Science.gov

Sample records for exchange coupled pairs

  1. Pairing symmetry and Antiferromagnetic Exchange Coupling in Fe-Based Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiangping

    2009-03-01

    I discuss the existence of strikingly identical paradigms applicable to both cuprates and iron-based superconductors in understanding magnetism, superconductivity and the interplay between the two. The magnetic states and transitions in iron- based superconductors are well described by a J1-J2-Jz magnetic exchange model where J1, J2 and Jz are nearest neighbour, next nearest neighbour and inter-layer couplings respectively. Differing from the t-J model for cuprates where d-wave pairing symmetry is favored, the magnetic exchange in the iron based supercondunctors predicts an unconventional s-wave coskxcosky pairing. I will show that the predicted pairing symmetry is supported by many experimental results, and also discuss new predictions associated with the pairing symmetry. [4pt] References: [0pt] [1]: Chen Fang, Hong Yao, Wei-Feng Tai, Jiangping Hu and S. Kivelson ``Theory of Electron Nematic Order in LaOFeAs''; Phys. Rev. B 77 224509 (2008).[0pt] [2]: Kangjun Seo, A. B. Bernevig and JiangPing Hu, ``Pairing Symmetry in a Two-Orbital Exchange Coupling Model of Oxypnictides''; PRL 101, 206404 (2008) ArXiv: 0805.2958.[0pt] [3]: Meera M. Parish, Jiangping Hu and B. Andrei Bernevig ``Experimental Consequences of the S-wave cos(kx)cos (ky) Superconductivity in the Iron-Pnictides'', Phys. Rev. B 78, 144514 (2008) ArXiv:0807.4572.[0pt] [4]: Chen Fang, B. Andrei Bernevig, Jiangping Hu,``Theory of Magnetic Order in Fe1+yTe1-xSex'', arXiv:0811.1294 (2008).

  2. Altruistic donor triggered domino-paired kidney donation for unsuccessful couples from the kidney-exchange program.

    PubMed

    Roodnat, J I; Zuidema, W; van de Wetering, J; de Klerk, M; Erdman, R A M; Massey, E K; Hilhorst, M T; Ijzermans, J N M; Weimar, W

    2010-04-01

    Between January 2000 and July 2009, 132 individuals inquired about altruistic kidney donation to strangers. These donors were willing to donate to genetically and emotionally unrelated patients. Some altruistic donors wished to donate to a specific person, but most wished to donate anonymously. In domino-paired donation, the altruistic donor donates to the recipient of an incompatible couple; the donor of that couple (domino-donor) donates to another couple or to the waiting list. In contrast to kidney-exchange donation where bilateral matching of couples is required, recipient and donor matching are unlinked in domino-paired donation. This facilitates matching for unsuccessful couples from the kidney-exchange program where blood type O prevails in recipients and is under-represented in donors. Fifty-one altruistic donors (39%) donated their kidney and 35 domino-donors were involved. There were 29 domino procedures, 24 with 1 altruistic donor and 1 domino-donor, 5 with more domino-donors. Eighty-six transplantations were performed. Donor and recipient blood type distribution in the couples limited allocation to blood type non-O waiting list patients. The success rate of domino-paired donation is dependent on the composition of the pool of incompatible pairs, but it offers opportunities for difficult to match pairs that were unsuccessful in the kidney-exchange program.

  3. Quantifying exchange coupling in f-ion pairs using the diamagnetic substitution method

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Walter, Marc D.

    2010-04-01

    One of the challenges in the chemistry of actinide and lanthanide (f-ion) is quantifying exchange coupling between f-ions. While qualitative information about exchange coupling may be readily obtained using the diamagnetic substitution approach, obtaining quantitative information is much more difficult. This article describes how exchange coupling may be quantified using the susceptibility of a magnetically isolated analog, as in the diamagnetic substitution approach, along with the anisotropy of the ground state as determined by EPR spectroscopy. Several examples are used to illustrate and test this approach.

  4. Quantifying exchange coupling in f-ion pairs using the diamagnetic substitution method.

    PubMed

    Lukens, Wayne W; Walter, Marc D

    2010-05-17

    One of the challenges in the chemistry of actinide and lanthanide (f-ion) complexes is quantifying exchange coupling of f-ions. While qualitative information about exchange coupling may be readily obtained using the diamagnetic substitution approach, obtaining quantitative information is much more difficult. This article describes how exchange coupling may be quantified using the susceptibility of a magnetically isolated analog, as in the diamagnetic substitution approach, along with the anisotropy of the ground state, as determined by EPR spectroscopy. Several examples are used to illustrate and test this approach.

  5. Electron spin relaxation of exchange coupled pairs of transition metal ions in solids. Ti2+-Ti2+ pairs and single Ti2+ ions in SrF2 crystals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stanislaw K; Lijewski, Stefan; Goslar, Janina; Ulanov, Volodia A

    2010-01-01

    EPR (X- and Q-band) and electron spin relaxation measured by electron spin echo method (X-band) were studied for Ti(2+)(S=1) and Ti(2+)-Ti(2+) pairs in SrF(2) crystal at room temperature and in the temperature range 4.2-115 K. EPR spectrum consists of a strong line from Ti(2+) and quartets 2:3:3:2 from titanium pairs (S=2). Spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the pairs are g( parallel)=1.883, g( perpendicular)=1.975 and D=0.036 cm(-1). Temperature behavior of the dimer spectrum indicates ferromagnetic coupling between Ti(2+). Spin-lattice relaxation of individuals Ti(2+) is dominated by the ordinary two-phonon Raman process involving the whole phonon spectrum up to the Debye temperature Theta(D)=380 K with spin-phonon coupling parameter equal to 215 cm(-1). Important contribution to the relaxation arises from local mode vibrations of energy 133 cm(-1). The pair relaxation is faster due to the exchange coupling modulation mechanism with the relaxation rate characteristic for ferromagnetic ground state of the pairs 1/T(1) is proportional to [exp(2J/kT)-1](-1) which allowed to estimate the exchange coupling J=36 cm(-1). The theories of electron-lattice relaxation governed by exchange interaction are outlined for extended spin systems, for clusters and for individual dimers. Electron spin echo decay is strongly modulated by coupling with surrounding (19)F nuclei. FT-spectrum of the modulations shows a dipolar splitting of the fluorine lines, which allows the evaluation of the off-center shift of Ti(2+) in pair as 0.132 nm. The electron spin echo dephasing is dominated by an instantaneous diffusion at low temperatures and by the spin-lattice relaxation processes above 18K.

  6. Anomalous photon-gauge boson coupling contribution to the exclusive vector boson pair production from two photon exchange in pp collisions at 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, D. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Sá Borges, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the W and Z pair production from two-photon exchange in proton-proton collisions at the LHC in order to evaluate the contributions of anomalous photon-gauge boson couplings, that simulates new particles and couplings predicted in many Standard Model (SM) extensions. The experimental results of W+ W- exclusive production (pp → pW+W- p) at 7 TeV from the CMS collaboration [1] updates the experimental limits on anomalous couplings obtained at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). This motivates our present analysis hopefully anticipating the expected results using the Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) to be installed as part of CMS. In this work, we consider the W+W- exclusive production to present the pT distribution of the lepton pair corresponding to the SM signal with pT (e, μ) > 10 GeV. Next, we consider the photon-gauge boson anomalous couplings by calculating, from the FPMC and MadGraph event generators, the process γγ → W+W- from a model with gauge boson quartic couplings, by considering a 1 TeV scale for new physical effects. We present our results for an integrated luminosity of 5 fb-1 at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and for an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1 at 13 TeV. We present our preliminary results for Z pair exclusive production from two-photon exchange with anomalous couplings, where the ZZγγ quartic coupling is absent in the SM. We calculate the total cross section for the exclusive process and present the four lepton invariant mass distribution. Finally we present an outlook for the present analysis.

  7. Anomalous photon-gauge boson coupling contribution to the exclusive vector boson pair production from two photon exchange in pp collisions at 13 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, D. E.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Sá Borges, J.; Rebello Teles, P.

    2015-04-10

    We study the W and Z pair production from two-photon exchange in proton-proton collisions at the LHC in order to evaluate the contributions of anomalous photon-gauge boson couplings, that simulates new particles and couplings predicted in many Standard Model (SM) extensions. The experimental results of W{sup +} W{sup −} exclusive production (pp → pW{sup +}W{sup −} p) at 7 TeV from the CMS collaboration [1] updates the experimental limits on anomalous couplings obtained at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). This motivates our present analysis hopefully anticipating the expected results using the Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) to be installed as part of CMS. In this work, we consider the W{sup +}W{sup −} exclusive production to present the p{sub T} distribution of the lepton pair corresponding to the SM signal with p{sub T} (e, μ) > 10 GeV. Next, we consider the photon-gauge boson anomalous couplings by calculating, from the FPMC and MadGraph event generators, the process γγ → W{sup +}W{sup −} from a model with gauge boson quartic couplings, by considering a 1 TeV scale for new physical effects. We present our results for an integrated luminosity of 5 fb{sup −1} at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and for an integrated luminosity of 100 fb{sup −1} at 13 TeV. We present our preliminary results for Z pair exclusive production from two-photon exchange with anomalous couplings, where the ZZγγ quartic coupling is absent in the SM. We calculate the total cross section for the exclusive process and present the four lepton invariant mass distribution. Finally we present an outlook for the present analysis.

  8. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: longitudinal relaxation dispersion for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2013-10-14

    In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water (1)H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft

  9. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: Longitudinal relaxation dispersion for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2013-10-01

    In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water 1H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft

  10. Pair extended coupled cluster doubles

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.

    2015-06-07

    The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreover, pECCD yields sensible albeit inexact results even for attractive interactions where pCCD breaks down.

  11. Intergranular exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. W.; Indeck, R. S.

    1994-02-01

    We evaluate the exchange interaction between neighboring grains of a polycrystalline magnetic material with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, based on the energy of the domain wall formed at the portion of the interface in atomic contact. The analysis suggests that previous work [J.-G. Zhu and H. N. Bertram, in Solid State Physics Vol. 46, edited by H. Ehrenreich and T. Turnbull (Academic, San Diego, 1992)] may underestimate the interaction, and it predicts a different dependence on grain size.

  12. Seniority zero pair coupled cluster doubles theory.

    PubMed

    Stein, Tamar; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2014-06-07

    Coupled cluster theory with single and double excitations accurately describes weak electron correlation but is known to fail in cases of strong static correlation. Fascinatingly, however, pair coupled cluster doubles (p-CCD), a simplified version of the theory limited to pair excitations that preserve the seniority of the reference determinant (i.e., the number of unpaired electrons), has mean field computational cost and is an excellent approximation to the full configuration interaction (FCI) of the paired space provided that the orbital basis defining the pairing scheme is adequately optimized. In previous work, we have shown that optimization of the pairing scheme in the seniority zero FCI leads to a very accurate description of static correlation. The same conclusion extends to p-CCD if the orbitals are optimized to make the p-CCD energy stationary. We here demonstrate these results with numerous examples. We also explore the contributions of different seniority sectors to the coupled cluster doubles (CCD) correlation energy using different orbital bases. We consider both Hartree-Fock and Brueckner orbitals, and the role of orbital localization. We show how one can pair the orbitals so that the role of the Brueckner orbitals at the CCD level is retained at the p-CCD level. Moreover, we explore ways of extending CCD to accurately describe strongly correlated systems.

  13. Series-Coupled Pairs of Silica Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Handley, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Series-coupled pairs of whispering-gallery-mode optical microresonators have been demonstrated as prototypes of stable, narrow-band-pass photonic filters. Characteristics that are generally considered desirable in a photonic or other narrow-band-pass filter include response as nearly flat as possible across the pass band, sharp roll-off, and high rejection of signals outside the pass band. A single microresonator exhibits a Lorentzian filter function: its peak response cannot be made flatter and its roll-off cannot be made sharper. However, as a matter of basic principle applicable to resonators in general, it is possible to (1) use multiple resonators, operating in series or parallel, to obtain a roll-off sharper, and out-of-band rejection greater, relative to those of a Lorentzian filter function and (2) to make the peak response (the response within the pass band) flatter by tuning the resonators to slightly different resonance frequencies that span the pass band. The first of the two microresonators in each series-coupled pair was a microtorus made of germania-doped silica (containing about 19 mole percent germania), which is a material used for the cores of some optical fibers. The reasons for choosing this material is that exposing it to ultraviolet light causes it to undergo a chemical change that changes its index of refraction and thereby changes the resonance frequency. Hence, this material affords the means to effect the desired slight relative detuning of the two resonators. The second microresonator in each pair was a microsphere of pure silica. The advantage of making one of the resonators a torus instead of a sphere is that its spectrum of whispering-gallery-mode resonances is sparser, as needed to obtain a frequency separation of at least 100 GHz between resonances of the filter as a whole.

  14. Excitonic couplings between molecular crystal pairs by a multistate approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Aragó, Juan Troisi, Alessandro

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, we present a diabatization scheme to compute the excitonic couplings between an arbitrary number of states in molecular pairs. The method is based on an algebraic procedure to find the diabatic states with a desired property as close as possible to that of some reference states. In common with other diabatization schemes, this method captures the physics of the important short-range contributions (exchange, overlap, and charge-transfer mediated terms) but it becomes particularly suitable in presence of more than two states of interest. The method is formulated to be usable with any level of electronic structure calculations and to diabatize different types of states by selecting different molecular properties. These features make the diabatization scheme presented here especially appropriate in the context of organic crystals, where several excitons localized on the same molecular pair may be found close in energy. In this paper, the method is validated on the tetracene crystal dimer, a well characterized case where the charge transfer (CT) states are closer in energy to the Frenkel excitons (FE). The test system was studied as a function of an external electric field (to explore the effect of changing the relative energy of the CT excited state) and as a function of different intermolecular distances (to probe the strength of the coupling between FE and CT states). Additionally, we illustrate how the approximation can be used to include the environment polarization effect.

  15. Exchange-coupled perpendicular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, D.; Lee, J.; Fidler, J.; Schrefl, T.

    2009-03-01

    The potential of exchange spring bilayers and graded media is reviewed. An analytical model for the optimization of graded media gives an optimal value of the magnetic polarization of Js=0.8 T. The optimum design allows for thermally stable grains with grain diameters in the order of 3.3 nm, which supports ultra-high density up to 5-10 Tbit/in 2. The switching field distribution is significantly reduced in bilayer media and graded media compared to single-phase media. For the graded media the switching field distribution is reduced by about a factor of two. For bilayer media the minimum switching field distribution is obtained for soft-layer anisotropies that are about one fifth of the hard-layer anisotropy. The influence of precessional switching on the reversal time and the reversal field is investigated in detail for magnetic bilayers. Exchange spring bilayers can be reversed with field pulses of 20 ps.

  16. Implementing Diffie-Hellman key exchange using quantum EPR pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sayonnha; Parakh, Abhishek

    2015-05-01

    This paper implements the concepts of perfect forward secrecy and the Diffie-Hellman key exchange using EPR pairs to establish and share a secret key between two non-authenticated parties and transfer messages between them without the risk of compromise. Current implementations of quantum cryptography are based on the BB84 protocol, which is susceptible to siphoning attacks on the multiple photons emitted by practical laser sources. This makes BB84-based quantum cryptography protocol unsuitable for network computing environments. Diffie-Hellman does not require the two parties to be mutually authenticated to each other, yet it can provide a basis for a number of authenticated protocols, most notably the concept of perfect forward secrecy. The work proposed in this paper provides a new direction in utilizing quantum EPR pairs in quantum key exchange. Although, classical cryptography boasts of efficient and robust protocols like the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, in the current times, with the advent of quantum computing they are very much vulnerable to eavesdropping and cryptanalytic attacks. Using quantum cryptographic principles, however, these classical encryption algorithms show more promise and a more robust and secure structure for applications. The unique properties of quantum EPR pairs also, on the other hand, go a long way in removing attacks like eavesdropping by their inherent nature of one particle of the pair losing its state if a measurement occurs on the other. The concept of perfect forward secrecy is revisited in this paper to attribute tighter security to the proposed protocol.

  17. Micro-fluid exchange coupling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    In a macro-fluid exchange, a hollow needle, such as a syringe needle, is provided for penetrating the fluid conduit of the animal. The syringe needle is coupled to a plenum chamber having an inlet and outlet port. The plenum chamber is coupled to the syringe needle via the intermediary of a standard quick disconnect coupling fitting. The plenum chamber is carried at the end of a drive rod which is coupled to a micrometer drive head. The micrometer drive head is slidably and pivotably coupled to a pedestal for adjusting the height and angle of inclination of the needle relative to a reference base support. The needle is positioned adjacent to the incised trachea or a blood vessel of a small animal and the micrometer drive head is operated for penetrating the fluid conduit of the animal.

  18. Strongly-coupled high- n Rydberg atom pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. B.

    2015-05-01

    Creation of pairs of high n, n ~ 300 , Rydberg atoms with well-defined initial separations enables study and control of their mutual interactions. If the atoms are initially well separated, their interactions are weak and they evolve independently. Their interactions can be dramatically increased, however, by transferring them to even higher levels using carefully-tailored sequences of one, or more, short electric field pulses, the degree of coupling being strongly influenced by the final target state. Since both atoms are subject to the same pulse(s), strongly-correlated macroscopic two-electron wave packets can be created whose subsequent dynamics can be monitored by application of further probe fields. Interest focuses on energy exchange and formation of long lived two-electron-excited states in which, due to their correlated motions, the electrons remain far apart. The production and properties of such states, which lie at the classical-quantum interface, are being explored experimentally and through classical and quantum simulations. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  19. Communication: Improved pair approximations in local coupled-cluster methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwilk, Max; Usvyat, Denis; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2015-03-01

    In local coupled cluster treatments the electron pairs can be classified according to the magnitude of their energy contributions or distances into strong, close, weak, and distant pairs. Different approximations are introduced for the latter three classes. In this communication, an improved simplified treatment of close and weak pairs is proposed, which is based on long-range cancellations of individually slowly decaying contributions in the amplitude equations. Benchmark calculations for correlation, reaction, and activation energies demonstrate that these approximations work extremely well, while pair approximations based on local second-order Møller-Plesset theory can lead to errors that are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger.

  20. Verification of evanescent coupling from subwavelength grating pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.-A. A.; Kedia, S.; Samson, S.; Bhansali, S.

    2011-12-01

    Near-field evanescent wave coupling of various subwavelength grating pairs, using a 1.55 μm infrared semiconductor laser has been demonstrated for use as an optical MEMS sensor. Subwavelength grating pairs were fabricated on both glass and silicon substrates. When coupled together the effective grating period is not subwavelength and can exhibit several diffraction orders. The 1.55 μm infrared source was incident on the coupled pairs and the first-order output intensity was recorded and compared with the output intensity from simulated results. This demonstrated evanescent wave coupling concept can be applied to MEMS systems with nanometer gap separations (e.g., pressure sensors, biosensors, and accelerometers) to allow for subnanometer displacement detection.

  1. Long distance coupling of resonant exchange qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    We investigate the effectiveness of a microwave cavity as a mediator of interactions between two resonant exchange (RX) qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) over long distances, limited only by the extension of the cavity. Our interaction model includes the orthonormalized Wannier orbitals constructed from Fock-Darwin states under the assumption of a harmonic QD confinement potential. We calculate the qubit-cavity coupling strength gr in a Jaynes Cummings Hamiltonian, and find that dipole transitions between two states with an asymmetric charge configuration constitute the relevant RX qubit-cavity coupling mechanism. The effective coupling between two RX qubits in a shared cavity yields a universal two-qubit iSWAP-gate with gate times on the order of nanoseconds over distances on the order of up to a millimeter. Funded by ARO through Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0149.

  2. Long distance coupling of resonant exchange qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of a microwave cavity as a mediator of interactions between two resonant exchange (RX) qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) over long distances, limited only by the extension of the cavity. Our interaction model includes the orthonormalized Wannier orbitals constructed from Fock-Darwin states under the assumption of a harmonic QD confinement potential. We calculate the qubit-cavity coupling strength in a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian and find that dipole transitions between two states with an asymmetric charge configuration constitute the relevant RX qubit-cavity coupling mechanism. The effective coupling between two RX qubits in a shared cavity yields a universal two-qubit iswap gate with gate times on the order of nanoseconds over distances on the order of up to a millimeter.

  3. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells.

    PubMed

    Gomez, John A; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2016-06-28

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference.

  4. Paired kidney exchange transplantation: Maximizing the donor pool

    PubMed Central

    Jha, P. K.; Sethi, S.; Bansal, S. B.; Jain, M.; Sharma, R.; Phanish, M. K.; Duggal, R.; Ahlawat, R.; Kher, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, paired kidney exchange (PKE) transplantation has gained popularity worldwide as a viable alternative for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who have incompatible or sensitized donors. This study presents our experience with PKE transplantation and compares outcome between PKE and non-PKE renal transplant recipients. Between February 2010 and November 2013, 742 transplants were performed, of which 26 (3.5%) were PKE transplantations. All were two-way exchanges. PKE recipients were significantly older than non-PKE (46.73 ± 9.71 vs. 40.08 ± 13.36 years; P = 0.012) while donor ages were comparable. PKE patients had significantly higher number of HLA mismatches (5.03 ± 1.14 vs. 3.49 ± 1.57; P < 0.0001). After a median follow-up of 20 months (range: 3–47 months), there was no significant difference in patient survival (PKE 96.16% vs. non-PKE 96.65%; P = 0.596) and death censored graft survival (PKE 96.16% vs. non-PKE 96.37%; P = 1). Mean serum creatinine at 1 month and at last follow-up was lower in PKE versus non-PKE group (0.98 ± 0.33 vs. 1.3 ± 0.61 mg/dl; P = 0.008 and 0.96 ± 0.30 vs. 1.27 ± 0.57 mg/dl, P = 0.006, respectively). Biopsy proven acute rejection rate was 11.5% in PKE group and 16.89% in non-PKE patients (P = 0.6). To conclude, paired kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool and needs to be promoted to overcome the shortage of suitable kidney in our country. PMID:26664210

  5. Couples, pairs, and clusters: mechanisms and implications of centromere associations in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Obeso, David; Pezza, Roberto J; Dawson, Dean

    2014-03-01

    Observations of a wide range of organisms show that the centromeres form associations of pairs or small groups at different stages of meiotic prophase. Little is known about the functions or mechanisms of these associations, but in many cases, synaptonemal complex elements seem to play a fundamental role. Two main associations are observed: homology-independent associations very early in the meiotic program-sometimes referred to as centromere coupling-and a later association of homologous centromeres, referred to as centromere pairing or tethering. The later centromere pairing initiates during synaptonemal complex assembly, then persists after the dissolution of the synaptonemal complex. While the function of the homology-independent centromere coupling remains a mystery, centromere pairing appears to have a direct impact on the chromosome segregation fidelity of achiasmatic chromosomes. Recent work in yeast, Drosophila, and mice suggest that centromere pairing is a previously unappreciated, general meiotic feature that may promote meiotic segregation fidelity of the exchange and non-exchange chromosomes.

  6. Controlled exchange interaction between pairs of neutral atoms in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Anderlini, Marco; Lee, Patricia J; Brown, Benjamin L; Sebby-Strabley, Jennifer; Phillips, William D; Porto, J V

    2007-07-26

    Ultracold atoms trapped by light offer robust quantum coherence and controllability, providing an attractive system for quantum information processing and for the simulation of complex problems in condensed matter physics. Many quantum information processing schemes require the manipulation and deterministic entanglement of individual qubits; this would typically be accomplished using controlled, state-dependent, coherent interactions among qubits. Recent experiments have made progress towards this goal by demonstrating entanglement among an ensemble of atoms confined in an optical lattice. Until now, however, there has been no demonstration of a key operation: controlled entanglement between atoms in isolated pairs. Here we use an optical lattice of double-well potentials to isolate and manipulate arrays of paired (87)Rb atoms, inducing controlled entangling interactions within each pair. Our experiment realizes proposals to use controlled exchange coupling in a system of neutral atoms. Although 87Rb atoms have nearly state-independent interactions, when we force two atoms into the same physical location, the wavefunction exchange symmetry of these identical bosons leads to state-dependent dynamics. We observe repeated interchange of spin between atoms occupying different vibrational levels, with a coherence time of more than ten milliseconds. This observation demonstrates the essential component of a neutral atom quantum SWAP gate (which interchanges the state of two qubits). Its 'half-implementation', the root SWAP gate, is entangling, and together with single-qubit rotations it forms a set of universal gates for quantum computation.

  7. Synergy between pair coupled cluster doubles and pair density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, Alejandro J.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-28

    Pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has been recently studied as a method capable of accounting for static correlation with low polynomial cost. We present three combinations of pCCD with Kohn–Sham functionals of the density and on-top pair density (the probability of finding two electrons on top of each other) to add dynamic correlation to pCCD without double counting. With a negligible increase in computational cost, these pCCD+DFT blends greatly improve upon pCCD in the description of typical problems where static and dynamic correlations are both important. We argue that—as a black-box method with low scaling, size-extensivity, size-consistency, and a simple quasidiagonal two-particle density matrix—pCCD is an excellent match for pair density functionals in this type of fusion of multireference wavefunctions with DFT.

  8. Optically induced spin gates in coupled quantum dots using the electron-hole exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia E.; Reinecke, T. L.

    2008-09-01

    We propose a fast optically induced two-qubit C-PHASE gate between two resident spins in a pair of coupled quantum dots. An excited bound state which extends over the two dots provides an effective electron-electron exchange interaction. The gate is made possible by the electron-hole exchange interaction, which isolates a single transition in the system. When combined with appropriate single-qubit rotations, this gate generates an entangled state of the two spins.

  9. Pair correlation functions of strongly coupled two-temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we perform the first direct tests of three proposed models for the pair correlation functions of strongly coupled plasmas with species of unequal temperature. The models are all extensions of the Ornstein-Zernike/hypernetted-chain theory used to good success for equilibrium plasmas. Each theory is evaluated at several coupling strengths, temperature ratios, and mass ratios for a model plasma in which the electrons are positively charged. We show that the model proposed by Seuferling et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 323 (1989)] agrees well with molecular dynamics over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, as well as over a range of coupling strength similar to that of the equilibrium hypernetted-chain (HNC) theory. The SVT model also correctly predicts the strength of interspecies correlations and exhibits physically reasonable long-wavelength limits of the static structure factors. Comparisons of the SVT model with the Yukawa one-component plasma (YOCP) model are used to show that ion-ion pair correlations are well described by the YOCP model up to Γe≈1 , beyond which it rapidly breaks down.

  10. Studies of gauge boson pair production and trilinear couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grim, G.; Grinstein, S.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Lan, H.; Lander, R.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1997-12-01

    The gauge boson pair production processes Wγ, WW, WZ, and Zγ were studied using pp¯ collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 14 pb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.8 TeV. Analysis of Wγ production with subsequent W boson decay to lν (l=e,μ) is reported, including a fit to the pT spectrum of the photons which leads to limits on anomalous WWγ couplings. A search for WW production with subsequent decay to ll¯νν¯ (l=e,μ) is presented, leading to an upper limit on the WW production cross section and limits on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings. A search for high pT W bosons in WW and WZ production is described, where one W boson decays to an electron and a neutrino and the second W boson or the Z boson decays to two jets. A maximum likelihood fit to the pT spectrum of W bosons resulted in limits on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings. A combined fit to the three data sets which provided the tightest limits on anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings is also described. Limits on anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ couplings are presented from an analysis of the photon ET spectrum in Zγ events in the decay channels (ee, μμ, and νν) of the Z boson.

  11. MRI surface-coil pair with strong inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Mett, Richard R; Sidabras, Jason W; Hyde, James S

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductively coupled coil pair was used to obtain magnetic resonance phantom images. Rationale for using such a structure is described in R. R. Mett et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 084703 (2016)]. The original rationale was to increase the Q-value of a small diameter surface coil in order to achieve dominant loading by the sample. A significant improvement in the vector reception field (VRF) is also seen. The coil assembly consists of a 3-turn 10 mm tall meta-metallic self-resonant spiral (SRS) of inner diameter 10.4 mm and outer diameter 15.1 mm and a single-loop equalization coil of 25 mm diameter and 2 mm tall. The low-frequency parallel mode was used in which the rf currents on each coil produce magnetic fields that add constructively. The SRS coil assembly was fabricated and data were collected using a tissue-equivalent 30% polyacrylamide phantom. The large inductive coupling of the coils produces phase-coherency of the rf currents and magnetic fields. Finite-element simulations indicate that the VRF of the coil pair is about 4.4 times larger than for a single-loop coil of 15 mm diameter. The mutual coupling between coils influences the current ratio between the coils, which in turn influences the VRF and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Data on a tissue-equivalent phantom at 9.4 T show a total SNR increase of 8.8 over the 15 mm loop averaged over a 25 mm depth and diameter. The experimental results are shown to be consistent with the magnetic resonance theory of the emf induced by spins in a coil, the theory of inductively coupled resonant circuits, and the superposition principle. The methods are general for magnetic resonance and other types of signal detection and can be used over a wide range of operating frequencies.

  12. Exchange coupling and its applications in magnetic data storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Kebin; Wu, Yihong; Guo, Zaibing; Zheng, Yuankai; Han, Guchang; Qiu, Jinjun; Luo, Ping; An, Lihua; Zhou, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    The continuing scaling of magnetic recording is facing more and more scientific and technological challenges because both the read sensor and recording bit are approaching sub-50 nm regime with the ever increasing areal density in hard disk drives. One of the key and indispensable elements for both high-sensitivity sensors and high-density media is the exchange bias between a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic layer or the exchange coupling between two ferromagnets via a non-magnetic spacer. In the nanometer regime, the exchange coupling between ferromagnet and antiferromagnet or two ferromagnets through a conductive spacer is governed by the intergrain exchange interaction which has its origin in electron spins. Interlayer exchange coupling in multilayer or trilayer essentially originates from the quantum confinement effect. In this paper, we first review the physical origin and various theoretical models of the two types of exchange couplings, followed by a review of the applications of the exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling in data storage with emphasis on the advanced read sensor and advanced media including perpendicular media and patterned media.

  13. Feedback in close-coupled axial VCSEL-photodiode pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geib, Kent M.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Peake, Gregory M.; Sanchez, Victoria M.

    2011-03-01

    We have been investigating the use of coaxial multimode VCSEL/PD (vertical cavity surface emitting laser/photodiode) pairs for positional sensing with emitter to target mirror distances on the order of 1mm. We have observed large variations in signal levels due to the strong optical feedback in these close-coupled systems, employing either heterogeneously integrated commercial components or our own monolithically integrated devices. The feedback effect is larger than anticipated due to the annular geometry of the photodetector. Even though there is very little change in the measured VCSEL total output power, the optical feedback induces variations in the transverse mode distributions in these multimode VCSELs. The higher order modes have a larger divergence angle resulting in changes in the reflected light power incident upon the active detector area for a large range of emitter/mirror separations. We will review the experimental details and provide strategies for avoiding these variations in detected power.

  14. Pair-correlated coupled cluster theory: An alternative multireference coupled cluster method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuhua; Ma, Jing; Jiang, Yuansheng

    2003-04-01

    We describe an alternative multireference coupled cluster (MRCC) method, pair-correlated coupled cluster (PCCC) theory, for treating the ground state of closed-shell systems with degeneracy or quasidegeneracy. With the separated electron pair (SEP) wave function as a reference, the PCCC wave function is truncated according to how many electron pairs are explicitly correlated. The inclusion of only two-pair correlation defines the PCCC2 scheme, and the inclusion of up to three-pair correlation gives the PCCC3 scheme. The PCCC theory is well defined within the natural orbital (of the SEP reference) description and size extensive. We present the formalism of the PCCC theory by taking the PCCC2 scheme as an example, and implement the PCCC2 and PCCC3 schemes at the ab initio level with various basis sets. Then illustrative applications are presented for systems such as the perpendicular insertion reaction path of Be into H2, the simultaneous bond stretching in AlH3 and H2O. The results show that the overall performance of PCCC methods is competitive to that of the RCCSD(T) or UCCSD(T) method at stretched geometries, but slightly inferior to that of the CCSD(T) method at the equilibrium geometry.

  15. Double quantum dot Cooper-pair splitter at finite couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Robert; Jaurigue, Lina; Governale, Michele; Braggio, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    We consider the subgap physics of a hybrid double-quantum dot Cooper-pair splitter with large single-level spacings, in the presence of tunneling between the dots and finite Coulomb intra- and interdot Coulomb repulsion. In the limit of a large superconducting gap, we treat the coupling of the dots to the superconductor exactly. We employ a generalized master-equation method, which easily yields currents, noise, and cross-correlators. In particular, for finite inter- and intradot Coulomb interaction, we investigate how the transport properties are determined by the interplay between local and nonlocal tunneling processes between the superconductor and the dots. We examine the effect of interdot tunneling on the particle-hole symmetry of the currents with and without spin-orbit interaction. We show that spin-orbit interaction in combination with finite Coulomb energy opens the possibility to control the nonlocal entanglement and its symmetry (singlet/triplet). We demonstrate that the generation of nonlocal entanglement can be achieved even without any direct nonlocal coupling to the superconducting lead.

  16. Interface mixing and its impact on exchange coupling in exchange biased systems

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, P. K.; Skoropata, E.; Ting, Y-W; Lin, K-W; Freeland, J. W.; van Lierop, J.

    2016-10-05

    Exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling are interface driven phenomena. Since an ideal interface is very challenging to achieve, a clear understanding of the chemical and magnetic natures of interfaces is pivotal to identify their influence on the magnetism. We have chosen Ni80Fe20/CoO(tCoO)/Co trilayers as a model system, and identified non-stoichiometric Ni-ferrite and Co-ferrite at the surface and interface, respectively. These ferrites, being ferrimagnets typically, should influence the exchange coupling. But, in our trilayers the interface ferrites were found not to be ferro-or ferri-magnetic; thus having no observable influence on the exchange coupling. Our analysis also revealed that (i) interlayer exchange coupling was present between Ni80Fe20 and Co even though the interlayer thickness was significantly larger than expected for this phenomenon to happen, and (ii) the majority of the CoO layer (except some portion near the interface) did not contribute to the observed exchange bias. Here, we also identified that the interlayer exchange coupling and the exchange bias properties were not interdependent.

  17. Interface mixing and its impact on exchange coupling in exchange biased systems

    DOE PAGES

    Manna, P. K.; Skoropata, E.; Ting, Y-W; ...

    2016-10-05

    Exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling are interface driven phenomena. Since an ideal interface is very challenging to achieve, a clear understanding of the chemical and magnetic natures of interfaces is pivotal to identify their influence on the magnetism. We have chosen Ni80Fe20/CoO(tCoO)/Co trilayers as a model system, and identified non-stoichiometric Ni-ferrite and Co-ferrite at the surface and interface, respectively. These ferrites, being ferrimagnets typically, should influence the exchange coupling. But, in our trilayers the interface ferrites were found not to be ferro-or ferri-magnetic; thus having no observable influence on the exchange coupling. Our analysis also revealed that (i) interlayermore » exchange coupling was present between Ni80Fe20 and Co even though the interlayer thickness was significantly larger than expected for this phenomenon to happen, and (ii) the majority of the CoO layer (except some portion near the interface) did not contribute to the observed exchange bias. Here, we also identified that the interlayer exchange coupling and the exchange bias properties were not interdependent.« less

  18. Interface mixing and its impact on exchange coupling in exchange biased systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, P. K.; Skoropata, E.; Ting, Y.-W.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.; van Lierop, J.

    2016-12-01

    Exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling are interface driven phenomena. Since an ideal interface is very challenging to achieve, a clear understanding of the chemical and magnetic natures of interfaces is pivotal to identify their influence on the magnetism. We have chosen Ni80Fe20/CoO(t CoO)/Co trilayers as a model system, and identified non-stoichiometric Ni-ferrite and Co-ferrite at the surface and interface, respectively. These ferrites, being ferrimagnets typically, should influence the exchange coupling. However, in our trilayers the interface ferrites were found not to be ferro- or ferri-magnetic; thus having no observable influence on the exchange coupling. Our analysis also revealed that (i) interlayer exchange coupling was present between Ni80Fe20 and Co even though the interlayer thickness was significantly larger than expected for this phenomenon to happen, and (ii) the majority of the CoO layer (except some portion near the interface) did not contribute to the observed exchange bias. We also identified that the interlayer exchange coupling and the exchange bias properties were not interdependent.

  19. Interface mixing and its impact on exchange coupling in exchange biased systems.

    PubMed

    Manna, P K; Skoropata, E; Ting, Y-W; Lin, K-W; Freeland, J W; van Lierop, J

    2016-12-07

    Exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling are interface driven phenomena. Since an ideal interface is very challenging to achieve, a clear understanding of the chemical and magnetic natures of interfaces is pivotal to identify their influence on the magnetism. We have chosen Ni80Fe20/CoO(t CoO)/Co trilayers as a model system, and identified non-stoichiometric Ni-ferrite and Co-ferrite at the surface and interface, respectively. These ferrites, being ferrimagnets typically, should influence the exchange coupling. However, in our trilayers the interface ferrites were found not to be ferro- or ferri-magnetic; thus having no observable influence on the exchange coupling. Our analysis also revealed that (i) interlayer exchange coupling was present between Ni80Fe20 and Co even though the interlayer thickness was significantly larger than expected for this phenomenon to happen, and (ii) the majority of the CoO layer (except some portion near the interface) did not contribute to the observed exchange bias. We also identified that the interlayer exchange coupling and the exchange bias properties were not interdependent.

  20. Exchange interactions in coupled quantum dots observed through polarized photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesundara, Kushal C.; Garrido, Mauricio; Ramanathan, Swati; Stinaff, Eric; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Dan

    2009-03-01

    Identification and manipulation of the exchange interaction between different spin configurations may be useful for implementing quantum logic operations. Coupled quantum dots offer the possibility of controlling the exchange interaction by continuously tuning between direct and indirect excitonic configurations. The effect of the anisotropic part of the exchange energy was clearly identified from polarization dependent photoluminescence (PL) results arising from the direct and indirect configurations of the neutral exciton. We also observe direct experimental evidence of the isotropic exchange interaction via PL measurements from positive trion configurations. The isotropic exchange interactions observed to be an order of magnitude larger than the anisotropic splitting as expected. High resolution measurements of this charged exciton configurations are expected to reveal additional insight into the details of the exchange interaction.

  1. The effects of shape anisotropy and exchange coupling on spin precession frequencies in exchange coupled Co/Cu/Py trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramati, Sam; Singh, Uday; Kurfman, Seth; Binek, Ch.; Adenwalla, S.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast high-power laser systems have successfully opened up the field of magnetization dynamics, studying subpicosecond laser-induced spin precession dynamics, demagnetization processes and magnetization reorientation. Here we investigate laser-induced magnetization dynamics in a series of photolithographically patterned microstructures of exchange coupled trilayers of Co/Cu/Py grown on Si substrates. The microstructures have different shape anisotropies as well as different exchange coupling parameters. The latter determines the magnetization state, varying from ferromagnetically to anti-ferromagnetically coupled. We explore how the different spin precession frequencies of the constituent exchange coupled magnetic layers with unequal relaxation times can trade-off with the differing shape anisotropies. The key physical point is that the precession frequency of ferromagnetic materials and their damping parameter vary with the effective field which depends on both the shape anisotropy, and exchange coupling, while their corresponding effects can be modulated through the action of the intense pump beam. Precession frequency maps of the behavior of the exchange coupling parameter of the samples with respect to their shape anisotropy and their laser-induced modulated precession frequencies will be generated through a pump-probe experiment to address the above-mentioned objective of our work. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. 1409622 and MRSEC DMR-0820521.

  2. Correlation between antiferromagnetic interface coupling and positive exchange bias

    SciTech Connect

    Nogues, J.; Leighton, C.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2000-01-01

    The induced moment in antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM) (FeF{sub 2}-Fe and MnF{sub 2}-Fe) bilayers has been studied from the shift along the magnetization axis of the exchange-biased hysteresis loops. The magnetization shift depends strongly on the cooling field and microstructure of the AFM layer. The shift for small cooling fields can be opposite to the cooling field, indicating that, in some cases, the presence of the FM layer induces an antiferromagnetic coupling at the interface. Samples with negative magnetization shifts (antiferromagnetic coupling) exhibit large changes in exchange bias H{sub E} as a function of cooling field and positive exchange bias. Samples with positive magnetization shifts (ferromagnetic coupling) show almost no change in H{sub E} with cooling field and the exchange bias field remains always negative. These results confirm the theoretical assumption that an antiferromagnetic interface coupling is necessary to observe positive exchange bias. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  3. Exchange bias training effect in coupled all ferromagnetic bilayer structures.

    PubMed

    Binek, Ch; Polisetty, S; He, Xi; Berger, A

    2006-02-17

    Exchange coupled bilayers of soft and hard ferromagnetic thin films show remarkable analogies to conventional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic exchange bias heterostructures. Not only do all these ferromagnetic bilayers exhibit a tunable exchange bias effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the soft layer through consecutive hysteresis loops. In contrast with conventional exchange bias systems, such all ferromagnetic bilayer structures allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting hardmagnetic layer by means of simple magnetometry. Our experiments show unambiguously that the exchange bias training effect is driven by deviations from equilibrium in the pinning layer. A comparison of our experimental data with predictions from a theory based upon triggered relaxation phenomena shows excellent agreement.

  4. Exchange Bias Training Effect in Coupled All Ferromagnetic Bilayer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binek, Ch.; Polisetty, S.; He, Xi; Berger, A.

    2006-02-01

    Exchange coupled bilayers of soft and hard ferromagnetic thin films show remarkable analogies to conventional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic exchange bias heterostructures. Not only do all these ferromagnetic bilayers exhibit a tunable exchange bias effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the soft layer through consecutive hysteresis loops. In contrast with conventional exchange bias systems, such all ferromagnetic bilayer structures allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting hardmagnetic layer by means of simple magnetometry. Our experiments show unambiguously that the exchange bias training effect is driven by deviations from equilibrium in the pinning layer. A comparison of our experimental data with predictions from a theory based upon triggered relaxation phenomena shows excellent agreement.

  5. Experimental study of energy exchanges between two coupled granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastaing, J.-Y.; Géminard, J.-C.; Naert, A.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the energy exchanges between two granular gases of different densities coupled electromechanically by immersed blades attached to dc motors. Zeroing the energy flux between the two subsystems, we demonstrate that an immersed blade is a convenient way to assess the properties of the granular gases, provided that the dissipation in the motor is properly taken into account. In addition, when the two gases have different densities, the fluctuations of the energy flux are asymmetric, very intermittent, and with most probable zero flux. We show that, for weak coupling, the main features of the energy exchanges can be explained considering the fluctuations of the two subsystems.

  6. Ferromagnetic resonance of exchange-coupled perpendicularly magnetized bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Devolder, Thibaut

    2016-04-21

    Strong ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings J in perpendicularly magnetized systems are becoming increasingly desirable for applications. We study whether ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings can be measured by a combination of broadband ferromagnetic resonance methods and magnetometry hysteresis loops. For this, we model the switching and the eigenexcitations in bilayer systems comprising a soft layer coupled to a thicker harder layer that possesses higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. For large J > 0, the switching fields are essentially independent of J but the frequency of the optical eigenmode of the bilayer and the linewidth of the acoustical and optical eigenmode are directly sensitive to the coupling. We derive a corpus of compact analytical expressions to analyze these frequencies, their linewidth and discuss the meaning thereof. We illustrate this corpus on a system mimicking the fixed layers of a magnetic tunnel junction meant for spin torque applications.

  7. Ferromagnetic resonance of exchange-coupled perpendicularly magnetized bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devolder, Thibaut

    2016-04-01

    Strong ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings J in perpendicularly magnetized systems are becoming increasingly desirable for applications. We study whether ferromagnetic interlayer exchange couplings can be measured by a combination of broadband ferromagnetic resonance methods and magnetometry hysteresis loops. For this, we model the switching and the eigenexcitations in bilayer systems comprising a soft layer coupled to a thicker harder layer that possesses higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. For large J > 0, the switching fields are essentially independent of J but the frequency of the optical eigenmode of the bilayer and the linewidth of the acoustical and optical eigenmode are directly sensitive to the coupling. We derive a corpus of compact analytical expressions to analyze these frequencies, their linewidth and discuss the meaning thereof. We illustrate this corpus on a system mimicking the fixed layers of a magnetic tunnel junction meant for spin torque applications.

  8. Magnetic exchange coupling in actinide-containing molecules.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Harris, T David; Kozimor, Stosh A; Bartlett, Bart M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2009-04-20

    Recent progress in the assembly of actinide-containing coordination clusters has generated systems in which the first glimpses of magnetic exchange coupling can be recognized. Such systems are of interest owing to the prospects for involving 5f electrons in stronger magnetic exchange than has been observed for electrons in the more contracted 4f orbitals of the lanthanide elements. Here, we survey the actinide-containing molecules thought to exhibit magnetic exchange interactions, including multiuranium, uranium-lanthanide, uranium-transition metal, and uranium-radical species. Interpretation of the magnetic susceptibility data for compounds of this type is complicated by the combination of spin-orbit coupling and ligand-field effects arising for actinide ions. Nevertheless, for systems where analogues featuring diamagnetic replacement components for the non-actinide spin centers can be synthesized, a data subtraction approach can be utilized to probe the presence of exchange coupling. In addition, methods have been developed for employing the resulting data to estimate lower and upper bounds for the exchange constant. Emphasis is placed on evaluation of the linear clusters (cyclam)M[(mu-Cl)U(Me(2)Pz)(4)](2) (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane; Me(2)Pz(-) = 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate), for which strong ferromagnetic exchange with 15 cm(-1) < or = J < or = 48 cm(-1) is observed for the Co(II)-containing species. Owing to the modular synthetic approach employed, this system in particular offers numerous opportunities for adjusting the strength of the magnetic exchange coupling and the total number of unpaired electrons. To this end, the prospects of such modularity are discussed through the lens of several new related clusters. Ultimately, it is hoped that this research will be of utility in the development of electronic structure models that successfully describe the magnetic behavior of actinide compounds and will perhaps even lead to new

  9. Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; Grein, Matthew E.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Dauler, Eric A.; Kerman, Andrew J.; Molnar, Richard J.; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a systematic experimental study of the heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single-mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency, an inherent source efficiency, and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer-controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory, and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. It is expected that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.

  10. Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; Grein, Matthew E.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Dauler, Eric A.; Kerman, Andrew J.; Molnar, Richard J.; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2014-10-06

    We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.

  11. Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; ...

    2014-10-06

    We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory andmore » we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.« less

  12. Temperature dependence of the effective interdimer exchange interaction in a weakly coupled antiferromagnetic dimer copper compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Rafael; Santana, Vinicius T.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2017-08-01

    We report a variation with temperature T of the effective interdimeric interaction Jeff' in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) copper dimeric organic compound Cu2[TzTs] 4 (N -thiazol-2-yl-toluenesulfonamidate CuII). This T dependence was obtained from measurements of the effects in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the proposed quantum phase transition associated with the exchange-narrowing processes. Cu2[TzTs] 4 contains exchange-coupled pairs of CuII spins SA and SB (S =1 /2 ), with intradimeric AFM exchange coupling J0=(-115 ±1 ) cm-1 (Hex=-J0SA.SB ). The variation of the EPR linewidth of single crystals with field orientation around a "magic angle" where the transitions intersect and the integrated signal intensity of the so-called U peak of the powder spectrum were measured as a function of T . Modeling these data using arguments of exchange narrowing in the adiabatic regime considering the angular variation of the single-crystal spectra and a geometric description, we find that the effective interdimeric coupling | Jeff'| associated with the exchange frequency ωex is negligible for T ≪| J0/kB| when the units are uncoupled and | Jeff'|=(0.080 ±0.005 ) cm-1 (| Jeff'/J0|=7.0 × 10-4 ) at 298 K. Within this T interval, two ranges of | Jeff'| with linear temperature variation but different slopes, with a kink at ˜80 K, are observed and discussed. This T dependence arises from the growing population of the triplet state, and its relevance to the properties of various arrays of dimeric units is discussed. Our experimental procedures and results are compared with those of previous works in ion radical salts and dimeric metal compounds. The relation between the effective coupling | Jeff'| and the real interdimeric exchange coupling | J'| related to the chemical paths connecting neighbor units is discussed.

  13. Improved media performance in optimally coupled exchange spring layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A.; Supper, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Lengsfield, B.; Moser, A.; Fullerton, E. E.

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the recording performance of perpendicular exchange spring layer (ESL)-media for hard disk drive recording. In particular, we investigated the role of interlayer coupling by varying the thickness of a nonmagnetic coupling layer (CL). We demonstrate that not only the media writeability is improved upon optimizing the CL thickness, but also that substantial recording performance improvements can be achieved due to improved media noise properties. The potential of these media structures for high areal density recording is demonstrated by performing areal density measurements, which showed a substantial improvement for optimally coupled ESL-media.

  14. Exchange bias training effect in magnetically coupled bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisetty, Srinivas

    Interfaces in magnetically coupled bilayer heterostructures play a vital role in novel spintronics devices. Particularly, control of the interface spin structure enables the development of progressively down-scalable magnetic read-heads which are of major importance for non volatile magnetic recording media. Exchange bias and its accompanying training effect are fundamental magnetic coupling phenomena taking place at the interfaces of antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and hard/soft ferromagnetic bilayers. Here, in my thesis I present the experimental results of exchange bias training in the prototypical antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic exchange bias system CoO/Co and the corresponding coupling and aging phenomena in the all ferromagnetic hard/soft bilayer CoPtCrB/CoCr. The latter system provides experimental access to its pinning layer magnetization thereby allowing to measure fundamental properties of exchange bias and its corresponding training phenomenon. A phenomenological theory is best fitted to all experimental training data of antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and hard/soft ferromagnetic bilayers evidencing the universality of the theory. My studies are further extended to the temperature dependence of the exchange bias training effect. Again, excellent agreement between experiment and theory confirms the remarkable universality of the underlying phenomenological approach. Furthermore, the dependence of the exchange bias training on the ferromagnetic film thickness is investigated in a CoO/Co-wedge sample. Scaling behavior with collapse of the temperature and thickness dependent parameters onto a single master curve is presented. Magnetotransport measurements are used for complementary studies of exchange bias in CoO/Co-heterostructures. Here, exchange bias produces a shift of the magnetoresistance curve along the magnetic field axis and an additional asymmetry along the resistance axis. The dynamic non-equilibrium properties of the exchange bias training effect

  15. Polarization-coupled polariton pairs in a birefringent microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinglei; Hu, Tao; Xie, Wei; Sun, Liaoxin; Zhang, Long; Wang, Jian; Gu, Jie; Wu, Lin; Wang, Jun; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a clear anticrossing between two polarization-orthogonal exciton-polariton modes in ZnO microwires. The strong coupling between exciton polaritons with orthogonal polarization is evidenced by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The evolution of the coupling strength with the detuning between the two coupled polariton modes is studied by scanning the excitation spot on a tapered ZnO microwire. Steady oscillations are established between the two differently polarized polariton modes with resonant wave vectors and frequencies, which is well described by the plane wave coupling model.

  16. Magnetoelectricity coupled exchange bias in BaMnF4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Ji; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shuangbao; Qian, Bin; Han, Zhida; Xu, Qingyu; Du, Jun; Wang, Peng; Dong, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Multiferroic BaMnF4 powder was prepared by hydrothermal method. Hysteretic field dependent magnetization curve at 5 K confirms the weak ferromagnetism aroused from the canted antiferromagnetic spins by magnetoelectric coupling. The blocking temperature of 65 K for exchange bias coincides well with the peak at 65 K in the zero-field cooled temperature-dependent magnetization curve, which has been assigned to the onset temperature of two-dimensional antiferromagnetism. An upturn kink of exchange field and coercivity with decreasing temperature was observed from 40 K to 20 K, which is consistent with the two-dimensional to three-dimensional antiferromagnetic transition at Néel temperature (~26 K). In contrast to the conventional mechanism of magnetization pinned by interfacial exchange coupling in multiphases, the exchange bias in BaMnF4 is argued to be a bulk effect in single phase, due to the magnetization pinned by the polarization through magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:26671575

  17. Moessbauer studies of exchange-coupled two-iron centers in proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    This study reports Moessbauer measurements on three derivatives of the oxygen-transport protein hemerythrin and on the oxidized and reduced forms of uteroferrin, a purple acid phosphatase isolated from porcine uterine fluid. Both proteins contain an exchange-coupled pair of iron atoms coordinated directly to amino acid side chains. A model that takes account of both the exchange coupling and the zero-field splitting at each site is presented and used to describe the magnetic properties of the ground spin multiplet of a pair of coupled spins. One notable feature of the model is the fact that the g- and A-tensors of the coupled system may be quite anisotropic even if the corresponding single-site tensors are not. Preliminary studies of some non-Kramers systems are also presented. The Moessbauer spectrum of an azide derivative of deoxyhemerythrin broadens in a small applied field, indicating the presence of a near degeneracy. The spectrum of oxidized uteroferrin broadens as the temperature is raised, even in the absence of an applied field. No fully adequate explanation for the latter observation is apparent.

  18. Spin-orbit coupling induced two-electron relaxation in silicon donor pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-09-01

    We unravel theoretically a key intrinsic relaxation mechanism among the low-lying singlet and triplet donor-pair states in silicon, an important element in the fast-developing field of spintronics and quantum computation. Despite the perceived weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in Si, we find that our discovered relaxation mechanism, combined with the electron-phonon and interdonor interactions, drives the transitions in the two-electron states over a large range of donor coupling regimes. The scaling of the relaxation rate with interdonor exchange interaction J goes from J5 to J4 at the low to high temperature limits. Our analytical study draws on the symmetry analysis over combined band, donor envelope, and valley configurations. It uncovers naturally the dependence on the donor-alignment direction and triplet spin orientation, and especially on the dominant SOC source from donor impurities. While a magnetic field is not necessary for this relaxation, unlike in the single-donor spin relaxation, we discuss the crossover behavior with increasing Zeeman energy in order to facilitate comparison with experiments.

  19. Exchangers man the pumps: Functional interplay between proton pumps and proton-coupled Ca(2+) exchangers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca(2+) transporters encoded by cation/H(+) exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca(2+) into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca(2+) release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Recen...

  20. Tailoring exchange couplings in magnetic topological-insulator/antiferromagnet heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing Lin; Kou, Xufeng; Grutter, Alexander J.; Yin, Gen; Pan, Lei; Che, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yuxiang; Nie, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bin; Disseler, Steven M.; Kirby, Brian J.; Ratcliff, William, II; Shao, Qiming; Murata, Koichi; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Han, Xiaodong; Borchers, Julie A.; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic topological insulators such as Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 provide a platform for the realization of versatile time-reversal symmetry-breaking physics. By constructing heterostructures exhibiting Néel order in an antiferromagnetic CrSb and ferromagnetic order in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, we realize emergent interfacial magnetic phenomena which can be tailored through artificial structural engineering. Through deliberate geometrical design of heterostructures and superlattices, we demonstrate the use of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in manipulating the magnetic properties of magnetic topological insulators. Proximity effects are shown to induce an interfacial spin texture modulation and establish an effective long-range exchange coupling mediated by antiferromagnetism, which significantly enhances the magnetic ordering temperature in the superlattice. This work provides a new framework on integrating topological insulators with antiferromagnetic materials and unveils new avenues towards dissipationless topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  1. Tailoring exchange couplings in magnetic topological-insulator/antiferromagnet heterostructures.

    PubMed

    He, Qing Lin; Kou, Xufeng; Grutter, Alexander J; Yin, Gen; Pan, Lei; Che, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yuxiang; Nie, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bin; Disseler, Steven M; Kirby, Brian J; Ratcliff Ii, William; Shao, Qiming; Murata, Koichi; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Han, Xiaodong; Borchers, Julie A; Wang, Kang L

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic topological insulators such as Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 provide a platform for the realization of versatile time-reversal symmetry-breaking physics. By constructing heterostructures exhibiting Néel order in an antiferromagnetic CrSb and ferromagnetic order in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, we realize emergent interfacial magnetic phenomena which can be tailored through artificial structural engineering. Through deliberate geometrical design of heterostructures and superlattices, we demonstrate the use of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in manipulating the magnetic properties of magnetic topological insulators. Proximity effects are shown to induce an interfacial spin texture modulation and establish an effective long-range exchange coupling mediated by antiferromagnetism, which significantly enhances the magnetic ordering temperature in the superlattice. This work provides a new framework on integrating topological insulators with antiferromagnetic materials and unveils new avenues towards dissipationless topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  2. Hidden Interface Driven Exchange Coupling in Oxide Heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Aiping; Wang, Qiang; Fitzsimmons, Michael R.; ...

    2017-05-02

    In a variety of emergent phenomena have been enabled by interface engineering in complex oxides. The existence of an intrinsic interfacial layer has often been found at oxide heterointerfaces. But, the role of such an interlayerin controlling functionalities is not fully explored. Here, we report the control of the exchange bias (EB) in single-phase manganite thin films with nominallyuniform chemical composition across the interfaces. The sign of EB depends on the magnitude of the cooling field. A pinned layer, confirmed by polarized neutron reflectometry, provides the source of unidirectional anisotropy. The origin of the exchange bias coupling is discussed inmore » terms of magnetic interactions between the interfacial ferromagnetically reduced layer and the bulk ferromagnetic region. The sign of EB is related to the frustration of antiferromagnetic coupling between the ferromagnetic region and the pinned layer. These results shed new light on using oxide interfaces to design functional spintronic devices.« less

  3. Unconventional Pairing in Excitonic Condensates under Spin-Orbit Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Can, M. Ali; Hakioglu, T.

    2009-08-21

    It is shown that Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings enhance the conclusive power in the experiments on the excitonic condensate by at least three low temperature effects. First, spin-orbit coupling facilitates the photoluminescence measurements via enhancing the bright contribution in the otherwise dominantly dark ground state. The second is the presence of a low temperature power law dependence of the specific heat and weakening of the second order transition at the critical temperature. The third is the appearance of the nondiagonal elements in the static spin susceptibility.

  4. Driven Nonlinear Dynamics of Two Coupled Exchange-Only Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Arijeet; Rashba, Emmanuel I.; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the creation of a fast exchange-only qubit [Medford et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 050501 (2013)], we develop a theory describing the nonlinear dynamics of two such qubits that are capacitively coupled, when one of them is driven resonantly at a frequency equal to its level splitting. We include conditions of strong driving, where the Rabi frequency is a significant fraction of the level splitting, and we consider situations where the splitting for the second qubit may be the same as or different than the first. We demonstrate that coupling between qubits can be detected by reading the response of the second qubit, even when the coupling between them is only of about 1% of their level splittings, and we calculate entanglement between qubits. Patterns of nonlinear dynamics of coupled qubits and their entanglement are strongly dependent on the geometry of the system, and the specific mechanism of interqubit coupling deeply influences dynamics of both qubits. In particular, we describe the development of irregular dynamics in a two-qubit system, explore approaches for inhibiting it, and demonstrate the existence of an optimal range of coupling strength maintaining stability during the operational time.

  5. Manipulation by exchange coupling in layered magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, M. A.; Uzdin, V. M.; Zabel, H.

    2014-02-07

    Exchange coupling in magnetic heterostructures can be modified via introduction of additional magnetic spacer layers at the interfaces. The magnetic characteristics and the spacer layer thickness determine the functional properties of the whole system. We show that the hysteresis loop area of trilayer spring magnets with two different soft magnetic layers (s1, s2) and one hard magnetic layer (h) with the sequence s1/s2/h can be increased as compared to both bilayer structures s1/h and s2/h with the same total thickness of the soft layers and for definite thickness ratios of the soft layers and their sequences. For ferrimagnetic spin valves, the perpendicular exchange bias effect can be tuned via the thickness of non-magnetic spacer layers at the interface, which determine the exchange coupling between ferrimagnets. A simple quasi one-dimensional phenomenological model is able to describe the magnetic hysteresis of even complex layered structures and to predict optimal geometrical and magnetic parameters of such heterostructures.

  6. Exchange bias training effect in coupled all ferromagnetic bilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisetty, Srinivas; He, Xi; Binek, Christian; Berger, Andreas

    2006-03-01

    We study exchange coupled bilayers of soft and hard ferromagnetic (FM) thin films by means of Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometry. A CoCr thin film realizes the magnetically soft layer (SL) which is exchange coupled via a Ru-interlayer with a hard CoPtCrB pinning layer (HL). This new class of all FM bilayers shows remarkable analogies to conventional antiferromagnetic (AF)/FM exchange bias (EB) heterostructures. Not only do these all FM bilayers exhibit a tunable EB effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the SL through consecutive hysteresis loops. Training resembles the cycle dependent evolution of the bias field and is to a large extend analogous to the gradual degradation of the EB field observed upon cycling the FM top layer of a AF/FM EB heterostructure through consecutive hysteresis loops. However, in contrast to these conventional EB systems, our all FM bilayer structures allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting HL by means of simple magnetometry. Our experiments show unambiguously that the training effect is driven by deviations from equilibrium in the pinning layer. A comparison of the experimental data with predictions from a theory based upon triggered relaxation phenomena shows excellent agreement.

  7. Confinement and precession of vortex pairs in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Recati, Alessio; Stringari, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic behavior of vortex pairs in two-component coherently (Rabi) coupled Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated in the presence of harmonic trapping. We discuss the role of the surface tension associated with the domain wall connecting two vortices in condensates of atoms occupying different spin states and its effect on the precession of the vortex pair. The results, based on the numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equations, are compared with the predictions of an analytical macroscopic model and are discussed as a function of the size of the pair, the Rabi coupling, and the intercomponent interaction. We show that the increase of the Rabi coupling results in the disintegration of the domain wall into smaller pieces, connecting vortices of newly created vortex pairs. The resulting scenario is the analog of quark confinement and string breaking in quantum chromodynamics.

  8. Moessbauer Studies of Exchange-Coupled Two-Iron Centers in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, James Timothy

    This thesis reports Mossbauer measurements on three derivatives of the oxygen-transport protein hemerythrin and on the oxidized and reduced forms of uteroferrin, a purple acid phosphatase isolated from porcine uterine fluid. Both proteins contain an exchange-coupled pair of iron atoms coordinated directly to amino acid side chains. A model that takes account of both the exchange coupling and the zero-field splitting at each site is presented and used to describe the magnetic properties of the ground spin multiplet of a pair of coupled spins. One notable feature of the model is the fact that the g- and A-tensors of the coupled system may be quite anisotropic even if the corresponding single-site tensors are not. The model is applied in several Kramers systems and explains some unusual observations. In reduced uteroferrin, unexpectedly large anisotropies in the hyperfine tensor at the ferric site are rationalized naturally and in a way consistent with the other mag- netic properties. Similar observations on a sulfide derivative of hemerythrin appear to be susceptible to the same sort of expla- nation, although the Mossbauer simulations are not as refined. An unusual EPR spectrum observed in a nitric oxide derivative of deoxyhemerythrin is also explicable in the spin-coupling model; the corresponding Mossbauer spectra are reported but have not been analyzed in detail. Preliminary studies of some non-Kramers systems are also presented. The Mossbauer spectrum of an azide derivative of deoxyhemerythrin broadens in a small applied field, indicating the presence of a near degeneracy. The spectrum of oxidized utero- ferrin broadens as the temperature is raised, even in the absence of an applied field. No fully adequate explanation for the latter observation is apparent.

  9. Efficient and accurate local approximations to coupled-electron pair approaches: An attempt to revive the pair natural orbital method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neese, Frank; Wennmohs, Frank; Hansen, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Coupled-electron pair approximations (CEPAs) and coupled-pair functionals (CPFs) have been popular in the 1970s and 1980s and have yielded excellent results for small molecules. Recently, interest in CEPA and CPF methods has been renewed. It has been shown that these methods lead to competitive thermochemical, kinetic, and structural predictions. They greatly surpass second order Møller-Plesset and popular density functional theory based approaches in accuracy and are intermediate in quality between CCSD and CCSD(T) in extended benchmark studies. In this work an efficient production level implementation of the closed shell CEPA and CPF methods is reported that can be applied to medium sized molecules in the range of 50-100 atoms and up to about 2000 basis functions. The internal space is spanned by localized internal orbitals. The external space is greatly compressed through the method of pair natural orbitals (PNOs) that was also introduced by the pioneers of the CEPA approaches. Our implementation also makes extended use of density fitting (or resolution of the identity) techniques in order to speed up the laborious integral transformations. The method is called local pair natural orbital CEPA (LPNO-CEPA) (LPNO-CPF). The implementation is centered around the concepts of electron pairs and matrix operations. Altogether three cutoff parameters are introduced that control the size of the significant pair list, the average number of PNOs per electron pair, and the number of contributing basis functions per PNO. With the conservatively chosen default values of these thresholds, the method recovers about 99.8% of the canonical correlation energy. This translates to absolute deviations from the canonical result of only a few kcal mol-1. Extended numerical test calculations demonstrate that LPNO-CEPA (LPNO-CPF) has essentially the same accuracy as parent CEPA (CPF) methods for thermochemistry, kinetics, weak interactions, and potential energy surfaces but is up to 500

  10. Kerr microscopy study of exchange-coupled FePt/Fe exchange spring magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zaineb; Kumar, Dileep; Reddy, V. Raghavendra; Gupta, Ajay

    2017-05-01

    Magnetization reversal and magnetic microstructure of top soft magnetic layer (Fe) in exchange spring coupled L10 FePt/Fe is studied using high resolution Kerr microscopy. With remnant state of the hard magnetic layer (L10 FePt) as initial condition, magnetization loops along with magnetic domains are recorded for the top soft magnetic layer (Fe) using Kerr microscopy. Considerable shifting of Fe layer hysteresis loop from center which is similar to exchange bias phenomena is observed. It is also observed that one can tune the magnitude of hysteresis shift by reaching the remanent state from different saturating fields (HSAT) and also by varying the angle between measuring field and HSAT. The hysteresis loops and magnetic domains of top soft Fe layer demonstrate unambiguously that soft magnetic layer at remanent state in such exchange coupled system is having unidirectional anisotropy. An analogy is drawn and the observations are explained in terms of established model of exchange bias phenomena framed for field-cooled ferromagnetic - antiferromagnetic bilayer systems.

  11. Stabilization of magnetic helix in exchange-coupled thin films

    PubMed Central

    Dzemiantsova, L. V.; Meier, G.; Röhlsberger, R.

    2015-01-01

    Based on micromagnetic simulations, we report on a novel magnetic helix in a soft magnetic film that is sandwiched between and exchange-coupled to two hard magnetic layers with different anisotropies. We show that such a confined helix stays stable without the presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic stability is determined by the energy minimization and is a result of an internal magnetic field created by the exchange interaction. We show that this internal field stores a magnetic energy density of a few kJ/m3. We also find that it dramatically modifies ferromagnetic resonances, such that the helix can be used as a ferromagnetic resonance filter and a fast acting attenuator. PMID:26537574

  12. Strong Versus Weak Coupling Pairing in Iron-Based Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2012-02-01

    We use the functional renormalization group as well as strong-coupling methods to analyze the phase diagram of several of the iron-based superconductors. As in the previous studies by F. Wang, D.H. Lee et. al., we observe a nodeless sign-changing order parameter to be favored over a sizable part of the parameter space, but the physics quickly develops peculiarities depending on the doping, shape, size and orbital content of the Fermi surfaces in the different superconducting compounds. Using several new one-body models available in the literature (due to Kuroki, Graser and Raghu), we analyze the orbital content of the superconducting gap, which should be observable in spin-polarized ARPES experiments. We find that the effective theory of the Iron-based superconductors is a J1-J2 model in orbital space with J2> |J1| and antiferromagnetic, and analyze the behavior of the physical properties such as superconducting gap for systems ranging from electron overdoped (K, Cs)Fe2?xSex to hole-doped KxBa1-xFe2As2.

  13. Magnon softening in exchange-coupled hard-soft nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belemuk, A. M.; Chui, S. T.

    2013-03-01

    We study spin excitations of the fully aligned state for three-dimensional nanocomposites of exchange coupled hard (SmFeN) and soft (FeCo) phases. The dipolar interaction lowers the magnon energy and controls the spin wave gap at k = 0, which closes when the amount of soft phase exceeds a critical value. With the addition of soft phase or increasing temperature the system moves to another ground state characterized by a tilting of the magnetization at the boundaries between spins of the hard and the soft phases.

  14. Strong exchange coupling in lanthanide bis(phthalocyaninato) sandwich compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojan, Kathleen L.; Hatfield, William E.; Kepler, Keith D.; Kirk, Martin L.

    1991-03-01

    Bis (phthalocyaninato) lanthanide sandwich compounds, which have the formula Pc2-LnPc1-, have been synthesized for Ln = terbium, homium and lutecium. Low temperature magnetic susceptibility data for Ho (Pc)2 and Tb (Pc)2 show a reduction in moment from that which is expected for the lanthanide free ion value, which correlates with an antiferromagnetic exchange between the lanthanide f-electrons and the phthalocyaninato ligand radical electron. The g-factors determined from least squares fitting of the Curie-Weiss Law to the magnetic data show excellent agreement to the g-factors calculated for the strongly coupled state. Magnetic moments calculated from the experimentally determined Curie constants are also in good agreement with those expected for the strongly coupled state.

  15. Effect of ionophores on the rate of intramolecular cation exchange in durosemiquinone ion pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, M. P.; Bruno, G. V.; Mcguyer, C. A.; Gutierrez, A. R.; Shannon, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the ionophores 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6), dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DBC) and cryptand 222 (C222) on intramolecular cation exchange in ion pairs of the sodium salt of the durosemiquinone anion in benzene solution are investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the 18C6 and 15C5 complexes with durosemiquinone reduced by contact with a sodium mirror show an alternating line width which indicates that the sodium ion is being exchanged between equivalent sites near the oxygens of the semiquinone with activation energies of 8.7 and 6.0 kcal/mole and Arrhenius preexponential factors of 9 x 10 to the 12th/sec and 10 to the 12th/sec, respectively. Spectra obtained for the DBC complexes show no evidence of exchange, while those of C222 indicate rapid exchange. It is also noted that the hyperfine splitting constants measured do not change over the 50-K temperature interval studied.

  16. Effect of ionophores on the rate of intramolecular cation exchange in durosemiquinone ion pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, M. P.; Bruno, G. V.; Mcguyer, C. A.; Gutierrez, A. R.; Shannon, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the ionophores 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6), dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DBC) and cryptand 222 (C222) on intramolecular cation exchange in ion pairs of the sodium salt of the durosemiquinone anion in benzene solution are investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the 18C6 and 15C5 complexes with durosemiquinone reduced by contact with a sodium mirror show an alternating line width which indicates that the sodium ion is being exchanged between equivalent sites near the oxygens of the semiquinone with activation energies of 8.7 and 6.0 kcal/mole and Arrhenius preexponential factors of 9 x 10 to the 12th/sec and 10 to the 12th/sec, respectively. Spectra obtained for the DBC complexes show no evidence of exchange, while those of C222 indicate rapid exchange. It is also noted that the hyperfine splitting constants measured do not change over the 50-K temperature interval studied.

  17. Statistical exchange-coupling errors and the practicality of scalable silicon donor qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent experimental efforts have led to considerable interest in donor-based localized electron spins in Si as viable qubits for a scalable silicon quantum computer. With the use of isotopically purified 28Si and the realization of extremely long spin coherence time in single-donor electrons, the recent experimental focus is on two-coupled donors with the eventual goal of a scaled-up quantum circuit. Motivated by this development, we simulate the statistical distribution of the exchange coupling J between a pair of donors under realistic donor placement straggles, and quantify the errors relative to the intended J value. With J values in a broad range of donor-pair separation ( 5 <|R |<60 nm), we work out various cases systematically, for a target donor separation R0 along the [001], [110] and [111] Si crystallographic directions, with |R0|=10 ,20 or 30 nm and standard deviation σR=1 ,2 ,5 or 10 nm. Our extensive theoretical results demonstrate the great challenge for a prescribed J gate even with just a donor pair, a first step for any scalable Si-donor-based quantum computer.

  18. Exchange-Coupled FePt Nanoparticle Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hao; Vedantam, T.; Dai, Z. R.; Wang, Z. L.; Liu, J. P.; Sun, Shouheng

    2002-03-01

    High-performance permanent magnetic materials for energy-related applications need large energy-products. A permanent magnet with large (BH) products should exhibit both a high saturation magnetization , M_s, and a large coercive field, H_c. L10 ordered FePt has high Ms ( ~ 1100 emu/cm^3) and large magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant Ku (> 5e10^7 erg/cm^3), therefore may be a suitable candidates for permanent magnetic materials. We report synthesis of exchange-coupled FePt nanoparticle assemblies via solution phase deposition and controlled thermal annealing. FePt nanoparticles are prepared by high temperature solution phase decomposition of Fe(CO)_5and reduction of Pt(acac)2 in the presence of oleic acid and oleyl amine. The Fe and Pt composition of the nanoparticles is tuned by adjusting the molar ratio of Fe(CO)5 to Pt(acac)_2. The nanoparticles are easily dispersed into alkane solvent. Depositing particle dispersion on a solid substrate and controlling solvent evaporation yield self-organized magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. Magnetic hysteresis loops, remanence curves, and δM measurements show that annealing for short time under nitrogen yields isolated particle assemblies with random crystalline orientations. Prolonged annealing under reducing atmosphere leads to the evaporation of the organic surfactants, and results in grain agglomeration and inter grain exchange coupling. The degree of coupling can be readily controlled by annealing conditions. Changes in the magnetization reversal behavior have also been observed.This work is supported by DARPA No. DAAD 19-01-1-0546.

  19. Common Coupled Fixed Point Theorems for Two Hybrid Pairs of Mappings under φ-ψ Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Amrish

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of (EA) property and occasional w-compatibility for hybrid pair F : X × X → 2X and f : X → X. We also introduce common (EA) property for two hybrid pairs F, G : X → 2X and f, g : X → X. We establish some common coupled fixed point theorems for two hybrid pairs of mappings under φ-ψ contraction on noncomplete metric spaces. An example is also given to validate our results. We improve, extend and generalize several known results. The results of this paper generalize the common fixed point theorems for hybrid pairs of mappings and essentially contain fixed point theorems for hybrid pair of mappings. PMID:27340688

  20. Dynamic coupling of magnetic resonance modes in pairs of mesoscopic rectangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swoboda, Christian; Kuhlmann, Nils; Martens, Michael; Vogel, Andreas; Meier, Guido

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the magnetization dynamics in pairs of mesoscopic permalloy (Ni80Fe20) rectangles by means of broadband-ferromagnetic resonance measurements and micromagnetic simulations. Each pair consists of two rectangles that differ in their geometry. The local effective field at each element is significantly affected by the stray field of its neighbor for small center-to-center distances between the rectangles. In antiparallel magnetization alignment, this dynamic dipolar coupling becomes prominent and anticrossing between ferromagnetic resonance modes and higher-order spin-wave modes is observed. Combination of the experimental and the simulational findings provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamically coupled rectangles.

  1. Multimodal plasmon coupling in low symmetry gold nanoparticle pairs detected in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreaden, Erik C.; Near, Rachel D.; Abdallah, Tamer; Talaat, M. Hassan; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.

    2011-05-01

    We report on surface-enhanced Raman scattering of silicon phonon vibrations from arrays of gold nanoprism pairs fabricated by electron beam lithography. We found that resonant excitation of the quadrupolar surface plasmon mode of the nanoprisms increases Raman scattering intensity from the substrate as the distance between the nanoparticle pairs decreases. Finite element modeling and plasmon coupling theory indicate that symmetry is reduced as the nanoparticles approach, resulting in increased dipole-quadrupole coupling. Plasmonic enhancement of the incident and Raman-scattered photons results from the dipolar component of the mixed plasmonic field. This effect is expected to be largest in assemblies/aggregates of nanoparticles.

  2. Pair counting, pion-exchange forces and the structure of light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    2006-03-15

    A simple but useful guide for understanding the structure of light nuclei is presented. It is based on counting the number of interacting pairs in different spin-isospin (S,T) states for a given spatial symmetry and estimating the overall binding according to the sum of {sigma}{sub i}{center_dot}{sigma}{sub j}{tau}{sub i}{center_dot}{tau}{sub j} expectation values, as suggested by one-pion exchange. Applied to s- and p-shell nuclei, this simple picture accounts for the relative stability of nuclei as A increases and as T changes across isobars, the saturation of nuclear binding in the p shell, and the tendency to form d,t, or {alpha} subclusters there. With allowance for pairwise tensor and spin-orbit forces, which are also generated or boosted by pion exchange, the model explains why mixing of different spatial symmetries in ground states increases as T increases across isobars and why, for states of the same spatial symmetry, the ones with greater S are lower in the spectrum. The ordering of some sd-shell intruder levels can also be understood. The success of this simple model supports the idea that one-pion exchange is the dominant force controlling the structure of light nuclei.

  3. Vortex-Antivortex-Pair Lattices in Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben; Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2014-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the ground states of Bose-Einstein condensates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices within mean-field framework. We obtain numerically the Bloch states and energy spectrum for the single particle Hamiltonian, meanwhile the analytical solution of Bloch states is also presented. For a spin-orbit coupling Bose-Einstein condensates with a weak interaction, we show the existence of the vortex-antivortex-pair lattices state by simulating the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  4. Room temperature skyrmion ground state stabilized through interlayer exchange coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gong Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; N'Diaye, Alpha T.

    2015-06-15

    Possible magnetic skyrmion device applications motivate the search for structures that extend the stability of skyrmion spin textures to ambient temperature. Here, we demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize a room temperature skyrmion ground state in chiral magnetic films via exchange coupling across non-magnetic spacer layers. Using spin polarized low-energy electron microscopy to measure all three Cartesian components of the magnetization vector, we image the spin textures in Fe/Ni films. We show how tuning the thickness of a copper spacer layer between chiral Fe/Ni films and perpendicularly magnetized Ni layers permits stabilization of a chiral stripe phase, a skyrmion phase, and a single domain phase. This strategy to stabilize skyrmion ground states can be extended to other magnetic thin film systems and may be useful for designing skyrmion based spintronics devices.

  5. Integrable pair-transition-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    PubMed

    Ling, Liming; Zhao, Li-Chen

    2015-08-01

    We study integrable coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with pair particle transition between components. Based on exact solutions of the coupled model with attractive or repulsive interaction, we predict that some new dynamics of nonlinear excitations can exist, such as the striking transition dynamics of breathers, new excitation patterns for rogue waves, topological kink excitations, and other new stable excitation structures. In particular, we find that nonlinear wave solutions of this coupled system can be written as a linear superposition of solutions for the simplest scalar nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Possibilities to observe them are discussed in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate with two hyperfine states. The results would enrich our knowledge on nonlinear excitations in many coupled nonlinear systems with transition coupling effects, such as multimode nonlinear fibers, coupled waveguides, and a multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate system.

  6. Energy exchange in strongly coupled plasmas with electron drift

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, the generalized viscoelastic collisional quantum hydrodynamic model is employed in order to investigate the linear dielectric response of a quantum plasma in the presence of strong electron-beam plasma interactions. The generalized Chandrasekhar's relativistic degeneracy pressure together with the electron-exchange and Coulomb interaction effects are taken into account in order to extend current research to a wide range of plasma number density relevant to big planetary cores and astrophysical compact objects. The previously calculated shear viscosity and the electron-ion collision frequencies are used for strongly coupled ion fluid. The effect of the electron-beam velocity on complex linear dielectric function is found to be profound. This effect is clearly interpreted in terms of the wave-particle interactions and their energy-exchange according to the sign of the imaginary dielectric function, which is closely related to the wave attenuation coefficient in plasmas. Such kinetic effect is also shown to be in close connection with the stopping power of a charged-particle beam in a quantum plasma. The effect of many independent plasma parameters, such as the ion charge-state, electron beam-velocity, and relativistic degeneracy, is shown to be significant on the growing/damping of plasma instability or energy loss/gain of the electron-beam.

  7. Calculation of exchange interaction for modified Gaussian coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.

    2017-08-01

    A system of two laterally coupled quantum dots with modified Gaussian potential has been considered. Each quantum dot has an electron under electric and magnetic field. The quantum dots have been considered as hydrogen-like atoms. The physical picture has translated into the Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian. The Schrödinger equation using finite element method has been numerically solved. The exchange energy factor has been calculated as a functions of electric field, magnetic field, and the separation distance between the centers of the dots ( d). According to the results, it is found that there is the transition from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic for constant electric field. Also, the transition occurs from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic for constant magnetic field (B>1 T). With decreasing the distance between the centers of the dots and increasing magnetic field, the transition occurs from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic. It is found that a switching of exchange energy factor is presented without canceling the interactions of the electric and magnetic fields on the system.

  8. Calculation of exchange interaction for modified Gaussian coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.

    2017-03-01

    A system of two laterally coupled quantum dots with modified Gaussian potential has been considered. Each quantum dot has an electron under electric and magnetic field. The quantum dots have been considered as hydrogen-like atoms. The physical picture has translated into the Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian. The Schrödinger equation using finite element method has been numerically solved. The exchange energy factor has been calculated as a functions of electric field, magnetic field, and the separation distance between the centers of the dots (d). According to the results, it is found that there is the transition from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic for constant electric field. Also, the transition occurs from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic for constant magnetic field (B>1 T). With decreasing the distance between the centers of the dots and increasing magnetic field, the transition occurs from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic. It is found that a switching of exchange energy factor is presented without canceling the interactions of the electric and magnetic fields on the system.

  9. Wealth distribution of simple exchange models coupled with extremal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagatella-Flores, N.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) states that after long periods of evolutionary quiescence, species evolution can take place in short time intervals, where sudden differentiation makes new species emerge and some species extinct. In this paper, we introduce and study the effect of punctuated equilibrium on two different asset exchange models: the yard sale model (YS, winner gets a random fraction of a poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (TF, winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. In order to do this, we consider PE as a perturbation with probability ρ of being applied. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different increasing values of ρ in both models. We found that in the case of the TF model, the Gini index reduces as the perturbation ρ increases, not showing dependence with the agents number. While for YS we observe a phase transition which happens around ρc = 0.79. For perturbations ρ <ρc the Gini index reaches the value of one as time increases (an extreme wealth condensation state), whereas for perturbations greater than or equal to ρc the Gini index becomes different to one, avoiding the system reaches this extreme state. We show that both simple exchange models coupled with PE dynamics give more realistic results. In particular for YS, we observe a power low decay of wealth distribution.

  10. Energy spectrum, exchange interaction, and gate crosstalk in a system with a pair of double quantum dots: A molecular-orbital calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu-Chen; Wang, Xin

    2017-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of a four-electron four-quantum-dot system based on molecular-orbital methods, which hosts a pair of singlet-triplet spin qubits. We took into account the admixture of electron wave functions in all dots, and we found that this mixing of wave functions has consequences to the energy spectrum, exchange interaction, and gate crosstalk of the system. Specifically, we found that when the two singlet-triplet qubits are close enough, some of the states are no longer dominated by the computational basis states, and the exchange interaction cannot simply be understood as the energy difference between the singlet and triplet states. Using the Hund-Mulliken calculation of the Hubbard parameters, we characterized the effective exchange interaction of the system, and we found good agreement with results calculated by taking energy differences where applicable. We studied the two commonly conceived schemes coupling two qubits, namely the exchange and capacitive coupling, and we found that when the interqubit distance is at certain intermediate values, the two kinds of coupling are comparable in strength, complicating the analyses of the evolution of the two qubits. We also investigated the gate crosstalk in the system due to the quantum-mechanical mixing of electron states, and we found that while this effect is typically very weak, it should not be ignored if the spacing between the qubits is similar to or less than the distance between the double dots that constitute the qubit.

  11. CO2 exchange following peat extraction - a comparison of two paired restored/unrestored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria; Pelletier, Luc; Nugent, Kelly; Rankin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Peat extraction is an important industry in parts of Canada and elsewhere globally. The resulting disturbance from drainage and vacuum-harvesting is mitigated through best practices which now incorporate restoration intended to return the peatland's biodiversity and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange to that resembling the pre-disturbance state. We examine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in two sets of paired peatlands. Within each pair, the extraction year was the same and the sites were treated identically post-extraction in terms of management (blocking drains or leveling as applicable). The first pair is located in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, Canada and were harvested in 1980. The Bois-des-Bel (BDB) site was restored in 1999 following the methods of Quinty and Rochefort (2003). GHG fluxes have been studied at various points since restoration (e.g. Strack and Zuback, 2013) largely using chamber measurements. The site now hosts a thriving bog ecosystem with Sphagnum, Eriophorum and shrub communities. A site 30 km away near Saint-Alexandre de Kamouraska (SAK) was managed post-harvest as BDB with drains blocked but was left unrestored and now has only sparse Eriophorum with invasive species. The second pair of peatlands represents a newly extracted site near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. One field was restored (SBR) in autumn 2012 as per the Québec sites but with ditches infilled when the fields were levelled while the other (SBU) was left unrestored. In the summer of 2013, eddy covariance towers were installed at each location and measured NEE continuously at 10Hz throughout the subsequent periods. BDB and SBR remain operational today while SBU was removed in fall 2014 and SAK in fall 2015. In this presentation, we will focus on the coincident years of operation. After 15 years, BDB has measured NEE in the range of that observed at natural peatlands. A summer sink and winter release lead to annual uptake of CO2. At SAK, the lack of establishment

  12. Crosstalk-insensitive method for simultaneously coupling multiple pairs of resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Su, Qi-Ping; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Nori, Franco

    2016-04-01

    In a circuit consisting of two or more resonators, the intercavity crosstalk is inevitable, which could create some problems, such as degrading the performance of quantum operations and the fidelity of various quantum states. The focus of this work is to propose a crosstalk-insensitive method for simultaneously coupling multiple pairs of resonators, which is important in large-scale quantum information processing and communication in a network consisting of resonators or cavities. In this work, we consider 2 N resonators of different frequencies, which are coupled to a three-level quantum system (qutrit). By applying a strong pulse to the coupler qutrit, we show that an effective Hamiltonian can be constructed for simultaneously coupling multiple pairs of resonators. The main advantage of this proposal is that the effect of inter-resonator crosstalks is greatly suppressed by using resonators of different frequencies. In addition, by employing the qutrit-resonator dispersive interaction, the intermediate higher-energy level of the qutrit is virtually excited and thus decoherence from this level is suppressed. This effective Hamiltonian can be applied to implement quantum operations with photonic qubits distributed in different resonators. As one application of this Hamiltonian, we show how to simultaneously generate multiple Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs of photonic qubits distributed in 2 N resonators. Numerical simulations show that it is feasible to prepare two high-fidelity EPR photonic pairs using a setup of four one-dimensional transmission line resonators coupled to a superconducting flux qutrit with current circuit QED technology.

  13. Scaling properties of the pairing problem in the strong coupling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, M.B.; Cenni, R.; Molinari, A.; Quaglia, M.R.

    2013-10-15

    We study the excited states of the pairing Hamiltonian providing an expansion for their energy in the strong coupling limit. To assess the role of the pairing interaction we apply the formalism to the case of a heavy atomic nucleus. We show that only a few statistical moments of the level distribution are sufficient to yield an accurate estimate of the energy for not too small values of the coupling G and we give the analytic expressions of the first four terms of the series. Further, we discuss the convergence radius G{sub sing} of the expansion showing that it strongly depends upon the details of the level distribution. Furthermore G{sub sing} is not related to the critical values of the coupling G{sub crit}, which characterize the physics of the pairing Hamiltonian, since it can exist even in the absence of these critical points. -- Highlights: •We study the excitation spectrum of the pairing Hamiltonian. •We provide an analytic expansion around the strong coupling limit. •We discuss the convergence radius of the expansion. •We connect the radius with the critical points of H.

  14. Thermally Activated Site Exchange and Quantum Exchange Coupling Processes in Unsymmetrical Trihydride Osmium Compounds.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Amaya; Barea, Guada; Esteruelas, Miguel A.; Lahoz, Fernando J.; LLedós, Agustí; Maseras, Feliu; Modrego, Javier; Oñate, Enrique; Oro, Luis A.; Ruiz, Natividad; Sola, Eduardo

    1999-04-19

    Reaction of the hexahydride complex OsH(6)(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (1) with pyridine-2-thiol leads to the trihydride derivative OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-S-(2-Spy)}(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (2). The structure of 2 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The geometry around the osmium atom can be described as a distorted pentagonal bipyramid with the phosphine ligands occupying axial positions. The equatorial plane contains the pyridine-2-thiolato group, attached through a bite angle of 65.7(1) degrees, and the three hydride ligands. The theoretical structure determination of the model complex OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-S-(2-Spy)}(PH(3))(2) (2a) reveals that the hydride ligands form a triangle with sides of 1.623, 1.714, and 2.873 Å, respectively. A topological analysis of the electron density of 2a indicates that there is no significant electron density connecting the hydrogen atoms of the OsH(3) unit. In solution, the hydride ligands of 2 undergo two different thermally activated site exchange processes, which involve the central hydride with each hydride ligand situated close to the donor atoms of the chelate group. The activation barriers of both processes are similar. Theoretical calculations suggest that the transition states have a cis-hydride-dihydrogen nature. In addition to the thermally activated exchange processes, complex 2 shows quantum exchange coupling between the central hydride and the one situated close to the sulfur atom of the pyridine-2-thiolato group. The reactions of 1 with L-valine and 2-hydroxypyridine afford OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-O-OC(O)CH[CH(CH(3))(2)]NH(2)}(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (3) and OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-O-(2-Opy)}(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (4) respectively, which according to their spectroscopic data have a similar structure to that of 2. In solution, the hydride ligands of 3 and 4 also undergo two different thermally activated site exchange processes. However, they do not show quantum exchange coupling. The tetranuclear complexes [(P(i)Pr(3))(2)H(3)Os(&mgr;-biim)M(TFB)](2) [M = Rh

  15. Segregation parameters and pair-exchange mixing models for turbulent nonpremixed flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.; Kollman, W.

    1991-01-01

    The progress of chemical reactions in nonpremixed turbulent flows depends on the coexistence of reactants, which are brought together by mixing. The degree of mixing can strongly influence the chemical reactions and it can be quantified by segregation parameters. In this paper, the relevance of segregation parameters to turbulent mixing and chemical reactions is explored. An analysis of the pair-exchange mixing models is performed and an explanation is given for the peculiar behavior of such models in homogeneous turbulence. The nature of segregation parameters in a H2/Ar-air nonpremixed jet flame is investigated. The results show that Monte Carlo simulation with the modified Curl's mixing model predicts segregation parameters in close agreement with the experimental values, providing an indirect validation for the theoretical model.

  16. Asymmetric Preorganization of Inverted Pair Residues in the Sodium-Calcium Exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Moshe; Almagor, Lior; van Dijk, Liat; Hiller, Reuben; Man, Petr; Forest, Eric; Khananshvili, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In analogy with many other proteins, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX) adapt an inverted twofold symmetry of repeated structural elements, while exhibiting a functional asymmetry by stabilizing an outward-facing conformation. Here, structure-based mutant analyses of the Methanococcus jannaschii Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX_Mj) were performed in conjunction with HDX-MS (hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry) to identify the structure-dynamic determinants of functional asymmetry. HDX-MS identified hallmark differences in backbone dynamics at ion-coordinating residues of apo-NCX_Mj, whereas Na+or Ca2+ binding to the respective sites induced relatively small, but specific, changes in backbone dynamics. Mutant analysis identified ion-coordinating residues affecting the catalytic capacity (kcat/Km), but not the stability of the outward-facing conformation. In contrast, distinct “noncatalytic” residues (adjacent to the ion-coordinating residues) control the stability of the outward-facing conformation, but not the catalytic capacity. The helix-breaking signature sequences (GTSLPE) on the α1 and α2 repeats (at the ion-binding core) differ in their folding/unfolding dynamics, while providing asymmetric contributions to transport activities. The present data strongly support the idea that asymmetric preorganization of the ligand-free ion-pocket predefines catalytic reorganization of ion-bound residues, where secondary interactions with adjacent residues couple the alternating access. These findings provide a structure-dynamic basis for ion-coupled alternating access in NCX and similar proteins. PMID:26876271

  17. Tunable coupled states of a pair of Tamm plasmon polaritons and a microcavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Yang, Li-xia; Kong, Wa; Zhu, Na

    2013-12-01

    The coupled states of a pair of Tamm plasmon polaritons and a microcavity mode are studied through the transfer matrix method in a metal-Bragg reflectors-cavity-Bragg reflectors-metal configuration. The properties of coupled states can be adjusted through the cavity thickness, but there is one coupled state for which the frequency remains the same as for the uncoupled Tamm plasmon polariton and independent of the cavity thickness. When the frequency of the uncoupled cavity mode is equal to that of the bare Tamm plasmon polariton, an anticrossing behavior with the most intense coupling occurs. There are three coupled modes with antisymmetry coupling and symmetry coupling in the anticrossing region. As cavity thickness increases, two coupled modes are degenerated into one state with frequency equal to that of the bare Tamm plasmon polariton. The third lower coupled mode and the uncoupled cavity mode are merged into one frequency by steps, but a huge amplification of field occurs in the cavity with the coupled mode. An analytical description is in good agreement with the numerical results.

  18. ESTIMATING GASEOUS EXCHANGES BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND PLANTS USING A COUPLED BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study gaseous exchanges between the soil, biosphere and atmosphere, a biochemical model was coupled with the latest version of Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model. The biochemical model describes photosynthesis and respiration and their coupling with stomatal resistance for...

  19. ESTIMATING GASEOUS EXCHANGES BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND PLANTS USING A COUPLED BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study gaseous exchanges between the soil, biosphere and atmosphere, a biochemical model was coupled with the latest version of Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model. The biochemical model describes photosynthesis and respiration and their coupling with stomatal resistance for...

  20. Role of Exchange and Dipolar Interactions in the Radical Pair Model of the Avian Magnetic Compass☆

    PubMed Central

    Efimova, Olga; Hore, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    It is not yet understood how migratory birds sense the Earth's magnetic field as a source of compass information. One suggestion is that the magnetoreceptor involves a photochemical reaction whose product yields are sensitive to external magnetic fields. Specifically, a flavin-tryptophan radical pair is supposedly formed by photoinduced sequential electron transfer along a chain of three tryptophan residues in a cryptochrome flavoprotein immobilized in the retina. The electron Zeeman interaction with the Earth's magnetic field (∼50 μT), modulated by anisotropic magnetic interactions within the radicals, causes the product yields to depend on the orientation of the receptor. According to well-established theory, the radicals would need to be separated by >3.5 nm in order that interradical spin-spin interactions are weak enough to permit a ∼50 μT field to have a significant effect. Using quantum mechanical simulations, it is shown here that substantial changes in product yields can nevertheless be expected at the much smaller separation of 2.0 ± 0.2 nm where the effects of exchange and dipolar interactions partially cancel. The terminal flavin-tryptophan radical pair in cryptochrome has a separation of ∼1.9 nm and is thus ideally placed to act as a magnetoreceptor for the compass mechanism. PMID:17981903

  1. Role of exchange and dipolar interactions in the radical pair model of the avian magnetic compass.

    PubMed

    Efimova, Olga; Hore, P J

    2008-03-01

    It is not yet understood how migratory birds sense the Earth's magnetic field as a source of compass information. One suggestion is that the magnetoreceptor involves a photochemical reaction whose product yields are sensitive to external magnetic fields. Specifically, a flavin-tryptophan radical pair is supposedly formed by photoinduced sequential electron transfer along a chain of three tryptophan residues in a cryptochrome flavoprotein immobilized in the retina. The electron Zeeman interaction with the Earth's magnetic field ( approximately 50 microT), modulated by anisotropic magnetic interactions within the radicals, causes the product yields to depend on the orientation of the receptor. According to well-established theory, the radicals would need to be separated by >3.5 nm in order that interradical spin-spin interactions are weak enough to permit a approximately 50 microT field to have a significant effect. Using quantum mechanical simulations, it is shown here that substantial changes in product yields can nevertheless be expected at the much smaller separation of 2.0 +/- 0.2 nm where the effects of exchange and dipolar interactions partially cancel. The terminal flavin-tryptophan radical pair in cryptochrome has a separation of approximately 1.9 nm and is thus ideally placed to act as a magnetoreceptor for the compass mechanism.

  2. Phase diagram of a cyclic predator-prey model with neutral-pair exchange.

    PubMed

    Guisoni, Nara C; Loscar, Ernesto S; Girardi, Mauricio

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we obtain the phase diagram of a four-species predator-prey lattice model by using the proposed gradient method. We consider cyclic transitions between consecutive states, representing invasion or predation, and allowed the exchange between neighboring neutral pairs. By applying a gradient in the invasion rate parameter one can see, in the same simulation, the presence of two symmetric absorbing phases, composed by neutral pairs, and an active phase that includes all four species. In this sense, the study of a single-valued interface and its fluctuations give the critical point of the irreversible phase transition and the corresponding universality classes. Also, the consideration of a multivalued interface and its fluctuations bring the percolation threshold. We show that the model presents two lines of irreversible first-order phase transition between the two absorbing phases and the active phase. Depending on the value of the system parameters, these lines can converge into a triple point, which is the beginning of a first-order irreversible line between the two absorbing phases, or end in two critical points belonging to the directed percolation universality class. Standard simulations for some characteristic values of the parameters confirm the order of the transitions as determined by the gradient method. Besides, below the triple point the model presents two standard percolation lines in the active phase and above a first-order percolation transition as already found in other similar models.

  3. Emission of neutron-proton and proton-proton pairs in electron scattering induced by meson-exchange currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simo, I. Ruiz; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; De Pace, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Megias, G. D.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use a relativistic model of meson-exchange currents to compute the proton-neutron and proton-proton yields in (e ,e') scattering from 12C in the 2p-2h channel. We compute the response functions and cross section with the relativistic Fermi gas model for a range of kinematics from intermediate- to high-momentum transfers. We find a large contribution of neutron-proton configurations in the initial state, as compared to proton-proton pairs. The different emission probabilities of distinct species of nucleon pairs are produced in our model only by meson-exchange currents, mainly by the Δ isobar current. We also analyze the effect of the exchange contribution and show that the direct-exchange interference strongly affects the determination of the n p /p p ratio.

  4. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  5. Rate theory of solvent exchange and kinetics of Li(+) - BF4 (-)/PF6 (-) ion pairs in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liem X; Chang, Tsun-Mei

    2016-09-07

    In this paper, we describe our efforts to apply rate theories in studies of solvent exchange around Li(+) and the kinetics of ion pairings in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We report one of the first computer simulations of the exchange dynamics around solvated Li(+) in acetonitrile (ACN), which is a common solvent used in LIBs. We also provide details of the ion-pairing kinetics of Li(+)-[BF4] and Li(+)-[PF6] in ACN. Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ACN exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li(+). We calculate exchange rates using transition state theory and weighted them with the transmission coefficients determined by the reactive flux, Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches, and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the relaxation times changed from 180 ps to 4600 ps and from 30 ps to 280 ps for Li(+)-[BF4] and Li(+)-[PF6] ion pairs, respectively. These results confirm that the solvent response to the kinetics of ion pairing is significant. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of solvation into ACN, the anion type also should significantly influence the kinetics of ion pairing. These results will increase our understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of LIB systems.

  6. Rate theory of solvent exchange and kinetics of Li+ - BF4-/PF6- ion pairs in acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe our efforts to apply rate theories in studies of solvent exchange around Li+ and the kinetics of ion pairings in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We report one of the first computer simulations of the exchange dynamics around solvated Li+ in acetonitrile (ACN), which is a common solvent used in LIBs. We also provide details of the ion-pairing kinetics of Li+-[BF4] and Li+-[PF6] in ACN. Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ACN exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li+. We calculate exchange rates using transition state theory and weighted them with the transmission coefficients determined by the reactive flux, Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches, and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the relaxation times changed from 180 ps to 4600 ps and from 30 ps to 280 ps for Li+-[BF4] and Li+-[PF6] ion pairs, respectively. These results confirm that the solvent response to the kinetics of ion pairing is significant. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of solvation into ACN, the anion type also should significantly influence the kinetics of ion pairing. These results will increase our understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of LIB systems.

  7. Engineering the interlayer exchange coupling in magnetic trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Hao; Dou, Kun-Peng; Chen, Ying-Chin; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Kaun, Chao-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    When the thickness of metal film approaches the nanoscale, itinerant carriers resonate between its boundaries and form quantum well states (QWSs), which are crucial to account for the film’s electrical, transport and magnetic properties. Besides the classic origin of particle-in-a-box, the QWSs are also susceptible to the crystal structures that affect the quantum resonance. Here we investigate the QWSs and the magnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in the Fe/Ag/Fe (001) trilayer from first-principles calculations. We find that the carriers at the Brillouin-zone center (belly) and edge (neck) separately form electron- and hole-like QWSs that give rise to an oscillatory feature for the IEC as a function of the Ag-layer thickness with long and short periods. Since the QWS formation sensitively depends on boundary conditions, one can switch between these two IEC periods by changing the Fe-layer thickness. These features, which also occur in the magnetic trilayers with other noble-metal spacers, open a new degree of freedom to engineer the IEC in magnetoresistance devices.

  8. Engineering the interlayer exchange coupling in magnetic trilayers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Hao; Dou, Kun-Peng; Chen, Ying-Chin; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Kaun, Chao-Cheng

    2015-11-24

    When the thickness of metal film approaches the nanoscale, itinerant carriers resonate between its boundaries and form quantum well states (QWSs), which are crucial to account for the film's electrical, transport and magnetic properties. Besides the classic origin of particle-in-a-box, the QWSs are also susceptible to the crystal structures that affect the quantum resonance. Here we investigate the QWSs and the magnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in the Fe/Ag/Fe (001) trilayer from first-principles calculations. We find that the carriers at the Brillouin-zone center (belly) and edge (neck) separately form electron- and hole-like QWSs that give rise to an oscillatory feature for the IEC as a function of the Ag-layer thickness with long and short periods. Since the QWS formation sensitively depends on boundary conditions, one can switch between these two IEC periods by changing the Fe-layer thickness. These features, which also occur in the magnetic trilayers with other noble-metal spacers, open a new degree of freedom to engineer the IEC in magnetoresistance devices.

  9. High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Murphy, Ryan; Rosenberg, Danna; Grein, Matthew E.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Bennink, Ryan S; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.

  10. Analysis of and remedies for unphysical ground states of the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional

    SciTech Connect

    Krisiloff, David B.; Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-01-14

    A Multireference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) wavefunction includes both static and dynamic electron correlation. MRCI's well-known flaw, a lack of size extensivity, can be ameliorated with the Multireference Averaged Coupled-Pair Functional (MRACPF). However, the original MRACPF is frequently unstable, sometimes producing unphysical results. The more Multireference Averaged Quadratic Coupled-Cluster and MRACPF2 functionals also occasionally exhibit unphysical behavior. We find that these instabilities are avoided crossings with unphysical solutions to the MRACPF equations. We present two approaches to avoid the undesirable unphysical solutions.

  11. Extended Bose-Hubbard model with pair hopping induced by a quadratically coupled optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue-Xin; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    We present a scheme to realize the (extended) Bose-Hubbard model in an N -coupled optomechanical system. By treating the cavities as intermediary and eliminating them adiabatically with the condition of large detuning or fast decay, we can obtain the effective Hamiltonian for the N oscillators, with the regular terms in the Bose-Hubbard model, i.e., the pair tunnelings and the density-density interactions. Then we verify and provide the condition for our approximation with numerical results. Due to the existence of the pair tunnelings and the density-density interactions, we can investigate the density wave and supersolid phases in our model. Moreover, we also discuss the competition between the regular tunneling and the pair tunneling.

  12. Couples and pairs formation—thermodynamic and kinetic modelling applied to Al-Mg-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, J.; Shan, Y. V.; Kozeschnik, E.; Fischer, F. D.

    2017-09-01

    Kinetics of formation of couples (B-C) and pairs (B-B, C-C) is studied in an alloy with B-atoms and C-atoms as dilute solutes and A-atoms as solvent. The trapping concept, allowing division of the system into subsystems, the Bragg-Williams approximation used for the configurational entropy of each subsystem, and the thermodynamic extremal principle are applied in the model. The derived equilibrium conditions provide an extended Oriani-type equation. The kinetics of couples and pairs formation is given by explicit ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of couples and pairs allowing calculation of all relevant state variables. The concept is applied to an Al-Mg-Si system with the bonding energy terms E BB , E CC , E BC taken from ab-initio calculations. The presence of excess vacancies that are eventually frozen in by instant quenching as well as their subsequent annihilation influence the formation kinetics in a decisive way.

  13. DIFFERENTIAL TRACER COUPLING BETWEEN PAIRS OF IDENTIFIED NEURONES OF THE MOLLUSC LYMNAEA STAGNALIS

    PubMed

    Ewadinger; Syed; Lukowiak; Bulloch

    1994-07-01

    Electrical coupling is a common means of cell-to-cell communication in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues (Lowenstein, 1985). Within the nervous system, many electrically coupled neurones exhibit dye coupling (Bennett, 1973; Stewart, 1978; Glantz and Kirk, 1980; Spencer and Satterlie, 1980; Fraser and Heitler, 1993); however, some electrically coupled cells do not dye-couple (Audesirk et al. 1982; Murphy et al. 1983; Berdan, 1987; Robinson et al. 1993; Veenstra et al. 1993). Electrical coupling and dye coupling, often considered in parallel, are in fact two different parameters that can vary independently (e.g. Audesirk et al. 1982; Perez-Armendariz et al. 1991). The giant identified neurones of pulmonate and opisthobranch molluscs have frequently been used for studies of neuronal communication and its plasticity (Winlow and McCrohan, 1987; Bulloch, 1989). In the present study, we explored the relationship between electrical and tracer coupling in both strongly and weakly coupled pairs of molluscan neurones. Specifically, we examined electrically coupled, identified neurones in a freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L., and tested for tracer coupling with Lucifer Yellow CH and biocytin. The cells examined were the strongly electrically coupled neurones, visceral dorsal 1 (VD1) and right parietal dorsal 2 (RPD2) (Boer et al. 1979; Benjamin and Pilkington, 1986), and the weakly coupled neurones, left buccal 1 (LB1) and right buccal 1 (RB1) (Benjamin and Rose, 1979). The use of these particular neurones made it possible to compare electrical coupling with tracer coupling in the molluscan central nervous system (CNS). All experiments were performed on laboratory-bred Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Pulmonata), maintained as previously described (Ridgway et al. 1991). The CNS was dissected from mature animals (16­18 mm shell length) and pinned to the silicone rubber (RTV 616 GE) base of a recording dish in normal saline (51.3 mmol l-1 NaCl, 1.7 mmol l-1 KCl, 4

  14. Continuous microalgae recovery using electrolysis: effect of different electrode pairs and timing of polarity exchange.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Bo-Kyong; Han, Jong-In; Yang, Ji-Won

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae have great potential as a feedstock for biofuel production. Continuous operation is an important benefit of the continuous electrolytic microalgae (CEM) harvest system, but it is necessary to optimize cultivability and recovery efficiency in order to improve overall performance. Two pairs of best-candidate electrodes for polarity exchange (PE) were examined to improve these two key factors: (i) aluminum and dimensionally stable anode (Al-DSA), and (ii) Al-platinum (Al-Pt). Al-DSA was better than Al-Pt because it led to less cell damage and was less expensive. Moreover, cell viability and recovery were improved by optimizing the timing of PE. A P1:P2 ratio of 1:1.5 at 5min and 1:1.2 at 10min yielded the best results, with greatly reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cell viability and recovery. The CEM harvest system appears to be a well-suited option for the harvest of microalgae for biofuel production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced interlayer exchange coupling in antiferromagnetically coupled ultrathin (Co70Fe30/Pd) multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaoliang; Qiu, Jinjun; Han, Guchang; Teo, Kie Leong

    2015-12-01

    We report the studies of magnetization reversal and magnetic interlayer coupling in synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) [Pd/Co70Fe30]9/Ru(tRu)/Pd(tPd)/[Co70Fe30/Pd]9 structure as functions of inserted Pd layer (tPd) and Ru layer (tRu) thicknesses. We found the exchange coupling field (Hex) and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) can be controlled by both the tPd and tRu, The Hex shows a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-type oscillatory decay dependence on tRu and a maximum interlayer coupling strength Jex = 0.522 erg/cm2 is achieved at tPd + tRu ≈ 0.8 nm in the as-deposited sample. As it is known that a high post-annealing stability of SAF structure is required for magnetic random access memory applications, the dependence of Hex and PMA on the post-annealing temperature (Ta) is also investigated. We found that both high PMA of the top Co70Fe30/Pd multilayer is maintained and Hex is enhanced with increasing Ta up to 350 °C for tRu > 0.7 nm in our SAF structure.

  16. Exchange couplings for Mn ions in CdTe: Validity of spin models for dilute magnetic II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneweber, Thorben; Bünemann, Jörg; Löw, Ute; Gebhard, Florian; Anders, Frithjof

    2017-01-01

    We employ density-functional theory (DFT) in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and its extensions GGA +U and GGA+Gutzwiller to calculate the magnetic exchange couplings between pairs of Mn ions substituting Cd in a CdTe crystal at very small doping. DFT(GGA) overestimates the exchange couplings by a factor of 3 because it underestimates the charge-transfer gap in Mn-doped II-VI semiconductors. Fixing the nearest-neighbor coupling J1 to its experimental value in GGA +U , in GGA+Gutzwiller, or by a simple scaling of the DFT(GGA) results provides acceptable values for the exchange couplings at second-, third-, and fourth-neighbor distances in Cd(Mn)Te, Zn(Mn)Te, Zn(Mn)Se, and Zn(Mn)S. In particular, we recover the experimentally observed relation J4>J2,J3 . The filling of the Mn 3 d shell is not integer, which puts the underlying Heisenberg description into question. However, using a few-ion toy model the picture of a slightly extended local moment emerges so that an integer 3 d -shell filling is not a prerequisite for equidistant magnetization plateaus, as seen in experiment.

  17. Electronic coupling between Watson-Crick pairs for hole transfer and transport in desoxyribonucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voityuk, Alexander A.; Jortner, Joshua; Bixon, M.; Rösch, Notker

    2001-04-01

    Electronic matrix elements for hole transfer between Watson-Crick pairs in desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of regular structure, calculated at the Hartree-Fock level, are compared with the corresponding intrastrand and interstrand matrix elements estimated for models comprised of just two nucleobases. The hole transfer matrix element of the GAG trimer duplex is calculated to be larger than that of the GTG duplex. "Through-space" interaction between two guanines in the trimer duplexes is comparable with the coupling through an intervening Watson-Crick pair. The gross features of bridge specificity and directional asymmetry of the electronic matrix elements for hole transfer between purine nucleobases in superstructures of dimer and trimer duplexes have been discussed on the basis of the quantum chemical calculations. These results have also been analyzed with a semiempirical superexchange model for the electronic coupling in DNA duplexes of donor (nuclobases)-acceptor, which incorporates adjacent base-base electronic couplings and empirical energy gaps corrected for solvation effects; this perturbation-theory-based model interpretation allows a theoretical evaluation of experimental observables, i.e., the absolute values of donor-acceptor electronic couplings, their distance dependence, and the reduction factors for the intrastrand hole hopping or trapping rates upon increasing the size of the nucleobases bridge. The quantum chemical results point towards some limitations of the perturbation-theory-based modeling.

  18. Voltage-Induced Switching Dynamics of a Coupled Spin Pair in a Molecular Junction.

    PubMed

    Saygun, T; Bylin, J; Hammar, H; Fransson, J

    2016-04-13

    Molecular spintronics is made possible by the coupling between electronic configuration and magnetic polarization of the molecules. For control and application of the individual molecular states, it is necessary to both read and write their spin states. Conventionally, this is achieved by means of external magnetic fields or ferromagnetic contacts, which may change the intentional spin state and may present additional challenges when downsizing devices. Here, we predict that coupling magnetic molecules together opens up possibilities for all electrical control of both the molecular spin states as well as the current flow through the system. By tuning between the regimes of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interaction, the current can be at least an order of magnitude enhanced or reduced. The effect is susceptible to the tunnel coupling and molecular level alignment that can be used to achieve current rectification.

  19. Lengthscale effects on exchange coupling in Co-Pt L10 + L12 nanochessboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Eric P.; Geng, Liwei; Ghatwai, Priya; Gilbert, Dustin A.; Jin, Yongmei; Soffa, William A.; Floro, Jerrold A.

    2016-09-01

    The Co-Pt nanochessboard is a quasi-periodic, nanocomposite tiling of L10 and L12 magnetic phases that offers a novel structure for the investigation of exchange coupling, relevant to permanent magnet applications. Periodicity of the tiling is controlled by the rate of cooling through the eutectoid isotherm, resulting in control over the L10-L12 exchange coupling. First order reversal curve analysis reveals a transition from partial coupling to nearly complete exchange-coupling in a Co40.2Pt59.8 nanochessboard structured alloy as the periodicity is reduced below the critical correlation length. Micromagnetic simulations give insights into how exchange coupling manifests in the tiling, and its impact on microscopic magnetization reversal mechanisms.

  20. Competing exchange couplings in Sr2CrReO6 Double Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rhazouani, O.; Slassi, A.; Ziat, Y.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-04-01

    Super Exchange (SE) coupling and Double Exchange (DE) couplings in the Double Perovskite (DP) Sr2CrReO6 have been calculated by using a new approximation method, proposed in this paper, based on a relation between internal energy per site and magnetization per site. Monte Carlo simulation has been performed, as computational method in the framework of Ising model, to find the exchange couplings that verify the experimental Curie temperature measured under an external field h = 1 T. SE exchange coupling has been found equal to -19.992 meV and the DE couplings corresponding respectively to Cr and Re sublattices have been found equal to 18.334 meV and 18.741 meV. Internal energy per site has been calculated.

  1. Spin-orbit coupling, electron transport and pairing instabilities in two-dimensional square structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharian, Armen N.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Fang, Kun; Palandage, Kalum; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2016-05-15

    Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters) engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.

  2. Electric and magnetic resonances in arrays of coupled gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Y; Christ, A; Agio, M; Martin, O J F; Solak, H H; Löffler, J F

    2008-08-18

    We present an experimental and theoretical study on the optical properties of arrays of gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs (nanosandwiches). The well-ordered Au pairs with diameters down to 35 nm and separation distances down to 10 nm were fabricated using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) interference lithography. The strong near-field coupling of the nanoparticles leads to electric and magnetic resonances, which can be well reproduced by Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations. The influence of the structural parameters, such as nanoparticle diameter and separation distance, on the hybridized modes is investigated. The energy and lifetimes of these modes are studied, providing valuable physical insight for the design of novel plasmonic structures and metamaterials.

  3. Odd-Parity Pairing and Topological Superconductivity in a Strongly Spin-Orbit Coupled Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Ren, Zhi; Taskin, A. A.; Segawa, Kouji; Fu, Liang; Ando, Yoichi

    2012-11-01

    The existence of topological superconductors preserving time-reversal symmetry was recently predicted, and they are expected to provide a solid-state realization of itinerant massless Majorana fermions and a route to topological quantum computation. Their first likely example, CuxBi2Se3, was discovered last year, but the search for new materials has so far been hindered by the lack of a guiding principle. Here, we report point-contact spectroscopy experiments suggesting that the low-carrier-density superconductor Sn1-xInxTe is accompanied by surface Andreev bound states which, with the help of theoretical analysis, would give evidence for odd-parity pairing and topological superconductivity. The present and previous finding of possible topological superconductivity in Sn1-xInxTe and CuxBi2Se3 suggests that odd-parity pairing favored by strong spin-orbit coupling is likely to be a common underlying mechanism for materializing topological superconductivity.

  4. Linear and nonlinear coupled drift and ion acoustic waves in collisional pair ion-electron magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mushtaq, A.; Saeed, R.; Haque, Q.

    2011-04-15

    Linear and nonlinear coupled electrostatic drift and ion acoustic waves are studied in inhomogeneous, collisional pair ion-electron plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation for a medium where both dispersion and dissipation are present is derived. An attempt is made to obtain exact solution of KdVB equation by using modified tanh-coth method for arbitrary velocity of nonlinear drift wave. Another exact solution for KdVB is obtained, which gives a structure of shock wave. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations are derived in limiting cases with solitary and monotonic shock solutions, respectively. Effects of species density, magnetic field, obliqueness, and the acoustic to drift velocity ratio on the solitary and shock solutions are investigated. The results discussed are useful in understanding of low frequency electrostatic waves at laboratory pair ion plasmas.

  5. Comparison of the function of exchange in couples of similar and differing physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Murstein, Bernard I; Reif, Jeffrey A; Syracuse-Siewert, Gia

    2002-08-01

    Couples (22 young, married, 18 young unmarried) completed the Exchange Orientation Scale, which measures how much individuals believe equality of exchange should characterize their social relationships, as well as the Norman Personality Trait Scale, which gives measures for the self and ideal-self. Couples also rated their sexual satisfaction, their partners' physical attractiveness, their own attractiveness, and had their photographs evaluated for attractiveness by disinterested raters. Subgroups were formed of physically attractive couples, couples in which the members were of disparate attractiveness, and couples in which the individuals perceived themselves as equal to their partners in attractiveness or as inferior. In accordance with exchange theory, the hypotheses were (1) unmarried men would show higher exchange scores than married men, (2) attractive men in disparately attractive couples would show greater exchange scores than attractive men in both-attractive couples, (3) attractive members of disparately attractive couples would possess lower self-acceptance and (4) experience greater sexual satisfaction than attractive members of both-attractive couples. Results supported all hypotheses in varying extents.

  6. Electronic coupling between base pair dimers of LNA:DNA oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anela; Jezierski, Grzegorz; Rösch, Notker

    2008-01-21

    We calculated ab initio electronic coupling elements between neighboring base-pair dimers in a set of LNA:DNA oligomers with different numbers of locked nucleotides and compared them by averaging the values over ensembles of snapshots from molecular dynamics trajectories. Averaging was based on coupling elements for various ensembles comprising of 33,000 structures. The known pronounced variations of coupling elements on the nanosecond timescale due to thermal fluctuations of the DNA structure were confirmed. We found significant differences in electronic coupling at the dimer level between a non-modified DNA:DNA duplex and the corresponding duplex containing one fully LNA-substituted strand. We rationalized these differences by very dissimilar overlap in the pi-stack as a consequence of the LNA-modified system approximating an A-DNA-type helix. The calculated coupling elements for the non-modified reference duplex were similar to those of standard B-DNA and those for the fully modified oligomer resembled the matrix elements estimated for standard A-DNA.

  7. Cooling Mechanism for a Nonmechanical Resonator by Periodic Coupling to a Cooper Pair Box

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.; Wang, Y.D.; Sun, C.P.

    2005-08-26

    We propose and study an active cooling mechanism for the nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) based on periodical coupling to a Cooper pair box (CPB), which is implemented by a designed series of magnetic flux pluses threading through the CPB. When the initial phonon number of the NAMR is not too large, this cooling protocol is efficient in decreasing the phonon number by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. Our proposal is theoretically universal in cooling various boson systems of a single mode. It can be specifically generalized to prepare the nonclassical state of the NAMR.

  8. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-10-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip.

  9. A modified coupled pair functional approach. [for dipole moment calculation of metal hydride ground states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, D. P.; Langhoff, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    A modified coupled pair functional (CPF) method is presented for the configuration interaction problem that dramatically improves properties for cases where the Hartree-Fock reference configuration is not a good zeroth-order wave function description. It is shown that the tendency for CPF to overestimate the effect of higher excitations arises from the choice of the geometric mean for the partial normalization denominator. The modified method is demonstrated for ground state dipole moment calculations of the NiH, CuH, and ZnH transition metal hydrides, and compared to singles-plus-doubles configuration interaction and the Ahlrichs et al. (1984) CPF method.

  10. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-10-31

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip.

  11. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip. PMID:22039926

  12. Linear response theory for a pair of coupled one-dimensional condensates of interacting atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2007-05-01

    We use the quantum sine-Gordon model to describe the low-energy dynamics of a pair of coupled one-dimensional condensates of interacting atoms. We show that the nontrivial excitation spectrum of the quantum sine-Gordon model, which includes soliton and breather excitations, can be observed in experiments with time-dependent modulation of the tunneling amplitude, potential difference between condensates, or phase of tunneling amplitude. We use the form-factor approach to compute structure factors corresponding to all three types of perturbations.

  13. A modified coupled pair functional approach. [for dipole moment calculation of metal hydride ground states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, D. P.; Langhoff, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    A modified coupled pair functional (CPF) method is presented for the configuration interaction problem that dramatically improves properties for cases where the Hartree-Fock reference configuration is not a good zeroth-order wave function description. It is shown that the tendency for CPF to overestimate the effect of higher excitations arises from the choice of the geometric mean for the partial normalization denominator. The modified method is demonstrated for ground state dipole moment calculations of the NiH, CuH, and ZnH transition metal hydrides, and compared to singles-plus-doubles configuration interaction and the Ahlrichs et al. (1984) CPF method.

  14. Introducing single Mn2+ ions into spontaneously coupled quantum dot pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koperski, M.; Goryca, M.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Smoleński, T.; Golnik, A.; Wojnar, P.; Kossacki, P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the photoluminescence excitation study of the self-assembled CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots doped with manganese ions. We demonstrate the identification method of spontaneously coupled quantum dots pairs containing single Mn2+ ions. As the result of the coupling, the resonant absorption of the photon in one quantum dot is followed by the exciton transfer into a neighboring dot. It is shown that the Mn2+ ion might be present in the absorbing, emitting, or both quantum dots. The magnetic properties of the Mn2+ spin are revealed by a characteristic sixfold splitting of the excitonic line. The statistics of the value of this splitting is analyzed for the large number of the dots and gives the information on the maximum density of the neutral exciton wave function.

  15. Correlation-induced suppression of decoherence in capacitively coupled Cooper-pair boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuedong; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2005-03-01

    Charge fluctuations from gate bias and background traps severely limit the performance of a charge qubit in a Cooper-pair box (CPB). Here we discuss an encoding approachootnotetextJ.Q. You, X.Hu, and F. Nori, cond-mat/0407423. to control the decoherence effects of these charge fluctuations using two strongly capacitively coupled CPBs. This coupled-box system has a low-decoherence subspace of two states, for which we calculate the dephasing and relaxation rates using a master equation approach. Our results show that the inter-box Coulomb correlation can significantly suppress decoherence of this two-level system by reducing the strength of the system-environment interaction, making it a promising candidate as a logical qubit, encoded using two CPBs.

  16. Limits on WWγ and WWZ couplings from W boson pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1998-09-01

    The results of a search for W boson pair production in pp¯ collisions at s=1.8 TeV with subsequent decay to eμ, ee, and μμ channels are presented. Five candidate events are observed with an expected background of 3.1+/-0.4 events for an integrated luminosity of approximately 97 pb-1. Limits on the anomalous couplings are obtained from a maximum likelihood fit of the ET spectra of the leptons in the candidate events. Assuming identical WWγ and WWZ couplings, the 95% C.L. limits are -0.62<Δκ<0.77 (λ=0) and -0.53<λ <0.56 (Δκ=0) for a form factor scale Λ=1.5 TeV.

  17. A new reversal mode in exchange coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic disks: distorted viscous vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, Aïda; Agramunt-Puig, Sebastià; del Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; López-Barbera, José Francisco; Buchanan, Kristen S.; Hoffmann, Axel; Sánchez, Alvar; Sort, Jordi; Liu, Kai; Nogués, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpected asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. These results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.

  18. A new reversal mode in exchange coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic disks: distorted viscous vortex

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, Aïda; ...

    2015-04-28

    Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpectedmore » asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. Lastly, these results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.« less

  19. A new reversal mode in exchange coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic disks: distorted viscous vortex

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, Aïda; ...

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpectedmore » asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. These results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.« less

  20. A new reversal mode in exchange coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic disks: distorted viscous vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, Aïda; Agramunt-Puig, Sebastià; del Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; López-Barbera, José Francisco; Buchanan, Kristen S.; Hoffmann, Axel; Sánchez, Alvar; Sort, Jordi; Liu, Kai; Nogués, Josep

    2015-04-28

    Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpected asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. Lastly, these results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.

  1. Pair mobility functions for rigid spheres in concentrated colloidal dispersions: Stresslet and straining motion couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu; Swan, James W.; Zia, Roseanna N.

    2017-03-01

    Accurate modeling of particle interactions arising from hydrodynamic, entropic, and other microscopic forces is essential to understanding and predicting particle motion and suspension behavior in complex and biological fluids. The long-range nature of hydrodynamic interactions can be particularly challenging to capture. In dilute dispersions, pair-level interactions are sufficient and can be modeled in detail by analytical relations derived by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [Phys. Fluids A 4, 16-29 (1992)]. In more concentrated dispersions, analytical modeling of many-body hydrodynamic interactions quickly becomes intractable, leading to the development of simplified models. These include mean-field approaches that smear out particle-scale structure and essentially assume that long-range hydrodynamic interactions are screened by crowding, as particle mobility decays at high concentrations. Toward the development of an accurate and simplified model for the hydrodynamic interactions in concentrated suspensions, we recently computed a set of effective pair of hydrodynamic functions coupling particle motion to a hydrodynamic force and torque at volume fractions up to 50% utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics and a fast stochastic sampling technique [Zia et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224901 (2015)]. We showed that the hydrodynamic mobility in suspensions of colloidal spheres is not screened, and the power law decay of the hydrodynamic functions persists at all concentrations studied. In the present work, we extend these mobility functions to include the couplings of particle motion and straining flow to the hydrodynamic stresslet. The couplings computed in these two articles constitute a set of orthogonal coupling functions that can be utilized to compute equilibrium properties in suspensions at arbitrary concentration and are readily applied to solve many-body hydrodynamic interactions analytically.

  2. Exchange coupled CoPd/TbCo magneto-optic storage films

    SciTech Connect

    Gambino, R.J.; Ruf, R.R.; Rishi, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Films of CoPd with weak perpendicular anisotropy are shown to exchange couple to square loop TbCo films on both the Tb and Co sides of compensation. The exchange is sensitive to reactive impurities at the interface and is broken under conditions that produce as little as one monolayer of paramagnetic compound. Even when the coupling at the interface is strong, the authors show that only a limited thickness of the CoPd layer is spin oriented perpendicular.

  3. Study of the tryptophan-terbium FRET pair coupled to silver nanoprisms for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    di Gennaro, Ane K; Gurevich, Leonid; Skovsen, Esben; Overgaard, Michael T; Fojan, Peter

    2013-06-14

    Plasmonic coupling between fluorophores and metal surfaces has become a focal point of optical research during the last two decades, however, the interactions of FRET couples with metal surfaces remain relatively unexplored. In this study, interactions of the tryptophan-Tb(3+) FRET pair with silver nanoprisms for potential biosensor development have been investigated. For this purpose an engineered lanthanide binding peptide (LBTtrp) containing tryptophan as the sensitizer for bound lanthanide ions (Tb(3+)) as well as a trypsin cleavage site was synthesized. The modified LBTtrp peptide contained two N-terminal cysteine residues to provide a stronger coupling to the silver nanoprisms (~6 nm high, ~50 nm wide). This study investigated the interaction between tryptophan, chelated Tb(3+) ions, and silver nanoprisms in solution using fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy. We have found that Tb(3+) luminescence decreases upon binding of the LBTtrp-Tb(3+) to silver nanoprisms and increases upon trypsin cleavage. The transient absorption spectroscopy measurements showed a significant decrease in the lifetime of the excited singlet state of tryptophan upon Tb(3+) chelation, while coupling to the silver nanoprisms did not show a significant effect on tryptophan. The results obtained in this work demonstrate a first proof of concept for a new sensitive optical biosensor in solution.

  4. Tunable anomalous Andreev reflection and triplet pairings in spin-orbit-coupled graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand, Razieh; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Alidoust, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically study scattering process and superconducting triplet correlations in a graphene junction comprised of ferromagnet-RSO-superconductor in which RSO stands for a region with Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Our results reveal spin-polarized subgap transport through the system due to an anomalous equal-spin Andreev reflection in addition to conventional backscatterings. We calculate equal- and opposite-spin pair correlations near the F-RSO interface and demonstrate direct link of the anomalous Andreev reflection and equal-spin pairings arisen due to the proximity effect in the presence of RSO interaction. Moreover, we show that the amplitude of anomalous Andreev reflection, and thus the triplet pairings, are experimentally controllable when incorporating the influences of both tunable strain and Fermi level in the nonsuperconducting region. Our findings can be confirmed by a conductance spectroscopy experiment and may provide more insights into the proximity-induced RSO coupling in graphene layers reported recently in experiments [A. Avsar et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 4875 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms5875; Z. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 016603 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.016603; J. B. S. Mendes et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 226601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.226601; S. Dushenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 166102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.166102].

  5. Natural triple excitations in local coupled cluster calculations with pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riplinger, Christoph; Sandhoefer, Barbara; Hansen, Andreas; Neese, Frank

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the extension of the previously developed domain based local pair-natural orbital (DLPNO) based singles- and doubles coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD) method to perturbatively include connected triple excitations is reported. The development is based on the concept of triples-natural orbitals that span the joint space of the three pair natural orbital (PNO) spaces of the three electron pairs that are involved in the calculation of a given triple-excitation contribution. The truncation error is very smooth and can be significantly reduced through extrapolation to the zero threshold. However, the extrapolation procedure does not improve relative energies. The overall computational effort of the method is asymptotically linear with the system size O(N). Actual linear scaling has been confirmed in test calculations on alkane chains. The accuracy of the DLPNO-CCSD(T) approximation relative to semicanonical CCSD(T0) is comparable to the previously developed DLPNO-CCSD method relative to canonical CCSD. Relative energies are predicted with an average error of approximately 0.5 kcal/mol for a challenging test set of medium sized organic molecules. The triples correction typically adds 30%-50% to the overall computation time. Thus, very large systems can be treated on the basis of the current implementation. In addition to the linear C150H302 (452 atoms, >8800 basis functions) we demonstrate the first CCSD(T) level calculation on an entire protein, Crambin with 644 atoms, and more than 6400 basis functions.

  6. Topology of spin meron pairs in coupled Ni/Fe/Co/Cu(001) disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.; Li, J.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Young, A. T.; Li, Q.; Hwang, C.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The meron is a special topological object that carries only one-half of the topological charge unit. In condensed matter physics, a spin meron corresponds to one-half of a spin skyrmion. As compared to the many fascinating topological properties of skyrmion materials, little is known of the properties of spin merons especially about their formation. It was confirmed only recently that hedgehog merons could exist in pairs with opposite helicities via a spin flux closure. However, it is unclear whether a single hedgehog meron could ever exist by pairing with another type of meron. Using element-resolved magnetic imaging measurements on epitaxial trilayer disks, we show that a spin meron with a full range of helicity, including the hedgehog meron, can be stabilized by pairing with another vortex meron with a fine tuning of the magnetic coupling between the two merons. Furthermore, the meron divergence is fully controlled by the polarity of the vortex meron, independent of the vortex helicity.

  7. Paramagnetic molecule induced strong antiferromagnetic exchange coupling on a magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics device.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pawan; Baker, Collin; D'Angelo, Christopher

    2015-07-31

    This paper reports our Monte Carlo (MC) studies aiming to explain the experimentally observed paramagnetic molecule induced antiferromagnetic coupling between ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes. Recently developed magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices (MTJMSDs) were prepared by chemically bonding the paramagnetic molecules between the FM electrodes along the tunnel junction's perimeter. These MTJMSDs exhibited molecule-induced strong antiferromagnetic coupling. We simulated the 3D atomic model analogous to the MTJMSD and studied the effect of molecule's magnetic couplings with the two FM electrodes. Simulations show that when a molecule established ferromagnetic coupling with one electrode and antiferromagnetic coupling with the other electrode, then theoretical results effectively explained the experimental findings. Our studies suggest that in order to align MTJMSDs' electrodes antiparallel to each other, the exchange coupling strength between a molecule and FM electrodes should be ∼50% of the interatomic exchange coupling for the FM electrodes.

  8. Magnetic exchange couplings from noncollinear perturbation theory: dinuclear CuII complexes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jordan J; Peralta, Juan E

    2014-08-07

    To benchmark the performance of a new method based on noncollinear coupled-perturbed density functional theory [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174115 (2013)], we calculate the magnetic exchange couplings in a series of triply bridged ferromagnetic dinuclear Cu(II) complexes that have been recently synthesized [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 1966 (2013)]. We find that for any basis-set the couplings from our noncollinear coupled-perturbed methodology are practically identical to those of spin-projected energy-differences when a hybrid density functional approximation is employed. This demonstrates that our methodology properly recovers a Heisenberg description for these systems, and is robust in its predictive power of magnetic couplings. Furthermore, this indicates that the failure of density functional theory to capture the subtle variation of the exchange couplings in these complexes is not simply an artifact of broken-symmetry methods, but rather a fundamental weakness of current approximate density functionals for the description of magnetic couplings.

  9. Influence of ion bombardment induced patterning of exchange bias in pinned artificial ferrimagnets on the interlayer exchange coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeink, V.; Schmalhorst, J.; Reiss, G.; Weis, T.; Lengemann, D.; Engel, D.; Ehresmann, A.

    2008-06-15

    Artificial ferrimagnets have many applications as, e.g., pinned reference electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is known that the application of ion bombardment (IB) induced patterning of the exchange bias coupling of a single layer reference electrode in magnetic tunnel junctions with He ions is possible. For applications as, e.g., special types of magnetic logic, a combination of the IB induced patterning of the exchange bias coupling and the implementation of an artificial ferrimagnet as reference electrode is desirable. Here, investigations for a pinned artificial ferrimagnet with a Ru interlayer, which is frequently used in magnetic tunnel junctions, are presented. It is shown that in this kind of samples the exchange bias can be increased or rotated by IB induced magnetic patterning with 10 keV He ions without a destruction of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling. An IrMn/Py/Co/Cu/Co stack turned out to be more sensitive to the influence of IB than the Ru based artificial ferrimagnet.

  10. Exact solutions for a type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Han, Qiang; Shao, L B; Wang, Z D

    2011-07-08

    A type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions or Zeeman coupling is solved exactly in the framework of the Richardson ansatz. Based on the exact solutions for the case with spin-orbit interactions, it is shown rigorously that the pairing symmetry is of the p + ip wave and the ground state possesses time-reversal symmetry, regardless of the strength of the pairing interaction. Intriguingly, how Majorana fermions can emerge in the system is also elaborated. Exact results are illustrated for two systems, respectively, with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

  11. Photon-pair generation in lossy coupled-resonator optical waveguides via spontaneous four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamandar Dezfouli, Mohsen; Dignam, Marc M.

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically model pair generation and evolution via the nonlinear process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide in a photonic crystal slab. Using the adjoint master equation for a system of lossy coupled cavities, we calculate a symmetrized second-order coherence function to determine pair detection probability. We find that the scattering loss can have as large an effect on pair generation as waveguide dispersion. In particular, the wave-vector dependence of the loss can shift the frequency of the maximum detection probability and therefore cannot, in general, be ignored or treated via a simple overall loss factor.

  12. Anisotropy constant and exchange coupling strength of perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB/Pd multilayers and exchange springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. F.; Gonzalez-Fuentes, C.; Åkerman, J.; Garcia, C.

    2017-04-01

    A model describing the ferromagnetic resonance of multilayer structures is used to characterize the interface anisotropy constant and interlayer exchange coupling strength associated to individual components of [CoFeB/Pd ] n multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and [CoFeB/Pd ] 5/(CoFeB or Co) exchange spring structures by comparing with ferromagnetic resonance behavior measurements. We find that the effective perpendicular anisotropy increases with the number of repetitions of the multilayer, which we could explain only after accounting for a different anisotropy at the bottom repetition of the multilayer with perpendicular anisotropy. Similarly, the characterization of the exchange coupling in our structures was only possible after accounting for individual components, thus portraying the importance of using a multilayer model to properly describe the magnetic behavior and properties of a multilayer structure. We find that the perpendicular anisotropy constant in amorphous Pd/CoFeB/Pd structures increases slightly from 0.295 to 0.315 mJ /m2 when increasing the thickness of the CoFeB from 3 to 4 Å. Furthermore, we find that the exchange coupling in CoFeB/Pd(10 Å)/CoFeB structures decreases from 4.899 to 3.268 mJ /m2 when increasing the thickness of the CoFeB from 3 to 4 Å. Finally, we find that the magnitude of the anisotropy at Co/Pd interfaces is 65% larger than at CoFeB/Pd interfaces, and the exchange coupling at CoFeB/Pd/Co interfaces decreases approximately 30% when compared to a CoFeB/Pd/CoFeB structure.

  13. Section 16. Update on experience in paired-exchange donors in living donor liver transplantation for adult patients at ASAN Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Shin; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2014-04-27

    An exchange living donor program for liver transplantation, similar to the exchange living donor kidney program, was proposed to avoid ABO-incompatible adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The objective of this study was to present updated changes in exchange adult LDLT program at our institution. Between January 2003 and December 2011, approximately 2,182 adult LDLT cases were included in this study. During this period, 26 paired-exchange donor LDLT cases were performed (1.2%). Of the 26 paired-exchange donor LDLT cases, 22 pairs were matched due to ABO-incompatibility, and 4 pairs were matched because of cascade allocation of unrelated donors or relatively small graft volume to the recipients. A total of 28 living donors were included in the 26 paired-exchange donor LDLT cases because of inclusion of two dual-graft transplants. Elective surgery was performed in 22 cases, and urgent operation was performed in 4 cases. The overall 1-year and 5-year patient and graft survivals were both 96.2% and 90.1%, respectively. Our experience suggests that the paired-exchange donor program for adult LDLT seems to be a feasible modality to overcome donor ABO incompatibility. Reasonably acceptable indications for donor exchange LDLT will be proposed in near future.

  14. Influence of the Coulomb interaction on the exchange coupling in granular magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalov, O. G.; Beloborodov, I. S.

    2017-04-01

    We develop a theory of the exchange interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) metallic grains embedded into insulating matrix by taking into account the Coulomb blockade effects. For bulk ferromagnets separated by the insulating layer the exchange interaction strongly depends on the height and thickness of the tunneling barrier created by the insulator. We show that for FM grains embedded into insulating matrix the exchange coupling additionally depends on the dielectric properties of this matrix due to the Coulomb blockade effects. In particular, the FM coupling decreases with decreasing the dielectric permittivity of insulating matrix. We find that the change in the exchange interaction due to the Coulomb blockade effects can be a few tens of percent. Also, we study dependence of the intergrain exchange interaction on the grain size and other parameters of the system.

  15. Influence of the Coulomb interaction on the exchange coupling in granular magnets.

    PubMed

    Udalov, O G; Beloborodov, I S

    2017-04-20

    We develop a theory of the exchange interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) metallic grains embedded into insulating matrix by taking into account the Coulomb blockade effects. For bulk ferromagnets separated by the insulating layer the exchange interaction strongly depends on the height and thickness of the tunneling barrier created by the insulator. We show that for FM grains embedded into insulating matrix the exchange coupling additionally depends on the dielectric properties of this matrix due to the Coulomb blockade effects. In particular, the FM coupling decreases with decreasing the dielectric permittivity of insulating matrix. We find that the change in the exchange interaction due to the Coulomb blockade effects can be a few tens of percent. Also, we study dependence of the intergrain exchange interaction on the grain size and other parameters of the system.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility and exchange coupling in the mineral ardennite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Donnay, G.

    1969-01-01

    Ardennite, a rare silicate mineral, contains about 19 wt.% manganese. Some of the manganese atoms are in positions which are close enough to allow negative exchange and hence a reduction of the total magnetic susceptibility. It is shown that the susceptibility can be accounted for approximately by the treatment of Earnshaw and Lewis (1958) for S = 5 2 and a Hamiltonian H = -2g??Hb-2JS1??S2. ?? 1969.

  17. Exchange couplings calculation in the Double Perovskite Sr2CrWO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rhazouani, O.; Slassi, A.; Ziat, Y.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, an approximation method has been used to calculate Super Exchange (SE) and the Double Exchange (DE) couplings in the Double Perovskite (DP) structure of Sr2CrWO6. The method relies on a relation between internal energy per site and magnetization per site and Monte Carlo simulation in the framework of Ising model. A new model parameter has been proposed and varied to find the exchange couplings that verify the experimental Curie temperature measured under an external field h = 0.01 T. SE coupling has been found equal to -7.554 meV and the DE couplings corresponding respectively to Cr and W ions have been found equal to 17.629 and 5.661 meV. Internal energy per site has been calculated.

  18. Actinide chemistry using singlet-paired coupled cluster and its combinations with density functionals.

    PubMed

    Garza, Alejandro J; Sousa Alencar, Ana G; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2015-12-28

    Singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) is a simplification of CCD that relinquishes a fraction of dynamic correlation in order to be able to describe static correlation. Combinations of CCD0 with density functionals that recover specifically the dynamic correlation missing in the former have also been developed recently. Here, we assess the accuracy of CCD0 and CCD0+DFT (and variants of these using Brueckner orbitals) as compared to well-established quantum chemical methods for describing ground-state properties of singlet actinide molecules. The f(0) actinyl series (UO2(2+), NpO2(3+), PuO2(4+)), the isoelectronic NUN, and thorium (ThO, ThO(2+)) and nobelium (NoO, NoO2) oxides are studied.

  19. Rho-nucleon tensor coupling and charge-exchange resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Conti, C.; Galeão, A. P.; Krmpotić, F.

    2000-11-01

    The Gamow-Teller resonance in 208Pb is discussed in the context of a self-consistent RPA, based on the relativistic mean field theory. We inquire on the possibility of substituting the phenomenological Landau-Migdal force by a microscopic nucleon-nucleon interaction, generated from the rho-nucleon tensor coupling. The effect of this coupling turns out to be very small when the short range correlations are not taken into account, but too large when these correlations are simulated by the simple extraction of the contact terms from the resulting nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  20. A molecular dynamics study of phase transition in strongly coupled pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Baruah, Swati; Ganesh, R.; Avinash, K.

    2015-08-15

    Existence of phase transition in strongly coupled pair-ion plasmas with soft core is investigated. Extensive Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in the canonical ensemble, for such plasmas, at different temperatures, to analyze phase stability. Our studies show interesting phase co-existence between liquid-like and vapor-like phases. The different phases are identified by calculating the ensemble averaged density. This and the corresponding critical properties are calculated directly from MD simulation. The critical temperature of vapor-liquid coexistence is obtained, and the corresponding critical value of density is also estimated for different sizes of the soft core. We have used a novel method that allows the location of phase coexistence through a constant density simulation in which the temperature is changed in a single time-step (quenching) in order to place the system in a thermodynamically and mechanically unstable state, resulting in spontaneous separation of two coexisting phases. The results obtained from this temperature quench MD method also show the coexistence of vapor-liquid phase in pair-ion plasmas. The critical exponents obtained directly from MD simulation are found to be in close agreement with the values predicted by a mean-field theory.

  1. A molecular dynamics study of phase transition in strongly coupled pair-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Swati; Ganesh, R.; Avinash, K.

    2015-08-01

    Existence of phase transition in strongly coupled pair-ion plasmas with soft core is investigated. Extensive Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in the canonical ensemble, for such plasmas, at different temperatures, to analyze phase stability. Our studies show interesting phase co-existence between liquid-like and vapor-like phases. The different phases are identified by calculating the ensemble averaged density. This and the corresponding critical properties are calculated directly from MD simulation. The critical temperature of vapor-liquid coexistence is obtained, and the corresponding critical value of density is also estimated for different sizes of the soft core. We have used a novel method that allows the location of phase coexistence through a constant density simulation in which the temperature is changed in a single time-step (quenching) in order to place the system in a thermodynamically and mechanically unstable state, resulting in spontaneous separation of two coexisting phases. The results obtained from this temperature quench MD method also show the coexistence of vapor-liquid phase in pair-ion plasmas. The critical exponents obtained directly from MD simulation are found to be in close agreement with the values predicted by a mean-field theory.

  2. Odd-parity pairing and topological superconductivity in a strongly spin-orbit coupled semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Ren, Zhi; Taskin, A A; Segawa, Kouji; Fu, Liang; Ando, Yoichi

    2012-11-21

    The existence of topological superconductors preserving time-reversal symmetry was recently predicted, and they are expected to provide a solid-state realization of itinerant massless Majorana fermions and a route to topological quantum computation. Their first likely example, Cu(x)Bi(2)Se(3), was discovered last year, but the search for new materials has so far been hindered by the lack of a guiding principle. Here, we report point-contact spectroscopy experiments suggesting that the low-carrier-density superconductor Sn(1-x)In(x)Te is accompanied by surface Andreev bound states which, with the help of theoretical analysis, would give evidence for odd-parity pairing and topological superconductivity. The present and previous finding of possible topological superconductivity in Sn(1-x)In(x)Te and Cu(x)Bi(2)Se(3) suggests that odd-parity pairing favored by strong spin-orbit coupling is likely to be a common underlying mechanism for materializing topological superconductivity.

  3. Positive exchange bias observed in Pt-inserted Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co exchange coupled bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, T. Oida, M.; Ashida, T.; Shimomura, N.; Sahashi, M.; Shibata, T.

    2014-11-24

    We investigated the effect of Pt insertion on a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co exchange coupling system. The perpendicular exchange bias μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} decreased with increasing Pt insertion layer thickness, and we observed positive μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} for samples with relatively thick Pt insertion layers. We also examined the cooling field μ{sub 0}H{sub fc} dependence of μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} for the samples. At small μ{sub 0}H{sub fc}, all samples exhibited negative μ{sub 0}H{sub ex}. With increasing μ{sub 0}H{sub fc}, a shift of μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} from negative to positive was observed. In the past, similar behaviors were observed for FeF{sub 2}/Fe systems exhibiting positive μ{sub 0}H{sub ex}. In addition, the μ{sub 0}H{sub fc} dependence of μ{sub 0}H{sub ex} was well fitted by an equation taking into account the Zeeman energy at the surface of an antiferromagnet as well as an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling. The results strongly suggest that (1) Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface spin is affected by the external magnetic field and (2) the coupling at the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt/Co interface is antiferromagnetic.

  4. Microscopic theory of the Coulomb based exchange coupling in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Udalov, O G; Beloborodov, I S

    2017-05-04

    We study interlayer exchange coupling based on the many-body Coulomb interaction between conduction electrons in magnetic tunnel junction. This mechanism complements the known interaction between magnetic layers based on virtual electron hopping (or spin currents). We find that these two mechanisms have different behavior on system parameters. The Coulomb based coupling may exceed the hopping based exchange. We show that the Coulomb based exchange interaction, in contrast to the hopping based coupling, depends strongly on the dielectric constant of the insulating layer. The dependence of the interlayer exchange interaction on the dielectric properties of the insulating layer in magnetic tunnel junction is similar to magneto-electric effect where electric and magnetic degrees of freedom are coupled. We calculate the interlayer coupling as a function of temperature and electric field for magnetic tunnel junction with ferroelectric layer and show that the exchange interaction between magnetic leads has a sharp decrease in the vicinity of the ferroelectric phase transition and varies strongly with external electric field.

  5. Radical-pair model of magnetoreception with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Neill; De Liberato, Simone; Emary, Clive; Nori, Franco

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism used by migratory birds to orientate themselves using the geomagnetic field is still a mystery in many species. The radical pair mechanism, in which very weak magnetic fields can influence certain types of spin-dependent chemical reactions, leading to biologically observable signals, has recently imposed itself as one of the most promising candidates for certain species. This is thanks both to its extreme sensitivity and its capacity to reproduce results from behavioral studies. Still, in order to gain a directional sensitivity, an anisotropic mechanism is needed. Recent proposals have explored the possibility that such an anisotropy is due to the electron-nucleus hyperfine interaction. In this work we explore a different possibility, in which the anisotropy is due to spin-orbit coupling between the electron spin and its angular momentum. We will show how a spin-orbit coupling-based magnetic compass can have performances comparable with the usually studied nuclear hyperfine based mechanism. Our results could thus help researchers actively looking for candidate biological molecules which may host magnetoreceptive functions, both to describe magnetoreception in birds as well as to develop artificial chemical compass systems.

  6. Inter-strand coupling and base pairing sequences in DNA charge transport.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudiarsah, Efta; Ulloa, Sergio

    2006-03-01

    The electronic transport properties of double-stranded DNA are studied using a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Transfer and scattering matrix methods for double strands are employed simultaneously in the calculation, guaranteeing numerical stability. Realistic on-site energies [1] and hopping constants are used in the model [2]. The role of inter-strand coupling is shown to be extremely important for random sequences typical of genetic DNA. In contrast, inter-strand coupling only changes slightly the charge transport properties for more periodic sequences. The effect of base-pairing across strands and details of the sequences were investigated. Our model shows that the resistance of DNA depends on the sequences and the ratio of the bases. This agrees with previous results by Roche [3]. The resistance is also shown to increase with the concentration of different bases in a homogenous strand, and we find that for certain sequences only short-range electronic transport is possible.[1] H. Sugiyama and I. Saito, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 7063 (1996).[2] A. A. Voityuk, J. Jortner, M. Bixon, and N. Rosch, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5614 (2001).[3] S. Roche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 108101 (2003).

  7. Time to Go Beyond Triple-Gauge-Boson-Coupling Interpretation of W Pair Production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-01-06

    W boson pair production processes at e^{+}e^{-} and pp colliders have been conventionally interpreted as measurements of WWZ and WWγ triple gauge couplings (TGCs). Such an interpretation is based on the assumption that new physics effects other than anomalous TGCs are negligible. While this "TGC dominance assumption" was well motivated and useful at LEP2 thanks to precision electroweak constraints, it is already challenged by recent LHC data. In fact, contributions from anomalous Z boson couplings that are allowed by electroweak precision data but neglected in LHC analyses, which are enhanced at high energy, can even dominate over those from the anomalous TGCs considered. This limits the generality of the anomalous TGC constraints derived in current analyses and necessitates extension of the analysis framework and a change of physics interpretation. The issue will persist as we continue to explore the high-energy frontier. We clarify and analyze the situation in the effective field theory framework, which provides a useful organizing principle for understanding standard model deviations in the high-energy regime.

  8. Time to Go Beyond Triple-Gauge-Boson-Coupling Interpretation of W Pair Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-01-01

    W boson pair production processes at e+e- and p p colliders have been conventionally interpreted as measurements of W W Z and W W γ triple gauge couplings (TGCs). Such an interpretation is based on the assumption that new physics effects other than anomalous TGCs are negligible. While this "TGC dominance assumption" was well motivated and useful at LEP2 thanks to precision electroweak constraints, it is already challenged by recent LHC data. In fact, contributions from anomalous Z boson couplings that are allowed by electroweak precision data but neglected in LHC analyses, which are enhanced at high energy, can even dominate over those from the anomalous TGCs considered. This limits the generality of the anomalous TGC constraints derived in current analyses and necessitates extension of the analysis framework and a change of physics interpretation. The issue will persist as we continue to explore the high-energy frontier. We clarify and analyze the situation in the effective field theory framework, which provides a useful organizing principle for understanding standard model deviations in the high-energy regime.

  9. An efficient and near linear scaling pair natural orbital based local coupled cluster method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In previous publications, it was shown that an efficient local coupled cluster method with single- and double excitations can be based on the concept of pair natural orbitals (PNOs) [F. Neese, A. Hansen, and D. G. Liakos, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 064103 (2009), 10.1063/1.3173827]. The resulting local pair natural orbital-coupled-cluster single double (LPNO-CCSD) method has since been proven to be highly reliable and efficient. For large molecules, the number of amplitudes to be determined is reduced by a factor of 105-106 relative to a canonical CCSD calculation on the same system with the same basis set. In the original method, the PNOs were expanded in the set of canonical virtual orbitals and single excitations were not truncated. This led to a number of fifth order scaling steps that eventually rendered the method computationally expensive for large molecules (e.g., >100 atoms). In the present work, these limitations are overcome by a complete redesign of the LPNO-CCSD method. The new method is based on the combination of the concepts of PNOs and projected atomic orbitals (PAOs). Thus, each PNO is expanded in a set of PAOs that in turn belong to a given electron pair specific domain. In this way, it is possible to fully exploit locality while maintaining the extremely high compactness of the original LPNO-CCSD wavefunction. No terms are dropped from the CCSD equations and domains are chosen conservatively. The correlation energy loss due to the domains remains below <0.05%, which implies typically 15-20 but occasionally up to 30 atoms per domain on average. The new method has been given the acronym DLPNO-CCSD ("domain based LPNO-CCSD"). The method is nearly linear scaling with respect to system size. The original LPNO-CCSD method had three adjustable truncation thresholds that were chosen conservatively and do not need to be changed for actual applications. In the present treatment, no additional truncation parameters have been introduced. Any additional truncation

  10. Energy Exchange in Driven Open Quantum Systems at Strong Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrega, Matteo; Solinas, Paolo; Sassetti, Maura; Weiss, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    The time-dependent energy transfer in a driven quantum system strongly coupled to a heat bath is studied within an influence functional approach. Exact formal expressions for the statistics of energy dissipation into the different channels are derived. The general method is applied to the driven dissipative two-state system. It is shown that the energy flows obey a balance relation, and that, for strong coupling, the interaction may constitute the major dissipative channel. Results in analytic form are presented for the particular value K =1/2 of strong Ohmic dissipation. The energy flows show interesting behaviors including driving-induced coherences and quantum stochastic resonances. It is found that the general characteristics persists for K near 1/2 .

  11. Polarization exchange of optical eigenmode pair in twisted-nematic Fabry-Pérot resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunyakov, Vladimir A.; Timofeev, Ivan V.; Krakhalev, Mikhail N.; Zyryanov, Victor Ya.

    2017-08-01

    The polarization exchange effect in a twisted-nematic Fabry-Pérot resonator is experimentally confirmed in the regimes of both uniform and electric-field-deformed twisted structures. The polarization of output light in the transmission peaks is shown to be linear rather than elliptical. The polarization deflection from the nematic director grows from 0∘ to 90∘ angle and exchanges the longitudinal and transverse directions. Untwisting of a nematic by a voltage leads to the rotation of the polarization plane of light passing through the resonator. The polarization exchange effect allows using the investigated resonator as a spectral-selective linear polarizer with the voltage-controlled rotation of the polarization plane.

  12. Bridging Single- and Multireference Domains for Electron Correlation: Spin-Extended Coupled Electron Pair Approximation.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Ten-No, Seiichiro

    2017-04-11

    We propose a size-consistent generalization of the recently developed spin-extended configuration interaction with singles and doubles (ECISD), where a CI wave function is explicitly spin-projected. The size-consistent effect is effectively incorporated by treating quadruples within the formulation of coupled electron pair approximation. As in coupled-cluster theory, quadruple excitations are approximated by a disconnected product of double excitations. Despite its conceptual similarity to the standard single-reference and multireference analogues, such a generalization requires careful derivation, as the spin-projected CI space is nonorthogonal and overcomplete. Although our methods generally yield better results than ECISD, size-consistency is only approximately retained because the action of a symmetry-projection operator is size-inconsistent. In this work, we focus on simple models where exclusion-principle-violating terms, which eliminate undesired contributions to the correlation effects, are either completely neglected or averaged. These models possess an orbital-invariant energy functional that is to be minimized by diagonalizing an energy-shifted effective Hamiltonian within the singles and doubles manifold. This allows for a straightforward generalization of the ECISD analytical gradients needed to determine molecular properties and geometric optimization. Given the multireference nature of the spin-projected Hartree-Fock method, the proposed approaches are expected to handle static correlation, unlike single-reference analogues. We critically assess the performance of our methods using dissociation curves of molecules, singlet-triplet splitting gaps, hyperfine coupling constants, and the chromium dimer. The size-consistency and size-extensivity of the methods are also discussed.

  13. Synthetic dimensions in the strong-coupling limit: Supersolids and pair superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitewski, Thomas; Cooper, Nigel R.

    2016-08-01

    We study the many-body phases of bosonic atoms with N internal states confined to a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice under the influence of a synthetic magnetic field and strong repulsive interactions. The N internal states of the atoms are coupled via Raman transitions creating the synthetic magnetic field in the space of internal spin states corresponding to recent experimental realizations. We focus on the case of strong SU(N ) invariant local density-density interactions in which each site of the 1D lattice is at most singly occupied, and strong Raman coupling, in distinction to previous work which has focused on the weak Raman coupling case. This allows us to keep only a single state per site and derive a low-energy effective spin-1 /2 model. The effective model contains first-order nearest-neighbor tunneling terms, second-order nearest-neighbor interactions, and correlated next-nearest-neighbor tunneling terms. By adjusting the flux ϕ , one can tune the relative importance of first-order and second-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian. In particular, first-order terms can be set to zero, realizing a model with dominant second-order terms. We show that the resulting competition between density-dependent tunneling and repulsive density-density interaction leads to an interesting phase diagram including a phase with long-range pair-superfluid correlations. The method can be straightforwardly extended to higher dimensions and lattices of arbitrary geometry, including geometrically frustrated lattices where the interplay of frustration, interactions, and kinetic terms is expected to lead to even richer physics.

  14. Robust conversion of singlet spin order in coupled spin-1/2 pairs by adiabatically ramped RF-fields.

    PubMed

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Kiryutin, Alexey S; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2016-12-01

    We propose a robust and highly efficient NMR technique to create singlet spin order from longitudinal spin magnetization in coupled spin-½ pairs and to perform backward conversion (singlet order)→magnetization. In this method we exploit adiabatic ramping of an RF-field in order to drive transitions between the singlet state and the T± triplet states of a spin pair under study. We demonstrate that the method works perfectly for both strongly and weakly coupled spin pairs, providing a conversion efficiency between the singlet spin order and magnetization, which is equal to the theoretical maximum. We anticipate that the proposed technique is useful for generating long-lived singlet order, for preserving spin hyperpolarization and for analyzing singlet spin order in nearly equivalent spin pairs in specially designed molecules and in low-field NMR studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Roles of Surface and Interface Spins in Exchange Coupled Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Manh-Huong

    Exchange bias (EB) in magnetic nanostructures has remained a topic of global interest because of its potential use in spin valves, MRAM circuits, magnetic tunnel junctions, and spintronic devices. The exploration of EB on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to overcoming the superparamagnetic limit and increasing the thermoremanence of magnetic nanoparticles, a critical bottleneck for magnetic data storage applications. Recent advances in chemical synthesis have given us a unique opportunity to explore the EB in a variety of nanoparticle systems ranging from core/shell nanoparticles of Fe/γFe2O3, Co/CoO,and FeO/Fe3O4 to hollow nanoparticles of γFe2O3 and hybrid composite nanoparticles of Au/Fe3O4. Our studies have addressed the following fundamental and important questions: (i) Can one decouple collective contributions of the interface and surface spins to the EB in a core/shell nanoparticle system? (ii) Can the dynamic and static response of the core and shell be identified separately? (iii) Can one tune ``minor loop'' to ``exchange bias'' effects in magnetic hollow nanoparticles by varying the number of surface spins? (iv) Can one decouple collective contributions of the inner and outer surface spins to the EB in a hollow nanoparticle system? (v) Can EB be induced in a magnetic nanoparticle by forming its interface with a non-magnetic metal? Such knowledge is essential to tailor EB in magnetic nanostructures for spintronics applications. In this talk, we will discuss the aforementioned findings in terms of our experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46438.

  16. Magnetic patterning: local manipulation of the intergranular exchange coupling via grain boundary engineering

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Feng; Liao, Jung-Wei; Hsieh, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Liang-Wei; Huang, Yen-Chun; Wen, Wei-Chih; Chang, Mu-Tung; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Yuan, Jun; Lin, Hsiu-Hau; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic patterning, with designed spatial profile of the desired magnetic properties, has been a rising challenge for developing magnetic devices at nanoscale. Most existing methods rely on locally modifying magnetic anisotropy energy or saturation magnetization, and thus post stringent constraints on the adaptability in diverse applications. We propose an alternative route for magnetic patterning: by manipulating the local intergranular exchange coupling to tune lateral magnetic properties. As demonstration, the grain boundary structure of Co/Pt multilayers is engineered by thermal treatment, where the stress state of the multilayers and thus the intergranular exchange coupling can be modified. With Ag passivation layers on top of the Co/Pt multilayers, we can hinder the stress relaxation and grain boundary modification. Combining the pre-patterned Ag passivation layer with thermal treatment, we can design spatial variations of the magnetic properties by tuning the intergranular exchange coupling, which diversifies the magnetic patterning process and extends its feasibility for varieties of new devices. PMID:26156786

  17. Strain-modulated antiferromagnetic spin orientation and exchange coupling in Fe/CoO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Li, Q.; Li, J. X.; Ding, Z.; Wu, Y. Z.; Hua, C. Y.; Huang, M. J.; Lin, H.-J.; Hu, Z.; Won, C.

    2014-05-21

    The effect of CoO spin orientation on exchange coupling was investigated in single-crystalline Fe/CoO/MnO/MgO(001) systems. An antiferromagnetic CoO spin reorientation transition from the in-plane direction to the out-of-plane direction was found to be associated with the in-plane strain transition in CoO film from compression to expansion. The induced uniaxial anisotropies by exchange coupling at the Fe/CoO interface are significantly stronger for the in-plane CoO spin orientation than for the out-of-plane CoO spin orientation. Our study provides a way to modify the exchange coupling in the ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer by modulating the strain in the AFM film.

  18. Density functional study on anisotropic magnetic exchange couplings in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungju; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2013-03-01

    Iron-based superconductors exhibit many different antiferromagnetically ordered ground states. An understanding of the magnetic exchange couplings and ground-state Hamiltonian in the parent compounds of these materials is important because such an information could be the basis to unveil the mechanism of unconventional superconductivity. By performing first-principles calculations of the electronic and magnetic properties with non-collinear spin configurations, we study the anisotropic magnetic exchange couplings in iron-based superconductors. We obtain magnetic excitations using the anisotropic magnetic exchange couplings, and compare the results with published inelastic neutron scattering data. This work was supported by the NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2011-0018306). Computational resources have been provided by KISTI Supercomputing Center (Project No. KSC-2012-C2-14).

  19. Micromagnetic simulation of ferrimagnetic TbFeCo films with exchange coupled nanophases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chung T.; Li, Xiaopu; Poon, S. Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Amorphous ferrimagnetic TbFeCo thin films are found to exhibit exchange bias effect near the compensation temperature by magnetic hysteresis loop measurement. The observed exchange anisotropy is believed to originate from the exchange interaction between the two nanoscale amorphous phases distributed within the films. Here, we present a computational model of phase-separated TbFeCo using micromagnetic simulation. Two types of cells with different Tb concentration are distributed within the simulated space to obtain a heterogeneous structure consisting of two nanoscale amorphous phases. Each cell contains separated Tb and FeCo components, forming two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices. Using this model, we are able to show the existence of exchange bias effect, and the shift in hysteresis loops is in agreement with experiment. The micromagnetic model developed herein for a heterogeneous magnetic material may also account for some recent measurements of exchange bias effect in crystalline films.

  20. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems.

    PubMed

    Kuświk, Piotr; Gastelois, Pedro Lana; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-26

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy.

  1. A facile way to realize exchange coupling interaction in hard/soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyun; Wang, Fan; Xia, Ailin; Zhang, Lijiao; Li, Tingting; Jin, Chuangui; Liu, Xianguo

    2016-11-01

    SrFe12O19/CoFe2O4 and SrFe12O19/Fe-B hard/soft magnetic composites were obtained by using powders synthesized via a hydrothermal and a molten salt method, respectively. The exchange coupling interaction was found to exist in the composites after a facile grinding according to the results of magnetic hysteresis loops and irreversible sloping recoil loops. It can be found that different grinding time affects their magnetic properties slightly. Our study proves that the conditions of realizing exchange coupling interaction may not be so stringent.

  2. Impact of orthogonal exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in antiferromagnetic oxides/ferromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuświk, Piotr; Lana Gastelois, Pedro; Głowiński, Hubert; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    The influence of interface exchange coupling on magnetic anisotropy in the antiferromagnetic oxide/Ni system is investigated. We show how interfacial exchange coupling can be employed not only to pin the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer but also to support magnetic anisotropy to orient the easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the film plane. The fact that this effect is only observed below the Néel temperature of all investigated antiferromagnetic oxides with significantly different magnetocrystalline anisotropies gives evidence that antiferromagnetic ordering is a source of the additional contribution to the perpendicular effective magnetic anisotropy.

  3. Ultrathin limit of exchange bias coupling at oxide multiferroic/ferromagnetic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Huijben, M; Yu, P; Martin, L W; Molegraaf, H J A; Chu, Y-H; Holcomb, M B; Balke, N; Rijnders, G; Ramesh, R

    2013-09-14

    Exchange bias coupling at the multiferroic- ferromagnetic interface in BiFeO₃ /La₀.₇ Sr₀.₃ MnO₃ heterostructures exhibits a critical thickness for ultrathin BiFeO₃ layers of 5 unit cells (2 nm). Linear dichroism measurements demonstrate the dependence on the BiFeO₃ layer thickness with a strong reduction for ultrathin layers, indicating diminished antiferromagnetic ordering that prevents interfacial exchange bias coupling. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Thermodynamics of information exchange between two coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutvonen, Aki; Sagawa, Takahiro; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2016-03-01

    We propose a setup based on two coupled quantum dots where thermodynamics of a measurement can be quantitatively characterized. The information obtained in the measurement can be utilized by performing feedback in a manner apparently breaking the second law of thermodynamics. In this way the setup can be operated as a Maxwell's demon, where both the measurement and feedback are performed separately by controlling an external parameter. This is analogous to the case of the original Szilard engine. Since the setup contains both the microscopic demon and the engine itself, the operation of the whole measurement-feedback cycle can be explained in detail at the level of single realizations. In addition, we derive integral fluctuation relations for both the bare and coarse-grained entropy productions in the setup.

  5. Name-Value Pair Specification For Image Data Headers And Logical Standards For Image Data Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prewitt, J. M.; Selfridge, Peter G.; Anderson, Alicia C.

    1984-08-01

    A chronic barrier to rapid progress in image processing and pattern recognition research is the lack of a universal and facile method of transferring image data between different facilities. Comparison of different approaches and algorithms on a common data base is often the only means for establishing the validity of results. Data collected under known recording conditions is mandatory for improvement of analytic methodology, yet such valuable data is costly and time consuming to obtain. Therefore, the sharing and exchange of image data may be expendient. The proliferation of different image data formats has compouned the problem of exchange. The establishement of logical formats and standards for images and image data headers is the first step towards dissolving this barrier. This paper presents initial recommendations of the IEEE Computer Society PAMI (Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence) and CompMed (Computational Medicine) Technical Committees' Database Subcommittees on the first of a series of digital image data standards.

  6. Selective regulation of gene expression by an orthogonal estrogen receptor-ligand pair created by polar-group exchange.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Koh, J T

    2001-05-01

    The nuclear and steroid hormone receptors function as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators in eukaryotes. Hormone receptors have been engineered to selectively respond to synthetic ligands and used as remote regulators of gene expression for the study of gene function and as potential regulators of gene therapies. In this work, a new ligand-receptor engineering strategy called 'polar-group exchange' is used to create a mutant form of the estrogen receptor, ER(Glu353-->Ala), which lacks a carboxyl group critical for high-affinity binding of estradiol, but is able to transactivate in response to nanomolar concentrations of a carboxylate-functionalized estrogen analog, ES8. ES8 activates ER(Glu353-->Ala) at concentrations that do not appreciably activate the 'wild-type' receptor ER(wt). Two similar carboxylate-functionalized ligands, ES6 and ES7, do not induce transactivation function. Similar selectivities are observed in ligand-binding assays in vitro, which follow the trends predicted by molecular modeling. Polar-group exchange is an effective strategy for rationally engineering ligand-receptor pairs. The ER(E353A)/ES8 ligand-receptor pair should constitute a unique and functionally orthogonal ligand-dependent transcriptional regulator.

  7. DNA pairing is an important step in the process of targeted nucleotide exchange.

    PubMed

    Drury, Miya D; Kmiec, Eric B

    2003-02-01

    Modified single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides can direct the repair of genetic mutations in yeast, plant and mammalian cells. The mechanism by which these molecules exert their effect is being elucidated, but the first phase is likely to involve the homologous alignment of the single strand with its complementary sequence in the target gene. In this study, we establish the importance of such DNA pairing in facilitating the gene repair event. Oligonucleotide-directed repair occurs at a low frequency in an Escherichia coli strain (DH10B) lacking the RECA DNA pairing function. Repair activity can be rescued by using purified RecA protein to catalyze the assimilation of oligonucleotide vectors into a plasmid containing a mutant kanamycin resistance gene in vitro. Electroporation of the preformed complex into DH10B cells results in high levels of gene repair activity, evidenced by the appearance of kanamycin-resistant colonies. Gene repair is dependent on the formation of a double-displacement loop (double-D-loop), a recombination intermediate containing two single-stranded oligonucleotides hybridized to opposite strands of the plasmid at the site of the point mutation. The heightened level of stability of the double-D-loop enables it to serve as an active template for the DNA repair events. The data establish DNA pairing and the formation of the double-D-loop as important first steps in the process of gene repair.

  8. Separation of intermediates of iron-catalyzed dopamine oxidation reactions using reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography coupled in tandem with UV-visible and ESI-MS detections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yagnik, Gargey; Jiang, Dianlu; Shi, Shuyun; Chang, Peter; Zhou, Feimeng

    2012-12-12

    Reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography (RP-IPC) is coupled on-line with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) through an interface comprising a four-way switch valve and an anion exchange column. Regeneration of the anion exchange column can be accomplished on-line by switching the four-way switch valve to interconnect the column to a regeneration solution. Positioning the anion exchange column between the RP-IPC and ESI-MS instruments allows the ion-pairing reagent (IPR) sodium octane sulfonate to be removed. The IPC-ESI-MS method enabled us to separate and detect four intermediates of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation. In particular, 6-hydroxydopamine, which is short-lived and highly neurotoxic, was detected and quantified. Together with the separation of other intermediates, gaining insight into the mechanism and kinetics of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation becomes possible.

  9. O2 activation by binuclear Cu sites: Noncoupled versus exchange coupled reaction mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Solomon, Edward I.

    2004-09-01

    Binuclear Cu proteins play vital roles in O2 binding and activation in biology and can be classified into coupled and noncoupled binuclear sites based on the magnetic interaction between the two Cu centers. Coupled binuclear Cu proteins include hemocyanin, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase. These proteins have two Cu centers strongly magnetically coupled through direct bridging ligands that provide a mechanism for the 2-electron reduction of O2 to a µ-2:2 side-on peroxide bridged species. This side-on bridged peroxo-CuII2 species is activated for electrophilic attack on the phenolic ring of substrates. Noncoupled binuclear Cu proteins include peptidylglycine -hydroxylating monooxygenase and dopamine -monooxygenase. These proteins have binuclear Cu active sites that are distant, that exhibit no exchange interaction, and that activate O2 at a single Cu center to generate a reactive CuII/O2 species for H-atom abstraction from the C-H bond of substrates. O2 intermediates in the coupled binuclear Cu enzymes can be trapped and studied spectroscopically. Possible intermediates in noncoupled binuclear Cu proteins can be defined through correlation to mononuclear CuII/O2 model complexes. The different intermediates in these two classes of binuclear Cu proteins exhibit different reactivities that correlate with their different electronic structures and exchange coupling interactions between the binuclear Cu centers. These studies provide insight into the role of exchange coupling between the Cu centers in their reaction mechanisms.

  10. Tunable giant exchange bias in the single-phase rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics YM n12 -xF ex with highly homogenous intersublattice exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuanhua; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Yinfeng; Liu, Shunquan; Du, Honglin; Han, Jingzhi; Wang, Changsheng; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Yang, Yingchang; Yang, Jinbo

    2017-08-01

    A tunable giant exchange bias effect is discovered in a family of bulk intermetallic compounds YM n12 -xF ex . Experimental data demonstrate that the exchange bias effect originates from global interactions among ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic sublattices but not the interfacial exchange coupling or inhomogeneous magnetic clusters. A giant exchange bias with a loop shift of up to 6.1 kOe has been observed in YM n4.4F e7.6 compound. In a narrow temperature range, the exchange bias field shows a sudden switching-off whereas the coercivity shows a sudden switching-on with increasing temperature. This unique feature indicates that the intersublattice exchange coupling is highly homogenous. Our theoretical calculations reveal this switching feature, which agrees very well with the experiments and provides insights into the physical underpinnings of the observed exchange bias and coercivity.

  11. HLA Matching Trumps Donor Age: Donor-Recipient Pairing Characteristics That Impact Long-Term Success in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Paired Kidney Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Milner, John; Melcher, Marc L.; Lee, Brian; Veale, Jeff; Ronin, Matthew; D'Alessandro, Tom; Hil, Garet; Fry, Phillip C.; Shannon, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify donor characteristics influencing long-term graft survival, expressed by a novel measure, kidney life years (KLYs), in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Methods Cox and multiple regression analyses were applied to data from the Scientific Registry for Transplant Research from 1987 to 2015. Dependent variable was KLYs. Results Living donor kidney transplantation (129 273) were performed from 1987 to 2013 in the United States. To allow sufficient time to assess long-term results, outcomes of LDKTs between 1987 and 2001 were analyzed. After excluding cases where a patient died with a functioning graft (8301) or those missing HLA data (9), 40 371 cases were analyzed. Of 18 independent variables, the focus became the 4 variables that were the most statistically and clinically significant in that they are potentially modifiable in donor selection (P <0.0001; ie, HLA match points, donor sex, donor biological sibling and donor age). HLA match points had the strongest relationship with KLYs, was associated with the greatest tendency toward graft longevity on Cox regression, and had the largest increase in KLYs (2.0 year increase per 50 antigen Match Points) based on multiple regression. Conclusions In cases when a patient has multiple potential donors, such as through paired exchange, graft life might be extended when a donor with favorable matching characteristics is selected. PMID:27830179

  12. Search for anomalous couplings in the decay of polarized Z bosons to τ lepton pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Torrence, Eric C.

    1997-06-01

    Using a sample of 4,500 polarized Z decays to τ lepton pairs accumulated with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) in 1993-95, a search has been made for anomalous couplings in the neutral current reaction e+e-→ τ+τ-. A measurement of the CP violating Weak Electric Dipole Moment (WEDM) and the CP conserving Weak Magnetic Dipole Moment (WMDM) of the τ lepton has been performed by considering the transverse spin polarization of τ leptons produced at the Z pole. Using a maximum likelihood technique, the observed τ decay spectra in the e, μ, π, and ρ decay channels are used to infer the net transverse polarization of the underlying tau leptons, and a fit for the anomalous dipole moments is performed. No evidence for these dipole movements is observed, and limits are placed on both the real and imaginary parts of the WEDM and WMDM.

  13. Homoclinic orbits and chaos in a pair of parametrically driven coupled nonlinear resonators.

    PubMed

    Kenig, Eyal; Tsarin, Yuriy A; Lifshitz, Ron

    2011-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a pair of parametrically driven coupled nonlinear mechanical resonators of the kind that is typically encountered in applications involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). We take advantage of the weak damping that characterizes these systems to perform a multiple-scales analysis and obtain amplitude equations, describing the slow dynamics of the system. This picture allows us to expose the existence of homoclinic orbits in the dynamics of the integrable part of the slow equations of motion. Using a version of the high-dimensional Melnikov approach, developed by G. Kovačič and S. Wiggins [Physica D 57, 185 (1992)], we are able to obtain explicit parameter values for which these orbits persist in the full system, consisting of both Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian perturbations, to form so-called Šilnikov orbits, indicating a loss of integrability and the existence of chaos. Our analytical calculations of Šilnikov orbits are confirmed numerically.

  14. Homoclinic orbits and chaos in a pair of parametrically driven coupled nonlinear resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenig, Eyal; Tsarin, Yuriy A.; Lifshitz, Ron

    2011-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a pair of parametrically driven coupled nonlinear mechanical resonators of the kind that is typically encountered in applications involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). We take advantage of the weak damping that characterizes these systems to perform a multiple-scales analysis and obtain amplitude equations, describing the slow dynamics of the system. This picture allows us to expose the existence of homoclinic orbits in the dynamics of the integrable part of the slow equations of motion. Using a version of the high-dimensional Melnikov approach, developed by G. Kovačič and S. Wiggins [Physica DPDNPDT0167-278910.1016/0167-2789(92)90092-2 57, 185 (1992)], we are able to obtain explicit parameter values for which these orbits persist in the full system, consisting of both Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian perturbations, to form so-called Šilnikov orbits, indicating a loss of integrability and the existence of chaos. Our analytical calculations of Šilnikov orbits are confirmed numerically.

  15. Ion-pairing dynamics of Li+ and SCN- in dimethylformamide solution: Chemical exchange two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwang-Hee; Kwon, Donghyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam; Cho, Minhaeng

    2011-02-01

    Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy has been proven to be an exceptionally useful method to study chemical exchange processes between different vibrational chromophores under thermal equilibria. Here, we present experimental results on the thermal equilibrium ion pairing dynamics of Li+ and SCN- ions in N,N-dimethylformamide. Li+ and SCN- ions can form a contact ion pair (CIP). Varying the relative concentration of Li+ in solution, we could control the equilibrium CIP and free SCN- concentrations. Since the CN stretch frequency of Li-SCN CIP is blue-shifted by about 16 cm-1 from that of free SCN- ion, the CN stretch IR spectrum is a doublet. The temperature-dependent IR absorption spectra reveal that the CIP formation is an endothermic (0.57 kJ/mol) process and the CIP state has larger entropy by 3.12 J/(K mol) than the free ion states. Since the two ionic configurations are spectrally distinguishable, this salt solution is ideally suited for nonlinear IR spectroscopic investigations to study ion pair association and dissociation dynamics. Using polarization-controlled IR pump-probe methods, we first measured the lifetimes and orientational relaxation times of these two forms of ionic configurations. The vibrational population relaxation times of both the free ion and CIP are about 32 ps. However, the orientational relaxation time of the CIP, which is ˜47 ps, is significantly longer than that of the free SCN-, which is ˜7.7 ps. This clearly indicates that the effective moment of inertia of the CIP is much larger than that of the free SCN-. Then, using chemical exchange 2DIR spectroscopy and analyzing the diagonal peak and cross-peak amplitude changes with increasing the waiting time, we determined the contact ion pair association and dissociation time constants that are found to be 165 and 190 ps, respectively. The results presented and discussed in this paper are believed to be important, not only because the ion-pairing dynamics is one of the

  16. Detection of intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling in organic rich shale by transverse relaxation exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Cheng, Yuesheng

    2017-05-01

    The mechanism behind surface relaxivity within organic porosity in shales has been an unanswered question. Here, we present results that confirm the existence of intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling between solid and liquid phases in sedimentary organic matter. Transverse magnetization exchange measurements were performed on an organic-rich shale saturated with liquid hydrocarbon. Liquid and solid constituents were identified through both sample resaturation and through their T1/T2 ratios. Extensive cross peaks are observed in the T2-T2 exchange spectra between the solid and liquid constituents, indicating an exchange of magnetization between the two phases. This result cannot arise from physical molecular diffusion, and the dissolution energies are too high for chemical exchange, such that the magnetization exchange must arise from intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling. These results both confirm a possible source of surface relaxivity in organic matter and emphasize caution in the use of standard porous media interpretations of relaxation results in shales because of coupling between different magnetization environments.

  17. Detection of intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling in organic rich shale by transverse relaxation exchange.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kathryn E; Cheng, Yuesheng

    2017-03-04

    The mechanism behind surface relaxivity within organic porosity in shales has been an unanswered question. Here, we present results that confirm the existence of intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling between solid and liquid phases in sedimentary organic matter. Transverse magnetization exchange measurements were performed on an organic-rich shale saturated with liquid hydrocarbon. Liquid and solid constituents were identified through both sample resaturation and through their T1/T2 ratios. Extensive cross peaks are observed in the T2-T2 exchange spectra between the solid and liquid constituents, indicating an exchange of magnetization between the two phases. This result cannot arise from physical molecular diffusion, and the dissolution energies are too high for chemical exchange, such that the magnetization exchange must arise from intermolecular homonuclear dipolar coupling. These results both confirm a possible source of surface relaxivity in organic matter and emphasize caution in the use of standard porous media interpretations of relaxation results in shales because of coupling between different magnetization environments.

  18. Exchange-correlation energy from pairing matrix fluctuation and the particle-particle random phase approximation.

    PubMed

    van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    Despite their unmatched success for many applications, commonly used local, semi-local, and hybrid density functionals still face challenges when it comes to describing long-range interactions, static correlation, and electron delocalization. Density functionals of both the occupied and virtual orbitals are able to address these problems. The particle-hole (ph-) Random Phase Approximation (RPA), a functional of occupied and virtual orbitals, has recently known a revival within the density functional theory community. Following up on an idea introduced in our recent communication [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013)], we formulate more general adiabatic connections for the correlation energy in terms of pairing matrix fluctuations described by the particle-particle (pp-) propagator. With numerical examples of the pp-RPA, the lowest-order approximation to the pp-propagator, we illustrate the potential of density functional approximations based on pairing matrix fluctuations. The pp-RPA is size-extensive, self-interaction free, fully anti-symmetric, describes the strong static correlation limit in H2, and eliminates delocalization errors in H2(+) and other single-bond systems. It gives surprisingly good non-bonded interaction energies--competitive with the ph-RPA--with the correct R(-6) asymptotic decay as a function of the separation R, which we argue is mainly attributable to its correct second-order energy term. While the pp-RPA tends to underestimate absolute correlation energies, it gives good relative energies: much better atomization energies than the ph-RPA, as it has no tendency to underbind, and reaction energies of similar quality. The adiabatic connection in terms of pairing matrix fluctuation paves the way for promising new density functional approximations.

  19. Exchange-correlation energy from pairing matrix fluctuation and the particle-particle random phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Aggelen, Helen van; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    Despite their unmatched success for many applications, commonly used local, semi-local, and hybrid density functionals still face challenges when it comes to describing long-range interactions, static correlation, and electron delocalization. Density functionals of both the occupied and virtual orbitals are able to address these problems. The particle-hole (ph-) Random Phase Approximation (RPA), a functional of occupied and virtual orbitals, has recently known a revival within the density functional theory community. Following up on an idea introduced in our recent communication [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013)], we formulate more general adiabatic connections for the correlation energy in terms of pairing matrix fluctuations described by the particle-particle (pp-) propagator. With numerical examples of the pp-RPA, the lowest-order approximation to the pp-propagator, we illustrate the potential of density functional approximations based on pairing matrix fluctuations. The pp-RPA is size-extensive, self-interaction free, fully anti-symmetric, describes the strong static correlation limit in H{sub 2}, and eliminates delocalization errors in H{sub 2}{sup +} and other single-bond systems. It gives surprisingly good non-bonded interaction energies – competitive with the ph-RPA – with the correct R{sup −6} asymptotic decay as a function of the separation R, which we argue is mainly attributable to its correct second-order energy term. While the pp-RPA tends to underestimate absolute correlation energies, it gives good relative energies: much better atomization energies than the ph-RPA, as it has no tendency to underbind, and reaction energies of similar quality. The adiabatic connection in terms of pairing matrix fluctuation paves the way for promising new density functional approximations.

  20. Effects of Exchange Energy and Spin-Orbit Coupling on Bond Energies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    2004-01-01

    Since chemical reactions involve the breaking and making of bonds, understanding the relative strengths of bonds is of paramount importance in the study, teaching, and practice of chemistry. Further, it is showed that free atoms having p(super n) configuration with n = 2,3, or 4 are stabilized by exchange energy, and by spin-orbit coupling for n =…

  1. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, X.; Fang, F.; Li, Q.; ...

    2015-10-28

    In this study, optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recoverymore » time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.« less

  2. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Fang, F.; Li, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Zhao, H. B.; Lüpke, G.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.

  3. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X.; Fang, F.; Li, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Zhao, H. B.; Lüpke, G.

    2015-01-01

    Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation. PMID:26508587

  4. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere

    Treesearch

    Ned Nikolova; Karl F. Zeller

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology....

  5. Effects of Exchange Energy and Spin-Orbit Coupling on Bond Energies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    2004-01-01

    Since chemical reactions involve the breaking and making of bonds, understanding the relative strengths of bonds is of paramount importance in the study, teaching, and practice of chemistry. Further, it is showed that free atoms having p(super n) configuration with n = 2,3, or 4 are stabilized by exchange energy, and by spin-orbit coupling for n =…

  6. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, C. Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T.; Anh Nguyen, T. N.; Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K.; Åkerman, J.

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  7. High-Efficiency Cooper-Pair Splitter in Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator Proximity-Coupled with Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Tao; Deng, Xinzhou; Sun, Qing-Feng; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2015-10-01

    The quantum entanglement between two qubits is crucial for applications in the quantum communication. After the entanglement of photons was experimentally realized, much effort has been taken to exploit the entangled electrons in solid-state systems. Here, we propose a Cooper-pair splitter, which can generate spatially-separated but entangled electrons, in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator proximity-coupled with a superconductor. After coupling with a superconductor, the chiral edge states of the quantum anomalous Hall insulator can still survive, making the backscattering impossible. Thus, the local Andreev reflection becomes vanishing, while the crossed Andreev reflection becomes dominant in the scattering process. This indicates that our device can serve as an extremely high-efficiency Cooper-pair splitter. Furthermore, because of the chiral characteristic, our Cooper-pair splitter is robust against disorders and can work in a wide range of system parameters. Particularly, it can still function even if the system length exceeds the superconducting coherence length.

  8. Modulation of interlayer exchange coupling strength in magnetic tunnel junctions via strain effect

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xin Li, Zhipeng; Zheng, Yuankai; Kaiser, Christian; Diao, Zhitao; Fang, Jason; Leng, Qunwen

    2015-09-15

    Interlayer exchange coupling of two ferromagnetic electrodes separated by a thin MgO tunnel barrier is investigated using magneto-optical Kerr effect. We find that the coupling field can be reduced by more than 40% as the thickness of a top Ta capping layer increases from 0.5 to 1.2 nm. In contrast, a similar film stack with an additional 3 nm Ru capping layer displays no such dependence on Ta thickness. Transmission electron microscopy study shows that the oxidation of the exposed Ta capping layer induces changes in the crystalline structures of the underlying films, giving rise to the observed reduction of the interlayer coupling field.

  9. Electrical measurement of antiferromagnetic moments in exchange-coupled IrMn/NiFe stacks.

    PubMed

    Martí, X; Park, B G; Wunderlich, J; Reichlová, H; Kurosaki, Y; Yamada, M; Yamamoto, H; Nishide, A; Hayakawa, J; Takahashi, H; Jungwirth, T

    2012-01-06

    We employ antiferromagnetic tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance to study the behavior of antiferromagnetically ordered moments in IrMn exchange coupled to NiFe. Experiments performed by common laboratory tools for magnetization and electrical transport measurements allow us to directly link the broadening of the NiFe hysteresis loop and its shift (exchange bias) to the rotation and pinning of antiferromagnetic moments in IrMn. At higher temperatures, the broadened loops show zero shift, which correlates with the observation of fully rotating antiferromagnetic moments inside the IrMn film. The onset of exchange bias at lower temperatures is linked to a partial rotation between distinct metastable states and pinning of the IrMn antiferromagnetic moments in these states. The observation complements common pictures of exchange bias and reveals an electrically measurable memory effect in an antiferromagnet.

  10. Exchange biasing single molecule magnets: coupling of TbPc2 to antiferromagnetic layers.

    PubMed

    Lodi Rizzini, A; Krull, C; Balashov, T; Mugarza, A; Nistor, C; Yakhou, F; Sessi, V; Klyatskaya, S; Ruben, M; Stepanow, S; Gambardella, P

    2012-11-14

    We investigate the possibility to induce exchange bias between single molecule magnets (SMM) and metallic or oxide antiferromagnetic substrates. Element-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal, respectively, the presence and absence of unidirectional exchange anisotropy for TbPc(2) SMM deposited on antiferromagnetic Mn and CoO layers. TbPc(2) deposited on Mn thin films present magnetic hysteresis and a negative horizontal shift of the Tb magnetization loop after field cooling, consistent with the observation of pinned spins in the Mn layer coupled parallel to the Tb magnetic moment. Conversely, molecules deposited on CoO substrates present paramagnetic magnetization loops with no indication of exchange bias. These experiments demonstrate the ability of SMM to polarize the pinned uncompensated spins of an antiferromagnet during field-cooling and realize metal-organic exchange-biased heterostructures using antiferromagnetic pinning layers.

  11. Substituent effects on the vibronic coupling for the phenoxyl/phenol self-exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Michelle K; Skone, Jonathan H; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2008-01-17

    The impact of substituents on the vibronic coupling for the phenoxyl/phenol self-exchange reaction, which occurs by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism, is investigated. The vibronic couplings are calculated with a grid-based nonadiabatic method and a nuclear-electronic orbital nonorthogonal configuration interaction method. The quantitative agreement between these two methods for the unsubstituted phenoxyl/phenol system and the qualitative agreement in the predicted trends for the substituted phenoxyl/phenol systems provides a level of validation for both methods. Analysis of the results indicates that electron-donating groups enhance the vibronic coupling, while electron-withdrawing groups attenuate the vibronic coupling. Thus, if all other aspects of the reaction are the same, then electron-donating groups will increase the rate, while electron-withdrawing groups will decrease the rate. Correlations between the vibronic coupling and physical properties of the phenol are also analyzed. Negative Hammett constants correspond to higher vibronic couplings, while positive Hammett constants correspond to similar or slightly lower vibronic couplings relative to the unsubstituted phenoxyl/phenol system. In addition, lower bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization potentials, and redox potentials, as well as higher pKa values, tend to correspond to higher vibronic couplings relative to the unsubstituted phenoxyl/phenol system. The observed trends enable the prediction of the impact of general substituents on the vibronic coupling, and hence the rate, for the phenoxyl/phenol self-exchange reaction. The fundamental physical insights obtained from these studies are applicable to other proton-coupled electron transfer systems.

  12. Ferromagnetic resonance studies of exchange coupled ultrathin Py/Cr/Py trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkaya, R.; Erkovan, M.; Öztürk, A.; Öztürk, O.; Aktaş, B.; Özdemir, M.

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic properties of ultrathin Py/Cr/Py trilayers have been investigated as a function of Cr spacer layer thickness by using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The Cr spacer layer thickness was increased from 4 to 40 Å with 1 Å steps to determine the dependence of interlayer exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers on the spacer layer thickness. Two strong and well resolved peaks were observed which correspond to a strong (acoustic) and weak (optic) modes of magnetization precession in the effective dc field due to the exciting external microwave field as the external dc field orientation comes close to the film normal. The separation of the two modes in the field axis depends on the thickness of Cr spacer layer. An interchange in the relative positions of the acoustic and optic modes has been observed for a particular thickness of Cr spacer layer as well. A computer program for magnetically exchange coupled N magnetic layers was written to simulate the experimental FMR spectra and to obtain the magnetic parameters of ultrathin Py/Cr/Py trilayers. FMR data have been analyzed from every aspect by using this program and interlayer exchange coupling constant was calculated for the prepared structures. It was found that the relative position of the peaks depends on the nature (sign) of the interlayer exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers through Cr spacer layer. In Py/Cr/Py trilayers, strength of the interlayer exchange coupling constant oscillates and changes its sign with Cr spacer layer thickness with a period of about 11 Å.

  13. Ionic Hamiltonians for transition metal atoms: effective exchange coupling and Kondo temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, F.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    An ionic Hamiltonian for describing the interaction between a metal and a d-shell transition metal atom having an orbital singlet state is introduced and its properties analyzed using the Schrieffer-Wolf transformation (exchange coupling) and the poor man’s scaling method (Kondo temperature). We find that the effective exchange coupling between the metal and the atom has an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic interaction depending on the kind of atomic fluctuations, either S\\to S-1/2 or S\\to S+1/2 , associated with the metal-atom coupling. We present a general scheme for all those processes and calculate, for the antiferromagnetic interaction, the corresponding Kondo-temperature.

  14. Magnetic Exchange Couplings in Heterodinuclear Complexes Based on Differential Local Spin Rotations.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajendra P; Phillips, Jordan J; Peralta, Juan E

    2016-04-12

    We analyze the performance of a new method for the calculation of magnetic exchange coupling parameters for the particular case of heterodinuclear transition metals complexes of Cu, Ni, and V. This method is based on a generalized perturbative approach which uses differential local spin rotations via formal Lagrange multipiers (Phillips, J. J.; Peralta, J. E. J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 174115). The reliability of the calculated couplings has been assessed by comparing with results from traditional energy differences with different density functional approximations and with experimental values. Our results show that this method to calculate magnetic exchange couplings can be reliably used for heteronuclear transition metal complexes, and at the same time, that it is independent from the different mapping schemes used in energy difference methods.

  15. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    PubMed

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads.

  16. Accurate bond energies of biodiesel methyl esters from multireference averaged coupled-pair functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Victor B; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A

    2014-09-04

    Accurate bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are important for characterizing combustion chemistry, particularly the initial stages of pyrolysis. Here we contribute to evaluating the thermochemistry of biodiesel methyl ester molecules using ab initio BDEs derived from a multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MRACPF2)-based scheme. Having previously validated this approach for hydrocarbons and a variety of oxygenates, herein we provide further validation for bonds within carboxylic acids and methyl esters, finding our scheme predicts BDEs within chemical accuracy (i.e., within 1 kcal/mol) for these molecules. Insights into BDE trends with ester size are then analyzed for methyl formate through methyl crotonate. We find that the carbonyl group in the ester moiety has only a local effect on BDEs. C═C double bonds in ester alkyl chains are found to increase the strengths of bonds adjacent to the double bond. An important exception are bonds beta to C═C or C═O bonds, which produce allylic-like radicals upon dissociation. The observed trends arise from different degrees of geometric relaxation and resonance stabilization in the radicals produced. We also compute BDEs in various small alkanes and alkenes as models for the long hydrocarbon chain of actual biodiesel methyl esters. We again show that allylic bonds in the alkenes are much weaker than those in the small methyl esters, indicating that hydrogen abstractions are more likely at the allylic site and even more likely at bis-allylic sites of alkyl chains due to more electrons involved in π-resonance in the latter. Lastly, we use the BDEs in small surrogates to estimate heretofore unknown BDEs in large methyl esters of biodiesel fuels.

  17. A pair natural orbital implementation of the coupled cluster model CC2 for excitation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmich, Benjamin; Hättig, Christof

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate how to extend the pair natural orbital (PNO) methodology for excited states, presented in a previous work for the perturbative doubles correction to configuration interaction singles (CIS(D)), to iterative coupled cluster methods such as the approximate singles and doubles model CC2. The original O(N^5) scaling of the PNO construction is reduced by using orbital-specific virtuals (OSVs) as an intermediate step without spoiling the initial accuracy of the PNO method. Furthermore, a slower error convergence for charge-transfer states is analyzed and resolved by a numerical Laplace transformation during the PNO construction, so that an equally accurate treatment of local and charge-transfer excitations is achieved. With state-specific truncated PNO expansions, the eigenvalue problem is solved by combining the Davidson algorithm with deflation to project out roots that have already been determined and an automated refresh with a generation of new PNOs to achieve self-consistency of the PNO space. For a large test set, we found that truncation errors for PNO-CC2 excitation energies are only slightly larger than for PNO-CIS(D). The computational efficiency of PNO-CC2 is demonstrated for a large organic dye, where a reduction of the doubles space by a factor of more than 1000 is obtained compared to the canonical calculation. A compression of the doubles space by a factor 30 is achieved by a unified OSV space only. Moreover, calculations with the still preliminary PNO-CC2 implementation on a series of glycine oligomers revealed an early break even point with a canonical RI-CC2 implementation between 100 and 300 basis functions.

  18. A pair natural orbital implementation of the coupled cluster model CC2 for excitation energies.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Benjamin; Hättig, Christof

    2013-08-28

    We demonstrate how to extend the pair natural orbital (PNO) methodology for excited states, presented in a previous work for the perturbative doubles correction to configuration interaction singles (CIS(D)), to iterative coupled cluster methods such as the approximate singles and doubles model CC2. The original O(N(5)) scaling of the PNO construction is reduced by using orbital-specific virtuals (OSVs) as an intermediate step without spoiling the initial accuracy of the PNO method. Furthermore, a slower error convergence for charge-transfer states is analyzed and resolved by a numerical Laplace transformation during the PNO construction, so that an equally accurate treatment of local and charge-transfer excitations is achieved. With state-specific truncated PNO expansions, the eigenvalue problem is solved by combining the Davidson algorithm with deflation to project out roots that have already been determined and an automated refresh with a generation of new PNOs to achieve self-consistency of the PNO space. For a large test set, we found that truncation errors for PNO-CC2 excitation energies are only slightly larger than for PNO-CIS(D). The computational efficiency of PNO-CC2 is demonstrated for a large organic dye, where a reduction of the doubles space by a factor of more than 1000 is obtained compared to the canonical calculation. A compression of the doubles space by a factor 30 is achieved by a unified OSV space only. Moreover, calculations with the still preliminary PNO-CC2 implementation on a series of glycine oligomers revealed an early break even point with a canonical RI-CC2 implementation between 100 and 300 basis functions.

  19. Understanding the Role of Dispersion in Frustrated Lewis Pairs and Classical Lewis Adducts: A Domain-Based Local Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Study.

    PubMed

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Auer, Alexander A; Neese, Frank

    2017-01-18

    The interaction of Lewis acids and bases in both classical Lewis adducts and frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is investigated to elucidate the role that London dispersion plays in different situations. The analysis comprises 14 different adducts between tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and a series of phosphines, carbenes, and amines with various substituents, differing in both steric and electronic properties. The domain-based local pair natural orbital coupled-cluster (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) method is used in conjunction with the recently introduced local energy decomposition (LED) analysis to obtain state-of-the-art dissociation energies and, at the same time, a clear-cut definition of the London dispersion component of the interaction, with the ultimate goal of aiding in the development of designing principles for acid/base pairs with well-defined bonding features and reactivity. In agreement with previous DFT investigations, it is found that the London dispersion dominates the interaction energy in FLPs, and is also remarkably strong in Lewis adducts. In these latter systems, its magnitude can be easily modulated by modifying the polarizability of the substituents on the basic center, which is consistent with the recently introduced concept of dispersion energy donors. By counteracting the destabilizing energy contribution associated with the deformation of the monomers, the London dispersion drives the stability of many Lewis adducts.

  20. Environmental noise effects on entanglement fidelity of exchange-coupled semiconductor spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, Robert E.; Barnes, Edwin; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic field and charge noise on the generation of entanglement between two Heisenberg exchange-coupled electron spins in a double quantum dot. We focus on exchange-driven evolution that would ideally take an initial unentangled tensor product state to a maximally entangled state in the absence of noise. The presence of noise obviously adversely affects the attainment of maximal entanglement, which we study quantitatively and exactly. To quantify the effects of noise, we calculate two-qubit coherence times and entanglement fidelity, both of which can be extracted from simulations or measurements of the return probability as a function of interaction time, i.e., the time period during which the exchange coupling remains effective between the two spins. We perform these calculations for a broad range of noise strengths that includes the regime of recent experiments. We find that the two types of noise reduce the amount of entanglement in qualitatively distinct ways and that, although charge noise generally leads to faster decoherence, the relative importance of the two types of noise in entanglement creation depends sensitively on the strength of the exchange coupling. Our results can be used to determine the level of noise suppression needed to reach quantum error correction thresholds. We provide quantitative guidance for the requisite noise constraints necessary to eventually reach the >99 % fidelity consistent with the quantum error correction threshold.

  1. Anisotropic magnetization relaxation in ferromagnetic multilayers with variable interlayer exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, A. F.; Polishchuk, D. M.; Dzhezherya, Yu. I.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Golub, V. O.; Korenivski, V.

    2016-08-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth and its anisotropy in F1/f /F2 /AF multilayers, where spacer f has a low Curie point compared to the strongly ferromagnetic F1 and F2, is investigated. The role of the interlayer exchange coupling in magnetization relaxation is determined experimentally by varying the thickness of the spacer. It is shown that stronger interlayer coupling via thinner spacers enhances the microwave energy exchange between the outer ferromagnetic layers, with the magnetization of F2 exchange dragged by the resonance precession in F1. A weaker mirror effect is also observed: the magnetization of F1 can be exchange dragged by the precession in F2, which leads to antidamping and narrower FMR linewidths. A theory is developed to model the measured data, which allows separating various contributions to the magnetic relaxation in the system. Key physical parameters, such as the interlayer coupling constant, in-plane anisotropy of the FMR linewidth, and dispersion of the magnetic anisotropy fields, are quantified. These results should be useful for designing high-speed magnetic nanodevices based on thermally assisted switching.

  2. Coupled folding and binding with 2D Window-Exchange Umbrella Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Alex; Ahlstrom, Logan S.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions of proteins can gain structure by binding to a partner. This process, of coupled folding and binding, is a fundamental part of many important biological processes. Structure-based models have proven themselves capable of revealing fundamental aspects of how coupled folding and binding occurs, however typical methods to enhance the sampling of these transitions, such as replica exchange, do not adequately sample the transition state region of this extremely rare process. Here we use a variant of Umbrella Sampling to enforce sampling of the transition states of coupled folding and binding of HdeA monomers at neutral pH, an extremely rare process that occurs over timescales ranging from seconds to hours. Using high resolution sampling in the transition state region we cluster states along the principal transition path to obtain a detailed description of coupled binding and folding for the HdeA dimer, revealing new insight into the ensemble of states that are accessible to client recognition. We then demonstrate that exchanges between umbrella sampling windows, as done in previous work, significantly improve relaxation in variables orthogonal to the restraints used. Altogether, these results show that Window Exchange Umbrella Sampling (WEUS) is a promising approach for systems that exhibit flexible binding, and can reveal transition state ensembles of these systems in high detail. PMID:26250657

  3. Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kent, Andrew D.; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Berger, Andreas

    2016-08-22

    Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies separated by a non-magnetic spacer is studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFeB layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. At a fixed frequency, we show that there is an avoided crossing of layer ferromagnetic resonance modes providing direct evidence for interlayer coupling. The mode dispersions for different Ru thicknesses are fit to a Heisenberg-type model to determine the interlayer exchange coupling strength and layer properties. The resulting interlayer exchange coupling varies continuously from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic as a function of the Ru interlayer thickness. These results show that the magnetic layer single domain ground state consists of magnetizations that can be significantly canted with respect to the layer planes and the canting can be tuned by varying the Ru thickness and the layer magnetic characteristics, a capability of interest for applications in spin-transfer torque devices.

  4. Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Berger, Andreas; Kent, Andrew D.

    2016-08-01

    Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies separated by a non-magnetic spacer is studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFeB layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. At a fixed frequency, we show that there is an avoided crossing of layer ferromagnetic resonance modes providing direct evidence for interlayer coupling. The mode dispersions for different Ru thicknesses are fit to a Heisenberg-type model to determine the interlayer exchange coupling strength and layer properties. The resulting interlayer exchange coupling varies continuously from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic as a function of the Ru interlayer thickness. These results show that the magnetic layer single domain ground state consists of magnetizations that can be significantly canted with respect to the layer planes and the canting can be tuned by varying the Ru thickness and the layer magnetic characteristics, a capability of interest for applications in spin-transfer torque devices.

  5. The Relationship Between Torsion and Anisotropic Exchange Coupling in a Tb(III)-Radical Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael L.; Tanaka, Takuya; Kawamura, Seiko; Nakajima, Kenji; Ishida, Takayuki; Nojiri, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The incorporation of paramagnetic ligands within anisotropic rare earth ion clusters has provided significant advance to the design of single molecule magnets with large blocking temperatures. The exchange interaction in such systems is complex, difficult to probe, and little is known about structural relations. Inelastic neutron scattering and sub-THz electron paramagnetic resonance are used complimentary to investigate the large exchange interaction between a rare earth - radical pair in the Tb(hfac)3(2pyNO) complex. Two molecular species exhibiting different Tb-O-N-C torsion angles of the paramagnetic 2pyNO ligand are compared. Antiferromagnetic Ising type 2 p - 4 f exchange is determined for a low torsion angle (3.8 degrees) species. A different species with a larger torsion angle (15.8 degrees) is found to have weaker antiferromagnetic exchange and a non-degenerate ground state doublet. The origin of degeneracy lifting is due to an in-plane ferromagnetic component to the exchange matrix originating from 2 p - 5 d charge transfer rather than a Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. Supported by the Japanese society for the promotion of science and J-PARC.

  6. Unconventional pairings of spin-orbit coupled attractive degenerate Fermi gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Junjun; Zhou, Xiaofan; Chui, Pak Hong; Zhang, Kuang; Gu, Shi-jian; Gong, Ming; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding novel pairings in attractive degenerate Fermi gases is crucial for exploring rich superfluid physics. In this report, we reveal unconventional pairings induced by spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a one-dimensional optical lattice, using a state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group method. When both bands are partially occupied, we find a strong competition between the interband Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) and intraband Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pairings. In particular, for the weak and moderate SOC strengths, these two pairings can coexist, giving rise to a new phase called the FFLO-BCS phase, which exhibits a unique three-peak structure in pairing momentum distribution. For the strong SOC strength, the intraband BCS pairing always dominates in the whole parameter regime, including the half filling. We figure out the whole phase diagrams as functions of filling factor, SOC strength, and Zeeman field. Our results are qualitatively different from recent mean-field predictions. Finally, we address that our predictions could be observed in a weaker trapped potential. PMID:26443006

  7. Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect in antiferromagnetic exchange coupled [Co/Ru/Co]/Pt heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.; Gómez, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the observation of spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects in antiferromagnetically coupled [Co/Ru/Co]/Pt heterostructures. The "spin-flop" magnetization process observed in antiferromagnetically exchange coupled Co layers combined with spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects allowed us to detect both transversal and longitudinal charge accumulations. By controlling the exchange coupling strength and the spin flop transition in the magnetization process, it was possible to produce spin currents polarized in different directions.

  8. The role of range-separated Hartree-Fock exchange in the calculation of magnetic exchange couplings in transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jordan J; Peralta, Juan E

    2011-01-21

    We assess the dependence of magnetic exchange couplings on the variation of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) admixture in global hybrid functionals and the range-separation parameter ω in range-separated hybrid functionals in a set of 12 spin-1/2 binuclear transition metal complexes. The global hybrid PBEh (hybrid Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) and range-separated hybrids HSE (Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof) and LC-ωPBE (long-range corrected hybrid PBE) are employed for this assessment, and exchange couplings are calculated from energy differences within the framework of the spin-projected approach. It is found that these functionals perform optimally for magnetic exchange couplings with 35% HFX admixture for PBEh, ω = 0.50 a.u.(-1) for LC-ωPBE, and ω at or near 0.0 a.u.(-1) for HSE (which corresponds to PBEh). We find that in their standard respective forms, LC-ωPBE slightly outperforms PBEh, while PBEh with 35% HFX yields exchange couplings closer to experiment than those of LC-ωPBE with ω = 0.50 a.u.(-1). Additionally, we show that the profile of exchange couplings with respect to ω in HSE is appreciably flat from 0 to 0.2 a.u.(-1). This combined with the fact that HSE is computationally more tractable than global hybrids makes HSE an attractive alternative for the evaluation of exchange couplings in extended systems. These results are rationalized with respect to how varying the parameters within these functionals affects the delocalization of the magnetic orbitals, and conclusions are made regarding the relative importance of range separation versus global mixing of HFX for the calculation of exchange couplings.

  9. Exchange coupling in MnBi/Fe-Co thin film bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Gao, Tieren; Fackler, Sean; Maruyama, Shingo; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Cui, Jun; Krammer, M. J.; Johnson, Duane; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie; Kirby, Brian; Ratcliff, William; Skomski, Ralph; Lofland, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    To achieve enhanced energy products of MnBi for rare-earth free permanent magnet applications, we studied the exchange coupled soft/hard bilayers based on MnBi films. By using DC magnetron sputtering, we fabricated pure MnBi films with magnetization of 500 emu/cc and coercivity of 1.6 T. A (BH)max of 6.2 MGOe is obtained for pure MnBi films. A large enhancement in (BH)max due to exchange coupling in MnBi/Fe-Co bilayers is observed with Fe-Co thicknesses between 2 and 5 nm. The highest (BH)max obtained is 14.0 MGOe at room temperature with a single phase magnetization curve for a MnBi (20 nm)/Co (2 nm) bilayer. TEM and XPS studies indicate there is no oxidation between soft/hard interface. The XMCD results show that the soft moments of Fe/Co at a thickness of 2 nm are perpendicular to the MnBi plane, indicating nearly perfect hard-soft coupling. Moreover, a micromagnetic calculation on perpendicularly-coupled MnBi/Fe-Co bilayers suggests a critical coupling thickness of 4 nm of the soft layer. We will also discuss results from polarized neutron reflectometry measurements performed on the bilayers. This work is funded by ARPA-E.

  10. Controlled exchange interaction for quantum logic operations with spin qubits in coupled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Moskal, S.; Bednarek, S.; Adamowski, J.

    2007-09-15

    A two-electron system confined in two coupled semiconductor quantum dots is investigated as a candidate for performing quantum logic operations with spin qubits. We study different processes of swapping the electron spins by a controlled switching on and off of the exchange interaction. The resulting spin swap corresponds to an elementary operation in quantum-information processing. We perform direct simulations of the time evolution of the two-electron system. Our results show that, in order to obtain the full interchange of spins, the exchange interaction should change smoothly in time. The presence of jumps and spikes in the time characteristics of the confinement potential leads to a considerable increase of the spin-swap time. We propose several mechanisms to modify the exchange interaction by changing the confinement potential profile and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Coupling of PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX to GIT1 promotes focal complex disassembly.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z S; Manser, E; Loo, T H; Lim, L

    2000-09-01

    The p21-activated kinase PAK is targeted to focal complexes (FCs) through interactions with the SH3 domains of the PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX and Nck. PIX is a Rac GTP exchange factor that also binds the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein known as GIT1. Overexpression of GIT1 in fibroblasts or epithelial cells causes a loss of paxillin from FCs and stimulates cell motility. This is due to the direct interaction of a C-terminal 125-residue domain of GIT1 with paxillin, under the regulation of PIX. In its activated state, GIT1 can promote FC disassembly independent of actin-myosin contractile events. Additionally, GIT directly couples to a key component of FCs, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), via a conserved Spa2 homology domain. We propose that GIT1 and FAK cooperate to promote motility both by directly regulating focal complex dynamics and by the activation of Rac.

  12. Switching field distribution of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic composite bit patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oezelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Fischbacher, Johann; Matthes, Patrick; Kirk, Eugenie; Wohlhüter, Phillip; Heyderman, Laura Jane; Albrecht, Manfred; Schrefl, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the switching field distribution and the resulting bit error rate of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic bilayer island arrays by micromagnetic simulations. Using islands with varying microstructure and anisotropic properties, the intrinsic switching field distribution is computed. The dipolar contribution to the switching field distribution is obtained separately by using a model of a triangular patterned island array resembling 1.4 Tb/in2 bit patterned media. Both contributions are computed for different thicknesses of the soft exchange coupled ferrimagnet and also for ferromagnetic single phase FePt islands. A bit patterned media with a bilayer structure of FeGd( 5 nm )/FePt( 5 nm ) shows a bit error rate of 10-4 with a write field of 1.16 T .

  13. Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Magnetisation Investigation of an Exchange-Coupled Dy2 SMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael L.; Zhang, Qing; Sarachik, Myriam P.; Kent, Andrew D.; Chen, Yizhang; Butch, Nicholas; Pineda, Eufemio M.; McInnes, Eric

    The strong spin orbit coupling and weak crystal field energies of simple exchange-coupled rare earth SMMs makes the precise evaluation of their magnetic properties nontrivial. Here we report a detailed investigation of the single molecule magnet hqH2Dy2(hq)4(NO3)3MeOH. Inelastic neutron scattering is used to obtain direct access to several low energy crystal field excitations. The INS results display several features that are not found in earlier FIR absorption experiments, while other features found in the latter are absent. Based on the effective point charge model, numerical calculations are currently underway to resolve these apparent discrepancies using complementary magnetisation measurements to resolve the exchange between Dy ions. Work supported by ARO W911NF-13-1-1025 (CCNY) and NSF-DMR-1309202 (NYU).

  14. Exchange-correlation energy of a hole gas including valence band coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbert, P. A.; Wieldraaijer, H.; van der Weide, R.; Kemerink, M.; Koenraad, P. M.; Wolter, J. H.

    1997-08-01

    We have calculated an accurate exchange-correlation energy of a hole gas, including the complexities related to the valence band coupling as occurring in semiconductors like GaAs, but excluding the band warping. A parametrization for the dependence on the density and the ratio between light- and heavy-hole masses is given. We apply our results to a hole gas in an AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well and calculate the two-dimensional band structure and the band-gap renormalization. The inclusion of the valence band coupling in the calculation of the exchange-correlation potentials for holes and electrons leads to a much better agreement between theoretical and experimental data than when it is omitted.

  15. Ferro-/Ferri-Exchange Coupled Magnetic Double Layers For High Density Magneto-optical Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Ying; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jun-He

    2009-10-01

    PtCo/TbFeCo ferro-/ferri-exchange coupled double layer film (ECDL) was fabricated for high density magneto-optical (MO) data storage. At room temperature (RT), the PtCo film is in-plane magnetized and acts as a mask layer. However, at elevated temperature, it turns to be out-of-plane magnetized because of the strong exchange coupling interactions with the TbFeCo layer. Therefore, this ECDL film has a magnetically induced superresolution (MSR) effect. Combining it with the good Kerr signal at short wavelength, the PtCo/TbFeCo film can be a good candidate for blue laser-MSR MO data storage.

  16. Spin-Wave Modes in Exchange-Coupled FePt/FeNi Bilayer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Fa; He, Pan; Cheng, Chu-Yuan; Zhou, Shi-Ming; Lai, Tian-Shu

    2014-01-01

    A simple magnetic modulation structure of the exchange-coupling FePt/FeNi bilayer film is fabricated and studied for its magnetization dynamics using time-resolved magneto-optical polar Kerr spectroscopy. It is found that two spin-wave modes can be excited. One is fixed at ~3.2 GHz in frequency for any external field and may serve as a frequency-stabilized spin-wave filter, while the other is external field dependent. In contrast, only the external field-dependent mode is excited in single-layer FeNi, supporting the localized origin of the mode at ~3.2 GHz, which is confined to a thin exchange-coupling region. The other external field-dependent mode in frequency is attributed to the Kittel mode.

  17. Magnetotransport signatures of the proximity exchange and spin-orbit couplings in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeongsu; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2016-11-01

    Graphene on an insulating ferromagnetic substrate—ferromagnetic insulator or ferromagnetic metal with a tunnel barrier—is expected to exhibit large exchange and spin-orbit couplings due to proximity effects. We use a realistic transport model of charge-disorder scattering and solve the linearized Boltzmann equation numerically exactly for the anisotropic Fermi contours of modified Dirac electrons to find magnetotransport signatures of these proximity effects: proximity anisotropic magnetoresistance, inverse spin-galvanic effect, and the planar Hall resistivity. We establish the corresponding anisotropies due to the exchange and spin-orbit couplings, with respect to the magnetization orientation. We also present parameter maps guiding towards optimal regimes for observing transport magnetoanisotropies in proximity graphene.

  18. Tm(iii) complexes undergoing slow relaxation of magnetization: exchange coupling and aging effects.

    PubMed

    Amjad, A; Figuerola, A; Sorace, L

    2017-03-21

    The present study focuses on the dynamic magnetic behaviour of exchange coupled 3d-4f complexes containing the scarcely investigated non-Kramers Tm(3+) center, the 3d metal ions being either the low-spin Fe(3+) (1) or the diamagnetic Co(3+) (2) ion. Both complexes display field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. The field and temperature dependences of the relaxation rate provided indication of relevant contributions from quantum tunnelling, direct, Orbach and Raman processes, with only minor effects from exchange coupling interactions. Furthermore, the aged sample of 2 exhibited an additional relaxation process, possibly due to structural modifications accompanied by solvent loss, highlighting the importance of a careful consideration of this factor when analysing the magnetization dynamics in solvated systems.

  19. Spin orbital torque driven magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junction with inter-layer exchange coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Zhongshui; Wei, Dan

    2015-01-14

    The switching processes of elliptically shaped magnetic tunnel junction bits with the structure Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB have been studied by the micromagnetic models. By comparing the tunneling magneto-resistance minor and major loops calculated by our model with related experimental results, we found that the inter-layer exchange coupling between the two CoFeB layers and a reduced saturation magnetization M{sub s} distribution at the edge of the elliptical bit should be included. The chosen strength of the inter-layer exchange coupling also matches well with experimental observations. The current induced magnetization switching is generated from the spin Hall effect in the Ta layer. The critical switching currents calculated by our model are coincident with experiment. This shows the reliability of our micromagnetic model with the spin orbital torque term.

  20. Ferromagnetic resonance of an heterogeneous multilayer system with interlayer exchange coupling: an accessible model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. F.; Landeros, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present a general model for the coupled magnetic resonances of an exchange interacting multilayer system, which can be implemented without complex analytical calculations or numerical simulations. The model allows one to study the spin wave modes of a multilayer structure with any number of layers, accounting for individual uniaxial and cubic anisotropies, and (static and dynamic) demagnetizing and external fields as well, assuming that only the interlayer exchange coupling mechanism is relevant between such magnetic layers. This scheme is applied to recent measurements of a NiFe/CoFe bilayer, and to studying the influence of the strength of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions and the applied field orientation on the spin wave modes and intensities of the ferromagnetic resonance response. We find that the acoustic oscillation mode tends to stabilize in frequency if the magnetizations of the layers are parallel to each other, while the optical mode stabilizes when the magnetizations are antiparallel. Furthermore, we find that each oscillation mode is governed by either the NiFe or the CoFe. The modes swap the governing layer as the perpendicular field increases, inducing a gap between their frequencies, which appears to be proportional to the exchange coupling. Finally, we find that the field linewidth of the bilayer due to Gilbert damping has a dependence on the frequency very similar to the linear dependence of the linewidth in single layers. The theoretical scheme presented here can be further used to explore magnetization dynamics in different multilayer architectures—such as exchange springs, structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and complex compositions of layer stacks—and can be useful as a basis to study multilayers with chiral and dipolar interactions.

  1. Coupling analysis of a matched piezoelectric sensor and actuator pair for vibration control of a smart beam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sup; Gardonio, Paolo; Elliott, Stephen J

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the in-plane and out-of-plane coupling of a matched piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair bonded on a beam. Both the sensor and actuator are triangularly shaped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducers and are intended to provide a compact sensor/actuator system for beam vibration control. The measured sensor-actuator frequency response function has shown an unpredicted increase in magnitude with frequency, which was found, to be due to in-plane vibration coupling. An analytical model has been developed to decompose the sensor-actuator response function into an in-plane contribution and an out-of-plane contribution. This in-plane coupling can limit the feedback control gains when a direct velocity feedback control is applied. A method called the j omega s compensation method is proposed to identify the effect of the in-plane vibration coupling at low frequencies. Even after this compensation, however, there was unexpected strong out-of-plane coupling at even modes, which may have been caused by a lack of accuracy in the shaping of the PVDF sensor and actuator. Numerical simulations have confirmed the sensitivity of the matched sensor/actuator pair with shaping errors.

  2. Evidence of weak pair coupling in the penetration depth of bi-based high-T sub c superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.R.; Sun, Yang Ren; Ossandon, J.G. . Dept. of Physics); Christen, D.K.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Sales, B.C.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sonder, E.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic penetration depth {lambda}(T) has been investigated in Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO high-{Tc} compounds having 2- and 3-layers of copper-oxygen per unit cell. Studies of the magnetization in the vortex state were employed and the results were compared with weak and strong coupling calculations. The temperature dependence of {lambda} is described well by BCS theory in the clean limit, giving evidence for weak pair coupling in this family of materials. For the short component of the {lambda} tensor, we obtain values of 292 and 220 nm (T = 0) for Bi-2212 and (BiPb)-2223, respectively.

  3. Measurement of the dynamical dipolar coupling in a pair of magnetic nanodisks using a ferromagnetic resonance force microscope.

    PubMed

    Pigeau, B; Hahn, C; de Loubens, G; Naletov, V V; Klein, O; Mitsuzuka, K; Lacour, D; Hehn, M; Andrieu, S; Montaigne, F

    2012-12-14

    We perform a spectroscopic study of the collective spin-wave dynamics occurring in a pair of magnetic nanodisks coupled by the magnetodipolar interaction. We take advantage of the stray field gradient produced by the magnetic tip of a ferromagnetic resonance force microscope to continuously tune and detune the relative resonance frequencies between two adjacent nano-objects. This reveals the anticrossing and hybridization of the spin-wave modes in the pair. At the exact tuning, the measured frequency splitting between the binding and antibinding modes corresponds to the strength of the dynamical dipolar coupling Ω. This accurate ferromagnetic resonance force microscope determination of Ω is measured versus the separation between the nanodisks. It agrees quantitatively with calculations of the expected dynamical magnetodipolar interaction in our sample.

  4. Experiments and Simulations on a Heat Exchanger of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generation System Under Coupling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yu, C. G.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y. P.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates an exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for vehicles, using thermoelectric modules and a heat exchanger to produce electric power. It proposes a new plane heat exchanger of a thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, producing electricity from a limited hot surface area. To investigate the new plane heat exchanger, we make a coupling condition of heat-flow and flow-solid coupling analysis on it to obtain the temperature, heat, and pressure field of the heat exchanger, and compared it with the old heat exchanger. These fields couple together to solve the multi-field coupling of the flow, solid, and heat, and then the simulation result is compared with the test bench experiment of TEG, providing a theoretical and experimental basis for the present exhaust gas waste heat recovery system.

  5. Probing conformational changes in rhodopsin using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Orban, Tivadar; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to evaluate changes in protein conformation between two or more states. Here, we describe a complete methodology that can be used to assess conformational changes in rhodopsin accompanying its transition from the inactive to activated state upon light exposure. This approach may be employed to investigate the structure and conformational changes of various membrane proteins.

  6. Exchange coupling driven omnidirectional rotatable anisotropy in ferrite doped CoFe thin film

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Guozhi; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Isotropic magnetic materials with high resonant frequencies are useful for applications in microwave devices. Undoped CoFe thin films, as common soft magnetic materials with high saturation magnetization, show isotropic characteristics but no high frequency response. Here, we use ferrite doped CoFe thin film to realize a resonant frequency higher than 4.5 GHz at all orientations. The exchange coupling between ferrimagnet and ferromagnet is assumed to play a key role on the omnidirectional rotatable anisotropy. PMID:23145323

  7. Exchange coupling driven omnidirectional rotatable anisotropy in ferrite doped CoFe thin film.

    PubMed

    Chai, Guozhi; Phuoc, Nguyen N; Ong, C K

    2012-01-01

    Isotropic magnetic materials with high resonant frequencies are useful for applications in microwave devices. Undoped CoFe thin films, as common soft magnetic materials with high saturation magnetization, show isotropic characteristics but no high frequency response. Here, we use ferrite doped CoFe thin film to realize a resonant frequency higher than 4.5 GHz at all orientations. The exchange coupling between ferrimagnet and ferromagnet is assumed to play a key role on the omnidirectional rotatable anisotropy.

  8. High switching efficiency in FePt exchange coupled composite media mediated by MgO exchange control layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tanmay; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Saifullah, M. S. M.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Satisfying the mutually conflicting requirements of easy switchability and high thermal stability still remains a hindrance to achieving ultra-high areal densities in hard disk drives. Exchange coupled composite media used with proper exchange control layers (ECLs) presents a potential solution to circumvent this hindrance. In this work, we have studied the role of MgO and Ta ECLs of different thicknesses in reducing the switching field of FePt media. MgO ECL was found to be more effective than a Ta ECL. For a 2 nm MgO ECL, the switching field could be reduced by 41% and at the cost of only a limited loss in thermal stability. Furthermore, a very high switching efficiency of 1.9 was obtained using 2 nm MgO ECL. So, with a proper choice of ECL material and thickness, the switching field of FePt media can be substantially reduced while ensuring high thermal stability and a better signal-to-noise ratio, thus potentially paving the way for very high areal density media.

  9. Exchange coupled L10-FePt/fcc-FePt nanomagnets: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sachchidanand; Gajbhiye, Namdeo S.

    2016-03-01

    We report synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of exchange-coupled L10-FePt/fcc-FePt nanomagnets. Structural and morphological characterization of exchange-coupled L10-FePt/fcc-FePt was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction pattern has been used to quantify L10-FePt and fcc-FePt phases present in samples. Room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy showed sextets of both L10-FePt and fcc-FePt phases with their respective hyperfine interaction parameters. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM and HRTEM) images confirmed nanocrystalline nature of exchange-coupled nanomagnets with particle size ranges from 15 nm to 50 nm after annealing for different time at 700 °C. Room temperature magnetic studies showed ferromagnetic nature of nanomagnets and maximum energy product (BH)max~10.92 MGOe was obtained for sample containing 89.0% volume fraction of L10-FePt phase.

  10. Advanced Reactors-Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Coupling: Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Utgikar, Vivek; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2016-12-29

    The overall goal of the research project was to model the behavior of the advanced reactorintermediate heat exchange system and to develop advanced control techniques for off-normal conditions. The specific objectives defined for the project were: 1. To develop the steady-state thermal hydraulic design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); 2. To develop mathematical models to describe the advanced nuclear reactor-IHX-chemical process/power generation coupling during normal and off-normal operations, and to simulate models using multiphysics software; 3. To develop control strategies using genetic algorithm or neural network techniques and couple these techniques with the multiphysics software; 4. To validate the models experimentally The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing four different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved selection of IHX candidates and developing steady state designs for those. The second task involved modeling of the transient and offnormal operation of the reactor-IHX system. The subsequent task dealt with the development of control strategies and involved algorithm development and simulation. The last task involved experimental validation of the thermal hydraulic performances of the two prototype heat exchangers designed and fabricated for the project at steady state and transient conditions to simulate the coupling of the reactor- IHX-process plant system. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed high-temperature molten salt facility.

  11. Quantum interference and correlations in single dopants and exchange-coupled dopants in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salfi, Joe

    2015-03-01

    Quantum electronics exploiting the highly coherent states of single dopants in silicon invariably requires interactions between states and interfaces, and inter-dopant coupling by exchange interactions. We have developed a low temperature STM scheme for spatially resolved single-electron transport in a device-like environment, providing the first wave-function measurements of single donors and exchange-coupled acceptors in silicon. For single donors, we directly observed valley quantum interference due to linear superpositions of the valleys, and found that valley degrees of freedom are highly robust to the symmetry-breaking perturbation of nearby (3 nm) surfaces. For exchange-coupled acceptors, we measured the singlet-triplet splitting, and from the spatial tunneling probability, extracted enough information about the 2-body wavefunction amplitudes to determine the entanglement entropy, a measure of the quantum inseparability (quantum correlations) generated by the interactions between indistinguishable particles. Entanglement entropy of the J=3/2 holes was found to increase with increasing dopant distance, as Coulomb interactions overcome tunneling, coherently localizing spin towards a Heitler-London singlet, mimicing S=1/2 particles. In the future these capabilities will be exploited to peer into the inner workings of few-dopant quantum devices and shed new light on multi-dopant correlated states, engineered atom-by-atom. Work done collaboratively with J. A. Mol, R. Rahman, G. Klimeck, M. Y. Simmons, L. C. L. Hollenberg, and S. Rogge. Primary financial support from the ARC.

  12. Evidence for concerted pathways in ion-pairing coupled electron transfers.

    PubMed

    Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2008-04-09

    Ion-pairing with electro-inactive metal ions may change drastically the thermodynamic and kinetic reactivity of electron transfer in chemical and biochemical processes. Besides the classical stepwise pathways (electron-transfer first, followed by ion-pairing or vice versa), ion-pairing may also occur concertedly with electron transfer. The latter pathway avoids high-energy intermediates but a key issue is that of the kinetic price to pay to benefit from this thermodynamic advantage. A model is proposed leading to activation/driving force relationships characterizing such concerted associative electron transfers for intermolecular and intramolecular homogeneous reactions and for electrochemical reactions. Contrary to previous assertions, the driving force of the reaction (defined as the opposite of the reaction standard free energy), as well as the intrinsic barrier, does not depend on the concentration of the ion-pairing agent, which simply plays the role of one of the reactants. Besides solvent and intramolecular reorganization, the energy of the bond being formed is the main component of the intrinsic barrier. Application of these considerations to reactions reported in recent literature illustrates how concerted ion-pairing electron-transfer reactions can be diagnosed and how competition between stepwise and concerted pathways can be analyzed. It provided the first experimental evidence of the viability of concerted ion-pairing electron-transfer reactions.

  13. Speciation of trace elements in human serum by micro anion exchange chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malavolta, Marco; Piacenza, Francesco; Basso, Andrea; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Pierpaoli, Sara; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2012-02-01

    Speciation analysis of essential trace elements in human serum provides important information on nutritional status and homeostatic mechanisms regulating transport processes, acute phase reactions, and protection against oxidative damage. Anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has proved to be a useful tool in speciation. Here we describe a fast method that can be applied to carry out the speciation of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se in as little as 1 microl [corrected] of serum. The method employs monolithic anion exchange micro columns installed on a tandem HPLC system coupled on-line with an ICP-MS detector. The chromatographic separation is similar to those reported previously but with considerable gain in terms of time and sample requirement. Reproducibility is acceptable for most species. Using our method, we were able to find species-specific differences between different commercially available trace element reference materials. Because the method chosen to collect blood might interfere with speciation, the proposed methodology was used to compare heparinized plasma, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma, and serum from adult healthy volunteers. As expected, EDTA strongly affects speciation analysis (especially for Fe and Zn), whereas changes due to the use of lithium-heparin (Li-He) as anticoagulant appear to be minimized.

  14. Hybrid Design for Advanced Magnetic Recording Media: Combining Exchange-Coupled Composite Media with Coupled Granular Continuous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chureemart, P.; Evans, R. F. L.; Chantrell, R. W.; Huang, P.-W.; Wang, K.; Ju, G.; Chureemart, J.

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the performance of advanced granular recording media and understand the physics behind the mechanism of the reversal process, an atomistic spin-dynamics simulation is used to investigate theoretically the magnetic properties and the magnetization-reversal behavior for a composite media design. This model allows us to investigate the effect of the magnetostatic interaction and inter- and intralayer exchange coupling for a realistic system. The composite granular medium investigated consists of hard and soft composite layers in which the grains are well segregated with a continuous capping layer deposited to provide uniform exchange coupling. We present a detailed calculation aimed to reveal the reversal mechanism. In particular, the angular dependence of the critical field is investigated to understand the switching process. The calculations show a complex reversal mechanism driven by the magnetostatic interaction. It is also demonstrated, at high sweep rates consistent with the recording process, that thermal effects lead to a significant and irreducible contribution to the switching field distribution.

  15. Theory of proximity-induced exchange coupling in graphene on hBN/(Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollner, Klaus; Gmitra, Martin; Frank, Tobias; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2016-10-01

    Graphene, being essentially a surface, can borrow some properties of an insulating substrate (such as exchange or spin-orbit couplings) while still preserving a great degree of autonomy of its electronic structure. Such derived properties are commonly labeled as proximity. Here we perform systematic first-principles calculations of the proximity exchange coupling, induced by cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) in graphene, via a few (up to three) layers of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We find that the induced spin splitting of the graphene bands is of the order of 10 meV for a monolayer of hBN, decreasing in magnitude but alternating in sign by adding each new insulating layer. We find that the proximity exchange can be giant if there is a resonant d level of the transition metal close to the Dirac point. Our calculations suggest that this effect could be present in Co heterostructures, in which a d level strongly hybridizes with the valence-band orbitals of graphene. Since this hybridization is spin dependent, the proximity spin splitting is unusually large, about 10 meV even for two layers of hBN. An external electric field can change the offset of the graphene and transition-metal orbitals and can lead to a reversal of the sign of the exchange parameter. This we predict to happen for the case of two monolayers of hBN, enabling electrical control of proximity spin polarization (but also spin injection) in graphene/hBN/Co structures. Nickel-based heterostructures show weaker proximity effects than cobalt heterostructures. We introduce two phenomenological models to describe the first-principles data. The minimal model comprises the graphene (effective) pz orbitals and can be used to study transport in graphene with proximity exchange, while the pz-d model also includes hybridization with d orbitals, which is important to capture the giant proximity exchange. Crucial to both models is the pseudospin-dependent exchange coupling, needed to describe the different spin

  16. Effect of exchange-coupling interaction on anisotropy of grain in nanoscaled magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Gao, Ru-wei; Han, Guang-bing; Liu, Min; Han, Bai-ping

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inter-grain exchange-coupling interaction on the anisotropy of grain in nanoscaled magnets has been investigated by putting forward an expression of anisotropy at grain boundary, K1ij(r), which is suitable for different coupling conditions, and expresses well the coherency between soft and hard grains. The average anisotropy of grain has been calculated based on K1ij(r) and the theory of partial exchange-coupling interaction. It has been found that the average anisotropy of hard or soft grain, or , increases with increasing grain size D monotonously when hard-hard or soft-soft grains couple. When soft-hard grains touch each other, with increasing D, the variation of average anisotropy of soft-hard grain depends on the anisotropy at grain interface K1sh(0), which denotes the affection degree of hard grain on the anisotropy of soft grain. Compared with other results, it is more reasonable that K1sh(0) ranges from 0.5K1h to 0.7K1h. The variations of anisotropy with D we calculated are consistent with those of coercivities given by other authors when K1ij(0) is fixed in a certain range.

  17. Interfacial exchange coupling and magnetization reversal in perpendicular [Co/Ni]N/TbCo composite structures.

    PubMed

    Tang, M H; Zhang, Zongzhi; Tian, S Y; Wang, J; Ma, B; Jin, Q Y

    2015-06-15

    Interfacial exchange coupling and magnetization reversal characteristics in the perpendicular heterostructures consisting of an amorphous ferrimagnetic (FI) TbxCo(100-x) alloy layer exchange-coupled with a ferromagnetic (FM) [Co/Ni]N multilayer have been investigated. As compared with pure TbxCo(100-x) alloy, the magnetization compensation composition of the heterostructures shift to a higher Tb content, implying Co/Ni also serves to compensate the Tb moment in TbCo layer. The net magnetization switching field Hc⊥ and interlayer interfacial coupling field Hex, are not only sensitive to the magnetization and thickness of the switched TbxCo(100-x) or [Co/Ni]N layer, but also to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy strength of the pinning layer. By tuning the layer structure we achieve simultaneously both large Hc⊥ = 1.31 T and Hex = 2.19 T. These results, in addition to the fundamental interest, are important to understanding of the interfacial coupling interaction in the FM/FI heterostructures, which could offer the guiding of potential applications in heat-assisted magnetic recording or all-optical switching recording technique.

  18. Element Specific Observation of Ferromagnetic Interlayer Exchange Coupled Dual Vortex Core Nano Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulecio, Javier; Arena, Dario; Warnicke, Peter; Im, Mi-Young; Pollard, Shawn; Fischer, Peter; Zhu, Yimei

    2013-03-01

    We report on the magnetic evolution of magnetic vortices in nanoscale and multilayer disk structures. The tri-layer structure consists of Co and Permalloy (Py) layers, coupled across a thin (1nm) Cu spacer that provides strong coupling between the Co and Py layers. Element-resolved full-field XMCD microscopy is combined with ultra-high resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, permitting measurement of both layer-resolved domain patterns and the vortex structure averaged across the tri-layer. We examine the evolution of the vortex structure while the nanostructure is cycled through the M-H hysteresis loop. In particular we will discuss the effects of strong interlayer exchanged coupling on a dual vortex core system, including analysis of the layer-resolved coercivity, and the evolution, deformation, annihilation, and nucleation of the vortices.

  19. Non-collinear magnetization configuration in interlayer exchange coupled magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Min, B.-C.; Kim, J.-Y.; Park, B.-G.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shin, K.-H.

    2011-09-01

    Element specific magnetic hysteresis loops of the interlayer exchange coupled CoFeB/Ru/[Co/Ni]4 structure were measured utilizing x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. It was found that the Co/Ni multilayer and the CoFeB layer have Ru thickness dependent oscillatory interlayer coupling. Due to its interlayer coupling with the perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni multilayer, the CoFeB magnetization direction is slightly tilted out-of-plane from its in-plane magnetic easy axis. Quantitative measurements show that the tilting angle is small (<12°) and that a small in-plane magnetic field (˜50 Oe) applied to this structure will result in a completely in-plane CoFeB magnetization.

  20. Quantum Otto engine with exchange coupling in the presence of level degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Venu; Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2017-09-01

    We consider a quasistatic quantum Otto cycle using two effectively two-level systems with degeneracy in the excited state. The systems are coupled through isotropic exchange interaction of strength J >0 , in the presence of an external magnetic field B which is varied during the cycle. We prove the positive work condition and show that level degeneracy can act as a thermodynamic resource, so that a larger amount of work can be extracted than in the nondegenerate case, both with and without coupling. We also derive an upper bound for the efficiency of the cycle. This bound is the same as derived for a system of coupled spin-1/2 particles [G. Thomas and R. S. Johal, Phys. Rev. E 83, 031135 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.031135], i.e., without degeneracy, and depends only on the control parameters of the Hamiltonian, being independent of the level degeneracy and the reservoir temperatures.

  1. Magnetic proximity effect and interlayer exchange coupling of ferromagnetic/topological insulator/ferromagnetic trilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingda; Cui, Wenping; Yu, Jin; Dai, Zuyang; Wang, Zhe; Katmis, Ferhat; Guo, Wanlin; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic proximity effect between the topological insulator (TI) and ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) is considered to have great potential in spintronics. However, a complete determination of interfacial magnetic structure has been highly challenging. We theoretically investigate the interlayer exchange coupling of two FMIs separated by a TI thin film, and show that the particular electronic states of the TI contributing to the proximity effect can be directly identified through the coupling behavior between two FMIs, together with a tunability of the coupling constant. Such an FMI/TI/FMI structure not only serves as a platform to clarify the magnetic structure of the FMI/TI interface, but also provides insights in designing the magnetic storage devices with ultrafast response.

  2. Virtual Antiparticle Pairs, the Unit of Charge Epsilon and the QCD Coupling Alpha(sub s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, David

    2001-01-01

    New semi-classical models of virtual antiparticle pairs are used to compute the pair lifetimes, and good agreement with the Heisenberg lifetimes from quantum field theory (QFT) is found. When the results of the new models and QFT are combined, formulae for e and alpha(sub s)(q) are derived in terms of only h and c. The modeling method applies to both the electromagnetic and color forces. Evaluation of the action integral of potential field fluctuation for each interaction potential yields approx. = h/2 for both electromagnetic and color fluctuations, in agreement with QFT. Thus each model is a quantized semiclassical representation for such virtual antiparticle pairs, to good approximation. This work reduces the number of arbitrary parameters of the Standard Model by two from 18 to 16. These are remarkable, unexpected results from a basically classical method.

  3. Heat transfer from earth-coupled heat exchangers-Experimental and analytical results

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.A.; Vitta, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental heat transfer results obtained with tubular heat transfer coils buried in soil are presented along with a finite difference simulation model that predicts the heat transfer to or from the buried pipes and the temperature distribution in the soil surrounding the buried pipes. The results were obtained with two different earth-coupled coils. Each coil was fabricated from 2.2 in. (5.6 cm) ID nominal 2 in. diameter cast iron pipe. The length of the heat exchanger for each earth-coupled system was 90 ft. (27.4 m). The earth-coupled coils were buried at a depth of 2.75 ft. (0.84 m) below the surface of the earth. The experimental data cover a time span of seven months and represent operation of the earth-coupled coils at various heat rates. Some of the prime quantities measured on a continuous basis are the earth's temperature at several locations in the vicinity of the buried coils, the far earth temperature, the solar insolation, moisture content of the soil, and the heat transferred to or from the buried coils to the surrounding soil. The finite difference model tracks the temperature distribution in the earth surrounding the coils on a continuous basis and predicts the earth's temperature at many locations adjacent to the earth-coupled coil with a maximum error of 4/sup 0/F (2.2/sup 0/C) during the seven month test. As parameters, the finite difference model included the moisture content of the soil, convection at the surface of the earth, emissivity of the soil, radiation exchange at the air-soil interface, as well as all of the pertinent parameters related to the flow of the heat transfer fluid through the buried pipes. The results presented, both experimental and simulated, have direct application in the design of earth-coupled water-source heat pump systems.

  4. Monte Carlo investigation of how interfacial magnetic couplings affect blocking temperature distributions in exchange bias bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhoutellier, G.; Ledue, D.; Patte, R.; Baltz, V.

    2016-11-01

    Exchange bias in ferromagnetic (F)/antiferromagnetic (AF) bilayers is a function of both the bulk properties of the AF layer and the interfacial properties determining the effective interfacial couplings between the F and AF layers. The distinction between bulk and interface can be clearly revealed in blocking temperature distributions, where AF grain volume distribution results in a high-temperature peak while disordered interfacial magnetic phases produce a low-temperature contribution. However, the coupling conditions producing such bimodal blocking temperature distributions remain to be specified. In this article, we use a granular model which accounts for the disordered interfacial phases by considering small magnetic grains (SGs) with weaker anisotropy and coupling with the F grains at the F/AF interface. The SG are included in the AF material. The coupling conditions producing bimodal blocking temperature distributions were determined. Then, using Monte Carlo simulations, these conditions were validated and the effect of interfacial F-SG coupling on distributions was investigated. We next determined how the ratio between F-SG and F-AF couplings could be used to estimate the surface coverage of the disordered interfacial phases from experimental data.

  5. Ledge-type Co/L1{sub 0}-FePt exchange-coupled composites

    SciTech Connect

    Speliotis, Th.; Giannopoulos, G.; Niarchos, D.; Li, W. F.; Hadjipanayis, G.; Barucca, G.; Agostinelli, E.; Laureti, S.; Peddis, D.; Testa, A. M.; Varvaro, G.

    2016-06-21

    FePt-based exchange-coupled composites consisting of a magnetically hard L1{sub 0}-FePt phase exchange-coupled with a soft ferromagnetic material are promising candidates for future ultra-high density (>1 Tbit/in{sup 2}) perpendicular magnetic recording media, also being of interest for other applications including spin torque oscillators and micro-electro-mechanical systems, among others. In this paper, the effect of the thickness of a soft Co layer (3 < th{sub Co} < 20 nm) on the magnetic behavior of ledge-type fcc(100)-Co/L1{sub 0}(001)-FePt composites deposited on an MgO (100) substrate is systematically studied by combining morpho-structural analyses and angular magnetization measurements. Starting from a film consisting of isolated L1{sub 0}(001)–FePt islands, the ledge-type structure was obtained by depositing a Co layer that either covered the FePt islands or filled-up the inter-island region, gradually forming a continuous layer with increasing Co thickness. A perpendicular anisotropy was maintained up to th{sub Co} ∼ 9.5 nm and a significant reduction in the coercivity (about 50% for th{sub Co} ∼ 3 nm) with the increase in th{sub Co} was observed, indicating that, by coupling hard FePt and soft Co phases in a ledge-type configuration, the writability can be greatly improved. Recoil loops' measurements confirmed the exchange-coupled behavior, reinforcing a potential interest in these systems for future magnetic recording media.

  6. Investigation of Trilinear Vector Boson Couplings Through W Boson Pair Production in Dilepton Decay Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Paul Craig

    1998-03-01

    An investigation of the interactions between the $W$ boson and the $Z$ boson and photon through the pair production of bosons is presented. This has been accomplished via a study of the reaction $p\\overline{p} \\to \\ell\\overline{\

  7. Exchange-bias-like coupling in a Cu-diluted-Fe/Tb multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Saumya; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Stahn, Jochen; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Bauer, Andreas; Böni, Peter; Paul, Amitesh

    2015-03-01

    Transition metal-rare earth (TM-RE) Fe/Tb-multilayer systems have been known to show exchange-bias-like shifts in the form of double hysteresis loop (DHL) along and opposite to the field cooling axis. Planar domain walls, with opposite handedness at the interfaces, are held responsible for such DHL. Here, we report on the formation of nanoparticulated Fe layers in the Cu-matrix within a Fe-Cu/Tb multilayer and their eventual low-temperature characteristics. AC susceptibility measurements indicate that these diluted magnetic clusters have a superspin-glass-type of freezing behavior. Eventually, this Fe-cluster/Tb interlayer interaction, which is conjectured to be mediated by the pinned moments within the individual clusters, has helped in increasing the exchange bias field in the system to a high value of ≈1.3 kOe, which gradually vanishes around 50 K. Polarized neutron reflectivity confirms a very strong antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling between the individual layers. The magnitude of the magnetic moment of each of the individual Tb or Fe-Cu layer remains similar, but due to the strong AF-coupling at the interfaces, the entire ferrimagnetic Fe-Cu/Tb entity flips its direction at a compensation field of around 3.7 kOe. This study shows that magnetic dilution can be an effective way to manipulate the possible domain walls or the clusters in TM and thereby the exchange bias in TM-RE systems.

  8. Low-energy magnetoelectric control of domain states in exchange-coupled heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahdawi, Muftah; Pati, Satya Prakash; Shiokawa, Yohei; Ye, Shujun; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sahashi, Masashi

    2017-04-01

    The electric manipulation of antiferromagnets has become an area of great interest recently for zero-stray-field spintronic devices, and for their rich spin dynamics. Generally, the application of antiferromagnetic media for information memories and storage requires a heterostructure with a ferromagnetic layer for readout through the exchange-bias field. In magnetoelectric and multiferroic antiferromagnets, the exchange coupling exerts an additional impediment (energy barrier) to magnetization reversal by the applied magnetoelectric energy. We proposed and verified a method to overcome this barrier. We controlled the energy required for switching the magnetic domains in magnetoelectric Cr2O3 films by compensating the exchange-coupling energy from the ferromagnetic layer with the Zeeman energy of a small volumetric spontaneous magnetization found for the sputtered Cr2O3 films. Based on a simplified phenomenological model of the field-cooling process, the magnetic and electric fields required for switching could be tuned. As an example, the switching of antiferromagnetic domains around a zero-threshold electric field was demonstrated at a magnetic field of 2.6 kOe.

  9. Chemical trend of exchange coupling in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanier, Thomas; Hayn, Roland; Virot, François

    2010-03-01

    We present an ab-initio study of the magnetic couplings in Mn- and Co-doped II-VI DMS ZnA (A=O,S,Se,Te). We show the necessity of taking into account the strong electron correlation on the transition metal (TM) 3d level to reproduce correctly the experimental chemical trend. Within the LSDA+U (local spin density approximation with a Hubbard-type correction to TM 3d electrons), we find (i) the d-d exchange couplings between nearest-neighbor magnetic ions to be antiferromagnetic (AFM) of the order of -1 meV and (ii) the sp-d exchange constants between magnetic ions and conduction (valence) band electrons (holes) Nα (Nβ) to be FM (AFM) of the order of 0.1 eV (-1 eV). In ZnMnO and ZnCoO, the strong p-d hybridisation leads to the presence of a bound state above the valence band, the failure of the commonly-used Larson perturbation theory formulae for p-d and d-d exchange interactions [1] and prevents high-Tc ferromagnetism [2]. [1] B. Larson et al. , PRB 37, 4137 (1988) [2] T. Chanier et al. , PRB 79, 205204 (2009)

  10. The effects of rice canopy on the air-soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides using paired passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Ming, Lili; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    The rice canopy in paddy fields can influence the air-soil exchange of organic chemicals. We used paired passive air samplers to assess the exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy field, South China. Levels of OCPs and light PAHs were generally higher under the canopy than above it. We found that the rice canopy can physically obstruct the evaporation of most OCPs and light PAHs, and can also act as a barrier to the gaseous deposition of p,p'-DDT and heavy PAHs. Paddy fields can behave as a secondary source of OCPs and light PAHs. The homolog patterns of these two types of chemical varied slightly between the air below and above the rice canopy, implying contributions of different sources. Paired passive air samplers can be used effectively to assess the in situ air-soil exchange of PAHs and OCPs in subtropical paddy fields.

  11. High-Efficiency Cooper-Pair Splitter in Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator Proximity-Coupled with Superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Tao; Deng, Xinzhou; Sun, Qing-Feng; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    The quantum entanglement between two qubits is crucial for applications in the quantum communication. After the entanglement of photons was experimentally realized, much effort has been taken to exploit the entangled electrons in solid-state systems. Here, we propose a Cooper-pair splitter, which can generate spatially-separated but entangled electrons, in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator proximity-coupled with a superconductor. After coupling with a superconductor, the chiral edge states of the quantum anomalous Hall insulator can still survive, making the backscattering impossible. Thus, the local Andreev reflection becomes vanishing, while the crossed Andreev reflection becomes dominant in the scattering process. This indicates that our device can serve as an extremely high-efficiency Cooper-pair splitter. Furthermore, because of the chiral characteristic, our Cooper-pair splitter is robust against disorders and can work in a wide range of system parameters. Particularly, it can still function even if the system length exceeds the superconducting coherence length. PMID:26450824

  12. Electromagnetic interactions in a pair of coupled split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetharaman, S. S.; King, C. G.; Hooper, I. R.; Barnes, W. L.

    2017-08-01

    Split-ring resonators (SRRs) are a fundamental building block of many electromagnetic metamaterials. Typically the response of a metamaterial is assumed to be independent of interelement interactions in the material. We show that SRRs in close proximity to each other exhibit a rich coupling that involves both electric and magnetic interactions. We study experimentally and computationally the strength and nature of the coupling between two identical SRRs as a function of their separation and relative orientation. We characterize the electric and magnetic couplings and find that, when SRRs are close enough to be in each other's near field, the electric and magnetic couplings may either reinforce each other or act in opposition. At larger separations retardation effects become important.

  13. Green function studies of the interlayer exchange coupling in magnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    The Interlayer Exchange Coupling (IEC) of magnetic multilayers has been one of the most studied problems in condensed matter physics for the last decade. It is found that for a multilayer structure in which magnetic layers are separated by a spacer, the magnetic moments of each layer orient themselves parallel, antiparallel or even perpendicular to each other, depending on the thickness of the spacer. This variable interlayer coupling of the magnetizations is oscillatory and usually multiperiodic. Its determination has posed interesting challenges, because often calculated results differ from the experimental ones. From the application standpoint, multilayer structures are used in the new generation of recording heads. In the first part of the present work, we used the Reflection Amplitude Approximation (RAA) to calculate the coupling in the prototypical system of an Fe/Cr trilayer. We were able to identify the origin of the long period oscillation in the coupling, and obtain a coupling strength that was among the best theoretical predictions. In the second part, we used a more accurate method that employed the so called Analytical Green Function (AGF). The results of this approach offered a good checkpoint of RAA, and they were in good agreement with the experimental findings in Fe/Cr and Co/Cu systems. We then calculated the intrinsic biquadratic coupling and compared it to the extrinsic one, obtained from the thickness fluctuation model. We also studied the effect that the finite thickness of the magnetic layers may have on the coupling, in particular in the appearance of Fano resonances. Finally, we studied how the coupling changes when roughness, alloying of the spacer, or strain are present. In all cases, the results were in very good agreement with experiment, showing that the AGF method is a very accurate, and yet very efficient method, for the determination of the IEC.

  14. Influence of interfacial disorder and temperature on magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Leighton, C.; Hoffmann, A.; Yashar, P. C.; Nogues, J.; Liu, K.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Dura, J. A.; Fritzsche, H.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2001-09-01

    Polarized neutron reflectometry is used to measure the thermal response of the net-magnetization vector of polycrystalline ferromagnetic (F) Fe films exchange coupled to twinned (110) MnF{sub 2} antiferromagnetic (AF) layers. We observe a strong correlation between the temperature dependencies of the net sample magnetization perpendicular to the applied field at coercivity and exchange bias. For cooling field and measurement conditions involving magnetization reversal via rotation, we find a range of temperature dependencies. For the smoothest F-AF interface, the temperature dependence of exchange bias compares well to a S=5/2 Brillouin function -- an observation predicted by some theoretical models. This temperature dependence is expected for the sublattice magnetization and the square root of the anisotropy constant K{sub 1} of bulk MnF{sub 2}. In contrast, for a rough F-AF interface the magnetization reversal process (and exchange bias) showed little temperature dependence up to temperatures approaching the AF Neel point -- a clear consequence of increasing interfacial disorder in a F-AF epitaxial system.

  15. Temperature dependence of the training effect in exchange coupled ferromagnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisetty, S.; Sahoo, S.; Berger, A.; Binek, Ch.

    2008-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the training effect is studied in an exchange coupled thin-film bilayer composed of a hard ferromagnetic pinning (CoPtCrB) layer in proximity of a soft ferromagnetic pinned (CoCr) layer. Interlayer exchange shifts the hysteresis loops of the soft layer along the magnetic-field axis. This shift is quantified by the bias field in far reaching analogy to the exchange bias field of conventional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic heterostructures. A ferromagnetic domain state induced in the hard layer experiences aging very similar to the training behavior of the antiferromagnetic domain state in conventional exchange bias systems. Training originates from changes in the spin structure of the pinning layer with consecutive magnetization reversals of the pinned layer. Here we perform a detailed investigation of the temperature dependence of the bias field and its training effect. Consecutively cycled hysteresis loops of the soft layer are measured at various temperatures. We also derive a theoretical description of the temperature dependence of the training effect which is in agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Defect-induced magnon scattering mechanisms in exchange-coupled bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, R. A.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Landeros, P.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of two-magnon scattering mechanisms, which may be activated by different sorts of defects, is theoretically studied in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic exchange-biased bilayers. The spin-wave based model considers the influence of geometrical defects in the ferromagnetic (FM) layer as well as small domains in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) sub-lattice of the FM/AFM interface in such a way that both kinds of defects are randomly distributed over their respective surfaces. The in-plane angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth allows detection of the relevant influence of such defects in the relaxation mechanisms, where the role of the exchange-bias field is clearly identified. Typical experimental findings, such as quadratic dependence of the linewidth with the exchange-bias field and the in-plane angular dependence, are well explained within the proposed model. This lends confidence in the model's utility and leads to a better understanding of the role of the magnon-magnon scattering in the magnetization dynamics of exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic bilayers.

  17. FORC-study of magnetization reversal of L10-FePt based exchange coupled composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Gongyuan; Wang, Jian-Ping; Ma, Bin

    2017-05-01

    Perpendicular exchange coupled composite structures were prepared, utilizing L10-FePt as hard layer and [Co/Ni]N multilayer as soft layer. Magnetic characteristics revealed the gradually change of the magnetization reversal mechanism from incoherent rotational mode to dominant wall motion as the thickness of soft layer increases. Furthermore, FORC analysis were employed to characterize the interactions of our ECC magnetic system, the result indicates that the exchange coupling interaction were enhanced with the increasing thickness of soft layer.

  18. Destructive interference of direct and crossed Andreev pairing in a system of two nanowires coupled via an s -wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeg, Christopher; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We consider a system of two one-dimensional nanowires coupled via an s -wave superconducting strip, a geometry that is capable of supporting Kramers pairs of Majorana fermions. By performing an exact analytical diagonalization of a tunneling Hamiltonian describing the proximity effect (via a Bogoliubov transformation), we show that the excitation gap of the system varies periodically on the scale of the Fermi wavelength in the limit where the interwire separation is shorter than the superconducting coherence length. Comparing with the excitation gaps in similar geometries containing only direct pairing, where one wire is decoupled from the superconductor, or only crossed Andreev pairing, where each nanowire is considered as a spin-polarized edge of a quantum Hall state, we find that the gap is always reduced, by orders of magnitude in certain cases, when both types of pairing are present. Our analytical results are further supported by numerical calculations on a tight-binding lattice. Finally, we show that treating the proximity effect by integrating out the superconductor using the bulk Green's function does not reproduce the results of our exact diagonalization.

  19. Joint perpendicular anisotropy and strong interlayer exchange coupling in systems with thin vanadium spacers

    SciTech Connect

    Devolder, T. Le Goff, A.; Eimer, S.; Adam, J.-P.

    2015-04-28

    We study the influence of the insertion of a vanadium spacer layer between an FeCoB layer and a [Co/Ni] multilayer in an MgO substrate-based system mimicking the reference system of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junction. The anisotropy of the [Co/Ni] multilayer gradually improves with the vanadium thicknesses t, up to an optimized state for t = 8 Å, with little influence of the thermal annealing. The interlayer exchange coupling is ferromagnetic and very strong for t≤6 Å. It can be adjusted by thermal treatment at t = 8 Å from no coupling in the as-grown state to more than 2 mJ/m{sup 2} after 250 °C annealing. For this spacer thickness, the magnetic properties are consistent with the occurrence of a bcc (001) to an fcc (111) crystalline structure transition at the vanadium spacer. The remaining interlayer exchange coupling at t = 8 Å is still substantially higher than the one formerly obtained with a Tantalum spacer, which holds promise for further optimization of the reference layers of tunnel junctions meant for magnetic random access memories.

  20. Exchange coupling in metallic multilayers with a top FeRh layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Tanikawa, K.; Hirayama, J.; Kanashima, T.; Taniyama, T.; Hamaya, K.

    2016-05-01

    We study magnetic properties of metallic multilayers with FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Room-temperature coercivity of the ferromagnetic layers is significantly enhanced after the growth of FeRh, proving the existence of the exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic FeRh layer and the ferromagnetic layer. However, exchange bias is not clearly observed probably due to the presence of disordered structures, which result from the lattice strain at the FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces due to the lattice mismatch. We infer that the lattice matched interface between FeRh and ferromagnetic layers is a key parameter for controlling magnetic switching fields in such multilayer systems.

  1. Tailoring interfacial exchange coupling with low-energy ion beam bombardment: Tuning the interface roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, K.-W.; Shueh, C.; Huang, H.-R.; Hsu, H.-F.; Mirza, M.; Lierop, J. van

    2012-03-19

    By ascertaining NiO surface roughness in a Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/NiO film system, we were able to correlate the effects of altered interface roughness from low-energy ion-beam bombardment of the NiO layer and the different thermal instabilities in the NiO nanocrystallites. From experiment and by modelling the temperature dependence of the exchange bias field and coercivity, we have found that reducing the interface roughness and changing the interface texture from an irregular to striped conformation enhanced the exchange coupling strength. Our results were in good agreement with recent simulations using the domain state model that incorporated interface mixing.

  2. Exchange coupling in metallic multilayers with a top FeRh layer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S. Kanashima, T.; Hamaya, K.; Tanikawa, K.; Hirayama, J.; Taniyama, T.

    2016-05-15

    We study magnetic properties of metallic multilayers with FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Room-temperature coercivity of the ferromagnetic layers is significantly enhanced after the growth of FeRh, proving the existence of the exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic FeRh layer and the ferromagnetic layer. However, exchange bias is not clearly observed probably due to the presence of disordered structures, which result from the lattice strain at the FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces due to the lattice mismatch. We infer that the lattice matched interface between FeRh and ferromagnetic layers is a key parameter for controlling magnetic switching fields in such multilayer systems.

  3. Quantum beats in the recombination fluorescence of radical ion pairs caused by the hyperfine coupling in radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagryansky, V. A.; Borovkov, V. I.; Molin, Yu. N.; Egorov, M. P.; Nefedov, O. M.

    1998-10-01

    The ratios of the radiofluorescence decay curves for n-decane solutions of 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylcyclopenta-1,3-diene and its silicon and germanium analogs (siloles and germoles) in high and zero magnetic fields have an oscillating component caused by singlet-triplet evolution of the pair S +/A -, where S + is the solvent hole and A - is the radical anion of the acceptor (a compound added). It is shown that the beats are due to the hyperfine couplings (hfc) with either the protons of CH 2, SiH 2 and GeH 2 moieties or chlorine atoms in the GeCl 2 and GeClMe moieties of radical anions. The hfc constants in the anions and spin relaxation times of radical ion pairs were obtained by fitting the experimental curves.

  4. Longitudinal plasmon modes of Ag nanorod coupled with a pair of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Huang, Chun-Hui; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The longitudinal plasmon modes of an elongated Ag nanorod induced by an obliquely incident plane wave were analyzed theoretically. Our results show that the proximities at the two apexes of the nanorod are the hotspots at the dipole (m = 1), quadrupole (m = 2), sextupole (m = 3), octupole (m = 4), decapole (m = 5) and duodecapole (m = 6) modes. This phenomenon implies that a pair of quantum dots (QDs) located at these hotspots might be excited simultaneously through these plasmon modes. Consequently, the coherent spontaneous emission of the paired QDs could be induced through these modes. Furthermore, the coherent emission of the pair of excited QDs was studied, where these QDs were modeled as two electric dipoles (bi-dipole) oscillating with anti-symmetric or symmetric configurations. The radiative and nonradiative powers show that the maximum Purcell factors occur at these modes; the odd modes enhance the emission of the anti-symmetric configuration, and the even modes the symmetric one. However, only those bi-dipoles emitting at the lower-order (e.g., dipole, quadrupole and sextupole) modes of Ag nanorod are with high apparent quantum yields. In addition, the correlation of these plasmon modes of Ag nanorod with the dispersion relation of Ag nanowire was discussed.

  5. Effect of exchange coupling on magnetic property in Sm-Co/α-Fe layered system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C, X. Sang; G, P. Zhao; W, X. Xia; X, L. Wan; F, J. Morvan; X, C. Zhang; L, H. Xie; J, Zhang; J, Du; A, R. Yan; P, Liu

    2016-03-01

    The hysteresis loops as well as the spin distributions of Sm-Co/α-Fe bilayers have been investigated by both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) micromagnetic calculations, focusing on the effect of the interface exchange coupling under various soft layer thicknesses ts. The exchange coupling coefficient Ahs between the hard and soft layers varies from 1.8 × 10-6 erg/cm to 0.45 × 10-6 erg/cm, while the soft layer thickness increases from 2 nm to 10 nm. As the exchange coupling decreases, the squareness of the loop gradually deteriorates, both pinning and coercive fields rise up monotonically, and the nucleation field goes down. On the other hand, an increment of the soft layer thickness leads to a significant drop of the nucleation field, the deterioration of the hysteresis loop squareness, and an increase of the remanence. The simulated loops based on the 3D and 1D methods are consistent with each other and in good agreement with the measured loops for Sm-Co/α-Fe multilayers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11074179 and 10747007), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB643702), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LY14E010006), the Construction Plan for Scientific Research Innovation Teams of Universities in Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 12TD008), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of the Education Ministry, China, and the Program for Key Science and Technology Innovation Team of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. 2013TD08).

  6. Magnetic and microstructural properties of nanocrystalline exchange coupled PrFeB permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, D.; Seeger, M.; Kronmüller, H.

    1998-05-01

    Nanocrystalline exchange coupled Pr 2Fe 14B single-phase and Pr 2Fe 14B+α-Fe two-phase magnets with grain sizes of about 20 nm were produced using the melt-spinning procedure. In the stoichiometric Pr 2Fe 14B composition a significantly enhanced remanence of JR=0.95 T was achieved in comparison with conventional Pr-rich and therefore decoupled isotropic PrFeB magnets ( JR⩽0.5 JS=0.78 T). In the composite magnets with overstoichiometric Fe a further enhancement of the remanence is possible. Values up to JR=1.42 T and ( BH) max=180.7 kJ/m 3 were obtained. As there exists no spin reorientation in PrFeB magnets, our attention was not only directed to the magnetic behaviour at room temperature but also to the magnetic properties in the whole ferromagnetic temperature range. The microstructural parameters Neff, αK and αex describing the influence of the non-ideal microstructure and the effect of the exchange coupling on the coercive field were determined within the framework of the nucleation model from the temperature dependence of the coercive field. Furthermore, reversibility measurements of the demagnetization curves in the second quadrant give important information about the magnetization processes in exchange coupled magnets. Moreover, we have investigated the law of approach to ferromagnetic saturation of the single-phase magnet in comparison with the decoupled one. The magnetic results are correlated with TEM investigations of the real microstructure.

  7. Magnetoimpedance exchange coupling in different magnetic strength thin layers electrodeposited on Co-based magnetic ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilpanah, L.; Hajiali, M. R.; Morteza Mohseni, S.; Erfanifam, S.; Majid Mohseni, S.; Houshiar, M.; Ehsan Roozmeh, S.

    2017-04-01

    A systematic study of the effect of the deposition of cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) layers of various thicknesses on the magnetoimpedance (MI) response of a soft ferromagnetic amorphous ribbon (Co68.15Fe4.35Si12.5B15) is performed. The Co and Ni layers with thicknesses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 nm were grown on both sides of the amorphous ribbons by the electrodeposition technique. Microstrutures determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed higher crystallinity of Ni-deposited layers and the amorphous ferromagnetic nature of Co-deposited. The vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) does not represent significant changes between samples because of the small contribution of such a thin layer deposited on thick ribbons, but the MI response dictates that the magnetic coupling effect occurred at the interface of such bilayers, which is sensitive to the skin effect. The MI response of Co-deposited ribbons showed MI hysteretic behavior depending on the deposited layer thicknesses with an optimum response for the thickness of 20 nm whereas no hysteretic behavior was measured for Ni-deposited ribbons. This behavior is explained according to the exchange coupling between magnetization of electrodeposited layers and magnetic ribbons with respect to different magnetic properties of Co and Ni at different thicknesses. Also the MI response of Ni- and Co-deposited ribbons enhanced significantly at low thicknesses relative to bare ribbon. By increasing the thickness of deposited layers, MI response decreases considerably. Differences in MI ratios of Co- and Ni-deposited ribbons are explained according to exchange length, crystallinity and roughness of deposited layers. Our results could address a simple way to achieve a higher MI response, and explains physical aspects of exchange coupling in MI response all towards a better performance of magnetic field sensors.

  8. Photoregenerative I-/I3- couple as a liquid cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yadong; Ai, Xinping; Tu, Wenmao; Pan, Mu

    2014-10-01

    A photoassisted oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) through I-/I3- redox couple was investigated for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cathode reaction. The I-/I3--based liquid cathode was used to replace conventional oxygen cathode, and its discharge product I- was regenerated to I3- by photocatalytic oxidation with the participation of oxygen. This new and innovative approach may provide a strategy to eliminate the usage of challenging ORR electrocatalysts, resulting in an avenue for developing low-cost and high-efficiency PEM fuel cells.

  9. Magnetic properties of perpendicular exchange coupled composite with a synthesis antiferromagnetic sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, H. G.; Guo, H. H.; Xie, H. L.; Ma, B.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Wang, Y.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, an exchange coupled composite (ECC) film with an antiferromagnetic sandwich structure L10-FePt/[Co/Ni]5/Ru/[Co/Ni]10 (FePt-CN-Ru) is prepared via dc magnetron sputtering and measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that FePt-CN-Ru film exhibits ECC characteristics, with excellent angular tolerance, low remanance magnetization, and a narrow switching field. Its thermal stability is higher than that of conventional ECC film. Finally, magnetization reversal is demonstrated through micromagnetic simulation.

  10. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Zheng-min; Ge, Su-qin; Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua; Tang, Wei; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2016-05-15

    The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  11. Calculation of the exchange coupling in Si:P donor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starling, Timothy R.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Quiney, Harry M.; Haig, Wayne; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2005-02-01

    We examine exchange coupling in the Kate quantum computer, which consists of isolated spin-1/2 31P donors in a pure Si lattice. A calculation is made using full configuration interaction, a reasonably large basis set, and a simple physical model. Basis set convergence was not obtained, and increasing the size of the matrix further appears to be computationally impractical. We therefore consider a Gaussian basis set approach. A brief description of the McMurchie-Davidson algorithm for the expansion of SGTF functions into Hermite polynomials is given. We also give the results of a single-donor computation in this basis.

  12. Interfacial exchange-coupling induced chiral symmetry breaking of spin-orbit effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Fernandez Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Bollero, A.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the interfacial exchange coupling in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AFM) systems induces symmetry breaking of the spin-orbit (SO) effects. This has been done by studying the field and angle dependencies of anisotropic magnetoresistance and vectorial-resolved magnetization hysteresis loops, measured simultaneously and reproduced with numerical simulations. We show how the induced unidirectional magnetic anisotropy at the FM/AFM interface results in strong asymmetric transport behaviors, which are chiral around the magnetization hard-axis direction. Similar asymmetric features are anticipated in other SO-driven phenomena.

  13. Controlling the nonequilibrium interlayer exchange coupling in asymmetric magnetic tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y-H; Kioussis, Nicholas; Kalitsov, Alan; Butler, W H; Car, Roberto

    2009-07-31

    We predict an oscillatory bias behavior of the fieldlike spin torque, T(perpendicular), in magnetic tunnel junctions, which can be selectively controlled via the asymmetry in band filling between the ferromagnetic leads. This can lead to a linear or quadratic low-bias behavior, including tuning the bias-induced reversal of T(perpendicular). These findings reconcile the apparently contradictory experimental results recently reported in the literature. The underlying mechanism for the nonequilibrium interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) of noncollinear configurations is the interplay of four independent IEC for the majority- and minority-spin bands of the leads solely in the ferromagnetic configuration.

  14. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Incoherently Coupled Grey-Grey Spatial Soliton Pairs in Biased Two-Photon Photovoltaic Photorefractive Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yan-Li; Jiang, Qi-Chang; Ji, Xuan-Mang

    2010-05-01

    The incoherently coupled grey-grey screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton pairs are predicted in biased two-photon photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be established provided that the incident beams have the same polarization, wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. The grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be considered as the united form of grey-grey screening soliton pairs and open or closed-circuit grey-grey photovoltaic soliton pairs.

  15. A Build/Couple/Pair Strategy for the Synthesis of Stereochemically Diverse Macrolactams via Head-to-Tail Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Mark E.; Mulrooney, Carol A.; Duvall, Jeremy R.; Wei, Jingqiang; Suh, Byung-Chul; Akella, Lakshmi B.; Vrcic, Anita; Marcaurelle, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    A build/couple/pair (B/C/P) strategy was employed to generate a library of 7936 stereochemically diverse 12-membered macrolactams. All 8 stereoisomers of a common linear amine precursor were elaborated to form the corresponding 8 stereoisomers of two regioisomeric macrocyclic scaffolds via head-to-tail cyclization. Subsequently, these 16 scaffolds were further diversified via capping of two amine functionalities on SynPhase Lanterns. Reagents used for solid-phase diversification were selected using a sparse matrix design strategy with the aim of maximizing coverage of chemical space while adhering to a preset range of physiochemical properties. PMID:22252910

  16. Very strong antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling with iridium spacer layer for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushiji, Kay; Sugihara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    We systematically studied the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in a perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetically coupled structure having an Ir spacer layer for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). We found a broader peak in IEC energy density (Jex) versus spacer thickness (tIr) compared with the case of using a Ru spacer. The highest IEC energy density was 2.6 erg/cm2 at a tIr of about 5 nm. The p-MTJ nanopillars had a high magnetoresistance ratio (131%) as well as a high spin-transfer torque (STT) switching efficiency (about 2). An Ir spacer can be used to make a stable reference layer for STT magnetoresistive random access memory.

  17. Influence of interface exchange coupling in perpendicular anisotropy [Pt/Co]50/TbFe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mangin, S.; Hauet, T.; Fischer, P.; Kim, D.H.; Kortright, J.B.; Chesnel, K.; Arenholz, E.; Fullerton, Eric E.

    2007-10-10

    We present the magnetization evolution of perpendicular anisotropy TbFe and [Co/Pt]{sub 50} thin films either in direct contact resulting in antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling or separated by a thick Pt layer. Magnetometry and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy determine the spatially averaged magnetic properties. Resonant magnetic x-ray small-angle scattering and magnetic soft X-ray transmission microscopy probed the domain configurations and correlations in the reversal processes. While the Co/Pt multilayer reverses by domain propagation, the TbFe magnetization reversal is found to be dominated either by coherent magnetization reversal processes or by lateral domain formation depending on the interface exchange coupling. In the presence of lateral domains, dipolar field induced domain replication phenomena are observed.

  18. Sexual Satisfaction in Spanish Heterosexual Couples: Testing the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fuentes, María del Mar; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The study of sexual satisfaction in Spain is scarce and has proceeded atheoretically. This study aimed at examining sexual satisfaction in 197 Spanish heterosexual couples based on the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction. Men and women reported equal satisfaction. Men's sexual satisfaction was predicted by their own relationship satisfaction, balance of sexual rewards and costs, and comparison level of sexual rewards and costs. Women's sexual satisfaction was predicted by their own relationship satisfaction, balance of sexual rewards and costs, comparison level of sexual rewards and costs, equality of sexual costs, and their partner's balance of sexual rewards and costs. These results provide with a better understanding of the mechanisms that explain sexual satisfaction in Spanish couples. Implications for research and therapy are discussed.

  19. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-10-09

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level.

  20. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level. PMID:26449412

  1. Dynamical behavior and peak power reduction in a pair of energy storage oscillators coupled by delayed power price.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Tomoaki; Ito, Akira; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Konishi, Keiji; Hara, Naoyuki

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates dynamics of a management system for controlling a pair of energy storages. The system involves the following two characteristics: each storage behaves in a manner that reduces the number of charge noncharge cycles and begins to be charged when the price of power is lower than a particular price threshold. The price is proportional to the past total power flow from a power grid to all storages. A peak of the total power flow occurs when these storages are charged simultaneously. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, the energy storages can be considered as relaxation oscillators coupled by a delay connection. Our analytical results suggest that the peak can be reduced by inducing an antiphase synchronization in coupled oscillators. We confirm these analytical results through numerical simulations. In addition, we numerically investigate the dynamical behavior in 10 storages and find that time delay in the connection is important in reducing the peak.

  2. Entanglement distillation using the exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Adrian; Schwonnek, René; Schoder, Christian; Dammeier, Lars; Werner, Reinhard F.; Burkard, Guido

    2016-03-01

    A key ingredient of quantum repeaters is entanglement distillation, i.e., the generation of high-fidelity entangled qubits from a larger set of pairs with lower fidelity. Here, we present entanglement distillation protocols based on qubit couplings that originate from exchange interaction. First, we make use of asymmetric bilateral two-qubit operations generated from anisotropic exchange interaction and show how to distill entanglement using two input pairs. We furthermore consider the case of three input pairs coupled through isotropic exchange. Here, we characterize a set of protocols which are optimizing the trade-off between the fidelity increase and the probability of a successful run.

  3. Quantum transport through a multi-quantum-dot-pair chain side-coupled with Majorana bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-Tan, Jiang; Cheng-Cheng, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the quantum transport properties through a special kind of quantum dot (QD) system composed of a serially coupled multi-QD-pair (multi-QDP) chain and side-coupled Majorana bound states (MBSs) by using the Green functions method, where the conductance can be classified into two kinds: the electron tunneling (ET) conductance and the Andreev reflection (AR) one. First we find that for the nonzero MBS-QDP coupling a sharp AR-induced zero-bias conductance peak with the height of e 2/h is present (or absent) when the MBS is coupled to the far left (or the other) QDP. Moreover, the MBS-QDP coupling can suppress the ET conductance and strengthen the AR one, and further split into two sub-peaks each of the total conductance peaks of the isolated multi-QDPs, indicating that the MBS will make obvious influences on the competition between the ET and AR processes. Then we find that the tunneling rate Γ L is able to affect the conductances of leads L and R in different ways, demonstrating that there exists a Γ L-related competition between the AR and ET processes. Finally we consider the effect of the inter-MBS coupling on the conductances of the multi-QDP chains and it is shown that the inter-MBS coupling will split the zero-bias conductance peak with the height of e 2/h into two sub-peaks. As the inter-MBS coupling becomes stronger, the two sub-peaks are pushed away from each other and simultaneously become lower, which is opposite to that of the single QDP chain where the two sub-peaks with the height of about e 2/2h become higher. Also, the decay of the conductance sub-peaks with the increase of the MBS-QDP coupling becomes slower as the number of the QDPs becomes larger. This research should be an important extension in studying the transport properties in the kind of QD systems coupled with the side MBSs, which is helpful for understanding the nature of the MBSs, as well as the MBS-related QD transport properties. Project supported by the National Natural

  4. Middle-Aged Couples' Exchanges of Support with Aging Parents: Patterns and Association with Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Zarit, Steven H.; Rovine, Michael J.; Birditt, Kira S.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the context of intergenerational support exchanges with aging parents and its association with middle-aged couples' marital satisfaction. A sample of 197 middle-aged couples reported support they gave to and received from their parents (n = 440). Results indicated that couples provided more total support to and received more from their parents as a function of number of living parents, but the amount of support each parent received (‘parent-adjusted support’) was lower when there were more living parents. The amount of support given to and received from parents had no association with the couple's marital satisfaction, but discrepancies in support given to and received from parents did have a significant association with marital satisfaction. Husbands who gave more support to their living parent(s) than their wives reported lower marital satisfaction. A similar effect on marital satisfaction was found for wives who gave more support to their living parents than their husbands. These findings contrast with caregiving studies where amount of support affected marital satisfaction and suggest that inequalities in involvement with parents may be a critical dimension in marriages of midlife adults. PMID:21540558

  5. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics of mineral pairs in closed and open systems: Applications to problems of hydrothermal alteration of igneous rocks and Precambrian iron formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, R.T.; Criss, R.E.; Taylor, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    The systematics of stable-isotope exchange between minerals and fluids are examined in the context of modal mineralogical variations and mass-balance considerations, both in closed and in open systems. On mineral-pair ??18O plots, samples from terranes that have exchanged with large amounts of fluid typically map out steep positively-sloped non-equilibrium arrays. Analytical models are derived to explain these effects; these models allow for different exchange rates between the various minerals and the external fluids, as well as different fluid fluxes. The steep arrays are adequately modelled by calculated isochron lines that involve the whole family of possible exchange trajectories. These isochrons have initially-steep near-vertical positive slopes that rotate toward a 45?? equilibrium slope as the exchange process proceeds to completion. The actual data-point array is thus analogous to the hand of an "isotopic clock" that measures the duration of the hydrothermal episode. The dimensionless ratio of the volumetric fluid flux to the kinetic rate parameter ( u k) determines the shape of each individual exchange trajectory. In a fluid-buffered system ( u k ??? 1), the solutions to the equations: (1) are independent of the mole fractions of the solid phases; (2) correspond to Taylor's open-system water/rock equation; and (3) yield straight-line isochrons that have slopes that approach 1 f, where f is the fraction reacted of the more sluggishly exchanging mineral. The isochrons for this simple exchange model are closely congruent with the isochrons calculated for all of the more complex models, thereby simplifying the application of theory to actual hydrothermal systems in nature. In all of the models an order of magnitude of time (in units of kt) separates steep non-equilibrium arrays (e.g., slope ??? 10) from arrays approaching an equilibrium slope of unity on a ??-?? diagram. Because we know the approximate lifetimes of many hydrothermal systems from geologic and

  6. Long range coupling between defect centres in inorganic nanostructures: Valence alternation pairs in nanoscale silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwijnenburg, M. A.; Illas, F.; Bromley, S. T.

    2012-10-01

    Valence alternation pair (VAP) states are formed by a closed-shell combination of two space- and charge-separated topological defect centres. These pairs of defects, although historically invoked to explain the electronic properties of bulk inorganic glassy materials (e.g., amorphous silicon dioxide) via the concept of negative-U defects, have more recently been found in a number of theoretical studies of silica surfaces and nanoscale silica clusters. Using density functional theory we systematically probe the structure and internal stability of VAPs in a number of silica nanoclusters with respect to the separation of the two constituent defect centres. We find that VAP states in nanosilica are strongly stabilised by the attractive electrostatic interaction between their separated oppositely charged component defects such that VAPs can persist up to an internal separation of a least 1.5 nanometres. Beyond this distance VAPs become unstable with respect to an open-shell combination of topological defects, virtually indistinguishable from two isolated open-shell defect centres. Finally, we theoretically analyse the possibility of experimental observation of VAP states through their infra-red vibrational spectra.

  7. Coupled multiple-mode theory for s± pairing mechanism in iron based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, M N; Efremov, D V; Drechsler, S L; van den Brink, Jeroen; Kikoin, K

    2016-11-29

    We investigate the interplay between the magnetic and the superconducting degrees of freedom in unconventional multi-band superconductors such as iron pnictides. For this purpose a dynamical mode-mode coupling theory is developed based on the coupled Bethe-Salpeter equations. In order to investigate the region of the phase diagram not too far from the tetracritical point where the magnetic spin density wave, (SDW) and superconducting (SC) transition temperatures coincide, we also construct a Ginzburg-Landau functional including both SC and SDW fluctuations in a critical region above the transition temperatures. The fluctuation corrections tend to suppress the magnetic transition, but in the superconducting channel the intraband and interband contribution of the fluctuations nearly compensate each other.

  8. Coupled multiple-mode theory for s± pairing mechanism in iron based superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Kiselev, M. N.; Efremov, D. V.; Drechsler, S. L.; van den Brink, Jeroen; Kikoin, K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between the magnetic and the superconducting degrees of freedom in unconventional multi-band superconductors such as iron pnictides. For this purpose a dynamical mode-mode coupling theory is developed based on the coupled Bethe-Salpeter equations. In order to investigate the region of the phase diagram not too far from the tetracritical point where the magnetic spin density wave, (SDW) and superconducting (SC) transition temperatures coincide, we also construct a Ginzburg-Landau functional including both SC and SDW fluctuations in a critical region above the transition temperatures. The fluctuation corrections tend to suppress the magnetic transition, but in the superconducting channel the intraband and interband contribution of the fluctuations nearly compensate each other. PMID:27897177

  9. Paired suicide in a young refugee couple on the Thai-Myanmar border

    PubMed Central

    Fellmeth, Gracia; Oo, May May; Lay, Billion; McGready, Rose

    2016-01-01

    A young refugee woman attended antenatal clinic on the Thai-Myanmar border at 9 weeks' gestation. As part of an ongoing study of perinatal mental health, she underwent a structured psychiatric interview during which she described occasional depressed mood, anhedonia and passive suicidal ideation. Her husband was a young refugee known to use alcohol and drugs. 2 days later, the couple committed suicide together by herbicide ingestion. Refugee populations are at risk of developing mental disorders as a result of their marginalised status, socioeconomic disadvantage and exposures to trauma. Pregnancy may have exacerbated feelings of hopelessness in this couple. The prevalence of mental disorders such as depression is increased in the perinatal period and suicide is the second leading cause of death in young women globally. Prevention programmes and early recognition of mental disorders may improve detection and lead to better support for vulnerable individuals. PMID:27635059

  10. Coupling of phytoplankton uptake and air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Baker, J.E.; Ko, F.C.; Jeremiason, J.D.

    1999-10-15

    A dynamic model that couples air-water exchange and phytoplankton uptake of persistent organic pollutants has been developed and then applied to PCB data from a small experimental lake. A sensitivity analysis of the model, taking into account the influence of physical environmental conditions such as temperature, wind speed, and mixing depth as well as plankton-related parameters such as biomass and growth rate was carried out for a number of PCBs with different physical-chemical properties. The results indicate that air-water exchange dynamics are influenced not only by physical parameters but also by phytoplankton biomass and growth rate. New phytoplankton production results in substantially longer times to reach equilibrium. Phytoplankton uptake-induced depletion of the dissolved phase concentration maintains air and water phases out of equilibrium. Furthermore, PCBs in phytoplankton also take longer times to reach equilibrium with the dissolved water phase when the latter is supported by diffusive air-water exchange. However, both model analysis and model application to the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario (Canada) suggest that the gas phase supports the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs, in atmospherically driven aquatic environments.

  11. Spin-orbit torque switching without an external field using interlayer exchange coupling.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Coey, J M D; Stamenov, Plamen

    2016-09-01

    Manipulation of the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnetic free layer by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an attractive alternative to spin-transfer torque (STT) in oscillators and switches such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) where a high current is passed across an ultrathin tunnel barrier. A small symmetry-breaking bias field is usually needed for deterministic SOT switching but it is impractical to generate the field externally for spintronic applications. Here, we demonstrate robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular CoFe free layer where the symmetry is broken by magnetic coupling to a second in-plane exchange-biased CoFe layer via a nonmagnetic Ru or Pt spacer. The preferred magnetic state of the free layer is determined by the current polarity and the sign of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). Our strategy offers a potentially scalable solution to realize bias-field-free switching that can lead to a generation of SOT devices, combining a high storage density and endurance with a low power consumption.

  12. Calculation of exchange coupling constants of transition metal complexes with DFT.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Hausberg, Sascha; Martin, Bodo

    2009-06-18

    A broken-symmetry method for the calculation of exchange coupling constants from DFT calculations, using the Heisenberg-Dirac-van Vleck spin Hamiltonian, has been validated for a dinuclear copper(II) complex. Hybrid functionals in combination with a large basis set on the metal centers and their first coordination sphere, and a smaller basis set on the ligand backbone are shown to be efficient and acceptable with respect to the computational cost and precision in comparison with experimental data. This method was thoroughly tested with a series of oligonuclear transition metal complexes with Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Mn(III), Mn(IV), Ni(II), and V(IV) as magnetic centers. The computed values of J are within approximately 50 cm(-1) of the experimental values for most of the examples; with combined basis sets, there generally is a similar accuracy to that obtained with a large basis set for the entire spin cluster but with significantly reduced computational expense. When the experimentally observed structural data are refined prior to the calculation of the exchange coupling constants, the computed values of J are in most cases in slightly better agreement with the experimental data than those obtained from single point calculations based on the X-ray data.

  13. Spin-orbit torque switching without an external field using interlayer exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, Plamen

    2016-09-01

    Manipulation of the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnetic free layer by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an attractive alternative to spin-transfer torque (STT) in oscillators and switches such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) where a high current is passed across an ultrathin tunnel barrier. A small symmetry-breaking bias field is usually needed for deterministic SOT switching but it is impractical to generate the field externally for spintronic applications. Here, we demonstrate robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular CoFe free layer where the symmetry is broken by magnetic coupling to a second in-plane exchange-biased CoFe layer via a nonmagnetic Ru or Pt spacer. The preferred magnetic state of the free layer is determined by the current polarity and the sign of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). Our strategy offers a potentially scalable solution to realize bias-field-free switching that can lead to a generation of SOT devices, combining a high storage density and endurance with a low power consumption.

  14. Analysis of phosphorus herbicides by ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with octapole reaction cell.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki B M; Vonderheide, Anne P; Caruso, Joseph A

    2004-09-24

    A reversed phase ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatographic (RPIP-HPLC) method is developed for the separation of two phosphorus herbicides, Glufosinate and Glyphosate as well as Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the major metabolite of Glyphosate. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide is used as the ion-pairing reagent in conjunction with an ammonium acetate/acetic acid buffering system at pH 4.7. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is coupled to the chromatographic system to detect the herbicides at m/z = 31P. Historically, phosphorus has been recognized as one of the elements difficult to analyze in argon plasma. This is due to its relatively high ionization potential (10.5 eV) as well as the inherent presence of the polyatomic interferences 14N16O1H+ and 15N16O+ overlapping its only isotope at m/z = 31. An octapole reaction cell is utilized to minimize the isobaric polyatomic interferences and to obtain the highest signal-to-background ratio. Detection limits were found to be in the low ppt range (25-32 ng/l). The developed method is successfully applied to the analysis of water samples collected from the Ohio River and spiked with a standard compounds at a level of 20 microg/l.

  15. Long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated organic donor-acceptor layers

    PubMed Central

    Nakanotani, Hajime; Furukawa, Taro; Morimoto, Kei; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    Understanding exciton behavior in organic semiconductor molecules is crucial for the development of organic semiconductor-based excitonic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, and the tightly bound electron-hole pair forming an exciton is normally assumed to be localized on an organic semiconducting molecule. We report the observation of long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules across a 10-nanometers-thick spacer layer. We found that the exciton energy can be tuned over 100 megaelectron volts and the fraction of delayed fluorescence can be increased by adjusting the spacer-layer thickness. Furthermore, increasing the spacer-layer thickness produced an organic light-emitting diode with an electroluminescence efficiency nearly eight times higher than that of a device without a spacer layer. Our results demonstrate the first example of a long-range coupled charge-transfer state between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules in a working device. PMID:26933691

  16. Dislocation network with pair-coupling structure in {111} γ/γ' interface of Ni-based single crystal superalloy.

    PubMed

    Ru, Yi; Li, Shusuo; Zhou, Jian; Pei, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Gong, Shengkai; Xu, Huibin

    2016-08-11

    The γ/γ' interface dislocation network is reported to improve the high temperature creep resistance of single crystal superalloys and is usually found to deposit in {001} interface. In this work, a new type of dislocation network was found in {111} γ/γ' interface at a single crystal model superalloy crept at 1100 °C/100 MPa. The dislocations in the network are screw with Burgers vectors of 1/2 a<110> and most interestingly, they exhibit a pair-coupling structure. Further investigation indicates that the formation of {111} interface dislocation network occurs when the γ' raft structure begins to degrade by the dislocations cutting into the rafted γ' through the interface. In this condition, the pair-coupling structure is established by the dislocations gliding in a single {111} plane of γ', in order to remove the anti-phase boundary in γ'; these dislocations also act as diffusion channels for dissolving of the γ' particle that is unstable under the interfacial stress from lattice misfit, which leads to the formation of {111}-type zigzag interface. The formation of this network arises as a consequence of more negative misfit, low-alloying γ' particle and proper test conditions of temperature and stress.

  17. Conformational analysis of g protein-coupled receptor signaling by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Lee, Su Youn; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-01-01

    Conformational change and protein-protein interactions are two major mechanisms of membrane protein signal transduction, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon agonist binding, GPCRs change conformation, resulting in interaction with downstream signaling molecules such as G proteins. To understand the precise signaling mechanism, studies have investigated the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling using X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or electron paramagnetic resonance. In addition to these techniques, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has recently been used in GPCR studies. HDX-MS measures the rate at which peptide amide hydrogens exchange with deuterium in the solvent. Exposed or flexible regions have higher exchange rates and excluded or ordered regions have lower exchange rates. Therefore, HDX-MS is a useful tool for studying protein-protein interfaces and conformational changes after protein activation or protein-protein interactions. Although HDX-MS does not give high-resolution structures, it analyzes protein conformations that are difficult to study with X-ray crystallography or NMR. Furthermore, conformational information from HDX-MS can help in the crystallization of X-ray crystallography by suggesting highly flexible regions. Interactions between GPCRs and downstream signaling molecules are not easily analyzed by X-ray crystallography or NMR because of the large size of the GPCR-signaling molecule complexes, hydrophobicity, and flexibility of GPCRs. HDX-MS could be useful for analyzing the conformational mechanism of GPCR signaling. In this chapter, we discuss details of HDX-MS for analyzing GPCRs using the β2AR-G protein complex as a model system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microphysics of mass-transport in coupled droplet-pairs at low Reynolds number and the role of convective dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qingming; Sau, Amalendu

    2016-06-01

    Interfacial mass-transport and redistribution in the micro-scale liquid droplets are important in diverse fields of research interest. The role of the "inflow" and the "outflow" type convective eddy-pairs in the entrainment of outer solute and internal relocation are examined for different homogeneous and heterogeneous water droplet pairs appearing in a tandem arrangement. Two micro-droplets of pure (rain) water interact with an oncoming outer air stream (Re ≤ 100) contaminated by uniformly distributed SO2. By virtue of separation/attachment induced non-uniform interfacial shear-stress gradient, the well-defined inflow/outflow type pairs of recirculating eddy-based convective motion quickly develops, and the eddies effectively attract/repel the accumulated outer solute and control the physical process of mass-transport in the droplet-pair. The non-uniformly shear-driven flow interaction and bifurcation of the circulatory internal flow lead to growth of important micro-scale "secondary" eddies which suitably regroup with the adjacent "primary" one to create the sustained inflow/outflow type convective dynamics. The presently derived flow characteristics and in-depth analysis help to significantly improve our understanding of the micro-droplet based transport phenomena in a wider context. By tuning "Re" (defined in terms of the droplet diameter and the average oncoming velocity of the outer air) and gap-ratio "α," the internal convective forcing and the solute entrainment efficiency could be considerably enhanced. The quantitative estimates for mass entrainment, convective strength, and saturation characteristics for different coupled micro-droplet pairs are extensively examined here for 0.2 ≤ α ≤ 2.0 and 30 ≤ Re ≤ 100. Interestingly, for the compound droplets, with suitably tuned radius-ratio "B" (of upstream droplet with respect to downstream one) the generated "inflow" type coherent convective dynamics helped to significantly augment the centre

  19. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  20. An investigation of the liquid to glass transition using integral equations for the pair structure of coupled replicae

    SciTech Connect

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Pastore, Giorgio

    2014-11-07

    Extensive numerical solutions of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) and Rogers-Young (RY) integral equations are presented for the pair structure of a system of two coupled replicae (1 and 2) of a “soft-sphere” fluid of atoms interacting via an inverse-12 pair potential. In the limit of vanishing inter-replica coupling ε{sub 12}, both integral equations predict the existence of three branches of solutions: (1) A high temperature liquid branch (L), which extends to a supercooled regime upon cooling when the two replicae are kept at ε{sub 12} = 0 throughout; upon separating the configurational and vibrational contributions to the free energy and entropy of the L branch, the Kauzmann temperature is located where the configurational entropy vanishes. (2) Starting with an initial finite coupling ε{sub 12}, two “glass” branches G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} are found below some critical temperature, which are characterized by a strong remnant spatial inter-replica correlation upon taking the limit ε{sub 12} → 0. Branch G{sub 2} is characterized by an increasing overlap order parameter upon cooling, and may hence be identified with the hypothetical “ideal glass” phase. Branch G{sub 1} exhibits the opposite trend of increasing order parameter upon heating; its free energy lies consistently below that of the L branch and above that of the G{sub 2} branch. The free energies of the L and G{sub 2} branches are found to intersect at an alleged “random first-order transition” (RFOT) characterized by weak discontinuities of the volume and entropy. The Kauzmann and RFOT temperatures predicted by RY differ significantly from their HNC counterparts.

  1. Simulation of land-atmosphere gaseous exchange using a coupled land surface-biogeochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Riley, W. J.; Perez, T. J.; Pan, L.

    2009-12-01

    It is important to develop and evaluate biogeochemical models that on the one hand represent vegetation and soil dynamics and on the other hand provide energy and water fluxes in a temporal resolution suitable for biogeochemical processes. In this study, we present a consistent coupling between a common land surface model (CLM3.0) and a recently developed biogeochemical model (TOUGHREACT-N). The model TOUGHREACT-N (TR-N) is one of the few process-based models that simulate green house gases fluxes by using an implicit scheme to solve the diffusion equations governing soil heat and water fluxes. By coupling with CLM3.0, we have significantly improved TR-N by including realistic representations of surface water, energy, and momentum exchanges, through the use of improved formulations for soil evaporation, plant transpiration, vegetation growth, and plant nitrogen uptake embedded in CLM3.0. The coupled CLMTR-N model is a first step for a full coupling of land surface and biogeochemical processes. The model is evaluated with measurements of soil temperature, soil water content, and N2O and N2 gaseous emission data from fallow, corn, and forest sites in Venezuela. The results demonstrate that the CLMTR-N model simulates realistic diurnal variation of soil temperature, soil water content, and N gaseous fluxes. For example, mean differences between predicted and observed midday near-surface soil water content were 8, 11, and 4 % in July, August, and September. The sensitivity of the biogeochemical processes and resulting N emissions to variation in environmental drivers is high, which indicates the need to calculate biogeochemical processes in, at least, two hourly time steps using dynamically updated (rather than daily averaged) soil environmental conditions. The development in CLMTR-N of such a complex representation of processes will allow us to characterize relevant processes and simplifications appropriate for regional to global-scale coupled biogeochemical and

  2. Spin-orbit coupling and paramagnetic relaxation in micellized triplet radical pairs. Determination of relaxation parameters from magnetic field dependences of the decay kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, P. P.; Kuzmin, V. A.

    1990-01-01

    The geminate recombination kinetics of the radical pairs produced by quenching of triplet benzophenone or 4-bromobenzophenone by 4-phenylphenol and 4-phenylaniline in aqueous micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate has been examined using the laser flash technique. Application of an external magnetic field results in the retardation of geminate recombination up to 20 times. The magnetic field dependences are considered in terms of a simple kinetic scheme, which includes the singlet-triplet evolution in the separated states of a pair due to hyperfine coupling and relaxation mechanisms as well as intersystem recombination process due to the spin-orbit coupling in the contact states of a pair.

  3. Local instability driving extreme events in a pair of coupled chaotic electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Gilson F.; Di Lorenzo, Orlando; de Silans, Thierry Passerat; Chevrollier, Martine; Oriá, Marcos; Cavalcante, Hugo L. D. de Souza

    2016-06-01

    For a long time, extreme events happening in complex systems, such as financial markets, earthquakes, and neurological networks, were thought to follow power-law size distributions. More recently, evidence suggests that in many systems the largest and rarest events differ from the other ones. They are dragon kings, outliers that make the distribution deviate from a power law in the tail. Understanding the processes of formation of extreme events and what circumstances lead to dragon kings or to a power-law distribution is an open question and it is a very important one to assess whether extreme events will occur too often in a specific system. In the particular system studied in this paper, we show that the rate of occurrence of dragon kings is controlled by the value of a parameter. The system under study here is composed of two nearly identical chaotic oscillators which fail to remain in a permanently synchronized state when coupled. We analyze the statistics of the desynchronization events in this specific example of two coupled chaotic electronic circuits and find that modifying a parameter associated to the local instability responsible for the loss of synchronization reduces the occurrence of dragon kings, while preserving the power-law distribution of small- to intermediate-size events with the same scaling exponent. Our results support the hypothesis that the dragon kings are caused by local instabilities in the phase space.

  4. Entamoeba histolytica Dmc1 Catalyzes Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange That Is Stimulated by Calcium and Hop2-Mnd1

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Andrew A.; Say, Amanda F.; Sharma, Deepti; Ledford, LeAnna L.; Turchick, Audrey; Saski, Christopher A.; King, Ada V.; Attaway, Christopher C.; Temesvari, Lesly A.; Sehorn, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis depends on homologous recombination (HR) in most sexually reproducing organisms. Efficient meiotic HR requires the activity of the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Previous work shows Dmc1 is expressed in Entamoeba histolytica, a eukaryotic parasite responsible for amoebiasis throughout the world, suggesting this organism undergoes meiosis. Here, we demonstrate Dmc1 protein is expressed in E. histolytica. We show that purified ehDmc1 forms presynaptic filaments and catalyzes ATP-dependent homologous DNA pairing and DNA strand exchange over at least several thousand base pairs. The DNA pairing and strand exchange activities are enhanced by the presence of calcium and the meiosis-specific recombination accessory factor, Hop2-Mnd1. In combination, calcium and Hop2-Mnd1 dramatically increase the rate of DNA strand exchange activity of ehDmc1. The biochemical system described herein provides a basis on which to better understand the role of ehDmc1 and other HR proteins in E. histolytica. PMID:26422142

  5. A threonine to alanine exchange at position 40 of Tet repressor alters the recognition of the sixth base pair of tet operator from GC to AT.

    PubMed Central

    Altschmied, L; Baumeister, R; Pfleiderer, K; Hillen, W

    1988-01-01

    The tet operators of two naturally evolved tetracycline resistance determinants differ by a G.C to A.T transition at the sixth base pair. This mutation prevents heterologous recognition of these tet operators by their respective two Tet repressor proteins. The amino acid side chains responsible for this sequence-specific distinction of operators were determined. For this purpose in vitro recombinants of the two tetR genes were constructed. Restriction sites were introduced by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in both genes followed by the exchange of different coding segments between them. The encoded chimeric Tet repressor proteins were expressed and their operator recognition specificity was scored in vivo. Exchanging gradually smaller coding segments led finally to a single amino acid exchange in both genes at position 40 of the primary structures. Each Tet repressor containing Thr at this position recognizes the G.C operator while those with Ala recognize the A.T operator regardless of the rest of the sequences. This result demonstrates clearly that the amino acid 40 of Tet repressor contacts and recognizes base pair 6 of tet operator. Sterical interference of the large Thr side chain with the methyl group of A.T and a possible involvement of the hydroxyl in hydrogen bonding to the operator are discussed as the molecular basis of this differentiation between A.T and G.C base pairs. Images PMID:3208760

  6. Entamoeba histolytica Dmc1 Catalyzes Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange That Is Stimulated by Calcium and Hop2-Mnd1.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Andrew A; Say, Amanda F; Sharma, Deepti; Ledford, LeAnna L; Turchick, Audrey; Saski, Christopher A; King, Ada V; Attaway, Christopher C; Temesvari, Lesly A; Sehorn, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis depends on homologous recombination (HR) in most sexually reproducing organisms. Efficient meiotic HR requires the activity of the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Previous work shows Dmc1 is expressed in Entamoeba histolytica, a eukaryotic parasite responsible for amoebiasis throughout the world, suggesting this organism undergoes meiosis. Here, we demonstrate Dmc1 protein is expressed in E. histolytica. We show that purified ehDmc1 forms presynaptic filaments and catalyzes ATP-dependent homologous DNA pairing and DNA strand exchange over at least several thousand base pairs. The DNA pairing and strand exchange activities are enhanced by the presence of calcium and the meiosis-specific recombination accessory factor, Hop2-Mnd1. In combination, calcium and Hop2-Mnd1 dramatically increase the rate of DNA strand exchange activity of ehDmc1. The biochemical system described herein provides a basis on which to better understand the role of ehDmc1 and other HR proteins in E. histolytica.

  7. Modeling coupled thermal-mechanical processes of frozen soil induced by borehole heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.

    2015-12-01

    To utilize the shallow geothermal energy, heat pumps are often coupled with Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHE) to provide heating and cooling for buildings. In cold regions, soil freezing around the BHE is a potential problem which will dramatically influence the underground soil temperature distribution, subsequently the inlet and outlet refrigerant temperature of the BHE, and finally the efficiency of the heat pump. In this study, a numerical model has been developed to simulate the coupled temperature evolution both inside the BHE, and the propagating freezing front in the surrounding soil. The coupled model was validated against analytical solutions and experimental data. The influence of the freezing process on the overall system performance is investigated by comparing one long BHE configuration without freezing and another short one with latent heat from the frozen groundwater. It is found that when freezing happens, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump will decrease by around 0.5, leading to more electricity consumption. Furthermore, analysis of the simulation result reveals that the exploitation of latent heat through groundwater freezing is only economically attractive if electricity price is low and interest rate high, and it is not the case is most European countries.

  8. Mechanisms of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and interlayer exchange coupling in MgO-based tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chshiev, Mairbek

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) comprising ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes with MgO spacer have been an object of high interest for spintronics due to Bloch states symmetry spin filtering leading to high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and due to observation of antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling between FM electrodes across MgO spacer. This attention have been strongly reinforced in a view of a huge interest in MTJs with perpendicularly magnetized magnetic layers (p-MTJs) originating from large values of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) first observed at Pt|Co|MOx interfaces (M =Ta, Mg, Al, Ru...) and later reported for Co|MgO and CoFeB|MgO p-MTJs. In this talk we will elucidate mechanisms responsible for the PMA from first-principles and report the effect of interfacial oxidation conditions on the PMA in Fe(Co)|MgO p-MTJs. In particular, we found very large PMA values for MTJs with pure interfaces in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, it will be demonstrated that oxidation conditions strongly affect the PMA which strongly correlates with TMR in agreement with experiments. Finally, we will discuss the origin of AF coupling in Co|MgO p-MTJs which oscillates as a function of FM layer thickness in agreement with theories of interlayer exchange coupling in MTJ. We acknowledge support of Grenoble Nanosciences Foundation.

  9. Magnetization reversal and magnetoresistance behavior of exchange coupled SrRuO3 bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qing; Song, Wendong; He, Shikun; Yang, Ping; Chen, Jingsheng

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic interlayer coupling of a bilayer structure composed of a tetragonal phase SrRuO3 (T-SRO) and a monoclinic phase SRO (M-SRO) was investigated by means of magnetization and magneto-transport measurements. The T-SRO showed large uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy and M-SRO exhibited longitudinal anisotropy. The thickness of the M-SRO top layer was varied and the bottom T-SRO layer remained unchanged. Magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops showed that as thickness of the M-SRO layer is 4 nm, the M-SRO layer was fully perpendicularly coupled to the T-SRO layer. As the thickness of M-SRO further increased to 8 nm and above, the magnetization reversals of T- and M-SRO phase were clearly distinguished. The angular dependent magnetoresistance (MR) of the bilayers showed consistent results with the M-H loops, which suggests that angle dependent MR may offer a new way for the investigation of exchange coupling between two magnetic layers.

  10. Optical conditional gates in laterally coupled quantum dots: the role of electron-hole exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia; Reinecke, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    We propose a fast, optically induced two-qubit C-PHASE gate in laterally coupled quantum dots. We use a model potential with two asymmetric local minima to account for the difference in size and composition of the two dots. By making use of the excited bound states of the total potential, which extend over both dots and which gives rise to an effective coupling between the two resident electron spins, we avoid the need for an external bias, such as that typically used in vertically coupled dots. The electron-hole exchange interaction is shown to play an important role in our proposal. By lowering the symmetry of the eigenstates, it allows for a simple design of a fast (about 50 ps) C-PHASE gate. The dissipative dynamics of the excited states have been taken into account in our numerical simulation of the fidelity. The calculated fidelity depends on the values of the decay rates. Our proposal is consistent with the single qubit rotations we proposed [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217401 (2007)], and the combination of the two allows for universal quantum gates.

  11. Interlayer Exchange Coupling in Asymmetric Co -Fe /Ru /Co -Fe Trilayers Investigated with Broadband Temperature-Dependent Ferromagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mohammadi, Jamileh Beik; Jones, Joshua Michael; Srivastava, Abhishek; Mewes, Claudia; Mewes, Tim; Kaiser, Christian

    2017-07-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of the interlayer exchange coupling in Co -Fe (5 nm )/Ru (t )/Co -Fe (8 nm ) trilayers (t =0.8 ,…,2.8 nm ) using broadband ferromagnetic resonance. A systematic frequency dependence of the field separation between the acoustic and optic modes is found, which is caused by different effective magnetizations of the two ferromagnetic layers. Hence, it is shown that the broadband measurements are vital for reducing the systematic error margins in the determination of interlayer exchange coupling using ferromagnetic resonance. We also investigate the temperature dependence of the interlayer exchange coupling and compare our results with existing theories. It is shown that models which take into account the temperature dependence due to thermal excitations of spin waves within the ferromagnetic layers have a considerably better agreement with the experiment than models solely based on spacer and interface contributions to the temperature dependence.

  12. NMR study of the exchange coupling in the trinuclear cluster of the multicopper oxidase Fet3p

    PubMed Central

    Zaballa, María-Eugenia; Ziegler, Lynn; Kosman, Daniel J.; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    Fet3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multicopper oxidase (MCO) which oxidizes Fe2+ to Fe3+. The electronic structure of the different copper centers in this family of enzymes has been extensively studied and discussed for years with a particular focus on the exchange coupling regime in the trinuclear cluster (TNC). Using NMR spectroscopy we have quantified the exchange coupling constant in the type 3 center in a fully metallated oxidase; this value in Fet3p is significantly higher than that reported for proteins containing isolated type 3 centers as in tyrosinase. We also provide evidence of exchange coupling between the type 2 and the type 3 Cu2+ ions, which supports the crystallographic evidence of dioxygen binding to the TNC. This work provides the foundation for the application of NMR to these complex systems. PMID:20698686

  13. Origin of anomalously high exchange field in antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic structures: Spin reorientation versus interface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, M.; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Wong, S. K.; Sbiaa, R.; Song, W.; Tan, H. K.; Gonzaga, L.; Chong, T. C.

    2011-11-01

    Magnetization reorientation from in-plane to perpendicular direction, observed in Co thin film coupled antiferromagnetically to high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (Co/Pd) multilayers, is studied systematically for Co thickness ranging from 0 to 2.4 nm. The sample with 0.75 nm thick Co showed an exchange coupling field (Hex) exceeding 15 kOe at room temperature and 17.2 kOe at 5 K. With an increase of Co thickness, Hex decreased as expected and beyond certain thickness, magnetization reorientation was not observed. Indeed, three regions were observed in the thickness dependence of magnetization of the thin layer; one in which the thin layer (in the thickness range up to 0.8 nm) had a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to interface effects and antiferromagnetic coupling, another in which the thin layer (0.9-1.2 nm) magnetization had no interface or crystallographic anisotropy but was reoriented in the perpendicular direction due to antiferromagnetic coupling, and the third (above 1.2 nm) in which the magnetization was in-plane. In addition, Hall effect measurements were carried out to observe the anomalous and planar Hall voltages and to quantify the perpendicular and in-plane components of magnetization. The sample with thicker Co layer (2.4 nm) showed an in-plane component of magnetization, whereas the sample with 0.75 nm Co showed no in-plane component. The high value of Hex observed in 0.75 nm Co samples can have important implications in spintronics and bit patterned media.

  14. Exchange coupling and noncollinear magnetic states in Ni/Fen/Ni(1 0 0) multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malonda-Boungou, B. R.; Stojić, N.; Binggeli, N.; M'Passi-Mabiala, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Ni interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) and the atomic-scale magnetic configurations in fcc Ni /Fen /Ni (1 0 0) multilayers, with ultrathin Fe spacers, are investigated using first-principles density-functional theory including the noncollinear spin formalism. The trends with changing Fe thickness (n) between 3 and 5 monolayers (MLs) are examined. For n = 3 and 4 MLs, we find the ground state to display antiferromagnetic IEC between the Ni films, while for the 5-ML Fe spacer, the IEC changes into ferromagnetic. Upon reversal of the magnetization alignment, from antiparallel to parallel, between the Ni films with 3- and 4-ML thick Fe spacer, we find noncollinear magnetic configurations in the Fe layer as the lowest-energy states, which are related to the magnetic instability towards noncollinear solutions in bulk γ -Fe.

  15. Magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Fe exchange-coupled composite nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L. S.; Hu, J. F.; Zong, B. Y.; Zeng, S. W.; Ariando; Chen, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Fe exchange-coupled composite (ECC) nanodots were investigated by Hall effect measurement due to its high sensitivity. The FePt/Fe nanodots showed coercivity changing irregularly with respect to the Fe thickness, which deviated from the simulated results, where the coercivity of the ECC dots reduced with increasing Fe soft layer thickness. It was found that the edge damage induced by ion milling affected the coercivity of the nanodots significantly and the magnetization reversal mechanism. Domain wall nucleation and propagation was revealed in the FePt single domain dots. In the FePt/Fe ECC nanodots, the magnetization gradually reversed from the out-of-plane direction towards the in-plane direction before switching to the reverse out-of-plane direction. The critical size of single magnetic domains in the FePt/Fe ECC nanodots increased with increasing Fe soft layer thickness.

  16. Resonant magnetization switching conditions of an exchange-coupled bilayer under spin wave excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Yamaji, T.; Seki, T.; Imamura, H.; Takanashi, K.

    2017-02-01

    We systematically investigated spin wave-assisted magnetization switching (SWAS) of a L10-FePt/Ni81Fe19 (permalloy; Py) exchange-coupled bilayer by using a pulse-like rf field (hrf) and mapped the switching events in the magnetic field (H)-hrf frequency (f) plane in order to reveal the switching conditions. Switching occurred only in a limited region followed by the dispersion relationship of the perpendicular standing spin wave modes in the Py. The results indicate that SWAS is a resonant magnetization switching process, which is different from the conventional microwave assisted switching and has the potential to be used for selective switching in multilevel recording media.

  17. Rotating entangled states of an exchange-coupled dimer of single-molecule magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Owerre, S. A.

    2014-04-21

    An antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled dimer of single molecule magnets which possesses a large spin tunneling has been investigated. For this system, the ground and first excited states are entangled states, and the Hamiltonian is effectively similar to that of a two-state system at 2sth order in perturbation theory; thus this system can be mapped to an entangled pseudospin 1/2 particles. We study the effects of interaction and rotation of this system about its staggered easy-axis direction. The corresponding Hamiltonian of a rotated two-state entangled spin system is derived with its exact low-energy eigenstates and eigenvalues. We briefly discuss the effect of a dissipative environment on this rotated two-state system.

  18. Molecular (Feshbach) treatment of charge exchange Li/sup 3 +/+He collisions. I. Energies and couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1986-05-15

    We point out a fundamental difference between the molecular treatment of charge exchange X/sup n/++H(1s) and X/sup n/++He(1s/sup 2/) collisions, which is that the latter process involves molecular states that are formally autoionizing. Then standard ab initio methods do not, in general, yield the relevant wave functions that are needed in the collision treatment, irrespective of whether quasimolecular autoionization be significant or not during the collision. We implement a particularly simple and useful form of the Feshbach formalism to calculate the energies of those two electron systems, and a method to evaluate the corresponding dynamical couplings is presented for the first time. Our implementation of this formalism together with the new computational techniques involved are presented in detail.

  19. Exchange-coupled nanoscale SmCo/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dapeng; Poudyal, Narayan; Rong, Chuanbing; Zhang, Ying; Kramer, Matthew J.; Liu, J. Ping

    2012-05-11

    Nanoscalehybridmagnets containing SmCo5 and Nd2Fe14B hard magnetic phases have been produced via a novel “in-one-pot” processing route. The grain size of the processed bulk composite materials is controlled below 20 nm. The refinement of the nanoscale morphology leads to effective inter-phase exchange coupling that results in single-phase like magnetic properties. Energy product of 14 MGOe was obtained in the isotropic nanocomposite magnets at room temperature. At elevated temperatures, the hybridmagnets have greatly improved thermal stability compared to the Nd2Fe14B single-phase counterpart and have substantially increased magnetization and energy products compared to the single-phase SmCo5 counterpart.

  20. New avenues to efficient chemical synthesis of exchange coupled hard/soft nanocomposite magnet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Don Keun; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Chang Woo; Ji, Eun Sun; Kang, Young Soo

    2009-07-01

    Nd-Fe-B ultrafine amorphous alloy particles were prepared by reaction of metal ions with borohydride in aqueous solution. Monodispersed Fe nanoparticles were synthesized under an argon atmosphere via thermal decomposition of Fe(2+)-oleate2. Exchange coupled Nd2Fe14B/Fe nanocomposite magnets have been prepared by self-assembly using surfactant. The crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was identified by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The size and shape of nanoparticles were obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Thermogravimetry using a microbalance with magnetic field gradient positioned below the sample was used for the measurement of a thermomagnetic analysis (TMA) curve showing the downward magnetic force versus temperature.

  1. Asymmetric kinetics of magnetization reversal of thin exchange-coupled ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskaya, L. S.

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on the results of the investigation of the kinetics of magnetization reversal in FeNi-FeMn ferromagnet-antiferromagnet thin hybrid films grown by magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates in the presence of in-plane magnetic field, which provided unidirectional in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic layer and a single-domain structure of the ferromagnet in the absence of an external magnetic field. The constructed hysteresis loops and magnetization loci have made it possible to reveal the specific features of the magnetization reversal process of an exchange-coupled ferromagnet, to establish new types of asymmetry, and to obtain new proofs for the existence of a spin spring at the ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface. The visualization of the magnetization reversal process has allowed one to establish a one-to-one correspondence between the macrocharacteristics of the material and the real processes occurring in ferromagnet-antiferromagnet hybrid structures.

  2. Indirect exchange interaction in Rashba-spin-orbit-coupled graphene nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoofard, Hossein; Semiromi, Ebrahim Heidari

    2016-10-01

    We study the indirect exchange interaction, named Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling, between localized magnetic impurities in graphene nanoflakes with zig-zag edges in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). We calculate the isotropic and anisotropic RKKY amplitudes by utilizing the tight-binding (TB) model. The RSOI, as a gate tunable variable, is responsible for changes of the RKKY amplitude. We conclude that there is not any switching of the magnetic order (from ferro- to antiferro-magnetic and vice versa) in such a system through the RSOI. The dependence of the RKKY amplitude on the positions of the magnetic impurities and the size of the system is studied. The symmetry breaking, which can occur due to the Rashba interaction, leads to spatial anisotropy in the RKKY amplitude and manifests as collinear and noncollinear terms. Our results show the possibility of control and manipulation of spin correlations in carbon spin-based nanodevices.

  3. Coupling into the base pair stack is necessary for DNA-mediated electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, Alon A; Green, Omar; Yavin, Eylon; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemistry of DNA films modified with different redox probes linked to DNA through saturated and conjugated tethers was investigated. Experiments feature two redox probes bound to DNA on two surfaces: anthraquinone (AQ)-modified uridines incorporated into thiolated DNA on gold (Au) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO)-modified uridines in pyrene-labeled DNA on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The electrochemistry of these labels when incorporated into DNA has been examined in DNA films containing both well matched and mismatched DNA. DNA-mediated electrochemistry is found to be effective for the TEMPO probe linked with an acetylene linker but not for a saturated TEMPO connected through an ethylenediamine linker. For the AQ probe, DNA-mediated electrochemistry is found with an acetylene linker to uridine but not with an alkyl chain to the 5' terminus of the oligonucleotide. Large electrochemical signals and effective discrimination of intervening base mismatches are achieved for the probes connected through the acetylene linkages, while probes connected through saturated linkages exhibit small electrochemical signals associated only with direct surface to probe charge transfer and poor mismatch discrimination. Thus DNA electrochemistry with these probes is dramatically influenced by the chemical nature of their linkage to DNA. These results highlight the importance of effective coupling into the pi-stack for long-range DNA-mediated electrochemistry.

  4. Utility of a nonlinear joint dynamical framework to model a pair of coupled cardiovascular signals.

    PubMed

    Sayadi, Omid; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2013-07-01

    We have recently proposed a correlated model to provide a Gaussian mixture representation of the cardiovascular signals, with promising results in identifying rhythm disturbances. The approach provides a transformation of the data into a set of integrable Gaussians distributed over time. Looking into the model from a new joint modeling perspective, it is capable of assembling a filtered estimation, and can be used to derive temporal information of the waveforms. In this paper, we present a step-by-step derivation of the joint model putting correlation assumptions together to conclude a minimal joint description for a pair of ECG-ABP signals. We then probe novel applications of this model, including Kalman filter based denoising and fiducial point detection. In particular, we use the joint model for denoising and employ the denoised signals for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation. We analyzed more than 70 h of data from 76 patients from the MIMIC database to illustrate the accuracy of the algorithm. We have found that this method can be effectively used for robust joint ECG-ABP noise suppression, with mean signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement up to 23.2 (12.0) dB and weighted diagnostic distortion measures as low as 2.1 (3.3)% for artificial (real) noises, respectively. In addition, we have estimated the error distributions for QT interval, systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after filtering to demonstrate the maximal preservation of morphological features (ΔQT: mean ± std = 2.2 ± 6.1 ms; ΔSBP: mean ± std = 2.3 ± 1.9 mmHg; ΔDBP: mean ± std = 1.9 ± 1.4 mmHg). Finally, we have been able to present a systematic approach for robust PTT estimation (r = 0.98, p <; 0.001, mean ± std of error = -0.26 ± 2.93 ms). These findings may have important implications for reliable monitoring and estimation of clinically important features in clinical settings. In conclusion, the proposed framework opens the door to the possibility of deploying a hybrid

  5. Controlled Under Pressure: Understanding Spin Orbit Coupling and Exchange Anisotropy in Organic Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The application of high pressure in the study of molecule-based materials has gained considerable interest, in part due to their high compressibilities, but also because the relevant electronic/magnetic degrees of freedom are often very sensitive to pressure. For example, small changes in the coordination environment around a magnetic transition metal ion can produce quite dramatic variations in both the on-site spin-orbit anisotropy as well as the exchange interactions between such ions when assembled into clusters or 3D networks. This has spurred the development of sophisticated spectroscopic tools that can be integrated with high-pressure instrumentation. The study of magnetic structure/property relations requires not only precise crystallographic data, but also detailed spectroscopic information concerning the unpaired electrons that give rise to the magnetic properties. This invited talk will begin with a brief description of the development and application of methods enabling EPR studies of oriented single-crystal samples subjected to hydrostatic pressures of up to 3.5 GPa. After an introductory example, the remainder of the talk will focus on a family of heavy atom organic radical ferromagnets (containing S and Se heteroatoms) that hold records for both the highest transition temperature and coercivity (for organic magnets). The latter is the result of an unexpectedly high magnetic anisotropy, attributable to spin-orbit-mediated exchange (hopping) processes., Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements reveal a continuous increase in the magnetic anisotropy with increasing pressure in the all Se compound, in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations based on the known pressure-dependence of its structure. The large value of anisotropic exchange terms in this heavy atom organic ferromagnet emphasizes the important role of spin-orbit coupling in a wide range of organics where this effect is usually considered to be small. This work was supported by the

  6. Recognition of exchange striction as the origin of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, G.; Damay, F.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Balédent, V.; Peng, W.; Elkaim, E.; Whitaker, M.; Greenblatt, M.; Lepetit, M.-B.; Foury-Leylekian, P.

    2017-05-01

    The magnetoelectric coupling, a phenomenon inducing magnetic (electric) polarization by application of an external electric (magnetic) field and first conjectured by Curie in 1894, is observed in most of the multiferroics and used for many applications in various fields such as data storage or sensing. However, its microscopic origin is a long-standing controversy in the scientific community. An intense revival of interest developed in the beginning of the 21st century due to the emergence of multiferroic frustrated magnets in which the ferroelectricity is magnetically induced and which present an inherent strong magnetoelectric coupling. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) well accounts for such ferroelectricity in systems with a noncollinear magnetic order such as the RMnO3 manganites. The DMI effect is, however, inadequate for systems presenting ferroelectricity induced by quasicollinear spin arrangements such as the prominent RMn2O5 manganites. Among different microscopic mechanisms proposed to resolve this incompatibility, the exchange-striction model stands as the most invoked candidate. In this scenario, the polar atomic displacements originate from the release of a frustration caused by the magnetic order. Despite its theoretical description 15 years ago, this mechanism had yet to be unambiguously validated experimentally. The breakthrough finally comes from SmMn2O5 presenting a unique magnetic order revealed by powder neutron diffraction. The unique orientation of its magnetic moment establishes the missing element that definitely validates the exchange striction as the effective mechanism for the spin-induced ferroelectricity in this series. More generally, this is a proof of concept that validates this model on actual systems, facilitating the development of a new generation of multiferroics with unrivaled magnetoelectric properties.

  7. Simulating carbon exchange using a regional atmospheric model coupled to an advanced land-surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Maat, H. W.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2008-10-01

    A large scale mismatch exists between our understanding and quantification of ecosystem atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at local scale and continental scales. This paper will focus on the carbon exchange on the regional scale to address the following question: What are the main controlling factors determining atmospheric carbon dioxide content at a regional scale? We use the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS), coupled with a land surface scheme simulating carbon, heat and momentum fluxes (SWAPS-C), and including also sub models for urban and marine fluxes, which in principle include the main controlling mechanisms and capture the relevant dynamics of the system. To validate the model, observations are used which were taken during an intensive observational campaign in the central Netherlands in summer 2002. These included flux-site observations, vertical profiles at tall towers and spatial fluxes of various variables taken by aircraft. The coupled regional model (RAMS-SWAPS-C) generally does a good job in simulating results close to reality. The validation of the model demonstrates that surface fluxes of heat, water and CO2 are reasonably well simulated. The comparison against aircraft data shows that the regional meteorology is captured by the model. Comparing spatially explicit simulated and observed fluxes we conclude that in general simulated latent heat fluxes are underestimated by the model to the observations which exhibit large standard deviation for all flights. Sensitivity experiments demonstrated the relevance of the urban emissions of carbon dioxide for the carbon balance in this particular region. The same test also show the relation between uncertainties in surface fluxes and those in atmospheric concentrations.

  8. Coupling groundwater modeling and biological indicators for identifying river/aquifer exchanges.

    PubMed

    Graillot, Didier; Paran, Frédéric; Bornette, Gudrun; Marmonier, Pierre; Piscart, Christophe; Cadilhac, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Future climate changes and the resulting modifications in anthropogenic activities will alter the interactions between rivers and groundwater. The quantification of these hydraulic interactions is absolutely necessary for achieving sustainable water use and requires accurate analytical methodologies. This report proposes an interdisciplinary approach to the quantitative and qualitative characterization of hydraulic interactions between rivers and shallow aquifers, wherein it outlines the advantages of coupling groundwater modeling with biological markers. As a first step, we built independent diagnostic maps of hydrological exchanges at the sector scale on the basis of hydrogeological modeling and biological indicators. In a second step, these maps were compared to provide a quantitative and qualitative understanding of exchanges between groundwater and surface water. This comparison significantly improved the calibration of groundwater models through a better assessment of boundary zones. Our approach enabled us to identify the conditions under which it could be possible to use biological indicators instead of a large set of piezometric measures. The integration of such combined tools in a future decision support system will assist governmental authorities in proposing appropriate long-term water policies for the preservation of groundwater resources, such as for supplying potable water and/or mitigating pollution risks.

  9. Ionosphere-exosphere coupling through charge exchange and momentum transfer in hydrogen-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The implications of a traditional assumption of exospheric physics, that collisions of hydrogen atoms and protons preferentially result in charge exchange with negligible momentum transfer are examined. Initially adopted as a necessary convenience to accommodate limited computer resources in exosphere model calculations, this approximation results in a direct transformation of the proton velocity distribution into a hot component of neutral hydrogen. With expanding computational facilities, the need for the approximation has passed. As the first step toward its replacement with a realistic, quantum mechanical model of the H - H(+) collision process, differential and cumulative cross sections were calculated for quantum elastic scattering of indistinguishable nuclei for a fine grid of encounter energies and scattering angles. These data are used to study the nature of ionosphere-exosphere coupling through H - H(+) collisions, and to demonstrate that the distribution of velocities of scattered H produced in the traditional exospheric charge exchange approximation, as well as that arising from an alternative, fluid dynamic approach, leads to unacceptable abundances of coronal atoms in long-term, highly elliptic trajectories.

  10. Role of interface coupling inhomogeneity in domain evolution in exchange bias

    PubMed Central

    Benassi, Andrea; Marioni, Miguel A.; Passerone, Daniele; Hug, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Models of exchange-bias in thin films have been able to describe various aspects of this technologically relevant effect. Through appropriate choices of free parameters the modelled hysteresis loops adequately match experiment, and typical domain structures can be simulated. However, the use of these parameters, notably the coupling strength between the systems' ferromagnetic (F) and antiferromagnetic (AF) layers, obscures conclusions about their influence on the magnetization reversal processes. Here we develop a 2D phase-field model of the magnetization process in exchange-biased CoO/(Co/Pt)×n that incorporates the 10 nm-resolved measured local biasing characteristics of the antiferromagnet. Just three interrelated parameters set to measured physical quantities of the ferromagnet and the measured density of uncompensated spins thus suffice to match the experiment in microscopic and macroscopic detail. We use the model to study changes in bias and coercivity caused by different distributions of pinned uncompensated spins of the antiferromagnet, in application-relevant situations where domain wall motion dominates the ferromagnetic reversal. We show the excess coercivity can arise solely from inhomogeneity in the density of biasing- and anti-biasing pinned uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet. Counter to conventional wisdom, irreversible processes in the latter are not essential. PMID:24676050

  11. Ionosphere-exosphere coupling through charge exchange and momentum transfer in hydrogen-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The implications of a traditional assumption of exospheric physics, that collisions of hydrogen atoms and protons preferentially result in charge exchange with negligible momentum transfer are examined. Initially adopted as a necessary convenience to accommodate limited computer resources in exosphere model calculations, this approximation results in a direct transformation of the proton velocity distribution into a hot component of neutral hydrogen. With expanding computational facilities, the need for the approximation has passed. As the first step toward its replacement with a realistic, quantum mechanical model of the H - H(+) collision process, differential and cumulative cross sections were calculated for quantum elastic scattering of indistinguishable nuclei for a fine grid of encounter energies and scattering angles. These data are used to study the nature of ionosphere-exosphere coupling through H - H(+) collisions, and to demonstrate that the distribution of velocities of scattered H produced in the traditional exospheric charge exchange approximation, as well as that arising from an alternative, fluid dynamic approach, leads to unacceptable abundances of coronal atoms in long-term, highly elliptic trajectories.

  12. Magnetization reversal mechanism in perpendicular exchange-coupled Fe/L10-FePt bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varvaro, G.; Albertini, F.; Agostinelli, E.; Casoli, F.; Fiorani, D.; Laureti, S.; Lupo, P.; Ranzieri, P.; Astinchap, B.; Testa, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    The magnetization reversal mechanism in perpendicular soft/hard Fe/FePt exchange-coupled bilayers has been investigated as a function of the soft layer thickness (tFe = 2, 3.5, 5 nm) combining magnetization loops at variable angle, magnetic domain analysis by magnetic force microscopy and numerical micromagnetic simulations. The analytical model proposed in the literature can properly account for some features of the reversal mechanism, such as positive nucleation fields and the reduction of the perpendicular coercive field and remanence by increasing the soft layer thickness, but cannot satisfactorily describe the magnetization process of real systems. We showed that for a thickness of the soft layer exceeding the FePt exchange length (˜2 nm), numerical micromagnetic calculations are needed to reproduce experimental observations. Indeed, just above the coercive field, the magnetization reversal does not proceed in single step switching, as predicted by the analytical model, but according to a more complex process: evolution of nucleated magnetic domains whose magnetization is approximately along the surface normal in the hard layer and slightly out of the film plane in the soft layer, followed by rotation of Fe moments along the field direction.

  13. Treating Subvalence Correlation Effects in Domain Based Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Calculations: An Out-of-the-Box Approach.

    PubMed

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Riplinger, Christoph; Minenkov, Yury; Cavallo, Luigi; Auer, Alexander A; Neese, Frank

    2017-07-11

    The validity of the main approximations used in canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) in standard chemical applications is discussed. In particular, we investigate the dependence of the results on the number of electrons included in the correlation treatment in frozen-core (FC) calculations and on the main threshold governing the accuracy of DLPNO all-electron (AE) calculations. Initially, scalar relativistic orbital energies for the ground state of the atoms from Li to Rn in the periodic table are calculated. An energy criterion is used for determining the orbitals that can be excluded from the correlation treatment in FC coupled cluster calculations without significant loss of accuracy. The heterolytic dissociation energy (HDE) of a series of metal compounds (LiF, NaF, AlF3, CaF2, CuF, GaF3, YF3, AgF, InF3, HfF4, and AuF) is calculated at the canonical CCSD(T) level, and the dependence of the results on the number of correlated electrons is investigated. Although for many of the studied reactions subvalence correlation effects contribute significantly to the HDE, the use of an energy criterion permits a conservative definition of the size of the core, allowing FC calculations to be performed in a black-box fashion while retaining chemical accuracy. A comparison of the CCSD and the DLPNO-CCSD methods in describing the core-core, core-valence, and valence-valence components of the correlation energy is given. It is found that more conservative thresholds must be used for electron pairs containing at least one core electron in order to achieve high accuracy in AE DLPNO-CCSD calculations relative to FC calculations. With the new settings, the DLPNO-CCSD method reproduces canonical CCSD results in both AE and FC calculations with the same accuracy.

  14. Influence of the Fe-Co ratio on the exchange coupling in TbFeCo/[Co/Pt] heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebler, B.; Böttger, S.; Nissen, D.; Abrudan, R.; Radu, F.; Albrecht, M.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a systematic study of exchange coupled heterostructures, consisting of ferromagnetic [Co/Pt] multilayers and ferrimagnetic (FI) T bxF e100 -x -yC oy (20 nm) alloy thin films with varying composition exhibiting strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. In particular, the impact of the Tb content and ratio of Fe and Co of the amorphous FI alloy on the exchange interaction at the interface was investigated. In this paper, the magnetic properties of single ternary TbFeCo thin films were analyzed in a broad composition range and compared to coupled TbFeCo/[Co/Pt] heterostructures. While a rather linear dependence of the exchange coupling strength was observed for Fe/Co-dominated ferrimagnets with increasing amount of Co, a nonlinear behavior is observed for Tb-dominated alloys. The latter behavior is governed by the variation of the exchange stiffness of the ferrimagnet. Additionally, by using element-specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, the thickness of the interface domain wall (IDW) in the ferrimagnet, which is formed during the reversal of the ferromagnet, can be extracted. An inverse correlation between the IDW thickness and the exchange coupling strength at the interface was deduced.

  15. Magnetoresistance and planar Hall effects in submicron exchange-coupled NiO/Fe19Ni81 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, A.; Otani, Y.; Kim, S. G.; Fukamichi, K.; Kitakami, O.; Shimada, Y.

    1999-06-01

    Magnetization reversal processes of submicron NiO/Fe19Ni81 exchange-coupled Hall cross with a variable width in the range from 0.2 to 0.4 μm were studied by the magnetoresistivity and the planar Hall effect measurements. The magnetization reversal was found to take place via a coherent rotation in the Hall cross, suggesting that the size of the antiferromagnetic domain is regulated by the wire width. The magnitude of the exchange coupling field Hex varied in proportion to the inverse wire width.

  16. Fast computation of close-coupling exchange integrals using polynomials in a tree representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallerberger, Markus; Igenbergs, Katharina; Schweinzer, Josef; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2011-03-01

    The semi-classical atomic-orbital close-coupling method is a well-known approach for the calculation of cross sections in ion-atom collisions. It strongly relies on the fast and stable computation of exchange integrals. We present an upgrade to earlier implementations of the Fourier-transform method. For this purpose, we implement an extensive library for symbolic storage of polynomials, relying on sophisticated tree structures to allow fast manipulation and numerically stable evaluation. Using this library, we considerably speed up creation and computation of exchange integrals. This enables us to compute cross sections for more complex collision systems. Program summaryProgram title: TXINT Catalogue identifier: AEHS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 332 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 157 086 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: All with a Fortran 95 compiler Operating system: All with a Fortran 95 compiler RAM: Depends heavily on input, usually less than 100 MiB Classification: 16.10 Nature of problem: Analytical calculation of one- and two-center exchange matrix elements for the close-coupling method in the impact parameter model. Solution method: Similar to the code of Hansen and Dubois [1], we use the Fourier-transform method suggested by Shakeshaft [2] to compute the integrals. However, we heavily speed up the calculation using a library for symbolic manipulation of polynomials. Restrictions: We restrict ourselves to a defined collision system in the impact parameter model. Unusual features: A library for symbolic manipulation of polynomials, where polynomials are stored in a space-saving left-child right

  17. Effect of hydrogen on the interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/V superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ostanin, S.; Uzdin, V. M.; Demangeat, C.; Wills, J. M.; Alouani, M.; Dreysse, H.

    2000-02-15

    Electronic and magnetic structures of Fe/V superlattices with and without hydrogen in the vanadium spacer are investigated using a relativistic full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method. We obtained short-range induced spin polarization in V as well as reduced Fe polarization at the Fe/V interface. The value of the magnetic moment induced on the vanadium atoms depends strongly on the distortion caused by the lattice mismatch and hydrogen loading whereas the total moment of the Fe and V interface layers remains almost unchanged. Hydrogenation of the V spacer leads to the decrease of the interface magnetic moment on the V atoms and to a reduction of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level. A low DOS could be one of the reasons for the experimental increase of the resistivity of the samples under hydrogen loading and leads to the disappearance of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in the Fe/(VH) superlattices for large hydrogen concentration. Doping the V film by a gold monolayer increases the DOS at the Fermi level and could recover the antiferromagnetic coupling. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Neutral Higgs Boson Pair-Production and Trilinear Self-Couplings in the Mssm at Ilc and Clic Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Sampayo, O. A.

    We study pair-production as well as the triple self-couplings of the neutral Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) at the future International Linear e+e- Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The analysis is based on the reactions e+e--> b bar b hih_i, t bar t hih_i with hi = h, H, A. We evaluate the total cross-section for both bbar bhih_i, tbar thih_i and calculate the total number of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at tree-level. We vary the triple couplings κλhhh, κλHhh, κλhAA, κλHAA, κλhHH and κλHHH within the range κ = -1 and +2. The numerical computation is done for the energies expected at the ILC with a center-of-mass energy 500, 1000, 1600 GeV and a luminosity 1000 fb-1. The channels e+e--> b bar b hih_i and e+e--> t bar t hih_i are also discussed to a center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV and luminosities of 1000 fb-1 and 5000 fb-1.

  19. Is It Possible To Obtain Coupled Cluster Quality Energies at near Density Functional Theory Cost? Domain-Based Local Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster vs Modern Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Dimitrios G; Neese, Frank

    2015-09-08

    The recently developed domain-based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) delivers results that are closely approaching those of the parent canonical coupled cluster method at a small fraction of the computational cost. A recent extended benchmark study established that, depending on the three main truncation thresholds, it is possible to approach the canonical CCSD(T) results within 1 kJ (default setting, TightPNO), 1 kcal/mol (default setting, NormalPNO), and 2-3 kcal (default setting, LoosePNO). Although thresholds for calculations with TightPNO are 2-4 times slower than those based on NormalPNO thresholds, they are still many orders of magnitude faster than canonical CCSD(T) calculations, even for small and medium sized molecules where there is little locality. The computational effort for the coupled cluster step scales nearly linearly with system size. Since, in many instances, the coupled cluster step in DLPNO-CCSD(T) is cheaper or at least not much more expensive than the preceding Hartree-Fock calculation, it is useful to compare the method against modern density functional theory (DFT), which requires an effort comparable to that of Hartree-Fock theory (at least if Hartree-Fock exchange is part of the functional definition). Double hybrid density functionals (DHDF's) even require a MP2-like step. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the cost vs accuracy ratio of DLPNO-CCSD(T) against modern DFT (including the PBE, B3LYP, M06-2X, B2PLYP, and B2GP-PLYP functionals and, where applicable, their van der Waals corrected counterparts). To eliminate any possible bias in favor of DLPNO-CCSD(T), we have chosen established benchmark sets that were specifically proposed for evaluating DFT functionals. It is demonstrated that DLPNO-CCSD(T) with any of the three default thresholds is more accurate than any of the DFT functionals. Furthermore, using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set and

  20. Pulsed electron spin nutation spectroscopy for weakly exchange-coupled multi-spin molecular systems with nuclear hyperfine couplings: a general approach to bi- and triradicals and determination of their spin dipolar and exchange interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayabe, Kazuki; Sato, Kazunobu; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Nishida, Shinsuke; Sugisaki, Kenji; Ise, Tomoaki; Morita, Yasushi; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Suzuki, Shuichi; Okada, Keiji; Takui, Takeji

    2013-10-01

    Weakly exchange-coupled biradicals have attracted much attention in terms of their dynamic nuclear polarisation application in NMR spectroscopy for biological systems or the use of synthetic electron-spin qubits in quantum information processing/quantum-computing technology. Analogues multi-partite molecular systems are important in entering a new phase of the relevant fields. Many stable organic biradicals known so far have nitrogen nuclei at their electron spin sites, where singly occupied molecular orbitals are dominating and large hyperfine couplings occur. A salient feature of such weakly exchange-coupled molecular systems in terms of electronic spin structures is underlain by small zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters comparable with nuclear hyperfine and/or exchange interactions. Pulse-based electron spin nutation (ESN) spectroscopy of weakly exchange-coupled biradicals, applicable to oriented or non-oriented media, has proven to be a useful and facile approach to the determination of ZFS parameters, which reflect relatively short distances between unpaired electron spins. In the present study, we first treat two-dimensional single-crystal ESN spectroscopy (Q-band) of a 15N-labelled weakly exchange-coupled biradical, showing the nuclear hyperfine effects on the ESN phenomena from both the experimental and theoretical side. ESN spectroscopy is transition moment spectroscopy, in which the nutation frequency as a function of the microwave irradiation strength ω1 (angular frequency) for any cases of weakly exchange-coupled systems can be treated. The results provide a testing ground for the simplified but general approach to the ESN analysis. In this study, we have invoked single-crystal electron-electron double resonance measurements on a typical biradical well incorporated in a diamagnetic host lattice and checked the accuracy of our ESN analysis for the spin dipolar tensor and exchange interaction. Next, we extend the general approach to analogues multi

  1. Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bidirectional NH3 exchange coupled to an agroecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Dennis, R. L.; Walker, J. T.; Pleim, J. E.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is the primary atmospheric base and an important precursor for inorganic particulate matter and when deposited NH3 contributes to surface water eutrophication, soil acidification and decline in species biodiversity. Flux measurements indicate that the air-surface exchange of NH3 is bidirectional. However, the effects of bidirectional exchange, soil biogeochemistry and human activity are not parameterized in air quality models. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air-Quality (CMAQ) model with bidirectional NH3 exchange has been coupled with the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agroecosystem model. The coupled CMAQ-EPIC model relies on EPIC fertilization timing, rate and composition while CMAQ models the soil ammonium (NH4+) pool by conserving the ammonium mass due to fertilization, evasion, deposition, and nitrification processes. This mechanistically coupled modeling system reduced the biases and error in NHx (NH3 + NH4+) wet deposition and in ambient aerosol concentrations in an annual 2002 Continental US (CONUS) domain simulation when compared to a 2002 annual simulation of CMAQ without bidirectional exchange. Fertilizer emissions estimated in CMAQ 5.0 with bidirectional exchange exhibits markedly different seasonal dynamics than the US EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI), with lower emissions in the spring and fall and higher emissions in July.

  2. The tolerance to exchanges of the Watson Crick base pair in the hammerhead ribozyme core is determined by surrounding elements.

    PubMed

    Przybilski, Rita; Hammann, Christian

    2007-10-01

    Tertiary interacting elements are important features of functional RNA molecules, for example, in all small nucleolytic ribozymes. The recent crystal structure of a tertiary stabilized type I hammerhead ribozyme revealed a conventional Watson-Crick base pair in the catalytic core, formed between nucleotides C3 and G8. We show that any Watson-Crick base pair between these positions retains cleavage competence in two type III ribozymes. In the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence, only moderate differences in cleavage rates are observed for the different base pairs, while the peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) ribozyme exhibits a preference for a pyrimidine at position 3 and a purine at position 8. To understand these differences, we created a series of chimeric ribozymes in which we swapped sequence elements that surround the catalytic core. The kinetic characterization of the resulting ribozymes revealed that the tertiary interacting loop sequences of the PLMVd ribozyme are sufficient to induce the preference for Y3-R8 base pairs in the A. thaliana hammerhead ribozyme. In contrast to this, only when the entire stem-loops I and II of the A. thaliana sequences are grafted on the PLMVd ribozyme is any Watson-Crick base pair similarly tolerated. The data provide evidence for a complex interplay of secondary and tertiary structure elements that lead, mediated by long-range effects, to an individual modulation of the local structure in the catalytic core of different hammerhead ribozymes.

  3. Two-Dimensional Jeff=1 /2 Antiferromagnetic Insulator Unraveled from Interlayer Exchange Coupling in Artificial Perovskite Iridate Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lin; Meyers, D.; Frederick, Clayton; Fabbris, Gilberto; Yang, Junyi; Traynor, Nathan; Horak, Lukas; Kriegner, Dominik; Choi, Yongseong; Kim, Jong-Woo; Haskel, Daniel; Ryan, Phil J.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, Jian

    2017-07-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the two-dimensional Jeff=1 /2 antiferromagnetic Mott insulator by varying the interlayer exchange coupling in [(SrIrO3)1 , (SrTiO3)m ] (m =1 , 2 and 3) superlattices. Although all samples exhibited an insulating ground state with long-range magnetic order, temperature-dependent resistivity measurements showed a stronger insulating behavior in the m =2 and m =3 samples than the m =1 sample which displayed a clear kink at the magnetic transition. This difference indicates that the blocking effect of the excessive SrTiO3 layer enhances the effective electron-electron correlation and strengthens the Mott phase. The significant reduction of the Néel temperature from 150 K for m =1 to 40 K for m =2 demonstrates that the long-range order stability in the former is boosted by a substantial interlayer exchange coupling. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering revealed that the interlayer exchange coupling has a switchable sign, depending on the SrTiO3 layer number m , for maintaining canting-induced weak ferromagnetism. The nearly unaltered transition temperature between the m =2 and the m =3 demonstrated that we have realized a two-dimensional antiferromagnet at finite temperatures with diminishing interlayer exchange coupling.

  4. Magnetic self-assembly for the synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/Fe–Co composites

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.; Cui, Jun

    2015-11-15

    Exchange coupled hard/soft MnBi/Fe–Co core/shell structured composites were synthesized using a magnetic self-assembly process. MnBi particles were prepared by arc-melting, and Fe–Co nanoparticles were synthesized by an oleic acid assisted chemical reduction method. Grinding a mixture of micron-sized MnBi and Fe–Co nanoparticles in hexane resulted in MnBi/Fe–Co core/shell structured composites. The MnBi/Fe–Co (95/5 wt%) composites showed smooth magnetic hysteresis loops, enhanced remanent magnetization, and positive values in the ΔM curve, indicating exchange coupling between MnBi and Fe–Co particles. - Graphical abstract: Both MnBi and Fe–Co particles were dispersed in hexane for grinding. Because of the oleic acid used during the Fe–Co nanoparticle synthesis, they could be well dispersed in hexane. During the grinding, the size of MnBi particles was decreased, hexane was evaporated, and the Fe–Co nanoparticles were concentrated in the solvent and magnetically attracted by MnBi particles, forming a core/shell structure. - Highlights: • Exchange coupled MnBi/Fe–Co composites are synthesized through magnetic selfassembly. • Magnetic exchange coupling is demonstrated by smooth magnetic hysteresis loops, enhanced remanent magnetization, and dominant positive peak in the ΔM curve. • The experimental results in magnetic properties are close to the theoretical calculation results.

  5. Ex situ synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled SrFe12O19/Fe-Co composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetically exchange coupled SrFe12O19/Fe-Co composites with different mass percentage of Fe-Co were synthesized through an ex situ process. The morphology, magnetic properties, and crystallization of SrFe12O19/Fe-Co composites were investigated. Lower mass percentage of Fe-Co presented an even distribution of Fe-Co nanoparticles on the surface of SrFe12O19, and effective magnetic exchange coupling between Fe-Co and SrFe12O19. Higher mass percentage of Fe-Co leads to an agglomeration of Fe-Co nanoparticles on SrFe12O19 surface, and a weak magnetic exchange coupling between Fe-Co and SrFe12O19. This ex situ process proposed a new method to synthesize magnetically exchange coupled SrFe12O19/Fe-Co core/shell composites with precise control of the magnetic properties. This method can also be potentially used for other hard/soft magnetic composite synthesis.

  6. Towards quantifying the role of exact exchange in the prediction hydrogen bond spin-spin coupling constants involving fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Fabián, J.; Omar, S.; García de la Vega, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of a fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange on the calculated spin-spin coupling constants involving fluorine through a hydrogen bond is analyzed in detail. Coupling constants calculated using wavefunction methods are revisited in order to get high-level calculations using the same basis set. Accurate MCSCF results are obtained using an additive approach. These constants and their contributions are used as a reference for density functional calculations. Within the density functional theory, the Hartree-Fock exchange functional is split in short- and long-range using a modified version of the Coulomb-attenuating method with the SLYP functional as well as with the original B3LYP. Results support the difficulties for calculating hydrogen bond coupling constants using density functional methods when fluorine nuclei are involved. Coupling constants are very sensitive to the Hartree-Fock exchange and it seems that, contrary to other properties, it is important to include this exchange for short-range interactions. Best functionals are tested in two different groups of complexes: those related with anionic clusters of type [F(HF)n]- and those formed by difluoroacetylene and either one or two hydrogen fluoride molecules.

  7. Two-Dimensional Jeff=1/2 Antiferromagnetic Insulator Unraveled from Interlayer Exchange Coupling in Artificial Perovskite Iridate Superlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Hao, Lin; Meyers, D.; Frederick, Clayton; ...

    2017-07-14

    We report an experimental investigation of the two-dimensional Jeff=1/2 antiferromagnetic Mott insulator by varying the interlayer exchange coupling in [(SrIrO3)1, (SrTiO3)m] (m=1, 2 and 3) superlattices. Although all samples exhibited an insulating ground state with long-range magnetic order, temperature-dependent resistivity measurements showed a stronger insulating behavior in the m = 2 and m = 3 samples than the m = 1 sample which displayed a clear kink at the magnetic transition. This difference indicates that the blocking effect of the excessive SrTiO3 layer enhances the effective electron-electron correlation and strengthens the Mott phase. The significant reduction of the Néel temperaturemore » from 150 K for m = 1 to 40 K for m = 2 demonstrates that the long-range order stability in the former is boosted by a substantial interlayer exchange coupling. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering revealed that the interlayer exchange coupling has a switchable sign, depending on the SrTiO3 layer number m, for maintaining canting-induced weak ferromagnetism. In conclusion, the nearly unaltered transition temperature between the m = 2 and the m = 3 demonstrated that we have realized a two-dimensional antiferromagnet at finite temperatures with diminishing interlayer exchange coupling.« less

  8. Exchange coupling of a perpendicular ferromagnet to a half-metallic compensated ferrimagnet via a thin hafnium interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Kiril; Atcheson, Gwenaël; D'Arcy, Gavin; Lau, Yong-Chang; Coey, J. M. D.; Rode, Karsten

    2017-09-01

    A thin Hafnium film is shown to act both as an effective diffusion barrier for manganese at a thickness of 0.7 nm and as an effective exchange coupling layer in a sandwich structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The two magnetic layers are Co20Fe60B20 and the low moment ferrimagnet Mn2RuxGa (MRG). The relative orientation of the magnetic layers changes sign at the compensation temperature of MRG. The exchange energy reaches 0.11 mJ m-2 for the thinnest Hf interlayers. Ruthenium, the usual metal of choice for coupling ferromagnetic layers in thin film heterostructures, cannot be used with the zero-moment half metal MRG because of Ru interdiffusion. Due to its large coercivity near compensation, the MRG can potentially act as an effective source of exchange pinning.

  9. Effect of lattice deformation on exchange coupling constants in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kota, Yohei; Imamura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Munetaka

    2014-05-07

    We studied lattice deformation effect on exchange interaction in the corundum-type Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} theoretically. First-principles electronic structure calculations were performed to evaluate the total energy and exchange coupling constants of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} under lattice deformation. We found that a few percent elastic deformation is expected via misfit strain and that the first- and second-nearest neighbor exchange coupling constants of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} strongly depend on the lattice deformation. These results imply a possibility for improving the thermal stability of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} based magnetoelectric devices by lattice deformation.

  10. Exchange coupling in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer based all-organic composites with giant electrostriction.

    PubMed

    Li, JiangYu

    2003-05-30

    In this Letter, we discuss the dramatically enhanced electrostriction and dielectric constant in an all-organic composite consisting of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer matrix and copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) particles, which could not be explained by traditional composite theory. Using a Landau-type potential energy combined with energy minimization, we demonstrate that the dramatic property enhancement is due to the exchange coupling between the dielectrically hard P(VDF-TrFE) and dielectrically soft CuPc, which becomes dominant when the heterogeneity size of the composite is comparable to the exchange length. The exchange coupling is a very effective mechanism for the enhancement of functional properties in ferroelectric and dielectric systems, and its variation with various material parameters is demonstrated and discussed.

  11. Quantitative determination of semisynthetic cephamycins in human serum and urine by ion-exchange, reversed-phase and ion-pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Gonzalez, J C; Méndez, R; Martín-Villacorta, J

    1998-07-03

    High-performance liquid chromatographic methods have been developed for the determination of semisynthetic cephamycins: cefoxitin, cefmetazole and cefminox in human serum and urine samples. Serum samples spiked with each cephamycin were combined with an equal volume of methanol to remove proteins and, after centrifugation, and aliquot of the supernatant was analysed by ion-exchange, reversed-phase and ion-pair chromatography with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as the ion-pairing agent. Urine samples were diluted, filtered and analysed by same chromatographic procedure. The cephamycins were detected by their ultraviolet absorbance (265-272 nm). It was possible to determine concentrations of cephamycins to 0.2 micrograms/ml in serum 2 micrograms/ml in urine samples with a good level of reproducibility and accuracy.

  12. Role of spin-orbit coupling in the kinetics of geminal recombination of triplet radical pairs in micelles. Effect of an internal heavy atom

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, P.P.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors use radicals from the laser photolysis of benzophenone, bromobenzophenone, 4-phenylphenol, and 4-phenylaniline to study the effect of a heavy atom introduced as a substituent on the recombination kinetics of triplet radical pairs in micelles as a function of the external magnetic field strength. They found that intercombination conversion, which takes place due to the spin-orbit coupling between radicals, makes a significant contribution to the process of singlet-triplet transitions in radical pairs together with the hyperfine interaction. The role of spin-orbit coupling increases significantly when heavy atoms are present in the radicals.

  13. Determination of sinigrin in vegetable seeds by online microdialysis sampling coupled to reverse-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsai-Hung; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Kumar, Ponnusamy Vinoth; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2010-04-28

    A hollow fiber microdialysis sampling coupled online to ion-pair liquid chromatography was investigated as an alternative to sample pretreatment for the direct determination of sinigrin in cruciferous vegetables without desulfation. After microdialysis, the dialysate was online injected into the chromatographic system to analyze the sinigrin with UV detection at 227 nm. Parameters affecting the microdialysis efficiency, such as flow rate, polarity modifier, pH in perfusion stream, pH, and salt added in sample solution, were studied. Through ion suppression in the donor phase and ion-pair formation in the acceptor phase, the microdialysis efficiency of sinigrin was enhanced. Experimental results revealed that the microdialysis of a sample solution (pH 2.0) using 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium (pH 12) as a perfusate at 10 microL/min flow rate maximized the extraction efficiency. Detection was linear in the concentration of 1.0-100 mg/L with a detection limit of 0.3 mg/L. Three seed samples were analyzed, with sinigrin at 49.8 (3.15% RSD), 20.0 (4.43% RSD), and 19.8 mg/g (4.22% RSD) for brussels, cauliflower, and cabbage, respectively. When 40 mg/g sinigrin was spiked in brussels seed powder, the recovery was 102.4% with 3.15% RSD (n = 3). The proposed method was proven to provide a very simple, rapid, and eco-friendly procedure to determine sinigrin in the seeds of cruciferous vegetables.

  14. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of thermally activated magnetization reversal in dual-layer Exchange Coupled Composite recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumer, M. L.; Almudallal, A. M.; Mercer, J. I.; Whitehead, J. P.; Fal, T. J.

    The kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method developed for thermally activated magnetic reversal processes in single-layer recording media has been extended to study dual-layer Exchange Coupled Composition (ECC) media used in current and next generations of disc drives. The attempt frequency is derived from the Langer formalism with the saddle point determined using a variant of Bellman Ford algorithm. Complication (such as stagnation) arising from coupled grains having metastable states are addressed. MH-hysteresis loops are calculated over a wide range of anisotropy ratios, sweep rates and inter-layer coupling parameter. Results are compared with standard micromagnetics at fast sweep rates and experimental results at slow sweep rates.

  15. Detection of the dynamic magnetic behavior of the antiferromagnet in exchange-coupled NiFe/IrMn bilayers.

    PubMed

    Spizzo, F; Tamisari, M; Bonfiglioli, E; Del Bianco, L

    2013-09-25

    The magnetothermal behavior of antiferromagnetic IrMn layers of different thickness (3, 6, 10 nm) has been studied by exploiting the exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic 5 nm-thick NiFe layer. A procedure has been devised for the measurement of the magnetization of the NiFe/IrMn bilayers as a function of temperature and time at different values of an external magnetic field, Hinv, antiparallel to the unidirectional exchange anisotropy. This analysis allows one to probe the effective distribution of anisotropy energy barriers of the antiferromagnetic phase, as sensed by the ferromagnetic layer. Two magnetic regimes have been distinguished. At temperature T < 100 K, the interfacial IrMn spins are frozen in a glassy state and are collectively involved in the exchange coupling with the NiFe spins. At T ∼ 100 K the collective state breaks up; thus, above this temperature, only the interfacial IrMn spins which are tightly polarized by the IrMn nanograins, forming the bulk of the layer, are effectively involved in the exchange coupling mechanism. Due to that, for T > 100 K the exchange coupling is ruled by the anisotropy energy barriers of the bulk IrMn nanograins, namely by the layer thickness. The thermal evolution of the exchange field and of the coercivity in the three samples is coherently explained in the framework of this description of the dynamic magnetic behavior of the IrMn phase.

  16. Spin polarization transfer by the radical pair mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Zarea, Mehdi Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2015-08-07

    In a three-site representation, we study a spin polarization transfer from radical pair spins to a nearby electron or nuclear spin. The quantum dynamics of the radical pair spins is governed by a constant exchange interaction between the radical pair spins which have different Zeeman frequencies. Radical pair spins can recombine to the singlet ground state or to lower energy triplet states. It is then shown that the coherent dynamics of the radical pair induces spin polarization on the nearby third spin in the presence of a magnetic field. The spin polarization transfer depends on the difference between Zeeman frequencies, the singlet and triplet recombination rates, and on the exchange and dipole-dipole interactions between the different spins. In particular, the sign of the polarization depends on the exchange coupling between radical pair spins and also on the difference between singlet and triplet recombination rate constants.

  17. Spin polarization transfer by the radical pair mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zarea, Mehdi; Ratner, Mark A; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2015-08-07

    In a three-site representation, we study a spin polarization transfer from radical pair spins to a nearby electron or nuclear spin. The quantum dynamics of the radical pair spins is governed by a constant exchange interaction between the radical pair spins which have different Zeeman frequencies. Radical pair spins can recombine to the singlet ground state or to lower energy triplet states. It is then shown that the coherent dynamics of the radical pair induces spin polarization on the nearby third spin in the presence of a magnetic field. The spin polarization transfer depends on the difference between Zeeman frequencies, the singlet and triplet recombination rates, and on the exchange and dipole-dipole interactions between the different spins. In particular, the sign of the polarization depends on the exchange coupling between radical pair spins and also on the difference between singlet and triplet recombination rate constants.

  18. γδTCR immunoglobulin constant region domain exchange in human αβTCRs improves TCR pairing without altering TCR gene-modified T cell function.

    PubMed

    Tao, Changli; Shao, Hongwei; Zhang, Wenfeng; Bo, Huaben; Wu, Fenglin; Shen, Han; Huang, Shulin

    2017-02-15

    The adoptive genetic transfer of T cell receptors (TCRs) has been shown to be overall feasible and offer clinical potential as a treatment for different types of cancer. However, this promising clinical approach is limited by the serious potential consequence that exogenous TCR mispairing with endogenous TCR chains may lead to the risk of self-reactivity. In the present study, domain‑exchange and three‑dimensional modeling strategies were used to create a set of chimeric TCR variants, which were used to exchange the partial or complete constant region of αβTCR with corresponding γδTCR domains. The expression, assembly and function of the chimeric TCR variants were examined in Jurkat T cells and peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). Genetically‑encoded chimeras were fused with a pair of fluorescent proteins (ECFP/EYFP) to monitor expression and the pairing between chimeric TCRα chains and TCRβ chains. The fluorescence energy transfer based on confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the introduction of γδTCR constant sequences into the αβTCR did not result in a global reduction of mispairing with endogenous TCR. However, the TCR harboring the immunoglobulin‑like domain of the γδTCR constant region (i.e., TCR∆IgC), showed a higher expression and preferential pairing, compared with wild‑type (wt)TCR. The function analysis showed that TCR∆IgC exhibited the same levels of interferon-γ production and cytotoxic activity, compared with wtTCR. Furthermore, these modified TCR-transduced T cells retained the classic human leukocyte antigen restriction of the original TCR. The other two chimeric TCRs, had either exchange of the cp+tm+ic domain or exchange of the whole C domain (Fig. 1). Ultimately, exchange of these domains demonstrated defective function in the transduced T cells. Taken together, these findings may provide further understanding of the γδTCR constant domain with implications for the improvement of TCR gene transfer

  19. High magnetic exchange coupling constants: a density functional theory based study of substituted Schlenk diradicals.

    PubMed

    Latif, Iqbal A; Hansda, Shekhar; Datta, Sambhu N

    2012-08-23

    The Schlenk diradical has been known since 1915. After a detailed experimental work by Rajca, its magnetic nature has remained more or less unexplored. We have investigated by quantum chemical calculations the nature of magnetic coupling in 11 substituted Schlenk diradicals. Substitution has been considered at the fifth carbon atom of the meta-phenylene moiety. The UB3LYP method has been used to study 12 diradicals including the original one. The 6-311G(d,p) basis set has been employed for optimization of molecular geometry in both singlet and triplet states for each species. The singlet optimization has led to the optimization of the broken-symmetry structure for 10 species including the unsubstituted one. This development makes it possible to carry out further broken symmetry calculations in two ways. The triplet calculation has been done using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and the optimized triplet geometry in both procedures. The broken symmetry calculations have used the optimized geometries of either the triplet states or the broken symmetry solutions. The first method leads to the prediction of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) compatible magnetic exchange coupling constant (J) in the range 517-617 cm(-1). A direct optimization of the broken symmetry geometry gives rise to a lower estimate of J, in the range of 411-525 cm(-1) and compatible with macroscopic Curie studies. The calculated J for the unsubstituted Schlenk diradical is 512 cm(-1) that can be compared with 455 cm(-1) estimated by Rajca. In both cases, introduction of groups with +M and +I effects (Ingold's notation) decreases the J value from that for the unsubstituted Schlenk diradical while -I and -M groups at the same position increases J. These trends have been explained in terms of Hammett constants, atomic spin densities, and dihedral angles.

  20. Ion-pair chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IPC-ICP-MS) as a method for thiomolybdate speciation in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Lohmayer, Regina; Reithmaier, Gloria Maria Susanne; Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2015-03-17

    Molybdenum precipitates preferentially under reducing conditions; therefore, its occurrence in sediment records is used as an indicator of paleoredox conditions. Although thiomolybdates (MoO4-xSx(2-) with x = 1-4) supposedly are necessary intermediates in the process of molybdenum precipitation under anoxic conditions, there is no information about their abundance in natural environments, because of a lack of element-specific methods with sufficiently low detection limits. Here, we optimized ion-pair chromatographic separation for coupling to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detector (IPC-ICP-MS). 2-Propanol (10%-25% gradient) replaced the previously used acetonitrile (25%-75%) as the solvent, to reduce the carbon load into the plasma. In synthetic solutions, formation of thiomolybdates was found to occur spontaneously in the presence of excess sulfide and the degree of thiolation was highest at pH 7. Excess hydroxyl led to a transformation of thiomolybdates to molybdate. Under acidic to neutral conditions, precipitation of molybdenum and hydrolysis of tetrathiomolybdate were observed. Flash-freezing was found to be suitable to stabilize tetrathiomolybdate, with <4% transformation over more than two months. High ionic strengths matrices (>2 mM) negatively affected the detection of molybdate, which eluted mainly in the dead volume, but had no negative effect on higher thiolated molybdates. Detection limits were ∼10 nM. With the newly developed IPC-ICP-MS method, thiomolybdates were found to form spontaneously in euxinic marine waters after adding a molybdate spike and occur naturally in sulfidic geothermal waters.

  1. Pair natural orbital and canonical coupled cluster reaction enthalpies involving light to heavy alkali and alkaline earth metals: the importance of sub-valence correlation.

    PubMed

    Minenkov, Yury; Bistoni, Giovanni; Riplinger, Christoph; Auer, Alexander A; Neese, Frank; Cavallo, Luigi

    2017-04-05

    In this work, we tested canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) for a set of 32 ligand exchange and association/dissociation reaction enthalpies involving ionic complexes of Li, Be, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb(ii). Two strategies were investigated: in the former, only valence electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the computationally very efficient FC (frozen core) approach; in the latter, all non-ECP electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the AE (all electron) approach. Apart from reactions involving Li and Be, the FC approach resulted in non-homogeneous performance. The FC approach leads to very small errors (<2 kcal mol(-1)) for some reactions of Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb, while for a few reactions of Ca and Ba deviations up to 40 kcal mol(-1) have been obtained. Large errors are both due to artificial mixing of the core (sub-valence) orbitals of metals and the valence orbitals of oxygen and halogens in the molecular orbitals treated as core, and due to neglecting core-core and core-valence correlation effects. These large errors are reduced to a few kcal mol(-1) if the AE approach is used or the sub-valence orbitals of metals are included in the correlation treatment. On the technical side, the CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T) results differ by a fraction of kcal mol(-1), indicating the latter method as the perfect choice when the CPU efficiency is essential. For completely black-box applications, as requested in catalysis or thermochemical calculations, we recommend the DLPNO-CCSD(T) method with all electrons that are not covered by effective core potentials included in the correlation treatment and correlation-consistent polarized core valence basis sets of cc-pwCVQZ(-PP) quality.

  2. Online deuterium hydrogen exchange and protein digestion coupled with ion mobility spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Arndt, James R; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-05-19

    Online deuterium hydrogen exchange (DHX) and pepsin digestion (PD) is demonstrated using drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS) coupled with linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometry (MS) with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) capabilities. DHX of deuterated ubiquitin, followed by subsequent quenching and digestion, is performed within ∼60 s, yielding 100% peptide sequence coverage. The high reproducibility of the IMS separation allows spectral feature matching between two-dimensional IMS-MS datasets (undeuterated and deuterated) without the need for dataset alignment. Extracted ion drift time distributions (XIDTDs) of deuterated peptic peptides are mobility-matched to corresponding XIDTDs of undeuterated peptic peptides that were identified using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Matching XIDTDs allows a straightforward identification and deuterium retention evaluation for labeled peptides. Aside from the mobility separation, the ion trapping capabilities of the LTQ, combined with ETD, are demonstrated to provide single-residue resolution. Deuterium retention for the c- series ions across residues M(1)-L(15) and N(25)-R(42) are in good agreement with the known secondary structural elements within ubiquitin.

  3. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling

    PubMed Central

    Chesnel, Karine; Safsten, Alex; Rytting, Matthew; Fullerton, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same pattern during field cycling, is important for magnetic recording technologies. Here we demonstrate MDM in [Co/Pd]/IrMn films, using coherent X-ray scattering. Under illumination, the magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] produce a speckle pattern, a unique fingerprint of their nanoscale configuration. We measure MDM by cross-correlating speckle patterns throughout magnetization processes. When cooled below its blocking temperature, the film exhibits up to 100% MDM, induced by exchange-coupling with the underlying IrMn layer. The degree of MDM drastically depends on cooling conditions. If the film is cooled under moderate fields, MDM is high throughout the entire magnetization loop. If the film is cooled under nearly saturating field, MDM vanishes, except at nucleation and saturation. Our findings show how to fully control the occurrence of MDM by field cooling. PMID:27248368

  4. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnel, Karine; Safsten, Alex; Rytting, Matthew; Fullerton, Eric E.

    2016-06-01

    The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same pattern during field cycling, is important for magnetic recording technologies. Here we demonstrate MDM in [Co/Pd]/IrMn films, using coherent X-ray scattering. Under illumination, the magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] produce a speckle pattern, a unique fingerprint of their nanoscale configuration. We measure MDM by cross-correlating speckle patterns throughout magnetization processes. When cooled below its blocking temperature, the film exhibits up to 100% MDM, induced by exchange-coupling with the underlying IrMn layer. The degree of MDM drastically depends on cooling conditions. If the film is cooled under moderate fields, MDM is high throughout the entire magnetization loop. Lastly, if the film is cooled under nearly saturating field, MDM vanishes, except at nucleation and saturation. Our findings show how to fully control the occurrence of MDM by field cooling.

  5. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling

    DOE PAGES

    Chesnel, Karine; Safsten, Alex; Rytting, Matthew; ...

    2016-06-01

    The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same pattern during field cycling, is important for magnetic recording technologies. Here we demonstrate MDM in [Co/Pd]/IrMn films, using coherent X-ray scattering. Under illumination, the magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] produce a speckle pattern, a unique fingerprint of their nanoscale configuration. We measure MDM by cross-correlating speckle patterns throughout magnetization processes. When cooled below its blocking temperature, the film exhibits up to 100% MDM, induced by exchange-coupling with the underlying IrMn layer.more » The degree of MDM drastically depends on cooling conditions. If the film is cooled under moderate fields, MDM is high throughout the entire magnetization loop. Lastly, if the film is cooled under nearly saturating field, MDM vanishes, except at nucleation and saturation. Our findings show how to fully control the occurrence of MDM by field cooling.« less

  6. Intra-particle chemical homogeneity determining the exchange coupling in palladium-iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Rubio, Idoia; Insausti, Maite; de Muro, Izaskun Gil; Arias-Duque, D. Carolina; Hernández-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Lezama, Luis

    2017-02-01

    The interplay between chemical inhomogeneities and magnetic properties in iron alloys is a subtle question that affects several nanoalloys with potential technological and biomedical applications. Herein below, we focus on the FCC palladium rich-iron nanoparticle system, specifically in three samples that reflect the key influence of synthesis conditions. Magnetic measurements as a function of field and temperature have allowed detecting the onset of anomalous relaxation phenomena of the magnetization due to the strong weakening of the exchange coupling in nanoparticles prepared at low temperatures. Such effects are triggered by the lack of a good inter-diffusion of atomic species during core growth and directly affect the magnetic anisotropy. Electron Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy has confirmed that iron clustering leads to a gradual transition from a superparamagnetic state at low temperatures to a nearly paramagnetic behaviour at high temperatures. The measurements of the g-factor and the average magnetic moment per Fe atom do not account for a significant polarization in Pd atoms.

  7. Characterisation of brewpub beer carbohydrates using high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Arfelli, Giuseppe; Sartini, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    High performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised in order to quantify mannose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose content of beer. The method allows the determination of above mentioned oligosaccharides, in a single chromatographic run, without any pre-treatment. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were suitable for beer. Accuracy and repeatability were good for the entire amount considered. Once optimised HPAEC PAD for the specific matrix, the second goal of this research was to verify the possibility to discriminate beers, depending on their style. The carbohydrates content of brewpub commercial beers was very variable, ranging from 19.3 to 1469mg/L (mannose), 34.5 to 2882mg/L (maltose), 141.9 to 20731mg/L (maltotriose), 168.5 to 7650mg/L (maltotetraose), 20.1 to 2537mg/L (maltopentaose), 22.9 to 3295mg/L (maltohexaose), 8.5 to 2492mg/L (maltoeptaose), even in the same style of beer. However, the carbohydrates content was useful, jointed with other compounds amount, to discriminate different styles of beer. As a matter of fact, principal component analysis put in evidence beer differences considering some fermentation conditions and colour.

  8. Interlayer exchange coupling dependence of thermal stability parameters in synthetic antiferromagnetic free layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Inokuchi, T.; Inomata, K.

    2006-08-01

    We conducted a detailed comparative study of thermal stability properties over a thermal excitation of switching of the free layer in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with Ni 81Fe 19, Co 90Fe 10, and synthetic antiferromagnetic (Syn-AF) free layers with several strengths of interlayer exchange coupling ( JEX). The thermal stability properties were investigated using the junction magnetoresistance of current-perpendicular MTJ devices with a word line as probes. The observed sweep-rate-dependent coercivities were analyzed using the Sharrock formula. The results confirmed strong JEX dependence on thermal stability parameters (KV/kT) in Syn-AF free layers. The values of KV/kT for MTJs with Syn-AF free layers decreased with a decrease in the strength of JEX, and the increase in the effective volume of the Syn-AF free layer disappeared at J⩽0.52 erg/cm. The Syn-AF free layer with JEX>0.52 erg/cm 2 is relevant for high-density spin electronic nanodevices with a low aspect ratio.

  9. Recovery and nonrecovery of the untrained state in an exchange-coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutimoosik, Jaru; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Setzer, Annette; Esquinazi, Pablo; Stahn, Jochen; Paul, Amitesh

    2015-06-01

    We report depth sensitive investigations of the magnetic interaction between exchange-coupled stacked CoO and ferromagnetic Co bilayers (separated by thick Au layers) as we explore the degree of recovery of the untrained state after the first two field cycles. Such a recovery is expected by field cycling a reorientation field (HRE) along a direction (ΩRE) away from the initial field cooling direction. Measurements as a function of ΩRE and the strength of HRE (along each direction) map the influence of ΩRE on the reversal mechanism in the layers and thereby the degree of recovery. Our results are consistent with the earlier observations in similar systems that was realized with ΩRE=90∘ . We ascribe these partial and/or significant recoveries to the unchanged sense of rotation after initial field cooling of the ferromagnetic magnetization upon each field cycling. Furthermore, in our system, we find that this recovery can be regulated by choosing various other HRE and ΩRE values without changing the rotational sense. The best recipe for recovery is identified for ΩRE=45∘ , that can be achieved partially with HRE=3.0 kOe and remain significant even with HRE=10.0 kOe. In this study we not only understand the fundamental mechanism in the recovery of training, but also instigate its technological prospects by lifting the directional restrictions of the reorientation field.

  10. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnel, Karine; Safsten, Alex; Rytting, Matthew; Fullerton, Eric E.

    2016-06-01

    The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same pattern during field cycling, is important for magnetic recording technologies. Here we demonstrate MDM in [Co/Pd]/IrMn films, using coherent X-ray scattering. Under illumination, the magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] produce a speckle pattern, a unique fingerprint of their nanoscale configuration. We measure MDM by cross-correlating speckle patterns throughout magnetization processes. When cooled below its blocking temperature, the film exhibits up to 100% MDM, induced by exchange-coupling with the underlying IrMn layer. The degree of MDM drastically depends on cooling conditions. If the film is cooled under moderate fields, MDM is high throughout the entire magnetization loop. If the film is cooled under nearly saturating field, MDM vanishes, except at nucleation and saturation. Our findings show how to fully control the occurrence of MDM by field cooling.

  11. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling.

    PubMed

    Chesnel, Karine; Safsten, Alex; Rytting, Matthew; Fullerton, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same pattern during field cycling, is important for magnetic recording technologies. Here we demonstrate MDM in [Co/Pd]/IrMn films, using coherent X-ray scattering. Under illumination, the magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] produce a speckle pattern, a unique fingerprint of their nanoscale configuration. We measure MDM by cross-correlating speckle patterns throughout magnetization processes. When cooled below its blocking temperature, the film exhibits up to 100% MDM, induced by exchange-coupling with the underlying IrMn layer. The degree of MDM drastically depends on cooling conditions. If the film is cooled under moderate fields, MDM is high throughout the entire magnetization loop. If the film is cooled under nearly saturating field, MDM vanishes, except at nucleation and saturation. Our findings show how to fully control the occurrence of MDM by field cooling.

  12. Calculation of vibronic couplings for phenoxyl/phenol and benzyl/toluene self-exchange reactions: implications for proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Skone, Jonathan H; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2006-12-27

    The vibronic couplings for the phenoxyl/phenol and the benzyl/toluene self-exchange reactions are calculated with a semiclassical approach, in which all electrons and the transferring hydrogen nucleus are treated quantum mechanically. In this formulation, the vibronic coupling is the Hamiltonian matrix element between the reactant and product mixed electronic-proton vibrational wavefunctions. The magnitude of the vibronic coupling and its dependence on the proton donor-acceptor distance can significantly impact the rates and kinetic isotope effects, as well as the temperature dependences, of proton-coupled electron transfer reactions. Both of these self-exchange reactions are vibronically nonadiabatic with respect to a solvent environment at room temperature, but the proton tunneling is electronically nonadiabatic for the phenoxyl/phenol reaction and electronically adiabatic for the benzyl/toluene reaction. For the phenoxyl/phenol system, the electrons are unable to rearrange fast enough to follow the proton motion on the electronically adiabatic ground state, and the excited electronic state is involved in the reaction. For the benzyl/toluene system, the electrons can respond virtually instantaneously to the proton motion, and the proton moves on the electronically adiabatic ground state. For both systems, the vibronic coupling decreases exponentially with the proton donor-acceptor distance for the range of distances studied. When the transferring hydrogen is replaced with deuterium, the magnitude of the vibronic coupling decreases and the exponential decay with distance becomes faster. Previous studies designated the phenoxyl/phenol reaction as proton-coupled electron transfer and the benzyl/toluene reaction as hydrogen atom transfer. In addition to providing insights into the fundamental physical differences between these two types of reactions, the present analysis provides a new diagnostic for differentiating between the conventionally defined hydrogen atom

  13. Mechanism of Olefin Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalyzed by Iridium Phosphino-Oxazoline: A Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Study.

    PubMed

    Sparta, Manuel; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank

    2014-03-11

    Since the development of chiral phosphino-oxazoline iridium catalysts, which hydrogenate unfunctionalized alkenes enantioselectively, the asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins has become important in the production of chiral compounds. For the last 10 years, details of the mechanism, including formal oxidation state assignment of the metal center and the nature of intermediates and transition states have been debated. Various contributions have been given from a theoretical point of view, but due to the size of the structures, these have been forced to rely on density functional theory (DFT) methods. In our investigation of the catalytic cycle, we employ both DFT and a correlated ab initio method, namely, the newly implemented domain-based local pair natural orbital coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations and the inclusion of perturbative triples correction (DLPNO-CCSD(T)). Our results show that the most likely active paths involve the formation of an intermediate Ir(V) species. Furthermore, we have been able to predict the absolute configuration of the major products, and where comparison to experiment is possible, the results of our calculations agree with the enantiomeric excess obtained from hydrogenating five prochiral substrates. This work also shows that it is now possible to study catalytic reactions with untruncated models (having up to 88 atoms) at the CCSD(T) level of theory.

  14. Scrutinizing the double superconducting gaps and strong coupling pairing in (Li1−xFex)OHFeSe

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zengyi; Yang, Xiong; Lin, Hai; Fang, Delong; Du, Guan; Xing, Jie; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Xiyu; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2016-01-01

    In the field of iron-based superconductors, one of the frontier studies is about the pairing mechanism. The recently discovered (Li1−xFex)OHFeSe superconductor with the transition temperature of about 40 K provides a good platform to check the origin of double superconducting gaps and high transition temperature in the monolayer FeSe thin film. Here we report a scanning tunnelling spectroscopy study on the (Li1−xFex)OHFeSe single crystals. The tunnelling spectrum mimics that of the monolayer FeSe thin film and shows double gaps at about 14.3 and 8.6 meV. Further analysis based on the quasiparticle interference allows us to rule out the d-wave gap, and for the first time assign the larger (smaller) gap to the outer (inner) Fermi pockets (after folding) associating with the dxy (dxz/dyz) orbitals, respectively. The gap ratio amounts to 8.7, which demonstrates the strong coupling mechanism in the present superconducting system. PMID:26822281

  15. Cell-to-cell coupling in engineered pairs of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes: relation between Cx43 immunofluorescence and intercellular electrical conductance

    PubMed Central

    McCain, Megan L.; Desplantez, Thomas; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Oberer, Helene; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2012-01-01

    Gap junctions are composed of connexin (Cx) proteins, which mediate intercellular communication. Cx43 is the dominant Cx in ventricular myocardium, and Cx45 is present in trace amounts. Cx43 immunosignal has been associated with cell-to-cell coupling and electrical propagation, but no studies have directly correlated Cx43 immunosignal to electrical cell-to-cell conductance, gj, in ventricular cardiomyocyte pairs. To assess the correlation between Cx43 immunosignal and gj, we developed a method to determine both parameters from the same cell pair. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were seeded on micropatterned islands of fibronectin. This allowed formation of cell pairs with reproducible shapes and facilitated tracking of cell pair locations. Moreover, cell spreading was limited by the fibronectin pattern, which allowed us to increase cell height by reducing the surface area of the pattern. Whole cell dual voltage clamp was used to record gj of cell pairs after 3–5 days in culture. Fixation of cell pairs before removal of patch electrodes enabled preservation of cell morphology and offline identification of patched pairs. Subsequently, pairs were immunostained, and the volume of junctional Cx43 was quantified using confocal microscopy, image deconvolution, and three-dimensional reconstruction. Our results show a linear correlation between gj and Cx43 immunosignal within a range of 8–50 nS. PMID:22081700

  16. Micromagnetic finite element study for magnetic properties of nanocomposite exchange coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe multilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryo, Hyok-Su; Hu, Lian-Xi; Kim, Jin-Guk; Yang, Yu-Lin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, magnetic properties of exchange coupled nanocomposite multilayer thin films constructed alternately with magnetic hard Nd2Fe14B layers and soft α-Fe layers have been studied by micromagnetic finite element method (FEM). According to the results, effects of the thicknesses of layers and the magneto-crystalline anisotropy on the magnetic properties of the Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe multilayer systems have been estimated. On the other hand, the results have been analyzed by means of efficiency of interphase exchange coupling, which can be estimated by volume ratios of exchange coupled areas between magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B and soft α-Fe phase layers. The results show that the magnetic properties of exchange coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe multilayer systems can be enhanced by efficient interphase exchange coupling between magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B layers and soft α-Fe layers.

  17. First-principles study of the magnetic stability and the exchange couplings of LaMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hallani, F.; Naji, S.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2013-10-01

    Using first principles calculations, the electronic and magnetic properties of the multiferroic LaMn2O5 have been studied. In particular, we have studied the magnetic stability of this material not only in ab-plane but also along c direction. Beside this, the exchange couplings between manganese ions have been calculated using Heisenberg model by including only the nearest neighbour interactions. It is shown that the stable magnetic order of LaMn2O5 is of antiferromagnetic type, which is in good agreement with the experiments. In order to show the effect of the temperature on the properties of our compound we have carried out this study using two crystal structures: the higher symmetric one (space group Pbam) that reported experimentally at T(98.8 k) and the lower symmetric one (space group Pmc21) that obtained from the relaxation, in our calculations, at T = 0 K starting from the stable magnetic order.This structure deformation at T = 0 can be related to the exchange coupling striction. The density of states show an insulating behavior in the antiferromagnetic state of LaMn2O5 at Fermi level and there is a small band gap, confirming the experimental fact that LaMn2O5 is an insulator. We have found that the nature of the mechanism of these magnetic exchange coupling is an indirect super-exchange.

  18. Interface roughness induced asymmetric magnetic property in sputter-deposited Co/CoO/Co exchange coupled trilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Sannomiya, T.; Shi, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of interface roughness on magnetic properties of exchange coupled polycrystalline Co/CoO(t{sub AF})/Co trilayers has been investigated by varying antiferromagnetic layer (CoO) thickness. It has been found that the upper CoO/Co interface becomes rougher with increasing CoO layer thickness, resulting in stronger exchange bias of the upper interface than the lower one. The interfacial exchange coupling is strengthened by the increase of defect-generated uncompensated antiferromagnetic spins; such spins form coupling with spins in the Co layer at the interface. As a result, the CoO layer thickness dependence of exchange bias is much enhanced for the upper Co layer. The transition from anisotropic magnetoresistance to isotropic magnetoresistance for the top Co layer has also been found. This could be attributed to the defects, probably partial thin oxide layers, between Co grains in the top Co layer that leads a switch from spin-orbit scattering related magnetoresistance to spin-dependent electron scattering dominated magnetoresistance.

  19. Ultrafast Study of Dynamic Exchange Coupling in Ferromagnet/Oxide/Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yu-Sheng

    Spintronics is the area of research that aims at utilizing the quantum mechanical spin degree of freedom of electrons in solid-state materials for information processing and data storage application. Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance, the field of spintronics has attracted lots of attention for its numerous potential advantages over contemporary electronics, such as less power consumption, high integration density and non-volatility. The realization of a spin battery, defined by the ability to create spin current without associated charge current, has been a long-standing goal in the field of spintronics. The demonstration of pure spin current in ferromagnet/nonmagnetic material hybrid structures by ferromagnetic resonance spin pumping has defined a thrilling direction for this field. As such, this dissertation targets at exploring the spin and magnetization dynamics in ferromagnet/oxide/semiconductor heterostructures (Fe/MgO/GaAs) using time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy with the long-range goal of understanding the fundamentals of FMR-driven spin pumping. Fe/GaAs heterostructures are complex systems that contain multiple spin species, including paramagnetic spins (GaAs electrons), nuclear spins (Ga and As nuclei) and ferromagnetic spins (Fe). Optical pump-probe studies on their interplay have revealed a number of novel phenomena that has not been explored before. As such they will be the major focus of this dissertation. First, I will discuss the effect of interfacial exchange coupling on the GaAs free-carrier spin relaxation. Temperature- and field-dependent spin-resolved pump-probe studies reveal a strong correlation of the electron spin relaxation with carrier freeze-out, in quantitative agreement with a theoretical interpretation that at low temperatures the free-carrier spin lifetime is dominated by inhomogeneity in the local hyperfine field due to carrier localization. Second, we investigate the impact of tunnel barrier thickness

  20. Selenium speciation in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) by ion pairing reversed phase and cation exchange HPLC with ICP-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Cankur, Oktay; Yathavakilla, Santha K V; Caruso, Joseph A

    2006-11-15

    In the present work, speciation of selenium in dill (Anethum graveolens L.), supplemented with sodium selenite during its growth, was performed using ion pairing reversed phase and cation exchange chromatography. Heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) was used as the ion-pairing agent in reversed phase chromatography. In cation exchange chromatography, two different gradient programs were employed for the identification of selenospecies using pyridinium formate as the mobile phase. Low molecular weight selenocompounds were extracted from root, stem and dill leaf with 0.1M HCl. Enzymatic digestion was used for the extraction of selenospecies related to high molecular weight compounds. The chromatograms obtained from different parts of the plant revealed major differences in the type of selenospecies as well as their concentrations. The major selenospecies found in different parts of the plant is Se-methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys). Another major Se species identified is Se-methyl-selenomethionine (MeSeMet), which has the highest relative concentration in the root indicating possible Se volatilization from that part of the plant. Selenomethionine (SeMet) is present in minor quantities in all parts of the plant.

  1. Desensitization Combined with Paired Exchange Leads to Successful Transplantation in Highly Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipients: Strategy and Report of Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yabu, J. M.; Pando, M. J.; Busque, S.; Melcher, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sensitization remains a major barrier to kidney transplantation. Sensitized patients comprise 30% of the kidney transplant waiting list but fewer than 15% of highly sensitized patients are transplanted each year. Options for highly sensitized patients with an immunologically incompatible live donor include desensitization or kidney paired donation (KPD). However, these options when used alone may still not be sufficient to allow a compatible transplant for recipients who are broadly sensitized with cumulative calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) > 95%. We describe in this report the combined use of both desensitization and KPD to maximize the likelihood of finding a compatible match with a more immunologically favorable donor through a kidney exchange program. This combined approach was used in five very highly sensitized patients, all with cPRA 100%, who ultimately received compatible living and deceased donor kidney transplants. We conclude that early enrollment in paired kidney donor exchange and tailored desensitization protocols are key strategies to improve care and rates of kidney transplantation in highly sensitized patients. PMID:23375278

  2. Anion-controlled self-assembly of two NLO-active dinuclear and molecular square Cu(II) enantiomeric pairs: from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic coupling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Li; Kang, Jia-Long; Zhang, Xue-Li; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Wang, Ai-Ling; Zhou, Liming; Fang, Shao-Ming; Liu, Cai-Ming

    2014-12-14

    Two second-order nonlinear optically (NLO)-active dinuclear and square Cu(II) enantiomeric pairs were obtained via the self-assemblies of enantiopure linear bis-bidentate ligands with different copper(II) salts under the identical reaction conditions. Their magnetic properties are switched from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic coupling.

  3. Spatial distribution of nonemissive metastables in a two-frequency capacitively coupled plasma in Ar by using a pair of optical emission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohba, Tomihito; Makabe, Toshiaki

    2010-03-15

    When a pair of short- and long-lived excited molecules are coupled with an upper radiative state, it will be possible to derive the number density of the long-lived species from the optical emission spectroscopy of upper-level short-lived species by careful selection of the pair. Two-dimensional density distributions of the long-lived metastable state Ar(1s{sub 5}) and that of the short-lived excited state Ar(2p{sub 2}) are observed and compared in the time-averaged form, using a computerized tomography technique of the emissions from a pair of optical transitions in a two-frequency capacitively coupled plasma in pure Ar.

  4. Interface effects on the magnetic properties of exchange coupled Co/Fe multilayers studied by Brillouin light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Carbucicchio, M.; Ruggiero, G.

    2001-05-01

    Exchange-coupled 5[Co ( x) /Fe (3 x) ]/Co ( x) with x=5, 10, 15 nm multilayers were grown by UHV electron-beam evaporation. The influence of the interface magnetic anisotropy and interlayer exchange interaction on the magnetic properties was studied by means of Brillouin light scattering from thermally excited spin waves. Both the Damon-Eshbach surface mode of the total multilayer and bulk standing modes are present in the BLS spectra. A careful study of spin waves frequency dependence on the applied magnetic field allowed the determination of the magnetic parameters of the Co/Fe multilayers.

  5. A density functional theory study of the magnetic exchange coupling in dinuclear manganese(II) inverse crown structures.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ederley; Alberola, Antonio; Polo, Víctor

    2009-12-17

    The magnetic exchange coupling constants between two Mn(II) centers for a set of five inverse crown structures have been investigated by means of a methodology based on broken-symmetry unrestricted density functional theory. These novel and highly unstable compounds present superexchange interactions between two Mn centers, each one with S = 5/2 through anionic "guests" such as oxygen, benzene, or hydrides or through the cationic ring formed by amide ligands and alkali metals (Na, Li). Magnetic exchange couplings calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level yield strong antiferromagnetic couplings for compounds linked via an oxygen atom or hydride and very small antiferromagnetic couplings for those linked via a benzene molecule, deprotonated in either 1,4- or 1,3- positions. Analysis of the magnetic orbitals and spin polarization maps provide an understanding of the exchange mechanism between the Mn centers. The dependence of J with respect to 10 different density functional theory potentials employed and the basis set has been analyzed.

  6. Off-easy-plane antiferromagnetic spin canting in coupled FePt/NiO bilayer structure with perpendicular exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tenghua; Itokawa, Nobuhide; Wang, Jian; Yu, Youxing; Harumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji

    2016-08-01

    We report on the investigation of perpendicular exchange bias in FePt (001 ) /NiO (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) orthogonal exchange couple with FePt partially L 10 ordered. From initial magnetization curve measurement and magnetic domain imaging, we find that, for the as-grown bilayer structure, the FePt layer experiences a small-angle magnetization rotation when it is magnetized near to saturation in film normal direction. After field cooling, the bilayer structure shows a significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, indicating the field mediated coupling between the spins across the FePt/NiO interface. According to Koon's theoretical calculation on the basis of lowest energy ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling configuration for compensated spins at antiferromagnetic side, we consider slightly slanted Ni spins at the interface off the (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) easy plane can stabilize the spin coupling between FePt and NiO and result in the observed exchange bias in this paper. This consideration was further confirmed by stripe domain width calculation.

  7. Note: Magnetic targeting for enhancement of the activation efficiency of G protein-coupled receptor with a two-pair coil system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Quanliang; Han, Xiaotao; Chun, Lei; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient contact of drug with target cells is a primary reason for limited efficiency of G protein-coupled receptor activation. To overcome this limitation, a simple approach based on magnetic targeting for enhancing drug delivery towards the cell surfaces using magnetic nanoparticles and a two-pair coil system consisting of Helmholtz and Maxwell coils was reported. As a proof of the concept, comparative experiments on G protein-coupled receptor activation process were carried out and results show that the efficiency of G protein-coupled receptor activation can be increased about 6 times in the experiments with the aid of the proposed magnetic targeting system.

  8. Ion-pairing dynamics of Li{sup +} and SCN{sup -} in dimethylformamide solution: Chemical exchange two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwang-Hee; Kwon, Donghyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam; Cho, Minhaeng

    2011-02-14

    Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy has been proven to be an exceptionally useful method to study chemical exchange processes between different vibrational chromophores under thermal equilibria. Here, we present experimental results on the thermal equilibrium ion pairing dynamics of Li{sup +} and SCN{sup -} ions in N,N-dimethylformamide. Li{sup +} and SCN{sup -} ions can form a contact ion pair (CIP). Varying the relative concentration of Li{sup +} in solution, we could control the equilibrium CIP and free SCN{sup -} concentrations. Since the CN stretch frequency of Li-SCN CIP is blue-shifted by about 16 cm{sup -1} from that of free SCN{sup -} ion, the CN stretch IR spectrum is a doublet. The temperature-dependent IR absorption spectra reveal that the CIP formation is an endothermic (0.57 kJ/mol) process and the CIP state has larger entropy by 3.12 J/(K mol) than the free ion states. Since the two ionic configurations are spectrally distinguishable, this salt solution is ideally suited for nonlinear IR spectroscopic investigations to study ion pair association and dissociation dynamics. Using polarization-controlled IR pump-probe methods, we first measured the lifetimes and orientational relaxation times of these two forms of ionic configurations. The vibrational population relaxation times of both the free ion and CIP are about 32 ps. However, the orientational relaxation time of the CIP, which is {approx}47 ps, is significantly longer than that of the free SCN{sup -}, which is {approx}7.7 ps. This clearly indicates that the effective moment of inertia of the CIP is much larger than that of the free SCN{sup -}. Then, using chemical exchange 2DIR spectroscopy and analyzing the diagonal peak and cross-peak amplitude changes with increasing the waiting time, we determined the contact ion pair association and dissociation time constants that are found to be 165 and 190 ps, respectively. The results presented and discussed in this paper are believed

  9. Two tight binding sites for ADP and their interactions during nucleotide exchange in chloroplast coupling factor 1.

    PubMed

    Digel, J G; McCarty, R E

    1995-11-07

    Chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) deficient in its epsilon subunit was loaded with 2'(3')-O-trinitrophenyl-ADP (TNP-ADP), and the release of tightly bound TNP-ADP was followed as a decrease in fluorescence. TNP-ADP could be exchanged for medium ADP, ATP, MgADP, and MgATP. The preferred substrate for exchange was MgADP, particularly in the presence of P(i). One nucleotide binding site contained ADP which was not displaced during TNP-ADP loading. When Mg2+ was bound at this site, complete exchange of bound TNP-ADP for medium nucleotide was prevented. This tightly bound MgADP was removed by incubation of the enzyme with EDTA. Tightly bound TNP-ADP was removed by high concentrations of sulfite, sulfate, or P(i) in the absence of medium nucleotide and free Mg2+, regardless of the bound Mg2+ content of the enzyme. Sulfite and P(i), in the presence of medium nucleotide and Mg2+, enabled complete exchange of tightly bound TNP-ADP. The combination of Mg2+ and sulfite, or Mg2+ and P(i), caused exchange of tightly bound ADP from two different sites. These results suggest that both sites exchange when the enzyme is fully active, and that at least three sites are likely to participate in catalysis.

  10. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Peters, W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to modelling boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat and CO2 in a cropland-atmosphere system at the diurnal and local scale. To that end, we couple an atmospheric mixed-layer model (MXL) to two land-surface schemes developed from two different perspectives: while one land-surface scheme (A-gs) simulates vegetation from an atmospheric point of view, the other (GECROS) simulates vegetation from a carbon-storage point of view. We calculate surface fluxes of heat, moisture and carbon, as well as the resulting atmospheric state and boundary-layer dynamics, over a maize field in the Netherlands, on a day for which we have a rich set of observations available. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the role of upper-atmosphere conditions like subsidence in comparison to the role of surface forcings like soil moisture. We show that the atmospheric-oriented model (MXL-A-gs) outperforms the carbon storage-oriented model (MXL-GECROS) on this diurnal scale. We find this performance is partly due to the difference of scales at which the models were made to run. Most importantly, this performance strongly depends on the sensitivity of the modelled stomatal conductance to water stress, which is implemented differently in each model. This sensitivity also influences the magnitude of the surface fluxes of CO2, water and heat (surface control) and subsequently impacts the boundary-layer growth and entrainment fluxes (upper atmosphere control), which alter the atmospheric state. These findings suggest that observed CO2 mole fractions in the boundary layer can reflect strong influences of both the surface and upper-atmosphere conditions, and the interpretation of CO2 mole fraction variations depends on the assumed land-surface coupling. We illustrate this with a sensitivity

  11. Exchange coupling controlled ferrite with dual magnetic resonance and broad frequency bandwidth in microwave absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jingguo; Liu, Chuyang; Ma, Ning; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Du, Piyi

    2013-01-01

    Ti-doped barium ferrite powders BaFe12−xTixO19 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) were synthesized by the sol–gel method. The phase structure and morphology were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The powders were also studied for their magnetic properties and microwave absorption. Results show that the Ti-doped barium ferrites (BFTO) exist in single phase and exhibit hexagonal plate-like structure. The anisotropy field Ha of the BFTO decreases almost linearly with the increase in Ti concentration, which leads to a shift of the natural resonance peak toward low frequency. Two natural resonance peaks appear, which can be assigned to the double values of the Landé factor g that are found to be ∼2.0 and ∼2.3 in the system and can be essentially attributed to the existence of Fe3+ ions and the exchange coupling effect between Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions, respectively. Such a dual resonance effect contributes a broad magnetic loss peak and thus a high attenuation constant, and leads to a dual reflection loss (RL) peak over the frequency range between 26.5 and 40 GHz. The high attenuation constants are between 350 and 500 at peak position. The optimal RL reaches around −45 dB and the practicable frequency bandwidth is beyond 11 GHz. This suggests that the BFTO powders could be used as microwave absorbing materials with extraordinary properties. PMID:27877595

  12. Determination of formetanate hydrochloride in selected fruits by coupled-column cation exchange liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Niemann, R A

    1993-01-01

    A strong cation exchange (SCX) liquid chromatographic (LC) method is described for determination of formetanate hydrochloride residue in pome, citrus, and stone fruits. A test portion of fruit, homogenized with the peel left on, was blended with acidified acetonitrile and filtered. A portion of extract was finely filtered, and a 500 microL aliquot (ca 0.2 g test sample equivalent) was loaded onto an SCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC column, which replaced the injection loop of the LC injection valve. Cations were selectively enriched; noncations were eluted by acetonitrile in a pre-separation cleanup. Turning the valve to the inject position coupled the SPE column to an SCX analytical column for separation and detection at 250 nm. The mobile phase was 0.4M pH 3.0 ammonium phosphate buffer-water-acetonitrile (50 + 25 + 25). Formetanate cation was quantitated by peak area and regression coefficients from a 5-point linear calibration covering a 100-fold range. Recovery of duplicate fortifications of apple, pear, orange, and peach averaged 89-99% at the respective U.S. tolerances of 3, 3, 4, or 5 ppm and averaged 93-99% at one-tenth of the respective tolerance level. Peel pigments or variable peel bulk of crop varieties tested, as well as other endogenous fruit material, contributed interference that was below the 0.02 ppm limit of detection. In a 1991 limited survey comprising 15 samples, none were found violative. Residues were found in 2 samples, but only 1 measurement was quantifiable, near the 0.06 ppm limit of quantitation.

  13. Spin-Parity Behavior in the Exchange-Coupled Lanthanoid-Nitroxide Molecular Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, T.

    2017-05-01

    To develop lanthanoid-based magnetic materials and relevant devices, reliable prescriptions for molecular/crystal design have long been desired. Ln3+-ion dependence on the molecular magnetism was investigated in the isomorphous series [Ln(hfac)3(2pyNO)] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er), where 2pyNO stands for tert-butyl 2-pyridyl nitroxide as a paramagnetic ligand, and hfac for 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dionate. The slow magnetization reversal was evaluated as an indication of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) by out-of-phase ac magnetic susceptibility χ”. Whereas the Tb3+ (4f8) and Ho3+ (4f10) derivatives exhibited frequency-dependent χ”, practically null χ” was recorded for the Dy3+(4f9) and Er3+ (4f11) derivatives. As for another series with Ln/radical = 1/2, [Ln(hfac)3(TEMPO)2] complexes were prepared (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl). The Dy3+ and Er3+ derivatives showed appreciable χ”, but the Tb3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+ derivatives did not. Thus, the S = 1/2 paramagnetic ligands play a role of a spin-parity switch to regulate whether the compound behaves as an SMM. In the strongly exchange-coupled regime owing to the direct radical coordination bond, the whole molecular electron counting may provide a useful criterion to predict Kramers molecules and accordingly to explore potential SMM candidates.

  14. Exchange coupling controlled ferrite with dual magnetic resonance and broad frequency bandwidth in microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jingguo; Liu, Chuyang; Ma, Ning; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Du, Piyi

    2013-08-01

    Ti-doped barium ferrite powders BaFe12-x Ti x O19 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The powders were also studied for their magnetic properties and microwave absorption. Results show that the Ti-doped barium ferrites (BFTO) exist in single phase and exhibit hexagonal plate-like structure. The anisotropy field Ha of the BFTO decreases almost linearly with the increase in Ti concentration, which leads to a shift of the natural resonance peak toward low frequency. Two natural resonance peaks appear, which can be assigned to the double values of the Landé factor g that are found to be ∼2.0 and ∼2.3 in the system and can be essentially attributed to the existence of Fe(3+) ions and the exchange coupling effect between Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) ions, respectively. Such a dual resonance effect contributes a broad magnetic loss peak and thus a high attenuation constant, and leads to a dual reflection loss (RL) peak over the frequency range between 26.5 and 40 GHz. The high attenuation constants are between 350 and 500 at peak position. The optimal RL reaches around -45 dB and the practicable frequency bandwidth is beyond 11 GHz. This suggests that the BFTO powders could be used as microwave absorbing materials with extraordinary properties.

  15. Ferromagnetic vs antiferromagnetic coupling in bis(mu-phenoxo)dicopper(II) complexes. Tuning of the nature of exchange coupling by remote ligand substituents.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Phalguni; Wagner, Rita; Weyhermüller, Thomas

    2007-06-25

    Two bis(mu-phenoxo)dicopper(II) complexes, [(L(CH3))(2)Cu(2)] (1) and [(L(t-Bu))(2)Cu(2)] (2), where L(CH3) and L(t-Bu) represent the dianions of (methylamino)-N,N-bis(2-methylene-4,6-dimethylphenol) and of (methylamino)-N,N-bis(2-methylene-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), respectively, are reported to demonstrate the effect of remote substituents on the nature of exchange coupling interactions between the copper(II) centers. In contrast to 1, which is as usual antiferromagnetically coupled, complex 2 is a rare example of a ferromagnetically coupled diphenoxodicopper(II) complex.

  16. Microscopic nature of ferro- and antiferromagnetic interface coupling of uncompensated magnetic moments in exchange bias systems.

    PubMed

    Gruyters, M; Schmitz, D

    2008-02-22

    Exchange bias in layered CoO/Fe structures is investigated by x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity (XRMR) measurements. Element-specific hysteresis loops are obtained from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effects in the XRMR spectra. Evidence is provided for the existence of different types of uncompensated moments in the antiferromagnetic material. Explanations are given for the microscopic nature of these moments and the complex exchange interactions that determine the magnetization reversal in exchange bias systems.

  17. Spin-wave excitations: the main source of the temperature dependence of interlayer exchange coupling in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, S; Kienert, J; Lenz, K; Lindner, J; Baberschke, K; Nolting, W

    2007-02-02

    Quantum mechanical calculations based on an extended Heisenberg model are compared with ferromagnetic resonance experiments on prototype trilayer systems Ni(7)/Cu(n)/Co(2)/Cu(001) in order to determine and separate for the first time quantitatively the sources of the temperature dependence of interlayer exchange coupling. Magnon excitations are responsible for about 75% of the reduction of the coupling strength from zero to room temperature. The remaining 25% are due to temperature effects in the effective quantum well and the spacer-magnet interfaces.

  18. Magnetic self-assembly for the synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/Fe-Co composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.; Cui, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Exchange coupled hard/soft MnBi/Fe-Co core/shell structured composites were synthesized using a magnetic self-assembly process. MnBi particles were prepared by arc-melting, and Fe-Co nanoparticles were synthesized by an oleic acid assisted chemical reduction method. Grinding a mixture of micron-sized MnBi and Fe-Co nanoparticles in hexane resulted in MnBi/Fe-Co core/shell structured composites. The MnBi/Fe-Co (95/5 wt%) composites showed smooth magnetic hysteresis loops, enhanced remanent magnetization, and positive values in the ΔM curve, indicating exchange coupling between MnBi and Fe-Co particles.

  19. Exchange coupling interaction in L10-FePd/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets with large maximum energy products.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Noritsugu; Ohshima, Tsubasa; Shoji, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Sato, Ryota; Wachi, Ayako; Kato, Akira; Kawai, Yoichiro; Manabe, Akira; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2011-04-26

    Nanocomposite magnets (NCMs) consisting of hard and soft magnetic phases are expected to be instrumental in overcoming the current theoretical limit of magnet performance. In this study, structural analyses were performed on L1(0)-FePd/α-Fe NCMs with various hard/soft volume fractions, which were formed by annealing Pd/γ-Fe(2)O(3) heterostructured nanoparticles and pure Pd nanoparticles. The sample with a hard/soft volume ratio of 82/18 formed by annealing at 773 K had the largest maximum energy product (BH(max) = 10.3 MGOe). In such a sample, the interface between the hard and soft phases was coherent and the phase sizes were optimized, both of which effectively induced exchange coupling. This exchange coupling was directly observed by visualizing the magnetic interaction between the hard and soft phases using a first-order reversal curve diagram, which is a valuable tool to improve the magnetic properties of NCMs.

  20. Direct manipulation of the uncompensated antiferromagnetic spins in exchange coupled system by GeV ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amitesh; Boeni, P.; Paul, N.; Hoepfner, Britta; Lauermann, Iver; Lux-Steiner, M.; Trautmann, C.; Mattauch, S.

    2012-06-18

    Incident ion energy to matrix electrons of a material is dissipated within a narrow cylinder surrounding the swift heavy ion path. The temperature of the lattice exceeds the melting point and upon quenching causes nanometric modifications. We present here a unique ex situ approach in manipulating the uncompensated spins in antiferromagnetic layers of ferro-/antiferromagnetic exchange coupled systems on a nanometric scale. We use the impact of relativistic heavy ion (1-2 GeV) irradiation on such systems. We find an increase in the bias field and a restoration of the reversal via domain nucleation in the trained state. These are identified as plausible results of ion-induced antiferromagnetic ordering with little or no effect on the layer structure. This study demonstrates, therefore, the possibility of nanoscale tailoring of exchange coupled systems that survive even in the trained state.

  1. Giant Exchange Coupling Evidenced with a Magnetization Jump at 52 T for a Gadolinium-Nitroxide Chelate.

    PubMed

    Kanetomo, Takuya; Kihara, Takumi; Miyake, Atsushi; Matsuo, Akira; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kindo, Koichi; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Takayuki

    2017-03-20

    The Gd-radical complex [Gd(III)(hfac)3(6bpyNO)] (6bpyNO = 2,2'-bipyridin-6-yl tert-butyl nitroxide; Hhfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione) showed a magnetization jump at 52 T observed in a pulsed-field facility, corresponding to an exchange coupling constant of -17.4 K. Furthermore, hysteretic behavior due to a relatively slow magnetization reversal was recorded around 2 T. From the high-frequency EPR study, the exchange coupling between Gd and radical spins accompanies an anisotropic character, which is responsible for both the broad jump and the slow magnetization reversal.

  2. On the Importance of Exchangeable NH Protons in Creatine for the Magnetic Coupling of Creatine Methyl Protons in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruiskamp, M. J.; Nicolay, K.

    2001-03-01

    The methyl protons of creatine in skeletal muscle exhibit a strong off-resonance magnetization transfer effect. The mechanism of this process is unknown. We previously hypothesized that the exchangeable amide/amino protons of creatine might be involved. To test this the characteristics of the creatine magnetization transfer effect were investigated in excised rat hindleg skeletal muscle that was equilibrated in either H2O or D2O solutions containing creatine. The efficiency of off-resonance magnetization transfer to the protons of mobile creatine in excised muscle was similar to that previously reported in intact muscle in vivo. Equilibrating the isolated muscle in D2O solution had no effect on the magnetic coupling to the immobile protons. It is concluded that exchangeable protons play a negligible role in the magnetic coupling of creatine methyl protons in muscle.

  3. Tuning of interlayer exchange coupling in Ni80Fe20/Ru/Ni80Fe20 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. M.; Lupo, P.; Cottam, M. G.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how the static and dynamic properties of Ni80Fe20/Ru/Ni80Fe20 nanowires can be tuned by varying the Ru spacer layer thickness. Specifically, changing the Ru thickness we have tuned the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction, and thus the antiferromagnetic (AFM) strength between the Ni80Fe20 layers. We show that there is a strong correlation between the interlayer coupling and features in ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) modes. We found different mode-softening degree of the FMR curves as function of the strength of AFM coupling, together with a clear frequency gap at around zero field. These experimental results are in qualitative agreement with presented micromagnetic simulations that also include biquadratic interface exchange. Understanding these characteristics may offer insights for reconfigurable vertical magnetic logic devices and microwave filters.

  4. Quantifying Hyporheic Exchanges in a Large Scale River Reach Using Coupled 3-D Surface and Subsurface Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, J.; Zhou, T.; Huang, M.; Hou, Z.; Perkins, W. A.; Harding, S.; Hammond, G. E.; Ren, H.; Thorne, P. D.; Suffield, S. R.; Zachara, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange between river water and groundwater is an important mechanism for biogeochemical processes, such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, and biodegradation of organic contaminants, in the subsurface interaction zone. The relationship between river flow conditions and hyporheic exchanges therefore is of great interests to hydrologists, biogeochemists, and ecologists. However, quantifying relative influences of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic drivers on hyporheic exchanges is very challenging in large rivers due to accessibility and spatial coverage of measurements, and computational tools available for numerical experiments. In this study, we aim to demonstrate that a high resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that couples surface and subsurface flow and transport can be used to simulate hyporheic exchanges and the residence time of river water in the hypothetic zone. Base on the assumption that the hyporheic exchange does not affect the surface water flow condition due to its small magnitude compared to the velocity of river water, we developed a one way coupled surface and subsurface water flow model in a commercial CFD software STAR-CCM+, that connects the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solver with a realizable two-layer turbulence model, a two-layer all y+ wall treatment, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method for tracking the free water-air interface as well as porous media flow in the subsurface domain. The model is applied to a 7-km long section of the Columbia River and validated against measurements from the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the surface water and hyporheic fluxes derived from a set of temperature profilers installed across the riverbed. The validated model is then employed to systematically investigate how hyporheic exchanges influenced by 1) riverbed properties such as the permeability and thickness of the alluvial layer; 2) surface water hydrodynamics due to channel geomorphological settings

  5. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling in giant-magnetoresistive devices on spin diode effect in wide frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Ziętek, Sławomir Skowroński, Witold; Wiśniowski, Piotr; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Barnaś, Józef

    2015-09-21

    Spin diode effect in a giant magnetoresistive strip is measured in a broad frequency range, including resonance and off-resonance frequencies. The off-resonance dc signal is relatively strong and also significantly dependent on the exchange coupling between magnetic films through the spacer layer. The measured dc signal is described theoretically by taking into account magnetic dynamics induced by Oersted field created by an ac current flowing through the system.

  6. Strong Exchange Coupling Between the Lanthanide Ions and Phthalocyaniato Ligand Radical in Bis(phthalocyaninato)Lanthanide Sandwich Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-06

    trstonQeai n Report ~1 ,fero 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Strong Exchange Coupling Between the Lanthanide Ions and Phthalocyaniato Ligand...Radical in N00014-92-J-1637 Bis(phthalocyaninato) lanthanide Sandwich Compoun s 6. AUTHOR(S) Kathleen L. Trojan, Jonathan L. Kendall, Keith Kepler and...200 words) A series of lanthanide phthalocyanine sandwich compounds with the formula [ (Pc 2")Ln 1 (Pc ’ ) ] have been synthesized and characterized

  7. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling in giant-magnetoresistive devices on spin diode effect in wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietek, Sławomir; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Skowroński, Witold; Wiśniowski, Piotr; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Barnaś, Józef

    2015-09-01

    Spin diode effect in a giant magnetoresistive strip is measured in a broad frequency range, including resonance and off-resonance frequencies. The off-resonance dc signal is relatively strong and also significantly dependent on the exchange coupling between magnetic films through the spacer layer. The measured dc signal is described theoretically by taking into account magnetic dynamics induced by Oersted field created by an ac current flowing through the system.

  8. Synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled SrFe12O19/FeCo composites through cryogenic ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Ning; Ye, Feng; Jiang, Ying

    2017-07-01

    SrFe12O19/FeCo composite particles with different mass ratios of SrFe12O19 to FeCo were synthesized through a cryogenic ball milling process. The corresponding products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for crystal morphology, elemental distribution, crystal phases, and magnetic properties. The results showed that when the mass percentage of FeCo was less than 15%, smooth magnetic hysteresis loops could be obtained from SrFe12O19/FeCo composite particles, indicating effective magnetic exchange coupling between the SrFe12O19 and FeCo particles. A further FeCo mass increase resulted in kinks in the magnetic hysteresis loop and destroyed the magnetic exchange coupling. As a comparison, room temperature ball milling of SrFe12O19/FeCo (95/5 wt%) cannot achieve magnetic exchange coupling between SrFe12O19 and FeCo due to FeCo nanoparticle agglomeration.

  9. Solvent dynamical effects in electron transfer: Evaluation of electronic matrix coupling elements for metallocene self-exchange reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManis, George E.; Nielson, Roger M.; Gochev, Alexander; Weaver, Michael J.

    1989-07-01

    The functional dependence of the rate constants for self exchange, k sub ex, for a series of metallocene redox couples to solvent-induced variations in the nuclear frequency factor, nu, engendered by alterations in the longitudinal solvent relaxation time, tau sub L, are utilized to deduce values of the electronic matrix coupling element, H12, for electron exchange. The analysis exploits the sensitivity of the k sub ex tau sub L -1 dependence to the degree of reaction adiabaticity and hence H12 for a given electron exchange reaction. Six metallocene couples are examined: Cp2Co+/o, Cp2Fe+/o (Cp = cyclopentadienyl) and the decamethyl derivatives Cp2Co+/o and Cp2Fe+/o scrutinized previously, additional solvent-dependent k sub ex values for carboxymethyl (cobaltocenium-cobaltocene) (Cp(e)Z Co+/o, e= ester) and hydroxymethyl (ferrocenium-ferrocene) (HMFc+/o.) Kinetic data are examined in 15 solvents, including 11 debye solvents for which it is anticipated that is proportioned to 1/tau sub L. Corrections to k sub ex for the solvent-dependent variations in the barrier height were obtained by corresponding measurements of the optical electron transfer energies for the related binuclear complex biferrocenylacetylene, yielding barrier corrected rate constants, k sub ex. The relationship between H12 superscript o and metallocene electronic structure is briefly discussed. The analysis also enables effective solvent relaxation times for adiabatic barrier crossing in non-Debye media including primary alcohols, to be extracted.

  10. Interlayer exchange coupling, dipolar coupling and magnetoresistance in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, A.; Skowroński, W.; Frankowski, M.; Chęciński, J.; Ziętek, S.; Rzeszut, P.; Ślęzak, M.; Matlak, K.; Ślęzak, T.; Stobiecki, T.; Korecki, J.

    2017-02-01

    Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO tunnel barrier were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Longitudinal magnetooptic Kerr effect measurements confirmed the existence of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) between the Fe layers for 2 Åcoupling was enhanced for the trilayer grown on a homoepitaxial MgO buffer layer, and its IEC constant was estimated to be -3.3 erg/cm2 at a MgO thickness of 2.7 Å. After magnetic characterization, the sample was patterned into circular-shaped pillars with diameters ranging from 200 nm to 520 nm. We showed that the dipolar coupling that appeared after the nanofabrication process modified the effective coupling between layers, and we determined dependence of the dipolar coupling on the pillar diameter. Finally, magnetoresistance (MR) was measured as a function of MgO thickness (dMgO), and a non-zero MR was found for the MgO as thin as 3.4 Å. Extrapolation of the MR (dMgO) dependence to MR=0 allowed us to determine the length of the pinholes in our sample, which was estimated to be (3.2±0.5) Å.

  11. Exchange coupling and anisotropy effects on the low temperature magnetization dynamics in rare-earth dioxolene complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Asma; Poneti, Giordano; Sottini, Silvia; Dei, Andrea; Sorace, Lorenzo

    The prelude of relevant magnetic coupling in f-element based complexes is actively pursued to improve the single-molecule magnetic features. However, a quantitative analysis of magnetic properties of exchange-coupled anisotropic rare-earth based complexes is often hampered owing to the comparable magnitude of the crystal field with the magnetic coupling. In this study, we investigated the properties of complexes containing different ligands with comparable molecular structures and ligand field strengths. Comparative low-temperature magnetic and EPR study of homologous LnIIISemiquinonate (LnSQ) and LnIIITropolonate (LnTrp) complexes, where Ln = Dy, Tb is investigated. Single-crystal EPR revealed that the direct exchange coupling in DySQ resulted in a highly anisotropic pseudo-triplet state. An out-of-phase susceptibility signal was observed for TbTrp only in the presence of an external magnetic field. Furthermore, the dynamics revealed slow relaxation of magnetization in the DySQ at low temperature which upon comparative study with the dynamics of the related DyTrp revealed a not so simple dependence on the crystal field effects of the coordination sphere of the lanthanide.

  12. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP).

    PubMed

    Snyder, David A; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  13. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David A.; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  14. Investigation of the separation of heterocyclic aromatic amines by reversed phase ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry: the role of ion pair reagents on LC-MS/MS sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Careri, M; Corradini, C; Elviri, L; Mangia, A; Zagnoni, I

    2005-10-25

    Reversed phase ion-pair chromatography (RP-IPC) of seven heterocyclic aromatic amines encompassing quinoline (IQ, MeIQ), quinoxaline (MeIQx), pyridine (PhIP) and carboline derivatives (AalphaC, Harman, Norharman) was carried out with formate as counter ion in an aqueous eluent with acetonitrile as organic modifier. TSKgel ODS-80TS was used as the stationary phase. With the aim of acquiring a better insight into the mutual influence of ion-pair reagent and the organic modifier upon solute retention, the study was performed by using an experimental design approach able to evidencing the effect of the simultaneous variation of the two factors. A model for the chromatographic behavior of the amines is proposed that includes classical ion-pair mechanism involving formate in the case of MeIQx, PhIP, Harman and Norharman. A competitive ion-exchange mechanism was hypothesized to govern retention of quinoline compounds, whereas electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bond formation with the silanols of the stationary phase were judged to be responsible for the retention of AalphaC. Further, the chromatographic behavior of the analytes using the formic acid-ammonium formate buffer in the mobile phase was compared with that observed using acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer. The method based on the use of RP IPC with tandem mass spectrometry when the eluent contained formate buffer at pH 2.8 exhibited higher detectability with respect to that achieved using the acetate buffer.

  15. The Exchange Coupling of Gd3+- and Cr3+-Ions in Paramagnetic GdCrO3 (In German)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dräger, K.

    1986-03-01

    Polycrystalline samples of stoichiometric GdCrO3 have been investigated by ESR at 9.4 GHz. In the temperature range between 175 K and 520 K one broad absorption with a Lorentzian line shape and a g-factor of 2.024 has been observed. Attributing the absorption exclusively to the Gd -ion it can be shown that the temperature dependence of the ESR-intensity follows the predictions of a cluster-model. The energy describing the coupling of a single Gd3+-ion to the surrounding Cr3+-ions is found to be ΔE(Gd) = 170 cm-1. Taking advantage of the similarity within the orthochromites it is possible to determine at the same time the exchange - coupling of Cr3+-ions to their identical nearest neighbours as ΔE(Cr) = 293 cm-1. The relative strength of these couplings given by 0.60 is compatible with other experimental issues.

  16. Characterization of synthetic dyes by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combining ion-exchange chromatography and fast ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pirok, Bob W J; Knip, Jitske; van Bommel, Maarten R; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2016-03-04

    In the late 19th century, newly invented synthetic dyes rapidly replaced the natural dyes on the market. The characterization of mixtures of these so-called early synthetic dyes is complicated through the occurrence of many impurities and degradation products. Conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography does not suffice to obtain fingerprints with sufficient resolution and baseline integrity. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) is employed in this study, with ion-exchange chromatography in the first dimension and fast ion-pair liquid chromatography in the second. Retention in the first dimension is largely determined by the number of charges, while the selection of a small ion-pair reagent (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) in the second dimension causes retention to be largely determined by the molecular structure of the dye. As a result, there is a high degree of orthogonality of the two dimensions, similar to the values typically encountered in GC×GC. The proposed LC×LC method shows a theroretical peak capacity of about 2000 in an analysis time of about three hours. Clear, informative fingerprints are obtained that open a way to a more efficient characterization of dyes used in objects of cultural heritage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton-coupled electron transfer versus hydrogen atom transfer in benzyl/toluene, methoxyl/methanol, and phenoxyl/phenol self-exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Mayer, James M; Hrovat, David A; Thomas, Jennie L; Borden, Weston Thatcher

    2002-09-18

    Degenerate hydrogen atom exchange reactions have been studied using calculations, based on density functional theory (DFT), for (i) benzyl radical plus toluene, (ii) phenoxyl radical plus phenol, and (iii) methoxyl radical plus methanol. The first and third reactions occur via hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms. The transition structure (TS) for benzyl/toluene hydrogen exchange has C(2)(h)() symmetry and corresponds to the approach of the 2p-pi orbital on the benzylic carbon of the radical to a benzylic hydrogen of toluene. In this TS, and in the similar C(2) TS for methoxyl/methanol hydrogen exchange, the SOMO has significant density in atomic orbitals that lie along the C-H vectors in the former reaction and nearly along the O-H vectors in the latter. In contrast, the SOMO at the phenoxyl/phenol TS is a pi symmetry orbital within each of the C(6)H(5)O units, involving 2p atomic orbitals on the oxygen atoms that are essentially orthogonal to the O.H.O vector. The transferring hydrogen in this reaction is a proton that is part of a typical hydrogen bond, involving a sigma lone pair on the oxygen of the phenoxyl radical and the O-H bond of phenol. Because the proton is transferred between oxygen sigma orbitals, and the electron is transferred between oxygen pi orbitals, this reaction should be described as a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). The PCET mechanism requires the formation of a hydrogen bond, and so is not available for benzyl/toluene exchange. The preference for phenoxyl/phenol to occur by PCET while methoxyl/methanol exchange occurs by HAT is traced to the greater pi donating ability of phenyl over methyl. This results in greater electron density on the oxygens in the PCET transition structure for phenoxyl/phenol, as compared to the PCET hilltop for methoxyl/methanol, and the greater electron density on the oxygens selectively stabilizes the phenoxyl/phenol TS by providing a larger binding energy of the transferring proton.

  18. Internucleotide J-couplings and chemical shifts of the N-H···N hydrogen-bonds in the radiation-damaged guanine-cytosine base pairs.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Zhang, Laibin; Han, Li; Sun, Wenming; Bu, Yuxiang

    2011-04-30

    Internucleotide (2h)J(NN) spin-spin couplings and chemical shifts (δ((1)H) and Δδ((15)N)) of N-H···N H-bond units in the natural and radiation-damaged G-C base pairs were predicted using the appropriate density functional theory calculations with a large basis set. Four possible series of the damaged G-C pairs (viz., dehydrogenated and deprotonated G-C pairs, GC(•-) and GC(•+) radicals) were discussed carefully in this work. Computational NMR results show that radicalization and anionization of the base pairs can yield strong effect on their (2h)J(NN) spin scalar coupling constants and the corresponding chemical shifts. Thus, variations of the NMR parameters associated with the N-H···N H-bonds may be taken as an important criterion for prejudging whether the natural G-C pair is radiation-damaged or not. Analysis shows that (2h)J(NN) couplings are strongly interrelated with the energy gaps (ΔE(LP→σ*)) and the second-order interaction energies (E(2)) between the donor N lone-pair (LP(N)) and the acceptor σ*(N-H) localized NBO orbitals, and also are sensitive to the electron density distributions over the σ*(N-H) orbital, indicating that (2h)J(NN) couplings across the N-H···N H-bonds are charge-transfer-controlled. This is well supported by variation of the electrostatic potential surfaces and corresponding charge transfer amount between G and C moieties. It should be noted that although the NMR spectra for the damaged G-C pair radicals are unavailable now and the states of the radicals are usually detected by the electron spin resonance, this study provides a correlation of the properties of the damaged DNA species with some of the electronic parameters associated with the NMR spectra for the understanding of the different state character of the damaged DNA bases.

  19. Fluorescence intensity ratio thermometer methodology of eliminating the "decoupling" effect of a pair of thermally coupled energy levels of rare-earth ions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Feng; Zhao, Hua; Lv, Moyang; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-04-01

    By separating the thermal and nonradiative relaxation population, the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) of a pair of thermally coupled energy levels of rare-earth ion is reformulated. For a pair of thermally coupled levels, if the ratio of the thermal population in the upper level to the total population of the lower level abides by the Boltzmann distribution law, the general FIR would be modulated by the proportion of the total population to the thermal population in the upper level. By defining the reciprocal of the proportion as the thermal population degree (η), the product ηFIR will follow the pure Boltzmann distribution law. Considering the fluorescent transient process, the η values may be obtained from the weights of the fluorescent dynamic components of the upper level. A method to calculate this η factor is presented.

  20. Dip-Hump Temperature Dependence of Specific Heat and Effects of Pairing Fluctuations in the Weak-Coupling Side of a P-Wave Interacting Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including p-wave pairing fluctuations within the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that, in the weak-coupling side, CV exhibits a dip-hump behavior as a function of the temperature. While the dip is associated with the pseudogap phenomenon near Tc, the hump structure is found to come from the suppression of Fermi quasiparticle scattering into a p-wave molecular state in the Fermi degenerate regime. Since the latter phenomenon does not occur in the ordinary s-wave interacting Fermi gas, it may be viewed as a characteristic phenomenon associated with a p-wave pairing interaction.

  1. Kinetics and stoichiometry of coupled Na efflux and Ca influx (Na/Ca exchange) in barnacle muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Coupled Na+ exit/Ca2+ entry (Na/Ca exchange operating in the Ca2+ influx mode) was studied in giant barnacle muscle cells by measuring 22Na+ efflux and 45Ca2+ influx in internally perfused, ATP-fueled cells in which the Na+ pump was poisoned by 0.1 mM ouabain. Internal free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, was controlled with a Ca-EGTA buffering system containing 8 mM EGTA and varying amounts of Ca2+. Ca2+ sequestration in internal stores was inhibited with caffeine and a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP). To maximize conditions for Ca2+ influx mode Na/Ca exchange, and to eliminate tracer Na/Na exchange, all of the external Na+ in the standard Na+ sea water (NaSW) was replaced by Tris or Li+ (Tris-SW or LiSW, respectively). In both Na-free solutions an external Ca2+ (Cao)-dependent Na+ efflux was observed when [Ca2+]i was increased above 10(-8) M; this efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]i = 0.3 microM (LiSW) to 0.7 microM (Tris-SW). The Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]o = 2.0 mM in LiSW and 7.2 mM in Tris-SW; at saturating [Ca2+]o, [Ca2+]i, and [Na+]i the maximal (calculated) Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was approximately 75 pmol#cm2.s. This efflux was inhibited by external Na+ and La3+ with IC50's of approximately 125 and 0.4 mM, respectively. A Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was also observed in Tris-SW. This Ca2+ influx also required [Ca2+]i greater than 10(-8) M. Internal Ca2+ activated a Nai-independent Ca2+ influx from LiSW (tracer Ca/Ca exchange), but in Tris-SW virtually all of the Cai-activated Ca2+ influx was Nai-dependent (Na/Ca exchange). Half-maximal activation was observed with [Na+]i = 30 mM. The fact that internal Ca2+ activates both a Cao-dependent Na+ efflux and a Nai- dependent Ca2+ influx in Tris-SW implies that these two fluxes are coupled; the activating (intracellular) Ca2+ does not appear to be transported by the exchanger. The maximal (calculated) Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was -25 pmol/cm2.s. At various [Na+]i between 6 and 106 m

  2. Realizing topological stability of magnetic helices in exchange-coupled multilayers for all-spin-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fust, Sergej; Mukherjee, Saumya; Paul, Neelima; Stahn, Jochen; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Böni, Peter; Paul, Amitesh

    2016-09-01

    Topologically stabilized spin configurations like helices in the form of planar domain walls (DWs) or vortex-like structures with magnetic functionalities are more often a theoretical prediction rather than experimental realization. In this paper we report on the exchange coupling and helical phase characteristics within Dy-Fe multilayers. The magnetic hysteresis loops with temperature show an exchange bias field of around 1.0 kOe at 10 K. Polarized neutron reflectivity reveal (i) ferrimagnetic alignment of the layers at low fields forming twisted magnetic helices and a more complicated but stable continuous helical arrangement at higher fields (ii) direct evidence of helices in the form of planar 2π-DWs within both layers of Fe and Dy. The helices within the Fe layers are topologically stabilized by the reasonably strong induced in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Dy and the exchange coupling at the Fe-Dy interfaces. The helices in Dy are plausibly reminiscent of the helical ordering at higher temperatures induced by the field history and interfacial strain. Stability of the helical order even at large fields have resulted in an effective modulation of the periodicity of the spin-density like waves and subsequent increase in storage energy. This opens broad perspectives for future scientific and technological applications in increasing the energy density for systems in the field of all-spin-based engineering which has the potential for energy-storing elements on nanometer length scales.

  3. Realizing topological stability of magnetic helices in exchange-coupled multilayers for all-spin-based system.

    PubMed

    Fust, Sergej; Mukherjee, Saumya; Paul, Neelima; Stahn, Jochen; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Böni, Peter; Paul, Amitesh

    2016-09-28

    Topologically stabilized spin configurations like helices in the form of planar domain walls (DWs) or vortex-like structures with magnetic functionalities are more often a theoretical prediction rather than experimental realization. In this paper we report on the exchange coupling and helical phase characteristics within Dy-Fe multilayers. The magnetic hysteresis loops with temperature show an exchange bias field of around 1.0 kOe at 10 K. Polarized neutron reflectivity reveal (i) ferrimagnetic alignment of the layers at low fields forming twisted magnetic helices and a more complicated but stable continuous helical arrangement at higher fields (ii) direct evidence of helices in the form of planar 2π-DWs within both layers of Fe and Dy. The helices within the Fe layers are topologically stabilized by the reasonably strong induced in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Dy and the exchange coupling at the Fe-Dy interfaces. The helices in Dy are plausibly reminiscent of the helical ordering at higher temperatures induced by the field history and interfacial strain. Stability of the helical order even at large fields have resulted in an effective modulation of the periodicity of the spin-density like waves and subsequent increase in storage energy. This opens broad perspectives for future scientific and technological applications in increasing the energy density for systems in the field of all-spin-based engineering which has the potential for energy-storing elements on nanometer length scales.

  4. Realizing topological stability of magnetic helices in exchange-coupled multilayers for all-spin-based system

    PubMed Central

    Fust, Sergej; Mukherjee, Saumya; Paul, Neelima; Stahn, Jochen; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Böni, Peter; Paul, Amitesh

    2016-01-01

    Topologically stabilized spin configurations like helices in the form of planar domain walls (DWs) or vortex-like structures with magnetic functionalities are more often a theoretical prediction rather than experimental realization. In this paper we report on the exchange coupling and helical phase characteristics within Dy-Fe multilayers. The magnetic hysteresis loops with temperature show an exchange bias field of around 1.0 kOe at 10 K. Polarized neutron reflectivity reveal (i) ferrimagnetic alignment of the layers at low fields forming twisted magnetic helices and a more complicated but stable continuous helical arrangement at higher fields (ii) direct evidence of helices in the form of planar 2π-DWs within both layers of Fe and Dy. The helices within the Fe layers are topologically stabilized by the reasonably strong induced in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Dy and the exchange coupling at the Fe-Dy interfaces. The helices in Dy are plausibly reminiscent of the helical ordering at higher temperatures induced by the field history and interfacial strain. Stability of the helical order even at large fields have resulted in an effective modulation of the periodicity of the spin-density like waves and subsequent increase in storage energy. This opens broad perspectives for future scientific and technological applications in increasing the energy density for systems in the field of all-spin-based engineering which has the potential for energy-storing elements on nanometer length scales. PMID:27677227

  5. Accurate thermochemistry from a parameterized coupled-cluster singles and doubles model and a local pair natural orbital based implementation for applications to larger systems.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Lee M J; Hansen, Andreas; Neese, Frank; Nooijen, Marcel

    2012-02-14

    We have recently introduced a parameterized coupled-cluster singles and doubles model (pCCSD(α, β)) that consists of a bivariate parameterization of the CCSD equations and is inspired by the coupled electron pair approximations. In our previous work, it was demonstrated that the pCCSD(-1, 1) method is an improvement over CCSD for the calculation of geometries, harmonic frequencies, and potential energy surfaces for single bond-breaking. In this paper, we find suitable pCCSD parameters for applications in reaction thermochemistry and thermochemical kinetics. The motivation is to develop an accurate and economical methodology that, when coupled with a robust local correlation framework based on localized pair natural orbitals, is suitable for large-scale thermochemical applications for sizeable molecular systems. It is demonstrated that the original pCCSD(-1, 1) method and several other pCCSD methods are a significant improvement upon the standard CCSD approach and that these methods often approach the accuracy of CCSD(T) for the calculation of reaction energies and barrier heights. We also show that a local version of the pCCSD methodology, implemented within the local pair natural orbital (LPNO) based CCSD code in ORCA, is sufficiently accurate for wide-scale chemical applications. The LPNO based methodology allows us for routine applications to intermediate sized (20-100 atoms) molecular systems and is a significantly more accurate alternative to MP2 and density functional theory for the prediction of reaction energies and barrier heights.

  6. Monte Carlo study of a ferrimagnetic mixed-spin (2, 5/2) system with the nearest and next-nearest neighbors exchange couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jiang-lin; Wang, Wei; Li, Qi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of the next-nearest neighbors exchange couplings on the magnetic and thermal properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed-spin (2, 5/2) Ising model on a 3D honeycomb lattice have been investigated by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, the influences of exchange couplings (Ja, Jb, Jan) and the single-ion anisotropy(Da) on the phase diagrams, the total magnetization, the sublattice magnetization, the total susceptibility, the internal energy and the specific heat have been discussed in detail. The results clearly show that the system can express the critical and compensation behavior within the next-nearest neighbors exchange coupling. Great deals of the M curves such as N-, Q-, P- and L-types have been discovered, owing to the competition between the exchange coupling and the temperature. Compared with other theoretical and experimental works, our results have an excellent consistency with theirs.

  7. NOAH-GECROS: A coupled land surface - crop growth model for simulating water and energy exchange between croplands and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2011-12-01

    The current NOAH land surface model (LSM) describes the vegetation dynamics of croplands in a prescribed and generalized way leading under some conditions to a biased energy partitioning of net radiation and disabling the feedback of atmospheric conditions on land surface properties (LS) in coupled weather and climate simulations. The aim of the present study was to couple the NOAH LSM with the generic crop growth model (CGM) GECROS for improving the description of vegetation dynamics over croplands. We tested two different coupling approaches. In the first approach ("data hand-over"- coupling), the two self-contained models simply exchange data between each time step. GECROS hands over data on plant phenology. NOAH delivers the amount of plant available water in the rooting zone and computes the surface exchange fluxes. In the second approach ("cut and merge"- coupling) we cut from the NOAH code the empirical Jarvis scheme for computing canopy transpiration and merged the remaining code with the GECROS CGM. In this way, we introduced a Penman-Monteith approach, in which the stomatal resistance is a function of photosynthesis, for computing canopy transpiration. The coupled model runs were benchmarked against an uncoupled NOAH simulation based on a field-specific parameterization. All simulations were compared with "sensible heat flux"- corrected eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, which were collected over a winter wheat stand in Southwest Germany during the vegetation period in 2009. The "cut and merge"- coupling significantly outperformed the field-specific uncoupled NOAH simulation. While, for example, the root mean square error (RMSE) of the latent heat (LE) fluxes of the uncoupled NOAH simulation was on average 73.0 W m-2, the RMSE of the coupled LS-CGM was 16.2 W m-2. The simulation of the sensible heat flux was improved in a similar magnitude. The "data hand-over" approach also slightly improved the simulation (RMSE of LE fluxes = 54.3 W m-2) but showed

  8. Rate theory of solvent exchange and kinetics of Li+ - BF4-/PF6- ion pairs in acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei

    2016-09-02

    In this paper, we describe our efforts to apply rate theories in studies of solvent exchange around Li+(aq) and the kinetics of ion pairings in lithium-ion batteries (LIB). We report one of the first computer simulations of the exchange dynamics around hydrated Li+ in acetonitrile (ACN), which is common solvent used in LIBs. We also provide details of the ion-pairing kinetics of Li+-[BF4] and Li+-[PF6] in ACN. Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ACN exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li+(aq). We calculate exchange rates using transition state theory and weighted them with transmission coefficients determined by the reactive flux and Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the relaxation times changed from 180 ps to 4600 ps and from 30 ps to 280 ps for Li+-[BF4] and Li+-[PF6] ion pairs, respectively. These results confirm that the solvent response to the kinetics of ion pairing is significant. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of solvation into ACN, the anion type also should significantly influence the kinetics of ion pairing. These results will increase our understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of LIB systems.

  9. Understanding the charge transport and polarities in organic donor-acceptor mixed-stack crystals: molecular insights from the super-exchange couplings.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hua; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Shuai, Zhigang; Zhu, Lingyun; Yi, Yuanping

    2015-02-25

    Charge transport and polarity in organic D-A mixed-stack crystals are examined in terms of super-exchange electronic couplings. When the super-exchange coupling is dominated by the interaction between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO, ambipolar transport is achieved. Otherwise, involvement of other bridge orbitals can lead to unbalanced, even to unipolar transport in a special case that the HOMO-LUMO interaction vanishes.

  10. AgRuO3 , a Strongly Exchange-Coupled Honeycomb Compound Lacking Long-Range Magnetic Order.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Beluvalli E; Kanungo, Sudipta; Jansen, Martin; Komarek, Alexander C; Yan, Binghai; Manuel, Pascal; Felser, Claudia

    2017-04-03

    Quasi two-dimensional (2D) oxide-based honeycomb lattices have attracted great attention for displaying specific electronic instabilities, which give rise to unconventional bonding patterns and unexpected magnetic exchange couplings. The synthesis of AgRuO3 , another representative exhibiting unique structural properties, is reported here. The stacking sequence of the honeycomb layers (Ru2 O6 ) differs from analogous precedents; in particular, the intercalating silver atoms are shifted from the middle of the interspaces and cap the void octahedral sites of the (□Ru2 O6 ) slabs from both sides. This way, charge neutral, giant 2D "molecules" of Ag/Ru2 O6 /Ag result; a feature that significantly enhances the overall 2D character of AgRuO3 . Measurements of magnetization have revealed extremely strong magnetic exchange coupling to be present, surviving to a temperature as high as 673 K, which is the temperature of thermal decomposition. No indication for long-range magnetic order has, however, been observed. Theoretical analyses confirm the pronounced 2D character of the electronic system, and in particular reveal the inter-honeycomb layer coupling Jc to be distinctly weak.

  11. Magnetic excitations in an exchange-coupled tetramer cluster of cobalt (II): a study by inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, C. J.; Coronado, E.; Borrás-Almenar, J. J.; Aebersold, M.; Güdel, H. U.; Mutka, H.

    1992-06-01

    The polyoxometalate K 10[Co 4(H 2O) 2(PW 9O 34) 2].20H 2O contains a ferromagnetically exchange-coupled tetramer of Co 11 encapsulated in between two diamagnetic molecules (PW 9O 34-9. At 2.5K several inelastic peaks are observed in the energy range 1.5-7 meV, which are assigned to magnetic excitations in the cluster. A tentative interpretation of these data from an anisotropic exchange model yields a cobalt-cobalt interaction of 3meV (24cm -1) and an amount of anisotropy Jxy/ Jz≌0.6. These values are consistent with the magnetic susceptibility measurements.

  12. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-03

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air.

  13. Bi-quadratic interlayer exchange coupling in Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag/Co{sub 2}MnSi pseudo spin-valve

    SciTech Connect

    Goripati, Hari S.; Hono, K.; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Furubayashi, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Sukegawa, H.; Takahashi, Y. K.

    2011-12-15

    Bi-quadratic interlayer exchange coupling is found below 100 K in a Co{sub 2}MnSi/Ag/Co{sub 2}MnSi current-perpendicular-to-plane pseudo spin valves. The bi-quadratic coupling constant J{sub 2} was estimated to be {approx}-0.30 erg/cm{sup 2} at 5 K and the strong temperature dependence of the coupling strength points its likely origin to the ''loose spin'' model. Application of current of {approx}2 x 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} below 100 K leads to an increase in the magnetoresistance (MR), indicating current induced antiparallel alignment of the two magnetic layers. These results strongly suggest that the presence of the bi-quadratic interlayer exchange coupling causes the reduction of the magnetoresistance at low temperature and illustrates the importance of understanding the influence of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetization configuration in magnetic nanostructures.

  14. The Relationship of Exchange-Orientation to Friendship Intensity, Roommate Compatability, Anxiety, and Friendship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murstein, Bernard I.; Azar, James A.

    1986-01-01

    The Exchange-Orientation Scale (E) was given to 98 randomly assigned roommate pairs. Interpersonal compatability was higher for nonexchange couples as compared to exchange couples. Anxiety correlated with E for women but not for men, but paranoia was not associated with E for both women and men. (Author/ABB)

  15. Low-temperature, non-stoichiometric oxygen isotope exchange coupled to Fe(II)-goethite interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Beard, Brian L.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Scherer, Michelle M.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Valley, John W.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of natural iron oxide minerals has been widely used as a paleoclimate proxy. Interpretation of their stable isotope compositions, however, requires accurate knowledge of isotopic fractionation factors and an understanding of their isotopic exchange kinetics, the latter of which informs us how diagenetic processes may alter their isotopic compositions. Prior work has demonstrated that crystalline iron oxides do not significantly exchange oxygen isotopes with pure water at low temperature, which has restricted studies of isotopic fractionation factors to precipitation experiments or theoretical calculations. Using a double three-isotope method (¹⁸O-¹⁷O-¹⁶O and ⁵⁷Fe-⁵⁶Fe-⁵⁴Fe) we compare O and Fe isotope exchange kinetics, and demonstrate, for the first time, that O isotope exchange between structural O in crystalline goethite and water occurs in the presence of aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) at ambient temperature (i.e., 22–50 °C). The three-isotope method was used to extrapolate partial exchange results to infer the equilibrium, mass-dependent isotope fractionations between goethite and water. In addition, this was combined with a reversal approach to equilibrium by reacting goethite in two unique waters that vary in composition by about 16‰ in ¹⁸O/¹⁶O ratios. Our results show that interactions between Fe(II)aq and goethite catalyzes O isotope exchange between the mineral and bulk fluid; no exchange (within error) is observed when goethite is suspended in ¹⁷O-enriched water in the absence of Fe(II)aq. In contrast, Fe(II)-catalyzed O isotope exchange is accompanied by significant changes in ¹⁸O/¹⁶O ratios. Despite significant O exchange, however, we observed disproportionate amounts of Fe versus O exchange, where Fe isotope exchange in goethite was roughly three times that of O. This disparity provides novel insight into the reactivity of oxide minerals in aqueous

  16. Semiclassical Models for Virtual Antiparticle Pairs, the Unit of Charge e, and the QCD Coupling alpha(sub s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, David; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    New semiclassical models of virtual antiparticle pairs are used to compute the pair lifetimes, and good agreement with the Heisenberg lifetimes from quantum field theory (QFT) is found. The modeling method applies to both the electromagnetic and color forces. Evaluation of the action integral of potential field fluctuation for each interaction potential yields approximately Planck's constant/2 for both electromagnetic and color fluctuations, in agreement with QFT. Thus each model is a quantized semiclassical representation for such virtual antiparticle pairs, to good approximation. When the results of the new models and QFT are combined, formulae for e and alpha(sub s)(q) are derived in terms of only Planck's constant and c.

  17. Microstructure, magnetic properties and exchange-coupling interactions for one-dimensional hard/soft ferrite nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Song Fuzhan; Shen Xiangqian; Liu Mingquan; Xiang Jun

    2012-01-15

    SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SFO)/Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) composite ferrite nanofibers with diameters about 120 nm have been prepared by the electrospinning and calcination process. The SFO/NZFO composite ferrites are formed after calcined at 700 Degree-Sign C for 2 h and the composite nanofibers with various mass ratios obtained at 900 Degree-Sign C are fabricated from NZFO grains about 16-40 nm and SFO grains of 19-45 nm with a uniform phase distribution. With the SFO ferrite content increasing, the coercivity (H{sub c}) and remanence (M{sub r}) for the composite ferrite nanofibers initially increase, reaching maximum values of 379.8 kA/m (297 K) and 242.2 kA/m (77 K), 39.1 Am{sup 2}/kg (297 K) and 53.5 Am{sup 2}/kg (77 K), respectively, at a mass ratio (SFO:NZFO) of 4, and then show a reduction tendency with a further increase of the mass ratio. This enhancement in magnetic properties is attributed to the competition of the exchange-coupling interaction and the dipolar interaction in the composite nanofibers. - Graphical abstract: SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SFO)/Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) composite ferrite nanofibers with a uniform phase distribution show competition of the exchange-coupling interaction and the dipolar interaction in the composite nanofibers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite ferrite nanofibers have been prepared by the electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic exchange-coupling interaction for these nanofibers were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers magnetic properties measured at 297 K and 77 K were discussed.

  18. Molecular Basis for Differential Anion Binding and Proton Coupling in the Cl−/H+ Exchanger ClC-ec1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Han, Wei; Maduke, Merritt; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-01-01

    Cl−/H+ transporters of the CLC superfamily form a ubiquitous class of membrane proteins that catalyze stoichiometrically coupled exchange of Cl− and H+ across biological membranes. CLC transporters exchange H+ for halides and certain polyatomic anions, but exclude cations, F−, and larger physiological anions, such as PO43− and SO42−. Despite comparable transport rates of different anions, the H+ coupling in CLC transporters varies significantly depending on the chemical nature of the transported anion. Although the molecular mechanism of exchange remains unknown, studies on bacterial ClC-ec1 transporter revealed that Cl− binding to the central anion-binding site (Scen) is crucial for the anion-coupled H+ transport. Here, we show that Cl−, F−, NO3−, and SCN− display distinct binding coordinations at the Scen site and are hydrated in different manners. Consistent with the observation of differential bindings, ClC-ec1 exhibits markedly variable ability to support the formation of the transient water wires, which are necessary to support the connection of the two H+ transfer sites (Gluin and Gluex), in the presence of different anions. While continuous water wires are frequently observed in the presence of physiologically transported Cl−, binding of F− or NO3− leads to the formation of pseudo-water-wires that are substantially different from the wires formed with Cl−. Binding of SCN−, however, eliminates the water wires altogether. These findings provide structural details of anion binding in ClC-ec1 and reveal a putative atomic-level mechanism for the decoupling of H+ transport to the transport of anions other than Cl−. PMID:26880377

  19. Molecular Basis for Differential Anion Binding and Proton Coupling in the Cl(-)/H(+) Exchanger ClC-ec1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Han, Wei; Maduke, Merritt; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-03-09

    Cl–/H+ transporters of the CLC superfamily form a ubiquitous class of membrane proteins that catalyze stoichiometrically coupled exchange of Cl– and H+ across biological membranes. CLC transporters exchange H+ for halides and certain polyatomic anions, but exclude cations, F–, and larger physiological anions, such as PO43– and SO42–. Despite comparable transport rates of different anions, the H+ coupling in CLC transporters varies significantly depending on the chemical nature of the transported anion. Although the molecular mechanism of exchange remains unknown, studies on bacterial ClC-ec1 transporter revealed that Cl– binding to the central anion-binding site (Scen) is crucial for the anion-coupled H+ transport. Here, we show that Cl–, F–, NO3–, and SCN– display distinct binding coordinations at the Scen site and are hydrated in different manners. Consistent with the observation of differential bindings, ClC-ec1 exhibits markedly variable ability to support the formation of the transient water wires, which are necessary to support the connection of the two H+ transfer sites (Gluin and Gluex), in the presence of different anions. While continuous water wires are frequently observed in the presence of physiologically transported Cl–, binding of F– or NO3– leads to the formation of pseudo-water-wires that are substantially different from the wires formed with Cl–. Binding of SCN–, however, eliminates the water wires altogether. These findings provide structural details of anion binding in ClC-ec1 and reveal a putative atomic-level mechanism for the decoupling of H+ transport to the transport of anions other than Cl–.

  20. Spin spring behavior in exchange coupled soft and high-coercivity hard ferromagnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, R. D.; Shapiro, A. J.; Gornakov, V. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Jiang, J. S.; Kaper, H.; Leaf, G.; Bader, S. D.

    2000-11-01

    The magnetization reversal processes in an epitaxial Fe/Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} structure were investigated using the magneto-optical indicator film technique. The dependence of the magnitude and the orientation of the structure average magnetization have been studied on both cycling and rotating the external magnetic field. It was discovered that the magnetization reversal of the soft ferromagnet can proceed by formation of not only one-dimensional, but also two-dimensional, exchange spin springs. Experimental data is compared with a theoretical estimation of the rotational hysteresis loop for a spin system containing a one-dimensional exchange spring.

  1. Application of the Hubbard model to Cp*(2)Yb(bipy), a model system for strong exchange coupling in lanthanide systems.

    PubMed

    Lukens, Wayne W; Magnani, Nicola; Booth, Corwin H

    2012-10-01

    Exchange coupling is quantified in lanthanide (Ln) single-molecule magnets (SMMs) containing a bridging N(2)(3-) radical ligand and between [Cp*(2)Yb](+) and bipy(•-) in Cp*(2)Yb(bipy), where Cp* is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridyl. In the case of these lanthanide SMMs, the magnitude of exchange coupling between the Ln ion and the bridging N(2)(3-), 2J, is very similar to the barrier to magnetic relaxation, U(eff). A molecular version of the Hubbard model is applied to systems in which unpaired electrons on magnetic metal ions have direct overlap with unpaired electrons residing on ligands. The Hubbard model explicitly addresses electron correlation, which is essential for understanding the magnetic behavior of these complexes. This model is applied quantitatively to Cp*(2)Yb(bipy) to explain its very strong exchange coupling, 2J = -0.11 eV (-920 cm(-1)). The model is also used to explain the presence of strong exchange coupling in Ln SMMs in which the lanthanide spins are coupled via bridging N(2)(3-) radical ligands. The results suggest that increasing the magnetic coupling in lanthanide clusters could lead to an increase in the blocking temperatures of exchange-coupled lanthanide SMMs, suggesting routes to rational design of future lanthanide SMMs.

  2. Influence of intergranular exchange coupling on the magnetization dynamics of CoCrPt:SiO{sub 2} granular media

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, R.; Schmidt, H.; Tibus, S.; Springer, F.; Fassbender, J.; Rohrmann, H.; Albrecht, M.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the effect of Co{sup +} irradiation on the magnetization dynamics of CoCrPt:SiO{sub 2} granular media. Increasing irradiation levels reduce the saturation magnetization and effective anisotropy, which decrease the intrinsic magnetization precession frequency. Furthermore, increasing intergranular exchange coupling results in a qualitative change in the behavior of the magnetic material from a collection of individual grains to a homogeneous thin film, as evidenced in both the switching behavior and dynamics. The frequency change cannot be explained by single crystal macrospin modeling, and can only be reproduced by the inclusion of the dipolar effects and anisotropy distribution inherent in a granular medium.

  3. Photoregenerative I−/I3− couple as a liquid cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yadong; Ai, Xinping; Tu, Wenmao; Pan, Mu

    2014-01-01

    A photoassisted oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) through I−/I3− redox couple was investigated for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cathode reaction. The I−/I3−-based liquid cathode was used to replace conventional oxygen cathode, and its discharge product I− was regenerated to I3− by photocatalytic oxidation with the participation of oxygen. This new and innovative approach may provide a strategy to eliminate the usage of challenging ORR electrocatalysts, resulting in an avenue for developing low-cost and high-efficiency PEM fuel cells. PMID:25348812

  4. Ultrathin Limit of Exchange Bias Coupling at Oxide Multiferroic/Ferromagnetic Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    control of exchange bias was also shown for an all oxide heterostructure consisting of BFO and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO), [ 22 , 23 ] where epitaxial...drastically. This is generally interpreted by considering a strain-induced distortion of MnO 6 octahedra based on the Jahn-Teller distortion theory. [ 39

  5. Correlation between charge transfer and exchange coupling in carbon-based magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Huy Sinh; Pham, Thi Tuan Anh; Do, Viet Thang; Dam, Hieu Chi

    2015-10-15

    Several forms of carbon-based magnetic materials, i.e. single radicals, radical dimers, and alternating stacks of radicals and diamagnetic molecules, have been investigated using density-functional theory with dispersion correction and full geometry optimization. Our calculated results demonstrate that the C{sub 31}H{sub 15} (R{sub 4}) radical has a spin of ½. However, in its [R{sub 4}]{sub 2} dimer structure, the net spin becomes zero due to antiferromagnetic spin-exchange between radicals. To avoid antiferromagnetic spin-exchange of identical face-to-face radicals, eight alternating stacks, R{sub 4}/D{sub 2m}/R{sub 4} (with m = 3-10), were designed. Our calculated results show that charge transfer (Δn) between R{sub 4} radicals and the diamagnetic molecule D{sub 2m} occurs with a mechanism of spin exchange (J) in stacks. The more electrons that transfer from R{sub 4} to D{sub 2m}, the stronger the ferromagnetic spin-exchange in stacks. In addition, our calculated results show that Δn can be tailored by adjusting the electron affinity (E{sub a}) of D{sub 2m}. The correlation between Δn, E{sub a}, m, and J is discussed. These results give some hints for the design of new ferromagnetic carbon-based materials.

  6. Interplay of Rashba and sp-d exchange couplings in magnetic 2DEGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Francisco; Freire, Henrique H. P.; Egues, J. Carlos

    2006-03-01

    In diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum wells the sp-d exchange interaction between the itinerant conduction electrons in the well and the localized electrons in the d orbitals of the Mn impurities gives rise to interesting spin-dependent physics [1]. Recently, the interplay of the Rashba spin-orbit and the sp-d exchange interactions in Mn-based wells has been recognized via Shubnikov-de-Haas measurements [2]. While the Rashba spin-orbit has been extensively studied in non-magnetic 2DEGs, its role in DMS systems with a competing sp-d exchange interaction has not yet been addressed theoretically. In this work we present a k.p derivation of an effective Hamiltonian for a Mn-based quantum well with competing Rashba and sp-d interactions, and show numerical results for the magnetoresistance ρxx of typical magnetic 2DEGs using our effective Hamiltonian model. Our results shows interesting beating patterns of the ρxx as a function of the temperature and carrier density which suggests a significant interplay between the spin-orbit and sp-d exchange interactions, as a recent experiment observes [2]. [1] J. C. Egues, PRL 78, 4578 (1998); H. J. P. Freire and J. C. Egues, cond-mat/0412491. [2] Y. S. Gui et al. EPL. 65, 393 (2004).

  7. Surface-coupled proton exchange of a membrane-bound proton acceptor.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Tor; Salomonsson, Lina; Brzezinski, Peter; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-03-02

    Proton-transfer reactions across and at the surface of biological membranes are central for maintaining the transmembrane proton electrochemical gradients involved in cellular energy conversion. In this study, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the local protonation and deprotonation rates of single pH-sensitive fluorophores conjugated to liposome membranes, and the dependence of these rates on lipid composition and ion concentration. Measurements of proton exchange rates over a wide proton concentration range, using two different pH-sensitive fluorophores with different pK(a)s, revealed two distinct proton exchange regimes. At high pH (> 8), proton association increases rapidly with increasing proton concentrations, presumably because the whole membrane acts as a proton-collecting antenna for the fluorophore. In contrast, at low pH (< 7), the increase in the proton association rate is slower and comparable to that of direct protonation of the fluorophore from the bulk solution. In the latter case, the proton exchange rates of the two fluorophores are indistinguishable, indicating that their protonation rates are determined by the local membrane environment. Measurements on membranes of different surface charge and at different ion concentrations made it possible to determine surface potentials, as well as the distance between the surface and the fluorophore. The results from this study define the conditions under which biological membranes can act as proton-collecting antennae and provide fundamental information on the relation between the membrane surface charge density and the local proton exchange kinetics.

  8. Stacked Micro Heat Exchange System for Optimized Thermal Coupling of MicroTEGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, N.; Grab, M.; Glatz, W.; Hierold, C.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents modeling and experimental results of micro thermoelectric generators (μTEGs) integrated into a multilayer micro heat exchange system. The multilayer configuration benefits from low heat transfer resistances at small fluid flow rates and at the same time from low required pumping powers. The compact stacked power device allows for high net output power per volume, and therefore a reduction in size, weight, and cost compared with conventional large-scale heat exchangers. The influence of the boundary conditions and the system design parameters on the net output power of the micro heat exchange system was investigated by simulation. The theoretical results showed a major impact of the microchannel dimensions and the μTEG thickness on the overall output performance of the system. By adapting the applied fluid flow rate, the system's net power output can be maximized for varying operating temperatures. Experimental measurements of the cross-flow micro heat exchange system were in good agreement with the performed simulations. A net μTEG output power of 62.9 mW/cm2 was measured for a double-layer system at an applied water inlet temperature difference of 60 K with a Bi2Te3 μTEG ( ZT of 0.12), resulting in a net volumetric efficiency factor of 37.2 W/m3/K2.

  9. Experimental determination of next-nearest-neighbor interlayer exchange coupling in ferromagnetic GaMnAs/GaAs:Be multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hakjoon; Bac, Seul-Ki; Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Seonghoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K.

    2015-11-01

    We report direct experimental determination of next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in antiferromagnetically coupled GaMnAs/GaAs:Be multilayers. Magnetoresistance in such multilayers shows step-like transitions as a function of applied magnetic field that corresponds to abrupt changes of spin configuration. By adjusting the field range, one obtains minor hysteresis loops that allow one to determine spin configurations occurring in the multilayer, which in turn can be used to obtain the ratio of NNN IEC to NN IEC. By using this method on a series of GaMnAs/GaAs:Be with different numbers of GaMnAs layers, we obtain this ratio to be 0.23, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  10. Experimental determination of next-nearest-neighbor interlayer exchange coupling in ferromagnetic GaMnAs/GaAs:Be multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hakjoon; Bac, Seul-Ki; Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Seonghoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K.

    2015-11-09

    We report direct experimental determination of next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in antiferromagnetically coupled GaMnAs/GaAs:Be multilayers. Magnetoresistance in such multilayers shows step-like transitions as a function of applied magnetic field that corresponds to abrupt changes of spin configuration. By adjusting the field range, one obtains minor hysteresis loops that allow one to determine spin configurations occurring in the multilayer, which in turn can be used to obtain the ratio of NNN IEC to NN IEC. By using this method on a series of GaMnAs/GaAs:Be with different numbers of GaMnAs layers, we obtain this ratio to be 0.23, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  11. Dynamics of the β2-adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor revealed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Stevens, Raymond C.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the molecular details of ligand activation of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs), emphasis has been placed on structure determination of these receptors with stabilizing ligands. Here we present the methodology for receptor dynamics characterization of the GPCR human β2 adrenergic receptor bound to the inverse agonist carazolol using the technique of amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The HDX MS profile of receptor bound to carazolol is consistent with thermal parameter observations in the crystal structure and provides additional information in highly dynamic regions of the receptor and chemical modifications demonstrating the highly complementary nature of the techniques. Following optimization of HDX experimental conditions for this membrane protein, better than 89% sequence coverage was obtained for the receptor. The methodology presented paves the way for future analysis of β2AR bound to pharmacologically distinct ligands as well as analysis of other GPCR family members. PMID:20058880

  12. Exchange coupling transformations in Cu (II) heterospin complexes of “breathing crystals” under structural phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Vitaly A.; Petrova, Marina V.; Lukzen, Nikita N.

    2015-08-15

    Family of “breathing crystals” is the polymer-chain complexes of Cu(hfac){sub 2} with nitroxides. The polymer chains consist of one-, two- or three-spin clusters. The “breathing crystals” experience simultaneous magnetic and Jahn-Teller type structural phase transitions with change of total cluster spin and drastic change of bond lengths (ca. 10-12%). For the first time the intra-cluster magnetic couplings in ”breathing crystals” have been calculated both by band structure methods GGA + U and hybrid DFT (B3LYP and PBE0) for the isolated exchange clusters. The temperature dependence of the magnetic coupling constant was calculated for two polymer-chain compounds of the “breathing crystal” family - C{sub 21}H{sub 19}CuF{sub 12}N{sub 4}O{sub 6} with the chains containing two-spin clusters and C{sub 22}H{sub 21}CuF{sub 12}N{sub 4}O{sub 6} with the chains of alternating three-spin clusters and one-spin sites. It was found that adding a Hubbard-like parameter not only to the copper 3d electrons but also to the oxygen 2p electrons (GGA + U{sub d} + U{sub p} approach) results in an improved description of exchange coupling in the “breathing crystal” compounds. At the same time treatment of the isolated clusters by a large basis hybrid DFT with high computational cost provides a similar quality fit of the experimental magneto-chemical data as that for the GGA + U{sub d} + U{sub p} band structure calculation scheme. Our calculations also showed that in spite of the abrupt transformation of the magnetic coupling constant under the phase transition, the band gap in the “breathing crystals” remains about the same value with temperature decrease.

  13. Catalytic Dehydrogenative Coupling of Hydrosilanes with Alcohols for the Production of Hydrogen On-demand: Application of a Silane/Alcohol Pair as a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Espinosa, David; Carretero-Cerdán, Alba; Baya, Miguel; García, Hermenegildo; Mata, Jose A

    2017-08-10

    The compound [Ru(p-cym)(Cl)2 (NHC)] is an effective catalyst for the room-temperature coupling of silanes and alcohols with the concomitant formation of molecular hydrogen. High catalyst activity is observed for a variety of substrates affording quantitative yields in minutes at room temperature and with a catalyst loading as low as 0.1 mol %. The coupling reaction is thermodynamically and, in the presence of a Ru complex, kinetically favourable and allows rapid molecular hydrogen generation on-demand at room temperature, under air, and without any additive. The pair silane/alcohol is a potential liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) for energy storage over long periods in a safe and secure way. Silanes and alcohols are non-toxic compounds and do not require special handling precautions such as high pressure or an inert atmosphere. These properties enhance the practical applications of the pair silane/alcohol as a good LOHC in the automotive industry. The variety and availability of silanes and alcohols permits a pair combination that fulfils the requirements for developing an efficient LOHC. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Magnetic field, additive and structural effects on the decay kinetics of micellized triplet radical pairs. Role of diffusion, spin-orbit coupling and paramagnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, P. P.; Kuzmin, V. A.

    1992-05-01

    The geminate recombination kinetics of the radical pairs produced by quenching of the triplet aromatic ketones or quinones by 4-phenylphenol and 4-phenylaniline in aqueous micellar solutions of sodium alkyl sulfates in the presence of additives (ethanol, NaCl, bromo- and iodobenzenes, paramagnetic species) has been examined using the laser flash technique. The recombination rates increase as the micellar size in decreased. Application of an external magnetic field (0.45 T) results in the retardation of geminate recombination up to 25 times. The magnetic field effect is quenched by internal or even external heavy atoms as well as by paramagnetic species, including 3O 2. The magnetic field dependences and attendant regularities are considered in terms of a simple kinetic scheme, in which the singlet-triplet evolution in the separated states of a pair due to hyperfine coupling and relaxation mechanisms, as well as intersystem recombination due to the spin-orbit coupling in the contact states of a pair, are included as first-order processes. The corresponding kinetic parameters of the different pathways involved are also discussed.

  15. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXVIII. G Protein-Coupled Receptor List: Recommendations for New Pairings with Cognate Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen P. H.; Sharman, Joanna L.; Pawson, Adam J.; Benson, Helen E.; Monaghan, Amy E.; Liew, Wen Chiy; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P.; Bonner, Tom I.; Neubig, Richard R.; Pin, Jean Philippe; Spedding, Michael; Harmar, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC-IUPHAR) published a catalog of all of the human gene sequences known or predicted to encode G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), excluding sensory receptors. This review updates the list of orphan GPCRs and describes the criteria used by NC-IUPHAR to recommend the pairing of an orphan receptor with its cognate ligand(s). The following recommendations are made for new receptor names based on 11 pairings for class A GPCRs: hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors [HCA1 (GPR81) with lactate, HCA2 (GPR109A) with 3-hydroxybutyric acid, HCA3 (GPR109B) with 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid]; lysophosphatidic acid receptors [LPA4 (GPR23), LPA5 (GPR92), LPA6 (P2Y5)]; free fatty acid receptors [FFA4 (GPR120) with omega-3 fatty acids]; chemerin receptor (CMKLR1; ChemR23) with chemerin; CXCR7 (CMKOR1) with chemokines CXCL12 (SDF-1) and CXCL11 (ITAC); succinate receptor (SUCNR1) with succinate; and oxoglutarate receptor [OXGR1 with 2-oxoglutarate]. Pairings are highlighted for an additional 30 receptors in class A where further input is needed from the scientific community to validate these findings. Fifty-seven human class A receptors (excluding pseudogenes) are still considered orphans; information has been provided where there is a significant phenotype in genetically modified animals. In class B, six pairings have been reported by a single publication, with 28 (excluding pseudogenes) still classified as orphans. Seven orphan receptors remain in class C, with one pairing described by a single paper. The objective is to stimulate research into confirming pairings of orphan receptors where there is currently limited information and to identify cognate ligands for the remaining GPCRs. Further information can be found on the IUPHAR Database website (http://www.iuphar-db.org). PMID:23686350

  16. Domain-wall velocities of up to 750 m s-1 driven by exchange-coupling torque in synthetic antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, See-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Su; Parkin, Stuart

    2015-03-01

    The operation of racetrack memories is based on the motion of domain walls in atomically thin, perpendicularly magnetized nanowires, which are interfaced with adjacent metal layers with high spin-orbit coupling. Such domain walls have a chiral Néel structure and can be moved efficiently by electrical currents. High-capacity racetrack memory requires closely packed domain walls, but their density is limited by dipolar coupling from their fringing magnetic fields. These fields can be eliminated using a synthetic antiferromagnetic structure composed of two magnetic sub-layers, exchange-coupled via an ultrathin antiferromagnetic-coupling spacer layer. Here, we show that nanosecond-long current pulses can move domain walls in synthetic antiferromagnetic racetracks that have almost zero net magnetization. The domain walls can be moved even more efficiently and at much higher speeds (up to ˜750 m s-1) compared with similar racetracks in which the sub-layers are coupled ferromagnetically. This is due to a stabilization of the Néel domain wall structure, and an exchange coupling torque that is directly proportional to the strength of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two sub-layers. Moreover, the dependence of the wall velocity on the magnetic field applied along the nanowire is distinct from that of the single-layer racetrack due to the exchange coupling torque. The high domain wall velocities in racetracks that have no net magnetization allow for densely packed yet highly efficient domain-wall-based spintronics.

  17. Measurement of the Stochastic Electromagnetic Field Coupling to an Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable with a Matched Termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdowski, Mathias; Henning, Gerald; Vick, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The coupling of stochastic electromagnetic fields into an unshielded twisted double-wire transmission line has been measured in a reverberation chamber. One end of the line features a matched load resistance and is therefore anechoic. With this chosen configuration, the influence of the pitch distance onto the frequency-dependent coupling can be clearly exposed. The measurement results confirm an existing simulation model that is based on transmission line theory and the plane wave integral representation.

  18. In situ ion exchange synthesis of strongly coupled Ag@AgCl/g-C₃N₄ porous nanosheets as plasmonic photocatalyst for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouwei; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xiangke; Huang, Yongshun; Zeng, Meiyi; Xu, Jinzhang

    2014-12-24

    A novel efficient Ag@AgCl/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst was synthesized by a rational in situ ion exchange approach between exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheets with porous 2D morphology and AgNO3. The as-prepared Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation for rhodamine B degradation with a rate constant of 0.1954 min(-1), which is ∼41.6 and ∼16.8 times higher than those of the g-C3N4 (∼0.0047 min(-1)) and Ag/AgCl (∼0.0116 min(-1)), respectively. The degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, and colorless phenol further confirmed the broad spectrum photocatalytic degradation abilities of Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4. These results suggested that an integration of the synergetic effect of suitable size plasmonic Ag@AgCl and strong coupling effect between the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles and the exfoliated porous g-C3N4 nanosheets was superior for visible-light-responsive and fast separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus significantly improving the photocatalytic efficiency. This work may provide a novel concept for the rational design of stable and high performance g-C3N4-based plasmonic photocatalysts for unique photochemical reaction.

  19. Rogue-pair and dark-bright-rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from inhomogeneous femtosecond optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Yomba, Emmanuel; Zakeri, Gholam-Ali

    2016-08-01

    The coupled inhomogeneous Schrödinger equations with a wide range of applications describing a field of pluses with the right and the left polarizations that take into account cross-phase modulations, stimulated Ramani scattering, and absorption effects are investigated. A combination of several different approaches is used in a novel way to obtain the explicit expressions for the rogue-pair and dark-bright-rogue waves. We study the dynamics of these structurally stable rogues and analyze the effects of a parameter that controls the region of stability that intrinsically connects the cross-phase modulation and other Kerr nonlinearity factors. The effects of the right and left polarizations on the shape of the rogue-pair and other solitary rogue waves are graphically analyzed. These rogue-pair waves are studied on periodic and non-periodic settings. We observe that rogue-pair wave from the right and left polarizations has a similar structure while the dark-bright-rogue waves have quite different intensity profiles.

  20. Rogue-pair and dark-bright-rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from inhomogeneous femtosecond optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomba, Emmanuel; Zakeri, Gholam-Ali

    2016-08-01

    The coupled inhomogeneous Schrödinger equations with a wide range of applications describing a field of pluses with the right and the left polarizations that take into account cross-phase modulations, stimulated Ramani scattering, and absorption effects are investigated. A combination of several different approaches is used in a novel way to obtain the explicit expressions for the rogue-pair and dark-bright-rogue waves. We study the dynamics of these structurally stable rogues and analyze the effects of a parameter that controls the region of stability that intrinsically connects the cross-phase modulation and other Kerr nonlinearity factors. The effects of the right and left polarizations on the shape of the rogue-pair and other solitary rogue waves are graphically analyzed. These rogue-pair waves are studied on periodic and non-periodic settings. We observe that rogue-pair wave from the right and left polarizations has a similar structure while the dark-bright-rogue waves have quite different intensity profiles.

  1. Origin of the exchange bias training effects in magnetically coupled soft/hard synthetic bilayers at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçın, Orhan; Ünlüer, Şahin; Kazan, Sinan; Şahingöz, Recep

    2015-02-01

    Hysteresis loops of the nanoscale magnetic layer Co90Fe10 and Ni81Fe19 and bilayer Co90Fe10/Ni81Fe19 and Ni81Fe19/Co90Fe10 films were measured as a function of external dc magnetic field and the thickness dependence of these films were plotted as a function of temperature. Time evolution of the minor/middle/major hysteresis loops of 5/5 nm-thick Ni81Fe19/Co90Fe10 monolayer have been observed at 10 K. The spin valve, exchange bias training and Barkhausen effects for magnetic layer and bilayer films have been analysed at various temperatures, thicknesses and different orientations according to the substrate. The exchange-bias training effects have been observed only in positive magnetization region. Origin of the exchange-bias training effects and asymmetric hysteresis loops are related to the relaxation mechanism of a pinning layer in magnetically coupled soft/hard bilayers.

  2. Exchange-coupling interaction in nanocomposite SrFe12O19/gamma- Fe2O3 permanent ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiansong; Zhong, Wei; Gu, Benxi; Du, Youwei

    2002-07-01

    Nanocomposite SrFe12O19/gamma-Fe2O3 permanent ferrites have been prepared by the sol-gel method and their structure and magnetic properties have been analyzed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. When thermal treatment temperature is below 800 degC, the samples pressed into a flake exhibit exchange-coupling interaction between the two nanostructured phases of gamma-Fe2O3 and SrFe12O19. The flake sample treated at 800 degC produces an isotropic nanocomposite with a intrinsic coercivity of 6015 Oe, a maximum magnetization of 75.6 emu/g and a maximum energy product of 1.87 MGOe as compared with the powder sample of 6400 Oe, 75.9 emu/g, and 1.52 MGOe, respectively. The exchange-coupling interaction and the enhancement of isotropic (BH)max in nanocomposite SrFe12O19/gamma-Fe2O3 permanent ferrites have been discussed.

  3. Explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory: Including exchange for computations on closed-shell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Holzer, Christof; Klopper, Wim

    2016-11-01

    Random-phase-approximation (RPA) methods have proven to be powerful tools in electronic-structure theory, being non-empirical, computationally efficient and broadly applicable to a variety of molecular systems including small-gap systems, transition-metal compounds and dispersion-dominated complexes. Applications are however hindered due to the slow basis-set convergence of the electron-correlation energy with the one-electron basis. As a remedy, we present approximate explicitly-correlated RPA approaches based on the ring-coupled-cluster-doubles formulation including exchange contributions. Test calculations demonstrate that the basis-set convergence of correlation energies is drastically accelerated through the explicitly-correlated approach, reaching 99% of the basis-set limit with triple-zeta basis sets. When implemented in close analogy to early work by Szabo and Ostlund [36], the new explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach including exchange has the perspective to become a valuable tool in the framework of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) for the computation of dispersion energies of molecular complexes of weakly interacting closed-shell systems.

  4. Holographic Screening Length on Parallel Motion of Quark-Antiquark Pair in Four Dimensional Strongly Coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata Atmaja, Ardian

    2014-10-01

    We study the screening length of a quark-antiquark pair moving in a strongly coupled hot plasma of = 4 super-Yang-Mills using AdS/CFT correspondence where the background metric is five dimensional AdS black hole. We take the string solution as such the separation length L of quark-antiquark pair is parallel to the string velocity v. The screening length and the bound energy are computed numerically using Mathematica. We find that the plots are bounded from below by some functions that are related to the momentum flow of the drag force configuration Pc. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the quark-antiquark reference frame by boosting the AdS black hole.

  5. The couple that sings together stays together: duetting, aggression and extra-pair paternity in a promiscuous bird species

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Emma I.

    2016-01-01

    When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male–female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not. PMID:26911342

  6. The couple that sings together stays together: duetting, aggression and extra-pair paternity in a promiscuous bird species.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Daniel T; Greig, Emma I; Webster, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male-female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not.

  7. Exchange-bias-like coupling in a ferrimagnetic Fe/Tb multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Amitesh; Mukherjee, Saumya; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang; Böni, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Field cooling of a transition metal-rare earth (TM-RE) Fe/Tb-multilayer system is shown to form a double hysteresis loop with exchange-bias-like shifts along and opposite to the field cooling axis below the ordering temperature of the RE. The measurement of the polarized neutron reflectivity at various applied fields confirms an antiferromagnetic alignment between the individual layers of Fe and Tb associated with a significant value of the magnetic moment for the Tb layers, even at room temperature. We attribute the shifts of the hysteresis loops to the formation of 2π-domain walls by the interface moments that are pinned by the magnetically hard Tb layers forming bidomainlike states in this layered artificial ferrimagnetic system. We conclude that the exchange bias in Fe/Tb-multilayers, the RE layers being on either sides of the TM layers, is caused by the formation of 2π-domain walls in the Fe layers thus excluding an explanation in terms of π-domain walls, which are believed to be responsible for the exchange bias in other RE-TM bilayer systems.

  8. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd²⁺-complexes.

    PubMed

    Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas

    2015-07-16

    A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg(-1) level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulational instability, beak-shaped rogue waves, multi-dark-dark solitons and dynamics in pair-transition-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Yan, Zhenya; Wen, Xiao-Yong

    2017-07-01

    The integrable coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with four-wave mixing are investigated. We first explore the conditions for modulational instability of continuous waves of this system. Secondly, based on the generalized N-fold Darboux transformation (DT), beak-shaped higher-order rogue waves (RWs) and beak-shaped higher-order rogue wave pairs are derived for the coupled model with attractive interaction in terms of simple determinants. Moreover, we derive the simple multi-dark-dark and kink-shaped multi-dark-dark solitons for the coupled model with repulsive interaction through the generalizing DT. We explore their dynamics and classifications by different kinds of spatial-temporal distribution structures including triangular, pentagonal, `claw-like' and heptagonal patterns. Finally, we perform the numerical simulations to predict that some dark solitons and RWs are stable enough to develop within a short time. The results would enrich our understanding on nonlinear excitations in many coupled nonlinear wave systems with transition coupling effects.

  10. Modulational instability, beak-shaped rogue waves, multi-dark-dark solitons and dynamics in pair-transition-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Yan, Zhenya; Wen, Xiao-Yong

    2017-07-01

    The integrable coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with four-wave mixing are investigated. We first explore the conditions for modulational instability of continuous waves of this system. Secondly, based on the generalized N-fold Darboux transformation (DT), beak-shaped higher-order rogue waves (RWs) and beak-shaped higher-order rogue wave pairs are derived for the coupled model with attractive interaction in terms of simple determinants. Moreover, we derive the simple multi-dark-dark and kink-shaped multi-dark-dark solitons for the coupled model with repulsive interaction through the generalizing DT. We explore their dynamics and classifications by different kinds of spatial-temporal distribution structures including triangular, pentagonal, 'claw-like' and heptagonal patterns. Finally, we perform the numerical simulations to predict that some dark solitons and RWs are stable enough to develop within a short time. The results would enrich our understanding on nonlinear excitations in many coupled nonlinear wave systems with transition coupling effects.

  11. Relaxation dynamics and coherent energy exchange in coupled vibration-cavity polaritons (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2016-09-01

    Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.

  12. Preliminary Design of a SP-100/Stirling Radiatively Coupled Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Several methods for coupling the SP-100 space nuclear reactor to the NASA Lewis Research Center's Free Piston Stirling Power Convertor (FPSPC) are presented. A 25 kWe, dual opposed Stirling convertor configuration is used in these designs. The concepts use radiative coupling between the SP-100 lithium loop and the sodium heat pipe of the Stirling convertor to transfer the heat from the reactor to the convertor. Four separate configurations are presented. Masses for the four designs vary from 41 to 176 kgs. Each design's structure, heat transfer characteristics, and heat pipe performance are analytically modeled.

  13. High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Erik N.; Christensen, Jesper B.; Koefoed, Jacob G.; Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a very high coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 673 using continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a silicon strip waveguide through spontaneous four-wave mixing. This result is obtained by employing on-chip photonic-crystal-based grating couplers for both low-loss fiber-to-chip coupling and on-chip suppression of generated spontaneous Raman scattering noise. We measure a minimum heralded second-order correlation of g\\text{H}(2)(0) = 0.12, demonstrating that our source operates in the single-photon regime with low noise.

  14. Modified relaxation dynamics and coherent energy exchange in coupled vibration-cavity polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Dunkelberger, A. D.; Spann, B. T.; Fears, K. P.; Simpkins, B. S.; Owrutsky, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling vibrational transitions to resonant optical modes creates vibrational polaritons shifted from the uncoupled molecular resonances and provides a convenient way to modify the energetics of molecular vibrations. This approach is a viable method to explore controlling chemical reactivity. In this work, we report pump–probe infrared spectroscopy of the cavity-coupled C–O stretching band of W(CO)6 and the direct measurement of the lifetime of a vibration-cavity polariton. The upper polariton relaxes 10 times more quickly than the uncoupled vibrational mode. Tuning the polariton energy changes the polariton transient spectra and relaxation times. We also observe quantum beats, so-called vacuum Rabi oscillations, between the upper and lower vibration-cavity polaritons. In addition to establishing that coupling to an optical cavity modifies the energy-transfer dynamics of the coupled molecules, this work points out the possibility of systematic and predictive modification of the excited-state kinetics of vibration-cavity polariton systems. PMID:27874010

  15. Properties of easy-plane/perpendicular magnetic anisotropy bilayers with varied interlayer exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Kent, Andrew D.

    We explore the possibility of an easy-cone ground state in coupled easy plane/easy axis magnetic bilayers. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFe layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we characterize the magnetic behavior of the coupled thin films for different Ru thicknesses by determining the resonance fields for both the acoustic and optical FMR modes. In particular, we observe a gap in the resonance field opening up between the two modes in angular-dependent FMR, which is direct evidence for the presence of interlayer coupling. Quantitative comparisons with a theoretical model indicate that by varying the Ru thickness the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from ferromagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic. These results are consistent with a canted magnetic ground state in zero field, a state of interest for applications in spin-torque devices, such as current tunable spin-torque oscillators. Supported by NSF-DMR1309202 and Spin-Transfer Technologies Inc.

  16. Orientation-modulated exchange coupling in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/CaMnO3 bilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Bai, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, H. R.; Li, S. K.; Dai, Z. M.; Ma, S.; Zhao, X. G.; Wang, S. C.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2017-04-01

    Epitaxial La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/CaMnO3 (LCMO/CMO) bilayers and the reference single layers were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)- and (110)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates, allowing us to perform a detailed study of the dependence of exchange coupling on crystal orientations. It is found that the exchange bias (coercive) field of the (110)-oriented LCMO/CMO bilayer are decreased (increased) compared to that of (001)-oriented bilayer, due to the enhanced (weakened) Mn3+-Mn4+ ferromagnetic double-exchange interaction of LCMO layer. It is clear that the spin flop coupling that leads to the enhanced coercivity and the spin glass state that results in the exchange bias effect can coexist and are determined by the competition between Mn3+-Mn4+ ferromagnetic double-exchange and Mn4+-Mn4+ antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions at the interface. We propose that strong Mn3+-Mn4+ ferromagnetic double-exchange interaction facilitates the existence of spin flop coupling, not the formation of spin glass state at the LCMO/CMO interface.

  17. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ligation-state hydrogen exchange: coupled binding and folding equilibria in ribonuclease P protein.

    PubMed

    Henkels, Christopher H; Oas, Terrence G

    2006-06-21

    Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P protein (P protein) is predominantly unfolded (D) at physiological pH and low ionic strength; however, small molecule anionic ligands (e.g., sulfate) directly bind to and stabilize the folded state (NL2). Because the D + 2L <--> NL2 transition is experimentally two-state, high-energy states such as the singly bound, folded species (NL) and the unliganded folded species (N) are generally difficult to detect at equilibrium. To study the conformational properties of these ensembles, NMR-detected amide hydrogen exchange (HX) rates of P protein were measured at four sulfate (i.e., ligand) concentrations, a method we denote "ligation-state hydrogen exchange". The ligand concentration dependence of the HX rate of 47 residues was fit to a model with four possible HX pathways, corresponding to the local and/or global opening reactions from NL2 and NL, the local opening of N, and the global opening of N to D. Data analysis permits the calculation of the residue-specific free energy of opening from each ensemble as well as the fractional amide HX flux through each pathway. Results indicate that the predominant route of HX is through the NL and N states, which represent only 0.45% and 0.0005% of the total protein population in 20 mM sodium sulfate, respectively. Despite the low population of N, a region of protected amides was identified. Therefore, exchange through unliganded forms must be accounted for prior to the interpretation of HX-based protein-interaction studies. We offer a simple test to determine if HX occurs through the liganded or unliganded form.

  19. Exchange coupling and switching fields of RE—TM double and triple layer stacks for direct overwrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raasch, D.; Wierenga, H.

    1997-04-01

    The recording properties of common single layer magneto-optical (MO) disks can be improved by introducing exchange coupled rare-earth (RE) transition-metal (TM) films, both from the point of view of capacity and data transfer rate. Direct overwrite (DOW) is a method to double the data transfer rate during writing, because the write process of new bits and the erase process of old bits is performed simultaneously. MO multilayer stacks must exhibit exchange coupling in order to be suitable for DOW. The switching fields of each layer depend on coercive energy, magnetic field energy and the energy of the interface wall between coupled layers. In this paper we discuss the dependence of switching fields on layer thickness and wall energy σw for several double and triple layer stacks. The memory and reference layers are TbFeCo and DyFeCo, respectively. Triple layer stacks have an intermediate layer (GdFe and GdFeCo) to adjust the wall energy. DOW presupposes a weak coupling at 300 K and a strong coupling at higher temperatures. This requires a very thick reference layer in double layer stacks, causing excessive heat capacities. However, for triple layers the DOW demands are met in much thinner stacks as the wall energy is adjusted through the intermediate layer. The wall energy of the intermediate layer is determined by its anisotropy. We studied the anisotropy of evaporated GdFe, GdCo and GdFeCo films as a function of composition. GdCo showed only in-plane anisotropy, while GdFe was perpendicularly magnetized for Fe contents up to 87 at%. Adding Co to GdFe leads to a layer with a temperature dependent easy axis. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of a series of magneto-optical disks, both double and triple layer stacks, was determined. The maximum CNR of 51.4 dB is comparable to results on a single layer disk with the same memory layer. On triple layer stacks a CNR > 45 dB could be written at a laser power below 9 mW.

  20. Exchange-coupled fct-FePd/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets converted from Pd/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Dong, Yunhe; Yang, Wenlong; Yu, Jing; Xu, Zhichuan; Hou, Yanglong

    2014-11-10

    We report the controlled synthesis of exchange-coupled face-centered tetragonal (fct) FePd/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets with variable Fe concentration. The composite was converted from Pd/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles through a high-temperature annealing process in a reducing atmosphere. The shell thickness of core/shell Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be readily tuned, and subsequently the concentration of Fe in nanocomposite magnets was controlled. Upon annealing reduction, the hard magnetic fct-FePd phase was formed by the interdiffusion between reduced α-Fe and face-centered cubic (fcc) Pd, whereas the excessive α-Fe remained around the fct-FePd grains, realizing exchange coupling between the soft magnetic α-Fe and hard magnetic fct-FePd phases. Magnetic measurements showed variation in the magnetic properties of the nanocomposite magnets with different compositions, indicating distinct exchange coupling at the interfaces. The coercivity of the exchange-coupled nanocomposites could be tuned from 0.7 to 2.8 kOe and the saturation magnetization could be controlled from 93 to 160 emu g(-1). This work provides a bottom-up approach using exchange-coupled nanocomposites for engineering advanced permanent magnets with controllable magnetic properties.