth of their learning and be a significant basis for the final grade. I insist on a comprehensive final because I want students to review early material in light of later topics. I believe that this helps students create connections, integrate understanding, and retain knowledge for the long term. For non-science majors, reviewing and retaining the large amount of astronomy material is daunting. I experimented with a final exam format that calmed their fears and encouraged thorough review. It is only practical for a class of about twenty students or less. I provided a number of challenging conceptual and problem solving questions (at least as many as there were students), crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. The order of the questions reflected the sequence in which the topics had been discussed. Students received these questions in ample time to prepare prior to the final. A student could bring up to 5 standard sheets of notes to the final. At the final, each student picked a number out of a hat. This was the question they had to answer in a 5-minute presentation. They were allowed 15 minutes for a final preparation during which they could use their 5 pages of notes. The presentations were given in order, 1- 20. Written comments on at least 10 other talks, explaining what was missed or correcting a mistake were required. They were graded both on their talk and on their comments. This format required students to be prepared for any question and encouraged interaction and communication while studying. Knowing the questions beforehand provided a guide to their studying as well as allayed their fears about what could be asked. The students also received guidance to what constituted a good answer, namely accuracy (correct scientific argument, appropriate facts, no irrelevant material), thoroughness (answered the complete questions

  19. Oral treatment with methanolic extract of the root bark of Condalia buxifolia Reissek alleviates acute pain and inflammation in mice: Potential interactions with PGE2, TRPV1/ASIC and PKA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Simões, Róli Rodrigues; Dos Santos Coelho, Igor; do Espírito Santo, Caroline Cunha; Morel, Ademir Farias; Zanchet, Eliane Maria; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2016-06-05

    The Condalia buxifolia root bark infusion is used in traditional medicine in Brazil as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-dysentery. Previous data from our group showed that methanolic extract of Condalia buxifolia (MECb) produced a marked antinociceptive effect in animal models of acute pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of MECb-induced antinociception as measured by nocifensive behavior in pain induced by endogenous (prostaglandin E2) or exogenous (TRPs and ASIC agonist, and protein kinase A and C activators) chemical stimuli, and the potential role of PKA signaling and capsaicin-sensitive central C-fiber afferents. The effect of MECb administered orally (0.1-300mg/kg, i.g.) to mice on nociception induced by capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist), cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 agonist), menthol (TRPM8 agonist), acidified saline (ASIC agonist), PMA (protein kinase C activator), PGE2 and forskolin (protein kinase A activator) was assessed. Moreover, this study also investigated the role of C-fibers desensitizing mice with a high dose of intrathecal capsaicin. Furthermore, this study performed the western blot to PKA phosphorylated on nocifensive behavior induced by forskolin. MECb was able to reduce the nociception and paw edema induced by capsaicin, acidified saline, PMA, PGE2 and forskolin, but not by cinnamaldehyde or menthol. Western blot analyses showed that MECb reduced the levels of PKA phosphorylation induced by forskolin in hind paws. Finally, ablating central afferent C-fibers abolished MECb antinociception. In accordance with its use in traditional medicine, these findings provide new evidence indicating that Condalia buxifolia reduces the acute painful behavior of animals caused by chemical stimuli. The precise mechanism of MECb antinociceptive activity is not completely understood but the results suggest involvement of PGE2, TRPV1/ASIC and PKA signaling pathways, and require integrity of the capsaicin-sensitive central C-fiber afferents

  20. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  1. Expedition 35/36 Final Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Three Expedition 35/36 crew members prepare for their final exams in their Sokol launch and entry suits at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy a...

  2. Expedition 32 Final Soyuz Qualification Exams

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide take their final Soyuz systems qualification exams at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The ...

  3. Content validity of manual spinal palpatory exams - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najm, Wadie I; Seffinger, Michael A; Mishra, Shiraz I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Adams, Alan; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda S; Goodman, Arnold F

    2003-01-01

    Background Many health care professionals use spinal palpatory exams as a primary and well-accepted part of the evaluation of spinal pathology. However, few studies have explored the validity of spinal palpatory exams. To evaluate the status of the current scientific evidence, we conducted a systematic review to assess the content validity of spinal palpatory tests used to identify spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction. Methods Review of eleven databases and a hand search of peer-reviewed literature, published between 1965–2002, was undertaken. Two blinded reviewers abstracted pertinent data from the retrieved papers, using a specially developed quality-scoring instrument. Five papers met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Three of the five papers included in the review explored the content validity of motion tests. Two of these papers focused on identifying the level of fixation (decreased mobility) and one focused on range of motion. All three studies used a mechanical model as a reference standard. Two of the five papers included in the review explored the validity of pain assessment using the visual analogue scale or the subjects' own report as reference standards. Overall the sensitivity of studies looking at range of motion tests and pain varied greatly. Poor sensitivity was reported for range of motion studies regardless of the examiner's experience. A slightly better sensitivity (82%) was reported in one study that examined cervical pain. Conclusions The lack of acceptable reference standards may have contributed to the weak sensitivity findings. Given the importance of spinal palpatory tests as part of the spinal evaluation and treatment plan, effort is required by all involved disciplines to create well-designed and implemented studies in this area. PMID:12734016

  4. Impact of HESI Specialty Exams: the ninth HESI Exit Exam validity study.

    PubMed

    Zweighaft, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Using an ex post facto, nonexperimental design, this, the ninth validity study of Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam (E(2)), reexamined the predictive accuracy of the E(2). The value of administering HESI Specialty Exams within the nursing curriculum in terms of E(2) scores was also investigated. The sample was composed of nursing students (N = 3,790) from 63 randomly selected schools-26 baccalaureate, 31 associate degree, and 6 diploma programs-throughout the United States who took the E(2) between September 2008 and August 2009. As in the previous 8 studies, the E(2) was found to be highly accurate (96.61%) in predicting success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Findings also indicated that students who took one or more HESI Specialty Exams during their nursing curriculum had a significantly higher mean E(2) score (P ≤ .0001) than students who did not take HESI Specialty Exams during their nursing curriculum. Of the 8 HESI Specialty Exams investigated, scores on the Critical Care, Pediatrics, and Medical-Surgical specialty exams were most predictive of NCLEX-RN success. Schools of nursing that used HESI Specialty Exams as course final exams had a significantly higher mean E(2) score (P < .01) than schools that used the exams for remediation and practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Nursing management of wound care pain].

    PubMed

    Chin, Yen-Fan

    2007-06-01

    Wound care is an important step in promoting wound healing, but it may cause wound care pain. This article aims to explore factors influencing wound care pain and the effectiveness of various interventions to alleviate it. Five major factors that influence wound care pain include inappropriate dressing change techniques, inflammation response, emotion, cognition, and social-cultural factors. Nurses should apply appropriate dressings and dressing change techniques to relieve wound care pain. Music therapy and aromatherapy can alleviate wound pain after dressing change. But distraction techniques should be used in conjunction with consideration of the needs of the individual subject.

  6. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  7. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Carolina's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  8. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Massachusetts' high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  9. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Rhode Island's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  10. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on South Carolina's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  11. Physics Exam Preparation: A Comparison of Three Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the…

  12. Physics Exam Preparation: A Comparison of Three Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the…

  13. Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

  14. Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

  15. The Changing Roles of Statewide High School Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    SREB states were among the first in the nation to implement statewide high school exams. Today, these exams are a key component of each state's accountability system. This report identifies which states use comprehensive exams and which use end-of-course exams, how students perform on them, and whether achievement gaps have narrowed. It also…

  16. INSTA-EXAM: A Card-Based Exam Preparation System that Eliminates Repeated Typing and Proofreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    A system that rivals today's computer-based exam preparation systems is described. The INSTA-EXAM system is 10 times faster than the more traditional, labor-intensive method of typing directly on stencil masters. Its ability to quickly and efficiently change, update, and delete information makes it especially useful. (RM)

  17. INSTA-EXAM: A Card-Based Exam Preparation System that Eliminates Repeated Typing and Proofreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    A system that rivals today's computer-based exam preparation systems is described. The INSTA-EXAM system is 10 times faster than the more traditional, labor-intensive method of typing directly on stencil masters. Its ability to quickly and efficiently change, update, and delete information makes it especially useful. (RM)

  18. Standards, Exit Exams, and the Politicization of Bilingual Education: The Writing Exit Exam at Hostos College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinge, Diana

    2000-01-01

    Standards-based curricula are being created throughout the world, and exit exams are being implemented in order to make sure that students meet those standards. There is a real potential that these standards will help improve the achievement of students, but there is also a possibility that these exams will be implemented in a way that will be…

  19. Investigating the Written Exam Scores' Prediction Power of TEOG Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki; Özpolat, Esen Turan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate exam scores' predicting Transition from Primary to Secondary Education (TEOG) exam scores. The research data were obtained from the records of 1035 students studying at the first term of eighth grade in 2015-2016 academic year in e-school system. The research was on relational screening model. Linear…

  20. Saliva pH as a biomarker of exam stress and a predictor of exam performance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miri; Khalaila, Rabia

    2014-11-01

    Salivary pH is regulated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system; therefore, it may serve as a biomarker of stress. To assess the associations between the cognitive and emotional dimensions of exam stress and pH levels, and the predictability of salivary pH in relation to test performance. A prospective study. Eighty-three nursing students answered a questionnaire on stress appraisals, experienced stress, test anxiety (including worry and emotionality subscales) and health behaviors, and gave a saliva sample for measuring pH on the morning of their first term exam and three months later. Their performance on the test (grades) was also recorded. Levels of pH in saliva were higher (levels of acidity were lower) in the post exam compared to the exam period, in parallel to lower threat appraisal, experienced stress, and test anxiety levels post exam. Controlling for smoking, physical activity and working hours per week, pH levels at both time points were predicted by appraised threat regarding the exam situation, experienced stress, and the emotionality dimension of test anxiety. pH at Time 1 predicted performance on the exams and mediated the associations of experienced stress and emotionality subscale with test performance. the present study indicates that pH levels may serve as a reliable, accessible and inexpensive means by which to assess the degree of physiological reactions to exams and other naturalistic stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Static and dynamic cervical MRI: two useful exams in cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Lorenzo; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Rullo, Marika; Santoro, Antonio; Delfini, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard exam in the assessment of patients affected by cervical myelopathy and is very useful in planning the operation. Herein we present a series of patients affected by long tract symptoms who underwent dynamic MRI in addition to the static exam. In the period between March 2010 and March 2012, three-hundred-ten patients referred to our department since affected by neck/arm pain or symptoms related to cervical myelopathy. Thirty-eight patients complained "long-tract symptoms" related to cervical myelopathy. This series of patients was enrolled in the study. All patients underwent clinical and neurological exam. In all the cases, a static and dynamic cervical MRI was executed using a 3.0-T superconducting MR unit (Intera, Philips, Eindhoven, Netherlands). The dynamic exam was performed with as much neck flexion and extension the patient could achieve alone. On T2-weigthed MRI each level was assessed independently by two neuroradiologists and Muhle scale was applied. According to Muhle's classification of spinal cord compressions, static MRI demonstrated 156 findings: 96 (61.54%) anterior and 60 (38.46%) posterior. Dynamic MRI showed 186 spinal cord compressions: 81 (43.5%) anterior and 105 (56.5%) posterior. The anterior compressions were: grade 1 in 23 cases (28.4%), grade 2 in 52 cases (64.2%), grade 3 in 6 cases (7.4%). The posterior compressions were: 32 (30.48%) of grade 1, 60 (57.14%) of grade 2, 13 (12.38%) of grade 3. The dynamic MRI demonstrated a major number of findings and spinal cord compressions compared to the static exam. Finally, we consider the dynamic exam able to provide useful information in these patients, but we suggest a careful evaluation of the findings in the extension exam since they are probably over-expressed.

  2. [Pain perception of the fetus].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2010-11-07

    Author presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available information about fetal pain perception. In this context the article discusses the concept of pain sensation, its evolution during intrauterine life and its physical and biochemical signs. Only the last mentioned phenomena allow deduction with regard to the severity of pain related stress reaction, in the absence of objective yardstick for measuring the intensity of pain felt by the fetus. The discussion also involves pain associated with birthing process and extends to its possible alleviation.

  3. Comparative legal aspects of pain management.

    PubMed

    Vansweevelt, T

    2008-12-01

    Administering pain medication to terminal patients can cause legal problems when it has a life-shortening effect, because according to some authors it equates with manslaughter. The legal basis of the acceptance of pain alleviation with life-shortening effect can be found on the grounds of necessity. In different countries physicians have been prosecuted because of their pain management, which to the public prosecutor was in fact a sort of euthanasia. On the other hand, it is not unknown that physicians administer opioids to mask euthanasia. Pain management needs some rules, which can reassure the physician who alleviates pain. The physician who alleviates pain with life-shortening effect will have to act with due care to avoid a liability risk. This implies at least an informed consent, to observe the proportionality rule, and to keep a medical record.

  4. The Exam-Room Physician Workstation

    PubMed Central

    Russler, Daniel C.

    1989-01-01

    By combining and configuring commercially available hardware and software, we have developed a networked system of exam-room physician workstations that provides a platform for physician charting, medical reference, and patient education. The physical platform consists of IBM compatible computers and ethernet hardware. The software platform is a hypertext document management system called Idex distributed on a Novell network. Key features of the workstation include a graphical user interface, hypertext information access, network file-locking, and a document management shell. Clinical experience with the workstation suggests that patients accept the presence of a computer in the exam-room and that a hypertext medical record provides the speed of information access necessary for exam-room computing.

  5. Molecular Signatures of Chronic Pain Subtypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Criteria: Symptoms in ¾ of the following categories: Sensory (hyperalgesia or allodynia), Vascular (temperature, skin color), Sweating...Edema, and Motor (weakness, tremor dystonia)/Trophic (hair, skin). Physical exam signs in 2/4 of the following categories: Sensory ...in patients with amputations. Logically, if the preoperative stimulus is removed, thereby reducing the pain memory, the risk of persistent pain

  6. Breast-feeding, self-exam, and exercise practices before and after reduction mammoplasty.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Holton, Luther H; Chung, Thomas L; Slezak, Sheri

    2008-10-01

    The current indications for reduction mammoplasty include the relief of painful physical symptoms of macromastia. Numerous studies have demonstrated not only improvement in physical symptoms following reduction mammoplasty, but postoperative psychological benefits as well, including increased ability to participate in physical activity as a result of pain relief and decreased breast mass. Reduction mammoplasty may have additional effects on the patient's ability to breast-feed and perform breast self-exam. The present study is a retrospective study of the effects of reduction mammoplasty on breast-feeding, breast self-exam, physical symptoms, and physical activity. One-hundred and forty-one patients who underwent reduction mammoplasty at our institution between the years 1996-2005 agreed to participate in the study. Each was asked a series of questions in order to assess changes in symptoms and behaviors including breast-feeding and breast self-exam practices before and after the surgery. Patients were also asked questions regarding their pain symptoms and physical activity profiles. Ninety-seven percent of the participants claimed to have back, neck, and/or shoulder pain that was either significantly improved or completely resolved. Moreover, 100% of patients report that physical activity such as exercise was easier following reduction mammoplasty. Ninety-three percent of participants reported that performing breast self-exam following surgery was either the same (68%) or easier (25%) as a result of having less breast tissue. Eighty-nine percent of participants had no children following surgery, therefore effects on breast-feeding practices following reduction mammoplasty were not statistically significant. However, we suggest that when patients are seen in consultation or in the perioperative period, there is an opportunity to teach patients about the benefits of breast-feeding, and to assure patients that a pedicle flap reduction will likely allow breastfeeding

  7. Pain in Children: Assessment and Nonpharmacological Management

    PubMed Central

    Srouji, Rasha; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Schneeweiss, Suzan

    2010-01-01

    Pain perception in children is complex, and is often difficult to assess. In addition, pain management in children is not always optimized in various healthcare settings, including emergency departments. A review of pain assessment scales that can be used in children across all ages, and a discussion of the importance of pain in control and distraction techniques during painful procedures are presented. Age specific nonpharmacological interventions used to manage pain in children are most effective when adapted to the developmental level of the child. Distraction techniques are often provided by nurses, parents or child life specialists and help in pain alleviation during procedures. PMID:20706640

  8. Review for the generalist: evaluation of anterior knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Kristin M

    2007-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is common in children and adolescents. Evaluation and management is challenging and requires a thorough history and physical exam, and understanding of the pediatric skeleton. This article will review common causes of chronic anterior knee pain in the pediatric population with a focus on patellofemoral pain. PMID:17550634

  9. Introducing Standardized EFL/ESL Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the features, and a brief comparison, of some of the most well-known high-stakes exams. They are classified in the following fashion: tests that only include multiple-choice questions, tests that include writing and multiple-choice questions, and tests that include speaking questions. The tests reviewed are: BULATS, IELTS,…

  10. Determinants of Student Attitudes toward Team Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinig, Bruce A.; Horowitz, Ira; Whittenburg, Gene

    2014-01-01

    We examine how student attitudes toward their group, learning method, and perceived development of professional skills are initially shaped and subsequently evolve through multiple uses of team exams. Using a Tobit regression model to analyse a sequence of 10 team quizzes given in a graduate-level tax accounting course, we show that there is an…

  11. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  12. Determinants of Student Attitudes toward Team Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinig, Bruce A.; Horowitz, Ira; Whittenburg, Gene

    2014-01-01

    We examine how student attitudes toward their group, learning method, and perceived development of professional skills are initially shaped and subsequently evolve through multiple uses of team exams. Using a Tobit regression model to analyse a sequence of 10 team quizzes given in a graduate-level tax accounting course, we show that there is an…

  13. Journalism Student Performance on Advanced Placement Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Shows that high school students who took a specialized high school course in intensive journalistic writing passed the Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Examination at higher rates (from 1991 to 1997) than did test-takers who took AP English Composition courses as a preparation for the exam. (SR)

  14. Redesigning the MCAT exam: balancing multiple perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schwartzstein, Richard M; Rosenfeld, Gary C; Hilborn, Robert; Oyewole, Saundra Herndon; Mitchell, Karen

    2013-05-01

    The authors of this commentary discuss the recently completed review of the current Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), which has been used since 1991, and describe the blueprint for the new test that will be introduced in 2015. The design of the MCAT exam reflects changes in medical education, medical science, health care delivery, and the needs of the populations served by graduates of U.S. and Canadian medical schools. The authors describe how balancing the ambitious goals for the new exam and the varying priorities of the testing program's many stakeholders made blueprint design complex. They discuss the tensions and trade-offs that characterized the design process as well as the deliberations and data that shaped the blueprint.The blueprint for the MCAT exam balances the assessment of a broad range of competencies in the natural, social, and behavioral sciences and critical analysis and reasoning skills that are essential to entering students' success in medical school. The exam will include four sections: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems; Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems; Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior; and Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills.The authors also offer recommendations for admission committees, advising them to review applicants' test scores, course work, and other academic, personal, and experiential credentials as part of a holistic admission process and in relation to their institutions' educational, scientific, clinical, and service-oriented goals.

  15. History of New York State Regents Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol Siri

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a brief history of the Regents subject-matter examinations and New York State's efforts to move towards educational equity. New York State was a leader in integrated curriculum and outcomes assessment in high schools for over a century. The first academic exit exam was administered in 1878 and it evolved into the controversial…

  16. New Exams for New Professional Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaptal, Alain; Pouzard, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Recruiting professionals for schools' media resources centres needs to take into account the new dimensions of the information society. This article describes the radical reform of the very high-stakes and competitive national selection of those professionals in France. The new exam is now driven by a problem-solving approach and based on an…

  17. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  18. Expedition 43 Crew Final Exams in Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-13

    NASA Video File of ISS Expedition 43 final exams in Russia on March 5, 2015 with crewmembers Scott Kelly, Gennady Padalka, and Mikhail Kornienko; and backup crew Jeff Williams, Sergei Volkov and Alexei Ovchinin. Includes footage of final qualification training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC); interview with Emily Nelson, ISS Expedition 46 Lead Flight Director; and scenes from the qualification training.

  19. Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

  20. Introducing Standardized EFL/ESL Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the features, and a brief comparison, of some of the most well-known high-stakes exams. They are classified in the following fashion: tests that only include multiple-choice questions, tests that include writing and multiple-choice questions, and tests that include speaking questions. The tests reviewed are: BULATS, IELTS,…

  1. Automatic Assessment of 3D Modeling Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, A.; Lamberti, F.; Paravati, G.; Demartini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based assessment of exams provides teachers and students with two main benefits: fairness and effectiveness in the evaluation process. This paper proposes a fully automatic evaluation tool for the Graphic and Virtual Design (GVD) curriculum at the First School of Architecture of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. In particular, the tool is…

  2. [Why are some high achievers on the course final exam unsuccessful on the proficiency exam in English?].

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu

    2009-04-01

    This study examined why some high achievers on the course final exam were unsuccessful on the proficiency exam in English. We hypothesized that the learning motives and learning behaviors (learning strategy, learning time) had different effects on the outcomes of the exams. First, the relation between the variables was investigated using structural equation modeling. Second, the learning behaviors of students who got good marks on both exams were compared with students who did well only on the course final exam. The results were as follows. (a) Learning motives influenced test performance via learning behaviors. (b) Content-attached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors. (c) Content-detached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors that were related only to the course final exam. (d) The students who got good marks on both exams performed the learning behaviors that were useful on the proficiency exam more frequently than the students who did well only on the course final exam.

  3. Pharmacological modulation of cold-induced pain in cutaneous leiomyomata.

    PubMed

    Archer, C B; Whittaker, S; Greaves, M W

    1988-02-01

    In two patients with painful cutaneous leiomyomata, induction of pain by the application of an ice cube allowed assessment of a number of topical and systemic treatments aimed at reducing or preventing the pain. In one patient the alpha-adrenoceptor blocker, phenoxybenzamine alleviated cold-induced pain. In the second patient, topical 9% hyoscine hydrobromide (an anticholinergic agent) decreased pain induced by the ice cube, but was not helpful in reducing lesional pain due to cold weather.

  4. Group Oral Exams: Exploring Assessment Techniques for New Instructional Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Thomas F.; Menchaca, Velma

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a group oral final exam was designed and administered in a block of two teacher education courses taught within the social constructivist perspective. Advocates such group oral exam practices as consistent with valid assessment guidelines. Discusses limitations. (HB)

  5. Current advances in orthodontic pain

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hu; Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Liao, Li-Na; Yang, Xin; Lai, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic pain is an inflammatory pain that is initiated by orthodontic force-induced vascular occlusion followed by a cascade of inflammatory responses, including vascular changes, the recruitment of inflammatory and immune cells, and the release of neurogenic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, endogenous analgesic mechanisms check the inflammatory response and the sensation of pain subsides. The orthodontic pain signal, once received by periodontal sensory endings, reaches the sensory cortex for pain perception through three-order neurons: the trigeminal neuron at the trigeminal ganglia, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis at the medulla oblongata and the ventroposterior nucleus at the thalamus. Many brain areas participate in the emotion, cognition and memory of orthodontic pain, including the insular cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. A built-in analgesic neural pathway—periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe—has an important role in alleviating orthodontic pain. Currently, several treatment modalities have been applied for the relief of orthodontic pain, including pharmacological, mechanical and behavioural approaches and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief has been validated, but its effects on tooth movement are controversial. However, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of other modalities. Furthermore, gene therapy is a novel, viable and promising modality for alleviating orthodontic pain in the future. PMID:27341389

  6. Alleviating Pain and Distress in Childhood Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuttner, Leora

    1987-01-01

    Describes psychological techniques, such as distraction and hypnotic imaginative involvement techniques, which have been found effective among chronically ill children and their parents in reducing anxiety and distress, and increasing the ability to cope with taxing medical procedures. Cases from research conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia…

  7. Alleviating Pain and Distress in Childhood Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuttner, Leora

    1987-01-01

    Describes psychological techniques, such as distraction and hypnotic imaginative involvement techniques, which have been found effective among chronically ill children and their parents in reducing anxiety and distress, and increasing the ability to cope with taxing medical procedures. Cases from research conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia…

  8. Helping to alleviate pain for children having venepuncture.

    PubMed

    Gilboy, Siobhan; Hollywood, Eleanor

    2009-10-01

    This article reviews the literature on venepuncture and children. The evidence on the use of topical agents namely tetracaine (amethocaine) gel and lidocaine/prilocaine cream is discussed, along with the use and benefits of distraction techniques and parental presence to make this an easier procedure for the child, their families and the nurse.

  9. The Effect of Announced Quizzes on Exam Performance: Quiz Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azorlosa, Julian L.

    2012-01-01

    I administered quizzes to two sections of a course named "The Psychology of Learning." There were three multiple choice exams during the semester. Quizzes were given between exam 1 and exam 2. For one section, (lecture) quizzes occurred after the material had been covered in lecture. For the other section, quizzes were based on material not yet…

  10. The Cognitive Abilities of Children: Reflections from an Entrance Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cil, Emine; Cepni, Salih

    2012-01-01

    The basic determiner for the school in which the children who completed their primary education will in at an upper education level in Turkey is the entrance exam carried out nationwide. The items of national exam, called as LDE (Level Determination Exam) which the primary education pupils (aged between 12 and 15) will participate in Turkey were…

  11. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

  12. Enhanced Security for Online Exams Using Group Cryptography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, I. Y.; Yeom, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    While development of the Internet has contributed to the spread of online education, online exams have not been widely adopted. An online exam is defined here as one that takes place over the insecure Internet, and where no proctor is in the same location as the examinees. This paper proposes an enhanced secure online exam management environment…

  13. Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

  14. Putting retinal exams for diabetics in the primary care arena.

    PubMed

    2001-12-01

    Only about half of all diabetics get their recommended annual eye exams. Until now, little progress has been made in boosting the number of diabetics who are compliant in getting this annual exam done. However, a new device that enables the exams to be completed in the PCP's office is getting rave reviews from early users.

  15. Putting retinal exams for diabetics in the primary care arena.

    PubMed

    2001-07-01

    Only about half of all diabetics get their recommended annual eye exams. Until now, little progress has been made in boosting the number of diabetics who are compliant in getting this annual exam done. However, a new device that enables the exams to be completed in the PCP's office is getting rave reviews from early users.

  16. What Students Learn When Studying Physics Practice Exam Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Potter, Eric; Stelzer, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    We developed a web-based tool to provide students with access to old exam problems and solutions. By controlling the order in which students saw the problems, as well as their access to solutions, we obtained data about student learning by studying old exam problems. Our data suggest that in general students learn from doing old exam problems, and…

  17. Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

  18. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Tennessee's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

  19. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Delaware's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

  20. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Idaho's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking college…

  1. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

  2. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Maine's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking college…

  3. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

  4. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alabama's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

  5. Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

  6. Effect of Paper Color and Question Order on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Ilanit R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    To deter cheating, teachers commonly use exams printed on differently colored paper or with varied question orders. Previous studies, however, reported that paper color and question order affect exam performance and suggested that teachers should adjust students' scores accordingly and discontinue the use of alternate exam forms. We conducted 2…

  7. A Legal Overview and History of High School Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford

    2006-01-01

    State exit exams, also known as graduation tests, are tests that student must pass to graduate from high school. These tests are more influential than ever. Accordingly, in 2004, 20 states required students to pass an exit exam to graduate from high school, and six additional states will implement an exit exam by 2009. This affects more than half…

  8. Doctoral Comprehensive Exams in Marketing: Current Practices and Emerging Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Nicole; Beatty, Sharon E.; Foxx, William

    2004-01-01

    Current and emerging issues concerning the written comprehensive exam process are addressed. Both the purpose and structure of this exam are considered. Survey results are presented that describe the purposes of the exam from the perspective of doctoral coordinators. Also included is a description of how marketing departments are currently…

  9. New technologies to manage exam anxiety.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Alessandra; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    A Stress Inoculation Training-based protocol tested if multimedia audio-video content induced emotional changes and reduced exam anxiety in university students. Seventy-five participants took part in six experimental sessions consisting of viewing multimedia content and performing relaxation exercises. Participants were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: 1) audio and video narrative on mobile phone (UMTS); 2) audio and video narrative on DVD (DVD), 3) audio narrative on MP3 player (M3), 4) audio narrative on CD (CD), 5) control group (CTRL). Results showed that audio/video content induced a significant reduction in exam anxiety and an increase of relaxation in students, compared to the audio-only contents.

  10. Managing hay fever during the exam period.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Linda

    Hay-fever symptoms are common and debilitating and can have a detrimental effect on students' examination results. It is important to provide effective treatment using medication that optimises symptom control while ensuring drug side-effects are minimised. Research has confirmed that uncontrolled hay fever or medication side-effects can have a detrimental outcome on exam results. Ideally treatment should commence shortly before the start of the hay-fever season.

  11. Physics exam preparation: A comparison of three methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Stelzer, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    In this clinical study on helping students prepare for an exam, we compared three different treatments. All students were asked to take a practice exam. One group was then given worked-out solutions for that exam, another group was given the solutions and targeted exercises to do as homework based on the result of their practice exam, and the third group was given the solutions, homework, and also an hour of one-on-one tutoring. Participants from all three conditions significantly outperformed the control group on the midterm exam. However, participants that had one-on-one tutoring did not outperform the other two participant groups.

  12. Alleviating cancer patients' suffering: whose responsibility is it?

    PubMed

    Grau, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    In medicine, we have historically been better at learning about the body and disease than we have at understanding the human beings who come to us with the ailments. We have acted to relieve pain, consoling patients and families as a complement, but done little to understand and alleviate suffering as a fundamental part of our practice. In fact, only in more recent decades has "suffering" been conceptualized as something apart from pain, associated with distress and its causes. It was Eric T. Cassell, in his ground-breaking work in the 1980s, who posed the need to consider alleviation of suffering and treatment of illness as twin-and equally important-obligations of the medical profession. Suffering is defined as a negative, complex emotional and cognitive state, characterized by feeling under constant threat and powerless to confront it, having drained the physical and psycho-social resources that might have made resistance possible. This unique depletion of personal resources is key to understanding suffering.

  13. Relief of Lower Back and Leg Pain after Myelography

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Mizuno, Tetsutaro; Akeda, Koji; Kondo, Tetsushi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that many patients will have adverse reactions such as headache and nausea after undergoing myelography, but we have often seen cases where symptoms such as lower back pain and leg pain were alleviated following myelography. To the best of our knowledge, such clinical cases of post-myelographic alleviation have not been reported. Materials and Methods: A total of 325 patients with a degenerative lumbar spinal disorder who underwent myelography were prospectively investigated at four hospitals from April 2012 to March 2014 to survey the post-myelographic alleviation of lower back and leg pain prospectively. The severities of lower back pain, leg pain and numbness of the lower extremities were evaluated and intermittent claudication distance was measured before myelography. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and myelographic findings were also evaluated for the patients that their symptoms were improved. Results: Thirty-five of 325 cases (10.8%) of these patients had their symptoms alleviated after undergoing myelography; 26 cases of lower back pain, two cases of leg pain, two cases of numbness of the lower extremity, and five cases of intermittent claudication. Conclusion: In the patients of a degenerative lumbar spinal disorder, about 10% cases with lower back pain or intermittent claudication had post-myelographic alleviation. Intradural injection therapy might be a therapeutic method to alleviate these symptoms. PMID:27990191

  14. Groin pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg: This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Secondary Ultrasound Exam in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Kanafi, Alireza; Giti, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Mohammad Hossein; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background: In stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, accurate diagnosis of visceral injuries is crucial. Objectives: To determine whether repeating ultrasound exam will increase the sensitivity of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) through revealing additional free intraperitoneal fluid in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective observational study by performing primary and secondary ultrasound exams in blunt abdominal trauma patients. All ultrasound exams were performed by four radiology residents who had the experience of more than 400 FAST exams. Five routine intraperitoneal spaces as well as the interloop space were examined by ultrasound in order to find free fluid. All patients who expired or were transferred to the operating room before the second exam were excluded from the study. All positive ultrasound results were compared with intra-operative and computed tomography (CT) findings and/or the clinical status of the patients. Results: Primary ultrasound was performed in 372 patients; 61 of them did not undergo secondary ultrasound exam; thus, were excluded from the study.Three hundred eleven patients underwent both primary and secondary ultrasound exams. One hundred and two of all patients were evaluated by contrast enhanced CT scan and 31 underwent laparotomy. The sensitivity of ultrasound exam in detecting intraperitoneal fluid significantly increased from 70.7% for the primary exam to 92.7% for the secondary exam. Examining the interloop space significantly improved the sensitivity of ultrasonography in both primary (from 36.6% to 70.7%) and secondary (from 65.9% to 92.7%) exams. Conclusions: Performing a secondary ultrasound exam in stable blunt abdominal trauma patients and adding interloop space scan to the routine FAST exam significantly increases the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting intraperitoneal free fluid. PMID:25763079

  16. Harnessing Motivation to Alleviate Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation. PMID:23761744

  17. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  18. Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

  19. Engagement with Online Pre-Exam Formative Tests Improves Exam Performance and Feedback Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Sheila A.; Polwart, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The National Union of Students (NUS) National Student Experience Report identified examination feedback as an area where students had particular concerns. This finding was echoed in the authors' institution and triggered an action research project to investigate ways of improving students' perceptions of pre- and post-exam feedback. We report the…

  20. Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

  1. Washington Readies for High School Exit Exam: State Already Enacted Various Alternatives to Passing Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports that sophomores who take the Washington Assessment of Student Learning this week will be the first who must pass the state exam to graduate. The long-awaited testing has caused anxiety across the state, as hopes that Washington will enter a new era of educational accountability are balanced by fears of turmoil…

  2. Low back pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, George E.

    2003-01-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of disability. It occurs in similar proportions in all cultures, interferes with quality of life and work performance, and is the most common reason for medical consultations. Few cases of back pain are due to specific causes; most cases are non-specific. Acute back pain is the most common presentation and is usually self-limiting, lasting less than three months regardless of treatment. Chronic back pain is a more difficult problem, which often has strong psychological overlay: work dissatisfaction, boredom, and a generous compensation system contribute to it. Among the diagnoses offered for chronic pain is fibromyalgia, an urban condition (the diagnosis is not made in rural settings) that does not differ materially from other instances of widespread chronic pain. Although disc protrusions detected on X-ray are often blamed, they rarely are responsible for the pain, and surgery is seldom successful at alleviating it. No single treatment is superior to others; patients prefer manipulative therapy, but studies have not demonstrated that it has any superiority over others. A WHO Advisory Panel has defined common outcome measures to be used to judge the efficacy of treatments for studies. PMID:14710509

  3. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  4. A common neurobiology for pain and pleasure.

    PubMed

    Leknes, Siri; Tracey, Irene

    2008-04-01

    Pain and pleasure are powerful motivators of behaviour and have historically been considered opposites. Emerging evidence from the pain and reward research fields points to extensive similarities in the anatomical substrates of painful and pleasant sensations. Recent molecular-imaging and animal studies have demonstrated the important role of the opioid and dopamine systems in modulating both pain and pleasure. Understanding the mutually inhibitory effects that pain and reward processing have on each other, and the neural mechanisms that underpin such modulation, is important for alleviating unnecessary suffering and improving well-being.

  5. CNE Certification Drive and Exam Results.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle M; Welch, Susan

    The Certified Nurse Educator (CNE) is the only credential recognizing the advanced practice role of the academic nurse educator. This article provides information regarding a CNE Certification Drive for faculty in one school of nursing. Descriptive findings include pass rates and content-specific averages. An analysis of the relationship between the variables is offered for role (faculty vs. recent graduate), years of teaching, and differences in test scores. Results indicate no significant relationship between role and test results, χ(1) = 1.11, p = .29, and between years of teaching for those who passed (M = 10.38, SD = 9.81) versus those who failed (M = 4.75, SD = 6.36, t(18) = 1.56, p = .14). Additional research is needed to provide further understanding of variables linked with the CNE exam in multiple schools of nursing.

  6. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  7. Flank pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

  8. Heel pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - heel ... Heel pain is most often the result of overuse. However, it may be caused by an injury. Your heel ... on the heel Conditions that may cause heel pain include: Swelling and pain in the Achilles tendon ...

  9. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on for ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis Pain ...

  10. Molecular Hydrogen Attenuates Neuropathic Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Masanori; Satoh, Yasushi; Otsubo, Yukiko; Kazama, Tomiei

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain remains intractable and the development of new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Accumulating evidence indicates that overproduction of oxidative stress is a key event in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, repeated intra-peritoneal or intrathecal injections of antioxidants are unsuitable for continuous use in therapy. Here we show a novel therapeutic method against neuropathic pain: drinking water containing molecular hydrogen (H2) as antioxidant. The effect of hydrogen on neuropathic pain was investigated using a partial sciatic nerve ligation model in mice. As indicators of neuropathic pain, temporal aspects of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were analysed for 3 weeks after ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were measured using the von Frey test and the plantar test, respectively. When mice were allowed to drink water containing hydrogen at a saturated level ad libitum after ligation, both allodynia and hyperalgesia were alleviated. These symptoms were also alleviated when hydrogen was administered only for the induction phase (from day 0 to 4 after ligation). When hydrogen was administered only for the maintenance phase (from day 4 to 21 after ligation), hyperalgesia but not allodynia was alleviated. Immunohistochemical staining for the oxidative stress marker, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, showed that hydrogen administration suppressed oxidative stress induced by ligation in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion. In conclusion, oral administration of hydrogen water may be useful for alleviating neuropathic pain in a clinical setting. PMID:24941001

  11. Emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain among Tanzanian patients

    PubMed Central

    Nyerere, Joachim W; Matee, Mecky I; Simon, Elison NM

    2006-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, oral health services are mostly in the form of dental extractions aimed at alleviating acute dental pain. Conservative methods of alleviating acute dental pain are virtually non-existent. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine treatment success of emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain. Methods Setting: School of Dentistry, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Study design: Longitudinal study. Participants: 180 patients who presented with dental pain due to acute irreversible pulpitis during the study period between July and August 2001. Treatment and evaluation: Patients were treated by emergency pulpotomy on permanent posterior teeth and were evaluated for pain after one, three and six week's post-treatment. Pain, if present, was categorised as either mild or acute. Results Of the patients with treated premolars, 25 (13.9%) patients did not experience pain at all while 19 (10.6%) experienced mild pain. None of the patients with treated premolars experienced acute pain. Among 136 patients with treated molars 56 (31%) did not experience any pain, 76 (42.2%) experienced mild pain and the other 4 (2.2%) suffered acute pain. Conclusion The short term treatment success of emergency pulpotomy was high being 100% for premolars and 97.1% for molars, suggesting that it can be recommended as a measure to alleviate acute dental pain while other conservative treatment options are being considered. PMID:16426455

  12. Central and peripheral pain generators in women with chronic pelvic pain: patient centered assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) often present without obvious cause on imaging studies, laboratory values or physical exam. Dysfunctional sensory processing in the central nervous system (CNS) may explain pain of unclear origin. Central sensitization (CS), a mechanism of centrally mediated pain, describes this abnormal processing of sensory information. Women with CPP often present with several seemingly unrelated symptoms. This can be explained by co-existing chronic pain syndromes occurring in the same patient. Central sensitization occurs in all of these pain syndromes, also described as dysfunctional pain syndromes, and thus may explain why several often occur in the same patient. Six of the most common pain disorders that co-exist in CPP include endometriosis, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cysitis, vulvodynia, myofascial pain/ pelvic floor hypertonus, irritable bowel syndrome, and primary dysmenorrhea. Central pain generators, (pain originating from CS) and peripheral pain generators, (pain from local tissue damage), can both occur in each of these six conditions. These pain generators will be described. Chronic pain, specifically dysfunctional sensory processing, is recognized as a systemic disease process like diabetes to be managed as opposed to a local problem to be "fixed" or cured. A multi-disciplinary approach to assessment and treatment with a focus on improving emotional, physical and social functioning instead of focusing strictly on pain reduction is more effective in decreasing disability. This is best achieved by determining the patient's needs and perspective through a patient-centered approach. Algorithms for such an approach to assessment and treatment are outlined.

  13. Multimodal nociceptive mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    HELLMAN, Kevin M.; PATANWALA, Insiyyah Y.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; TU, Frank F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate candidate mechanisms underlying the pelvic floor dysfunction in women with chronic pelvic pain and/or painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Notably, prior studies have not consistently controlled for potential confounding by psychological or anatomical factors. Study Design As part of a larger study on pelvic floor pain dysfunction and bladder pain sensitivity, we compared a measure of mechanical pain sensitivity, pressure pain thresholds, between women with pelvic pain and pain-free controls. We also assessed a novel pain measure using degree and duration of post-exam pain aftersensation, and conducted structural and functional assessments of the pelvic floor to account for any potential confounding. Phenotypic specificity of pelvic floor measures was assessed with receiver-operator characteristic curves adjusted for prevalence. Results A total of 23 women with chronic pelvic pain, 23 painful bladder syndrome, and 42 pain-free controls completed the study. Women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome exhibited enhanced pain sensitivity with lower pressure pain thresholds (1.18 [interquartile range: 0.87–1.41] kg/cm2) than pain-free participants (1.48 [1.11–1.76] kg/cm2; p<0.001) and prolonged pain aftersensation (3.5 [0–9] vs 0 [0–1] minutes; p< 0.001). Although genital hiatus (p<0.01) was wider in women with chronic pelvic pain there were no consistently observed group differences in pelvic floor anatomy, muscle tone or strength. The combination of pressure pain thresholds and aftersensation duration correlated with severity of pelvic floor tenderness (R2 =41–51, p’s< 0.01). Even after adjustment for prevalence, the combined metrics discriminated pain-free controls from women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome (area under the curve=0.87). Conclusion Both experimental assessment of pelvic floor pain thresholds and measurement of sustained pain are independently associated with pelvic pain

  14. Crib Sheets and Exam Performance in a Data Structures Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamouda, Sally; Shaffer, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the use of "crib sheets" or "cheat sheets" and performance on in-class exams. Our extensive survey of the existing literature shows that it is not decisive on the questions of when or whether crib sheets actually help students to either perform better on an exam or better learn…

  15. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  16. Academic Background and Course Involvement as Predictors of Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Thompson, Ross A.; Wang, Sherry C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined how academic background and course involvement differentially predicted students' performance on lecture- and text-based exam questions (N = 114; 34% men; 76% freshmen). Results showed that academic background and course involvement predicted performance on lecture-based questions and overall exam performance, whereas academic…

  17. The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

  18. Teaching Materials and Strategies for the AP Music Theory Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, many students take the Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory Exam, and the majority of these students enroll in specialized AP music theory classes as part of the preparation process. For the teachers of these AP music theory classes, a number of challenges are presented by the difficulty and complexity of the exam subject material as…

  19. Relationships between preclinical course grades and standardized exam performance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinin; Martindale, James R; LeGallo, Robin D; White, Casey B; McGahren, Eugene D; Schroen, Anneke T

    2016-05-01

    Success in residency matching is largely contingent upon standardized exam scores. Identifying predictors of standardized exam performance could promote primary intervention and lead to design insights for preclinical courses. We hypothesized that clinically relevant courses with an emphasis on higher-order cognitive understanding are most strongly associated with performance on United States Medical Licensing Examination Step exams and National Board of Medical Examiners clinical subject exams. Academic data from students between 2007 and 2012 were collected. Preclinical course scores and standardized exam scores were used for statistical modeling with multiple linear regression. Preclinical courses were categorized as having either a basic science or a clinical knowledge focus. Medical College Admissions Test scores were included as an additional predictive variable. The study sample comprised 795 graduating medical students. Median score on Step 1 was 234 (interquartile range 219-245.5), and 10.2 % (81/795) scored lower than one standard deviation below the national average (205). Pathology course score was the strongest predictor of performance on all clinical subject exams and Step exams, outperforming the Medical College Admissions Test in strength of association. Using Pathology score <75 as a screening metric for Step 1 score <205 results in sensitivity and specificity of 37 and 97 %, respectively, and a likelihood ratio of 11.9. Performance in Pathology, a clinically relevant course with case-based learning, is significantly related to subsequent performance on standardized exams. Multiple linear regression is useful for identifying courses that have potential as risk stratifiers.

  20. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print A ... Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...

  1. Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

  2. Crib Sheets and Exam Performance in a Data Structures Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamouda, Sally; Shaffer, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the use of "crib sheets" or "cheat sheets" and performance on in-class exams. Our extensive survey of the existing literature shows that it is not decisive on the questions of when or whether crib sheets actually help students to either perform better on an exam or better learn…

  3. Anxiety and Piano Exams: Turkish Prospective Music Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güven, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the test anxiety levels of prospective music teachers and their opinions regarding anxiety in piano exams. Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and semi-structured interviews were used to meet the purpose. Interviews were conducted with students prior to and after the piano exam. As a result of the study it was…

  4. X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study Print A A A ... system. It's usually done by taking a single X-ray of the left wrist, hand, and fingers. It ...

  5. Exit Exams Face Pinch in Common-Core Push

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    With many states crafting assessments based on the common-core standards--and an increasing emphasis on college and career readiness--some are rethinking the kind of tests high school students must pass to graduate, or whether to use such exit exams at all. Twenty-five states, enrolling a total of 34.1 million students, make exit exams a…

  6. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  7. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  8. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  9. A Laboratory-Based Final Exam in Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Jim; Holzwarth, Dave

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a laboratory-based exam in mechanics that makes students use metersticks, stopwatches, and spring scales to examine physical situations, make some calculations to predict what will happen, and then test their predictions. Includes a description of the lab stations for the actual exam. (JRH)

  10. Computer Grading of Open Ended Pharmaceutical Calculations Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatz, Joel L.

    1982-01-01

    A method for computer grading pharmaceutical calculations exams in which students convert their answers into scientific notation and enter their solutions onto a mark sense form is described. A table is generated and then posted listing student identification numbers, exam grades, and which problems were missed. (Author/MLW)

  11. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students…

  12. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  13. X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study A A A What's in this article? What ... edad ósea What It Is A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a child's ...

  14. EFL Teachers' Formal Assessment Practices Based on Exam Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    This study reports initial findings from a small-scale qualitative study aimed at gaining insights into English language teachers' assessment practices in Turkey by examining the formal exam papers. Based on the technique of content analysis, formal exam papers were analyzed in terms of assessment items, language skills tested as well as the…

  15. Exit Exams Face Pinch in Common-Core Push

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    With many states crafting assessments based on the common-core standards--and an increasing emphasis on college and career readiness--some are rethinking the kind of tests high school students must pass to graduate, or whether to use such exit exams at all. Twenty-five states, enrolling a total of 34.1 million students, make exit exams a…

  16. Relationships between Preclinical Course Grades and Standardized Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yinin; Martindale, James R.; LeGallo, Robin D.; White, Casey B.; McGahren, Eugene D.; Schroen, Anneke T.

    2016-01-01

    Success in residency matching is largely contingent upon standardized exam scores. Identifying predictors of standardized exam performance could promote primary intervention and lead to design insights for preclinical courses. We hypothesized that clinically relevant courses with an emphasis on higher-order cognitive understanding are most…

  17. The AP Exam and the Introductory College Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Explores reasons why students take introductory physics courses at the university regardless of their Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance. Briefly describes the nature of AP physics, the examination format and reporting of scores, and the results of a survey of physics departments regarding their policies towards AP exam scores and placement…

  18. Relationships between Preclinical Course Grades and Standardized Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yinin; Martindale, James R.; LeGallo, Robin D.; White, Casey B.; McGahren, Eugene D.; Schroen, Anneke T.

    2016-01-01

    Success in residency matching is largely contingent upon standardized exam scores. Identifying predictors of standardized exam performance could promote primary intervention and lead to design insights for preclinical courses. We hypothesized that clinically relevant courses with an emphasis on higher-order cognitive understanding are most…

  19. Anxiety and Piano Exams: Turkish Prospective Music Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güven, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the test anxiety levels of prospective music teachers and their opinions regarding anxiety in piano exams. Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and semi-structured interviews were used to meet the purpose. Interviews were conducted with students prior to and after the piano exam. As a result of the study it was…

  20. The AP Exam and the Introductory College Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Explores reasons why students take introductory physics courses at the university regardless of their Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance. Briefly describes the nature of AP physics, the examination format and reporting of scores, and the results of a survey of physics departments regarding their policies towards AP exam scores and placement…

  1. Reworking Exams to Teach Chemistry Content and Reinforce Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, John M.

    2007-01-01

    One meaningful approach to demonstrate to students the value of reworking exams is to offer an incentive to do so. This paper describes the strategy and effects of offering partial credit to students who rework answers originally answered incorrectly on an exam. This has proved largely successful for the last 10 years in several classes at the…

  2. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) A A ... Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...

  3. The Management Skills of Exam Process for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Filiz; Cetin, Saban

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify to what degree undergraduate students are able to manage the exam process to be successful in exams. The study group of the research, which utilizes the survey model, consists of 350 students in total, 185 female and 165 male, attending 4 different teaching programs in Faculty of Education, Gazi University. "The…

  4. Automating Exams for a Statistics Course: II. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, R. Dean; And Others

    A specific application of the process of automating exams for any introductory statistics course is described. The process of automating exams was accomplished by using the Statistical Test Item Collection System (STICS). This system was first used to select a set of questions based on course requirements established in advance; afterward, STICS…

  5. The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

  6. Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Raana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

  7. High School Exit Exam Scores and University Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Bonner, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Many U.S. students must pass a standards-based exit exam to earn a high school diploma. The degree to which exit exams and state standards properly signal to students their preparedness for postsecondary schooling has been questioned. The alignment of test scores with college grades for students at the University of Arizona (n = 2,667) who took…

  8. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-01-14

    Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores.

  9. Does requiring graded online homework improve physics exam performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Norma

    2012-02-01

    In a first experiment with using Mastering Physics in a first semester calculus-based course, homework and exam performance was tracked periodically during the semester. As expected, the use of novel technology (and its ability to track which students were persistently working at problem exercises) motivated many students to become more involved with work on assigned physics problems. Although there did appear to be a significant correlation between exam averages and homework scores in the upper half of the exam average distribution, individuals spanning the full range of exam averages (down to 45 percent) earned homework scores as high as those who had performed outstandingly well in exams. In this work, we present results and proposed plausible explanations for the apparent anomaly.

  10. Constructing one scale to describe two statewide exams.

    PubMed

    Paek, Insu; Peres, Deborah G; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study applies two approaches in creating a single scale from two separate statewide exams (Golden State Math Exam and California Standard Math Test) and compares some aspects of the two statewide tests. The first analysis involves a sequence of unidimensional Rasch scalings, using anchored items to scale the two tests together. The second analysis employs a 2-dimensional Rasch scaling using previous unidimensional analysis results to link the scales. The linking facilitates the investigation of their measurement properties of the two exams and is a basis for combining items from both exams to develop a more efficient testing program. The results of the comparisons of the two statewide exams based on the linking are shown and discussed.

  11. Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Jensen, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior;…

  12. Do Open-Book Exams Impede Long-Term Learning in Introductory Biology Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Jensen, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Students in an introductory biology course who were given open-book exams during the semester earned significantly higher grades on these exams, but significantly lower grades on the closed-book final exam, than students who took in-class, closed-book exams throughout the semester. Exam format was also associated with changes in academic behavior;…

  13. Students' attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala'a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students' convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = <0.001) than male students. Ease in access to OTC medicine, availability of pharmacist consultation and advertisement in print and electronic media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams.

  14. Students’ attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala’a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Method A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students’ convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. Results A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = <0.001) than male students. Ease in access to OTC medicine, availability of pharmacist consultation and advertisement in print and electronic media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). Conclusion The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams. PMID:24648821

  15. Does patient gender impact resident physicians' approach to the cardiac exam?

    PubMed

    Chakkalakal, Rosette J; Higgins, Stacy M; Bernstein, Lisa B; Lundberg, Kristina L; Wu, Victor; Green, Jacqueline; Long, Qi; Doyle, Joyce P

    2013-04-01

    Physical examination remains an important part of the initial evaluation of patients presenting with chest pain but little is known about the effect of patient gender on physician performance of the cardiovascular exam. To determine if resident physicians are less likely to perform five key components of the cardiovascular exam on female versus male standardized patients (SPs) presenting with acute chest pain. Videotape review of SP encounters during Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) administered by the Emory University Internal Medicine Residency Program in 2006 and 2007. Encounters were reviewed to assess residents' performance of five cardiac exam skills: auscultation of the aortic, pulmonic, tricuspid, and mitral valve areas and palpation for the apical impulse. One hundred forty-nine incoming residents. Residents' performance for each skill was classified as correct, incorrect, or unknown. One hundred ten of 149 (74 %) of encounters were available for review. Residents were less likely to correctly perform each of the five skills on female versus male SPs. This difference was statistically significant for auscultation of the tricuspid (p = 0.004, RR = 0.62, 95 % CI 0.46-0.83) and mitral (p = 0.007, RR = 0.58, 95 % CI = 0.41-0.83) valve regions and palpation for the apical impulse (p < 0.001, RR = 0.27, 95 % CI = 0.16-0.47). Male residents were less likely than female residents to correctly perform each maneuver on female versus male SPs. The interaction of SP gender and resident gender was statistically significant for auscultation of the mitral valve region (p = 0.006) and palpation for the apical impulse (p = 0.01). We observed significant differences in the performance of key elements of the cardiac exam for female versus male SPs presenting with chest pain. This observation represents a previously unidentified but potentially important source of gender bias in the evaluation of patients presenting

  16. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Christian D.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved groups. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the characteristics of instructor-generated tests impact the exam performance of male and female and middle/high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students enrolled in introductory biology courses. We collected exam scores for 4810 students from 87 unique exams taken across 3 yr of the introductory biology series at a large research university. We determined the median Bloom’s level and the percentage of constructed-response questions for each exam. Despite controlling for prior academic ability in our models, we found that males and middle/high-SES students were disproportionately favored as the Bloom’s level of exams increased. Additionally, middle/high-SES students were favored as the proportion of constructed-response questions on exams increased. Given that we controlled for prior academic ability, our findings do not likely reflect differences in academic ability level. We discuss possible explanations for our findings and how they might impact how we assess our students. PMID:27252299

  17. Comparability of Semester and Exit Exam Grades: Long-Term Effect of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag Merki, Katharina; Holmeier, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A goal in many countries is to institute state-wide exams to base student assessment more firmly on norms for all classes. This raises the question as to the extent to which greater standardization of grading practice can be reached by implementing state-wide exit exams. Since there is a lack of longitudinal studies, we analyzed the effect of the…

  18. Even after Thirteen Class Exams, Students Are Still Overconfident: The Role of Memory for Past Exam Performance in Student Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Nathaniel L.; Was, Christopher A.; Dunlosky, John; Isaacson, Randall M.

    2017-01-01

    Students often are overconfident when they predict their performance on classroom examinations, and their accuracy often does not improve across exams. One contributor to overconfidence may be that students did not have enough experience, and another is that students may under-use their knowledge of prior exam performance to predict performance on…

  19. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Christian D.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved…

  20. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christian D; Eddy, Sarah L; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved groups. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the characteristics of instructor-generated tests impact the exam performance of male and female and middle/high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students enrolled in introductory biology courses. We collected exam scores for 4810 students from 87 unique exams taken across 3 yr of the introductory biology series at a large research university. We determined the median Bloom's level and the percentage of constructed-response questions for each exam. Despite controlling for prior academic ability in our models, we found that males and middle/high-SES students were disproportionately favored as the Bloom's level of exams increased. Additionally, middle/high-SES students were favored as the proportion of constructed-response questions on exams increased. Given that we controlled for prior academic ability, our findings do not likely reflect differences in academic ability level. We discuss possible explanations for our findings and how they might impact how we assess our students.

  1. Comparability of Semester and Exit Exam Grades: Long-Term Effect of the Implementation of State-Wide Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag Merki, Katharina; Holmeier, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A goal in many countries is to institute state-wide exams to base student assessment more firmly on norms for all classes. This raises the question as to the extent to which greater standardization of grading practice can be reached by implementing state-wide exit exams. Since there is a lack of longitudinal studies, we analyzed the effect of the…

  2. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Christian D.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved…

  3. The Impact of Statewide Exit Exams: A Descriptive Case Study of Three German States with Differing Low Stakes Exam Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ackeren, Isabell; Block, Rainer; Klein, E. Dominique; Kuhn, Svenja M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present results from a study investigating the impact of three state exit exam systems on teaching and learning in college-preparatory schools. The study compares one state with a traditionally more centralized exam regime, one state that is more de-centralized and one state that has recently switched to more centralized…

  4. Pain management in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Barbara; Janse, Ineke C; Sibbald, Gary R

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, relapsing, and painful inflammatory disease. HS patients' quality of life is severely impaired, and this impairment correlates strongly with their pain. Pain in HS can be acute or chronic and has both inflammatory and noninflammatory origins. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the existing literature regarding pain management in patients with HS. While there are no formal studies investigating pain management in HS, existing recommendations are based on general pain guidelines and expert opinion. Documentation of pain requires an assessment of the severity and timing of the pain. Although anti-inflammatory drugs and surgery for HS can alleviate pain, adjunctive pain medications are typically necessary. Topical analgesics, oral acetaminophen, and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered first-line agents for the treatment of pain in patients with HS. If pain management is ineffective with those agents, oral opiates can be considered. In addition, anticonvulsants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors possess neuropathic pain-relieving properties that offer not only control of HS-associated pain but beneficial effects on itch and depression. There is clearly a need for additional studies on pain management in patients with HS. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New Labor Pain Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Koyyalamudi, Veerandra; Sidhu, Gurleen; Cornett, Elyse M; Nguyen, Viet; Labrie-Brown, Carmen; Fox, Charles J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-02-01

    Presently, the gold standard for pain control in laboring patients is neuraxial blockade, which includes a spinal, epidural, or a combined spinal-epidural technique. In conjunction with neuraxial blockade or by itself, some of the other agents employed related to labor pain include opioids, non-opioids, nitrous oxide, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and distraction therapy. Alternative treatments include acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques. This review will focus on current updates and recent trends in labor pain management. Neuraxial management, pharmacotherapy, and newer alternative methods to mitigate labor pain are reviewed. Newer techniques in epidural analgesia include the dural puncture epidural technique, which needs further evaluation. There are limited published data on the use of acupuncture, hypnotism, yoga, exercise during pregnancy, hydrotherapy, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation, massage, and relaxation techniques in the alleviation of labor pain. These alternative therapies maybe considered as an adjuvant as the analgesic efficiency is inferior to that provided by typical standard pharmacotherapy. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the role of immersion virtual reality in alleviating labor pain.

  6. Computer Assisted Diagnosis of Chest Pain. Adjunctive Treatment Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-30

    public release; distribution unlimited SUMMARY PAGE THE PROBLEM To provide a manual of treatment protocols for use with the computer assisted...of chest pain project, a chest pain treatment manual has been formulated. It is anticipated that this manual will be used by the Independent...response to re-breathing techniques are diagnostic. The lung exam is normal. In psychoneurotic disorders, no physical etiology for chest pain is found

  7. Pain quality descriptors in community-dwelling older adults with nonmalignant pain.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Manu; Shi, Ling; Foust, Janice B; Patel, Kushang V; Shmerling, Robert H; Bean, Jonathan F; Leveille, Suzanne G

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of various pain qualities in older adults with chronic nonmalignant pain and determine the association of pain quality to other pain characteristics namely: severity, interference, distribution, and pain-associated conditions. In the population-based MOBILIZE Boston Study, 560 participants aged ≥70 years reported chronic pain in the baseline assessment, which included a home interview and clinic exam. Pain quality was assessed using a modified version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) consisting of 20 descriptors from which 3 categories were derived: cognitive/affective, sensory, and neuropathic. Presence of ≥2 pain-associated conditions was significantly associated with 18 of the 20 pain quality descriptors. Sensory descriptors were endorsed by nearly all older adults with chronic pain (93%), followed by cognitive/affective (83.4%) and neuropathic descriptors (68.6%). Neuropathic descriptors were associated with the greatest number of pain-associated conditions including osteoarthritis of the hand and knee. More than half of participants (59%) endorsed descriptors in all 3 categories and had more severe pain and interference, and multisite or widespread pain than those endorsing 1 or 2 categories. Strong associations were observed between pain quality and measures of pain severity, interference, and distribution (P < 0.0001). Findings from this study indicate that older adults have multiple pain-associated conditions that likely reflect multiple physiological mechanisms for pain. Linking pain qualities with other associated pain characteristics serve to develop a multidimensional approach to geriatric pain assessment. Future research is needed to investigate the physiological mechanisms responsible for the variability in pain qualities endorsed by older adults.

  8. Perioperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Pyati, Srinivas; Gan, Tong J

    2007-01-01

    The under-treatment of postoperative pain has been recognised to delay patient recovery and discharge from hospital. Despite recognition of the importance of effective pain control, up to 70% of patients still complain of moderate to severe pain postoperatively. The mechanistic approach to pain management, based on current understanding of the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in nociceptive transmission, provides newer options for clinicians to manage pain effectively. In this article we review the rationale for a multimodal approach with combinations of analgesics from different classes and different sites of analgesic administration. The pharmacological options of commonly used analgesics, such as opioids, NSAIDs, paracetamol, tramadol and other non-opioid analgesics, and their combinations is discussed. These analgesics have been shown to provide effective pain relief and their combinations demonstrate a reduction in opioid consumption. The basis for using non-opioid analgesic adjuvants is to reduce opioid consumption and consequently alleviate opioid-related adverse effects. We review the evidence on the opioid-sparing effect of ketamine, clonidine, gabapentin and other novel analgesics in perioperative pain management. Most available data support the addition of these adjuvants to routine analgesic techniques to reduce the need for opioids and improve quality of analgesia by their synergistic effect. Local anaesthetic infiltration, epidural and other regional techniques are also used successfully to enhance perioperative analgesia after a variety of surgical procedures. The use of continuous perineural techniques that offer prolonged analgesia with local anaesthetic infusion has been extended to the care of patients beyond hospital discharge. The use of nonpharmacological options such as acupuncture, relaxation, music therapy, hypnosis and transcutaneous nerve stimulation as adjuvants to conventional analgesia should be considered and incorporated to

  9. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    PubMed

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  10. Performance Analysis of Exam Gloves Used for Aseptic Rodent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP–PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP–PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP–PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  11. The Provision of Diabetes-Monitoring Exams to Older Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Angelica P.; Lee Smith, Matthew; Ory, Marcia G.; Rodriguez, Hector P.; Warre, Ruth; Thompson, Wesley K.; Azcue, Annette; Romero, Jairo A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors associated with the provision of diabetes-monitoring practices among older Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Method Data from 547 Latinos (≥55 years) were analyzed from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression modeled the relationship between health status and sociodemographic factors and the receipt of semiannual HbA1c tests, annual foot exams, and annual retinal exams. Results The majority of older Latino diabetics received foot exams (87%) and retinal exams (77%), but the provision of semiannual HbA1c tests (30%) was low. Higher English-language proficiency and health insurance coverage were associated with the provision of HbA1c tests and foot exams, but not retinal exams. Insulin therapy was positively associated with semiannual HbA1c testing, but negatively associated with foot exams. Discussion There are considerable missed opportunities in the provision of diabetes monitoring for older Latinos, particularly those with limited English proficiency, less comprehensive insurance, and noninsulin therapy. PMID:21948771

  12. The provision of diabetes-monitoring exams to older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Angelica P; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Rodriguez, Hector P; Warre, Ruth; Thompson, Wesley K; Azcue, Annette; Romero, Jairo A

    2011-10-01

    To explore factors associated with the provision of diabetes-monitoring practices among older Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Data from 547 Latinos (≥ 55 years) were analyzed from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression modeled the relationship between health status and sociodemographic factors and the receipt of semiannual HbA1c tests, annual foot exams, and annual retinal exams. The majority of older Latino diabetics received foot exams (87%) and retinal exams (77%), but the provision of semiannual HbA1c tests (30%) was low. Higher English-language proficiency and health insurance coverage were associated with the provision of HbA1c tests and foot exams, but not retinal exams. Insulin therapy was positively associated with semiannual HbA1c testing, but negatively associated with foot exams. There are considerable missed opportunities in the provision of diabetes monitoring for older Latinos, particularly those with limited English proficiency, less comprehensive insurance, and noninsulin therapy.

  13. FLEX: A Modular Software Architecture for Flight License Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsan, Taner; Saka, Hamit Emre; Sahin, Ceyhun

    This paper is about the design and implementation of an examination system based on World Wide Web. It is called FLEX-Flight License Exam Software. We designed and implemented flexible and modular software architecture. The implemented system has basic specifications such as appending questions in system, building exams with these appended questions and making students to take these exams. There are three different types of users with different authorizations. These are system administrator, operators and students. System administrator operates and maintains the system, and also audits the system integrity. The system administrator can not be able to change the result of exams and can not take an exam. Operator module includes instructors. Operators have some privileges such as preparing exams, entering questions, changing the existing questions and etc. Students can log on the system and can be accessed to exams by a certain URL. The other characteristic of our system is that operators and system administrator are not able to delete questions due to the security problems. Exam questions can be inserted on their topics and lectures in the database. Thus; operators and system administrator can easily choose questions. When all these are taken into consideration, FLEX software provides opportunities to many students to take exams at the same time in safe, reliable and user friendly conditions. It is also reliable examination system for the authorized aviation administration companies. Web development platform - LAMP; Linux, Apache web server, MySQL, Object-oriented scripting Language - PHP are used for developing the system and page structures are developed by Content Management System - CMS.

  14. Measuring Pain as the 5th Vital Sign Does Not Improve Quality of Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Mularski, Richard A; White-Chu, Foy; Overbay, Devorah; Miller, Lois; Asch, Steven M; Ganzini, Linda

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND To improve pain management, the Veterans Health Administration launched the “Pain as the 5th Vital Sign” initiative in 1999, requiring a pain intensity rating (0 to 10) at all clinical encounters. OBJECTIVE To measure the initiative's impact on the quality of pain management. DESIGN We retrospectively reviewed medical records at a single medical center to compare providers' pain management before and after implementing the initiative and performed a subgroup analysis of patients reporting substantial pain (≥4) during a postimplementation visit. PARTICIPANTS Unique patient visits selected from all 15 primary care providers of a general medicine outpatient clinic. MEASUREMENTS We used 7 process indicators of quality pain management, based on appropriately evaluating and treating pain, to assess 300 randomly selected visits before and 300 visits after implementing the pain initiative. RESULTS The quality of pain care was unchanged between visits before and after the pain initiative (P >.05 for all comparisons): subjective provider assessment (49.3% before, 48.7% after), pain exam (26.3%, 26.0%), orders to assess pain (11.7%, 8.3%), new analgesic (8.7%, 11.0%), change in existing analgesics (6.7%, 4.3%), other pain treatment (11.7%, 13.7%), or follow-up plans (10.0%, 8.7%). Patients (n =79) who reported substantial pain often did not receive recommended care: 22% had no attention to pain documented in the medical record, 27% had no further assessment documented, and 52% received no new therapy for pain at that visit. CONCLUSIONS Routinely measuring pain by the 5th vital sign did not increase the quality of pain management. Patients with substantial pain documented by the 5th vital sign often had inadequate pain management. PMID:16808744

  15. Cancer pain

    SciTech Connect

    Swerdlow, M.; Ventafridda, V.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.

  16. Efficacy of Common Analgesics for Postsurgical Pain in Rats.

    PubMed

    Waite, Megan E; Tomkovich, Ashleigh; Quinn, Tammie L; Schumann, Alan P; Dewberry, L Savannah; Totsch, Stacie K; Sorge, Robert E

    2015-07-01

    Each year, millions of rats undergo surgery for research purposes and receive analgesics to alleviate pain. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of common analgesics in tests of hot-plate nociception and postsurgical pain by using the Rat Grimace Scale. Rats received a single dose of one of several drug-dose combinations and were tested by using the hot-plate test (acute pain) or after laparotomy (with either prophylactic or intraoperative analgesic). The efficacy of analgesics for hot-plate pain was generally not predictive of efficacy for surgical pain. Carprofen and ketoprofen were rarely effective in any of the conditions tested. With the exception of the opioid buprenorphine, several of the drugs we tested required higher-than-recommended doses to alleviate pain. Taken together, our data suggest that current analgesic use frequently is insufficient, and many rats may experience significant postsurgical pain even when analgesics are used in commonly recommended doses.

  17. Food-Derived Natural Compounds for Pain Relief in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is characterized by dysesthesia, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. The number of patients with this type of pain has increased rapidly in recent years. Yet, available neuropathic pain medicines have undesired side effects, such as tolerance and physical dependence, and do not fully alleviate the pain. The mechanisms of neuropathic pain are still not fully understood. Injury causes inflammation and immune responses and changed expression and activity of receptors and ion channels in peripheral nerve terminals. Additionally, neuroinflammation is a known factor in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. During neuropathic pain development, the C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) acts as an important signaling mediator. Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for treating diseases. We and others have identified food-derived compounds that alleviate neuropathic pain. Here, we review the natural compounds for neuropathic pain relief, their mechanisms of action, and the potential benefits of natural compounds with antagonistic effects on GPCRs, especially those containing CCR2, for neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27891521

  18. Food-Derived Natural Compounds for Pain Relief in Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun Yeong; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is characterized by dysesthesia, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. The number of patients with this type of pain has increased rapidly in recent years. Yet, available neuropathic pain medicines have undesired side effects, such as tolerance and physical dependence, and do not fully alleviate the pain. The mechanisms of neuropathic pain are still not fully understood. Injury causes inflammation and immune responses and changed expression and activity of receptors and ion channels in peripheral nerve terminals. Additionally, neuroinflammation is a known factor in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. During neuropathic pain development, the C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) acts as an important signaling mediator. Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for treating diseases. We and others have identified food-derived compounds that alleviate neuropathic pain. Here, we review the natural compounds for neuropathic pain relief, their mechanisms of action, and the potential benefits of natural compounds with antagonistic effects on GPCRs, especially those containing CCR2, for neuropathic pain treatment.

  19. Foetal pain?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2010-10-01

    The majority of commentary on foetal pain has looked at the maturation of neural pathways to decide a lower age limit for foetal pain. This approach is sensible because there must be a minimal necessary neural development that makes pain possible. Very broadly, it is generally agreed that the minimal necessary neural pathways for pain are in place by 24 weeks gestation. Arguments remain, however, as to the possibility of foetal pain before or after 24 weeks. Some argue that the foetus can feel pain earlier than 24 weeks because pain can be supported by subcortical structures. Others argue that the foetus cannot feel pain at any stage because it is maintained in a state of sedation in the womb and lacks further neural and conceptual development necessary for pain. Much of this argument rests on the definition of terms such as 'wakefulness' and 'pain'. If a behavioural and neural reaction to a noxious stimulus is considered sufficient for pain, then pain is possible from 24 weeks and probably much earlier. If a conceptual subjectivity is considered necessary for pain, however, then pain is not possible at any gestational age. Regardless of how pain is defined, it is clear that pain for conceptual beings is qualitatively different than pain for non-conceptual beings. It is therefore a mistake to draw an equivalence between foetal pain and pain in the older infant or adult.

  20. Phantom Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... horizon Newer approaches to relieve phantom pain include virtual reality goggles. The computer program for the goggles mirrors ... Pain Medicine. In press. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014. Virtual reality therapies for phantom limb pain. European Journal of ...

  1. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  2. Foot pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - foot ... Foot pain may be due to: Aging Being on your feet for long periods of time Being overweight A ... sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, ...

  3. Elbow pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - elbow ... Elbow pain can be caused by many problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis . This is inflammation and ... a partial dislocation ). Other common causes of elbow pain are: Bursitis -- inflammation of a fluid-filled cushion ...

  4. Hip pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain involves any pain in or around the hip joint. You may not feel pain from your hip ... 2012:chap 48. Read More Hip fracture surgery Hip joint replacement Patient Instructions Hip fracture - discharge Hip or ...

  5. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  6. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  7. Exam Question Exchange: A Popular Approach to Reaction Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael P. S.; Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate physical chemistry question and its acceptable solution. This question, presented to share exam questions with other teachers, shows the analogy between molecular kinetics and population dynamics. (HM)

  8. Exam Question Exchange: A Popular Approach to Reaction Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael P. S.; Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate physical chemistry question and its acceptable solution. This question, presented to share exam questions with other teachers, shows the analogy between molecular kinetics and population dynamics. (HM)

  9. Remedial Study plus Retake Exams Equals Better Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Lon J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes adaptation of the Retake System to larger lecture classes and tests the importance of remedial study in improving exam performance for 410 students enrolled in an interdisciplinary (chemistry, physics, and biology) science course for nonscience majors. (HM)

  10. Alleviation of Communication Apprehension: An Individualized Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.

    Communication apprehension (CA) affects from 15% to 20% of the college population, indicating inherent problems of negative cognitive appraisal, conditioned anxiety, or skills deficits. Use of an individualized approach to the alleviation of CA has been shown to increase students' class interaction and to improve their verbal skills. During an…

  11. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  12. Gust alleviation - Criteria and control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rynaski, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between criteria specified for aircraft gust alleviation and the form of the control laws that result from the criteria are considered. Open-loop gust alleviation based on the linearized, small perturbation equations of aircraft motion is discussed, and an approximate solution of the open-loop control law is presented for the case in which the number of degrees of freedom of the aircraft exceeds the rank of the control effectiveness matrix. Excessive actuator lag is compensated for by taking into account actuator dynamics in the equations of motion, resulting in the specification of a general load network. Criteria for gust alleviation when output motions are gust alleviated and the closed-loop control law derived from them are examined and linear optimal control law is derived. Comparisons of the control laws reveal that the effectiveness of an open-loop control law is greatest at low aircraft frequencies but deteriorates as the natural frequency of the actuators is approached, while closed-loop methods are found to be more effective at higher frequencies.

  13. Sleep pattern in women with menstrual pain.

    PubMed

    Araujo, P; Hachul, H; Santos-Silva, R; Bittencourt, L R A; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-12-01

    Menstrual pain is a common problem in women of reproductive age and often interferes with the ability to work and with general well-being. Because painful conditions frequently affect sleep, we investigated the impact of this menstrual disorder on sleep patterns in adult women. Additionally, we examined whether medications used to alleviate menstrual pain promoted changes in sleep. According to their hormone profiles and menstrual histories, a total sample of 24 women (25-48 years old) who were experiencing their menstrual periods on the day of the polysomnogram (PSG) were included in the study. All of the participants answered questions regarding the presence of menstrual pain and use of medication. Menstrual pain was reported by 66.6% of the women on the night of the PSG. No marked effects were observed on the sleep pattern of these subjects compared with women without menstrual pain. The use of medication did not promote significant changes in the sleep pattern. None of the women were taking oral contraceptives. The presence of menstrual pain or the use of medication to alleviate pain did not significantly alter sleep patterns. Thus, the results suggest that the presence of self-described menstrual pain does not affect sleep patterns in adult women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress, coping, and psychological health of vocational high school nursing students associated with a competitive entrance exam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huey-Fen; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2005-06-01

    An important issue for the nursing education system in Taiwan is to reinforce nursing education to enhance competence levels for entry to nursing specialties. Consequently, to meet the prospective demands of technical manpower, not only do nursing students in college and vocational schools pursue further studies, but they also take competitive entrance exams. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study examined the following among nursing students in vocational high schools: (1) perception and sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behaviors; (2) the effect of difference in entrance exam stress levels on coping behaviors used, and (3) measurement of coping function to determine which coping behavior works best for buffering the impact of stress on psychological health during a preparatory stage of a college and university entrance exam. The subjects were 441 third-year nursing students of vocational high schools in northern Taiwan, recruited by convenience sampling. Three measurements were adopted: Stress perceived scale, Coping behavior inventory, and a Chinese health questionnaire. Results showed that the five main stressors of entrance exam stress, in descending order, were taking tests, the student's own aspirations, learning tasks, teacher's aspirations and parent's aspirations. Students generally used problem-focused coping strategies including optimistic action and social support to deal with the entrance exam stress, but use of emotion-focused coping strategies including avoidance and emotional disturbance was significantly increased as perceived level of stress rose. Two-way analyses of variance (2-way ANOVA) revealed that problem-focused coping had a positive main effect of alleviating psychological distress. A significant interaction was observed between stress perceived and problem-focused coping used for psychological health. Further examination of the interaction effect showed that problem-focused coping behaviors were potentially

  15. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  16. Crib sheets and exam performance in a data structures course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Sally; Shaffer, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the use of "crib sheets" or "cheat sheets" and performance on in-class exams. Our extensive survey of the existing literature shows that it is not decisive on the questions of when or whether crib sheets actually help students to either perform better on an exam or better learn the material. We report on our own detailed analysis for a body of crib sheets created for the final exam in a junior-level Data Structures and Algorithms course. We wanted to determine whether there is any feature of the crib sheets that correlates to good exam scores. Exam performance was compared against a number of potential indicators for quality in a crib sheet. We have found that students performed significantly better on questions at the comprehension level of Bloom's taxonomy when their crib sheet contained good information on the topic, while performance on questions at higher levels of the taxonomy did not show correlation to crib sheet contents. We have also seen that students at certain levels of performance on the final exam (specifically, medium-to-high performance) did relatively better on certain questions than other students at that performance level when they had good coverage of that question's topic on their crib sheet.

  17. Percutaneous trigeminal ganglion radiofrequency thermocoagulation alleviates anxiety and depression disorders in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, YuanZhang; Ma, Ling; Li, Na; Guo, Yuna; Yang, Liqiang; Wu, Baishan; Yue, Jianning; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jingjie; Ni, Jia-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a neurological condition that presents as excruciating facial pain. Depression and anxiety are commonly associated with TN; however, anxiety and depression disorders in patients with TN and the effects of the various therapeutic strategies for TN on these disorders are not well studied. To evaluate depression and anxiety in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN), identify factors that predict their occurrence and study the effect of the percutaneous trigeminal ganglion radiofrequency thermocoagulation (PRT) procedure for alleviating pain on depression and anxiety. Patients with classic TN, who received PRT treatment, were consecutively recruited between October 2014 and October 2015. Severity of pain was determined using the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) and Beck anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate depression and anxiety disorders pre- and post-PRT. Medical, demographic, and psychosocial backgrounds were also assessed as predictive factors. A BDI score of ≥14 represented depression and BAI score of ≥45 represented anxiety. VAS, BDI, and BAI scores were collected at the time of admission and on the day of discharge. Of the 167 patients who participated in the study, 121 (72.5%) had depression and 34 (20.4%) suffered anxiety. Pre-PRT procedure, female sex, age >50 years, ineffective treatment, and high pain intensity (VAS ≥7) predicted the development of depression and anxiety. Post-PRT procedure, all patients who experienced pain relief also reported amelioration of depression and anxiety. A considerable percentage of patients with TN developed depression and anxiety. Patients who were female, older than 50 years, or suffered from failure treatment and severe pain (VAS>7), were at higher risk of depression and anxiety development. Complete alleviation of pain by using surgical PRT could immediately attenuate depressive and anxiety disorders associated with TN. PMID

  18. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  19. Going Green and Using Less Paper to Print Exams: Student Performance, Completion Time, and Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies measured the impact on student exam performance and exam completion time of strategies aimed to reduce the amount of paper used for printing multiple-choice course exams. Study 1 compared single-sided to double-sided printed exams. Study 2 compared a single-column arrangement of multiple-choice answer options to a space (and paper)…

  20. Employing Computer-Administered Exams in General Psychology: Student Anxiety and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schult, Carolyn A.; McIntosh, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-administered exams offer many advantages, but instructors may be reluctant to use them due to concerns that computer anxiety may increase student test anxiety. Introductory psychology students (N = 265) completed surveys prior to their first exam about their anxiety related to the upcoming exam, computers in general, and taking exams on…

  1. A Pilot Study of an Electronic Exam System at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibowo, Santoso; Grandhi, Srimannarayana; Chugh, Ritesh; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2016-01-01

    This study sought academic staff and students' views of electronic exams (e-exams) system and the benefits and challenges of e-exams in general. The respondents provided useful feedback for future adoption of e-exams at an Australian university and elsewhere too. The key findings show that students and academic staff are optimistic about the…

  2. A Pilot Study of an Electronic Exam System at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibowo, Santoso; Grandhi, Srimannarayana; Chugh, Ritesh; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2016-01-01

    This study sought academic staff and students' views of electronic exams (e-exams) system and the benefits and challenges of e-exams in general. The respondents provided useful feedback for future adoption of e-exams at an Australian university and elsewhere too. The key findings show that students and academic staff are optimistic about the…

  3. Maternal exposure to radiographic exams and major structural birth defects.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyeyeun; Beasley, Charles W; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Emery, Robert J; Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Waller, Dorothy K

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of radiologic exams are performed in the United States, but very few studies have examined the effects of maternal exposure to radiologic exams during the periconceptional period and birth defects. To assess the association between maternal exposure to radiologic exams during the periconceptional period and 19 categories of birth defects using a large population-based study of birth defects. We studied 27,809 case mothers and 10,200 control mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and delivered between 1997 and 2009. Maternal exposure to radiologic exams that delivered ionizing radiation to the urinary tract, lumbar spine, abdomen, or pelvis were identified based on the mother's report of type of radiologic exams, organ or body part scanned and the month during which the exam occurred Overall, 0.9% of mothers reported exposure to one of these types of radiographic exams during the periconceptional period. We observed significant associations between maternal exposure during the first trimester and isolated Dandy-Walker malformation (odds ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-33) and isolated d-transposition of the great arteries (odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-10.3). However, the result for isolated Dandy-Walker malformation was based on only two exposed cases. These results should be interpreted cautiously because multiple statistical tests were conducted and measurements of exposure were based on maternal report. However, our results may be useful for generating hypotheses for future studies. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:563-572, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [What happens when medical students set their own exam papers?].

    PubMed

    Baerheim, A; Meland, E

    2001-10-20

    In the section for general practice at the University of Bergen, Norway, we want to emphasise learning more than control in our work with students. As a step in this direction we invited students to come up with proposals for exam papers, papers that usually include six to nine multiple steps for clinical reasoning. We guaranteed that one out of three proposals would be included as a paper in the written examination, possibly slightly modified. This article is an evaluation of the consequences of letting medical students set some of their own exam papers. The process was evaluated using 1) grades given, 2) students' assessment of whether this mode of setting papers influenced their exam preparations, and 3) students' free-text comments on the process. 57 out of 64 students (89%) took part in the evaluation. All knew that their fellow students had set one of the exam papers, but only 34 (60%) reported that this knowledge had changed the way they prepared for the exam. The mean grade was 9.9 (range 5-12, on a scale from 1 to 12, 6 being the lowest pass grade) for the paper set by students, and 9.5 (range 5-11) for all papers combined. Mean difference in score was 0.32 (95% confidence interval 0.08-0.64). Students' free-text comments showed that they specifically prepared for the three known paper topics. They drew comfort from knowing at least one of the papers set, and the student-set papers were found relevant for general practice. Letting medical students set one of the exam papers makes them feel more confident. Student-set papers were seen as relevant for clinical practice. The control function of the exam seemed to have been preserved.

  5. A Rare Case of Painful Goiter Secondary to Pediatric Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Requiring Thyroidectomy for Pain Control.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Liladhar; Alsaheel, Abdulhameed; Walvekar, Rohan; Simon, Lawrence; Gomez, Ricardo

    2015-09-28

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) usually presents as painless thyroid swelling. Painful pediatric HT is a rare condition with limited literature on pain management. We report a 15-year-old female who presented with 4 weeks history of fatigue, malaise and progressive, painful midline thyroid swelling. There was no difficulty in swallowing, no fever or recent upper respiratory infection symptoms. Exam was remarkable for diffusely enlarged, very tender, and non-nodular thyroid. Thyroid function tests, C-reactive protein, and complete blood count were normal. Ultrasound revealed diffusely enlarged non-nodular, non-cystic gland with mild increased vascularity. Diagnosis of HT was confirmed by biopsy and thyroid antibodies. Over a 6 week period, pain management with ibuprofen, levothyroxine, corticosteroid, gabapentin and amitriptyline was unsuccessful. Ultimately, total thyroidectomy resulted in complete resolution of thyroid pain. We can conclude that thyroidectomy may be considered for the rare case of painful HT in children.

  6. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  7. Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams?

    PubMed

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Grosliere, Laure; Le Corvec, Thibault; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Lascols, Olivier; Duguet, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether dreams can anticipate a stressful exam and how failure/success in dreams affect next-day performance. We collected information on students' dreams during the night preceding the medical school entrance exam. Demographic, academic, sleep and dream characteristics were compared to the students' grades on the exam. Of the 719 respondents to the questionnaire (of 2324 total students), 60.4% dreamt of the exam during the night preceding it. Problems with the exam appeared in 78% of dreams and primarily involved being late and forgetting answers. Reporting a dream about the exam on the pre-exam night was associated with better performance on the exam (p=.01). The frequency of dreams concerning the exam during the first term predicted proportionally higher performance on the exam (R=0.1, p=.01). These results suggest that the negative anticipation of a stressful event in dreams is common and that this episodic simulation provides a cognitive gain.

  8. Aerodynamic side-force alleviator means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for alleviating high angle of attack side force on slender pointed cylindrical forebodies such as fighter aircraft, missiles and the like is described. A symmetrical pair of helical separation trips was employed to disrupt the leeside vortices normally attained. The symmetrical pair of trips starts at either a common point or at space points on the upper surface of the forebody and extends along separate helical paths along the circumference of the forebody.

  9. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  10. RESPONSE EXPECTANCIES AND IRRATIONAL BELIEFS PREDICT EXAM-RELATED DISTRESS

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Guy H.; David, Daniel; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Schnur, Julie B.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive factors such as response expectancies and irrational beliefs (IBs) have been shown to contribute to variability in distress associated with stressful situations. However, their independent influence on distress when examined within the same study has not been established, nor has the potential of mediational relationships. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of response expectancies and IBs (both general and exam-specific) to exam-related distress in a prospective study. Results revealed that both response expectancies and general IBs separately predicted exam-related distress (p’s <.05; N = 105). Observed effects of general IBs were perfectly mediated by, and observed effects of exam-specific IBs were partially mediated by, response expectancies using the Baron and Kenny approach. These data support the view that cognitive factors contribute to psychological distress and are consistent with response expectancy and rational emotive behavior theories. The results suggest that interventions focused on response expectancies and IBs might be an effective means to reduce psychological distress associated with real life stressors such as exams. Future research is needed to determine whether this effect generalizes to other stressful situations. PMID:20011227

  11. ENDOGENOUS ANALGESIA, DEPENDENCE, AND LATENT PAIN SENSITIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bradley K; Corder, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) provides relief from acute pain. Recent studies have established that tissue inflammation produces latent pain sensitization (LS) that is masked by spinal MOR signaling for months, even after complete recovery from injury and re-establishment of normal pain thresholds. Disruption with MOR inverse agonists reinstates pain and precipitates cellular, somatic and aversive signs of physical withdrawal; this phenomenon requires N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated activation of calcium-sensitive adenylyl cyclase type 1 (AC1). In this review, we present a new conceptual model of the transition from acute to chronic pain, based on the delicate balance between LS and endogenous analgesia that develops after painful tissue injury. First, injury activates pain pathways. Second, the spinal cord establishes MOR constitutive activity (MORCA) as it attempts to control pain. Third, over time, the body becomes dependent on MORCA, which paradoxically sensitizes pain pathways. Stress or injury escalates opposing inhibitory and excitatory influences on nociceptive processing as a pathological consequence of increased endogenous opioid tone. Pain begets MORCA begets pain vulnerability in a vicious cycle. The final result is a silent insidious state characterized by the escalation of two opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences on pain transmission: LS mediated by AC1 (which maintains accelerator), and pain inhibition mediated by MORCA (which maintains the brake). This raises the prospect that opposing homeostatic interactions between MORCA analgesia and latent NMDAR–AC1-mediated pain sensitization create a lasting vulnerability to develop chronic pain. Thus, chronic pain syndromes may result from a failure in constitutive signaling of spinal MORs and a loss of endogenous analgesic control. An overarching long-term therapeutic goal of future research is to alleviate chronic pain by either: a) facilitating endogenous opioid

  12. Successful use of a competency step exam in a perfusion education program.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Beckley, Philip D; Tallman, Richard D; Spiwak, Allison S

    2006-03-01

    The perfusion education program at The Ohio State University uses a step exam to rank students and identify incompetent students in regard to the program learning objectives. The step exam determines student progress from the didactic to the clinical phase. Each student must pass the competency step exam to gain entry to the clinical rotations. The development, use, and results of the step exam are reported. The design and knowledge matrix establish the content validity of the exam. Single test question discrimination and difficulty statistics identify valid exam items. Examples of the exam's predictive ability are presented. The step exam is a 200-question exam using multiple choice items. The exam is modeled after several health-related national certification exam processes. The exam has content validity based on the published, written objectives for the education program. Each item on the exam has a history of use and meets criteria for difficulty, discrimination, and distraction. The use of a high-stake competency exam in clinical science and medical education programs is controversial and technically challenging. A step exam to have high-stake consequences must be reliable, meet requirements for content validity, and hopefully exhibit predictive validity.

  13. The Efficacy of Final Examinations: A Comparative Study of Closed-Book, Invigilated Exams and Open-Book, Open-Web Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy B.; Wong, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Educators have long debated the usefulness (or otherwise) of final examinations; a debate that has typically revolved around the relative merits of closed-book exams, open-book exams, take-home exams or their substitution by some other assessment format (e.g., project work). This paper adds a new dimension to the debate by considering how the…

  14. Alone in the Crowd: I Failed the ABGC Certification Exam.

    PubMed

    Colón, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) certification examination (often referred to as "the board exam") has become a milestone within the field of genetic counseling. For many, it is the final standardized test taken and indicates the examinee has met "the standards of minimal competence to practice as a genetic counselor" (Bulletin 2015). Although voluntary, certification is strongly encouraged, and in some employment situations, required. Although recent statistics indicate the majority of those who take the test pass, each year there are those who sit for the test unsuccessfully. Despite this fact, exam failure and tools for dealing with this experience are not often broached in the literature. This essay recalls my experiences with a failed exam attempt and the subsequent emotional turmoil. It also aims to start the conversation regarding the difficulty of coping with the "secret" shame of public, professional failure, and suggests there is room for further discussion and resource development in this area.

  15. Predictor variables for NCLEX-RN readiness exam performance.

    PubMed

    Simon, Elizabeth B; McGinniss, Shawn P; Krauss, Beatrice J

    2013-01-01

    To understand the relationship among NLCLEX-RN readiness exam scores and influencing variables. First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are a visible measure of program quality.Therefore, schools have adopted aggressive prediction and remediation measures to improve NCLEX-RN pass rate success and therefore the number of licensed and practicing nurses. This descriptive correlational study used regression analysis to investigate multivariate relationship between NCLEX-RN readiness exam scores and predictors. This study's findings suggest that while the input variables measured by grades in prerequisites initially appear predictive, only the presence of transfer credits, a potential marker for age and motivation, remains significant. Most transfer students are nontraditional adult learners.Therefore, it can be theorized that student personal system has a significant impact on the outcome. The first nursing course, adult health nursing plus maternal-child health nursing, appears foundational for the NCLEX readiness exam.

  16. The effects of self-pain management on the intensity of pain and pain management methods in arthritic patients.

    PubMed

    Parlar, Serap; Fadiloglu, Cicek; Argon, Gulumser; Tokem, Yasemin; Keser, Gokhan

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of pain management education on the intensity of pain and frequency of utilization of pain management methods in two groups of patients with arthritis of different pathogenesis and clinical features, and to compare whether a significant difference existed between the two groups. The study was carried out between September 2007 and June 2008 on 30 female patients with gonarthrosis and 30 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and those related with the illness were collected using a special survey. Each patient was given information about the features, causes, and treatment of the arthritis and how to cope with pain, emphasizing the importance of pain management methods. The intensity of pain and efficacy of pain management methods were assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Pain Management Inventory at baseline and the second and sixth weeks after the education. The SPSS (v15.0) statistical package was used for statistical analysis. After education, significant improvements in pain intensity scores compared with baseline scores were observed in both groups (p < .05), and there was no significant difference between the RA and gonarthrosis groups. Among the various pain management methods, the education program led to significantly more utilization of massaging the painful area, exercising, and using complementary methods to control stress in both groups of patients, and there was no significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, the pain management education given in this study alleviated the intensity of pain and significantly increased the use of some pain management methods in both gonarthrosis and RA cases. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual pain.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  18. Review for the generalist: evaluation of pediatric foot and ankle pain

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Kristin M

    2008-01-01

    Foot and ankle pain is common in children and adolescents. Problems are usually related to skeletal maturity and are fairly specific to the age of the child. Evaluation and management is challenging and requires a thorough history and physical exam, and understanding of the pediatric skeleton. This article will review common causes of foot and ankle pain in the pediatric population. PMID:18400098

  19. Forensic anogenital exam interventions: potential contributions of cognitive appraisal theory.

    PubMed

    Waibel-Duncan, Mary Katherine; Sandier, Howard M

    2002-02-01

    This manuscript proposes that Smith and Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory offers a useful conceptual guide for exploring the mechanisms underlying psychoeducation's apparent efficacy at reducing children's forensic anogenital exam distress. After presenting an overview of Smith and Lazarus's cognitive emotional relational theory of emotions, the authors suggest how this model of cognition-emotion associations might inform the refinement and evaluation of current preparatory interventions as well as the design of future patient/family education programs. Empirical evidence from the broader pediatric literature and direct observations of children's anogenital exam experiences suggest how cognitive appraisal theory translates into clinical research and practice. Avenues for future research are proposed.

  20. Musculoskeletal exam and joint injection training for internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Tracie; Oyler, Julie; Harada, Caroline; Utset, Tammy

    2006-05-01

    We developed a musculoskeletal education intervention for internal medicine residents consisting of lectures, anatomic models, and a joint injection clinic. Written tests, observed musculoskeletal exams, and self-confidence scales were administered to 27 internal medicine residents before and after the intervention. Improvement was found in observed physical exam and self-reported confidence levels in performing knee injections. Confidence in shoulder injection skills improved, but remained low. Improved scores on written examination, though statistically significant, were not educationally significant. This single-institution pilot study demonstrates that a simple educational program results in improved knee and shoulder examination skills and confidence in performing knee injections.

  1. Database trial impact on graduate nursing comprehensive exams.

    PubMed

    Pionke, Katharine; Huckstadt, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    While the authors were doing a test period of databases, the question of whether or not databases affect outcomes of graduate nursing comprehensive examinations came up. This study explored that question through using citation analysis of exams that were taken during a database trial and exams that were not. The findings showed no difference in examination pass/fail rates. While the pass/fail rates did not change, a great deal was learned in terms of citation accuracy and types of materials that students used, leading to discussions about changing how citation and plagiarism awareness were taught.

  2. Ketamine Metabolites for the Treatment of Depression and Pain | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute on Aging, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop ketamine metabolites for the treatment of different forms of depression and for alleviating pain.

  3. Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oh, my aching back!", you are not alone. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, ... 10 people at some point during their lives. Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to ...

  4. Orofacial Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck, shoulder or back pain Dizziness ?xml:namespace> Sleep disorders ; If you have gone through treatment and still experience orofacial pain, you may have a sleep disorder, such as bruxism, or a sleep-related breathing ...

  5. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  6. Ribcage pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... not cause the pain in someone who has pleurisy (swelling of the lining of the lungs) or ... Inflammation of cartilage near the breastbone ( costochondritis ) Osteoporosis Pleurisy (the pain is worse when breathing deeply)

  7. Testicle Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... is more common in adolescents. Seek immediate medical attention if you have: Sudden, severe testicle pain Testicle pain accompanied by nausea, fever, chills or blood in your urine Schedule a doctor's visit if you have: Mild ...

  8. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in ... zoster (shingles) or herpes simplex (cold sores) infection Injury to the face Migraine Myofascial pain syndrome Sinusitis or sinus infection ( ...

  9. Breast Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... before your period and sometimes continuing through your menstrual cycle. The pain may be moderate or severe, and ... breasts. Throughout the month, not related to your menstrual cycle. Postmenopausal women sometimes have breast pain, but breast ...

  10. Pain Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage or other manual therapies, yoga, herbal and nutritional therapies, or others. This information helps the health care provider understand the nature of the pain or the potential benefits of treatment. The goals of the comprehensive pain ...

  11. Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, most commonly with the structures of the cervical spine (neck). Only in rare instances is neck pain ... the neck. Pain can be localized to the cervical spine or may travel down an arm (radiculopathy). All ...

  12. Hip Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... clues about the underlying cause. Problems within the hip joint itself tend to result in pain on the ... tendons and other soft tissues that surround your hip joint. Hip pain can sometimes be caused by diseases ...

  13. Successful Use of a Competency Step Exam in a Perfusion Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Jeffrey B.; Beckley, Philip D.; Tallman, Richard D.; Spiwak, Allison S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The perfusion education program at The Ohio State University uses a step exam to rank students and identify incompetent students in regard to the program learning objectives. The step exam determines student progress from the didactic to the clinical phase. Each student must pass the competency step exam to gain entry to the clinical rotations. The development, use, and results of the step exam are reported. The design and knowledge matrix establish the content validity of the exam. Single test question discrimination and difficulty statistics identify valid exam items. Examples of the exam’s predictive ability are presented. The step exam is a 200-question exam using multiple choice items. The exam is modeled after several health-related national certification exam processes. The exam has content validity based on the published, written objectives for the education program. Each item on the exam has a history of use and meets criteria for difficulty, discrimination, and distraction. The use of a high-stake competency exam in clinical science and medical education programs is controversial and technically challenging. A step exam to have high-stake consequences must be reliable, meet requirements for content validity, and hopefully exhibit predictive validity. PMID:16637522

  14. Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Rebecca A; Khadavi, Michael J; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain is characterized by insidious onset anterior knee pain that is exaggerated under conditions of increased patellofemoral joint stress. A variety of risk factors may contribute to the development of patellofemoral pain. It is critical that the history and physical examination elucidate those risk factors specific to an individual in order to prescribe an appropriate and customized treatment plan. This article aims to review the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of patellofemoral pain.

  15. Feeling pain

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... it to potential or actual damage to the body's tissues. In the example of a bee sting, the pain receptors in the skin detect tissue damage from the bee sting. Then, the peripheral nerves send a pain signal to the brain. The brain analyzes the pain signal. In turn, ...

  16. Cervicogenic headache alleviation after cervical coblation nucleoplasty

    PubMed Central

    He, Liangliang; Yue, Jianning; Yang, Liqiang; Wu, Baishan; Cao, Guoqing; Guo, Yuna; Lai, Guanghui; Tang, Yuanzhang; Ni, Jiaxiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A degenerative cervical disc is a pain generator for headaches, and headaches can benefit from cervical prolapse surgery. However, as an alternative intervention for open cervical surgery, no study has reported whether headaches can benefit from cervical nucleoplasty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical coblation nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervicogenic headaches. In a prospective cohort study performed between December 2013 and August 2015, 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing cervical nucleoplasty for shoulder-arm pain were recruited into group C, and 20 patients with cervicogenic headaches undergoing lumbar nucleoplasty for low back pain, matched for age and sex, were recruited into group L. Cervicogenic pain was diagnosed according to the International Headache Society criteria. During the 24-month follow-up, pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores were collected as the primary outcomes, and significant pain relief rate, Neck Disability Index (NDI) headache scores, and Patients Satisfaction Index (PSI) scores were recorded as secondary outcomes to evaluate headache severity and physical function postoperatively. During the 24-month follow-up, a significant decrease in headache VAS scores was observed in group C but not in group L. NDI and PSI scores in group C were better than those in group L. In comparison with the final follow-up, no significant differences in the NDI and PSI scores were found in all observations after surgery. In comparison to group L, ≥50% pain relief was significantly better in group C. No serious complications were observed except for ≤20% of ecchymoma at the needle insertion site. This prospective study indicated that cervicogenic headaches may benefit from nucleoplasty. PMID:27684803

  17. Review for the generalist: evaluation of pediatric hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Kristin M

    2009-01-01

    Hip pathology may cause groin pain, referred thigh or knee pain, refusal to bear weight or altered gait in the absence of pain. A young child with an irritable hip poses a diagnostic challenge. Transient synovitis, one of the most common causes of hip pain in children, must be differentiated from septic arthritis. Hip pain may be caused by conditions unique to the growing pediatric skeleton including Perthes disease, slipped capital femoral epiphysis and apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis. Hip pain may also be referred from low back or pelvic pathology. Evaluation and management requires a thorough history and physical exam, and understanding of the pediatric skeleton. This article will review common causes of hip and pelvic musculoskeletal pain in the pediatric population. PMID:19450281

  18. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pain in Small Fiber Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hovaguimian, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Small fiber neuropathy manifests in a variety of different diseases and often results in symptoms of burning pain, shooting pain, allodynia, and hyperesthesia. Diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy is determined primarily by the history and physical exam, but functional neurophysiologic testing and skin biopsy evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fiber density can provide diagnostic confirmation. Management of small fiber neuropathy depends on the underlying etiology with concurrent treatment of associated neuropathic pain. A variety of recent guidelines propose the use of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, topical therapies, and nonpharmacologic treatments as part of the overall management of neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, little data about the treatment of pain specifically in small fiber neuropathy exist because most studies combine mixed neuropathic pain syndromes in the analysis. Additional studies targeting the treatment of pain in small fiber neuropathy are needed to guide decision making. PMID:21286866

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of pain in small-fiber neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hovaguimian, Alexandra; Gibbons, Christopher H

    2011-06-01

    Small-fiber neuropathy manifests in a variety of different diseases and often results in symptoms of burning pain, shooting pain, allodynia, and hyperesthesia. Diagnosis of small-fiber neuropathy is determined primarily by the history and physical exam, but functional neurophysiologic testing and skin biopsy evaluation of intraepidermal nerve-fiber density can provide diagnostic confirmation. Management of small-fiber neuropathy depends on the underlying etiology with concurrent treatment of associated neuropathic pain. A variety of recent guidelines proposes the use of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, topical therapies, and nonpharmacologic treatments as part of the overall management of neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, little data about the treatment of pain specifically in small-fiber neuropathy exist because most studies combine mixed neuropathic pain syndromes in the analysis. Additional studies targeting the treatment of pain in small-fiber neuropathy are needed to guide decision making.

  20. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  1. Rumor Has It: Investigating Teacher Licensure Exam Advice Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira; Petchauer, Emery

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, including the United States, England, Korea, Hong Kong, and Japan, individuals must pass some form of examination for entry into or completion of a teacher education program (Wang, Coleman, Coley, & Phelps, 2003). These exams are meant to act as gatekeeping mechanisms for teacher quality. In the majority of the countries…

  2. [Evaluation of cytopathologic exam for diagnosis of oral chronic paracoccidioidomycosis].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Marcelo Sivieri; Sousa, Suzana C O M; Correia, Dalmo

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of evaluating exfoliative cytology for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis oral lesions, eight patients that presented the disease were studied. The presence of fungi was demonstrated in all these cases. It was concluded that the oral exfoliative cytology exam can be effectively used in the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis and contribute to the therapeutic control of oral forms of this mycosis.

  3. Teachers' Interpretations of Exit Exam Scores and College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' interpretations of Virginia's high school exit exam policy through the teachers' responses to a survey. The survey was administered to teachers from one school district in Northern Virginia. The teachers selected for the survey taught a subject in which students must pass a Standards of Learning (SOL) test in order to…

  4. Unified (Russian) State Exam in English: Reading Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the study of Reading Comprehension Tasks utilized in preparation for Unified (Russian) State Exam. The corpus of reading tasks was analyzed with the use of the classification algorithm developed by Weir and Urquhart (1998), and aimed at determining the level of engagement (local or global) and type of engagement (literal or…

  5. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  6. Time to Say Goodbye to High School Exit Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a concatenation of fears, pressures, and agendas has produced a new round of testing in the form of high school exit examinations. There has not, however, been an accompanying rush to see whether the exams do any good. No state has attempted to validate its test against external criteria: given the hyperbole surrounding the tests…

  7. An Alternative Approach to Proficiency Testing: The Practical Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue, Walter; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a beginning course in French that includes a component designed to prepare students to function in the common cultural situations they are likely to encounter in France. Describes an accompanying exam testing oral proficiency which allows a group of 30 students to be thoroughly tested in three hours. (SED)

  8. Eye Exam: Is a Laser Retina Scan Worthwhile?

    MedlinePlus

    ... necessary? My optometrist offers the test, but I'm not sure if I need it. Answers from Dennis Robertson, M.D. During a traditional eye exam, an eye ... covered by your medical insurance. With Dennis Robertson, M.D. References Khandhadia S. Use of Optomap for retinal ...

  9. Cheating on Exams: The Case of Israeli Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniver, Erez

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of cheating on exams, which harms both the reputation of an academic institution and the students who don't cheat, is becoming increasingly common. We attempt to shed light on this phenomenon using data from a survey of graduates of the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel. Three aspects of the problem are examined: 1)…

  10. Tougher Exam for GED Spurs Ups and Downs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Participation in the GED testing program plunged by nearly 44 percent during the most recent recorded year, a drop-off that the exam's sponsor attributes to an earlier rush by teenagers and adults to secure high school diplomas through the test before its minimum passing scores were raised. The overall number of teenagers and adults who took the…

  11. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  12. Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the Spanish-English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  13. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world;…

  14. Strategies Instruction to Improve the Preparation for English Oral Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abad, José Vicente; Alzate, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an inter-institutional research study that assessed the impact of strategies instruction on students' preparation for and performance in oral exams. Two teacher-researchers at different universities trained 26 students in their respective B1-English-level courses in using language learning strategies. The study…

  15. Assessment in undergraduate medical education: a review of course exams.

    PubMed

    Vanderbilt, AllisonA; Feldman, Moshe; Wood, IsaacK

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for evaluating assessments used in the first 2 years of medical school and report the results of applying this method to current first and second year medical student examinations. Three faculty members coded all exam questions administered during the first 2 years of medical school. The reviewers discussed and compared the coded exam questions. During the bi-monthly meetings, all differences in coding were resolved with consensus as the final criterion. We applied Moore's framework to assist the review process and to align it with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standards. The first and second year medical school examinations had 0% of competence level questions. The majority, more than 50% of test questions, were at the NBME recall level. It is essential that multiple-choice questions (MCQs) test the attitudes, skills, knowledge, and competency in medical school. Based on our findings, it is evident that our exams need to be improved to better prepare our medical students for successful completion of NBME step exams.

  16. Assessment in undergraduate medical education: a review of course exams.

    PubMed

    Vanderbilt, Allison A; Feldman, Moshe; Wood, Isaac K

    2013-03-06

    The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for evaluating assessments used in the first 2 years of medical school and report the results of applying this method to current first and second year medical student examinations. Three faculty members coded all exam questions administered during the first 2 years of medical school. The reviewers discussed and compared the coded exam questions. During the bi-monthly meetings, all differences in coding were resolved with consensus as the final criterion. We applied Moore's framework to assist the review process and to align it with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standards. The first and second year medical school examinations had 0% of competence level questions. The majority, more than 50% of test questions, were at the NBME recall level. It is essential that multiple-choice questions (MCQs) test the attitudes, skills, knowledge, and competency in medical school. Based on our findings, it is evident that our exams need to be improved to better prepare our medical students for successful completion of NBME step exams.

  17. Cheating on Exams: The Case of Israeli Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siniver, Erez

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of cheating on exams, which harms both the reputation of an academic institution and the students who don't cheat, is becoming increasingly common. We attempt to shed light on this phenomenon using data from a survey of graduates of the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel. Three aspects of the problem are examined: 1)…

  18. Assessment in undergraduate medical education: a review of course exams

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Feldman, Moshe; Wood, Isaac K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to describe an approach for evaluating assessments used in the first 2 years of medical school and report the results of applying this method to current first and second year medical student examinations. Methods Three faculty members coded all exam questions administered during the first 2 years of medical school. The reviewers discussed and compared the coded exam questions. During the bi-monthly meetings, all differences in coding were resolved with consensus as the final criterion. We applied Moore's framework to assist the review process and to align it with National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standards. Results The first and second year medical school examinations had 0% of competence level questions. The majority, more than 50% of test questions, were at the NBME recall level. Conclusion It is essential that multiple-choice questions (MCQs) test the attitudes, skills, knowledge, and competency in medical school. Based on our findings, it is evident that our exams need to be improved to better prepare our medical students for successful completion of NBME step exams. PMID:23469935

  19. Using Oral Exams to Assess Communication Skills in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…

  20. Faculty Productivity and the Complexity of Student Exam Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 560 research university faculty of biology, chemistry, history, and psychology compared faculty publication rates of books and journal articles with the complexity of their exam questions. Results found that the teachers who published books and who published fewer articles asked more critical-thinking questions. It is suggested that…