Science.gov

Sample records for exchange polymer beads

  1. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-12-17

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means.

  2. Fibrous polymer grafted magnetic chitosan beads with strong poly(cation-exchange) groups for single step purification of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Tekinay, Turgay; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-05-15

    Lysozyme is an important polypetide used in medical and food applications. We report a novel magnetic strong cation exchange beads for efficient purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Magnetic chitosan (MCHT) beads were synthesized via phase inversion method, and then grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonate groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The MCTH and MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, and VSM. The sulphonate groups content of the modified MCTH-g-p(GMA)-4 beads was found to be 0.53mmolg(-1) of beads by the potentiometric titration method. The MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were first used as an ion-exchange support for adsorption of lysozyme from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 208.7mgg(-1) beads. Adsorption of lysozyme on the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. More than 93% of the adsorbed lysozyme was desorbed using Na2CO3 solution (pH 11.0). The purity of the lysozyme was checked by HPLC and SDS gel electrophoresis. In addition, the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads prepared in this work showed promising potential for separation of various anionic molecules. PMID:25864009

  3. Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, F. W.

    2003-01-01

    Porous ZrO2 and hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized from a strong acid cation exchange resin. Spherical cation exchange beads, polystyrene based polymer, were used as a morphological-directing template. Aqueous ion exchange reaction was used to chemically bind (ZrO)(2+) ions to the polystyrene structure. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene at 600 C produces porous ZrO2 spheres with a surface area of 24 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 42 microns. Hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized by using the beads as a micro-reactor. A direct surface reaction - between titanium isopropoxide and the resin beads forms a hydrous TiO2 shell around the polystyrene core. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene core at 600 C produces hollow anatase spheres with a surface area of 42 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 38 microns. The formation of ceramic spheres was studied by XRD, SEM and B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption measurements.

  4. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  5. Polymer-Coated Graphene Aerogel Beads and Supercapacitor Application.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Hu, Song; Li, Yanhui; Xu, Ruiqiao; Wei, Jinquan; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2016-05-01

    Graphene aerogels are highly porous materials with many energy and environmental applications; tailoring the structure and composition of pore walls within the aerogel is the key to those applications. Here, by freeze casting the graphene oxide sheets, we directly fabricated freestanding porous graphene beads containing radially oriented through channels from the sphere center to its surface. Furthermore, we introduced pseudopolymer to make reinforced, functional composite beads with a unique pore morphology. We showed that polymer layers can be coated smoothly on both sides of the pore walls, as well as on the junctions between adjacent pores, resulting in uniform polymer-graphene-polymer sandwiched structures (skeletons) throughout the bead. These composite beads significantly improved the electrochemical properties, with specific capacitances up to 669 F/g and good cyclic stability. Our results indicate that controlled fabrication of homogeneous hierarchical structures is a potential route toward high performance composite electrodes for various energy applications. PMID:27058391

  6. Polymer-Coated Graphene Aerogel Beads and Supercapacitor Application.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Hu, Song; Li, Yanhui; Xu, Ruiqiao; Wei, Jinquan; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2016-05-01

    Graphene aerogels are highly porous materials with many energy and environmental applications; tailoring the structure and composition of pore walls within the aerogel is the key to those applications. Here, by freeze casting the graphene oxide sheets, we directly fabricated freestanding porous graphene beads containing radially oriented through channels from the sphere center to its surface. Furthermore, we introduced pseudopolymer to make reinforced, functional composite beads with a unique pore morphology. We showed that polymer layers can be coated smoothly on both sides of the pore walls, as well as on the junctions between adjacent pores, resulting in uniform polymer-graphene-polymer sandwiched structures (skeletons) throughout the bead. These composite beads significantly improved the electrochemical properties, with specific capacitances up to 669 F/g and good cyclic stability. Our results indicate that controlled fabrication of homogeneous hierarchical structures is a potential route toward high performance composite electrodes for various energy applications.

  7. Chemiluminescent choline biosensor using histidine-modified peroxidase immobilised on metal-chelate substituted beads and choline oxidase immobilised on anion-exchanger beads co-entrapped in a photocrosslinkable polymer.

    PubMed

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Pizzolato, F; Blum, L J

    2000-06-01

    A novel sensing layer design is presented based on the non-covalent immobilisation of enzymes on derivatized Sepharose beads subsequently entrapped in PVA-SbQ photopolymer. Two different modified Sepharose beads were used, IDA- and DEAE-Sepharose, for the immobilisation, respectively, of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified with histidine, and choline oxidase (Chx). The HRP-IDA-Sepharose-based sensing layer was used in a flow injection analysis chemiluminescent system as the basis of an H2O2 biosensor. It was shown that the pre-immobilisation on IDA-Sepharose beads enhanced the sensing layer stability and enabled the immobilisation of a larger amount of enzyme. A 1.8 mg charge of HRP-IDA-Sepharose beads in the sensing layer produced the most sensitive H2O2 biosensor. Such an analytical system exhibited very good performances, with a cycle time of 2 min and a detection limit of 15 pmol (detection ranging over four decades at least), and an unusual long operational stability of 200 measurements (CV, 3.5%). The HRP-IDA-Sepharose beads were then combined with Chx-DEAE-Sepharose. With this modified Sepharose-based biosensor the limit of detection for choline (S/N, 3) was equal to 0.5 pmol and the working range was 0.35 pmol-10 nmol. Moreover, the cycle time was only 2.5 min with the new sensing layer, and a long operational stability of 150 successive assays was found, with a variation coefficient of 2.6%.

  8. Porous Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    This document is a slide presentation that examines the use of a simple templating process to produce hollow ceramic spheres with a pore size of 1 to 10 microns. Using ion exchange process it was determined that the method produces porous ceramic spheres with a unique structure: (i.e., inner sphere surrounded by an outer sphere.)

  9. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants.

  10. Semiflexible polymer dynamics with a bead-spring model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkema, Gerard T.; Panja, Debabrata; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamical properties of semiflexible polymers with a recently introduced bead-spring model. We focus on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The two parameters of the model, T* and ν, are chosen to match its experimental force-extension curve. In comparison to its groundstate value, the bead-spring Hamiltonian is approximated in the first order by the Hessian that is quadratic in the bead positions. The eigenmodes of the Hessian provide the longitudinal (stretching) and transverse (bending) eigenmodes of the polymer, and the corresponding eigenvalues match well with the established phenomenology of semiflexible polymers. At the Hessian approximation of the Hamiltonian, the polymer dynamics is linear. Using the longitudinal and transverse eigenmodes, for the linearized problem, we obtain analytical expressions of (i) the autocorrelation function of the end-to-end vector, (ii) the autocorrelation function of a bond (i.e. a spring, or a tangent) vector at the middle of the chain, and (iii) the mean-square displacement of a tagged bead in the middle of the chain, as the sum over the contributions from the modes—the so-called ‘mode sums’. We also perform simulations with the full dynamics of the model. The simulations yield numerical values of the correlations functions (i-iii) that agree very well with the analytical expressions for the linearized dynamics. This does not however mean that the nonlinearities are not present. In fact, we also study the mean-square displacement of the longitudinal component of the end-to-end vector that showcases strong nonlinear effects in the polymer dynamics, and we identify at least an effective t7/8 power-law regime in its time-dependence. Nevertheless, in comparison to the full mean-square displacement of the end-to-end vector the nonlinear effects remain small at all times—it is in this sense we state that our results demonstrate that the linearized dynamics suffices for dsDNA fragments that are shorter than or

  11. Virus capture using anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads (review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    The recent incidence of emerging and re-emerging viruses is a serious health concern worldwide. The development of transportation systems, such as air travel, has increased the risk of a global pandemic caused by emerging viruses. Agents causing novel infections are often zoonotic, crossing from the natural host into the human population. Hence, comprehensive surveillance of virus-infected animals as well as humans is required. However, the number of virus particles in clinical and environmental samples is usually very low. Thus, a method to concentrate the virus is sometimes required in order to enable detection. We recently reported that magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride) can be used to facilitate the rapid and sensitive detection of viruses. In this review, we describe recent developments for concentrating viruses using anionic magnetic beads.

  12. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  13. Immobilization of lipase using hydrophilic polymers in the form of hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Betigeri, Seema S; Neau, Steven H

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to immobilize lipase (triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.1.3) from Candida rugosa using various polymers in the form of beads, to evaluate enzyme loading, leaching, and activity; and to characterize the beads. Agarose, alginate, and chitosan were the polymers selected to immobilize lipase by entrapment. Agarose beads exhibited undesirable swelling in the leaching and activity medium and the polymer was not used further. Alginate or chitosan beads were prepared by ionic gelation using calcium chloride or sodium tripolyphosphate, respectively, as the cross-linking agent in the gelling solution. Some hatches of beads of each polymer were freeze dried. The results show that alginate beads leached substantially more enzyme than did chitosan beads. Entrapment efficiency, however, was the same for different chitosan levels as well as different alginate levels (43-50%). Activity in alginate was low at 240 +/- 33 and 220 +/- 26, compared to 1,110 +/- 51 and 1,150 +/- 11 units/ml in chitosan, for fresh and freeze-dried beads, respectively. The higher lipase activity in chitosan beads compared to that in alginate beads could be attributed to an alginate-enzyme interaction. It can be concluded that chitosan is a polymer worthy of pursuit to immobilize lipase.

  14. [Beaded molecule imprinted polymer for stereo isomer separation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Z; Wang, J; Zhou, L; Wang, Q; Zhu, D

    1999-07-01

    Beaded molecule imprinted polymer (MIP) was made by suspension polymerization. Particles with the size of 50-70 microns in diameter were collected and evaluated in HPLC mode to separate stereo isomers. Stereo isomers cinchonine and cinchonidine were successfully discriminated with selectivity factor of 2.89 and resolution factor of 0.76. Stereo selectivity of the MIP was found to come from both the interaction between the analyte and carboxyl group on the MIP and the similarity between the stereo structure of imprinted molecule and the MIP. The thermal analysis results showed that the MIP had high thermal stability with initial thermal decomposition temperature of 320 degrees C. The pore volume of the MIP was 0.1849 mL/g, the specific surface area was 126.84 sqm/g and the average pore diameter was 5.8 nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy showed that MIP had perfect spherical morphology.

  15. A new and facile method for measurement of apparent density of monodisperse polymer beads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Li, Yuanpeng; Jing, Ying; Xing, Chengguo; Chang, Jin; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2010-03-15

    The apparent density, an intrinsic physical property of polymer beads, plays an important role in the application of beads in micro-total analysis systems and separation. Here we have developed a new, facile and milligram-scale method to describe the motion of beads in aqueous solution and further detect the apparent density of beads. The motion of beads in solutions is determined by the viscosity of solutions and the density difference between beads and solutions. In this study, using various glycerol aqueous solutions with certain viscosities and densities, the motion time (i.e. floating or sedimentation time) of hybrid polymer beads was experimentally measured and theoretically deduced, and consequently, the apparent density of monodisperse beads can be quickly and easily calculated. The results indicated that the present method provided a more precise way to predict the movement of hybrid beads in aqueous solution compared with the approach for commercial use. This new method can be potentially employed in flow cytometry, suspension stability, and particle analysis systems.

  16. Capture of dengue virus type 3 using anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Masrinoul, Promsin; Tanaka, Yasuharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus and can be transmitted to humans by mosquito vectors. Although surveillance of dengue virus-infected mosquitoes is the most effective way of controlling DENV infections, detection of DENVs in mosquitoes is limited by the low sensitivity of available detection methods. We here report a method for capturing DENV type 3 (DENV-3) from mosquito cells using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). The beads were incubated with cell culture medium of DENV-3-infected mosquito cells, then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field and washed. Adsorption of DENV-3 on the beads was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, which detected the presence of DENV-3 genomic RNA on the beads, and Western blotting, which determined the major DENV-3 envelope protein on the beads. Therefore, this capture method may enable an improvement in DENV-3 detection.

  17. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    PubMed

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads. PMID:20462180

  18. Probing solvation decay length in order to characterize hydrophobicity-induced bead-bead attractive interactions in polymer chains.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha; Chakraborty, Suman

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we quantitatively demonstrate that exponentially decaying attractive potentials can effectively mimic strong hydrophobic interactions between monomer units of a polymer chain dissolved in aqueous solvent. Classical approaches to modeling hydrophobic solvation interactions are based on invariant attractive length scales. However, we demonstrate here that the solvation interaction decay length may need to be posed as a function of the relative separation distances and the sizes of the interacting species (or beads or monomers) to replicate the necessary physical interactions. As an illustrative example, we derive a universal scaling relationship for a given solute-solvent combination between the solvation decay length, the bead radius, and the distance between the interacting beads. With our formalism, the hydrophobic component of the net attractive interaction between monomer units can be synergistically accounted for within the unified framework of a simple exponentially decaying potential law, where the characteristic decay length incorporates the distinctive and critical physical features of the underlying interaction. The present formalism, even in a mesoscopic computational framework, is capable of incorporating the essential physics of the appropriate solute-size dependence and solvent-interaction dependence in the hydrophobic force estimation, without explicitly resolving the underlying molecular level details.

  19. Efficient capture of infectious H5 avian influenza virus utilizing magnetic beads coated with anionic polymer.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2008-12-01

    The possible emergence of a pandemic influenza virus from the avian influenza virus (AIV) has become a serious threat. The isolation of viruses will be crucial for further virological analysis and the development of vaccines. However, currently, there is no simple method for facilitating the isolation of infectious AIV. Here, we have developed a simple method of capturing AIV using anionic magnetic beads. The method employed the capture of AIV (H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3) from liquid samples such as allantoic fluid (AF) and cell culture medium (CM) using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride). After their incubation with AIV-containing samples, the magnetic beads were separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. The absorption of AIV on the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which indicated the presence of hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleoprotein of AIV. Furthermore, the infectivity in chicken eggs of AIV captured by magnetic beads was similar to that of the starting materials. The capture of AIV using magnetic beads coated with anionic polymers will contribute to the sufficient recovery of infectious AIV and approach for potential pandemic influenza viruses.

  20. Capture of infectious borna disease virus using anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Tanaka, Yasuharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2011-05-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a noncytolytic, neurotrophic virus that infects a range of vertebrates, including all warm-blooded animals and possibly humans. Although BDV infections are thought to cause neurological disorders, evidence of the presence of the virus in tissues or blood of psychiatric patients is limited, possibly due to the low sensitivity of detection methods. Here, a simple method for capturing BDV has been developed using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). The beads were incubated with lysate from BDV-infected cells, then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnet field and washed. The adsorption of BDV by the beads was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, which indicated the presence of the phosphoprotein (P), nucleoprotein (N), and viral genome of BDV on the incubated beads. This method of capture may contribute to the improved detection of BDV.

  1. Folding of electrostatically charged beads-on-a-string as an experimental realization of a theoretical model in polymer science.

    PubMed

    Reches, Meital; Snyder, Phillip W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-10-20

    The "beads-on-a-string" model for folding of polymers is a cornerstone of theoretical polymer science. This communication describes a physical model of beads-on-a-string, based on the folding of flexible strings of electrostatically charged beads in two dimensions. The system comprises millimeter-scale Teflon and Nylon-6,6 (spherical or cylindrical) beads (approximately 6 mm in diameter) separated by smaller (approximately 3 mm) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spherical beads, threaded on a flexible string. The smaller, uncharged beads define the distances between the larger beads, and control the flexibility of the string. During agitation of the sequence of beads on a planar, horizontal paper surface, tribocharging generates opposite electrostatic charges on the larger Nylon and Teflon beads, but leaves the smaller PMMA beads essentially uncharged; the resulting electrostatic interactions cause the string to fold. Examination and comparison of two models--one physical and one theoretical--may offer a new approach to understanding folding, collapse, and molecular recognition at an abstract level, with particular opportunity to explore the influence of the flexibility of the string and the shape of the beads on the pattern and rate of folding. The physical system is, thus, an analog computer, simulating the theoretical beads-on-a-string model in two dimensions; this system makes it possible to test hypotheses connecting "sequence" to "folding", rapidly and conveniently, while exploring nonlinearities and other complexities omitted from the theoretical model.

  2. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  3. "Nanofiltration" Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  4. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation.

  5. Synthesis and Characterisation of Biocompatible Polymer-Conjugated Magnetic Beads for Enhancement Stability of Urease.

    PubMed

    Doğaç, Yasemin Ispirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    We reported natural polymer-conjugated magnetic featured urease systems for removal of urea effectively. The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-250 min), reusability (18 times) and storage stability (24 weeks) were studied for characterisation of the urease-encapsulated biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads. Also, the surface groups and chemical structure of the magnetic beads were determined by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The all urease-encapsulated magnetic beads protected their stability of 30-45 % relative activity at 70 °C. A significant increase was observed at their pH stability compared with the free urease for both acidic and alkaline medium. Besides this, their repeatability activity were approximately 100 % during 4(th) run. They showed residual activity of 50 % after 16 weeks. The importance of this work is enhancement stability of immobilised urease by biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads for the industrial application based on removal of urea.

  6. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment. PMID:26818806

  7. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment.

  8. Sampling for organic chemicals in workplace atmospheres with porous polymer beads.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, M W; Chapman, L M; Mieure, J P

    1978-05-01

    Porous polymer bead collection columns are frequently used in air pollution measurements. They are also useful for industrial hygiene applications when used with miniature personal pumps. Analytical procedures using this type of collection column are described which use thermal desorption for sample recovery followed by GC or GC/MS analysis. A means is shown to modify a gas chromatograph for this type of analysis. A technique which permits splitting of the collected sample is also described. Precision and accuracy data for recovery of nineteen chemicals are presented. Advantages of porous polymer bead procedures include high sensitivity (the total collected sample is analyzed), ease of sample handling and ability to analyze polar materials not recoverable from charcoal.

  9. Simulation of bead-and-spring chain models for semidilute polymer solutions in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetsko, S. W.; Cummings, P. T.

    1994-11-01

    We report preliminary results of simulations of the steady-state rheological behavior for semidilute polymer solutions of head-and-spring chain models in planar Couette now. The simulations include examination of the effects of excluded volume. hydrodynamic interactions and density. Hydrodynamic interactions are modeled by the Rotne -Prager Yamakawa tensor. The simulations are based on the nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics algorithm of Ermak and McCammon. In addition to the spring potential between neighboring beads in the chain. the interaction between any two beads in the solution is modeled using a shifted, repulsive Leonard-Jones potential. Lees Edward sliding brick boundary conditions are used for consistency with the Couette flow field.

  10. Binding behaviour of molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by a hierarchical approach in mesoporous silica beads of varying porosity.

    PubMed

    Baggiani, Claudio; Baravalle, Patrizia; Giovannoli, Cristina; Anfossi, Laura; Passini, Cinzia; Giraudi, Gianfranco

    2011-04-01

    One of the most interesting methods for preparing molecularly imprinted polymers with controlled morphology consists in filling the pores of silica beads with an imprinting mixture, polymerizing it and dissolving the support, leaving porous imprinted beads that are the "negative image" of the silica beads. The main advantage of such an approach consists in the easy preparation of spherical imprinted polymeric particles with narrow diameter and pore size distribution, particularly indicated for chromatographic applications. In this approach it has been shown that the resulting morphology of polymeric beads depends essentially on the porosity and surface properties of the silica beads that act as microreactors for the thermopolymerization process. Anyway, it is not yet clear if the porosity of the silica beads influences the binding properties of the resulting imprinted beads. In this paper, we report the effect of different porosities of the starting mesoporous silica beads on the resulting binding properties of imprinted polymers with molecular recognition properties towards the fungicide carbendazim. The morphological properties of the imprinted beads prepared through this hierarchical approach were measured by nitrogen adsorption porosimetry and compared with a reference imprinted material prepared by bulk polymerization. The chromatographic behaviour of HPLC columns packed with the imprinted materials were examined by eluting increasing amounts of carbendazim and extracting the binding parameters through a peak profiling approach. The experimental results obtained show that the resulting binding properties of the imprinted beads are strongly affected by the polymerization approach used but not by the initial porosity of the silica beads, with the sole exception of the binding site density, which appears to be inversely proportional to them. PMID:21349526

  11. Ion exchange polymers and method for making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H. (Inventor); Street, Kenneth W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange polymer comprised of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt of a poly(carboxylic acid) in a poly(vinyl acetal) matrix is described. The polymer is made by treating a mixture made of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acrylic acid) with a suitable aldehyde and an acid catalyst to cause acetalization with some cross-linking. The material is then subjected to an alkaline aqueous solution of an alkali metal salt or an alkali earth metal salt. All of the film forming and cross-linking steps can be carried out simultaneously, if desired.

  12. Isolation of infectious chikungunya virus and dengue virus using anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Patramool, Sirilaksana; Bernard, Eric; Hamel, Rodolphe; Natthanej, Luplertlop; Chazal, Nathalie; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Daoust, Simon; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Thomas, Frédéric; Briant, Laurence; Missé, Dorothée

    2013-10-01

    Mosquitoes-borne viruses are a major threat for human populations. Among them, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) cause thousands of cases worldwide. The recent propagation of mosquito vectors competent to transmit these viruses to temperate areas increases their potential impact on susceptible human populations. The development of sensitive methods allowing the detection and isolation of infectious viruses is of crucial interest for determination of virus contamination in humans and in competent mosquito vectors. However, simple and rapid method allowing the capture of infectious CHIKV and DENV from samples with low viral titers useful for further genetic and functional characterization of circulating strains is lacking. The present study reports a fast and sensitive isolation technique based on viral particles adsorption on magnetic beads coated with anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate) and suitable for isolation of infectious CHIKV and DENV from the four serotypes. Starting from quite reduced biological material, this method was accurate to combine with conventional detection techniques, including qRT-PCR and immunoblotting and allowed isolation of infectious particles without resorting to a step of cultivation. The use of polymer-coated magnetic beads is therefore of high interest for rapid detection and isolation of CHIKV and DENV from samples with reduced viral loads and represents an accurate approach for the surveillance of mosquito vector in area at risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

  13. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-09-27

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

  14. Long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a 'beads-on-a-string' morphology: DNA nanotube-template synthesis and electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guofang; Mao, Chengde

    2016-05-21

    Complex and functional nanostructures are always desired. Herein, we present the synthesis of novel long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a 'beads-on-a-string' morphology by the DNA nanotube-template approach and in situ oxidative polymerization of the 3-methylthiophene monomer with FeCl3 as the oxidant/catalyst. The length of the nanonecklaces is up to 60 μm, and the polymer beads of around 20-25 nm in diameter are closely packed along the axis of the DNA nanotube template with a density of ca. 45 particles per μm. The formation of porous DNA nanotubes impregnated with FeCl3 was also demonstrated as intermediate nanostructures. The mechanisms for the formation of both the porous DNA nanotubes and the conducting polymer nanonecklaces are discussed in detail. The as-synthesized polymer/DNA nanonecklaces exhibit good electrical properties.

  15. Long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a `beads-on-a-string' morphology: DNA nanotube-template synthesis and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guofang; Mao, Chengde

    2016-05-01

    Complex and functional nanostructures are always desired. Herein, we present the synthesis of novel long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a `beads-on-a-string' morphology by the DNA nanotube-template approach and in situ oxidative polymerization of the 3-methylthiophene monomer with FeCl3 as the oxidant/catalyst. The length of the nanonecklaces is up to 60 μm, and the polymer beads of around 20-25 nm in diameter are closely packed along the axis of the DNA nanotube template with a density of ca. 45 particles per μm. The formation of porous DNA nanotubes impregnated with FeCl3 was also demonstrated as intermediate nanostructures. The mechanisms for the formation of both the porous DNA nanotubes and the conducting polymer nanonecklaces are discussed in detail. The as-synthesized polymer/DNA nanonecklaces exhibit good electrical properties.Complex and functional nanostructures are always desired. Herein, we present the synthesis of novel long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a `beads-on-a-string' morphology by the DNA nanotube-template approach and in situ oxidative polymerization of the 3-methylthiophene monomer with FeCl3 as the oxidant/catalyst. The length of the nanonecklaces is up to 60 μm, and the polymer beads of around 20-25 nm in diameter are closely packed along the axis of the DNA nanotube template with a density of ca. 45 particles per μm. The formation of porous DNA nanotubes impregnated with FeCl3 was also demonstrated as intermediate nanostructures. The mechanisms for the formation of both the porous DNA nanotubes and the conducting polymer nanonecklaces are discussed in detail. The as-synthesized polymer/DNA nanonecklaces exhibit good electrical properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01603k

  16. Membrane consisting of polyquaternary amine ion exchange polymer network interpenetrating the chains of thermoplastic matrix polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Wallace, C. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An ion exchange membrane was formed from a solution containing dissolved matrix polymer and a set of monomers which are capable of reacting to form a polyquaternary ion exchange material; for example vinyl pyride and a dihalo hydrocarbon. After casting solution and evaporation of the volatile component's, a relatively strong ion exchange membrane was obtained which is capable of removing anions, such as nitrate or chromate from water. The ion exchange polymer forms an interpenetrating network with the chains of the matrix polymer.

  17. Isolation and detection of single molecules on paramagnetic beads using sequential fluid flows in microfabricated polymer array assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kan, Cheuk W; Rivnak, Andrew J; Campbell, Todd G; Piech, Tomasz; Rissin, David M; Mösl, Matthias; Peterça, Andrej; Niederberger, Hans-Peter; Minnehan, Kaitlin A; Patel, Purvish P; Ferrell, Evan P; Meyer, Raymond E; Chang, Lei; Wilson, David H; Fournier, David R; Duffy, David C

    2012-03-01

    We report a method for isolating individual paramagnetic beads in arrays of femtolitre-sized wells and detecting single enzyme-labeled proteins on these beads using sequential fluid flows in microfabricated polymer array assemblies. Arrays of femtolitre-sized wells were fabricated in cyclic olefin polymer (COP) using injection moulding based on DVD manufacturing. These arrays were bonded to a complementary fluidic structure that was also moulded in COP to create an enclosed device to allow delivery of liquids to the arrays. Enzyme-associated, paramagnetic beads suspended in aqueous solutions of enzyme substrate were delivered fluidically to the array such that one bead per well was loaded by gravity. A fluorocarbon oil was then flowed into the device to remove excess beads from the surface of the array, and to seal and isolate the femtolitre-sized wells containing beads and enzyme substrate. The device was then imaged using standard fluorescence imaging to determine which wells contained single enzyme molecules. The analytical performance of this device as the detector for digital ELISA compared favourably to the standard method, i.e., glass arrays mechanically sealed against a silicone gasket; prostate specific antigen (PSA) could be detected from 0.011 pg mL(-1) up to 100 pg mL(-1). The use of an enclosed fluidic device to isolate beads in single-molecule arrays offers a multitude of advantages for low-cost manufacturing, ease of automation, and instrument development to enable applications in biomarker validation and medical diagnosis. PMID:22179487

  18. MEMS-based method of polymer bead handling for chemical array sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byunghwa; Park, Yoon S.; Kim, Jun Wan; Sohn, Young-Soo; Neikirk, Dean P.

    2005-07-01

    Combination of micromachined platforms and chemically sensitive micro-beads have been demonstrated for use as multi-analyte chemical and biological agent detectors [1,2]. In many of these systems agarose beads have been used as the "container" of various chemical sensors and enzymes. This paper discusses a method of array assembly using such sub-millimeter size beads.

  19. High throughput synthesis of uniform biocompatible polymer beads with high quantum dot loading using microfluidic jet-mode breakup.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Kon; Baek, Jinyoung; Jensen, Klavs F

    2014-03-01

    Uniform polymer microbeads with highly loaded quantum dots (QDs) are produced using high-throughput coherent jet breakup of a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) prepolymer resin, followed by in-line photopolymerization. A spiraling and gradually widening channel enables maximum absorption of radiated UV light for the in-line photopolymerization without coalescence and clogging issues. Although the dripping mode in general provides superior uniformity to the jet mode, our nozzle design with tapered geometry brings controlled jet breakup leading to 3% of uniform particle size distribution, comparable to dripping-mode performance. We achieve a maximum production rate of 2.32 kHz, 38 times faster than the dripping mode, at a same polymer flow rate. In addition, the jet-mode scheme provides better versatility with 3 times wider range of size control as well as the compatibility with viscous fluids that could cause pressure buildup in the microsystem. As a demonstration, a QD-doped prepolymer resin is introduced to create uniform biocompatible polymer beads with 10 wt % CdSe/ZnSe QD loading. In spite of this high loading, the resulting polymer beads exhibits narrow bandwidth of 28 nm to be used for the ultrasensitive bioimaging, optical coding, and sensing sufficiently with single bead. PMID:24506820

  20. Manipulation of Superparamagnetic Beads on Patterned Exchange-Bias Layer Systems for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ehresmann, Arno; Koch, Iris; Holzinger, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    A technology platform based on a remotely controlled and stepwise transport of an array arrangement of superparamagnetic beads (SPB) for efficient molecular uptake, delivery and accumulation in the context of highly specific and sensitive analyte molecule detection for the application in lab-on-a-chip devices is presented. The near-surface transport of SPBs is realized via the dynamic transformation of the SPBs’ magnetic potential energy landscape above a magnetically stripe patterned Exchange-Bias (EB) thin film layer systems due to the application of sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. In this concept, the SPB velocity is dramatically influenced by the magnitude and gradient of the magnetic field landscape (MFL) above the magnetically stripe patterned EB substrate, the SPB to substrate distance, the magnetic properties of both the SPBs and the EB layer system, respectively, as well as by the properties of the external magnetic field pulses and the surrounding fluid. The focus of this review is laid on the specific MFL design in EB layer systems via light-ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning (IBMP). A numerical approach is introduced for the theoretical description of the MFL in comparison to experimental characterization via scanning Hall probe microscopy. The SPB transport mechanism will be outlined in terms of the dynamic interplay between the EB substrate’s MFL and the pulse scheme of the external magnetic field. PMID:26580625

  1. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Liu, Ruijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a novel and simple dual-phase solvent system for the improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads in aqueous sample was proposed. The method integrated MIP extraction and micro-liquid-liquid extraction (micro-LLE) into only one step. A magnetic MIP beads using atrazine as template was synthesized, and was applied to aqueous media by adding micro-volume of n-hexane to form a co-extraction system. The magnetic MIP beads preferred to suspend in the organic phase, which shielded them from the disturbance of water molecule. The target analytes in the water sample was extracted into the organic phase by micro-LLE and then further bound to the solid-phase of magnetic MIP beads. The beads specificity was significantly improved with the imprinting efficiency of template increasing from 0.5 to 4.4, as compared with that in pure aqueous media. The extraction capacity, equilibration process and cross-selectivity of the MIP dual-phase solvent extraction system were investigated. The proposed method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine, propazine, simetryn, prometryne, ametryn and terbutryn in complicated sample such as tomato, strawberry juice and milk. The method is selective, sensitive and low organic solvent-consuming, and has potential to broaden the range of MIP application in biological and environmental sample.

  2. Fibrous polymer-grafted chitosan/clay composite beads as a carrier for immobilization of papain and its usability for mercury elimination.

    PubMed

    Metin, Ayşegül Ülkü; Alver, Erol

    2016-07-01

    Papain, which is an industrially important enzyme, has been immobilized on fibrous polymer-modified composite beads, namely poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted chitosan/clay. Characterization studies have been done using FTIR and SEM analysis. Operating parameters such as pH and initial concentration of papain have been varied to obtain the finest papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads. The immobilization capacity of composite beads has been determined as 34.47 ± 1.18 (n = 3) mg/g. The proteolytic activity of immobilized papain was operated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and maximum velocity (V max) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) values of the free and immobilized enzymes were determined using Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee equations. Usability of papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads as adsorbents for the elimination of mercury was investigated. The maximum removal capacity of PIPMC beads has been found to be 4.88 ± 0.21 mg Hg/g when the initial metal concentration and weight of polymer-modified composite beads were 50 mg/L and 0.04 g at pH 7, respectively. Mercury removal performance of the papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads was investigated in conjunction with Cu (II), Zn (II) and Cd (II) ions. The mercury adsorption capacity of papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads was a slight reduction from 1.15 to 0.89 mg/g in presence of multiple metal salts. PMID:27013506

  3. Fibrous polymer-grafted chitosan/clay composite beads as a carrier for immobilization of papain and its usability for mercury elimination.

    PubMed

    Metin, Ayşegül Ülkü; Alver, Erol

    2016-07-01

    Papain, which is an industrially important enzyme, has been immobilized on fibrous polymer-modified composite beads, namely poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted chitosan/clay. Characterization studies have been done using FTIR and SEM analysis. Operating parameters such as pH and initial concentration of papain have been varied to obtain the finest papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads. The immobilization capacity of composite beads has been determined as 34.47 ± 1.18 (n = 3) mg/g. The proteolytic activity of immobilized papain was operated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and maximum velocity (V max) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) values of the free and immobilized enzymes were determined using Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee equations. Usability of papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads as adsorbents for the elimination of mercury was investigated. The maximum removal capacity of PIPMC beads has been found to be 4.88 ± 0.21 mg Hg/g when the initial metal concentration and weight of polymer-modified composite beads were 50 mg/L and 0.04 g at pH 7, respectively. Mercury removal performance of the papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads was investigated in conjunction with Cu (II), Zn (II) and Cd (II) ions. The mercury adsorption capacity of papain immobilized polymer-modified composite beads was a slight reduction from 1.15 to 0.89 mg/g in presence of multiple metal salts.

  4. Thermally modulated retention of lymphoctytes on polymer-brush-grafted glass beads.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Kenichi; Mukae, Naoto; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Okano, Teruo

    2012-03-01

    Thermoresponsive PIPAAm-brush-grafted glass beads are prepared through siATRP and their physicochemical properties are characterized by micro-nitrogen analysis, XPS, and contact angle measurements. The amount of grafted PIPAAm on glass bead surfaces can be controlled by varying the ATRP reaction time, leading to a modulation of the temperature-dependent wettability of the prepared surfaces. To evaluate a possible use of the beads as cell separation matrices, loading with rat lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes is studied. The results show that the interaction between PIPAAm brushes and lymphocytes can be controlled by modulating PIPAAm brush length and temperature. The PIPAAm-brush-grafted beads might therefore be useful as effective cell separation matrices.

  5. Optimization of methylene blue using Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R; Arthanareeswaran, G; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    Recently noted that the methylene blue cause severe central nervous system toxicity. It is essential to optimize the methylene blue from aqueous environment. In this study, a comparison of an optimization of methylene blue was investigated by using modified Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads. A batch mode study was conducted using various parameters like time, dye concentration, bio-polymer dose, pH and process temperature. The isotherms, kinetics, diffusion and thermodynamic studies were performed for feasibility of the optimization process. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations were used for the prediction of isotherm parameters and correlated with dimensionless separation factor (RL). Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order Lagegren's kinetic equations were used for the correlation of kinetic parameters. Intraparticle diffusion model was employed for diffusion of the optimization process. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) shows different absorbent peaks of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) beads and the morphology of the bio-polymer material analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The TG & DTA studies show that good thermal stability with less humidity without production of any non-degraded products.

  6. Preparation and applications of weak acid cation exchanger based on monodisperse poly(ethylvinylbenzene-co-divinylbezene) beads.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Yongxin, Chen; Mingli, Ye; Fritz, James S

    2005-08-26

    New technology is reported here for the synthesis of an effective weak acid-cation exchanger for ion chromatography. Monodisperse macroporous poly(ethylvinylbenzene-co-divinylbezene) (PEVB-DVB) beads of 5 microm diameter were prepared by a two-step swelling and polymerization method. Then carboxyl groups were introduced by polymerization of maleic anhydride with unreacted vinyl groups on the resin beads, followed by hydrolysis of the maleic anhydride groups. A column packed with the carboxylate beads was used to separate alkali and alkaline earth metal ions in a single isocratic run. Separations were found to be better than those with similar resin particles that are simply coated with maleic acid. The columns containing the new particles were 100% compatible with solvents commonly used for HPLC. Additionally, the prepared column was stable and could be used for a long time in a wide range of pH. The column gave good resolution, low detection limits and good repeatability for the separation of common cations. Satisfactory results were also obtained for separations of organic amines and of common cations in rainwater.

  7. U/Th dating by SHRIMP RG ion-microprobe mass spectrometry using single ion-exchange beads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Wooden, J.; Murphy, F.; Williams, Ross W.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new analytical method for U-series isotopes using the SHRIMP RG (Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion MicroProbe) mass spectrometer that utilizes the preconcentration of the U-series isotopes from a sample onto a single ion-exchange bead. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is capable of producing Th ionization efficiencies in excess of 2%. Analytical precision is typically better than alpha spectroscopy, but not as good as thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Like TIMS and ICP-MS the method allows analysis of small samples sizes, but also adds the advantage of rapidity of analysis. A major advantage of ion-microprobe analysis is that U and Th isotopes are analyzed in the same bead, simplifying the process of chemical separation. Analytical time on the instrument is ???60 min per sample, and a single instrument-loading can accommodate 15-20 samples to be analyzed in a 24-h day. An additional advantage is that the method allows multiple reanalyses of the same bead and that samples can be archived for reanalysis at a later time. Because the ion beam excavates a pit only a few ??m deep, the mount can later be repolished and reanalyzed numerous times. The method described of preconcentrating a low concentration sample onto a small conductive substrate to allow ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is potentially applicable to many other systems. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  9. Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes and method for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Danesi, Pier R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes include a microporous polymeric support film interpenetrated by an ion exchange polymer and are produced by absorbing and polymerizing monomers within the support film. The ion exchange polymer provides ion exchange ligands at the surface of and throughout the support film which have sufficient ligand mobility to extract and transport ions across the membrane.

  10. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1997-09-23

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  11. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Marsh, S. Fredric; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  12. Use of anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride)-coated beads for capture of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children, and a major public health concern in pediatrics. However, current diagnostic methods for RSV are not sufficiently sensitive. In addition, there is no simple method for enhancing RSV detection. Here, a method for capturing RSV from nasal fluid has been developed using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). The beads were incubated with RSV-infected nasal fluid, then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnet field and washed. The adsorption [corrected] of RSV by the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which indicated the presence of nucleocapsid protein, fusion protein, and the viral genome of RSV on the incubated beads. Therefore, this capture method will contribute to the improvement of RSV detection.

  13. Modeling studies: Adsorption of aniline blue by using Prosopis Juliflora carbon/Ca/alginate polymer composite beads.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R

    2013-02-15

    The research article describes the experimental and modeling study for the adsorptive removal of aniline blue dye (AB dye) from aqueous matrices using a Prosopis Juliflora modified carbon/Ca/alginate polymer bead as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature. The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies were assessed to find out the efficiency of the adsorption process. The equilibrium uptake capacity of the adsorption process was found with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations and it was evaluated by dimensionless separation factor (R(L)). The dynamics of adsorption was predicted by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order Lagergren's equation and intra particle diffusion model. Adsorption feasibility was assessed with thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH°), standard entropy (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) using VantHoff plot. The alginate bead was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  14. Preparation of styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine magnetic polymer beads by microwave irradiation for analysis of trace 24-epibrassinolide in plant samples using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Wei; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2010-10-15

    In the study, a kind of novel styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine (St-co-4-VP) porous magnetic polymer beads was prepared by microwave irradiation using suspension polymerization. Microwave heating preparation greatly reduced the polymerization time to 1h. Physical characteristic tests suggested that these beads were cross-linking and possessed spherical shape, good magnetic response and porous morphologies with a narrow diameter distribution of 70-180 μm. Therefore, these beads displayed the long-term stability after undergoing 100-time extractions. Then, an analytical method for the determination of trace 24-epiBR in plant samples was developed by magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer beads demonstrated the higher extraction selectivity for 24-epiBR than other reference compounds. Linear range was 10.00-100.0 μg/L with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.7%, and the detection limit was 6.5 μg/kg. This analytical method was successfully applied to analyze the trace 24-epiBR in cole and breaking-wall rape pollen samples with recoveries of 77.2-90.0% and 72.3-83.4%, respectively, and RSDs were less than 4.1%. The amount of 24-epiBR in real breaking-wall rape pollen samples was found to be 26.2 μg/kg finally. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the determination of trace brassinosteroids in complicated plant samples by the use of St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with chromatographic method.

  15. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  16. Water hydrogen bonding in proton exchange and neutral polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Sarah Black

    Understanding the dynamics of water sorbed into polymer films is critical to reveal structure-property relationships in membranes for energy and water treatment applications, where membranes must interact with water to facilitate or inhibit the transport of ions. The chemical structure of the polymer has drastic effects on the transport properties of the membrane due to the morphological structure of the polymer and how water is interacting with the functional groups on the polymer backbone. Therefore studying the dynamics of water adsorbed into a membrane will give insight into how water-polymer interactions influence transport properties of the film. With a better understanding of how to design materials to have specific properties, we can accelerate development of smarter materials for both energy and water treatment applications to increase efficiency and create high-flux materials and processes. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the water-polymer interactions in proton exchange and uncharged membranes and make correlations to their charge densities and transport properties. A linear Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method for measuring the hydrogen bonding distribution of water sorbed in proton exchange membranes is described in this thesis. The information on the distribution of the microenvironments of water in an ionic polymer is critical to understanding the effects of different acidic groups on the proton conductivity of proton exchange membranes at low relative humidity. The OD stretch of dilute HOD in H2O is a single, well-defined vibrational band. When HOD in dilute H2O is sorbed into a proton exchange membrane, the OD stretch peak shifts based on the microenvironment that water encounters within the nanophase separated structure of the material. This peak shift is a signature of different hydrogen bonding populations within the membrane, which can be deconvoluted rigorously for dilute HOD in H 2O compared to only

  17. Enhanced Ionic Conductivity and Power Generation Using Ion-Exchange Resin Beads in a Reverse-Electrodialysis Stack.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bopeng; Gao, Haiping; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-12-15

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising technique for harvesting energy by mixing seawater with river water. The energy production is usually limited by ionic conductivity in dilute compartments of a RED system. Novel tests were conducted in this research, which used ion-exchange resin beads (IERB) to replace nonconductive spacer fabrics in RED compartments with dilute NaCl solution in a modified stack containing Fumasep FKS and Fumasep FAS membranes. We compared the conductivity of an IERB packed bed with that of an inert glass-beads-packed bed as a control to confirm IERB's effectiveness. When applied in a RED system, IERB decreased the stack resistance by up to 40%. The maximum gross power density improved by 83% in the RED stack compared to that in a regular RED stack at 1.3 cm/s average linear flow velocity. IERB-filled stack resistance was modeled. The model results fit well with experimental data, thereby confirming the effectiveness of the new approach presented here. The net power density is also estimated based on the measured pressure drop and pumping energy model. Both gross and net power density was improved by over 75% at higher flow rate. A net power density of 0.44 W/m(2) was achieved at a cell thickness of 500 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first to study the impact of IERB on power generation and establishes a new approach to improving the power performance of a RED system.

  18. Slow process in confined polymer melts: Layer exchange dynamics at a polymer solid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelash, L.; Virnau, P.; Binder, K.; Paul, W.

    2010-11-01

    Employing Molecular Dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model of 1,4-polybutadiene between graphite walls we show that the mass exchange between layers close to the walls is a slow process already in the melt state. For the glass transition of confined polymers this process competes with the slowing down due to packing effects and intramolecular rotation barriers.

  19. Anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride)-coated beads-based capture of human influenza A and B virus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Okada, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kawashita, Norihito; Takagi, Tatsuya; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-01-15

    An anionic magnetic beads-based method was developed for the capture of human influenza A and B viruses from nasal aspirates, allantoic fluid and culture medium. A polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride) [poly(MVE-MA)], was used to endow magnetic beads with a negative charge and bioadhesive properties. After incubation with samples containing human influenza virus, the beads were separated from supernatants by applying a magnetic field. The adsorption [corrected] of the virus by the beads was confirmed by hemagglutinin assay, immunochromatography, Western blotting, egg infection, and cell infection. Successful capture was proved using 5 H1N1 influenza A viruses, 10 H3N2 influenza A viruses, and 6 influenza B viruses. Furthermore, the infectivity in chicken embryonated eggs and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells of the captured human influenza virus was similar to that of the total viral quantity of starting materials. Therefore, this method of capture using magnetic beads coated with poly(MVE-MA) can be broadly used for the recovery of infectious human influenza viruses.

  20. Ion-exchange polymer artificial muscle and actuating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Dominique; Tondu, Bertrand; Lopez, Pierre; Aurelle, Yves; Ricard, Alain

    1996-04-01

    Chemomechanical transformations are used to produce a mechanical force from a reversible chemical reaction in order to generate artificial muscular contraction, on the model of the biological muscle. The design and experimentation of an original artificial muscle using an ion-exchange polymer which reacts inside a soft envelope, derived from research on pneumatic artificial McKibben muscle, is presented. Then a chemomechanical actuator constituted of two artificial muscles has been conceived: first results are shown on position control in open-loop mode.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymer beads for clean-up and preconcentration of β-lactamase-resistant penicillins in milk.

    PubMed

    Urraca, Javier L; Chamorro-Mendiluce, Raquel; Orellana, Guillermo; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    This work describes the development and application of class-selective molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the analysis of beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, namely cloxacillin (CLOXA), oxacillin (OXA), and dicloxacillin (DICLOXA), in milk samples. Our method is based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD). 2-Biphenylylpenicillin (2BPEN), a surrogate with a close resemblance to beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins in terms of size, shape, hydrophobicity, and functionality, was synthesized and used as the template for the polymer synthesis. A MIP library was prepared and screened to select the optimum functional monomer, N-(2-aminoethyl)methacrylamide, and cross-linker, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, that provided the best recognition for the target antibiotics. For the MISPE application, the MIPs were prepared in the form of microspheres, using porous silica beads (40-75 μm) as sacrificial scaffolds. The developed MISPE method enables efficient extraction from aqueous samples and analysis of the antimicrobials, when followed by a selective washing with 2 mL acetonitrile-water (20:80 v/v) and elution with 1 mL 0.05 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium in methanol. The analytical method was validated according to EU guideline 2002/657/EC. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were in the 5.3-6.3 μg kg(-1) range, well below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) currently established. Inter-day mean recoveries were in the range 99-102 % with RSDs below 9 %, improving on the performance of previously reported MISPE methods for the analysis of CLOXA, OXA, or DICLOXA in milk samples.

  2. A method for the production of weakly acidic cation exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, H.; Werner, F.; Mitschker, A.; Diehl, H. V.; Schaefer, A.

    1991-12-01

    The invention relates to a nonpolluting method for the production of weakly acidic cation exchange resins by saponification of cross-linked acrylonitrile bead polymers, with an alkaline saponification agent at elevated temperature, according to which method the bead polymer and alkaline saponification agent are jointly added only at elevated temperature.

  3. Water hydrogen bonding in proton exchange and neutral polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Sarah Black

    Understanding the dynamics of water sorbed into polymer films is critical to reveal structure-property relationships in membranes for energy and water treatment applications, where membranes must interact with water to facilitate or inhibit the transport of ions. The chemical structure of the polymer has drastic effects on the transport properties of the membrane due to the morphological structure of the polymer and how water is interacting with the functional groups on the polymer backbone. Therefore studying the dynamics of water adsorbed into a membrane will give insight into how water-polymer interactions influence transport properties of the film. With a better understanding of how to design materials to have specific properties, we can accelerate development of smarter materials for both energy and water treatment applications to increase efficiency and create high-flux materials and processes. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the water-polymer interactions in proton exchange and uncharged membranes and make correlations to their charge densities and transport properties. A linear Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method for measuring the hydrogen bonding distribution of water sorbed in proton exchange membranes is described in this thesis. The information on the distribution of the microenvironments of water in an ionic polymer is critical to understanding the effects of different acidic groups on the proton conductivity of proton exchange membranes at low relative humidity. The OD stretch of dilute HOD in H2O is a single, well-defined vibrational band. When HOD in dilute H2O is sorbed into a proton exchange membrane, the OD stretch peak shifts based on the microenvironment that water encounters within the nanophase separated structure of the material. This peak shift is a signature of different hydrogen bonding populations within the membrane, which can be deconvoluted rigorously for dilute HOD in H 2O compared to only

  4. Tailoring molecularly imprinted polymer beads for alternariol recognition and analysis by a screening with mycotoxin surrogates.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hany, Rahma A G; Urraca, Javier L; Descalzo, Ana B; Gómez-Arribas, Lidia N; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-12-18

    Molecularly imprinted porous polymer microspheres have been prepared for selective binding of alternariol (AOH), a phenolic mycotoxin produced by Alternaria fungi. In order to lead the synthesis of recognition materials, four original AOH surrogates have been designed, prepared and characterized. They bear different number of phenol groups in various positions and different degree of O-methylation on the dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one skeleton. A comprehensive library of mixtures of basic, acidic or neutral monomers, with divinylbenzene or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linkers, were polymerized at a small scale in the presence of the four molecular mimics of the toxin molecule. This polymer screening has allowed selection of the optimal composition of the microbeads (N-(2-aminoethyl)methacrylamide, EAMA, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate). The latter are able to bind AOH in water-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) with an affinity constant of 109±10mM(-1) and a total number of binding sites of 35±2μmolg(-1), being alternariol monomethylether the only competitor species. Moreover, (1)H NMR titrations have unveiled a 1:2 surrogate-to-EAMA stoichiometry, the exact interaction sites and a binding constant of 1.5×10(4)M(-2). A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been optimized for selective isolation of the mycotoxin from aqueous samples upon a discriminating wash with 3mL of acetonitrile/water (20:80, v/v) followed by determination by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method has been applied, in combination to ultrasound-assisted extraction, to the analysis of AOH in tomato samples fortified with the mycotoxin at five concentration levels (33-110μgkg(-1)), with recoveries in the range of 81-103% (RSD n=6). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first imprinted material capable of molecularly recognizing this widespread food contaminant. PMID:26632518

  5. Tailoring molecularly imprinted polymer beads for alternariol recognition and analysis by a screening with mycotoxin surrogates.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hany, Rahma A G; Urraca, Javier L; Descalzo, Ana B; Gómez-Arribas, Lidia N; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-12-18

    Molecularly imprinted porous polymer microspheres have been prepared for selective binding of alternariol (AOH), a phenolic mycotoxin produced by Alternaria fungi. In order to lead the synthesis of recognition materials, four original AOH surrogates have been designed, prepared and characterized. They bear different number of phenol groups in various positions and different degree of O-methylation on the dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one skeleton. A comprehensive library of mixtures of basic, acidic or neutral monomers, with divinylbenzene or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linkers, were polymerized at a small scale in the presence of the four molecular mimics of the toxin molecule. This polymer screening has allowed selection of the optimal composition of the microbeads (N-(2-aminoethyl)methacrylamide, EAMA, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate). The latter are able to bind AOH in water-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) with an affinity constant of 109±10mM(-1) and a total number of binding sites of 35±2μmolg(-1), being alternariol monomethylether the only competitor species. Moreover, (1)H NMR titrations have unveiled a 1:2 surrogate-to-EAMA stoichiometry, the exact interaction sites and a binding constant of 1.5×10(4)M(-2). A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been optimized for selective isolation of the mycotoxin from aqueous samples upon a discriminating wash with 3mL of acetonitrile/water (20:80, v/v) followed by determination by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method has been applied, in combination to ultrasound-assisted extraction, to the analysis of AOH in tomato samples fortified with the mycotoxin at five concentration levels (33-110μgkg(-1)), with recoveries in the range of 81-103% (RSD n=6). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first imprinted material capable of molecularly recognizing this widespread food contaminant.

  6. Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  7. Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  8. Small, porous polyacrylate beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

  9. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  10. Annealed perfluorinated cation exchange polymers for corrosion resistant coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kinlen, P.J.; Silverman, D.C. )

    1993-11-01

    Casting and annealing a perfluorinated cation exchange (Nafion) polymer onto aluminum or 316SS results in a system which inhibits pitting and crevice corrosion that normally occurs in the presence of chloride ions and dissolved oxygen. This inhibition is believed to results from the unique chloride ion rejection properties of the annealed Nafion coating. Under neutral and basic conditions (pH > 5), localized corrosion is suppressed. Potentiodynamic polarization scans of the annealed Nafion coated aluminum and 316SS positive to the potential of the bare electrode does not produce pits. Electrochemical impedance results show that corrosion is unchanged after the coated alloy has been polarized above the pitting potential. In addition, the electrochemical impedance results indicate that the electrical resistance of the coating is low, hardly increasing the uncompensated resistance above that found for the bare metal. Hence, the movement of water and positive ions through the coating is unhindered Long-term stability and long-term corrosion inhibition afforded by the polymer must still be assessed to determine the practical limits of applicability of this coating system.

  11. High temperature polymers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsla, Brian Russel

    Novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were investigated that show potential for operating at higher temperatures in both direct methanol (DMFC) and H 2/air PEM fuel cells. The need for thermally stable polymers immediately suggests the possibility of heterocyclic polymers bearing appropriate ion conducting sites. Accordingly, monomers and random disulfonated poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing either naphthalimide, benzoxazole or benzimidazole moieties were synthesized via direct copolymerization. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied by simply changing the ratio of disulfonated monomer to nonsulfonated monomer in the copolymerization step. Water uptake and proton conductivity of cast membranes increased with IEC. The water uptake of these heterocyclic copolymers was lower than that of comparable disulfonated poly(arylene ether) systems, which is a desirable improvement for PEMs. Membrane electrode assemblies were prepared and the initial fuel cell performance of the disulfonated polyimide and polybenzoxazole (PBO) copolymers was very promising at 80°C compared to the state-of-the-art PEM (NafionRTM); nevertheless these membranes became brittle under operating conditions. Several series of poly(arylene ether)s based on disodium-3,3'-disulfonate-4,4 '-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (S-DCDPS) and a benzimidazole-containing bisphenol were synthesized and afforded copolymers with enhanced stability. Selected properties of these membranes were compared to separately prepared miscible blends of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers and polybenzimidazole (PBI). Complexation of the sulfonic acid groups with the PBI structure reduced water swelling and proton conductivity. The enhanced proton conductivity of NafionRTM membranes has been proposed to be due to the aggregation of the highly acidic side-chain sulfonic acid sites to form ion channels. A series of side-chain sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers based on methoxyhydroquinone was

  12. Sorption properties of radiation-cross-linked polymer hydrogels containing ion-exchange fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvova, M. A.; Zhevnyk, V. D.; Pak, V.; Borodin, Y. V.; Kachina, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    Polymer hydrogel modification for soft contact lenses by ion-exchange fibers was studied in this work. The obtained results showed that the ion-exchange fiber modifiers have a number of advantages as compared with ion-exchange resin modifiers.

  13. A technique for capturing broad subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1 based on anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate) [poly(MVE-MA)], were used in a method to capture human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The beads were incubated with either HIV-1-infected cell culture medium or plasma from HIV-1 infected individuals and separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thorough washing, adsorption of HIV-1 by the beads was confirmed by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. The results confirmed the presence of envelope, polymerase, Nef and the viral genome of HIV-1. Furthermore, various subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) of HIV-1 including subtype B, C and CRF01_AE and the immature form of subtype B HIV-1 could be captured. Preincubation with neutralizing antibody against HIV-1 envelope gp41 decreased the capture efficiently, suggesting that poly(MVE-MA) binds HIV-1 via gp41. We believe that this capture procedure will be a valuable tool for detecting various types of HIV-1 in both clinical and experimental samples.

  14. Highly sensitive Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection in a large volume sample using a conical polymer tube chamber consisting of micro-glass beads.

    PubMed

    Won, Ji Yeong; Min, Junhong

    2010-09-15

    In this study, we developed a method for the highly sensitive detection of viable pathogenic bacteria in a large volume sample by performing RNA concentration, amplification, and using fluorescently tagged capture probes in a single polymer chamber without transferring RNA samples from one chamber to another. Nucleic acids were extracted from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and loaded into glass micro-beads embedded in a conical polymer tube chamber. Nucleic acids were concentrated in the micro-tube in a low pH buffer (pH 5). The mRNA, which was adsorbed to the glass micro-beads, was amplified by Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification in the same chamber at a relatively high pH (pH 8.9). The products amplified were measured using the hair-loop type detection probe with FAM and DABCYL, which was pre-mixed in the NASBA mater mixture. As a result, high sensitivity (100% for rain water and 60% for river water) with less than 10 viable E. coli O157:H7 in 100ml could be achieved within 4h using the simple method proposed in this study.

  15. Beads, beaded-fibres and fibres: Tailoring the morphology of poly(caprolactone) using pressurised gyration.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xianze; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, Suntharavathanan

    2016-12-01

    This work focuses on forming bead on string poly(caprolactone) (PCL) by using gyration under pressure. The fibre morphology of bead on string is an interesting feature that falls between bead-free fibres and droplets, and it could be effectively controlled by the rheological properties of spinning dopes and the major processing parameters of the pressurised gyration system which are working pressure and rotating speed. Bead products were not always spherical in shape and tended to be more elliptical, therefore both their width and length were measured. The average bead width and length produced spanned a range 145-660μm and 140-1060μm, respectively. The average distance between two adjacent beads (i.e. inter-bead distance) and the bead size (width and length) are shown to be a function of processing parameters and polymer concentration. An interesting morphology i.e. beads with short fibre was observed when using a high polymer concentration. Bead on string structure agglomeration was promoted by a low polymer concentration. Formation of droplets or agglomerated bead on string is promoted below 5wt% polymer concentration, and beads with short fibre were present in the microstructure beyond a polymer concentration of 20wt%. PMID:27612839

  16. Sonochemical deposition of platinum nanoparticles on polymer beads and their transfer on the pore surface of a silica matrix.

    PubMed

    Chave, Tony; Grunenwald, Anthony; Ayral, André; Lacroix-Desmazes, Patrick; Nikitenko, Sergey I

    2013-04-01

    This study reported the sonochemical deposition of platinum on the surface of polystyrene beads (PSBs) and the transfer of obtained Pt nanoparticles into a porous silica matrix using the PSB as a sacrificial template. Platinum nanoparticle deposition was ensured by the sonochemical reduction of Pt(IV) at room temperature in latex solutions containing polystyrene beads in the presence of formic acid under Ar or under Ar/CO atmosphere without any additives. After ultrasonic treatments for few hours, well dispersed Pt nanoparticles within the range of 3-5 nm deposited on PSB were obtained in both studied conditions. Samples were then mixed with TEOS, dried, and heated at 450°C to ensure the PSB removal from the silica matrix. TEM and SEM results clearly show that final silica pore size is within the same order of magnitude than initial PSB. Finally, platinum decorated silica matrix with chosen pore sizes was successfully prepared.

  17. Fabrication of new drug imprinting polymer beads for selective extraction of naproxen in human urine and pharmaceutical samples.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Feizbakhsh, Alireza; Khaledi, Sardar; Moniri, Elham

    2013-01-30

    A drug imprinting polymer based on suspension polymerization was prepared with N,N-dimethylacrylamide and 1-(N,N-bis-carboxymethyl) amino-3-allylglycerol as functional monomers, N,N methylene diacrylamid as the cross-linker, naproxen as the template and 2,2'-azobis (2-methylbutyronitrile) as the initiator. The drug imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The imprinted polymer of agglomerated micro-particles with multi-pores was used for solid phase extraction. The drug imprinted polymer sorbent was selective for naproxen. The profile of the naproxen uptake by the sorbent reflects good accessibility of the active sites in the imprinted polymer sorbent. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption data of naproxen by imprinted polymer were analyzed by Langmuir isotherm models. The developed method was utilized for determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical and human urine samples by high performance liquid chromatography with satisfactory results.

  18. Composite ion exchange materials

    SciTech Connect

    Amarasinghe, S.; Zook, L.; Leddy, J.

    1994-12-31

    Composite ion exchange materials can be formed by sorbing ion exchange polymers on inert, high surface area substrates. In general, the flux of ions and molecules through these composites, as measured electrochemically, increases as the ratio of the surface area of the substrate increases relative to the volume of the ion exchanger. This suggests that fields and gradients established at the interface between the ion exchanger and substrate are important in determining the transport characteristics of the composites. Here, the authors will focus on composites formed with a cation exchange polymer, Nafion, and two different types of microbeads: polystyrene microspheres and polystyrene coated magnetic microbeads. For the polystyrene microbeads, scanning electron micrographs suggest the beads cluster in a self-similar manner, independent of the bead diameter. Flux of Ru(NH3)63+ through the composites was studied as a function of bead fraction, bead radii, and fixed surface area with mixed bead sizes. Flux was well modeled by surface diffusion along a fractal interface. Magnetic composites were formed with columns of magnetic microbeads normal to the electrode surface. Flux of Ru(NH3)63+ through these composites increased exponentially with bead fraction. For electrolyses, the difference in the molar magnetic susceptibility of the products and reactants, Dcm, tends to be non-zero. For seven redox reactions, the ratio of the flux through the magnetic composites to the flux through a Nafion film increases monotonically with {vert_bar}Dcm{vert_bar}, with enhancements as large as thirty-fold. For reversible species, the electrolysis potential through the magnetic composites is 35 mV positive of that for the Nafion films.

  19. Immobilization of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase onto ion-exchange resin beads and hydrolysis of natural starch at high concentration.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kapish; Jana, Asim Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Maiti, Mithu

    2013-11-01

    α-Amylase was immobilized on Dowex MAC-3 with 88 % yield and amyloglucosidase on Amberlite IRA-400 ion-exchange resin beads with 54 % yield by adsorption process. Immobilized enzymes were characterized to measure the kinetic parameters and optimal operational parameters. Optimum substrate concentration and temperature were higher for immobilized enzymes. The thermal stability of the enzymes enhanced after the immobilization. Immobilized enzymes were used in the hydrolysis of the natural starch at high concentration (35 % w/v). The time required for liquefaction of starch to 10 dextrose equivalent (DE) and saccharification of liquefied starch to 96 DE increased. Immobilized enzymes showed the potential for use in starch hydrolysis as done in industry.

  20. Diagnostic model of saliva peptide finger print analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients using weak cation exchange magnetic beads

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Peng; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Li-Xin; Peng, Xin; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Saliva diagnostics utilizing nanotechnology and molecular technologies to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has become an attractive field of study. However, no specific methods have been established. To refine the diagnostic power of saliva peptide fingerprints for the early detection of OSCC, we screened the expression spectrum of salivary peptides in 40 T1 stage OSCC patients (and healthy controls) using MALDI-TOF-MS combined with magnetic beads. Fifty proteins showed significantly different expression levels in the OSCC samples (P<0.05). Potential biomarkers were also predicted. The novel diagnostic proteomic model with m/z peaks of 1285.6 Da and 1432.2 Da are of certain value for early diagnosis of OSCC. PMID:26182373

  1. The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H.

    1998-11-01

    We have recently devised a polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks. For the demonstration, a 2% solution of sodium alginate is poured into a 1% solution of calcium chloride. Nontoxic calcium alginate "worms" form due to crosslinking of the polymer. Alternatively, the commercially available antacid Gaviscon can be used as a source of sodium alginate. The crosslinks can then be broken by shaking the worms in brine. The demonstration is a fine addition to any chemical educator's repertoire of polymer experiments.

  2. Poly(arylene)-based anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Bae, Chulsung

    2015-06-09

    Poly(arylene) electrolytes including copolymers lacking ether groups in the polymer may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  3. Highly Conductive Anion-Exchange Membranes from Microporous Tröger's Base Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengjin; Guo, Rui; Malpass-Evans, Richard; Carta, Mariolino; McKeown, Neil B; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-09-12

    The development of polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) combining high ion conductivity and long-term stability is a major challenge for materials chemistry. AEMs with regularly distributed fixed cationic groups, based on the formation of microporous polymers containing the V-shape rigid Tröger's base units, are reported for the first time. Despite their simple preparation, which involves only two synthetic steps using commercially available precursors, the polymers provide AEMs with exceptional hydroxide conductivity at relatively low ion-exchange capacity, as well as a high swelling resistance and chemical stability. An unprecedented hydroxide conductivity of 164.4 mS cm(-1) is obtained at a relatively a low ion-exchange capacity of 0.82 mmol g(-1) under optimal operating conditions. The exceptional anion conductivity appears related to the intrinsic microporosity of the charged polymer matrix, which facilitates rapid anion transport. PMID:27505421

  4. Production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Using Macroporous Sulfonate Cation Exchange Resins in the Bead Form

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    2001-08-16

    The use of cation exchange resin to product U{sub 3}O{sub 8} suitable for powder metallurgy fabrication of reactor fuel tubes with Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} cores is being investigated. This report presents the results of those studies.

  5. Toward Daisy Chain Polymers: "Wittig Exchange" of Stoppers in

    PubMed

    Rowan; Cantrill; Stoddart; White; Williams

    2000-03-23

    Two ammonium ion/crown ether-based [2]rotaxane monomers-each incorporating (i) a dumbbell-shaped component, possessing an exchangeable benzylic triphenylphosphonium stopper, and (ii) a ring component, bearing an aldehyde function-undergo a sequence of Wittig reactions in which the surrogate triphenylphosphonium stopper is exchanged for a ring component either (i) in the same rotaxane molecule to give cyclic daisy chains by an intramolecular, chain-terminating reaction or (ii) in another rotaxane molecule to give acyclic daisy chains by an intermolecular chain-propagating reaction.

  6. New ammunition for the proteomic reactor: strong anion exchange beads and multiple enzymes enhance protein identification and sequence coverage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hu; Hou, Weimin; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Figeys, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The enrichment and processing of proteomic samples prior to multi-dimensional chromatography remain a challenge in 'gel-free' proteomics. We previously reported the development of a microfluidic device called the "proteomic reactor" that relied on enriching proteins by using strong cation exchange (SCX) followed by trypsin digestion in an interstitial volume as little as 50 nL. Here, we report a novel proteomic reactor that is based on polymeric strong anion exchange (SAX) material to analyse proteomic samples. We also compare the performance of the SAX proteomic reactor to our previously reported SCX proteomic reactor for analysing complex yeast proteomes. Our results indicate that the SAX protein reactor preferentially identifies more acidic peptides and proteins compared to the SCX reactor. We show that the SAX and SCX reactors are complementary and that their combination increases the number of unique peptides and proteins identified by 50%. Furthermore, we show that the number of protein identified can be increased further by up to 40% using different proteolytic enzymes on the proteomic reactor.

  7. Removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from aqueous waste sites using polymer pendant ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the use of polymer pendant ligand technology to remove and recover toxic metal ions from DOE aqueous waste sites. Polymer pendant lgiands are organic ligands, anchored to crosslinked, modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene beads, that can selectively complex metal ions. The metal ion removal step usually occurs through a complexation or ion exchange phenomena, thus recovery of the metal ions and reuse of the beads is readily accomplished.

  8. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  9. Repetitively pulsed atmospheric pressure discharge treatment of rough polymer surfaces: II. Treatment of micro-beads in He/NH3/H2O and He/O2/H2O mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoj, Ananth N.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2008-08-01

    Plasmas are increasingly being used to functionalize the surface of polymers having complex shapes for biomedical applications such as tissue scaffolds and drug delivering micro-beads. The functionalization often requires affixation of amine (NH2) or O-containing groups. In this paper, results are discussed from a two-dimensional computational investigation of the atmospheric pressure plasma functionalization of non-planar and porous surfaces of polypropylene with NHx and O-containing groups. For the former, the discharge is sustained in He/NH3/H2O mixtures in a dielectric barrier-corona configuration. Significant microscopic non-uniformities arise due to competing pathways for reactive gas phase radicals such as OH and NH2, and on the surface by the availability of OH to initiate amine attachment. The treatment of inside surfaces of porous polymer micro-beads placed on an electrode is particularly sensitive to view angles to the discharge and pore size, and is ultimately controlled by the relative rates of radical transport and surface reactions deep into the pores. The functionalization of micro-beads suspended in He/O2/H2O discharges is rapid with comparable treatment of the outer and interior surfaces, but varies with the location of the micro-bead in the discharge volume.

  10. Preparation of magnetic indole-3-acetic acid imprinted polymer beads with 4-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as binary monomer via microwave heating initiated polymerization and their application to trace analysis of auxins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yuanwen; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2010-11-19

    Auxin is a crucial phytohormone for precise control of growth and development of plants. Due to its low concentration in plant tissues which are rich in interfering substances, the accurate determination of auxins remains a challenge. In this paper, a new strategy for isolation and enrichment of auxins from plant tissues was obtained by the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads, which were prepared by microwave heating initiated suspension polymerization using indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as template. In order to obtain higher selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was adopted for IAA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the mag-MIP beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A majority of resultant beads were within the size range of 80-150μm. Porous surface morphology and good magnetic property were observed. Furthermore, the mag-MIP beads fabricated with 4-VP and β-CD as binary functional monomers exhibited improved recognition ability to IAA, as compared with the mag-MIP beads prepared with the individual monomer separately. Competitive rebinding experiment results revealed that the mag-MIP beads exhibited a higher specific recognition for the template than the non-imprinted polymer (mag-NIP) beads. An extraction method by mag-MIP beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in plant tissues. Linear ranges for IAA and IBA were in the range of 7.00-100.0μgL(-1) and 10.0-100.0μgL(-1), and the detection limits were 3.9 and 7.4μgL(-1), respectively. The analytical performance was also estimated by seedlings or immature embryos samples from three different plant tissues, pea, rice and wheat. Recoveries were in the range of 70

  11. Evaluation of ion exchange processes in drug-eluting embolization beads by use of an improved flow-through elution method.

    PubMed

    Swaine, Tanya; Tang, Yiqing; Garcia, Pedro; John, Jasmine; Waters, Laura J; Lewis, Andrew L

    2016-10-10

    An improved method for evaluating drug release behaviour of drug-eluting embolization beads (DEBs) was developed utilizing an open-loop flow-through system, in which the beads were packed into an occlusive mass within the system and extracted with a flowing elution medium over time. Glass beads were introduced into the beads mass in order to ensure laminar flow, reduce dead volume and improve reproducibility by compensating for swelling phenomena. The effects of glass bead ratio, elution medium flow rate and ion concentration, DEB size and drug concentration and drug type (doxorubicin and irinotecan) were evaluated using DEB composed of a sulfonate-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (DC Bead™) as the test article. The rate and amount of drug elution from the packed beads was affected by flow rate, the bead size and initial loading dose. The raw data from the concentration profile analysis provided valuable information to reveal the drug elution behaviour akin to the pharmacokinetic data observed for embolized beads (yielding in vitro Cmax and tmax data) which was complementary to the normal cumulative data obtained. A good correlation with historical reported in vivo data validated the usefulness of the method for predicting in vivo drug elution behaviour.

  12. Evaluation of ion exchange processes in drug-eluting embolization beads by use of an improved flow-through elution method.

    PubMed

    Swaine, Tanya; Tang, Yiqing; Garcia, Pedro; John, Jasmine; Waters, Laura J; Lewis, Andrew L

    2016-10-10

    An improved method for evaluating drug release behaviour of drug-eluting embolization beads (DEBs) was developed utilizing an open-loop flow-through system, in which the beads were packed into an occlusive mass within the system and extracted with a flowing elution medium over time. Glass beads were introduced into the beads mass in order to ensure laminar flow, reduce dead volume and improve reproducibility by compensating for swelling phenomena. The effects of glass bead ratio, elution medium flow rate and ion concentration, DEB size and drug concentration and drug type (doxorubicin and irinotecan) were evaluated using DEB composed of a sulfonate-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (DC Bead™) as the test article. The rate and amount of drug elution from the packed beads was affected by flow rate, the bead size and initial loading dose. The raw data from the concentration profile analysis provided valuable information to reveal the drug elution behaviour akin to the pharmacokinetic data observed for embolized beads (yielding in vitro Cmax and tmax data) which was complementary to the normal cumulative data obtained. A good correlation with historical reported in vivo data validated the usefulness of the method for predicting in vivo drug elution behaviour. PMID:27523788

  13. Unlocking Chain Exchange in Highly Amphiphilic Block Polymer Micellar Systems: Influence of Agitation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chain exchange between block polymer micelles in highly selective solvents, such as water, is well-known to be arrested under quiescent conditions, yet this work demonstrates that simple agitation methods can induce rapid chain exchange in these solvents. Aqueous solutions containing either pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) or pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide-d4) micelles were combined and then subjected to agitation by vortex mixing, concentric cylinder Couette flow, or nitrogen gas sparging. Subsequently, the extent of chain exchange between micelles was quantified using small angle neutron scattering. Rapid vortex mixing induced chain exchange within minutes, as evidenced by a monotonic decrease in scattered intensity, whereas Couette flow and sparging did not lead to measurable chain exchange over the examined time scale of hours. The linear kinetics with respect to agitation time suggested a surface-limited exchange process at the air–water interface. These findings demonstrate the strong influence of processing conditions on block polymer solution assemblies. PMID:25642383

  14. Drug release from film-coated chlorpheniramine maleate nonpareil beads: effect of water-soluble polymer, coating level, and soluble core material.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Schwartz, J B; Porter, S C; Schnaare, R L; Wigent, R J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a new drug release model to study the effects of formulation parameters on drug release from a film-coated chlorpheniramine (CPM) nonpareil system. The film-coated CPM nonpareils were prepared by using a fluid bed apparatus. A hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) solution was blended with an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Surelease) to adjust the permeability of the film. The apparent permeability of samples was obtained from dissolution data using a previously reported drug release equation. The apparent permeability was plotted versus the film coating level or the HPMC concentration in the film. When the natural logarithm of the apparent permeability versus coating level was graphed, a biphasic plot was observed in the group without HPMC in the film, showing the occurrence of a critical coating level. It was suggested that a mechanically formed porous film (due to an incomplete coating) could change to a nonporous film after the bead was completely coated. However, in the group that contained 12% HPMC in the film, the critical coating level was not observed. A porous film, formed by the leaching out of the water-soluble polymer, would not change to a nonporous film even after the bead is completely coated. Through a mathematical derivation, the decrease of apparent permeability versus coating level was related to the reduction of the total hole area. The apparent permeability was found to increase with the HPMC concentration. After a critical concentration was reached, the further addition of HPMC into the film caused a rapid increase in apparent permeability. The critical HPMC concentration was related to a minimum domain formation concentration (MDFC). A rapid increase of the drug release was observed when the dissolution profile of a sample made from a regular sugar nonpareil core (soluble) was compared with the sample made from a precoated nonpareil core (insoluble), which suggests that the drug release can be

  15. Polymer modification of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Yang, J.J.; Shreeve, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) resin is a candidate regenerable ion-exchange resin for removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Previous investigations into the structure/function relationships of R-F resin have shown that the R-F resin undergoes facile oxidation to produce para-quinones, with loss of ion-exchange sites, hence lowered performance of the resin for cesium ion-exchange. In this report, we give the results of our studies into polymer resins prepared using 4-methylresorcinol and 4-fluororesorcinol. The reaction of 4-methylresorcinol with formaldehyde formed oligomeric structures, while a mixture of 4-fluororesorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde produced a non-soluble resin in aqueous/alkaline conditions. The 4-fluororesorcinol resin underwent significant nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine substituent to give oxidized resins with lower ion-exchange performance.

  16. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  17. Iniferter-mediated grafting of molecularly imprinted polymers on porous silica beads for the enantiomeric resolution of drugs.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Climente, Raquel; Gómez-Caballero, Alberto; Halhalli, Mahadeo; Sellergren, Börje; Goicolea, M Aránzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-03-01

    A surface-imprinted chiral stationary phase for the enantiomeric resolution of the antidepressant drug, citalopram, is presented in this work. N, N'-diethylaminodithiocarbamoylpropyl(trimethoxy)silane has been used as silane iniferter for the surface functionalization of the solid silica support. A molecularly imprinted polymer thin film, in the nm scale, was then grafted on the silanized silica using itaconic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker in the presence of the template S-citalopram. The total monomer amount was calculated to obtain the desired thickness. Non-imprinted stationary phases were prepared similarly in the absence of S-citalopram. Characterization of the materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Stationary phases have been applied to the chromatographic separation of the target. Conditions for best chromatographic resolution of the enantiomers were optimized, and it was found that a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of formate buffer (40 mM, pH 3) and acetonitrile (30:70 v/v) at 40 °C provided best results. Binding behaviour of the developed material was finally assessed by batch rebinding experiments. The obtained binding isotherm was fitted to different binding models being the Freundlich-Langmuir model, the one that best fitted the experimental data. The developed material has shown high selectivity for the target enantiomer, and the stationary phase could be undoubtedly exploited for chiral separation of the drug. PMID:25683741

  18. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J

    2012-10-15

    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-). PMID:22818952

  19. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2016-10-18

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  20. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2015-03-10

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  1. Reducing the Cation Exchange Capacity of Lithium Clay to Form Better Dispersed Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites have exhibited superior strength and thermo- oxidative properties as compared to pure polymers for use in air and space craft; however, there has often been difficulty completely dispersing the clay within the matrices of the polymer. In order to improve this process, the cation exchange capacity of lithium clay is first lowered using twenty-four hour heat treatments of no heat, 130 C, 150 C, or 170 C to fixate the lithium ions within the clay layers so that they are unexchangeable. Generally, higher temperatures have generated lower cation exchange capacities. An ion exchange involving dodecylamine, octadecylamine, or dimethyl benzidine (DMBZ) is then employed to actually expand the clay galleries. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy can be used to determine whether the clay has been successfully exfoliated. Finally, resins of DMBZ with clay are then pressed into disks for characterization using dynamic mechanical analyzer and oven- aging techniques in order to evaluate their glass transition, modulus strength, and thermal-oxidative stability in comparison to neat DMBZ. In the future, they may also be tested as composites for flexural and laminar shear strength.

  2. Existence of global weak solutions to compressible isentropic finitely extensible nonlinear bead-spring chain models for dilute polymers: The two-dimensional case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, John W.; Süli, Endre

    2016-07-01

    We prove the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to a general class of models that arise from the kinetic theory of dilute solutions of nonhomogeneous polymeric liquids, where the polymer molecules are idealized as bead-spring chains with finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) type spring potentials. The class of models under consideration involves the unsteady, compressible, isentropic, isothermal Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain Ω in Rd, d = 2, for the density ρ, the velocity u ˜ and the pressure p of the fluid, with an equation of state of the form p (ρ) =cpργ, where cp is a positive constant and γ > 1. The right-hand side of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation includes an elastic extra-stress tensor, which is the classical Kramers expression. The elastic extra-stress tensor stems from the random movement of the polymer chains and is defined through the associated probability density function that satisfies a Fokker-Planck-type parabolic equation, a crucial feature of which is the presence of a centre-of-mass diffusion term. This extends the result in our paper J.W. Barrett and E. Süli (2016) [9], which established the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to the system for d ∈ { 2 , 3 } and γ >3/2, but the elastic extra-stress tensor required there the addition of a quadratic interaction term to the classical Kramers expression to complete the compactness argument on which the proof was based. We show here that in the case of d = 2 and γ > 1 the existence of global-in-time weak solutions can be proved in the absence of the quadratic interaction term. Our results require no structural assumptions on the drag term in the Fokker-Planck equation; in particular, the drag term need not be corotational. With a nonnegative initial density ρ0 ∈L∞ (Ω) for the continuity equation; a square-integrable initial velocity datum u˜0 for the Navier-Stokes momentum equation; and a nonnegative initial probability density function ψ0

  3. Spring-bead animation of viscoelastic materials.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Nobuhiko; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    An interactive animation method for viscoelastic materials builds on Rouse's spring-bead model. Particles are connected one-dimensionally by spring forces to represent single polymer chains. The method approximates the collision's force between particles through the particle density's gradient. This model lets the viscoelasticity be changed dynamically by severing the interconnection of polymer chains. PMID:18027801

  4. Alkaline degradation studies of anion exchange polymers to enable new membrane designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Sean Andrew

    Current performance targets for anion-exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells call for greater than 95% alkaline stability for 5000 hours at temperatures up to 120 °C. Using this target temperature of 120 °C, an incisive 1H NMR-based alkaline degradation method to identify the degradation products of n-alkyl spacer tetraalkylammonium cations in various AEM polymers and small molecule analogs. Herein, the degradation mechanisms and rates of benzyltrimethylammonium-, n-alkyl interstitial spacer- and n-alkyl terminal pendant-cations are studied on several architectures. These findings demonstrate that benzyltrimethylammonium- and n-alkyl terminal pendant cations are more labile than an n-alkyl interstitial spacer cation and conclude that Hofmann elimination is not the predominant mechanism of alkaline degradation. Additionally, the alkaline stability of an n-alkyl interstitial spacer cation is enhanced when combined with an n-alkyl terminal pendant. Interestingly, at 120 °C, an inverse trend was found in the overall alkaline stability of AEM poly(styrene) and AEM poly(phenylene oxide) samples than was previously shown at 80 °C. Successive small molecule studies suggest that at 120 °C, an anion-induced 1,4-elimination degradation mechanism may be activated on styrenic AEM polymers bearing an acidic alpha-hydrogen. In addition, an ATR-FTIR based method was developed to assess the alkaline stability of solid membranes and any added resistance to degradation that may be due to differential solubilities and phase separation. To increase the stability of anion exchange membranes, Oshima magnesate--halogen exchange was demonstrated as a method for the synthesis of new anion exchange membranes that typically fail in the presence of organolithium or Grignard reagents alone. This new chemistry, applied to non-resinous polymers for the first time, proved effective for the n-akyl interstitial spacer functionalization of poly(phenylene oxide) and poly(styrene- co

  5. Polymer Composites for High-Temperature Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiuling; Liu, Yuxiu; Zhu, Lei

    Recent advances in composite proton-exchange membranes for fuel cell applications at elevated temperature and low relative humidity are briefly reviewed in this chapter. Although a majority of research has focused on new sulfonated hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon polymers and their blends to directly enhance high temperature performance, we emphasize on polymer/inorganic composite membranes with the aim of improving the mechanical strength, thermal stability, and proton conductivity, which depend on water retention at elevated temperature and low relative humidity conditions. The polymer systems include perfluoronated polymers such as Nafion, sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s, polybenzimidazoles (PBI)s, and many others. The inorganic proton conductors are silica, heteropolyacids (HPA)s, layered zirconium phosphates, and liquid phosphoric acid. Direct use of sol-gel silica requires pressurization of fuel cells to maintain 100% relative humidity for high proton conductivity above 100°C. Direct incorporation of HPAs such as phosphotungstic acid (PTA) into polyelectrolyte membranes is capable of improving both proton conductivity and fuel cell performance above 100°C; however, they tend to leach out of the membrane whenever fuel cell flooding happens. To prevent HPA leaching, amine-functionalized mesoporous silica is used to immobilize PTA in Nafion membranes, whose proton conductivity and fuel cell performance are discussed. Compared with Nafion, sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s such as sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s are cost-effective materials with excellent thermal and electrochemical stability. Their composites with HPAs show increased proton conductivity at elevated temperatures when fully hydrated. Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes from acid-doped PBIs and other polymers are also discussed.

  6. The role of spin exchange in charge transfer in low-bandgap polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Krinichnyi, V. I. Yudanova, E. I.; Denisov, N. N.

    2014-07-28

    Formation, relaxation and dynamics of polarons and methanofullerene anion radicals photoinitiated in poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]:-[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC{sub 61}BM) bulk heterojunctions were studied mainly by light-induced EPR (LEPR) spectroscopy in wide photon energy and temperature ranges. Some polarons are pinned by spin traps whose number and depth are governed by the composite morphology and photon energy. The proximity of the photon energy and the polymer bandgap reduces the number of such traps, inhibits recombination of mobile charge carriers, and facilitates their mobility in polymer network. Spin relaxation and charge carrier dynamics were studied by the steady-state saturation method at wide range of temperature and photon energy. These processes were shown to be governed by spin exchange as well as by the photon energy. Charge transfer in the composite is governed by the polaron scattering on the lattice phonons of crystalline domains embedded into amorphous polymer matrix and its activation hopping between polymer layers. The energy barrier required for polaron interchain hopping exceeds that of its intrachain diffusion. Anisotropy of polaron dynamics in the PCDTBT:PC61BM composite is less than that of poly(3-alkylthiophenes)-based systems that evidences for better ordering of the former. Lorentzian shape of LEPR lines of both charge carriers, lower concentration of spin traps as well as behaviours of the main magnetic resonance parameters were explained by layer ordered morphology of polymer matrix.

  7. The role of spin exchange in charge transfer in low-bandgap polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Krinichnyi, V I; Yudanova, E I; Denisov, N N

    2014-07-28

    Formation, relaxation and dynamics of polarons and methanofullerene anion radicals photoinitiated in poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]:-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC61BM) bulk heterojunctions were studied mainly by light-induced EPR (LEPR) spectroscopy in wide photon energy and temperature ranges. Some polarons are pinned by spin traps whose number and depth are governed by the composite morphology and photon energy. The proximity of the photon energy and the polymer bandgap reduces the number of such traps, inhibits recombination of mobile charge carriers, and facilitates their mobility in polymer network. Spin relaxation and charge carrier dynamics were studied by the steady-state saturation method at wide range of temperature and photon energy. These processes were shown to be governed by spin exchange as well as by the photon energy. Charge transfer in the composite is governed by the polaron scattering on the lattice phonons of crystalline domains embedded into amorphous polymer matrix and its activation hopping between polymer layers. The energy barrier required for polaron interchain hopping exceeds that of its intrachain diffusion. Anisotropy of polaron dynamics in the PCDTBT:PC61BM composite is less than that of poly(3-alkylthiophenes)-based systems that evidences for better ordering of the former. Lorentzian shape of LEPR lines of both charge carriers, lower concentration of spin traps as well as behaviours of the main magnetic resonance parameters were explained by layer ordered morphology of polymer matrix. PMID:25084955

  8. Metal-Containing Polystyrene Beads as Standards for Mass Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C.; Tanner, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene beads for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing beads are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These beads were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the beads. Mass cytometry enabled the bead-by-bead measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. Beads synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower bead-to-bead variation in their lanthanide content than beads synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The beads exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer beads were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells. PMID:20390041

  9. Concepts for increasing gentamicin release from handmade bone cement beads

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Commercial gentamicin-loaded bone cement beads (Septopal) constitute an effective delivery system for local antibiotic therapy. These beads are not available in all parts of the world, and are too expensive for frequent use in others. Thus, orthopedic surgeons worldwide make antibiotic-loaded beads themselves. However, these beads are usually not as effective as the commercial beads because of inadequate release kinetics. Our purpose was to develop a simple, cheap, and effective formulation to prepare gentamicin-loaded beads with release properties and antibacterial efficacy similar to the commercially ones. Methods Acrylic beads were prepared with variable monomer content: 100% (500 μL/g polymer), 75%, and 50% to increase gentamicin release through creation of a less dense polymer matrix. Using the optimal monomer content, different gel-forming polymeric fillers were added to enhance the permeation of fluids into the beads. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) 17 was selected as a suitable filler; its concentration was varied and the antibiotic release and antibacterial efficacy of these beads were compared with the corresponding properties of the commercial ones. Results Gentamicin release rate and the extent of release from beads prepared with 50% monomer increased when the PVP17 content was increased. Beads with 15 w/w% PVP17 released 87% of their antibiotic content. This is substantially more than the gentamicin release from Septopal beads (59%). Acrylic beads with 15 w/w% PVP17 reduced bacterial growth by up to 93%, which is similar to the antibacterial properties of the commercial ones. Interpretation A simple, cheap, and effective formulation and preparation process has been described for hand-made gentamicin-releasing acrylic beads, with better release kinetics and with antibacterial efficacy similar to that of the commercial ones. PMID:19916680

  10. Physical Property Requirements of Ion-exchange Polymer Membranes for Acid-base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Thayer, Peter; Jorne', Jacob; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2013-03-01

    Flow batteries offer feasible solutions to grid-scale storage of intermittent power. We are developing a new type of flow battery that reversibly controls an acid-base neutralization reaction. The battery consists of two highly reversible hydrogen gas electrodes that are exposed to low and high pH process streams. A brine solution runs between the acid and base streams and is separated by cationic and anionic exchange membranes. For both charge and discharge phases, hydrogen gas is produced at one electrode and consumed at the other. During charging, an external potential is applied across the two electrodes to electrochemically produce acid and base from the fed brine solution. Discharge involves electrochemical neutralization of acid and base streams, resulting in current flow through an external load. Several charge and discharge cycles were performed to demonstrate proof of concept. Experiments were conducted to determine the physical property requirements of the ionic exchange polymer layers. Properties including ion conductivity, permselectivity, and membrane stability will be discussed.

  11. Studies on the application of temperature-responsive ion exchange polymers with whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Pankaj; Campi, Eva M; De Silva, Kirthi; Woonton, Brad W; Jackson, W Roy; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-03-18

    Several new types of temperature-responsive ion exchange resins of different polymer composition have been prepared by grafting the products from the co-polymerisation of N-phenylacrylamide, N-iso-propylacrylamide and acrylic acid derivatives onto cross-linked agarose. Analysis of the binding isotherms for these different resins obtained under batch adsorption conditions indicated that the resin based on N-iso-propylacrylamide containing 5% (w/w) N-phenylacrylamide and 5% (w/w) acrylic acid resulted in the highest adsorption capacity, Bmax, for the whey protein, bovine lactoferrin, e.g. 14 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 4 °C and 62 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 40 °C, respectively. Under dynamic loading conditions at 40 °C, 94% of the loaded bovine lactoferrin on a normalised mg protein per mL resin basis was adsorbed by this new temperature-responsive ion-exchanger, and 76% was eluted by a single cycle temperature shift to 4 °C without varying the composition of the 10mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, or the flow rate. The binding characteristics of these different ion exchange resins with bovine lactoferrin were also compared to results obtained using other resins based on N-isopropylacrylamide but contained N-tert-butylacrylamide rather than N-phenylacrylamide, where the corresponding dynamic capture and release properties for bovine lactoferrin required different temperature conditions of 20 °C and 50 °C, respectively for optimal desorption/adsorption. The cationic protein, bovine lactoperoxidase, was also adsorbed and desorbed with these temperature-responsive resins under similar conditions of changing temperature, whereas the anionic protein, bovine β-lactoglobulin, was not adsorbed under this regime of temperature conditions but instead eluted in the flow-through.

  12. Experimental and calculative estimation of femtosecond laser induced-impulsive force in culture medium solution with motion analysis of polymer micro-beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Akihiro; Uedan, Hirohisa; Iino, Takanori; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2015-03-01

    A new methodology to estimate the dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force generated into water under microscope was developed. In this method, the position shift of the bead in water before and after the femtosecond laser irradiation was investigated experimentally and compared with motion equation assuming stress wave propagation with expansion and collapse the cavitation bubble. In the process of the comparison, parameters of force and time of the stress wave were determined. From these results, dynamics of propagations of shock and stress waves, cavitation bubble generation, and these actions to micro-objects were speculated.

  13. Composite polymer membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures and reduced humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the leading candidate in the fuel cell technology due to the high power density, solid electrolyte, and low operational temperature. However, PEMFCs operating in the normal temperature range (60-80°C) face problems including poor carbon monoxide tolerance and heat rejection. The poisoning effect can be significantly relieved by operating the fuel cell at elevated temperature, which also improves the heat rejection and electrochemical kinetics. Low relative humidity (RH) operation is also desirable to simplify the reactant humidification system. However, at elevated temperatures, reduced RH PEMFC performance is seriously impaired due to irreversible water loss from presently employed state-of-the-art polymer membrane, Nafion. This thesis focuses on developing polymer electrolyte membranes with high water retention ability for operation in elevated temperature (110-150°C), reduced humidity (˜50%RH) PEMFCs. One approach is to alter Nafion by adding inorganic particles such as TiO2, SiO2, Zr(HPO 4)2, etc. While the presence of these materials in Nafion has proven beneficial, a reduction or no improvement in the PEMFC performance of Nafion/TiO2 and Nafion/Zr(HPO4)2 membranes is observed with reduced particle sizes or increased particle loadings in Nafion. It is concluded that the PEMFC performance enhancement associated with addition of these inorganic particles was not due to the particle hydrophilicity. Rather, the particle, partially located in the hydrophobic region of the membrane, benefits the cell performance by altering the membrane structure. Water transport properties of some Nafion composite membranes were investigated by NMR methods including pulsed field gradient spin echo diffusion, spin-lattice relaxation, and spectral measurements. Compared to unmodified Nafion, composite membranes materials exhibit longer longitudinal relaxation time constant T1. In addition to the Nafion material, sulfonated styrene

  14. Measurement of the lateral diffusion of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine adsorbed on silica beads in the absence and presence of melittin: a 31P two-dimensional exchange solid-state NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, F; Paquet, M J; Dufourc, E J; Auger, M

    1998-01-01

    31P two-dimensional exchange solid-state NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the lateral diffusion, D(L), in the fluid phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence and absence of melittin. The use of a spherical solid support with a radius of 320 +/- 20 nm, on which lipids and peptides are adsorbed together, and a novel way of analyzing the two-dimensional exchange patterns afforded a narrow distribution of D(L) centered at a value of (8.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(-8) cm2/s for the pure lipid system and a large distribution of D(L) spanning 1 x 10(-8) to 10 x 10(-8) cm2/s for the lipids in the presence of melittin. In addition, the determination of D(L) for nonsupported DPPC multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) suggests that the support does not slow down the lipid diffusion and that the radii of the bilayers vary from 300 to 800 nm. Finally, the DPPC-melittin complex is stabilized at the surface of the silica beads in the gel phase, opening the way to further study of the interaction between melittin and DPPC. PMID:9533697

  15. Path Integral Coarse-Graining Replica Exchange Method for Enhanced Sampling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuxing; Cao, Zhen; Zhou, Ruhong; Voth, Gregory A

    2014-09-01

    An enhanced conformational space sampling method is developed that utilizes replica exchange molecular dynamics between a set of imaginary time Feynman path integral replicas, each having an increasing degree of contraction (or coarse-graining) of the quasi-particle or "polymer beads" in the evaluation of the isomorphic ring-polymer potential energy terms. However, there is no contraction of beads in the effectively harmonic kinetic energy terms. The final replica in this procedure is the fully contracted one in which the potential energy is evaluated only at the centroid of the beads-and hence it is the classical distribution in the centroid variable-while the initial replica has the full degree (or even a heightened degree, if desired) of quantum delocalization and tunneling in the physical potential by the polymer necklace beads. The exchange between the different ring-polymer ensembles is governed by the Metropolis criteria to guarantee detailed balance. The method is applied successfully to several model systems, ranging from one-dimensional prototype rough energy landscape models having analytical solutions to the more realistic alanine dipeptide. A detailed comparison with the classical temperature-based replica exchange method shows an improved efficiency of this new method in the classical conformational space sampling due to coupling with the fictitious path integral (quantum) replicas. PMID:26588508

  16. Influence of Hydration Level on Polymer and Water Dynamics in Alkaline Anion Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Jacob; Kim, Jenny; Tyagi, Madhu; Soles, Christopher; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Coughlin, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    Triblock copolymers based on poly(chloromethylstyrene)-b-poly(ethylene)-b-poly(chloromethylstyrene) can be quaternized to different extents to yield anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. In the absence of moisture, these membranes demonstrate bilayer lamellar morphology. Upon high levels of hydration, however, in-situ small angle neutron scattering reveals the emergence of higher-order diffraction peaks. This phenomena has previously been observed in analogous diblock copolymer-based membranes and has been attributed to the induction of a multilayer lamellar morphology in which selective striping of water occurs in the center of the ion-rich domain. By conducting humidity-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements using deuterated water, we are able to isolate differences in the pico- to nanosecond timescale dynamics of the hydrogenated membrane upon hydration. QENS measurements in the presence of a hydrogenated water source subsequently permit deconvolution and isolation of the translational and rotational dynamics of water as a function of relative humidity, revealing spatial and temporal changes in polymer and water motion at high levels of hydration.

  17. Morphology and microtopology of cation-exchange polymers and the origin of the overlimiting current.

    PubMed

    Balster, J; Yildirim, M H; Stamatialis, D F; Ibanez, R; Lammertink, R G H; Jordan, V; Wessling, M

    2007-03-01

    In electrodialysis desalination processes, the operating current density is limited by concentration polarization. In contrast to other membrane processes such as ultrafiltration, in electrodialysis, current transport above the limiting current is possible. In this work, the origin of the overlimiting current at cation-exchange polymers is investigated. We show that, under certain experimental conditions, electroconvection is the origin of the overlimiting conductance. The theory concerning electroconvection predicts a shortening of the plateau length of membranes with increased conductive or geometrical heterogeneity. We investigate the influence of these two parameters and show that the creation of line undulations on the membrane surface normal to the flow direction, having distances in the range of approximately 50-200% of the boundary-layer thickness, lead to an earlier onset of the overlimiting current. The plateau length of the undulated membranes is reduced by up to 60% compared to that of a flat membrane. These results verify the existence of electroconvection as a mechanism destabilizing the laminar boundary layer at the liquid-membrane interface and causing ionic transport above the limiting current density.

  18. Permethyl Cobaltocenium (Cp*2Co+) as an Ultra-Stable Cation for Polymer Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Kaspar, Robert B.; Fang, Qianrong; Zhang, Bingzi; Bryan Coughlin, E.; Yan, Yushan

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxide (OH-)-exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes enabling the use of affordable and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy-conversion devices such as HEM fuel cells, HEM electrolyzers, and HEM solar hydrogen generators. Many HEM cations exist, featuring desirable properties, but new cations are still needed to increase chemical stability at elevated temperatures. Here we introduce the permethyl cobaltocenium [(C5Me5)2Co(III)+ or Cp*2Co+] as an ultra-stable organic cation for polymer HEMs. Compared with the parent cobaltocenium [(C5H5)2Co(III)+ or Cp2Co+], Cp*2Co+ has substantially higher stability and basicity. With polysulfone as an example, we demonstrated the feasibility of covalently linking Cp*2Co+ cation to polymer backbone and prepared Cp*2Co+-functionalized membranes as well. The new cation may be useful in designing more durable HEM electrochemical devices.

  19. Permethyl Cobaltocenium (Cp*2Co+) as an Ultra-Stable Cation for Polymer Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Kaspar, Robert B; Fang, Qianrong; Zhang, Bingzi; Bryan Coughlin, E; Yan, Yushan

    2015-06-29

    Hydroxide (OH(-))-exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes enabling the use of affordable and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy-conversion devices such as HEM fuel cells, HEM electrolyzers, and HEM solar hydrogen generators. Many HEM cations exist, featuring desirable properties, but new cations are still needed to increase chemical stability at elevated temperatures. Here we introduce the permethyl cobaltocenium [(C5Me5)2Co(III)(+) or Cp(*)2Co(+)] as an ultra-stable organic cation for polymer HEMs. Compared with the parent cobaltocenium [(C5H5)2Co(III)(+) or Cp2Co(+)], Cp(*)2Co(+) has substantially higher stability and basicity. With polysulfone as an example, we demonstrated the feasibility of covalently linking Cp(*)2Co(+) cation to polymer backbone and prepared Cp(*)2Co(+)-functionalized membranes as well. The new cation may be useful in designing more durable HEM electrochemical devices.

  20. Permethyl Cobaltocenium (Cp*2Co+) as an Ultra-Stable Cation for Polymer Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Kaspar, Robert B.; Fang, Qianrong; Zhang, Bingzi; Bryan Coughlin, E.; Yan, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxide (OH−)-exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes enabling the use of affordable and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy-conversion devices such as HEM fuel cells, HEM electrolyzers, and HEM solar hydrogen generators. Many HEM cations exist, featuring desirable properties, but new cations are still needed to increase chemical stability at elevated temperatures. Here we introduce the permethyl cobaltocenium [(C5Me5)2Co(III)+ or Cp*2Co+] as an ultra-stable organic cation for polymer HEMs. Compared with the parent cobaltocenium [(C5H5)2Co(III)+ or Cp2Co+], Cp*2Co+ has substantially higher stability and basicity. With polysulfone as an example, we demonstrated the feasibility of covalently linking Cp*2Co+ cation to polymer backbone and prepared Cp*2Co+-functionalized membranes as well. The new cation may be useful in designing more durable HEM electrochemical devices. PMID:26119573

  1. Anion exchange polymer coated graphite granule electrodes for improving the performance of anodes in unbuffered microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Dengfeng; Mao, Xuhui; Yu, Eileen Hao; Scott, Keith; Zhang, Enren; Wang, Dihua

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, graphite granule composite electrodes are prepared for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by coating commercial graphite granules with the mixture of quaternary DABCO polysulfone or Nafion ion exchange polymer and carbon black. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) suggest that the addition of carbon black could significantly improve the electrical conductivity of graphite granule anodes. When phosphate buffer solution (PBS) is replaced by NaCl solution, the current densities of the pristine anode, 0.08 g Nafion coated anode and 0.16 g QDPSU coated anode decrease by 52.6%, 20.6% and 10.3% at -0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. The solution resistance of ion exchange polymer coated anodes is more stable in comparison with that of pristine anode. After 40 operational days, the performance drop of 0.16 g QDPSU coated anode when switching the solution from PBS to NaCl is still smaller than that of pristine anode. However, 0.08 g Nafion coated anode shows the similar performance in NaCl solution to the pristine anode after long term operation. This study reveals that QDPSU anion exchange polymer is more suitable for the anode modification. The QDPSU coated anode promises a great potential for three-dimensional anode based MFCs to treat domestic wastewater.

  2. To bead or not to bead.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Mark E

    2003-01-01

    To bead or not to bead, that is the question posed by Ito et al. in this issue of the Journal of Immunotherapy. The generation of tumor-reactive T cells remains a major impediment to the wider application of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy for the treatment of patients with cancer. Ito et al. used lymph nodes of mice draining implanted sarcomas as an enriched source of tumor antigen-specific cells. They investigated the ex vivo activation of the lymph node cells by artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) for the production of therapeutic T cell cultures. The optimal aAPC consisted of magnetic beads coated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Short-term ex vivo culture with the aAPCs led to a selective expansion and/or activation of tumor antigen specific CD4+ cells. These results lay a solid foundation for the clinical application of bead-based T cell activation, and promote efforts to develop the therapeutic strategy of in vivo immunization, ex vivo T cell activation, and adoptive cell transfer. PMID:12806272

  3. Conducting polymer-coated corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Shine

    2005-11-01

    Concerns over depleting stocks of natural resources and a growing awareness of the environmental damage caused by widespread burning of fossil fuels, and more energy demands brought the idea of alternative energy systems. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are one of the fast growing alternative energy technologies. PEM fuel cells generate electricity from an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen and produce electricity, a small amount of heat and water and therefore, they are environmentally friendly. Fuel cells are more efficient than internal combustion engines and operate continuously as long as fuel is supplied from an external tank. Fuel cells in stacks are used for most applications because the current output of a PEM fuel cell is around 0.3--0.5 A/cm2. In fuel cell stacks, bipolar plates combine two cells in series with anode and cathode of adjacent cells. The main functions of bipolar plates are electron and gas transport. Bipolar plates are major components in weight and volume of the PEM fuel cell stack and are a significant contributor to the stack cost. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density is to increase and cost to come down. Bipolar plate material should be corrosion resistant, conductive, gas impermeable, light weight (mobile applications) and economical. Graphite plates are used for bipolar plate applications but they are expensive, are brittle to make in thin plates with gas channels on sides, have high manufacturing cost and are gas permeable if too thin. Metals are preferable for bipolar plate application because of better mechanical properties, higher electrical conductivity, lower gas permeability and low cost. In this work Al 6061 and 304 stainless steel alloys are the materials selected for bipolar plates. These metals form non-conductive surface oxides in a PEM fuel cell environment and cause a high contact resistance. This internal resistance lowers the efficiency of PEM fuel cell system. In

  4. Central metal ion exchange in a coordination polymer based on lanthanide ions and di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid: exchange rate and tunable affinity.

    PubMed

    Tasaki-Handa, Yuiko; Abe, Yukie; Ooi, Kenta; Tanaka, Mikiya; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the exchange of lanthanide(III) ions (Ln(3+)) between a solution and a coordination polymer (CP) of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (Hdehp), [Ln(dehp)3], is studied. Kinetic and selectivity studies suggest that a polymeric network of [Ln(dehp)3] has different characteristics than the corresponding monomeric complex. The reaction rate is remarkably slow and requires over 600 h to reach in nearly equilibrium, and this can be explained by the polymeric crystalline structure and high valency of Ln(3+). The affinity of the exchange reaction reaches a maximum with the Ln(3+) possessing an ionic radius 7% smaller than that of the central Ln(3+), therefore, the affinity of the [Ln(dehp)3] is tunable based on the choice of the central metal ion. Such unique affinity, which differs from the monomeric complex, can be explained by two factors: the coordination preference and steric strain caused by the polymeric structure. The latter likely becomes predominant for Ln(3+) exchange when the ionic radius of the ion in solution is smaller than the original Ln(3+) by more than 7%. Structural studies suggest that the incoming Ln(3+) forms a new phase though an exchange reaction, and this could plausibly cause the structural strain.

  5. Performance of a square, cross-corrugated, polymer film, compact, heat-exchanger with potential application in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheed, L.; Jachuck, R. J. J.

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the performance characteristics of a novel, cross-corrugated, polymer film, compact, heat-exchanger (PFCHE) made from poly ether ether ketone (PEEK). The aim is to develop Jh and f correlations over a range of Reynolds numbers under laminar conditions to be used in alternative heat-exchanger designs for potential applications in the fuel-cell industry. The incentive for adopting these designs is the huge weight, energy and cost savings involved. Design correlations for square units are key tools in obtaining alternative designs for applications that are presently monopolized by metallic heat-exchangers. The design correlations are establised and then used to perform case studies in selected applications in the fuel-cell industry to suit the fluids and the configuration.

  6. Highly conductive epoxy/graphite polymer composite bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ling

    In this work, highly conductive carbon-filled epoxy composites were developed for manufacturing bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These composites were prepared by solution intercalation mixing, followed by compression molding and curing. The in-plane and through-plane electrical conductivity, thermal and mechanical properties, gas barrier properties, and hygrothermal characteristics were determined as a function of carbon-filler type and content. For this purpose, expanded graphite and carbon black were used as a synergistic combination. Mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic epoxy resin were used as the polymer matrix to capitalize on the ductility of the aliphatic epoxy and chemical stability of the aromatic epoxy. The composites showed high glass transition temperatures (Tg ˜ 180°C), high thermal degradation temperatures (T2˜ 415°C), and in-plane conductivity of 200-500 S/cm with carbon fillers as low as 50 wt%. These composites also showed strong mechanical properties, such as flexural modulus, flexural strength, and impact strength, which either met or exceeded the targets. In addition, these composites showed excellent thermal conductivity greater than 50 W/m/K, small values of linear coefficient of thermal expansion, and dramatically reduced oxygen permeation rate. The values of mechanical and thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the composites did not change upon exposure to boiling water, aqueous sulfuric acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution, indicating that the composites provided long-term reliability and durability under PEM fuel cell operating conditions. Experimental data show that the composites developed in this study are suitable for application as bipolar plates in PEM fuel cells.

  7. Design and Development of Highly Sulfonated Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes for High Temperature Fuel Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Thuy D.; Bai, Zongwu; Yoonessi, Mitra

    A series of high molecular weight, highly sulfonated poly(arylenethioethersulfone) (SPTES) polymers were synthesized by polycondensation, which allowed controlled sulfonation of up to 100 mol %. The SPTES polymers were prepared via step growth polymerization of sulfonated aromatic difluorosulfone, aromatic difluorosulfone, and 4,4 '-thiobisbenzenthiol in sulfolane solvent at the temperature up to 180 °C. The composition and incorporation of the sulfonated repeat unit into the polymers were confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Solubility tests on the SPTES polymers confirmed that no cross-linking and probably no branching occurred during the polymerizations. The end-capping groups were introduced in the SPTES polymers to control the molecular weight distribution and reduce the water solubility of the polymers. Tough, ductile membranes formed via solvent-casting exhibited increased water absorption with increasing degrees of sulfonation. The polymerizations conducted with the introduction of end-capping groups resulted in a wide variation in polymer proton conductivity, which spanned a range of 100 -300 mS cm-1, measured at 65 °C and 85 % relative humidity. The measured proton conductivities at elevated temperatures and high relative humidities are up to three times higher than that of the state-of-the-art Nafion-H proton exchange membrane under nearly comparable conditions. The thermal and mechanical properties of the SPTES polymers were investigated by TGA, DMA, and tensile measurements. The SPTES polymers show high glass transition temperatures (Tg), ˜220 °C, depending on the degree of sulfonation in polymerization. SPTES-50 polymer shows a Tg of 223 °C, with high tensile modulus, high tensile strengths at break and at yield as well as elongation at break. Wide angle X-ray scattering of the polymers shows two broad scattering features centered at 4.5 Å and 3.3 Å, the latter peak being

  8. Problems encountered for food safety with polymer packages: chemical exchange, recycling.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, J M

    1998-11-13

    When a polymer is in contact with a liquid, generally some matter transfers take place: the liquid enters the polymer, while some additives leave the polymer. This fact is responsible for a reduction in the properties of the polymer and pollution of the liquid food is obtained. However, it is sure that, on account of their outstanding properties, food packages are becoming more and more based on polymers. The process of mass transfers is controlled by transient diffusion, and these theoretical problems are so complex that only numerical models are able to resolve them. New difficult problems appear with the desire of recycling old food packages made of polymers by reusing them as new food packages. Of course, because of the potential contamination brought with this recycled polymer, the package is made of bi-layer or tri-layer films where the reused polymer is located between two virgin polymer layers. As it takes some time for the contaminant to diffuse through the virgin layer, this latter plays the role of a functional barrier to pollution. The various difficulties in the whole problem are considered in succession: the coextrusion of the films where a contaminant transfer already occurs; and the effect of the liquid food which may enhance the diffusion of the contaminant. Various master curves are drawn by using dimensionless numbers, so as to make the results quite general and of use from a practical point of view.

  9. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  10. Partitioning of mobile ions between ion exchange polymers and aqueous salt solutions: importance of counter-ion condensation.

    PubMed

    Kamcev, Jovan; Galizia, Michele; Benedetti, Francesco M; Jang, Eui-Soung; Paul, Donald R; Freeman, Benny D; Manning, Gerald S

    2016-02-17

    Equilibrium partitioning of ions between a membrane and a contiguous external solution strongly influences transport properties of polymeric membranes used for water purification and energy generation applications. This study presents a theoretical framework to quantitatively predict ion sorption from aqueous electrolytes (e.g., NaCl, MgCl2) into charged (i.e., ion exchange) polymers. The model was compared with experimental NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 sorption data in commercial cation and anion exchange membranes. Ion sorption in charged polymers was modeled using a thermodynamic approach based on Donnan theory coupled with Manning's counter-ion condensation theory to describe non-ideal behavior of ions in the membrane. Ion activity coefficients in solution were calculated using the Pitzer model. The resulting model, with no adjustable parameters, provides remarkably good agreement with experimental values of membrane mobile salt concentration. The generality of the model was further demonstrated using literature data for ion sorption of various electrolytes in charged polymers, including HCl sorption in Nafion. PMID:26840776

  11. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release calcium alginate beads and matrix tablets of acetazolamide.

    PubMed

    Barzegar-Jalali, M; Hanaee, J; Omidi, Y; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Ziaee, S; Bairami-Atashgah, R; Adibkia, K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained release dosage forms of acetazolamide (ACZ) preparing its calcium alginate beads and matrix tablets. ACZ was incorporated into calcium alginate beads using microencapsulation method. Two methods were applied to prolong ACZ release rate. In the first method, the drug was incorporated into calcium alginate beads either alone or with various polymers in internal phase. The second method involved the preparation of matrix tablet from the beads benefiting direct compression method with or without various polymers in external phase. The release rate of these prepared formulations and an innovator's sustained-release capsule (Diamox®) were assessed. In-vitro dissolution studies revealed that the matrix tablets prepared by the second method containing NaCMC could sustain ACZ release properly and the drug released until 9 h. It was also found that several parameters such as concentration of sodium alginate, calcium chloride and ACZ; type and concentration of polymers; syringe needle size as well as distance between needle tip and surface of the calcium chloride could affect the properties of beads, matrix tablets and subsequently release profile. Preparation of polymer free beads, incorporation of polymers in internal phase of the beads and direct compression of the beads did not give sustained release property. Whereas, incorporation of NaCMC in the external phase of the beads in matrix tablets or in combination with alginate powder in directly compressed conventional tablets could produce dosage form with sustained release property similar to reference formulation. PMID:23447074

  12. Bead-rod-spring models in random flows.

    PubMed

    Plan, Emmanuel Lance Christopher Vi Medillo; Ali, Aamir; Vincenzi, Dario

    2016-08-01

    Bead-rod-spring models are the foundation of the kinetic theory of polymer solutions. We derive the diffusion equation for the probability density function of the configuration of a general bead-rod-spring model in short-correlated Gaussian random flows. Under isotropic conditions, we solve this equation analytically for the elastic rhombus model introduced by Curtiss, Bird, and Hassager [Adv. Chem. Phys. 35, 31 (1976)]. PMID:27627227

  13. Bead-rod-spring models in random flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plan, Emmanuel Lance Christopher Medillo, VI; Ali, Aamir; Vincenzi, Dario

    2016-08-01

    Bead-rod-spring models are the foundation of the kinetic theory of polymer solutions. We derive the diffusion equation for the probability density function of the configuration of a general bead-rod-spring model in short-correlated Gaussian random flows. Under isotropic conditions, we solve this equation analytically for the elastic rhombus model introduced by Curtiss, Bird, and Hassager [Adv. Chem. Phys. 35, 31 (1976)].

  14. Self-Assembly-Driven Electrospinning: The Transition from Fibers to Intact Beaded Morphologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linge; Topham, Paul D; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Yu, Hao; Ryan, Anthony J; Fairclough, J Patrick A; Bras, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Polymer beads have attracted considerable interest for use in catalysis, drug delivery, and photonics due to their particular shape and surface morphology. Electrospinning, typically used for producing nanofibers, can also be used to fabricate polymer beads if the solution has a sufficiently low concentration. In this work, a novel approach for producing more uniform, intact beads is presented by electrospinning self-assembled block copolymer (BCP) solutions. This approach allows a relatively high polymer concentration to be used, yet with a low degree of entanglement between polymer chains due to microphase separation of the BCP in a selective solvent system. Herein, to demonstrate the technology, a well-studied polystyrene-poly(ethylene butylene)-polystyrene triblock copolymer is dissolved in a co-solvent system. The effect of solvent composition on the characteristics of the fibers and beads is intensively studied, and the mechanism of this fiber-to-bead is found to be dependent on microphase separation of the BCP.

  15. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications. PMID:26316179

  16. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications.

  17. Olefin metathesis for effective polymer healing via dynamic exchange of strong carbon-carbon bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Zhibin; Lu, Yixuan

    2015-09-15

    A method of preparing a malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material is provided. The method includes providing a polymeric or composite material comprising at least one alkene-containing polymer, combining the polymer with at least one homogeneous or heterogeneous transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst to form a polymeric or composite material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction on the polymer so as to form reversible carbon-carbon double bonds in the polymer. Also provided is a method of healing a fractured surface of a polymeric material. The method includes bringing a fractured surface of a first polymeric material into contact with a second polymeric material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction in the presence of a transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst such that the first polymeric material forms reversible carbon-carbon double bonds with the second polymeric material. Compositions comprising malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material are also provided.

  18. Nanofibrous polymeric beads from aramid fibers for efficient bilirubin removal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Luo, Jiyue; Nie, Chuanxiong; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2016-08-16

    Polymer based hemoperfusion has been developed as an effective therapy to remove the extra bilirubin from patients. However, the currently applied materials suffer from either low removal efficiency or poor blood compatibility. In this study, we report the development of a new class of nanofibrous absorbent that exhibited high bilirubin removal efficiency and good blood compatibility. The Kevlar nanofiber was prepared by dissolving micron-sized Kevlar fiber in proper solvent, and the beads were prepared by dropping Kevlar nanofiber solutions into ethanol. Owing to the nanofiborous structure of the Kevlar nanofiber, the beads displayed porous structures and large specific areas, which would facilitate the adsorption of toxins. In the adsorption test, it was noticed that the beads possessed an adsorption capacity higher than 40 mg g(-1) towards bilirubin. In plasma mimetic solutions, the beads still showed high bilirubin removal efficiency. Furthermore, after incorporating with carbon nanotubes, the beads were found to have increased adsorption capacity for human degradation waste. Moreover, the beads showed excellent blood compatibility in terms of a low hemolysis ratio, prolonged clotting times, suppressed coagulant activation, limited platelet activation, and inhibited blood related inflammatory activation. Additionally, the beads showed good compatibility with endothelial cells. In general, the Kevlar nanofiber beads, which integrated with high adsorption capacity, good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity, may have great potential for hemoperfusion and some other applications in biomedical fields. PMID:27481656

  19. Nanofibrous polymeric beads from aramid fibers for efficient bilirubin removal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Luo, Jiyue; Nie, Chuanxiong; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2016-08-16

    Polymer based hemoperfusion has been developed as an effective therapy to remove the extra bilirubin from patients. However, the currently applied materials suffer from either low removal efficiency or poor blood compatibility. In this study, we report the development of a new class of nanofibrous absorbent that exhibited high bilirubin removal efficiency and good blood compatibility. The Kevlar nanofiber was prepared by dissolving micron-sized Kevlar fiber in proper solvent, and the beads were prepared by dropping Kevlar nanofiber solutions into ethanol. Owing to the nanofiborous structure of the Kevlar nanofiber, the beads displayed porous structures and large specific areas, which would facilitate the adsorption of toxins. In the adsorption test, it was noticed that the beads possessed an adsorption capacity higher than 40 mg g(-1) towards bilirubin. In plasma mimetic solutions, the beads still showed high bilirubin removal efficiency. Furthermore, after incorporating with carbon nanotubes, the beads were found to have increased adsorption capacity for human degradation waste. Moreover, the beads showed excellent blood compatibility in terms of a low hemolysis ratio, prolonged clotting times, suppressed coagulant activation, limited platelet activation, and inhibited blood related inflammatory activation. Additionally, the beads showed good compatibility with endothelial cells. In general, the Kevlar nanofiber beads, which integrated with high adsorption capacity, good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity, may have great potential for hemoperfusion and some other applications in biomedical fields.

  20. Elaboration of voltage and ion exchange stimuli-responsive conducting polymers with selective switchable liquid-repellency.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Sabri; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2014-05-28

    In this work, we report the possibility to selectively switch by voltage and anion exchange the water-repellent properties, in comparison with the oil-repellent properties, of copolymers containing both fluorinated chain (EDOT-F8) and pyridinium (EDOT-Py(+)) moieties. Here, the fluorinated chains are necessary to reach superhydrophobic properties while the pyridinium moieties allow the switching in the wettability by counterion exchange. Because, conducting polymers can exist in their oxidized and reduced state, here, we report also the switching of their wettability by voltage. The best properties (superhydrophobic properties with low hysteresis and sliding and good oleophobic properties) are obtained for a % of EDOT-Py(+) of 25 %. Surprisingly, by reducing the polymer by changing the voltage, a selective decrease in the contact angle of water is observed, whereas that of oils (diiodomethane and hexadecane) remain unchanged, making it possible to have higher contact angles with diiodomethane than with water. Here, the switching in the wettability is due to the change of the water droplet from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state by changing the voltage. Because of the presence of highly polar pyridinium groups and their perchlorate counterions, the wettability of oil droplets (diiodomethane and hexadecane) is not significantly affected. This effect is confirmed by changing the counterions with highly hydrophobic ones (C8F17SO3(-), Tf2N(-), or BF4(-)). Such materials are excellent candidates for oil/water separation membranes. PMID:24819631

  1. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in PDMS by surface patterning of perfluorinated ion-exchange resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yong-Ak; Batista, Candy; Sarpeshkar, Rahul; Han, Jongyoon

    In this paper we demonstrate a simple and rapid fabrication method for a microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which has become the de facto standard material in BioMEMS. Instead of integrating a Nafion sheet film between two layers of a PDMS device in a traditional "sandwich format," we pattern a perfluorinated ion-exchange resin such as a Nafion resin on a glass substrate using a reversibly bonded PDMS microchannel to generate an ion-selective membrane between the fuel-cell electrodes. After this patterning step, the assembly of the microfluidic fuel cell is accomplished by simple oxygen plasma bonding between the PDMS chip and the glass substrate. In an example implementation, the planar PEM microfluidic fuel cell generates an open circuit voltage of 600-800 mV and delivers a maximum current output of nearly 4 μA. To enhance the power output of the fuel cell we utilize self-assembled colloidal arrays as a support matrix for the Nafion resin. Such arrays allow us to increase the thickness of the ion-selective membrane to 20 μm and increase the current output by 166%. Our novel fabrication method enables rapid prototyping of microfluidic fuel cells to study various ion-exchange resins for the polymer electrolyte membrane. Our work will facilitate the development of miniature, implantable, on-chip power sources for biomedical applications.

  2. Elaboration of voltage and ion exchange stimuli-responsive conducting polymers with selective switchable liquid-repellency.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Sabri; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2014-05-28

    In this work, we report the possibility to selectively switch by voltage and anion exchange the water-repellent properties, in comparison with the oil-repellent properties, of copolymers containing both fluorinated chain (EDOT-F8) and pyridinium (EDOT-Py(+)) moieties. Here, the fluorinated chains are necessary to reach superhydrophobic properties while the pyridinium moieties allow the switching in the wettability by counterion exchange. Because, conducting polymers can exist in their oxidized and reduced state, here, we report also the switching of their wettability by voltage. The best properties (superhydrophobic properties with low hysteresis and sliding and good oleophobic properties) are obtained for a % of EDOT-Py(+) of 25 %. Surprisingly, by reducing the polymer by changing the voltage, a selective decrease in the contact angle of water is observed, whereas that of oils (diiodomethane and hexadecane) remain unchanged, making it possible to have higher contact angles with diiodomethane than with water. Here, the switching in the wettability is due to the change of the water droplet from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state by changing the voltage. Because of the presence of highly polar pyridinium groups and their perchlorate counterions, the wettability of oil droplets (diiodomethane and hexadecane) is not significantly affected. This effect is confirmed by changing the counterions with highly hydrophobic ones (C8F17SO3(-), Tf2N(-), or BF4(-)). Such materials are excellent candidates for oil/water separation membranes.

  3. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  4. Exposing Differences in Monomer Exchange Rates of Multicomponent Supramolecular Polymers in Water.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew B; Gosens, Ronald P J; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Matsumoto, Nicholas M; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-02-01

    The formation of multicomponent and bioactive supramolecular polymers is a promising strategy for the formation of biomaterials that match the dynamic and responsive nature of biological systems. In order to fully realize the potential of this strategy, knowledge of the location and behavior of bioactive components within the system is crucial. By employing synthetic strategies to create multifunctional monomers, coupled with FRET and STORM techniques, we have investigated the formation and behavior of a bioactive and multicomponent supramolecular polymer. By creating a peptide-dye-monomer conjugate, we were able to measure high degrees of monomer incorporation and to visualize the equal distribution of monomers within the supramolecular polymer. Furthermore, by tracking the movement of monomers, we uncovered small differences in the dynamics of the bioactive monomers. PMID:26603687

  5. Microchannel liquid-flow focusing and cryo-polymerization preparation of supermacroporous cryogel beads for bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Junxian; Tu, Changming; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Xu, Linhong; Guo, Yantao; Shen, Shaochuan; Zhang, Songhong; Yao, Kejian; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-07-20

    Polymeric cryogels are sponge-like materials with supermacroporous structure, allowing them to be of interest as new chromatographic supports, cell scaffolds and drug carriers in biological and biomedical areas. The matrices of cryogels are always prepared in the form of monoliths by cryo-polymerization under frozen conditions. However, there are limited investigations on the production of cryogels in the form of adsorbent beads suitable for bioseparation. In this work, we provide a new approach by combining the microchannel liquid-flow focusing with cryo-polymerization for the preparation of polyacrylamide-based supermacroporous cryogel beads with a narrow particle size distribution. The present method was achieved by introducing the aqueous phase solution containing monomer, cross-linker and redox initiators, and the water-immiscible organic oil phase containing surfactant simultaneously into a microchannel with a cross-shaped junction, where the aqueous drops with uniform sizes were generated by the liquid shearing and the segmentation due to the steady flow focusing of the immiscible phase streams. These liquid drops were in situ suspended into the freezing bulk oil phase for cryo-polymerization and the cryogel matrix beads were obtained by thawing after the achievement of polymerization. By grafting the polymer chains containing sulfo binding groups onto these matrix beads, the cation-exchange cryogel beads for protein separation were produced. The results showed that at the aqueous phase velocities from 0.5 to 2.0 cm/s and the total velocities of the water-immiscible phase from 2.0 to 6.0 cm/s, the obtained cryogel beads by the present method have narrow size distributions with most of the bead diameters in the range from 800 to 1500 μm with supermacropores in sizes of about 3-50 μm. These beads also have high porosities with the averaged maximum porosity of 96.9% and the mean effective porosity of 86.2%, which are close to those of the polyacrylamide

  6. Microchannel liquid-flow focusing and cryo-polymerization preparation of supermacroporous cryogel beads for bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Junxian; Tu, Changming; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Xu, Linhong; Guo, Yantao; Shen, Shaochuan; Zhang, Songhong; Yao, Kejian; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-07-20

    Polymeric cryogels are sponge-like materials with supermacroporous structure, allowing them to be of interest as new chromatographic supports, cell scaffolds and drug carriers in biological and biomedical areas. The matrices of cryogels are always prepared in the form of monoliths by cryo-polymerization under frozen conditions. However, there are limited investigations on the production of cryogels in the form of adsorbent beads suitable for bioseparation. In this work, we provide a new approach by combining the microchannel liquid-flow focusing with cryo-polymerization for the preparation of polyacrylamide-based supermacroporous cryogel beads with a narrow particle size distribution. The present method was achieved by introducing the aqueous phase solution containing monomer, cross-linker and redox initiators, and the water-immiscible organic oil phase containing surfactant simultaneously into a microchannel with a cross-shaped junction, where the aqueous drops with uniform sizes were generated by the liquid shearing and the segmentation due to the steady flow focusing of the immiscible phase streams. These liquid drops were in situ suspended into the freezing bulk oil phase for cryo-polymerization and the cryogel matrix beads were obtained by thawing after the achievement of polymerization. By grafting the polymer chains containing sulfo binding groups onto these matrix beads, the cation-exchange cryogel beads for protein separation were produced. The results showed that at the aqueous phase velocities from 0.5 to 2.0 cm/s and the total velocities of the water-immiscible phase from 2.0 to 6.0 cm/s, the obtained cryogel beads by the present method have narrow size distributions with most of the bead diameters in the range from 800 to 1500 μm with supermacropores in sizes of about 3-50 μm. These beads also have high porosities with the averaged maximum porosity of 96.9% and the mean effective porosity of 86.2%, which are close to those of the polyacrylamide

  7. Mineralization of monodispersed CdS nanoparticles on polyelectrolyte superstructure forming an electroluminescent "necklace-of-beads".

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Vivek; Saraf, Ravi F

    2006-10-10

    We report a nonmicellar method to synthesize monodisperse semiconducting nanoparticles templated on polymer chains dissolved in solution at high yield. The monodispersity is achieved due to the beaded necklace morphology of the polyelectrolyte chains in solution where the beads are nanometer-scale nodules in the polymer chain. The resultant structure is a nanoparticles studded necklace where the particles are imbedded in the beads. Multiple cycles of synthesis on the polymer template yield nanoparticles of identical size, resulting in a nanocomposite with high particle fraction. The resultant nanocomposite has beaded-fibrilar morphology with imbedded nanoparticles and can be solution-casted to make electroluminescent thin film device. PMID:17014094

  8. Novel tentacle-type polymer stationary phase grafted with anion exchange polymer chains for open tubular CEC of nucleosides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Cemil; Çetin, Kemal; Denizli, Adil

    2014-08-01

    A novel and simple method for preparation of a tentacle-type polymer stationary phase grafted with polyethyleneimine (PEI) anion exchanger was developed for open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) of nucleosides and proteins. The polymeric stationary phase was prepared using 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA-Cl)-based reactive monomer. The preparation procedure included pretreatment of the capillary inner wall, silanization, in situ graft polymerization with HPMA-Cl and PEI modification. To compare with the tentacle-type capillary column with PEI functionalization, a monolayer capillary column without PEI functionalization was also prepared. The electrochromatographic characterization of the prepared open tubular column was performed using alkylbenzenes. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) with regard to PEI concentrations and the running buffer pH was investigated. The separation conditions of the nucleosides and the proteins were optimized. The modified tentacle-type column with high anion exchange capacity has proven to afford better retention and resolution for the separation of nucleosides and proteins. The PEI functionalization column can also provide long-term stable use for biomolecule separation using a single capillary with relative standard deviation values of retention times of less than 2%. The results indicate that the present method for open tubular capillary preparation with a HPMA-Cl-based reactive monomer is promising for OT-CEC biomolecule separation.

  9. Bead-Dazzled Baskets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used when teaching about North American Indians to fourth- and fifth-grade students. Explains that the students learn how to make baskets using a coil-wrap technique with colored yarns and beads. Provides a step-by-step explanation of how to create the baskets. (CMK)

  10. Pulsating bead-based assay.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jason A; Bau, Haim H

    2011-04-15

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using porous microbeads such as agarose beads as solid supports to bind target molecules from complex fluid samples. Porous beads have large surface area to volume ratios and high receptor concentrations, and they facilitate relatively high sensitivity detection and multiplexing. Unfortunately, to take full advantage of the porous beads' attributes, long incubation times are needed due to the relatively slow mass transfer of target molecules from the exterior solution into the beads' interior. To accelerate the mass transfer process, we propose a novel assay in which functionalized porous beads are periodically compressed and expanded. Preliminary experiments were carried out to compare the performance of the pulsating beads with that of conventional, nonpulsating beads. These experiments indicate that the pulsating beads significantly accelerate binding rates with minimal increase in nonspecific binding. Thus, pulsing has the potential of significantly reducing assay time.

  11. Sequential tentacle grafting and charge modification for enhancing charge density of mono-sized beads for facilitated protein refolding and purification from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Ran; Yang, Chun-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2014-06-20

    We have previously found that addition of like-charged media in a refolding solution can greatly enhance the refolding of pure proteins by suppressing protein aggregation. Herein, negatively charged mono-sized microspheres with sulfonic groups were fabricated to explore the facilitating effect of like-charged media on the refolding of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs). A sequential polymer-tentacle grafting and sulfonate modification strategy was developed to increase the charge density of mono-sized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (pGMA) beads (2.4μm). Namely, GMA was first grafted onto the beads by grafting polymerization to form poly(GMA) tentacles on the pGMA beads, and then the epoxy groups on the tentacles were converted into sulfonic groups by modification with sodium sulfite. By this fabrication strategy, the charge density of the beads reached 793μmol/g, about 2.8 times higher than that modified without prior grafting of the pGMA beads (285μmol/g). The negatively charged beads of different charge densities were used for facilitating the refolding of like-charged EGFP from IBs. The refolding yield as well as refolding rate increased with increasing charge density. The anti-aggregation effects of urea and like-charged microspheres were synergetic. In addition, partial purification of EGFP was achieved because the ion-exchange adsorption led to 52% removal of positively charged contaminant proteins in the refolded solution. Finally, reusability of the tentacle beads was demonstrated by repetitive EGFP refolding and recovery cycles.

  12. Improved fiber optic sensor for salt concentration based on polymer swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mingqi; Seitz, William R.

    1993-04-01

    An improved design for fiber optic chemical sensors based on polymer swelling is applied to the detection of changes in electrolyte concentration. In this design the polymer sensing element is isolated from the fiber optics by a rubber diaphragm glued to a reflecting piece of aluminum. Changes in polymer size move the diaphragm, changing the intensity of light reflected into an optical fiber. The sensor design allows the user to adjust the distance between the optical fibers and the reflecting surface so that maximum sensitivity can be achieved. The new design is demonstrated using a bead of crosslinked strongly basic anion exchange resin as a sensing element to detect changes in electrolyte concentration.

  13. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers.

    PubMed

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials -trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems. PMID:27438837

  14. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers.

    PubMed

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials -trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems.

  15. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials –trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems. PMID:27438837

  16. Gluconic acid production in bioreactor with immobilized glucose oxidase plus catalase on polymer membrane adjacent to anion-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Godjevargova, Tzonka; Dayal, Rajeshwar; Turmanova, Sevdalina

    2004-10-20

    Gluconic acid was obtained in the permeate side of the bioreactor with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized onto anion-exchange membrane (AEM) of low-density polyethylene grafted with 4-vinylpiridine. The electric resistance of the anion-exchange membranes was increased after the enzyme immobilization on the membrane. The gluconic acid productions were relatively low with the GOD immobilized by any method on the AEM. To increase the enzyme reaction efficiency, GOD was immobilized on membrane of AN copolymer (PAN) adjacent to an anion-exchange membrane in bioreactor. Uses of anion-exchange membrane led to selective removal of the gluconic acid from the glucose solution and reduce the gluconic acid inhibition. The amount of gluconic acid obtained in the permeate side of the bioreactor with the GOD immobilized on the PAN membrane adjacent to the AEM under electrodialysis was about 30 times higher than that obtained with enzyme directly bound to the AEM. The optimal substrate concentration in the feed side was found to be about 1 g/l. Further experiments were carried out with the co-immobilized GOD plus Catalase (CAT) on the PAN membrane adjacent to the AEM to improve the efficiency of the immobilize system. The yield of this process was at least 95%. The storage stability of the co-immobilized GOD and CAT was studied (lost 20% of initial activity for 90 d). The results obtained clearly showed the higher potential of the dual membrane bioreactor with GOD plus CAT bound to ultrafiltration polymer membrane adjacent to the AEM. Storage stability of GOD activity in GOD plus CAT immobilized on PAN//AEM membranes and on AEM.

  17. Ion transport in a polypyrrole-based ion-exchange polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Huanyu; Pickup, P.G. )

    1989-08-24

    Rotating disk voltammetry and ionic conductivity measurements have been used to investigate the transport of I{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4{minus}} in poly(1-methyl-3-(pyrrol-1-ylmethyl)pyridinium) (polyMPMP{sup +}) films. The diffusion coefficient for I{sup {minus}} in polyMPMP{sup +} is strongly dependent on the solvent. In water D{sub iodide,pol} is very high (1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}s{sup {minus}1}) due to significant swelling of the polymer, while in acetonitrile it is over 2 orders of magnitude lower. PolyMPMP{sup +} is significantly more permeable than polypyrrole in water, especially to Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4{minus}}. It is over 1000 times more permeable than the reduced form of polypyrrole. However, in acetonitrile polypyrrole (oxidized) is the more permeable of the two polymers. This difference is explained in terms of the degree of solvation and swelling of the polymers in the two solvents. It is concluded that solvation/swelling is much less significant in acetonitrile.

  18. Preparation and chromatographic performance of polymer-based anion exchangers for ion chromatography: A review.

    PubMed

    Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Shpigun, O A

    2016-01-21

    In the last decade the developments in the field of ion chromatography (IC) were aimed at increasing the efficiency, sensitivity and rapidity of analysis, as well as on improving separation selectivity. Since selectivity and efficiency to the large extent depend on the surface chemistry of the stationary phase, the development of novel anion exchangers remains one of the priority tasks in modern IC. The exact chemistry of commercially available resins is not known and not many literature data devoted to the procedures of preparing anion exchangers for IC have become available in the last 10-15 years. However, the knowledge about the surface chemistry of anion exchangers can provide understanding of the trends in selectivity and efficiency changes, as well as help with the choice of the stationary phase type suitable for solving a particular analytical task. The current review is devoted to the methods of preparing anion exchangers based on polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) and ethylvinylbenzene-divinylbenzene (EVB-DVB) for IC of inorganic and small organic anions and is aimed at demonstrating the improvement of their performance over the years, which was brought by the development of the new types of stationary phase architecture.

  19. Scalable 3D bicontinuous fluid networks: polymer heat exchangers toward artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Roper, Christopher S; Schubert, Randall C; Maloney, Kevin J; Page, David; Ro, Christopher J; Yang, Sophia S; Jacobsen, Alan J

    2015-04-17

    A scalable method for fabricating architected materials well-suited for heat and mass exchange is presented. These materials exhibit unprecedented combinations of small hydraulic diameters (13.0-0.09 mm) and large hydraulic-diameter-to-thickness ratios (5.0-30,100). This process expands the range of material architectures achievable starting from photopolymer waveguide lattices or additive manufacturing.

  20. Coated Aerogel Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  1. Bead lightning formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, G.O.; Saba, M.M.F.

    2005-09-15

    Formation of beaded structures in triggered lightning discharges is considered in the framework of both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic instabilities. It is shown that the space periodicity of the structures can be explained in terms of the kink and sausage type instabilities in a cylindrical discharge with anomalous viscosity. In particular, the fast growth rate of the hydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is driven by the backflow of air into the channel of the decaying return stroke, dominates the initial evolution of perturbations during the decay of the return current. This instability is responsible for a significant enhancement of the anomalous viscosity above the classical level. Eventually, the damping introduced at the current channel edge by the high level of anomalous viscous stresses defines the final length scale of bead lightning. Later, during the continuing current stage of the lightning flash, the MHD pinch instability persists, although with a much smaller growth rate that can be enhanced in a M-component event. The combined effect of these instabilities may explain various aspects of bead lightning.

  2. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    SciTech Connect

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-08-25

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  3. Ex vivo mucoadhesion of different zinc-pectinate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Hagesaether, Ellen; Bye, Ragnar; Sande, S Arne

    2008-01-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mucoadhesive properties of pre-swelled hydrogel beads made of six types of pectin from three manufacturers. The types of pectin differed mainly in the degree of methoxylation and degree of amidation. Zinc ions were used as cross-linking agent. The mucoadhesive properties were tested on an inverted fresh porcine small intestine attached to a rotating cylinder. Beads made of pectin with a high degree of methoxylation (70%) showed superior mucoadhesive results compared to the other formulations, which could be correlated to the lower amount of zinc in this formulation, subsequently leading to a lower amount of cross-linking and higher mobility of the polymer chains of these beads. This study therefore also indicated the importance of doing mucoadhesive measurements on relevant formulations, and not basing the understanding solely on investigating polymer solutions. Samples from different manufacturers produced the same results.

  4. Water-deuterium oxide exchange in polymers used in spacecraft applications. [outgassing from Mylar and Kapton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carre, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The replacement of water (H2O) by deuterium oxide (D2O) and the exchange between atmospheric water and adsorbed or absorbed D2O were investigated for the polymeric materials Kapton and Mylar using thermal gravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Replacement of H2O by D2O is easily accomplished. However, exposure of D2O samples to the ambient atmosphere or gases containing H2O results in rapid proton and deuteron exchange between H2O vapor and adsorbed D2O. Replacement of H2O by D2O would not be a practical solution to alleviate spectral interferences that would result from water outgassing in spacecraft orbital environments. Maintaining the materials of interest in a dehydrated state is a more reasonable approach.

  5. Preliminary studies of an 18-crown-6 ether modified magnetic cation exchange polymer in rapid (90)Sr bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hrdina, Amy; Lai, Edward; Li, Chunsheng; Sadi, Baki; Kramer, Gary

    2011-08-01

    A cation exchange polymer resin embedded with magnetic nanoparticles and modified with crown ether was developed for urinalysis to rapidly monitor levels of (90)Sr exposure in humans who have been involved in a nuclear event. Invention of the resin matrix of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid cross-linked with divinylbenzene incorporated a Sr(2+) chelating agent, di-tert-butyl-cyclohexano-18-crown-6 through surface immobilization using a molecular modifier 1-octanol. The performance of these magnetic cation exchange resin particles was investigated by separating (90)Sr in the presence of (90)Y progeny. Masking agents and precipitants were examined to ascertain that sodium hydroxide at pH 7.5 was capable of selectively removing 89 ± 2% (90)Y before subsequent (90)Sr uptake. Preliminary investigations in rapid urinalysis were successful in isolating 83 ± 2% (90)Sr when pH was optimized to 9, with a sample turnover time <2 h, which is promising for radiological emergencies.

  6. Improvement of desalination efficiency in capacitive deionization using a carbon electrode coated with an ion-exchange polymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hwan

    2010-02-01

    A composite carbon electrode coated with a cation-exchange polymer, crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) with sulfosuccinic acid, was fabricated to enhance the desalination performance of a capacitive deionization (CDI) system. The electrochemical properties of the prepared electrode were characterized by impedance spectroscopy, and desalination experiments were carried out at various operating conditions using a CDI cell with carbon electrodes only, and a membrane-capacitive-deionization (MCDI) cell including a coated-carbon electrode, to evaluate the effect of the coated-carbon electrode on desalination performance. The electrical resistance of the coated electrode was increased by a small amount over the uncoated electrode, but the capacitance was improved by the coating. In the CDI cell, the salt-removal efficiencies were in the range of 50-67%, while the efficiencies increased to 75-85% for the MCDI cell. Depending on the operating conditions, the salt-removal and current efficiencies of the MCDI cell were enhanced by 27-56% and 69-95%, respectively, compared to the CDI cell. The enhanced efficiency for the MCDI cell was attributed to the selective transport of cations between the electrode surface and bulk solution due to the cation-exchange coating layer.

  7. Ion-exchange molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of negatively charged acesulfame from wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Zarejousheghani, Mashaalah; Schrader, Steffi; Möder, Monika; Lorenz, Pierre; Borsdorf, Helko

    2015-09-11

    Acesulfame is a known indicator that is used to identify the introduction of domestic wastewater into water systems. It is negatively charged and highly water-soluble at environmental pH values. In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized for negatively charged acesulfame and successfully applied for the selective solid phase extraction (SPE) of acesulfame from influent and effluent wastewater samples. (Vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA) was used as a novel phase transfer reagent, which enhanced the solubility of negatively charged acesulfame in the organic solvent (porogen) and served as a functional monomer in MIP synthesis. Different molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized to optimize the extraction capability of acesulfame. The different materials were evaluated using equilibrium rebinding experiments, selectivity experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The most efficient MIP was used in a molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction (MISPE) protocol to extract acesulfame from wastewater samples. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) analysis, detection and quantification limits were achieved at 0.12μgL(-1) and 0.35μgL(-1), respectively. Certain cross selectivity for the chemical compounds containing negatively charged sulfonamide functional group was observed during selectivity experiments. PMID:26256920

  8. Ion-exchange molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of negatively charged acesulfame from wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Zarejousheghani, Mashaalah; Schrader, Steffi; Möder, Monika; Lorenz, Pierre; Borsdorf, Helko

    2015-09-11

    Acesulfame is a known indicator that is used to identify the introduction of domestic wastewater into water systems. It is negatively charged and highly water-soluble at environmental pH values. In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized for negatively charged acesulfame and successfully applied for the selective solid phase extraction (SPE) of acesulfame from influent and effluent wastewater samples. (Vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA) was used as a novel phase transfer reagent, which enhanced the solubility of negatively charged acesulfame in the organic solvent (porogen) and served as a functional monomer in MIP synthesis. Different molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized to optimize the extraction capability of acesulfame. The different materials were evaluated using equilibrium rebinding experiments, selectivity experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The most efficient MIP was used in a molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction (MISPE) protocol to extract acesulfame from wastewater samples. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) analysis, detection and quantification limits were achieved at 0.12μgL(-1) and 0.35μgL(-1), respectively. Certain cross selectivity for the chemical compounds containing negatively charged sulfonamide functional group was observed during selectivity experiments.

  9. Reverse adhesion of a gecko-inspired synthetic adhesive switched by an ion-exchange polymer-metal composite actuator.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Jie; Liu, Rui; Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Ming; Fang, Shao-Ming; Elliott, Winston Howard; Tan, Wei

    2015-03-11

    Inspired by how geckos abduct, rotate, and adduct their setal foot toes to adhere to different surfaces, we have developed an artificial muscle material called ion-exchange polymer-metal composite (IPMC), which, as a synthetic adhesive, is capable of changing its adhesion properties. The synthetic adhesive was cast from a Si template through a sticky colloid precursor of poly(methylvinylsiloxane) (PMVS). The PMVS array of setal micropillars had a high density of pillars (3.8 × 10(3) pillars/mm(2)) with a mean diameter of 3 μm and a pore thickness of 10 μm. A graphene oxide monolayer containing Ag globular nanoparticles (GO/Ag NPs) with diameters of 5-30 nm was fabricated and doped in an ion-exchanging Nafion membrane to improve its carrier transfer, water-saving, and ion-exchange capabilities, which thus enhanced the electromechanical response of IPMC. After being attached to PMVS micropillars, IPMC was actuated by square wave inputs at 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V to bend back and forth, driving the micropillars to actively grip or release the surface. To determine the adhesion of the micropillars, the normal adsorption and desorption forces were measured as the IPMC drives the setal micropillars to grip and release, respectively. Adhesion results demonstrated that the normal adsorption forces were 5.54-, 14.20-, and 23.13-fold higher than the normal desorption forces under 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V, respectively. In addition, shear adhesion or friction increased by 98, 219, and 245%, respectively. Our new technique provides advanced design strategies for reversible gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives, which might be used for spiderman-like wall-climbing devices with unprecedented performance.

  10. Modulation of drug release from glyceryl palmitostearate-alginate beads via heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2006-08-17

    Diclofenac calcium alginate (DCA) beads containing glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS) were prepared by ionotropic gelation method. The effect of GPS amount and heat treatment on characteristics of the DCA beads was investigated. Incorporation of GPS into the DCA beads increased particle size and entrapment efficiency of diclofenac sodium (DS), but decreased water uptake in distilled water, and DS release rate. The heat treatment caused the DCA beads to be irregular shape particles and to possess higher water uptake. A slower release rate of DS in distilled water was found because of interaction of DS and alginate polymer matrix, and a restriction of water sorption into the inside region of the beads, which caused by the shrinkage of the beads after heating. However, the heat treatment did not affect particle shape and water uptake in distilled water of the 3%GPS-DCA beads. Differential scanning calorimetric study showed that GPS in the DCA beads was resolidified to different polymorph after cooling. Furthermore, the micro-Raman spectra indicated the existence of DS in the GPS matrix particles in the beads due to the partition of DS into the melted GPS during heat treatment. This led to a decrease in release rate of DS in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and a change in DS release pattern in distilled water. Thus, not only the calcium alginate matrix, but also the resolidified GPS matrix in the alginate beads controlled the DS release from the 3%GPS-DCA beads with heat treatment.

  11. Beads in the Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ila

    2011-01-01

    Foreign objects in a tooth are often diagnosed accidentally. A detailed case history, clinical and radiographic examinations are necessary to know the exact nature, size, location of the foreign body and the difficulty involved in its retrieval. In the present case, two beads, one radiopaque and one radiolucent were found in the same tooth at different places of 11-year-old girl. Patient did not reveal proper history out of fear. Both the foreign objects were discovered during routine endodontic procedure which were removed following simple clinical procedure causing minimal damage to the internal tooth structure.

  12. High-productivity membrane adsorbers: Polymer surface-modification studies for ion-exchange and affinity bioseparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenette, Heather C. S.

    This dissertation centers on the surface-modification of macroporous membranes to make them selective adsorbers for different proteins, and the analysis of the performance of these membranes relative to existing technology. The common approach used in these studies, which is using membrane technology for chromatographic applications and using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) as a surface modification technique, will be introduced and supported by a brief review in Chapter 1. The specific approaches to address the unique challenges and motivations of each study system are given in the introduction sections of the respective dissertation chapters. Chapter 2 describes my work to develop cation-exchange membranes. I discuss the polymer growth kinetics and characterization of the membrane surface. I also present an analysis of productivity, which measures the mass of protein that can bind to the stationary phase per volume of stationary phase adsorbing material per time. Surprisingly and despite its importance, this performance measure was not described in previous literature. Because of the significantly shorter residence time necessary for binding to occur, the productivity of these cation-exchange membrane adsorbers (300 mg/mL/min) is nearly two orders of magnitude higher than the productivity of a commercial resin product (4 mg/mL/min). My work studying membrane adsorbers for affinity separations was built on the productivity potential of this approach, as articulated in the conclusion of Chapter 2. Chapter 3 focuses on the chemical formulation work to incorporate glycoligands into the backbone of polymer tentacles grown from the surface of the same membrane stationary phase. Emphasis is given to characterizing and testing the working formulation for ligand incorporation, and details about how I arrived at this formulation are given in Appendix B. The plant protein, or lectin, Concanavalin A (conA) was used as the target protein. The carbohydrate affinity

  13. Hydrocarbon-based polymer electrolyte cerium composite membranes for improved proton exchange membrane fuel cell durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyejin; Han, Myungseong; Choi, Young-Woo; Bae, Byungchan

    2015-11-01

    Hydrocarbon-based cerium composite membranes were prepared for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications to increase oxidative stability. Different amounts of cerium ions were impregnated in sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) membranes and their physicochemical properties were investigated according to the cerium content. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma analyses confirmed the presence of cerium ions in the composite membranes and 1H NMR indicated the successful coordination of sulfonic acid groups with the metal ions. Increasing amounts of cerium ions resulted in decreases in the proton conductivity and water uptake, but enhanced oxidative stability. The oxidative stability of the composite membranes was proven via a hydrogen peroxide exposure experiment which mimicked fuel cell operating conditions. In addition, more than 2200 h was achieved with the composite membrane under in situ accelerated open circuit voltage (OCV) durability testing (DOE protocol), whereas the corresponding pristine SPES membrane attained only 670 h.

  14. Ionic polymer-metal composite actuators employing sulfonated poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) as ionic-exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan-Lun; Oh, Il-Kwon; Lu, Jun; Ju, Jin-Hun; Lee, Sun-Woo

    2007-07-01

    There is growing interest in biomimetic motions by employing ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) as the candidates for the fabrication of artificial muscle. However, the membrane materials currently used in IPMC actuators have been limited to a few commercially available perfluorinated ionic polymers, such as Nafion, and they suffer from several shortcomings among which their high cost presents a major obstacle for wide application. With excellent proton conductivity and high water uptake capacity, commercially available Sulfonated poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) (SEBS) of low cost has been investigated for many years as a fuel cell membrane. Herein, we report the preparation of a novel IPMC actuator based on the sulfonated SEBS (SSEBS) membrane. The platinum electrodes of the SEBS actuators were obtained with electroless plating procedure, and the cation exchange with lithium was performed by soaking the composite membranes into a 1.5N LiCl solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the SSEBS actuators were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed that the platinum layer up to 8µm was deposited on the top and bottom surfaces of the SSEBS membrane. The electromechanical bending responses were investigated under alternating current excitations with various driving frequencies and voltage amplitudes, which showed high electrical strains under sinusoidal signal. The effect of the membrane thickness on the performance of the actuators was also addressed in this presentation. This kind of IPMC has great potentials for the applications in biomimetic sensors and actuators, which can be utilized to mimic the locomotion of fish and insects and can be applied to micro-robots and bio-medical devices as well.

  15. The heart beads program.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Kate Alexa; Scarfe, Gabbie; Redshaw, Sarah; Wilson, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    From July 2008 through June 2009, 760 infants and children with cardiac conditions were admitted to a pediatric hospital in Australia with approximately 360 cardiac surgical procedures performed.This was the first experience in hospital for many of these children, with diagnoses signaling the beginning of a long and arduous journey. These children undergo multiple treatments and procedures,as well as multiple admissions for further surgeries. Procedures in any regard can cause stress and anxiety, especially in children who often have limited understanding and so little control over what happens to them (Lau, 2002).A heart center for children exists at the hospital with the aim of providing a consistent experience for children with cardiac conditions as they move through the different hospital environments, from preadmission clinic to operating theaters to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and then on to the cardiac ward. The Heart Beads Program was developed within a context of person-centered care to enrich the experience of children with cardiac conditions by providing them with distinctive beads specific to each procedure, treatment, or event in recognition of their experiences and endurance (McCormack et al., 2008). This column focuses on the process of starting the program and on preliminary responses from staff, children, and families.

  16. Coupled Translational and Rotational Fluctuations of Tethered Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakowitz, Andrew; Mehraeen, Shafigh

    2008-03-01

    Single-molecule manipulation plays an important role in determining the physical mechanisms responsible for biological function. Establishing a robust method of predicting the fluctuating behavior of a tethered bead provides insight into how to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio to improve experimental resolution. We theoretically address the behavior of single-molecule experimental apparatuses. Our theory is amenable to addressing a variety of different bead-tether systems, thus providing a basis for comparing and contrasting these different experimental setups and for adapting the theory to the specific experimental system of interest. Fluctuations in both the location and orientation of the bead are incorporated in the theory; we explore their coupled effect on the observed behavior in single-molecule systems. The physical behavior of the tether molecule is described using the wormlike chain model. Making use of our exact solutions for wormlike chain model statistics, our current treatment achieves exact precision for the polymer behavior, apart from the approximations that are inherent to the wormlike chain model. We find that the impact of rotational fluctuations on the bead motion is largest when the radius of the bead is comparable to the length of the chain tether. We explore the impact that chain length and bead radius have on the resolution of single-molecule experiments and how to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Wood Xylowall: New process to reduce water exchange by an intra-graft of polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyttenhove, Anne; Tilquin, Bernard

    2005-07-01

    Our research shows that poplar treated with selected monomer mixture and then irradiated at 50 kGy reduces the water exchange without adversely altering the desirable qualities of wood. Moreover, the environment is not polluted. To retard changes in moisture content and dimensions, different commercial Radcures (UCB) were tested. A comparative study on the water retention showed significant reduction between non-treated and Xylowall wood for the species: poplar. The physical and mechanical measurements (density, volumetric shrinkage, elasticity, rupture, impact bending, hardness, compression strength) on poplar and pine show that the properties of the wood are not affected negatively by Xylowall treatment with irradiation. Moreover, the process does not discharge any toxic volatile residues into the atmosphere as proven by GC-MS trace analysis of heated wood samples. The stereomicroscope by imagery reveals an impregnation of 0.5 mm on cross-section of darker-stained areas, and sometimes more due to the texture (the relative size and arrangement of the wood cells) of the wood.

  18. Weak anion exchange chromatographic profiling of glycoprotein isoforms on a polymer monolithic capillary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Lianbing; Liu, Yunchun; Li, Hengye; Liu, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    High resolution separation of intact glycoproteins, which is essential for many aspects such as finger-print profiling, represents a great challenge because one glycoprotein can exhibit many isoforms with close physicochemical properties. Monolithic columns are important separation media for the separation of intact proteins due to its significant advantages such as easy preparation, high column efficiency and high permeability. However, there are few reports on high resolution profiling of intact glycoproteins. Herein, we presented a polymeric weak anion exchange (WAX) monolithic capillary for high resolution separation of glycoprotein isoforms. A base monolith was first prepared through ring-opening polymerization between tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate and tri(2-aminoethyl), and then modified through reacting with ammonia aqueous solution to convert the unreacted epoxide moieties into primary amino groups. The prepared monolithic capillary was characterized in terms of morphology, pore size, hydrophilicity and reproducibility. The obtained WAX monolithic capillary exhibited desired through-pores and mesopore size, stable skeleton and hydrophilic nature. The performance of the capillary was evaluated using several typical glycoproteins such as α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) as mode analytes. Effects of the experimental parameters on the glycoform resolution were investigated. Under the optimized separation conditions, the tested glycoproteins were all resolved into distinct glycoforms. A comparative investigation with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) revealed that this WAX column provided better selectivity as more isoforms were observed, although the resolution of some glycoprotein isoforms decreased.

  19. Performance of differently cross-linked, partially fluorinated proton exchange membranes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Buechi, F.N.; Gupta, B.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G.

    1995-09-01

    A series of differently cross-linked FEP-g-polystyrene proton exchange membranes has been synthesized by the preirradiation grafting method [FEP: poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene)]. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and/or triallyl cyanurate (TAC) were used as cross-linkers in the membranes. It was found that the physical properties of the membranes, such as water-uptake and specific resistance, are strongly influenced by the nature of the cross-linker. Generally it can be stated that DVB decreases water-uptake and increases specific resistance; on the other hand TAC increases swelling and decreases specific resistance to values as low as 5.0 {Omega} cm at 60 C. The membranes were tested in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cells for stability and performance. It was found that thick (170 {micro}m) DVB cross-linked membranes showed stable operation for 1,400 h at temperatures up to 80 C. The highest power density in the fuel cell was found for the DVB and TAC double-cross-linked membrane; it exceeded the value of a cell with a Nafion{reg_sign} 117 membrane by more than 60%.

  20. [Preparation of a strong cation-exchange polymer monolith and its application in determination of melamine in milk products].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiao; Hu, Xizhou; Huang, Jincui; Feng, Yuqi

    2009-09-01

    A poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (AMPS-co-EDMA) monolith was prepared in a fused-silica capillary (530 microm i.d.) and applied for polymer monolith microextraction (PMME). With the optimal ratio of N, N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF, porogen) and polyethylene glycol (PEG, co-porogen), the resulting monolith exhibited satisfactory permeability, high mechanical strength and good stability in aqueous buffer. The effects of several parameters to PMME were investigated, such as pH value, inorganic salt and organic phase concentration of the sample matrix. It demonstrated that the melamine was captured on the poly (AMPS-co-EDMA) monolith mainly through strong cation-exchange and hydrophobic interactions. A novel approach is presented for the determination of melamine in milk products by coupling PMME to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Because of the high extraction capacity of the monolith towards melamine, low detection limits (S/N = 3, 0.9 mg/kg) and quantification limits (S/N = 10, 0.3 mg/kg) were obtained. The method showed good linearity ranging from 0.5 to 80 mg/kg. Excellent reproducibility of the method was exhibited by intraday and interday precisions, yielding the relative standard deviations not larger than 7.5%. The proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and low cost.

  1. Preparation of polymer-coated, scintillating ion-exchange resins for monitoring of 99Tc in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Seliman, Ayman F; Samadi, Azadeh; Husson, Scott M; Borai, Emad H; DeVol, Timothy A

    2011-06-15

    The present study was oriented to prepare new scintillating anion-exchange resins for measurement of (99)TcO(4)(-) in natural waters. The organic fluor 2-(1-naphthyl)-5-phenyloxazole was diffused into (chloromethyl)polystyrene resin. Thereafter, a thin layer of poly[[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride] was grafted from the resin surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization as an attempt to overcome potential problems related to the leaching of fluor molecules during usage. The residual chloromethyl groups of the polymer-coated resin were aminated by reaction with two different tertiary amines, triethylamine (TEA) and methyldioctylamine (MDOA). Off- and on-line quantification of (99)Tc was achieved with high detection efficiencies of 60.72 ± 1.93% and 72.83 ± 0.81% for resin with TEA and MDOA functional groups, respectively. The detection limit was determined to be less than the maximum contaminant level (33 Bq L(-1)) established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The two functionalized resins were demonstrated to be selective for pertechnetate from synthetic groundwater containing up to 1000 ppm Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), and HCO(3)(-) and up to 1200 ppb Cr(2)O(7)(2-) in an acidic medium. PMID:21609030

  2. Protein crystallization in hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Willaert, Ronnie; Zegers, Ingrid; Wyns, Lode; Sleutel, Mike

    2005-09-01

    The use of hydrogel beads for the crystallization of proteins is explored in this contribution. The dynamic behaviour of the internal precipitant, protein concentration and relative supersaturation in a gel bead upon submerging the bead in a precipitant solution is characterized theoretically using a transient diffusion model. Agarose and calcium alginate beads have been used for the crystallization of a low-molecular-weight (14.4 kDa, hen egg-white lysozyme) and a high-molecular-weight (636.0 kDa, alcohol oxidase) protein. Entrapment of the protein in the agarose-gel matrix was accomplished using two methods. In the first method, a protein solution is mixed with the agarose sol solution. Gel beads are produced by immersing drops of the protein-agarose sol mixture in a cold paraffin solution. In the second method (which was used to produce calcium alginate and agarose beads), empty gel beads are first produced and subsequently filled with protein by diffusion from a bulk solution into the bead. This latter method has the advantage that a supplementary purification step is introduced (for protein aggregates and large impurities) owing to the diffusion process in the gel matrix. Increasing the precipitant, gel concentration and protein loading resulted in a larger number of crystals of smaller size. Consequently, agarose as well as alginate gels act as nucleation promoters. The supersaturation in a gel bead can be dynamically controlled by changing the precipitant and/or the protein concentration in the bulk solution. Manipulation of the supersaturation allowed the nucleation rate to be varied and led to the production of large crystals which were homogeneously distributed in the gel bead.

  3. Novel polymer and inorganic/organic hybrid composite materials for proton exchange membrane applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiwei

    In this study, various novel proton exchange membranes (PEM) have been synthesized and investigated for high temperature PEM applications. Sulfonic acid functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes with the empirical formula of R-Si-(O)1.5 consist of a highly cross-linked Si-O backbone and pendant organic side chain R, which is terminated in a proton conducting functional group (i.e., sulfonic acid). The membranes exhibited excellent proton conductivities (sigma) of >10-2 S/cm under low humidity conditions and a wide range of temperatures. The fuel cell (FC) performance of the membranes under low humidity conditions has been evaluated. Acid-doped linear meta-polyaniline membranes have been prepared through solution casting of m-PANI. The obtained membrane shows good proton conductivities at temperatures above 100°C, achieving 10-2.7 S/cm under 120°C and practically no humidity conditions. The effects of doping acids, doping levels and humidity on the conductivity are discussed. Polyethylenimine (PEI)/SiO2 nanocomposites membranes have been synthesized through sol-gel processes. The introduction of SiO2 clusters into high molecule weight, linear PEI greatly improved its thermal stability at high temperatures and O2 atmosphere. During the sol-gel processes, trifluoromethanesulfonimide (HTFSI) was added to dope the amine groups of PEI and form immobilized proton-conducting ionic liquids, which provide the hybrid membranes with proton-conducting behavior. The resultant membranes show good proton conductivities at high temperatures and low to zero humidity conditions. The effects of temperature, humidity and mobility of active groups on the conductivity are discussed. Various organic amine/HTFSI ionic group functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes have been prepared. The Si-O backbone provides excellent thermal/chemical/mechanical properties and the HTFSI-doped amine end groups provide the proton conducting properties. The membranes exhibited proton

  4. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads.

  5. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads. PMID:25720832

  6. Tuning the emission properties of a fluorescent polymer using a polymer microarray approach - identification of an optothermo responsive polymer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Duan, Zongquan; Sheng, Yang; Neumann, Kevin; Deng, Linhong; Li, Jian; Bradley, Mark; Zhang, Rong

    2016-08-18

    Polymer microarrays were prepared using inkjet printing mixtures of acrylate monomers each with a common fluorescent fluorene co-polymer. Fluorescence analysis of each of the features on the array allowed identification of polymers that could tune the fluorescence under a variety of insults. The "hit" polymers were made into beads via reverse suspension polymerization and their fluorescence properties were analyzed. PMID:27491507

  7. Analog modeling of Worm-Like Chain molecules using macroscopic beads-on-a-string.

    PubMed

    Tricard, Simon; Feinstein, Efraim; Shepherd, Robert F; Reches, Meital; Snyder, Phillip W; Bandarage, Dileni C; Prentiss, Mara; Whitesides, George M

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an empirical model of polymer dynamics, based on the agitation of millimeter-sized polymeric beads. Although the interactions between the particles in the macroscopic model and those between the monomers of molecular-scale polymers are fundamentally different, both systems follow the Worm-Like Chain theory.

  8. Cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid polymer as an electrolyte/electrode material for H2-O2 proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, D.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Haridoss, Prathap

    2016-02-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance with a cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid (PVA/SSA) polymer is compared with Nafion® N-115 polymer. In this study, PVA/SSA (≈5 wt. % SSA) polymer membranes are synthesized by a solution casting technique. These cross-linked PVA/SSA polymers and Nafion are used as electrolytes and ionomers in catalyst layers, to fabricate different membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for PEMFCs. Properties of each MEA are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, impedance spectroscopy and hydrogen pumping technique. I-V characteristics of each cell are evaluated in a H2-O2 fuel cell testing fixture under different operating conditions. PVA/SSA ionomer causes only an additional ≈4% loss in the anode performance compared to Nafion ionomer. The maximum power density obtained from PVA/SSA based cells range from 99 to 117.4 mW cm-2 with current density range of 247 to 293.4 mA cm-2. Ionic conductivity of PVA/SSA based cells is more sensitive to state of hydration of MEA, while maximum power density obtained is less sensitive to state of hydration of MEA. Maximum power density of cross-linked PVA/SSA membrane based cell is about 35% that of Nafion® N-115 based cell. From these results, cross-linked PVA/SSA polymer is identified as potential candidate for PEMFCs.

  9. Polyethylenimine modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) capillary channeled-polymer fibers for anion exchange chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liuwei; Jin, Yi; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    Native poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers have been previously studied as stationary phases for reversed phase and affinity protein separations. In this study, surface modified PET C-CP fibers were evaluated for the anion exchange separation of proteins. The native PET C-CP fibers were aminated using polyethylenimine (PEI) followed by a 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BUDGE) cross-linking step. Subsequent PEI/BUDGE treatments can be employed to further develop the polyamine layer on the fiber surfaces. The PEI densities of the modified fibers were quantified through the ninhydrin reaction, yielding values of 0.43-0.89μmolg(-1). The surface modification impact on column permeability was found to be 0.66×10(-11) to 1.33×10(-11)m(2), depending on the modification time and conditions. The dynamic binding capacities of the modified fiber media were determined to be 1.99-8.54mgmL(-1) bed volume, at linear velocities of 88-438cmmin(-1) using bovine serum albumin as the model protein. It was found that increasing the mobile phase linear velocity (up to 438cmmin(-1)) had no effect on the separation quality for a synthetic protein mixture, reflecting the lack of van Deemter C-term effects for the C-CP fiber phase. The low-cost, easy modification method and the capability of fast protein separation illustrate great potential in the use of PEI/BUDGE-modified PET C-CP fibers for high-throughput protein separation and downstream processing. PMID:26253835

  10. Conformal coating of mammalian cells immobilized onto magnetically driven beads.

    PubMed

    Khademhosseini, Ali; May, Michael H; Sefton, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    A novel cell bead system, comprising a magnetic core, a spherical annulus of agarose-immobilized cells, all conformally coated within a synthetic polymer, is proposed as a means of immunoisolating mammalian cells in a system that provides a balance between low total implant volume, retrievability, and diffusion limitations. A successful immunoisolation system could be used to transplant cells without eliciting an inappropriate host response. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were immobilized at the periphery of large (approximately 2 mm) agarose beads containing inert magnetic cores (< or = 1 mm) and coated in a hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methyl methacrylate (HEMA-MMA) copolymer by interfacial precipitation. The beads were coated in liquid gradients containing polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG) or bromooctane. Although many cells were adversely affected by the coating process, the cells that did survive (30-50% of those loaded into the beads) remained viable for a period of at least 2 weeks. This viability was much higher than achieved previously because of a number of factors, such as the aqueous agarose, the hydrophobic bromooctane intermediate layer, and faster coating times that minimize the exposure of the cells to organic solvents. Also, a mathematical model was used to describe oxygen transport within the annular agarose beads. These results provide evidence that the proposed geometry and the fabrication approach may be useful for a variety of applications that involve cell encapsulation.

  11. Magnetically and biologically active bead-patterned hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pregibon, Daniel C; Toner, Mehmet; Doyle, Patrick S

    2006-05-23

    We present a new approach to the direct patterning of biologically and magnetically active microbeads in nonbiofouling polymer scaffolds for use in microfluidic devices. Briefly, the process involves treatment of a glass substrate, conformal contact bonding of a PDMS microchannel on the substrate, filling of the channel with beads and prepolymer solution, and UV-initiated photopolymerization of a mask-defined pattern using a standard inverted microscope. This versatile and simple method allows for the rapid fabrication of dispersed or packed bead patterns in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels that are covalently linked to glass surfaces. By exploiting the relative opacity of the microbeads used, we are able to create both partially exposed and fully encapsulated bead patterns. To demonstrate the utility of this new technology, we separated magnetic bead-bound B lymphocytes from T lymphocytes on a PEG-encapsulated magnetic filtration platform and also captured B cells directly on patterned, protein-decorated beads in a flow-through microfluidic device. Beyond cell sorting, the accurate patterning of industrially standardized, chemically diverse microbeads may have significant implications for microchip-based analyte detection.

  12. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  13. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  14. Spectroscopic Studies on Physicochemical Natures of Ion Exchangers and Highly Functional Polymers and Their Application to Analytical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    The absorption spectra or NMR spectra of chemical species adsorbed on ion exchangers and highly functional polymers such as crosslinked dextran could be directly measured by the corresponding solution methods. Spectrophotometric measurements of a target species in the solid phase have been extended to solid phase spectrometry (SPS), based on the direct measurement of light-absorption by the solid phase, which has adsorbed the target analyte. SPS has employed two different procedures; i.e., batch and flow methods. The Lambert-Beer law could be applicable to the solid particle layer system. The sensitivity was proportional to the volume ratio of the solid and sample solution, giving more than 100 times the sensitivity obtainable with the combination of a 0.1 cm3 solid and a 10-100 cm3 sample for the batch method. An online measurement of the light attenuation by the adsorbed species in the flow-through cell made it possible to both significantly reduce the sample solution volume and to simplify the respective procedures for the derivatization of the analyte and packing the solid particles into the cell. Because the cross-linked dextran and similar glucopyranoside-based gels have polyol moieties in their gel matrix, they could be used as oxo acid-selective adsorbents without introducing any special functional groups. Especially, in the case of boric acid, 11B NMR spectroscopy was one of the best tools for elucidating the nature of the interaction between boric acid/borate and polyols. Its combination with other methods enabled basic understanding of the chemical reactions. Reaction paths for 1:1 complexation are in general divided into two groups, i.e., neutral polyols that directly react with tetrahedral borate, and acidic polyols that react with trigonal boric acid in a 1:1 complexation. Both of the reactions produce tetrahedral anionic complexes, followed by a condensation reaction between the 1:1 monochelate complex and the undissociated diols to yield the 1

  15. Swelling and drug release behavior of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation, characterization, in vitro swelling and in vitro drug release of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate beads were prepared by ionotropic-gelation technique and using CaCl2 as cross-linker. The prepared beads exhibited 32.73 ± 1.41% of drug loading (%), 94.86 ± 3.92% of drug encapsulation efficiency (%), and 1.24 ± 0.07 mm of average bead size. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR analyses. These metformin HCl-loaded ionotropically gelled TSP-alginate beads demonstrated sustained in vitro drug release profile over 10h. These in vitro drug release exhibited pH-dependent drug release behavior. The in vitro drug release from these metformin HCl-loaded beads followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of these metformin HCl-loaded polymeric beads were found to be influenced by the pH of test mediums.

  16. Swelling and drug release behavior of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation, characterization, in vitro swelling and in vitro drug release of metformin HCl-loaded tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate beads were prepared by ionotropic-gelation technique and using CaCl2 as cross-linker. The prepared beads exhibited 32.73 ± 1.41% of drug loading (%), 94.86 ± 3.92% of drug encapsulation efficiency (%), and 1.24 ± 0.07 mm of average bead size. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR analyses. These metformin HCl-loaded ionotropically gelled TSP-alginate beads demonstrated sustained in vitro drug release profile over 10h. These in vitro drug release exhibited pH-dependent drug release behavior. The in vitro drug release from these metformin HCl-loaded beads followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of these metformin HCl-loaded polymeric beads were found to be influenced by the pH of test mediums. PMID:26472516

  17. Glass-bead peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  18. Single- and dual-bead microrheology of semiflexiblefd virus solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addas, Karim M.

    Semiflexible polymers are of great biological importance in determining the mechanical properties of cells. Techniques collectively known as microrheology have recently been developed to measure the viscoelastic properties of solutions of sub-microliter volumes. We employ one such technique, which uses single or dual focused laser beams, to trap one or a pair of micron-sized silica beads, and interferometric photodiode detection to measure passively the position fluctuations of the trapped beads with nanometer resolution and high bandwidth of detection. One- and two-bead, frequency-dependent complex shear moduli can be extracted from the position fluctuations via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The two-bead method is used to extract the bulk viscoelastic properties of the solution. Using particle tracking microrheology, we report measurements of shear moduli of solutions of fd viruses, which are filamentous, semiflexible, and monodisperse bacteriophages each 0.9 mum long, 7 nm in diameter, and having a persistence length of 2.2 mum. Recent theoretical treatments of semiflexible polymer dynamics provide some quantitative predictions of the rheological properties of such a model system, although the exact limit of short semiflexible rods has not been treated yet. The fd samples measured span the dilute, semi-dilute and concentrated regimes. In the dilute regime the shear modulus is dominated by (rigid rod) rotational relaxation, whereas the high-frequency regime reflects single-semi flexible filament dynamics consistent with the theoretical prediction. Due to the short length of fd viruses used in this study, the intermediate regime does not exhibit a well developed plateau which is expected to occur for long filaments. A dynamic scaling analysis of the shear modulus gives rise to a concentration scaling of c1.36 (r = 0.99) in the transition regime and a frequency scaling of f0.63 (r = 0.98) at high frequencies. One- and two-bead microrheology results agree for

  19. Effect of drying processes and curing time of chitosan-lysine semi-IPN beads on chlorpheniramine maleate delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K; Kundu, P P

    2009-02-01

    Beads of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) have been synthesized from chitosan and lysine with varying amounts of glutaraldehyde solution used as a cross-linker. The cross-linked beads are dried by different drying processes such as air-drying, oven-drying and freeze-drying. These semi-IPNs are characterized under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Swelling studies of these beads are carried out in different pH (2.0 and 7.4) solutions. The effect of concentration of cross-linking agent and curing period on the swelling as well as on the drug release is analysed. The results indicate that the size of matrix depend on the curing time of beads, concentration of glutaraldehyde and technique of drying. The freeze-dried beads exhibit a relatively higher percentage of swelling in the range of 66-89% as compared to oven-dried beads (53-74%) and air-dried beads (39-61%). The drug loaded beads which are cured for different time intervals followed by drying are tested for in-vitro release of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) drug. The rate of drug release from freeze-dried beads is much faster than that from the oven-dried and air-dried beads.

  20. Preparation of alginate beads containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate beads by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate beads were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91.0 ± 1.1 and 72.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, and only 3.2 ± 0.8% water absorption after storage at room temperature in ~80% relative humidity. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester did not react with excipients during formation of the DTPA penta-ethyl ester-containing alginate beads. Release of prodrug from alginate beads was via anomalous transport, and its stability enhanced by encapsulation. Collectively, these data suggest that this solid dosage form may be suitable for oral administration after radionuclide contamination. PMID:23399237

  1. Biological deterioration of alginate beads containing immobilized microalgae and bacteria during tertiary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ivonne; Bashan, Yoav; Hernàndez-Carmona, Gustavo; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2013-11-01

    Secondary treatment of municipal wastewater affects the mechanical stability of polymer Ca-alginate beads containing the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris that are jointly immobilized with Azospirillum brasilense as treating agents whose presence do not affect bead stability. Nine strains of potential alginate-degrading bacteria were isolated from wastewater and identified, based on their nearly complete 16S rDNA sequence. Still, their population was relatively low. Attempts to enhance the strength of the beads, using different concentrations of alginate and CaCl2 or addition of either of three polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethylcellulose), CaCO3, or SrCl2, failed. Beads lost their mechanical strength after 24 h of incubation but not the integrity of their shape for at least 96 h, a fact that sustained successful tertiary wastewater treatment for 48 h. In small bioreactors, removal of phosphorus was low under sterile conditions but high in unsterile wastewater. Alginate beads did not absorb PO4 (-3) in sterile wastewater, but in natural wastewater, they contained PO4 (-3). Consequently, PO4 (-3) content declined in the wastewater. A supplement of 10 % beads (w/v) was significantly more efficient in removing nutrients than 4 %, especially in a jointly immobilized treatment where >90 % of PO4 (-3) and >50 % ammonium were removed. Tertiary wastewater treatment in 25-L triangular, airlift, autotrophic bioreactors showed, as in small bioreactors, very similar nutrient removal patterns, decline in bead strength phenomena, and increase in total bacteria during the wastewater treatment only in the presence of the immobilized treatment agents. This study demonstrates that partial biological degradation of alginate beads occurred during tertiary wastewater treatment, but the beads survive long enough to permit efficient nutrient removal. PMID:23354446

  2. Juxta-clavicular beaded lines.

    PubMed

    Franco, Gennaro; Donati, Pietro; Muscardin, Luca; Maini, Antonio; Morrone, Aldo

    2006-08-01

    We present a case series of 63 patients diagnosed with juxta-clavicular beaded lines. This condition is more frequent in dark-skinned people and corresponds to an anatomical variant of simple sebaceous hyperplasia. In view of the strong reactivity of the melanocytes in dark-skinned people, and of the possible hypochromic results, no treatment is advised.

  3. Juxta-clavicular beaded lines.

    PubMed

    Franco, Gennaro; Donati, Pietro; Muscardin, Luca; Maini, Antonio; Morrone, Aldo

    2006-08-01

    We present a case series of 63 patients diagnosed with juxta-clavicular beaded lines. This condition is more frequent in dark-skinned people and corresponds to an anatomical variant of simple sebaceous hyperplasia. In view of the strong reactivity of the melanocytes in dark-skinned people, and of the possible hypochromic results, no treatment is advised. PMID:16867005

  4. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  5. Coordination Chemistry Inside Polymeric Nanoreactors: Interparticle Metal Exchange and Ionic Compound Vectorization in Phosphine-Functionalized Amphiphilic Polymer Latexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Gayet, Florence; Manoury, Eric; Joumaa, Ahmad; Lansalot, Muriel; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2016-04-25

    Stable latexes of hierarchically organized core-cross-linked polymer micelles that are functionalized at the core with triphenylphosphine (TPP@CCM) have been investigated by NMR spectroscopic analysis at both natural (ca. pH 5) and strongly basic (pH 13.6) pH values after core swelling with toluene. The core-shell interface structuring forces part of the hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains to reside inside the hydrophobic core at both pH values. Loading the particle cores with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) at various Rh/P ratios yielded polymer-supported [Rh(acac)(CO)(TPP)] (TPP=triphenylphosphine). The particle-to-particle rhodium migration is very fast at natural pH, but slows down dramatically at high pH, whereas the size distribution of the nanoreactors remains unchanged. The slow migration at pH 13.6 leads to the generation of polymer-anchored [Rh(OH)(CO)(TPP)2 ], which is also generated immediately upon the addition of NaOH to the particles with a [Rh(acac)(CO)] loading of 50 %. Similarly, treatment of the same particles with NaCl yielded polymer-anchored [RhCl(CO)(TPP)2 ]. Interparticle coupling occurs during these rapid processes. These experiments prove that the major contribution to metal migration is direct core-core contact. The slow migration at the high pH value, however, must result from a pathway that does not involve core-core contact. The facile penetration of the polymer cores by NaOH and NaCl results from the presence of shell-linked poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether functions both outside and inside the polymer core-shell interface.

  6. Coordination Chemistry Inside Polymeric Nanoreactors: Interparticle Metal Exchange and Ionic Compound Vectorization in Phosphine-Functionalized Amphiphilic Polymer Latexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Gayet, Florence; Manoury, Eric; Joumaa, Ahmad; Lansalot, Muriel; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2016-04-25

    Stable latexes of hierarchically organized core-cross-linked polymer micelles that are functionalized at the core with triphenylphosphine (TPP@CCM) have been investigated by NMR spectroscopic analysis at both natural (ca. pH 5) and strongly basic (pH 13.6) pH values after core swelling with toluene. The core-shell interface structuring forces part of the hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains to reside inside the hydrophobic core at both pH values. Loading the particle cores with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) at various Rh/P ratios yielded polymer-supported [Rh(acac)(CO)(TPP)] (TPP=triphenylphosphine). The particle-to-particle rhodium migration is very fast at natural pH, but slows down dramatically at high pH, whereas the size distribution of the nanoreactors remains unchanged. The slow migration at pH 13.6 leads to the generation of polymer-anchored [Rh(OH)(CO)(TPP)2 ], which is also generated immediately upon the addition of NaOH to the particles with a [Rh(acac)(CO)] loading of 50 %. Similarly, treatment of the same particles with NaCl yielded polymer-anchored [RhCl(CO)(TPP)2 ]. Interparticle coupling occurs during these rapid processes. These experiments prove that the major contribution to metal migration is direct core-core contact. The slow migration at the high pH value, however, must result from a pathway that does not involve core-core contact. The facile penetration of the polymer cores by NaOH and NaCl results from the presence of shell-linked poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether functions both outside and inside the polymer core-shell interface. PMID:27001452

  7. A Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscope Extension for Ultrafast Screening of One-Bead One-Compound Libraries Using a Spectral Image Subtraction Approach.

    PubMed

    Heusermann, Wolf; Ludin, Beat; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Weidemann, Thomas; Hintersteiner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The increasing involvement of academic institutions and biotech companies in drug discovery calls for cost-effective methods to identify new bioactive molecules. Affinity-based on-bead screening of combinatorial one-bead one-compound libraries combines a split-mix synthesis design with a simple protein binding assay operating directly at the bead matrix. However, one bottleneck for academic scale on-bead screening is the unavailability of a cheap, automated, and robust screening platform that still provides a quantitative signal related to the amount of target protein binding to individual beads for hit bead ranking. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy has long been considered unsuitable due to significant broad spectrum autofluorescence of the library beads in conjunction with low detection sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate how such a standard microscope equipped with LED-based excitation and a modern CMOS camera can be successfully used for selecting hit beads. We show that the autofluorescence issue can be overcome by an optical image subtraction approach that yields excellent signal-to-noise ratios for the detection of bead-associated target proteins. A polymer capillary attached to a semiautomated bead-picking device allows the operator to efficiently isolate individual hit beads in less than 20 s. The system can be used for ultrafast screening of >200,000 bead-bound compounds in 1.5 h, thereby making high-throughput screening accessible to a wider group within the scientific community. PMID:27057765

  8. A Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscope Extension for Ultrafast Screening of One-Bead One-Compound Libraries Using a Spectral Image Subtraction Approach.

    PubMed

    Heusermann, Wolf; Ludin, Beat; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Weidemann, Thomas; Hintersteiner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The increasing involvement of academic institutions and biotech companies in drug discovery calls for cost-effective methods to identify new bioactive molecules. Affinity-based on-bead screening of combinatorial one-bead one-compound libraries combines a split-mix synthesis design with a simple protein binding assay operating directly at the bead matrix. However, one bottleneck for academic scale on-bead screening is the unavailability of a cheap, automated, and robust screening platform that still provides a quantitative signal related to the amount of target protein binding to individual beads for hit bead ranking. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy has long been considered unsuitable due to significant broad spectrum autofluorescence of the library beads in conjunction with low detection sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate how such a standard microscope equipped with LED-based excitation and a modern CMOS camera can be successfully used for selecting hit beads. We show that the autofluorescence issue can be overcome by an optical image subtraction approach that yields excellent signal-to-noise ratios for the detection of bead-associated target proteins. A polymer capillary attached to a semiautomated bead-picking device allows the operator to efficiently isolate individual hit beads in less than 20 s. The system can be used for ultrafast screening of >200,000 bead-bound compounds in 1.5 h, thereby making high-throughput screening accessible to a wider group within the scientific community.

  9. Molecularly imprinted porous beads for the selective removal of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Younis, M Rizwan; Bajwa, Sadia Z; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Khan, Waheed S; Mujahid, Adnan; Ihsan, Ayesha; Rehman, Asma

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, novel molecularly imprinted polymer porous beads for the selective separation of copper ions have been synthesized by combining two material-structuring techniques, namely, molecular imprinting and oil-in-water-in-oil emulsion polymerization. This method produces monodisperse spherical beads with an average diameter of ∼2-3 mm, in contrast to adsorbents produced in the traditional way of grinding and sieving. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicates that the beads are porous in nature with interconnected pores of about 25-50 μm. Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis shows that the ion-imprinted beads possess a high surface area (8.05 m(2) /g), and the total pore volume is determined to be 0.00823 cm(3) /g. As a result of the highly porous nature and ion-imprinting, the beads exhibit a superior adsorption capacity (84 mg/g) towards copper than the non-imprinted material (22 mg/g). Furthermore, selectivity studies indicate that imprinted beads show splendid recognizing ability, that is, nearly fourfold greater selective binding for Cu(2+) in comparison to the other bivalent ions such as Mn(2+) , Ni(2+) , Co(2+) , and Ca(2+) . The imprinted composite beads prepared in this study possess uniform porous morphology and may open up new possibilities for the selective removal of copper ions from waste water/contaminated matrices. PMID:26632078

  10. Rapid monoclonal antibody adsorption on dextran-grafted agarose media for ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yinying; Carta, Giorgio

    2008-11-21

    The binding capacity and adsorption kinetics of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) are measured for experimental cation exchangers obtained by grafting dextran polymers to agarose beads and compared with measurements for two commercial agarose-based cation exchangers with and without dextran grafts. Introduction of charged dextran polymers results in enhanced adsorption kinetics despite a dramatic reduction of the accessible pore size as determined by inverse size-exclusion chromatography. Incorporation of neutral dextran polymers in a charged agarose bead results instead in substantially lower binding capacities. The effective pore diffusivities obtained from batch uptake curves increase substantially as the protein concentration is reduced for the resins containing charged dextran grafts, but are much less dependent on protein concentration for the resins with no dextran or uncharged dextran grafts. The batch uptake results are corroborated by microscopic observations of transient adsorption in individual particles. In all cases studied, the adsorption kinetics is characterized by a sharp adsorption front consistent with a shell-progressive, diffusion limited mechanism. Greatly enhanced transport rates are obtained with an experimental resin containing charged dextran grafts with effective pore diffusivities that are 1-9 times larger than the free solution diffusivity and adsorption capacity approaching 300 mg/cm3 of particle volume.

  11. Rational design on controlled release ion-exchange polymeric microspheres and polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of water-soluble drugs through a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang

    Sulfopropyl dextran sulfate (SP-DS) microspheres and polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLN) for the delivery of water-soluble anticancer drugs and P-glycoprotein inhibitors were developed by our group recently and demonstrated effectiveness in local chemotherapy. To optimize the delivery performance of these particulate systems, particularly PLN, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was developed, based on an in-depth understanding of drug-excipient interactions, internal structure, drug loading and release mechanisms, and application of advanced modeling/optimization techniques. An artificial neural networks (ANN) simulator capable of formulation optimization and drug release prediction was developed. In vitro drug release kinetics of SP-DS microspheres, with various drug loading and in different release media, were predicted by ANN. The effects of independent variables on drug release were evaluated. Good modeling performance suggested that ANN is a useful tool to predict drug release from ion-exchange microspheres. To further improve the performance of PLN, drug-polymer-lipid interactions were characterized theoretically and experimentally using verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) as a model drug and dextran sulfate sodium (DS) as a counter-ion polymer. VRP-DS complexation followed a stoichiometric rule and solid-state transformation of VRP were observed. Dodecanoic acid (DA) was identified as the lead lipid carrier material. Based upon the optimized drug-polymer-lipid interactions, PLN with high drug loading capacity (36%, w/w) and sustained release without initial burst release were achieved. VRP remained amorphous and was molecularly dispersed within PLN. H-bonding contributed to the miscibility between the VRP-DS complex and DA. Drug release from PLN was mainly controlled by diffusion and ion-exchange processes. Drug loading capacity and particle size of PLN depend on the formulation factors of the weight ratio of drug to lipid and concentrations of

  12. Two-bead microrheology: Modeling protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Christel; Forest, M. Gregory

    2008-09-01

    Microbead rheology maps the fluctuations of beads immersed in soft matter to viscoelastic properties of the surrounding medium. In this paper, we present modeling extensions of the seminal results of Mason and Weitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1250 (1995)] for a single bead and of Crocker [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888 (2000)] and Levine and Lubensky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1774 (2000)] for two beads. We formulate the linear response analysis for two beads so that the model equations retain the local diffusive properties of each bead (through the memory kernel of the shell or depletion zone surrounding each bead) and the nonlocal dynamic moduli of the medium separating the beads (through the memory kernel that transmits fluctuations of one bead to the other). We then derive a 3×3 invertible system of equations relating: an isolated bead’s autocorrelations, the autocorrelations and cross-correlations of two coupled beads; and the shell radius surrounding each bead, the memory kernels of the shell, and of the medium between the two beads.

  13. Chain packing in glassy polymers by natural-abundance 13C-13C spin diffusion using 2D centerband-only detection of exchange.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manmilan; Schaefer, Jacob

    2011-03-01

    The proximities of specific subgroups of nearest-neighbor chains in glassy polymers are revealed by distance-dependent (13)C-(13)C dipolar couplings and spin diffusion. The measurement of such proximities is practical even with natural-abundance levels of (13)C using a 2D version of centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX). Two-dimensional CODEX is a relaxation-compensated experiment that avoids the problems associated with variations in T(1)(C)'s due to dynamic site heterogeneity in the glass. Isotropic chemical shifts are encoded in the t(1) preparation times before and after mixing, and variations in T(2)'s are compensated by an S(0) reference (no mixing). Data acquisition involves acquisition of an S(0) reference signal on alternate scans, and the active control of power amplifiers, to achieve stability and accuracy over long accumulation times. The model system to calibrate spin diffusion is the polymer itself. For a mixing time of 200 ms, only (13)C-(13)C pairs separated by one or two bonds (2.5 Å) show cross peaks, which therefore identify reference intrachain proximities. For a mixing time of 1200 ms, 5 Å interchain proximities appear. The resulting cross peaks are used in a simple and direct way to compare nonrandom chain packing for two commercial polycarbonates with decidedly different mechanical properties.

  14. New reversed-phase/anion-exchange/hydrophilic interaction mixed-mode stationary phase based on dendritic polymer-modified porous silica.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Yang, Jiajia; Jin, Jing; Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping

    2014-04-11

    A novel dendritic polymer-modified silica (DPS) stationary phase was prepared by a divergent synthesis scheme starting from propylamine on silica by consecutive amine-epoxy reactions with 1,4-butanedioldiglycidyl ether and aniline. Both elemental analysis and infrared spectra data shows the successful growth of dendritic polymer on silica particles. The carbon and nitrogen contents increased with an increasing number of reaction cycles and achieved 25.2% and 2.1% (w/w) after 11 reaction cycles. The combination of a phenyl ring with a quaternary ammonium, or a tertiary amine at the branch point along with embedded polar functionalities (including ether and hydroxyl groups) in the branch, generated hydrophobic, electrostatic, as well as hydrophilic interactive domains. Depending on solute structure and mobile phase composition, the DPS stationary phase provided multiple retention mechanisms, including reversed phase (RP), anion-exchange (AEX), and hydrophilic interactions. The RP capability achieved separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Basic, neutral and acidic molecules were well separated under RP/AEX mixed mode. Effective separation of small polar compounds (such as nucleobases and nucleosides) was also obtained under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode. PMID:24630062

  15. Fabrication and characterization of superporous cellulose bead for high-speed protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Mei; Hao, Gang; Shi, Qing-Hong; Sun, Yan

    2007-03-30

    Novel superporous cellulose (SC) matrix has been fabricated by water-in-oil emulsification-thermal regeneration using granules of calcium carbonate as porogenic agents. As a control, microporous cellulose (MC) bead was fabricated in the absence of calcium carbonate. Simultaneously, double cross-linking was applied to enhance the mechanical strength of the particles. The photographs by scanning electron microscopy of the SC bead illustrated that there were more "craters" of several microns scattering on the surface of the beads. It led to a higher water content and effective porosity of the SC medium. The two beads were then modified with diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) group to prepare anion exchangers. The dynamic uptake results of bovine serum albumin (BSA) exhibited that the pore diffusivity of BSA in the DEAE-SC bead was two to three times larger than that in the DEAE-MC bead. In addition, the column packed with the DEAE-SC showed lower backpressure, higher column efficiency and dynamic binding capacity than the column packed with the DEAE-MC at a flow rate range of 150-900cm/h. Moreover, the column efficiency of the DEAE-SC column was independent of flow velocity up to a flow rate of 1200cm/h. All the results exhibited the superior characteristics of the SC bead as a potential medium for high-speed protein chromatography. PMID:17300793

  16. Rapid freezing cryo-polymerization and microchannel liquid-flow focusing for cryogel beads: adsorbent preparation and characterization of supermacroporous bead-packed bed.

    PubMed

    Yun, Junxian; Dafoe, Julian T; Peterson, Eric; Xu, Linhong; Yao, Shan-Jing; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    Cryogel beads, fabricated by the microchannel liquid-flow focusing and cryo-polymerization method, have micron-scale supermacropores allowing the passage of crude feedstocks, and could be of interest as chromatographic adsorbents in bioseparation applications. In this work, we provide a rapid freezing and continuous formation method for cryogel beads by cryo-polymerization using dry ice particles as the freezing source and microchannel liquid-flow focusing using peristaltic pumps for the fluid supply. Polyacrylamide (pAAm)-based supermacroporous cryogel beads were prepared and grafted with N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), which provided the anion-exchange cryogel beads with tertiary amine functional groups suitable for binding proteins. Properties of the supermacroporous cryogel-bead packed bed, i.e., permeability, bed voidage, protein breakthrough as well as protein adsorption performance by using bovine γ-globulin as model protein, were experimentally investigated. A capillary-based model was employed to characterize the supermacroporous bed performance, and gave a reasonable description of the microstructure and thus an insight into the flow, dispersion and mass transfer behaviors within the cryogel bead-packed bed. The results also showed that by using dry ice as the freezing source, it is easy to reduce the temperature below -55 to -61°C in the bulk solution, causing the rapid formation of ice crystals within the monomer drops, and finally effective cryo-polymerization to form supermacropores within the cryogel beads. By using peristaltic pumps, continuous preparation was achieved and the obtained cryogel beads had favorable properties similar to those prepared using syringe pumps in the microchannel liquid-flow focusing process. This method is thus expected to be interesting in the liter- or even larger-scale preparation of cryogel adsorbents.

  17. Density-gradient sedimentation in silica sols. Anomalous shifts in the banding densities of polystyrene "latex" beads.

    PubMed

    Morganthaler, J J; Price, C A

    1976-02-01

    When polystyrene "latex" beads are centrifuged to equilibrium in gradients of Nalcoag 1030, Nalcoag 1034A and Ludox 130M, which are commercial formulations of colloidal silica, the beads at densities that may be markedly lower or higher than the bulk density. Addition to the gradient of small amounts of certain polymers restores the banding densities towards the expected value. These findings closely mimic previously observed "density shifts" of biological particles. A possible model for this anomalous behavior is discussed.

  18. Superporous agarose anion exchangers for plasmid isolation.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Peter; Gustavsson, Per-Erik; Ljunglöf, Anders; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2007-01-01

    Superporous agarose beads have wide, connecting flow pores allowing large molecules such as plasmids to be transported into the interior of the beads by convective flow. The pore walls provide additional surface for plasmid binding thus increasing the binding capacity of the adsorbent. Novel superporous agarose anion exchangers have been prepared, differing with respect to bead diameter, superpore diameter and type of anion-exchange functional group (poly(ethyleneimine) and quaternary amine). The plasmid binding capacities were obtained from breakthrough curves and compared with the binding capacity of homogeneous agarose beads of the same particle size. Significantly, the smaller diameter superporous agarose beads were found to have four to five times higher plasmid binding capacity than the corresponding homogeneous agarose beads. The experimentally determined plasmid binding capacity was compared with the theoretically calculated surface area for each adsorbent and fair agreement was found. Confocal microscopy studies of beads with adsorbed, fluorescently labelled plasmids aided in the interpretation of the results. Superporous poly(ethyleneimine)-substituted beads with a high ion capacity (230 micromol/ml) showed a plasmid binding of 3-4 mg/ml adsorbent. Superporous quaternary amine-substituted beads had a lower ion capacity (81 micromol/ml) and showed a correspondingly lower plasmid binding capacity (1-2 mg/ml adsorbent). In spite of the lower capacity, the beads with quaternary amine ligand were preferred, due to their much better plasmid recovery (70-100% recovery). Interestingly, both capacity and recovery was improved when the plasmid adsorption step was carried out in the presence of a moderate salt concentration. The most suitable superporous bead type (45-75 microm diameter beads; 4 microm superpores; quaternary amine ligand) was chosen for the capture of plasmid DNA from a clarified alkaline lysate. Two strategies were evaluated, one with and one

  19. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  20. Multiplex Immunoassays: Chips and Beads

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Multiplex analysis is intended to simultaneously look for multiple targets in one sample. This approach has been largely adopted in genomics and progressively expands to various domains of laboratory investigation. In protein analysis, immunoassays are the fundamental methods and their multiplexing and miniaturization is of great applicability to both basic and applied research. Furthermore, the potential of these high-throughput methodologies can be foreseen in the field of clinical diagnostics. The following text describes planar and bead-based arrays, two main strategies of immunoassay multiplexing. Principles, detection methods and strengths of each are shortly discussed. Finally, we mention several challenges linked with the integration of these methods to diagnostics.

  1. Chelating polymeric beads as potential therapeutics for Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mattová, Jana; Poučková, Pavla; Kučka, Jan; Skodová, Michaela; Vetrík, Miroslav; Stěpánek, Petr; Urbánek, Petr; Petřík, Miloš; Nový, Zbyněk; Hrubý, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder caused by a malfunction of ATPase 7B that leads to high accumulation of copper in the organism and consequent toxic effects. We propose a gentle therapy to eliminate the excessive copper content with oral administration of insoluble non-resorbable polymer sorbents containing selective chelating groups for copper(II). Polymeric beads with the chelating agents triethylenetetramine, N,N-di(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQB) were investigated. In a preliminary copper uptake experiment, we found that 8HQB significantly reduced copper uptake (using copper-64 as a radiotracer) after oral administration in Wistar rats. Furthermore, we measured organ radioactivity in rats to demonstrate that 8HQB radiolabelled with iodine-125 is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Non-resorbability and the blockade of copper uptake were also confirmed with small animal imaging (PET/CT) in mice. In a long-term experiment with Wistar rats fed a diet containing the polymers, we have found that there were no signs of polymer toxicity and the addition of polymers to the diet led to a significant reduction in the copper contents in the kidneys, brains, and livers of the rats. We have shown that polymers containing specific ligands could potentially be novel therapeutics for Wilson's disease.

  2. Impact of gelation period on modified locust bean-alginate interpenetrating beads for oral glipizide delivery.

    PubMed

    Dey, Paramita; Sa, Biswanath; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the effect of hydrogelation period in the design of glipizide-loaded biopolymer-based interpenetrating network (IPN) beads was investigated. Carboxymethyl locust bean gum and sodium alginate IPN beads were prepared by ionic crosslinking method using aqueous aluminium chloride salt solution as gelation medium. The longer exposure of the IPN beads in the gelation medium caused a considerable loss of the drug (∼ 8%), and also affected their surface morphology and drug release performance. Spherical shape of the IPN beads was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameter of IPN beads increased with increasing gelation time. The IPNs cured for 0.5h exhibited slower drug release kinetics in HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) solution than those incubated for 1-2h. The drug release occurred at a faster rate in phosphate buffer solution and continued for a minimum period of 8h. The IPNs cured for the lowest period obeyed polymer chain-relaxation phenomenon as dominating mechanism for drug release. However, all the IPNs followed anomalous mechanism of drug transport. The drug release corroborated well with pH-dependent swelling behaviors of the IPNs. Thus, IPN beads cured for 0.5h were found most suitable for controlled delivery of BCS class II anti-diabetic drug glipizide. PMID:25745842

  3. Development of Expanded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Bead Foams and Their Sintering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossieny, Nemat

    Polymer bead foaming technology represents a breakthrough in the production of low density plastic foamed components that have a complex geometrical structure and has helped to expand the market for plastic foams by broadening their applications. In this research, the unique microstructure of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) consisting of phase-separated hard segment (HS) domains dispersed in the soft segment (SS) matrix has been utilized to develop expanded TPU (E-TPU) bead foam with microcellular morphologies and also to create inter-bead sintering into three dimensional products using steam-chest molding machine. The phase-separation and crystallization behavior of the HS chains in the TPU microstructure was systematically studied in the presence of dissolved gases and also by changing the microstructure of TPU by melt-processing and addition of nano-/micro-sized additives. It was observed that the presence of gas improved the phase separation (i.e. crystallization) of HSs and increased the overall crystallinity of the TPU. It was also shown that by utilizing the HS crystalline domains, the overall foaming behavior of TPU (i.e. cell nucleation and expansion ratio) can be significantly improved. Moreover, the HS crystalline domains can be effective for both sintering of the beads as well strengthening the individual beads to improve the property of the moulded part. It was also observed that unlike other polymer bead foaming technologies, the E-TPU bead foaming sintering does not require formation of double melting-peak. The original broad melting peak existing in the TPU microstructure due to the wide size distribution of HS crystallites can be effectively utilized for the purpose of sintering as well as maintenance of the overall dimensional stability of the moulded part.

  4. Synthesis of imprinted beads by aqueous suspension polymerisation for chiral recognition of antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Rachel; Osmani, Qendresa; Hughes, Helen; Duggan, Patrick; McLoughlin, Peter

    2011-11-15

    A novel non-stabilised aqueous suspension polymerisation methodology for the preparation of spherical molecularly imprinted polymers is described with chlorpheniramine (CP), d-chlorpheniramine (d-CP), brompheniramine (BP) and d-brompheniramine (d-BP) as the templates, respectively. Using this rapid and simple technique, controlled polymer beads in the low micron range with narrow size distributions were generated by photo-polymerisation. The use of agitation speed as a method of controlling bead size distribution was demonstrated. Enantioselective properties of the imprinted beads were examined and the polymers prepared using d-chlorpheniramine and d-brompheniramine were capable of discriminating between the enantiomers of the template. Cross-selectivity studies were performed by batch rebinding with the influence of template size and functional group orientation of analytes on the recognition properties of the imprinted polymers investigated. Physical characteristics of all polymers were studied by nitrogen sorption porosimetry, particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to gain an insight into the role of such properties on retention behaviour. PMID:21982909

  5. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOEpatents

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  6. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOEpatents

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  7. Incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in microspheres used as anion exchange resin via suspension polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Mahmoud; Abdel Moghny, Th.; Awadallah, Ahmed E.; El-Bellihi, Abdel-Hameed A.-A.

    2014-06-01

    Amination of vinylbenzyl chloride-divinylbenzene (VBC-DVB) copolymers is an effective method for preparation of anion-exchange resins. Conventionally, the starting polymer is produced by chloromethylation of a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer that utilizes chloromethyl methyl ether, a known carcinogen. An alterative approach is to copolymerize vinylbenzyl chloride with divinylbenzene to generate the necessary VBC-DVB. This method provides precise control over the density of the ion-exchange groups. The regiochemistry of the vinylbenzyl chloride methods was realized using solvent-ion exchange groups. These resulting anion-exchange polymers were characterized by a variety of techniques such as analytical titrations, transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Testing of these copolymers for breakthrough was performed. The results indicate that these anion exchangers have a meaningful increase in thermal stability over commercial anionic exchange beads. Resins containing MWCNTs achieved anion exchange capacity value of 323.6 meq/100 g over than that of copolymer resins and that useful in water desalination or treatment.

  8. The charge effect of cationic surfactants on the elimination of fibre beads in the electrospinning of polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Xungai

    2004-09-01

    Polystyrene nanofibres were electrospun with the inclusion of cationic surfactants, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) or tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC), in the polymer solution. A small amount of cationic surfactant effectively stopped the formation of beaded fibres during the electrospinning. The cationic surfactants were also found to improve the solution conductivity, but had no effect on the viscosity. Only DTAB had an effect on the surface tension of the polymer solution, the surface tension decreasing slightly with an increase in the concentration of DTAB. The formation of beaded fibres was attributed to an insufficient stretch of the filaments during the whipping of the jet, due to a low charge density. Adding the cationic surfactants improved the net charge density that enhanced the whipping instability. The jet was stretched under stronger charge repulsion and at a higher speed, resulting in an exhaustion of the bead structure. In addition, a polymer/surfactant interaction was found in the polystyrene DTAB solution system, while this interaction was not found in the polystyrene TBAC system. The polymer/surfactant interaction led to the formation of thinner fibres than those formed in the absence of the interaction. The effects of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-405, on the electrospun fibres were also studied. The addition of Triton X-405 did not eliminate the fibre beads, but reduced the bead numbers and changed the morphology. Triton X-405 slightly improved the solution conductivity, and had a minor effect on the surface tension, but no effect on the viscosity.

  9. Fluorophore exchange kinetics in block copolymer micelles with varying solvent-fluorophore and solvent-polymer interactions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Michelle; Wang, Shu; Singh, Avantika; Cooksey, Tyler J; Marquez, Maria D; Bhattarai, Ashish; Kourentzi, Katerina; Robertson, Megan L

    2016-07-20

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to characterize the kinetics of guest exchange in diblock copolymer micelles composed of poly(ethylene oxide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) diblock copolymers in water/tetrahydrofuran (THF) mixtures which encapsulated fluorophores. The solvent composition (THF content) of the micelle solution was varied as a means of modulating the strength of interactions between the fluorophore and solvent as well as between the micelle core and solvent. A donor-acceptor fluorophore pair was employed consisting of 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO, the donor) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI, the acceptor). Through the process of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), energy was transferred from the donor to acceptor when the fluorophores were in close proximity. A micelle solution containing DiO was mixed with a micelle solution containing DiI at t = 0, and the emission spectra of the mixed solution were monitored over time (at an excitation wavelength optimized for the donor). In micelle solutions containing 5 and 10 vol% THF in the bulk solvent, an increase in the acceptor peak intensity maximum occurred over time in the post-mixed solution, accompanied by a decrease in the donor peak intensity maximum, indicating the presence of energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor. At long times, the FRET ratios (acceptor peak intensity divided by the sum of the acceptor and donor peak intensities) were indistinguishable from that determined from pre-mixed micelle solutions of the same THF content (in pre-mixed solutions, DiO and DiI were encapsulated within the same micelle cores). In the micelle solution containing 20 vol% THF, the fluorophore exchange process occurred too quickly to be observed (the FRET ratios measured from the solutions mixed at t = 0 were commensurate to that measured from the pre-mixed solution). A time constant describing the guest exchange process was

  10. Influence of exchange group of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymer on phenol removal: A study by batch and continuous flow processes.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Thiago Muza; da Silva, Carla Michele Frota; da Rocha, Paulo Cristiano Silva; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of water by phenol is potentially a serious problem due to its high toxicity and its acid character. In this way some treatment process to remove or reduce the phenol concentration before contaminated water disposal on the environment is required. Currently, phenol can be removed by charcoal adsorption, but this process does not allow easy regeneration of the adsorbent. In contrast, polymeric resins are easily regenerated and can be reused in others cycles of adsorption process. In this work, the interaction of phenol with two polymeric resins was investigated, one of them containing a weakly basic anionic exchange group (GD-DEA) and the other, a strongly basic group (GD-QUAT). Both ion exchange resins were obtained through chemical modifications from a base porous resin composed of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinyl benzene (DVB). Evaluation tests with resins were carried out with 30 mg/L of phenol in water solution, at pH 6 and 10, employing two distinct processes: (i) batch, to evaluate the effect of temperature, and (ii) continuous flow, to assess the breakthrough of the resins. Batch tests revealed that the systems did not follow the model proposed by Langmuir due to the negative values obtained for the constant b and for the maximum adsorption capacity, Q0. However, satisfactory results for the constants KF and n allowed assuming that the behavior of systems followed the Freundlich model, leading to the conclusion that resin GD-DEA had the best interaction with the phenol when in a solution having pH 10 (phenoxide ions). The continuous flow tests corroborated this conclusion since the performance of GD-DEA in removing phenol was also best at pH 10, indicating that the greater availability of the electron pair in the resin with the weakly basic donor group contributed to enhance the resin's interaction with the phenoxide ions. PMID:27494606

  11. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-01

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6) solution of the purified polymer using 1H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 30°C and 3.383 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-28

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d{sub 6}) solution of the purified polymer using {sup 1}H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 30°C and 3.383 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  13. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  14. Tuned synthesis of two coordination polymers of Cd(II) using substituted bent 3-pyridyl linker and succinate: structures and their applications in anion exchange and sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Maity, Dilip Kumar; Bhattacharya, Biswajit; Halder, Arijit; Ghoshal, Debajyoti

    2015-12-28

    Two new Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely [Cd(3-bpdh)2(ClO4)2]n (1) and {[Cd(3-bpdh)(suc)(H2O)]·3(H2O)}n (2), have been synthesized using a substituted bent N,N'-donor ligand 2,5-bis-(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene (3-bpdh) and aliphatic dicarboxylate disodium succinate (suc) with Cd(II) perchlorate salts at room temperature by a slow diffusion technique for the exploration of our previous reported work. Both the structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and also by other physicochemical methods. Structure analysis revealed that complex 1 is a 1D chain structure containing coordinated perchlorate with a metal centre, and complex 2 shows a porous 3D framework with encapsulation of lattice water molecules into the void along the crystallographic a-axis. The PXRD study shows the bulk purity of both the complexes and TGA analysis of 2 exhibits that the structure is thermally stable up to 250 °C. Complex 1 shows a nice anion exchange property with replacement of weakly coordinated perchlorate with the inclusion of new anions; and the anion exchanged solids were characterised by FT-IR, PXRD and photoluminescence properties. The desolvated framework of 2 exhibits sorption of CO2 and water vapor and surface adsorption of N2 corroborating with the nature of the pore environment present in 2. The photoluminescence study has been also done for both complexes in the solid state which exhibits ligand based emissions at room temperature. PMID:26586233

  15. Lanthanide ion exchange properties of a coordination polymer consisting of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and trivalent metal ions (Ce3+, Fe3+, or Al3+).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kenta; Tasaki-Handa, Yuiko; Abe, Yukie; Wakisaka, Akihiko

    2014-03-28

    Three kinds of coordination polymers ([M(dehp)3], M = Ce, Fe, or Al) were prepared by mixing the sodium form (Na(dehp)) of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and MCl3 in an ethanol-water binary mixture. They have monoclinic crystalline structure with similar lattice parameters. The lanthanide ion (Ln(3+) = La(3+), Sm(3+), Dy(3+), or Yb(3+)) exchange properties were studied in a 20 : 80 vol% ethanol-water binary mixture containing 2 mM Ln(NO3)3 at room temperature. The rate of Ln(3+) adsorption is relatively slow; it requires over 3 weeks to reach equilibrium. [M(dehp)3] has different Ln(3+) affinities depending on the kind of central metal ions: the affinity order at 3 week adsorption is Yb(3+) < La(3+) < Dy(3+) < Sm(3+) for [Ce(dehp)3], La(3+) < Sm(3+) < Dy(3+) < Yb(3+) for [Fe(dehp)3], and La(3+) < Sm(3+), Dy(3+), Yb(3+) for [Al(dehp)3]. The difference in affinity order can be explained by two factors: the coordination preference and steric strain caused by the polymeric structure. The chemical and structural analyses suggested that the Ln(3+) adsorption progresses first by the central M(3+)/Ln(3+) exchange, followed by a morphological change to a rod-like or fibrous form by a solid phase reaction. In the case of [Fe(dehp)3], the eluted Fe(3+) may be hydrolyzed and precipitated as amorphous iron hydroxide.

  16. Comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads in bead-based assays.

    PubMed

    Hansenová Maňásková, Silvie; van Belkum, Alex; Endtz, Hubert P; Bikker, Floris J; Veerman, Enno C I; van Wamel, Willem J B

    2016-09-01

    Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry is an attractive way for simultaneous, rapid and cost-effective analysis of multiple analytes in a single sample. Previously, we developed various bead-based assays using non-magnetic beads coated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens for the detection of antibodies. Here, we compared the performance of the assay using non-magnetic beads with one based on the newly developed magnetic beads. We optimized the magnetic beads' coupling procedure and antibody detection assays for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae antigens and we measured IgG in human pooled serum against a series of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae-derived antigens in a singleplex and in a multiplex assay, respectively. For the multiplex assay, the comparison between magnetic and non-magnetic beads showed: i) in the majority of the cases (13 of the 17 tested S. pneumoniae antigens) significantly higher Median Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) values, ii) lower detection limits, iii) lower coefficient of variation (CV: 12% vs. 7% for non-magnetic vs. magnetic beads), so lower inter-assay variation and hence higher reproducibility. Magnetic bead coupling is cost effective, as we used 25% of the normal amount of antigen and only 50% of the beads in comparison to the non-magnetic beads. This optimized magnetic-based assay, which combines ease of use with an improved assay performance, allows detection of antibodies with a low titer that are potentially missed with the non-magnetic-based assay. PMID:27296810

  17. Mineralogical and chemical analyses of ancient glass beads from Taiwan and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Y. S.; Liu, Y. C.

    2015-12-01

    Large numbers of monochrome glass beads with different colors, shapes, and stylistics excavated from the archaeological sites of Taiwan, which were dated mainly from the 2nd century AD to the early Historical Period of Taiwan. Archaeologically, these glass beads were more prevalent in eastern and northern Taiwan and were generally believed to be non-native, as well as were brought into Taiwan through the maritime exchange and/or trade activities between Taiwan and Southeast Asia/China since the Neolithic Age. Nevertheless, ancient glass beads have been little studies in Taiwan, aspects of these glass beads are not well detailed. In this work, non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy and μXRF are used in combination to examine 56 ancient glass beads excavated from six archaeological sites, eastern Taiwan, to unravel the mineralogical and chemical compositions and to help decipher the raw materials used and the provenance of beads. Micro-Raman measurements indicate the presence of hematite, zincite, siderite, sphalerite, lead tin yellow type II, adularia, chalcedony, anatase, rutite, ankerite, graphite, calcite, etc. Hematite, zincite, siderite, sphalerite, lead tin yellow type II, and rutile were found to be colorants/opacifiers. Among these crystalline phases, lead tin yellow type II was first detected in the ancient glass bead unearthed from Taiwan, which is accordant with results of chemical analysis. The chemical results obtained by μXRF show SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, MgO, CaO, and PbO as the most abundant oxides. It is found that Na2O, Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, and MgO are the main/minor fluxes. According to the results, the three most frequent types are mineral soda alumina glass, soda plant ash glass, and lead silicate glass. The provenance of ancient beads unearthed from archaeological sites of Taiwan is possibility of multiple sources.

  18. Corrosion protection of solar-collctor heat exchangers with electrochemically deposited films. Final report, 15 May 1978-15 November 1979. [Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.R.; Schnaper, G.H.; Brummer, S.B.

    1980-05-01

    The goal of this program was the demonstration of a novel corrosion protection technique for the common solar collector metals: Al, Cu, and Fe as mild steel. This involves the electrochemical deposition of thin, adherent polymer films on the interior of heat-exchanger tubes by application of a current in the presence of a suitable organic monomer. Polyphenylene oxide (PPO) films were anodically deposited onto Cu and Fe coupons from methanolic media. However, defects in these films afforded poor corrosion protection. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, suitably functionalized PPO films were cross-linked via Schiff base formation in a subsequent chemical step. While these chemically modified PPO films were demonstrably more resistant to ethylene glycol H/sub 2/O media at elevated temperatures, they were eventually undetermined by the thermal transfer fluid. Cinnamaldehyde, a styrene-type monomre, has been successfully electrodeposited onto Al coupons. This process involved a constant, albeit unreferenced potential technique in which the Al is made the negative electrode. Cathodic deposition onto Al avoids passivating Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ barrier coating formation, and is amenable to the cross-linking technique. Filmed and cross-linked Al samples stored at elevated temperatures resisted corrosive processes compared to unfilmed control samples. Pitting, however, was the ultimate fate of all filmed samples.

  19. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Jin, Dayong; Piper, James; Vallarino, Lidia M.; Williams, John W.; Yang, Sean; Zucker, Robert M.

    2008-02-01

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including microscopes. Methods: 0.5, 3, and 5 micron (µm) beads containing a luminescent europium-complex were manufactured and the luminescence distribution of the 5 µm beads was measured with a time-delayed luminescence flow cytometer and a timedelayed digital microscope. The distribution of the luminescence intensity from the europium-complex in individual beads was determined on optical sections by confocal microscopy. The emission spectra of the beads under UV excitation were determined with a PARISS® spectrophotometer. The kinetics of the luminescence bleaching caused by UV irradiation were measured under LED excitation with a fluorescence microscope. Results: The kinetics of UV bleaching were very similar for the 0.5, 3, and 5 µm beads. Emission peaks were found at 592, 616, and 685 nanometers (nm). The width of the principal peak at half-maximum (616 nm) was 9.9 nm. The luminescence lifetimes in water and in air were 340 and 460 microseconds (µs), respectively. The distribution of the europium- complex in the beads was homogeneous. Conclusions: The 5 µm beads can be used for spectral calibration of microscopes equipped with a spectrograph, as test particles for time-delayed luminescence flow cytometers, and possibly as labels for macromolecules and cells.

  20. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes several techniques to help students visualize the principles of polymer chemistry. Outlines demonstrations using simple materials (such as pop-it beads, thread, and wire) to illustrate the size of macromolecules, the composition of copolymers, and the concept of molecular mass. (TW)

  1. Micro-Raman and micro-XRF analysis of glass beads from the Chungde site, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Y. S.; Wang, S. C.; Liu, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    A large number of ancient glass beads dating back from Late Neolithic Age to early Historical Period (ca. 2300-400 BP) of Taiwan have been uncovered from archaeological sites. These glass beads with variant colors, shapes, and stylistics have long been considered to possess socio-cultural significance. Due to the color and chemical composition of glass bead might be determined by raw materials, fluxing agents, colorants, opacifiers and stabilizers. In addition, ancient glass beads are rare and precious, non-destructive analysis has been employed to decipher about the provenances, manufacturing techniques, and exchange/trade routes. In this work, micro-Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (μ-XRF) were used to examine ten ancient glass beads excavated from the Chungde site, Hualien, Taiwan, dating back to 1500-800 BP, to unravel the mineralogical and chemical compositions. Micro Raman experimental results show that glass and anorthite glass are the main constituents accompanying with trace level of quartz, albite, siderite, ankerite, and amazonite. The Raman Index of Polymerization (Ip) indicate that the sintering temperature of the glass beads is in the range of 1000~1400°C. Furthermore, the chemical compositions are corresponding to the maximum stretching vibration peak wave number (νmax Si-O Stretching) and the maximum bending vibration peak wave number (δmax Si-O Bending), which are essentially consistent with that of the India-Pacific beads. The μ-XRF results indicate the presence of oxides including SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, SnO2, TiO2, CuO, etc., and could be classified to high aluminum of soda-lime glass system. According to ternary phase diagram analysis of CaO-K2O-Na2O and K2O-Al2O3-CaO, the ancient glass beads analyzed could be attributed to the India-Pacific beads, and is in accordance with that of Raman spectra. The combination of these facts leads to the conclusion that glass beads obtained from the Chungde

  2. Development of floating chitosan-xanthan beads for oral controlled release of glipizide

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Nilesh; Wakte, Pravin; Naik, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present work was to develop controlled release, floating and mucoadhesive beads of glipizide by using the polyionic complexation technique. Plasma half-life of glipizide being 2–4 h was selected for development of controlled release dosage form. Methods: Formulation batches were designed by employing chitosan as cationic and xanthan gum as anionic polymers. In vitro drug release was evaluated for the period of 24 h in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Results: Sustained release of drug was observed in all formulation batches with % drug release ranging from 87.50% to 100.67%, no significant effect on the drug release was observed after varying chitosan to xanthan gum ratio. Encapsulation efficiency was found to be in the range of 79.48 ± 1.10–94.48 ± 1.52. In vitro bioadhesion studies showed that beads had satisfactory bioadhesive strength ranging from 67.11% ± 1.73% to 93.12% ± 1.56%. Buoyancy studies revealed that beads possess comparable floating capacity in the gastric fluids. Swelling kinetics was carried in pH 1.2 and 7.4 buffers. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in swelling kinetics was observed. Drug to polymer interaction was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that formed beads were discrete with rough and wrinkled surfaces. Conclusions: In conclusion, beads were successfully formed by employing chitosan and xanthan gum and showed to possess sustained release effect. Beads also showed pH dependent swelling kinetics, this property can also be applied for the drugs which are susceptible to the acidic environment in the stomach, and comparable bioadhesive and floating properties were also observed. PMID:25838991

  3. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  4. Removal of americium from aqueous nitrate solutions by sorption onto PC88A-impregnated macroporous polymeric beads.

    PubMed

    Pathak, S K; Tripathi, S C; Singh, K K; Mahtele, A K; Kumar, Manmohan; Gandhi, P M

    2014-08-15

    The removal of Am (III) ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using indigenously synthesized Extractant Impregnated Macroporous Polymeric Beads (EIMPBs). These beads were prepared by an in situ phase inversion method using polyethersulfone (PES) as base polymer and 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) as an extractant. The synthesized EIMPBs were characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM techniques. The batch equilibration study using these beads for the uptake of Am (III) was carried out as a function of parameters, like pH, equilibration time, Am (III) concentration, etc. The blank polymeric beads, without PC88A, have shown negligible sorption of Am (III) under the experimental conditions. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of Am (III) on the polymeric beads fitted well in the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The synthesized polymeric beads exhibited very good sorption capacity for Am (III) at pH 3. The reusability of the beads was also ascertained by repetitive sorption/desorption of Am (III) up to 10 cycles of operation, without any significant change in their sorption characteristics. PMID:24997262

  5. Development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation of pioglitazone- loaded jackfruit seed starch-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hasnain, Saquib Md

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes development and optimization of pioglitazone-loaded jackfruit seed starch (JFSS)-alginate beads by ionotropic-gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10h, %) was optimized. The DEE (%) of these beads were 64.80 ± 1.92 to 94.07 ± 3.82 % with sustained in vitro drug release of 64.± 1.83 to 92.66 ± 4.54 % over 10 hours. The in vitro drug release from these beads followed controlled-release pattern with super case-II transport. Particle size range of these beads was 0.77 ± 0.04 to 1.24 ± 0.09 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling of these beads was influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized pioglitazone-loaded JFSS-alginate beads showed significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  6. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  7. A Study of the Rheology, Processing and Flow Induced Mesostructures of Glass Bead Filled Polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Hine, P. J.; Embery, J. E.; Tassieri, M

    2008-07-07

    This paper presents some recent experimental results on the effects of the addition of glass beads (both coupled and uncoupled) on the linear and non-linear rheology, and hence processability, of a commercial polystyrene. Oscillatory, low strain, measurements showed an increase in viscosity with the addition of the glass beads, which varied depending on the testing frequency and degree of coupling. For the coupled beads, at low frequencies the increase in viscosity was well predicted by the Kreiger-Dougherty relationship, while at higher frequencies a smaller increase than this was seen, linked with a shift to lower frequencies of the lower frequency cross-over between G' and G''. For the uncoupled beads, the viscosity was found to shift vertically with no change in the position of the G',G'' cross-over. For the non-linear shear and extension measurements, at low shear rates and low strains the increase in viscosity agreed well with the linear results, whereas at high strain rates and strains, more disparity was seen, which in non-linear extension was been linked to voiding. For non-linear shear measurements, the plateau viscosities of the pure polystyrene were found to fit the Cox-Merz rule, while the glass bead filled materials did not. The deviations in behaviour of the filled materials were found to be closely linked to the characteristic relaxation times of the polymer, particularly the reptation time {tau}{sub d} and the Rouse time {tau}{sub R}.

  8. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:24299768

  9. Automated bead alignment apparatus using a single bead capturing technique for fabrication of a miniaturized bead-based DNA probe array.

    PubMed

    Noda, Hideyuki; Kohara, Yoshinobu; Okano, Kazunori; Kambara, Hideki

    2003-07-01

    We have developed an automated bead alignment apparatus for fabricating a bead-based DNA probe array inside a capillary. The apparatus uses 16 micro vacuum tweezers to extract single beads from among a large amount of beads in bead stock wells. It then manipulates single beads into the probe array capillaries. Single 100-microm-diameter beads were successfully extracted from the water-contained bead-stock well by the vacuum tweezers, which have inner and outer diameters of 50 and 150 microm. An interesting aspect is that unexpected extra beads adsorbed on the outer wall of the vacuum tweezers can be removed using the surface tension force between the water and the atmosphere. In testing the total performance of this apparatus, the DNA probe arrays with 10 sets of probe-conjugated beads and 2 plain beads were produced in the intended order in the capillaries. The time needed to align the 12 beads was 10 min, and the 16 bead arrays were fabricated simultaneously. After hybridization experiments using these fabricated DNA probe arrays, fluorescence from each bead was clearly observed.

  10. Beads + String = Atoms You Can See.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents hands-on activities that give students a head start in learning the vocabulary and basic theory involved in understanding atomic structure. Uses beads to represent protons, neutrons, and electrons and string to represent orbitals. (DDR)

  11. A novel cation exchange polymer as a reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent for the rapid determination of rhodamine B residue in chili powder and chili oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2014-12-29

    This paper presents a new analytical method for the determination of rhodamine B (RB) residue in chili powder and chili oil based on a novel reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-dSPE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Chili powder and chili oil samples were first extracted with acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) and acetonitrile, respectively. Then, RB from the extract was adsorbed to the polymer cation exchange (PCX) sorbent with the characteristics of ion exchange and reversed-phase retention. Subsequently, the analyte in PCX sorbent was eluted with ammonium hydroxide/methanol (1:99, v/v) through a simple unit device equipped with 1 mL syringe and 0.22 μm nylon syringe filter. All of the samples were analyzed by UHPLC–HRMS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with 0.1% formic acid and 4 mM ammonium formate in water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The matrix effect, recovery, and repeatability, within laboratory reproducibility, and the LODs and LOQs of the r-dSPE cleanup method were investigated. The method showed a good linearity (R2 > 0.999) in the ranges of 0.01–1 μg/L and 1–100 μg/L for the analyte. The LODs of RB for chili powder and chili oil samples were 0.5 μg/kg. The average recoveries of RB from the samples spiked at four different concentrations (2, 20, 500 and 5000 μg/kg) were in a range from 76.7 to 104.9%. Results showed that the proposed method was simple, fast, economical and effective for the determination of RB in chili powder and chili oil. Considering the excellent sorptive performance of PCX for RB, further work should be done to evaluate the usefulness of the PCX in r-dSPE for the clean-up and analyses of other trace-level alkaline contaminants. PMID:25498558

  12. Optical diamagnetic biosensor for immunocomplexes on beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norina, Svetlana B.

    2000-12-01

    In the present work, diamagnetic separation parameters for the porous beads are studied using optical video recording microscopy. The possible direct amount determination of single or double macromolecular layers immobilized in the meshes of the porous beads is demonstrated for the concentrations' range used in heterogenic immunotest and the affinity chromatography, where the direct rapid detection of ligands within sorbent particles is known to be the actual task. A gradient diamagnetic biosensor is described as suitable for rapid quantitative detection of single or double macromolecular layers in porous nonmagnetic beads. Measurements of capture traveling time or accumulation radius in gradient magnetic field have shown that it is possible to determine 0.20 mg/ml of macromolecular amount within several seconds. The portative devices were made on the base of the fabre optic technique to detect accumulation radius of collected beads in two gradient magnetic positions: diamagnetic and paramagnetic zones of magnetized wire with 55 μm in diameter and to registrate with a lot of fabre wires having 30 μm in diameters. The successive procedures of the present method can be described by: the obtaining of agarose immuno-beads, the incubation of beads with the ligand sample or the injection of sample through affinity mini-column, the submerging of the loaded beads into the glass cell containing Ni-wire or the narrow gap of magnetic poles; the computational obtaining of immuno- parameters; binding constants, accumulation radius. Several biotechnological applications of the biosensor are presented on sorbent beads, human lymphocytes.

  13. Polymeric beads containing Cyanex 923 for actinide uptake from nitric acid medium: Studies with uranium and plutonium.

    PubMed

    Gujar, R B; Lakshmi, D Shanthana; Figoli, A; Mohapatra, P K

    2013-08-30

    Conventional phase inversion technique has been successfully applied for the preparation of the solid phase extractant (SPE), Cyanex 923 loaded polymer beads. Two types of polymer beads prepared by blending Polyetherether ketone with card (PEEKWC)/DMF with 5% Cyanex 923 (SPE-I, av bead size: 900μm) and 10% Cyanex 923(SPE-II, av. bead size: 1100μm) were evaluated for the uptake of actinide ions. The polymer beads were characterized by various physical methods such as thermal analysis, surface morphology analysis by SEM, EDAX techniques, etc. The polymer beads were used for the experiments involving the uptake of both U(VI) and Pu(IV) at tracer scale and U(VI) at milli molar concentrations from nitric acid feeds. The actinide ion uptake studies involved kinetics of metal ion sorption, adsorption isotherms, and column studies. The metal sorption capacities for U(VI) at 3M HNO3 were found to be 38.8±1.9mg and 54.5±1.7mg per g of SPE-I and SPE-II, respectively. The sorption isotherm analysis with Langmuir, D-R and Freundlisch isotherms indicated chemisorption monolayer mechanism. Column studies were also carried out using 4.5mL bed volume columns containing about 0.4 and 0.45g of SPE-I and SPE-II, respectively. The breakthrough profiles were obtained for U(VI) and the elution profiles were obtained using 1M Na2CO3 as the eluent.

  14. Binding kinetics of magnetic nanoparticles on latex beads and yeast cells studied by magnetorelaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberbeck, Dietmar; Bergemann, Christian; Hartwig, Stefan; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz

    2005-03-01

    The ion exchange mediated binding of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to modified latex spheres and yeast cells was quantified using magnetorelaxometry. By fitting subsequently recorded relaxation curves, the kinetics of the binding reactions was extracted. The signal of MNP with weak ion exchanger groups bound to latex and yeast cells scales linearly with the concentration of latex beads or yeast cells whereas that of MNP with strong ion exchanger groups is proportional to the square root of concentration. The binding of the latter leads to a much stronger aggregation of yeast cells than the former MNP.

  15. PolyGraph: a Polymer Visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutkosky, Ashok; Tarazi, Najeeb; Lieberman Aiden, Erez

    2012-02-01

    Rapid advances in computational hardware and parallelization have made complex simulations of large polymers increasingly ubiquitous. However, visualizing such simulations remains a challenge. Here we present PolyGraph, a Blender-powered visualization system for complex polymer simulations. As a specific example, we study molecular dynamics simulations of condensing polymers. We illustrate our initial simulation results, suggesting that formation of local beads is an initial step in the condensation process. (This finding is consistent with earlier conjectures about polymer condensation.) PolyGraph makes it possible to create precise and visually appealing clips of polymer simulations. *contributed equally

  16. Pectin/zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, LinShu; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B; Kende, Meir; Ruthel, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Novel complex hydrogel beads were prepared from two edible polymers: pectin, a carbohydrate from citrus fruits, and zein, a protein from corn. The pectin/zein complex hydrogels did not swell in physiological environments, but hydrolyzed in the presence of pectinases. An in vitro study showed the capacity of the hydrogels to endure protease attack and residence time variation. The physical and biological properties of the new hydrogels were attributed to molecular entanglement of the two polymers. The pectin networks were stabilized by the bound zein molecules. In turn, the pectin networks shielded the bound zein from protease digestion.

  17. Effects of bead size and polymerization in PMMA bone cement on vancomycin release.

    PubMed

    Shinsako, K; Okui, Y; Matsuda, Y; Kunimasa, J; Otsuka, M

    2008-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement loaded with antimicrobial agents is used for the treatment and prevention of infections in orthopaedic surgery. The use of antimicrobial-loaded bone cement allows for high local doses while avoiding systemic toxicity. The release of vancomycin (VCM) from bone cement has been reported. However, the exact mechanism behind the release is unknown. We studied the influence of bead size and polymerization time on elution, and considered the release mechanism for VCM. We used CMW Endurance Bone Cement. Cements were prepared by mixing 6 g of VCM with 40 g of polymer, and then 10 g of liquid monomer was added. We kneaded and shaped the preparation into spheres containing 10.7 w/w% VCM. We measured the release of VCM from PMMA beads of three different sizes. Average weights of the beads were 0.96 g (SB) (n = 6), 2.86 g (MB) (n = 2) and 5.65 g (LB) (n = 1). Additionally, we studied beads made with different polymerization times. The polymerization time was taken as the period from the making of the beads until the start of the study, and was 15 min (B15), 20 min (B20), 60 min (B60) or 180 min (B180). The release of VCM showed a bimodal curve with a high initial release followed by a sustained release. Regarding the size of the beads, SB released 7.2%, MB released 4.3% and LB released 3.1%. Regarding polymerization time, B15 released 10.0%, B20 released 6.5%, B60 released 6.3% and B180 released 4.3%, respectively. The release of VCM from PMMA beads was influenced by bead size and polymerization time. Those beads which were smaller and had a shorter polymerization time released more VCM. Total pore volume of beads that polymerization time was 30 min after drug-release test was 1.33 times grater than that of control beads that polymerization time was one week before drug-release test. This suggested that the short polymerization time caused the beads to leak more VCM. We proposed a model with four kinds of the dissolution from bone

  18. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  19. Alginate-okra gum blend beads of diclofenac sodium from aqueous template using ZnSO4 as a cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Hasnain, M Saquib; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Rama, Bobba

    2015-08-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+))-ion induced diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded alginate-okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) blend beads was successfully formulated through Zn(2+)-ion induced ionic-gelation cross-linking method in a complete aqueous environment. Effects of polymer-blend ratio and cross-linker concentration on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 8 h (R8h) were optimized by 3(2)-factorial design. The optimized formulation of Zn(2+)-ion induced DS-loaded alginate-OG beads demonstrated 89.27±3.58% of DEE and 43.73±2.83% of R8h. The bead sizes were within 1.10±0.07 to 1.38±0.14 mm. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the optimized bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR and P-XRD. These beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8h and followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of the optimized beads was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery.

  20. Alginate-okra gum blend beads of diclofenac sodium from aqueous template using ZnSO4 as a cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Hasnain, M Saquib; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Rama, Bobba

    2015-08-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+))-ion induced diclofenac sodium (DS)-loaded alginate-okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) blend beads was successfully formulated through Zn(2+)-ion induced ionic-gelation cross-linking method in a complete aqueous environment. Effects of polymer-blend ratio and cross-linker concentration on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 8 h (R8h) were optimized by 3(2)-factorial design. The optimized formulation of Zn(2+)-ion induced DS-loaded alginate-OG beads demonstrated 89.27±3.58% of DEE and 43.73±2.83% of R8h. The bead sizes were within 1.10±0.07 to 1.38±0.14 mm. The bead surface morphology was analyzed by SEM. The drug-polymer interaction in the optimized bead matrix was analyzed by FTIR and P-XRD. These beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8h and followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The swelling and degradation of the optimized beads was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. PMID:25987461

  1. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium (as pertechnetate anion, TcO.sub.4.sup.-). The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  2. Beaded streams of Arctic permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Whitman, M. S.; Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Gaglioti, B. V.; Heim, K. C.

    2014-07-01

    Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic inventory of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high-ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate relatively stable form and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in stream gulches effectively insulates river ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2 °C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools stratify thermally, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m s-1, yet channel runs still move water rapidly between pools

  3. Aerogel Beads as Cryogenic Thermal Insulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the use of aerogel beads as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel beads in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel beads produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/cubic m) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10(exp -5) torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel beads was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel beads performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress.

  4. Determination of the inner surface of macroporous ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Martinola, F; Meyer, A

    1975-12-01

    Study on macroporours IX resins and the pore structure. In addition to ion exchange reactions, macroporous ion exchange resins also show adsorptive properties which are due to the large pores of the resin beads and to the inner surface inside the beads. To measure this surface and the pore radii requires very precise fixation of the condition existing prior to the drying of the water-moist resin beads. Such stabilizing fixation can be achieved by displacing the regain water by isopropyl alcohol and subsequent drying for measuring the pore data. PMID:1223012

  5. Immobilization of Aspergillus niger F7-02 Lipase in Polysaccharide Hydrogel Beads of Irvingia gabonensis Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, Safaradeen Olateju; Adio, Olayinka Quadri; Osho, Michael Bamitale

    2014-01-01

    The potential of polysaccharide Irvingia gabonensis matrix as enzyme immobilization support was investigated. Lipase of Aspergillus niger F7-02 was immobilized by entrapment using glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent and stabilized in ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. The pH and temperature stability and activity yield of the immobilized enzyme were determined. Such parameters as enzyme load, bead size, number of beads, and bead reusability were also optimized. Adequate gel strength to form stabilized beads was achieved at 15.52% (w/v) Irvingia gabonensis powder, 15% (v/v) partially purified lipase, 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde, and 3 : 1 (v/v) ethanolic-formaldehyde solution. There was 3.93-fold purification when the crude enzyme was partially purified in two-step purification using Imarsil and activated charcoal. Optimum lipase activity 75.3 Ug−1 was achieved in 50 mL test solution containing 15 beads of 7 mm bead size. Relative activity 80% was retained at eight repeated cycles. The immobilization process gave activity yield of 59.1% with specific activity of 12.3 Umg−1 and stabilized at optimum pH 4.5 and temperature 55°C. Thus the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of I. gabonensis as a polymer matrix for lipase immobilization have been established. PMID:25614829

  6. Optimization of the virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine-conjugated magnetic beads and its application to the detection of human hepatitis A, B and C viruses.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Eriko; Kogi, Mieko; Oshizawa, Tadashi; Furuta, Birei; Satoh, Koei; Iwata, Akiko; Murata, Mitsuhiro; Hikata, Mikio; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2007-07-01

    To enhance the sensitivity of virus detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), a novel virus concentration method using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-conjugated magnetic beads was developed in our previous study. However, several viruses could not be concentrated by this method. In this paper, the conditions of virus concentration were optimized to concentrate a wide range of viruses more efficiently. The PEI beads adsorbed viruses more efficiently than other cationic polymers, and the optimum virus concentration was obtained under weak acidic conditions. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several serum proteins, such as complement type 3, complement type 4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM), were co-adsorbed by the PEI beads, suggesting that the beads may adsorb viruses not only by direct adsorption, but also via immune complex formation. This hypothesis was confirmed by the result that poliovirus, which PEI beads could not adsorb directly, could be concentrated by the beads via immune complex formation. On the other hand, hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses were adsorbed directly by PEI beads almost completely. Like poliovirus, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was concentrated efficiently by the addition of anti-HBV IgM. In conclusion, virus concentration using PEI beads is a useful method to concentrate a wide range of viruses and can be used to enhance the sensitivity of detection of HAV, HBV and HCV.

  7. Bead and Process for Removing Dissolved Metal Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Bobby L., Jr.; Bennett, Karen L.; Foster, Scott A.

    2005-01-18

    A bead is provided which comprises or consists essentially of activated carbon immobilized by crosslinked poly (carboxylic acid) binder, sodium silicate binder, or polyamine binder. The bead is effective to remove metal and other ionic contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions. A method of making metal-ion sorbing beads is provided, comprising combining activated carbon, and binder solution (preferably in a pin mixer where it is whipped), forming wet beads, and heating and drying the beads. The binder solution is preferably poly(acrylic acid) and glycerol dissolved in water and the wet beads formed from such binder solution are preferably heated and crosslinked in a convection oven.

  8. The development of geotextiles incorporating slow-release phosphate beads for the maintenance of oil degrading bacteria in permeable pavements.

    PubMed

    Spicer, G E; Lynch, D E; Coupe, S J

    2006-01-01

    The development of a self-fertilising geotextile mat designed to provide a sustained slow-release of required inorganic nutrients for the growth of oil degrading microorganisms in porous pavement systems (PPS) is reported. The system comprises a geotextile spun from polymer fibres containing spherical phosphated polymer beads that release phosphate upon contact with water at a desirable level for microbial growth. Initial results using model PPS have shown that the self-fertilising geotextile system works extremely effectively as increased microbial activity has been observed throughout the experiment, illustrating that the oil-degrading bacteria can effectively utilise this polymer composite as a suitable nutrient source.

  9. Superporous agarose beads as a hydrophobic interaction chromatography support.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, P E; Axelsson, A; Larsson, P O

    1999-01-15

    Superporous agarose beads were used as a support for hydrophobic interaction chromatography. These beads have large connecting flow pores in addition to their normal diffusion pores. The flow pores, which are approximately one fifth of the overall diameter of the superporous agarose beads, were earlier shown to give the beads improved mass transfer properties relative to homogeneous agarose beads (Gustavsson and Larsson, J. Chromatogr. A, 734 (1996) 231-240). Superporous agarose beads and homogeneous agarose beads of the same particle size range (106-180 microns) were derivatized with phenyl groups. The properties of the superporous beads were then compared with the homogeneous beads in the separation of a mixture of three model proteins (ribonuclease A, lysozyme and bovine serum albumin) at various superficial flow velocities from 30 to 600 cm/h. The superporous beads gave satisfactory separation at flow velocities five times higher than was possible for homogeneous beads. The performance of the two types of beads was also compared in the purification of lactate dehydrogenase from a beef heart extract at a superficial flow velocity of 150 cm/h. The superporous beads performed considerably better, leading to twice the purification factor and twice the concentration of the desired product. The results were interpreted using the theoretical treatment given by Carta and Rodrigues (Carta and Rodrigues, Chem. Eng. Sci., 48 (1993) 3927).

  10. Facile fabrication of organic-inorganic hybrid beads by aminated alginate enabled gelation and biomimetic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wu, Hong; Liang, Yanpeng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Jiang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by biomineralization, design and preparation of biomimetic organic-inorganic composites have become a hot issue and a research frontier in many areas, including enzyme engineering. In this research, a unique and facile method for fabricating organic-inorganic hybrid beads is proposed. Modified alginate with a dual function of gelation and mineralization was synthesized for fabrication of hybrid carriers for enzyme immobilization. With the aid of EDC/NHS conjugation chemistry, the amine groups from diethylene triamine were grafted onto alginate in a controllable way. The resultant aminated alginate served manifold functions: forming a hydrogel via Ca(2+)-cross-linking, inducing the biomimetic silicification and manipulating the distribution of silica nanoparticles. Owing to the compact polymer network structure and the homogeneous silica nanoparticle dispersion, the as-prepared NH2-alginate/silica hybrid beads displayed superior swelling resistance and mechanical stability to pure alginate beads. The hybrid beads were subsequently utilized for encapsulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). It was found that the thermal stability, pH tolerance and storage stability of the immobilized enzyme were all improved without significantly lowering the catalytic activity.

  11. Biodegradable IPN hydrogel beads of pectin and grafted alginate for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Thakur, Deepa; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathy, Minaketan; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2013-05-01

    A novel diclofenac sodium (DS) loaded interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) beads of pectin and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-graft-sodium alginate (PAAm-g-SA) was developed through ionotropic gelation and covalent cross-linking. The graft copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization under the nitrogen atmosphere followed by alkaline hydrolysis. The grafting, alkaline hydrolysis, and characterization of beads were confirmed by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structure of drug after encapsulation into IPN beads were evaluated by differential scanning colorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses. DS encapsulation was up to 96.45 %. The effect of hydrolyzed graft copolymer/pectin ratios and glutaraldehyde concentration on drug release in acidic and phosphate buffer solutions were investigated. The release of drug was significantly increased with increase of pH. The release of drug depends on the extent of cross-linking. The results indicated that IPN beads of hydrolyzed PAAm-g-SA and pectin could be used for sustained release of DS.

  12. Chitosan as a Pore Former in Coated Beads for Colon Specific Drug Delivery of 5-ASA

    PubMed Central

    Omwancha, Wycliffe S.; Mallipeddi, Rama; Valle, Brenda L.; Neau, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    A multiparticulate product for colon-specific delivery of a small molecule drug has been developed and characterized. Microcrystalline cellulose core beads containing 5-aminosalicylic acid produced by extrusion-spheronization were coated with chitosan and Aquacoat® ECD mixtures according to a factorial design. Coated beads were characterized in terms of drug release, shape, and friability. The optimum formulation was enteric coated and exposed to media simulating conditions in the stomach, small intestine, and colon. Release studies in simulated intestinal fluid revealed that the drug release rate from the coated beads, which were spherical and rugged, depended on the level of chitosan in the coat and the coat thickness. Enlarged pores observed on the surface of the coated beads exposed to the medium containing rat cecal and colonic enzymes are believed to have caused a significant enhancement of the drug release rate compared to the control exposed only to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The release mechanisms involved polymer relaxation and dissolved drug diffusion for simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid, respectively. From the facilitated drug release in a colonic environment and the inhibition of drug release under gastric and intestinal conditions, it can be concluded that this multiparticulate system demonstrates the potential for colon-specific drug delivery. PMID:23200955

  13. Metal-anion sorption by chitosan beads: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Tobin, J.M.

    1998-04-01

    Chitosan is a well-known biopolymer, whose high nitrogen content confers remarkable ability for the sorption of metal ions from dilute effluents. However, its sorption performance in both equilibrium and kinetic terms is controlled by diffusion processes. Gel bead formation allows an expansion of the polymer network, which improves access to the internal sorption sites and enhances diffusion mechanisms. Molybdate and vanadate recovery using glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads reaches uptake capacities as high as 7--8 mmol/g, depending on the pH. The optimum pH (3--3.5) corresponded to the predominance range of hydrolyzed polynuclear metal forms and optimum electrostatic attraction. While for beads, particle size does not influence equilibrium, for flakes, increasing sorbent radius significantly decreases uptake capacities to 1.5 mmol/g. Sorption kinetics are mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion for beads, while for flakes the controlling mechanisms are both external and intraparticle diffusion. The gel conditioning increases the intraparticle diffusivity by 3 orders of magnitude: intraparticle diffusivities range between 10{sup {minus}13} and 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/min, depending on the sorbent size and the conditioning.

  14. Facile Fabrication of Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Based-Gel Beads via Thiol-ene Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Taghavikish, Mona; Subianto, Surya; Dutta, Naba Kumar; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2015-08-12

    Multipurpose gel beads prepared from natural or synthetic polymers have received significant attention in various applications such as drug delivery, coatings, and electrolytes because of their versatility and unique performance as micro- and nanocontainers.1 However, comparatively little work has been done on poly(ionic liquid)-based materials despite their unique ionic characteristics. Thus, in this contribution we report the facile preparation of polymerizable ionic liquid-based gel beads using thiol-ene click chemistry. This novel system incorporates pentaerythritol tetra (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETKMP) and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium) butane bisbromide in a thiol-ene-based photopolymerization to fabricate the gel beads. Their chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The gel beads possess low Tg and their ionic functionalities attribute self-healing properties and their ability to uptake small molecules or organic compounds offers their potential use as pH sensing material and macrocontainers.

  15. PHEMA based composite cryogels with loaded hydrophobic beads for lysozyme purification.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize megaporous cryogel loaded with hydrophobic affinity beads which can be utilized for the purification of lysozyme from chicken egg-white. N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan methylester (MATrp) was used as the hydrophobic ligand. In the first step, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-tryptophan methyl-ester) [PGMATrp] beads (2.2 μm in diameter) were produced by dispersion polymerization. In the second step, the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogel loaded with PGMATrp beads [PHEMA/PGMATrp composite cryogel] was polymerized initiated by N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) at -12°C. Lysozyme adsorption capacity of the PHEMA/PGMATrp composite cryogel (332.7 mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the loading of PGMATrp beads into the cryogel structure. The hydrophobic MATrp comonomer played a vital role in this binding mechanism. The PHEMA/PGMATrp composite cryogel could be used many times without decreasing the lysozyme adsorption amount significantly. The main advantage of the PHEMA/PGMATrp composite cryogel is the high adsorption capacity. PMID:25454758

  16. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.

  17. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  18. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  19. In vivo behavior of hydrogel beads based on amidated pectins.

    PubMed

    Munjeri, O; Collett, J H; Fell, J T; Sharma, H L; Smith, A M

    1998-01-01

    Radio-labeled hydrogel beads, based on amidated pectin, have been produced by adding droplets of an amidated pectin solution to calcium chloride. Incorporation of model drugs into the beads and measurement of the dissolution rate showed that the properties of the beads were unaffected by the incorporation of the radiolabel. The labeled beads were used to carry out an in vivo study of their behavior in the gastrointestinal tract using human volunteers. The volunteers were given the beads after an overnight fast and images were obtained at frequent intervals during transit through the upper gastrointestinal tract and the colon. The beads exhibited rapid gastric emptying and proceeded to pass through the small intestine individually before regrouping at the ileo-caecal junction. Once in the colon, the beads again proceeded as individuals and evidence of the degradation of the beads was observed.

  20. Effect of Cellulose Acetate Beads on Interleukin-23 Release.

    PubMed

    Nishise, Shoichi; Abe, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yu; Iwano, Daisuke; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Yagi, Makoto; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23, which is released by activated monocytes and neutrophils, promotes production of high levels of IL-17 by T-helper 17 cells. Cellulose acetate (CA) beads are used as carriers for granulocyte and monocyte (GM) adsorptive apheresis using Adacolumn. Contact between blood and CA beads induces cytokine release; however, their inflammatory effects on IL-23 release are unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of CA beads on IL-23 release in vitro. We incubated peripheral blood with and without CA beads and measured IL-23. Compared to blood samples incubated without CA beads, blood samples incubated with CA beads had significantly decreased amounts of IL-23. In conclusion, CA beads inhibited IL-23 release from adsorbed GMs. The biological effects of this decrease in IL-23 release during GM adsorption to CA beads need further clarification.

  1. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  2. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  3. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  4. 21 CFR 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ion-exchange membranes. 173.20 Section 173.20 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.20 Ion-exchange membranes. Ion-exchange... ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of...

  5. Polymer-based separations: Synthesis and application of polymers for ionic and molecular recognition. Annual performance report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    During this period, focus was on design and synthesis of bifunctional polymers for complexing metal ions from aqueous solutions; this could provide a means for separating radioactive and toxic metal ions from contaminated waste water as well as valuable metals from dilute ore processing streams. The synthesis of bifunctional polymers required a new preparative technique; bifunctional interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) was an important part of the studies. In the preparation, a pre-formed crosslinked polymer is contacted with a solution of monomers, and a second network was polymerized within the first. Imidazole ligands were used. A new resin, prepared with a macrocyclic sorbed within polystyrene beads modified with sulfonic acid ligands, extracted Cu(II) 10--100-fold. Maximum metal ion complexation rates depend on a balance between chemical interactions and physical parameters (matrix porosity, rigidity). A novel ion exchange resin (Diphonix{trademark}) has been produced which displays both ionic selectivity (diphosphonic acid ligands) and rapid complexation rates (sulfonic acid ligands).

  6. Melting phenomena in polymer blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbing

    This study is focused on understanding of the melting process of polymer blends during blending. Four topics are addressed in this thesis: melting behavior of polymer blends in an extruder, heat transfer between a solid polymer pellet and polymer melt; rheological properties of polymer melt suspensions; and morphology development of polymer blends during melting. A barrel sliding mechanism and a perturbation method was used to investigate the melting behavior of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) blends in the extruder. It was found that the melting process in the extruder could be divided into three distinct regions. Most of melting occurred in the transition region mainly due to mechanical energy input. Friction between solid polymer pellets played a critical role in converting mechanical energy into heat. The location of the transition region for each process could be determined from the on-line visualization results, temperature and pressure profiles, and the perturbation signals. A representative heat transfer coefficient between a solid polymer pellet and another polymer melt under shear flow was obtained as 250W/m2 · K through numerical simulations. The dynamics of thermocouple used in the experiment was captured using a first order process approximation. A good match was achieved between the simulation and experiment after taking the thermocouple dynamics into account. Suspensions of ethylene acrylate copolymer (EAC) melt with PS beads were used to study rheological properties of polymer flow during extrusion. It was found that deformation of PS beads under high local shear stress could result in the decrease of the relative viscosity with increasing volume fraction. On-line visualization in a TSE showed an "erosion" mechanism for polycarbonate (PC) drop deformation and breakup in polyethylene (PE) melt. This "erosion" mechanism was also found from corresponding numerical simulations. Stress peaks at the interface from simulation result could explain

  7. Viscoelastic properties of mineralized alginate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Olderøy, Magnus O; Xie, Minli; Andreassen, Jens-Petter; Strand, Berit L; Zhang, Zhibing; Sikorski, Pawel

    2012-07-01

    Alginate hydrogels have applications in biomedicine, ranging from delivery of cells and growth factors to wound management aids. However, they are mechanically soft and have shown little potential for the use in bone tissue engineering. Here, the viscoelastic properties of alginate hydrogel beads mineralized with calcium phosphate, both by a counter-diffusion (CD) and an enzymatic approach, are characterized by a micro-manipulation technique and mathematical modeling. Fabricated hydrogel materials have low mineral content (below 3 % of the total hydrogel mass, which corresponds to mineral content of up to 60 % of the dry mass) and low dry mass content (<5 %). For all samples compression and hold (relaxation after compression) data was collected and analyzed. The apparent Young's modulus of the mineralized beads was estimated by the Hertz model (compression data) and was shown to increase up to threefold upon mineralization. The enzymatically mineralized beads showed higher apparent Young's modulus compared to the ones mineralized by CD, even though the mineral content of the former was lower. Full compression-relaxation force-time profiles were analyzed using viscoelastic model. From this analysis, infinite and instantaneous Young's moduli were determined. Similarly, enzymatic mineralized beads, showed higher instantaneous and infinite Young's modulus, even if the degree of mineralization is lower then that achieved for CD method. This leads to the conclusion that both the degree of mineralization and the spatial distribution of mineral are important for the mechanical performance of the composite beads, which is in analogy to highly structured mineralized tissues found in many organisms.

  8. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  9. New Nanoparticles Dispersing Beads Mill with Ultra Small Beads and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkyo, M.; Tahara, T.; Imajyo, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Two of the major problems related to nanoparticle dispersion with a conventional beads mill are re-agglomeration and damage to the crystalline structure of the particles. The Ultra Apex Mill was developed to solve these problems by enabling the use of ultra-small beads with a diameter of less than 0.1mm. The core of this breakthrough development is centrifugation technology which allows the use of beads as small as 0.015mm. When dispersing agglomerated nanoparticles the impulse of the small beads is very low which means there is little influence on the particles. The surface energy of the nanoparticles remains low so the properties are not likely to change. As a result, stable nanoparticle dispersions can be achieved without re-cohesion. The Ultra Apex Mill is superior to conventional beads mills that are limited to much larger bead sizes. The technology of the Ultra Apex Mill has pioneered practical applications for nanoparticles in various fields: composition materials for LCD screens, ink-jet printing, ceramic condensers and cosmetics.

  10. Polymer Solidification and Stabilization: Adaptable Processes for Atypical Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.

    2007-07-01

    Vinyl Ester Styrene (VES) and Advanced Polymer Solidification (APS{sup TM}) processes are used to solidify, stabilize, and immobilize radioactive, pyrophoric and hazardous wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) sites, and commercial nuclear facilities. A wide range of projects have been accomplished, including in situ immobilization of ion exchange resin and carbon filter media in decommissioned submarines; underwater solidification of zirconium and hafnium machining swarf; solidification of uranium chips; impregnation of depth filters; immobilization of mercury, lead and other hazardous wastes (including paint chips and blasting media); and in situ solidification of submerged demineralizers. Discussion of the adaptability of the VES and APS{sup TM} processes is timely, given the decommissioning work at government sites, and efforts by commercial nuclear plants to reduce inventories of one-of-a-kind wastes. The VES and APS{sup TM} media and processes are highly adaptable to a wide range of waste forms, including liquids, slurries, bead and granular media; as well as metal fines, particles and larger pieces. With the ability to solidify/stabilize liquid wastes using high-speed mixing; wet sludges and solids by low-speed mixing; or bead and granular materials through in situ processing, these polymer will produce a stable, rock-hard product that has the ability to sequester many hazardous waste components and create Class B and C stabilized waste forms for disposal. Technical assessment and approval of these solidification processes and final waste forms have been greatly simplified by exhaustive waste form testing, as well as multiple NRC and CRCPD waste form approvals. (authors)

  11. Discrete dipole approximation simulation of bead enhanced diffraction grating biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Khalid Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from bead enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of bead material, number of beads forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the beads on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of beads reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various bead materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that bead enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations.

  12. Green stone beads at the dawn of agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E.; Porat, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    The use of beads and other personal ornaments is a trait of modern human behavior. During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, beads were made out of shell, bone, ivory, egg shell, and occasionally of minerals. During the transition to agriculture in the Near East, stone, in particular green stone, was used for the first time to make beads and pendants. We observed that a large variety of minerals of green colors were sought, including apatite, several copper-bearing minerals, amazonite and serpentinite. There seems to be an increase with time of distance from which the green minerals were sought. Because beads in white, red, yellow, brown, and black colors had been used previously, we suggest that the occurrence of green beads is directly related to the onset of agriculture. Green beads and bead blanks were used as amulets to ward off the evil eye and as fertility charms. PMID:18559861

  13. 2012 Problem 3: String of Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongyi; Zhu, Zheyuan; Gao, Wenli; Wang, Sihui

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the motion of a string of beads is investigated. By putting forward a continuous model, we build dynamic equations to describe its motion. The numerical solutions to the equations give the dynamics of string and critical velocity of detachment. The results are consistent with the experimental data and give a good explanation for the string to fly from the edge of the beaker at certain moment.

  14. Sustained Release of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from Cross-linked Biodegradable IPN Hydrogel Beads of Pectin and Modified Xanthan Gum.

    PubMed

    Giri, T K; Choudhary, C; Alexander, A; Ajazuddin; Badwaik, H; Tripathy, M; Tripathi, D K

    2013-11-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel beads of pectin and sodium carboxymethyl xanthan were prepared by ionotropic gelation with Al(+3) ions and covalent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde for sustained delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning colorimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterise the hydrogel beads. The swelling of the hydrogel and the release of drug were relatively low in pH 1.2 buffer solutions. However, higher swelling and drug release were observed in pH 6.8 buffer solutions. The carboxyl functional groups of hydrogels undergo ionisation and the osmotic pressure inside the beads increases resulting in higher swelling and drug release in higher pH. The release of drug depends on concentration of polymer, amount and exposure time of cross-linker and drug content in the hydrogel matrices. The present study indicated that the hydrogel beads minimised the drug release in pH 1.2 buffer solutions and to prolong the drug release in pH 6.8 buffer solutions.

  15. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  16. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  17. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.; Babcock, W.C.; Tuttle, M.

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets. 5 figs.

  18. Evaluation and characterization of axial distribution in expanded bed. I. Bead size, bead density and local bed voidage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Qiang; Tong, Hong-Fei; van de Sandt, Emile J A X; den Boer, Piet; Golubović, Marijana; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2013-08-23

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is an innovative chromatography technology that allows the adsorption of target proteins directly from unclarified feedstock, and the most important property of an expanded bed is the perfectly classified fluidization of resin beads in the column. Due to the variation of both size and density of bulk resin beads, the axial distributions of bead size, bead density and bed voidage are the inherent characteristics of an expanded bed. However, the understanding on these properties is quite limited. In this study, raw beads (3% crosslinked agarose containing tungsten carbide) and 2cm-diameter nozzle column were used as the model system and mean bead size, bead density and local bed voidage along the bed height were measured systematically with the in-bed sampling method for two settled bed heights (11.5 and 23.1cm) and different expansion factors (1.4-2.6). With the increase of bed height, mean bead size and wet density of the beads decreased from 140 to 90μm and from 4 to 2g/ml, respectively. The local bed voidage increased from 0.6 to 0.9 with the increasing bed height. The relative bed height and relative bed voidage were introduced to describe the general rule of axial distribution. Some empirical equations were used to correlate the mean bead size, bead density and local bed voidage along the bed height with the standard deviations of 10.6%, 6.1% and 5.5, respectively. In addition, a general equation was proposed to predict the axial distributions of bead size, bead density and local bed voidage in the column with standard deviations less than 10% for most of the experimental data, which would be useful for the characterization of resin beads distribution in an expanded bed under varying operation conditions.

  19. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Piyas; Das, Souvik; Mathur, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase). PMID:26973808

  20. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  1. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  2. Determining Elasticity from Single Polymer Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Latinwo, Folarin

    2014-01-01

    The ability to determine polymer elasticity and force-extension relations from polymer dynamics in flow has been challenging, mainly due to difficulties in relating equilibrium properties such as free energy to far-from-equilibrium processes. In this work, we determine polymer elasticity from the dynamic properties of polymer chains in fluid flow using recent advances in statistical mechanics. In this way, we obtain the force-extension relation for DNA from single molecule measurements of polymer dynamics in flow without the need for optical tweezers or bead tethers. We further employ simulations to demonstrate the practicality and applicability of this approach to the dynamics of complex fluids. We investigate the effects of flow type on this analysis method, and we develop scaling laws to relate the work relation to bulk polymer viscometric functions. Taken together, our results show that nonequilibrium work relations can play a key role in the analysis of soft material dynamics. PMID:24651921

  3. Aqueous size exclusion chromatography in semimicro and micro-columns by newly synthesized monodisperse macroporous hydrophilic beads as a stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Gölgelioğlu, Ciğdem; Bayraktar, Aslıhan; Celebi, Bekir; Uğuzdoğan, Erdal; Tuncel, Ali

    2012-02-10

    A new class of monodisperse macroporous beads in the hydrophilic form were synthesized by seeded microsuspension copolymerization of two acrylic crosslinking agents, glycerol dimethacrylate (GDMA) and glycerol-1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate (GDGDA). The monodisperse porous poly(glycerol dimethacrylate-co-glycerol-1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate), poly(GDMA-co-GDGDA) beads were highly hydrophilic in nature due to hydroxyl functionality resulting from both crosslinking agents. The beads with different particle sizes between 4.5 and 6.7 μm and with different porous properties were obtained by changing the seed latex to monomer ratio. The bead size decreased, the average pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with increasing seed latex to monomer ratio. Poly(GDMA-co-GDGDA) beads were slurry packed in microbore and semimicro-HPLC columns and successfully used as a stationary phase in aqueous size exclusion chromatography (SEC) mode in a micro-liquid chromatography system. The aqueous SEC runs were performed by using dextran standards in the molecular weight range of 1000-670,000 Da. SEC calibration curves exhibiting linearity in a wider range of molecular weight were obtained with the semi-micro and micro-HPLC columns packed with the poly(GDMA-co-GDGDA) beads synthesized with the seed latex to monomer ratios of 0.038 and 0.058 g/mL. The dextran standards could be eluted in an analysis time shorter than 2 min using micro or semi-micro columns packed with poly(GDMA-co-GDGDA) beads as stationary medium. These packings are suitable for molecular weight determination between 5×10(3) and 5×10(5) Da in the aqueous medium by using mobile phase flow rates in the range of 25-250 μL/min. The average molecular weight determinations of different water soluble polymers, an ionic polymer, poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), a zwitterionic polymer, poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide), and a non-ionic polymer, poly

  4. Alginate bead fabrication and encapsulation of living cells under centrifugally induced artificial gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Haeberle, Stefan; Naegele, Lars; Burger, Robert; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Ducrée, Jens

    2008-06-01

    This study presents a novel method for the direct, centrifugally induced fabrication of small, Ca2+-hardened alginate beads at polymer-tube micronozzles. The bead diameter can arbitrarily be adjusted between 180-800 microm by the nozzle geometry and spinning frequencies between 5-28 Hz. The size distribution of the main peak features a CV of 7-16%, only. Up to 600 beads per second and channel are issued from the micronozzle through an air gap towards the curing agent contained in a standard lab tube ('Eppi'). Several tubes can be mounted on a 'flying bucket' rotor where they align horizontally under rotation and return to a vertical position as soon as the rotor is at rest. The centrifugally induced, ultra-high artificial gravity conditions (up to 180 g) even allow the micro-encapsulation of alginate solutions displaying viscosities up to 50 Pa s, i.e. approximately 50,000 times the viscosity of water! With this low cost technology for microencapsulation, HN25 and PC12 cells have successfully been encapsulated while maintaining vitality.

  5. Modified alginate beads for mucoadhesive drug delivery system: an updated review of patents.

    PubMed

    Swain, Suryakanta; Behera, Aurobinda; Beg, Sarwar; Patra, Chinam N; Dinda, Subash C; Sruti, Jammula; Rao, Muddana E B

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical research and inventions are increasingly developed for the design of an ideal dosage regimen in drug therapy of many diseases, which attains therapeutic concentration of drug in plasma and maintains it constant for the entire duration of treatment and also minimizes the side effects. Recent trends in pharmaceutical technology indicated that mucoadhesive micro particle and modified alginate beads as drug delivery system especially suitable for achieving delivery of drug in a predetermined rate locally or systemically for a prolonged period of time. The release of drug from microparticle depends on a variety of factors including carrier used to form the micro particle and amount of drug contained in them. The main aim of the present review is to explain the various theories, mechanisms, advanced mucoadhesive polymers, various delivery approaches, methodologies for developing a mucoadhesive micro-particle and modified alginate beads formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization. Apart from this, an innovative test method that is biacore is highlighted in this review to measure the mucoadhesive strength. This review is also briefly explained about the updated patenting system for the development of micro-particle and modified alginate beads as drug delivery system.

  6. Porous polymer media

    DOEpatents

    Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  7. Polymers for engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the world of engineering plastics. It discusses the polymers, their properties strengths and limitations. There are 11 chapters, organized so that each chapter builds on the knowledge of the previous material. Coverage includes important polymer concepts, such as molecular structure, bonding, morphology and molecular weight, and polymer properties, such as thermal expansion, thermal transition, electrical properties and viscoelasticity. Details are provided on methods of processing fabrication and on specific families of polymers. The general-purpose polymers are discussed, such as natural and synthetic rubbers, rayon, acrylic and alkyd coatings, polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). There's information on high-performance polymers - fibers, elastomers, and coatings. A thorough explanation of the characteristics and qualities of nylons, polyesters, polyimides, neoprene, silicones, polyurethanes and other polymers is given in the same section. Functional polymers with special properties, such as photoconductivity, electric conductivity, piezoelectricity, light sensitivity, and ion exchange; and polymers that are superior to general-purpose plastics, such as ABS, filled polypropylene, and glass-reinforced plastics, are also covered.

  8. Bead-Selected Antitumor Genetic Cell Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, MJ; R, Botella; R, Algás; Marco, FM; Aliño, SF

    2008-01-01

    Cancer vaccines have always been in the scope of gene therapy research. One of the most successful approaches has been working with genetically modified tumor cells. However, to become a clinical reality, tumor cells must suffer a long and risky process from the extraction from the patient to the reimplantation as a vaccine. In this work, we explain our group’s approach to reduce the cell number required to achieve an immune response against a melanoma murine model, employing bead-selected B16 tumor cells expressing GM-CSF and B7.2. PMID:21892287

  9. Advanced beaded and tubular structural panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrove, M. D.; Greene, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    A program to develop lightweight beaded and tubular structural panels is described. Applications include external surfaces, where aerodynamically acceptable, and primary structure protected by heat shields. The design configurations were optimized and selected with a computer code which iterates geometric parameters to satisfy strength, stability, and weight constraints. Methods of fabricating these configurations are discussed. Nondestructive testing produced extensive combined compression, shear, and bending test data on local buckling specimens and large panels. The optimized design concepts offer 25 to 30% weight savings compared to conventional stiffened sheet construction.

  10. Enterovirus 71 adsorption on metal ion-composite chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Ching; Lin, Shu-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Sheng-Chi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed composite chitosan beads combining various metal ions, including Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+), for direct adsorption of enterovirus 71 (EV71). The metal-ion species had significant effects on the adsorption capacity of beads. Among these metal ion-composite chitosan beads, Ni(2+)-chitosan beads exhibited the best adsorption capacity of EV71. Using a concentration of 0.01-M Ni(2+) was found to best provide for bead formation and EV71 adsorption. The adsorption of EV71 for Ni(2+)-chitosan beads at neutral or alkaline pH was favored. Under a competitive condition with albumin proteins, Ni(2+)-chitosan beads exhibited significant capacity of EV71 adsorption in culture media. The adsorption of EV71 on the Ni(2+)-chitosan beads was attributed to the strong binding between Ni(2+) ions chelated to the surface amino acid of EV71 capsids and Ni(2+) ions chelated on the chitosan materials. Moreover, the adsorbed EV71 retained its antigenicity and infectivity after desorption. The Ni(2+)-chitosan beads exhibit a promising application to EV71 adsorption and removal.

  11. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  12. Delivery of benzene to Alcaligenes xylosoxidans by solid polymers in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Daugulis, Andrew J; Amsden, Brian G; Bochanysz, Justina; Kayssi, Ahmed

    2003-07-01

    Toxic levels of benzene were decreased to sub-inhibitory levels in a bioreactor via absorption by polymer beads or cylinders (poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) or poly(styrene-co-butadiene)). After inoculation with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, the remaining benzene in the aqueous phase as well as the benzene taken up by the polymers was degraded to completion. The capacity of these polymers for benzene, and benzene diffusivity within the polymers were also determined.

  13. Molybdate sorption by cross-linked chitosan beads: Dynamic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Roussy, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent trends in environmental monitoring have induced increasing development of new wastewater treatment techniques. Membrane processes, electrochemical techniques, or ion-exchange systems are widely used, but biosorption has been recognized in the last 30 years as a promising way to reduce the contamination of surface water issued from industrial effluent. Chitosan, a biopolymer extracted from crustacean shells, exhibits high sorption capacities for metal ion recovery. Sorption efficiency and removal rates are controlled by several diffusion mechanisms. Chitosan gel beads have been prepared and have shown enhanced sorption performance in batch systems. This study shows that, in continuous systems, sorption capacities can reach 700 mg/g, a level close to that obtained in batch studies. The effects of metal concentration, flow velocity, and column size are investigated and demonstrate that, because of diffusion mechanisms, the optimum concentration range is approximately 50 to 100 mg/L. In column systems, the Biot number, though greater than 1, is lower than the Biot number obtained in batch systems, indicating that external mass transfer influences mass transfer at the low superficial velocity investigated in this work.

  14. Heavy metal sorption by calcium alginate beads from Laminaria digitata.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Sergios K; Katsaros, Fotios K; Kouvelos, Evangelos P; Nolan, John W; Le Deit, Herve; Kanellopoulos, Nick K

    2006-10-11

    Alginate with a high M/G ratio, extracted from Laminaria digitata, was evaluated for Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) sorption in acidic solutions, in the form of calcium cross-linked beads. The high M/G ratio of alginate extracted from this algal species is most likely the determining factor for the increased adsorption capacity of the investigated metals, indicating that the mannuronic acid is responsible for the ion exchange mechanism. The data obtained from the batch experiments have been interpreted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models. The Sips equation provided the best fit with the experimental results, indicating sorption sites heterogeneity for the material. The pH was found to have a significant effect on the process, with sorption capacity reaching a maximum at pH 4.5, indicating a competition mechanism between H(+) and metal ions. Kinetic experiments were performed at the optimum pH. For the interpretation of the kinetic experiments the Linear Adsorption Model was employed and diffusion coefficients were determined. The model fits the experimental data at higher concentrations, where the adsorbed quantity remains almost constant. Finally, a simplified expression of the batch kinetic adsorption model was employed. The model, predicts adequately, not only the diffusivity values, but also the concentration profiles inside the spherical particles.

  15. Antibiotic release from impregnated pellets and beads.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, G W; Cumberland, N

    1994-03-01

    Antibiotic impregnated beads are being used increasingly in the initial treatment of open fracture wounds, producing high antibiotic levels locally, over the first few days. Pellets were prepared to assess the release of the following antibiotics: benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate (Co-Amoxiclav), ciprofloxacin, imipenem, or gentamicin; the carrier material was either polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or plaster of Paris (PoP). Elution of antibiotic over 72 hours from the pellets in vitro was determined using an agar-diffusion microbiologic assay. The initial rapid release of antibiotic lasted 12-24 hours, with release from PoP pellets at least four-fold greater than that from corresponding PMMA pellets. A second phase consisted of a sustained but gradually diminishing elution. The release of antibiotics from PoP pellets compared favorably with that from the PMMA beads currently used. We conclude that PoP pellets may be particularly suitable for short-term applications such as infection prophylaxis in open fractures.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis immunoassay using magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Xu; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Gassner, Anne-Laure; Peltre, Gabriel; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Girault, Hubert H

    2008-08-01

    Protein A-coated magnetic beads (0.3 mum) have been trapped in a small portion of a neutrally coated capillary (50 mum id). Anti-beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) antibodies have then been immobilized on the beads through strong affinity with protein A to subsequently capture beta-LG from model or real samples. Once the immunocomplexes formed at physiological pH, a discontinuous buffer system has been used to release the partners and preconcentrate them by transient ITP. The antigens and antibodies have finally been separated by CZE and detected by UV absorbance. An LOQ of 55 nM has been achieved. This methodology has been applied to quantify native beta-LG in pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature-treated bovine milk. All the described procedures, including immunosorbent preparation, sample extraction, cleanup, preconcentration, and separation are completely automated on a commercial CE instrument. As this CE immunoassay method is simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive, it should be a practical and attractive technology for the analysis of complicated biological samples. PMID:18651703

  17. Continuous-release beads of natural allelochemicals for the long-term control of cyanobacterial growth: Preparation, release dynamics and inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Lin, Fang; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Nie, Zeyu; Sun, Lijuan; Xu, Chen; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-15

    The effects of allelochemicals on cyanobacterial blooms have been observed for more than 20 years; however, the use of these compounds, usually involving a "direct-added" mode, has clear disadvantages, such as a short activity period or temporarily excessive localized concentration. Here, a simulated-allelopathy mode to facilitate the application of allelochemicals was proposed and tested on Microcystis aeruginosa. The continuous-release beads of 5,4'-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) were constitutive of a polymer matrix and showed a high drug-loading rate (47.18%) and encapsulation efficiency (67.65%) with a theoretical release time of approximately 120 d. Cyanobacterial growth tests showed that the DHF beads had long-term inhibition effects (>30 d), whereas those of "direct-added" DHF to cells lasted a maximum of 10 d. The beads also continuously affected the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effects of DHF beads on cyanobacterial growth increased as initial cell densities of M. aeruginosa decreased, suggesting that the beads inhibit cyanobacterial activity more effectively in the early bloom phase. Consequently, the anti-cyanobacterial beads represent a novel application mode of allelochemicals with long-term inhibitory effects on cyanobacterial growth. Our study demonstrates that the successful application of allelochemicals offers great potential to control harmful cyanobacterial blooms, especially at the initial stage of development. PMID:26986500

  18. Screening One-Bead-One-Compound Peptide Libraries for Optimal Kinase Substrates.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Thi B; Pei, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases phosphorylate specific serine, threonine, and/or tyrosine residues in their target proteins, resulting in functional changes of the target proteins such as enzymatic activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. For many kinases, their in vivo substrate specificity is at least partially defined by the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylatable residue (or sequence specificity). We report here a robust, high-throughput method for profiling the sequence specificity of protein kinases. Up to 10(7) different peptides are rapidly synthesized on PEGA beads in the one-bead-one-compound format and subjected to kinase reaction in the presence of [γ-S]ATP. Positive beads displaying the optimal kinase substrates are identified by covalently labeling the thiophosphorylated peptides with a fluorescent dye via a disulfide exchange reaction. Finally, the most active hit(s) is identified by the partial Edman degradation-mass spectrometry (PED-MS) method. The ability of this method to provide individual sequences of the preferred substrates permits the identification of sequence contextual effects and non-permissive residues. This method is applicable to protein serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinases. PMID:26501910

  19. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period.

  20. Mesoporous zirconium titanium oxides. Part 3. Synthesis and adsorption properties of unfunctionalized and phosphonate-functionalized hierarchical polyacrylonitrile-F-127-templated beads.

    PubMed

    Sizgek, G Devlet; Griffith, Christopher S; Sizgek, Erden; Luca, Vittorio

    2009-10-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of zirconium titanate mixed oxides in bead form having hierarchical pore structure. This method entailed the use of both preformed polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer beads and surfactants as templates. The templates were removed by calcination at temperatures below about 500 degrees C, resulting in mixed oxide beads with trimodal pore size distributions and interconnected pores. The pore size distributions as determined using nitrogen adsorption-desorption showed clear maxima at 4.5 and 45 nm length scales and also clear evidence of microporosity. The macroporous framework morphology was a replica of the PAN beads with radial structure. The mesoporous framework possessed wormhole-like pores with pore size of about 6 nm that was consistent with the F-127 triblock copolymer template used. The mixed oxide beads exhibited surface areas of 215 and 185 m2/g after calcination at 500 and 600 degrees C. Thermal stability up to 650 degrees C is unprecedented for bulk systems. The adsorption properties were characterized using uranyl as the target cation and the mass transport in the beads with the present hierarchical architectures has been shown to be exceptional. The beads were functionalized with 4-amino,1-hydroxy,1,1-bis-phosphonic acid (HABDP) and amino-tris-methylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and the adsorption properties for the extraction of uranyl sulfate complexes from acidic solution examined. Of the two molecules investigated, ATMP functionalization resulted in the best extraction efficiency with equilibrium uptake of about 90% of uranium available in solution between pH 1 and 2. The beads could potentially be utilized as catalysts, catalyst supports, adsorbents, and separation materials.

  1. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. PMID:21816168

  2. Mesoscopic Simulations of Crosslinked Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megariotis, Grigorios; Vogiatzis, Georgios G.; Schneider, Ludwig; Müller, Marcus; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2016-08-01

    A new methodology and the corresponding C++ code for mesoscopic simulations of elastomers are presented. The test system, crosslinked ds-1’4-polyisoprene’ is simulated with a Brownian Dynamics/kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm as a dense liquid of soft, coarse-grained beads, each representing 5-10 Kuhn segments. From the thermodynamic point of view, the system is described by a Helmholtz free-energy containing contributions from entropic springs between successive beads along a chain, slip-springs representing entanglements between beads on different chains, and non-bonded interactions. The methodology is employed for the calculation of the stress relaxation function from simulations of several microseconds at equilibrium, as well as for the prediction of stress-strain curves of crosslinked polymer networks under deformation.

  3. Method for preparing spherical ferrite beads and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.

    2002-01-01

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense, highly polished spherical beads of hexagonal ferrites with selected compositions for use in nonreciprocal microwave and mm-wave devices as well as in microwave absorbent or reflective coatings, composites, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous iron oxide is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead is washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous iron-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried, and calcined to produce the desired (BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 or SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19) crystal structure. The calcined bead is then sintered to form a dense bead of the BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 and SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 phase suitable for polishing and incorporation into various microwave devices and components.

  4. Resonance effects in dielectric beads of coaxial connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbrich, G.

    1984-08-01

    A resonator model for calculating H(11) resonance mode frequencies of coaxial connectors is presented. Theoretical results are compared with measurement results obtained with original beads as well as with enlarged connector models. Operational frequencies and bead resonance frequencies for various connector types are given for applications up to 40 GHz.

  5. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  6. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  7. In vitro elution of vancomycin from biodegradable osteoconductive calcium phosphate-polycaprolactone composite beads for treatment of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Makarov, C; Cohen, V; Raz-Pasteur, A; Gotman, I

    2014-10-01

    In this work, osteoconductive composite materials comprising a large volume fraction of a bioresorbable calcium phosphate ceramic (CaP) and a smaller amount of a polycaprolactone polymer (PCL) were studied as a degradable antibiotic carrier material for treatment of osteomyelitis. Beads loaded with 1 and 4wt.% vancomycin were prepared by admixing dissolved drug to an in situ synthesized dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-PCL or solution-mixed beta-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP)-PCL composite powder followed by high pressure consolidation of the blend at room temperature. Vancomycin release was measured in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C. All the beads gradually released the drug over the period of 4-11weeks, depending on the composite matrix homogeneity and porosity. Mathematical modeling using the Peppas equation showed that vancomycin elution was diffusion controlled. The stability of the antibiotic after high pressure application at room temperature was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) studies and MIC testing. The preservation of the structure and activity of vancomycin during the processing of composite beads and its sustained in vitro release profile suggest that high pressure consolidated CaP-PCL beads may be useful in the treatment of chronic bone infections as resorbable delivery vehicles of vancomycin and even of thermally unstable drug substances.

  8. Supported liquid membrane-protected molecularly imprinted beads for micro-solid phase extraction of sulfonamides in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Álvarez, M; Barahona, F; Turiel, E; Martín-Esteban, A

    2014-08-29

    In this work, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads have been prepared and evaluated for the development of a supported liquid membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction method for the analysis of sulfonamides (SAs) in aqueous samples. The performance of MIP beads was firstly evaluated in cartridges by conventional solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous analysis of SAs. Afterward, beads were packed into a polypropylene hollow fiber protected by an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the capillary wall. During the process, the analytes were extracted from the aqueous sample to the immobilized organic solvent and then selectively retained by the MIP beads located inside the capillary. The effect of various experimental parameters as sample pH, time and stirring-rate among others, were studied for the establishment of optimum rebinding conditions. Relative recoveries for all sulfonamides tested in river and reservoir water samples by the proposed method using 100mL water sample spiked with 50μg L-1 of each sulfonamide were within 70-120%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) <10% (n=3). The detection limits (LODs) were within 0.2-3μgL(-1), depending upon the sulfonamide and the type of water used.

  9. Bead-based microfluidic immunoassay for diagnosis of Johne's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Foote, Robert; Shaw, Robert W; Eda, Shigetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics technology offers a platform for development of point-of-care diagnostic devices for various infectious diseases. In this study, we examined whether serodiagnosis of Johne s disease (JD) can be conducted in a bead-based microfluidic assay system. Magnetic micro-beads were coated with antigens of the causative agent of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The antigen-coated beads were incubated with serum samples of JD-positive or negative serum samples and then with a fluorescently-labeled secondary antibody (SAB). To confirm binding of serum antibodies to the antigen, the beads were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. Different conditions (dilutions of serum and SAB, types of SAB, and types of magnetic beads) were optimized for a great degree of differentiation between the JD-negative and JD-positive samples. Using the optimized conditions, we tested a well-classified set of 155 serum samples from JD negative and JD-positive cattle by using the bead-based flow cytometric assay. Of 105 JD-positive samples, 63 samples (60%) showed higher antibody binding levels than a cut-off value determined by using antibody binding levels of JD-negative samples. In contrast, only 43-49 JD-positive samples showed higher antibody binding levels than the cut-off value when the samples were tested by commercially-available immunoassays. Microfluidic assays were performed by magnetically immobilizing a number of beads within a microchannel of a glass microchip and detecting antibody on the collected beads by laser-induced fluorescence. Antigen-coated magnetic beads treated with bovine serum sample and fluorescently-labeled SAB were loaded into a microchannel to measure the fluorescence (reflecting level of antibody binding) on the beads in the microfluidic system. When the results of five bovine serum samples obtained with the system were compared to those obtained with the flow cytometer, a high level of correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.994) was

  10. Development of a new passive sampler based on diffusive milligel beads for copper analysis in water.

    PubMed

    Perez, M; Reynaud, S; Lespes, G; Potin-Gautier, M; Mignard, E; Chéry, P; Schaumlöffel, D; Grassl, B

    2015-08-26

    A new passive sampler was designed and characterized for the determination of free copper ion (Cu(2+)) concentration in aqueous solution. Each sampling device was composed of a set of about 30 diffusive milligel (DMG) beads. Milligel beads with incorporated cation exchange resin (Chelex) particles were synthetized using an adapted droplet-based millifluidic process. Beads were assumed to be prolate spheroids, with a diameter of 1.6 mm and an anisotropic factor of 1.4. The milligel was controlled in chemical composition of hydrogel (monomer, cross-linker, initiator and Chelex concentration) and characterized in pore size. Two types of sampling devices were developed containing 7.5% and 15% of Chelex, respectively, and 6 nm pore size. The kinetic curves obtained demonstrated the accumulation of copper in the DMG according to the process described in the literature as absorption (and/or adsorption) and release following the Fick's first law of diffusion. For their use in water monitoring, the typical physico-chemical characteristics of the samplers, i.e. the mass-transfer coefficient (k0) and the sampler-water partition coefficient (Ksw), were determined based on a static exposure design. In order to determine the copper concentration in the samplers after their exposure, a method using DMG bead digestion combined to Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis was developed and optimized. The DMG devices proved to be capable to absorb free copper ions from an aqueous solution, which could be accurately quantified with a mean recovery of 99% and a repeatability of 7% (mean relative uncertainty).

  11. Bead magnetorelaxometry with an on-chip magnetoresistive sensor.

    PubMed

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Donolato, Marco; Strømme, Maria; Strömberg, Mattias; Svedlindh, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2011-01-21

    Magnetorelaxometry measurements on suspensions of magnetic beads are demonstrated using a planar Hall effect sensor chip embedded in a microfluidic system. The alternating magnetic field used for magnetizing the beads is provided by the sensor bias current and the complex magnetic susceptibility spectra are recorded as the 2nd harmonic of the sensor response. The complex magnetic susceptibility signal appears when a magnetic bead suspension is injected, it scales with the bead concentration, and it follows the Cole-Cole expression for Brownian relaxation. The complex magnetic susceptibility signal resembles that from conventional magnetorelaxometry done on the same samples apart from an offset in Brownian relaxation frequency. The time dependence of the signal can be rationalized as originating from sedimented beads.

  12. Preparation of bead metal single crystals by electron beam heating

    SciTech Connect

    Voigtlaender, Bert; Linke, Udo; Stollwerk, H.; Brona, J.

    2005-11-15

    For the fabrication of small metal bead crystals a gas flame is used to melt a wire forming a liquid droplet which solidifies upon cooling into a single crystal metal bead. Due to oxidation under ambient conditions bead crystals can be formed only from noble metals using this method. Here we describe a method how to fabricate bead crystals from a wide variety of metals and metal alloys (Cu, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, PtPd, Pd{sub 80}Pt{sub 20}, PtRh, AuAg, and PtIr) by electron beam heating under vacuum conditions. Narrow x-ray diffraction peaks confirm a high crystal quality of the bead crystals.

  13. Analysis of cell surface properties using derivatized agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Salbilla, B A; Vaghefi, H; Chhabra, P; Hall, G; Brown, D; Sadoughi, F; Francisco, E; Attas, L; Walker, S L; Nguyen, B N; Oppenheimer, S B

    1999-07-01

    An assay has been developed to analyse cell surface properties using agarose beads derivatized with amino acids, sugars, proteins, and other molecules. The assay is simple and rapid and is useful to identify new cell surface markers. Various species and strains of yeast, paramecium, and Euglena were tested for their ability to bind to over 100 types of derivatized beads. A variety of specificity studies were performed in order to understand the nature of cell-bead binding. Our results indicate that cell-bead binding is often specific enough to distinguish between configurational isomers and spacer sizes and can be blocked by addition of specific molecules to the incubation medium. In some cases, different species or strains differed only by their binding to a single bead type. This simple and rapid assay may help to uncover new cell surface receptors and may lead to the development of clinically useful compounds for therapeutic applications.

  14. Optimization of alpha-amylase immobilization in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Figen; Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Amylase enzyme was produced by Aspergillus sclerotiorum under SSF conditions, and immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Effects of immobilization conditions, such as alginate concentration, CaCl(2) concentration, amount of loading enzyme, bead size, and amount of beads, on enzymatic activity were investigated. Optimum alginate and CaCl(2) concentration were found to be 3% (w/v). Using a loading enzyme concentration of 140 U mL(-1), and bead (diameter 3 mm) amount of 0.5 g, maximum enzyme activity was observed. Beads prepared at optimum immobilization conditions were suitable for up to 7 repeated uses, losing only 35% of their initial activity. Among the various starches tested, the highest enzyme activity (96.2%) was determined in soluble potato starch hydrolysis for 120 min at 40 degrees C.

  15. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  16. Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads for magnetic affinity separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, T A; Fedorchak, M A; Sharonova, O M; Fomenko, E V; Shishkina, N N; Zhizhaev, A M; Kudryavtsev, A N; Frank, L A; Anshits, A G

    2016-01-28

    Magnetic Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads (Ni-ferrosphere beads - NFB) of a core-shell structure were synthesized starting from coal fly ash ferrospheres having diameters in the range of 0.063-0.050 mm. The strategy of NFB fabrication is an oriented chemical modification of the outer surface preserving the magnetic core of parent beads with the formation of micro-mesoporous coverings. Two routes of ferrosphere modification were realized, such as (i) hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline medium resulting in a NaP zeolite layer and (ii) synthesis of micro-mesoporous silica on the glass surface using conventional methods. Immobilization of Ni(2+) ions in the siliceous porous shell of the magnetic beads was carried out via (i) the ion exchange of Na(+) for Ni(2+) in the zeolite layer or (ii) deposition of NiO clusters in the zeolite and silica pores. The final NFB were tested for affinity in magnetic separation of the histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) directly from a cell lysate. Results pointed to the high affinity of the magnetic beads towards the protein in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. The sorption capacity of the ferrosphere-based Ni-beads with respect to GFP was in the range 1.5-5.7 mg cm(-3). PMID:26688000

  17. Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads for magnetic affinity separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, T A; Fedorchak, M A; Sharonova, O M; Fomenko, E V; Shishkina, N N; Zhizhaev, A M; Kudryavtsev, A N; Frank, L A; Anshits, A G

    2016-01-28

    Magnetic Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads (Ni-ferrosphere beads - NFB) of a core-shell structure were synthesized starting from coal fly ash ferrospheres having diameters in the range of 0.063-0.050 mm. The strategy of NFB fabrication is an oriented chemical modification of the outer surface preserving the magnetic core of parent beads with the formation of micro-mesoporous coverings. Two routes of ferrosphere modification were realized, such as (i) hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline medium resulting in a NaP zeolite layer and (ii) synthesis of micro-mesoporous silica on the glass surface using conventional methods. Immobilization of Ni(2+) ions in the siliceous porous shell of the magnetic beads was carried out via (i) the ion exchange of Na(+) for Ni(2+) in the zeolite layer or (ii) deposition of NiO clusters in the zeolite and silica pores. The final NFB were tested for affinity in magnetic separation of the histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) directly from a cell lysate. Results pointed to the high affinity of the magnetic beads towards the protein in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. The sorption capacity of the ferrosphere-based Ni-beads with respect to GFP was in the range 1.5-5.7 mg cm(-3).

  18. TiO₂ beads and TiO₂-chitosan beads for urease immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. PMID:25063138

  19. The state of Gd3+ ions in sulfo-and sulfophenol-containing ion exchange polymers according to the EPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskaya, G. P.; Frolova, E. N.; Konstantinov, V. N.; Fakhrutdinov, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    The KU-2 and KU-1 universal cationites were found to exhibit partly selective properties with respect to Gd3+ ions. As distinct from the transition group cations studied earlier, gadolinium ions formed centers with SO{3/-} functional groups even in sulfo resin matrices hydrated to the greatest extent, and the fraction of these complexes increased as free water was removed from ionite matrices. The EPR spectra of gadolinium aquacomplexes in hydrated polymers were similar to their spectra in aqueous solutions. The strong crystal field condition ( D[Figure not available: see fulltext.] hv) with the presence of axial and rhombic components was fulfilled for fixed complexes. The spectra corresponded to complexes of two types. The effective g-factors and λ = E/D parameters were calculated to describe the spectra of systems with spin S = 7/2 quantitatively. The correlation times of rotational motion of aquacomplexes in hydrated cationites were determined. These times were found to be longer (1.5 to 3 times) than in aqueous solutions. Dipole-dipole interactions between gadolinium ions were studied to estimate the local concentrations of sorbed ions in large-sized pores.

  20. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  1. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  2. Cetylpyridinium chloride/magnetic alginate beads: an efficient system to remove p-nitrophenol from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, Layaly; Bee, Agnes; Talbot, Delphine; Abramson, Sebastien; Welschbillig, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, is extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbent. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet [1, 2]. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads (called magsorbents)for p-nitrophenol (PNP), used as a hydrophobic pollutant, in presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant. First, the effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, surfactant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of CPC on the alginate beads was investigated. Adsorption of the surfactant occurs due to electrostatic attractions between its cationic head groups and negative carboxylate functions of the alginate beads. At larger surfactant concentrations, adsorption is also due to the interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC forming aggregated structures capable of solubilizing hydrophobic solutes. In a second step, we showed that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in the beads in presence of CPC, although the pollutant is poorly adsorbed by alginate in absence of the surfactant. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs as micellar solubilization is preferred over coadsorption. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove both cationic surfactant and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants. 1. A.Bee, D.Talbot, S.Abramson, V

  3. Magnetophoretic bead trapping in a high-flowrate biological detection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, Paul C.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Rahimian, Kamayar; Martin, James Ellis; Anderson, G. Ronald; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea; Lemp, Thomas; Derzon, Mark Steven; James, Conrad D.

    2005-03-01

    This report contains the summary of the 'Magnetophoretic Bead Trapping in a High-Flowrate Biological Detection System' LDRD project 74795. The objective of this project is to develop a novel biodetection system for high-throughput sample analysis. The chief application of this system is in detection of very low concentrations of target molecules from a complex liquid solution containing many different constituents--some of which may interfere with identification of the target molecule. The system is also designed to handle air sampling by using an aerosol system (for instance a WESP - Wet Electro-Static Precipitator, or an impact spray system) to get air sample constituents into the liquid volume. The system described herein automatically takes the raw liquid sample, whether air converted or initially liquid matrix, and mixes in magnetic detector beads that capture the targets of interest and then performs the sample cleanup function, allowing increased sensitivity and eliminating most false positives and false negatives at a downstream detector. The surfaces of the beads can be functionalized in a variety of ways in order to maximize the number of targets to be captured and concentrated. Bacteria and viruses are captured using antibodies to surface proteins on bacterial cell walls or viral particle coats. In combination with a cell lysis or PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), the beads can be used as a DNA or RNA probe to capture nucleic acid patterns of interest. The sample cleanup capability of this system would allow different raw biological samples, such as blood or saliva to be analyzed for the presence of different infectious agents (e.g. smallpox or SARS). For future studies, we envision functionalizing bead surfaces to bind to chemical weapons agents, radio-isotopes, and explosives. The two main objectives of this project were to explore methods for enhancing the mixing of the capture microspheres in the sample, and to develop a novel high-throughput magnetic

  4. Fabrication of novel core-shell hybrid alginate hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Chaoyang; Gao, Quanxing; Liu, Xinxing; Tong, Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Novel hybrid alginate hydrogel beads with shells of porous CaCO3 microparticles were fabricated by templating water-in-oil emulsion and subsequent in situ gelation. Porous CaCO3 microparticles were self-assembled at interfaces of water-in-oil emulsion. Water droplets containing alginate in the emulsion were subsequently in situ gelated by Ca2+ released from CaCO3 through decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of d-glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). The resulting hybrid beads with alginate gel cores and shells of porous CaCO3 microparticles were called colloidosomes. The packed density of CaCO3 microparticles in the shell increased with increasing the ratio of the CaCO3 microparticle weight to the water phase volume Mp/Vw and decreased with addition of NaCl into water. The size of the produced colloidosome beads was independent of Mp/Vw. Increasing the volume fraction of water Phi w to 0.5, some colloidosome beads deformed to nonspheral shape and even broken. Brilliant blue (BB) as a drug model was loaded into the colloidosome beads by being dissolved in the alginate aqueous solution before gelation. The BB release from the colloidosome beads was slowed down because of the formation of the shells of CaCO3 microparticles. The colloidosome beads may find applications as delivery vehicles for drugs, cosmetics, food supplements and living cell.

  5. Superporous agarose beads as a solid support for microfluidic immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoonsun; Nam, Seong-Won; Lee, Nae Yoon; Kim, Youn Sang; Park, Sungsu

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate here with the feasibility of superporous agarose (SA) beads as a solid support in microfluidic immunoassay by detecting goat IgG. In our procedure, SA beads containing superpores were covalently conjugated to protein A. The conjugated beads were introduced into a polydimethyl siloxane microfluidic device. The sandwich immunoassay was performed in the microfluidic device by subsequently introducing anti-goat IgG as the primary antibodies, goat IgG as analytes, alkaline phosphatase-conjugated F(ab')2 anti-goat IgG as detection antibodies, and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate/nitroblue tetrazolium as substrate in a flow. Depending on the goat IgG concentration, dark and pinky precipitates appeared inside the microchannel immediately after the introduction of all the reagents. The minimum detection limit, 100 pg goat IgG/mL in PBS, was achieved with the naked eye. This enhanced sensitivity is mainly because analytical reagents were allowed to access the outer surface as well as the inner matrices of the beads. This is supported by the facts that the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate IgG happened throughout the inside matrices of protein A-conjugated SA beads but was limited to the outer surface of protein A-conjugated homogeneous agarose beads. These results suggest that SA beads are highly suitable as a solid support for microfluidic immunoassays.

  6. Superhydrophobic and superoleophillic surface of porous beaded electrospun polystrene and polysytrene-zeolite fiber for crude oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    This research presents a cheap route procedure for the preparation of a potential adsorbent with superhydrophobic/superoleophillic properties for selective removal of crude oil from water. In this study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water (>1500) and crude oil (00). The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petroleum/petrochemical industry.

  7. Highly Ordered Single Conjugated Polymer Chain Rod Morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Takuji; Brazard, Johanna; Chokshi, Paresh; Ganesan, Venkat; Bolinger, Joshua; Barbara, Paul F.

    2010-10-15

    We have reexamined the fluorescence polarization anisotropy of single polymer chains of the prototypical conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) isolated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix employing improved synthetic samples that contain a much smaller number of tetrahedral chemical defects per chain. The new measurements reveal a much larger fraction of highly anisotropic MEH-PPV chains, with >70% of the chains exhibiting polarization anisotropy values falling in the range of 0.6-0.9. High anisotropy is strong evidence for a rod-shaped conformation. A comparison of the experimental results with coarse grain, beads on a chain simulations reveals that simulations with the usual bead-bead pairwise additive potentials cannot reproduce the observed large fraction of high polarization values. Apparently, this type of potential lacks some yet to be identified molecular feature that is necessary to accurately simulate the experimental results.

  8. Uptake of mercury by thiol-grafted chitosan gel beads.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, John D; Davids, William G; MacRae, Jean D; Amirbahman, Aria

    2004-07-01

    This study describes the synthesis and characterization of thiol-grafted chitosan beads for use as mercury (Hg) adsorbents. Chitosan flakes were dissolved and formed into spherical beads using a phase inversion technique, then crosslinked to improve their porosity and chemical stability. Cysteine was grafted onto the beads in order to improve the adsorption affinity of Hg to the beads. The beads possessed an average diameter of 3.2 mm, porosity of 0.9, specific surface area of approximately 100 m2/g, average pore size of approximately 120 angstroms, and specific gravity of 2.0. Equilibrium and kinetic uptake experiments were conducted to study the uptake of Hg by the beads. The adsorption capacity was approximately 8.0 mmol-Hg/g-dry beads at pH 7, and decreased with decreasing pH. Hg adsorption kinetics was modeled as radial pore diffusion into a spherical bead with nonlinear adsorption. Use of the nonlinear Freundlich isotherm in the diffusion equation allowed modeling of the uptake kinetics with a single tortuosity factor of 1.5 +/- 0.3 as the fitting parameter for all initial Hg concentrations, chitosan loadings, and agitation rates. At agitation rates of 50 and 75 rpm, where uptake rate was reduced significantly due to the boundary layer effect, the mass transfer coefficient at the outside boundary was also used as a fitting parameter to model the kinetic data. At agitation rates higher than 150 rpm, pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The beads exhibited a high initial uptake rate followed by a slower uptake rate suggesting pore diffusion as the rate-determining step especially at high agitation rates. Higher uptake rates observed in this study compared to those in a previous study of chitosan-based crab shells indicate that dissolution and gel formation increase the porosity and pore accessibility of chitosan.

  9. Direct measurements of convective fluid velocities in superporous agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, P E; Axelsson, A; Larsson, P O

    1998-02-01

    Superporous agarose beads contain two sets of pores, diffusion pores and so-called superpores or flow pores, in which the chromatographic flow can transport substances to the interior of each individual bead [Gustavsson and Larsson, J. Chromatogr. A 734 (1996) 231]. The existence of pore flow may be proven indirectly by the chromatographic performance of beads but it has never been directly demonstrated in a chromatographic bed. In this report, pore flow was directly measured by following the movement of micro-particles (dyed yeast cells) in a packed bed. The passage of the micro-particles through the superpores and through the interstitial pores was followed by a microscope/video camera focused on beads which were situated four layers from the glass wall. The video recordings were subsequently used to determine the convective fluid velocities in both the superpores and the interstitial pores. Experiments were carried out with three different bead size ranges, all of which contained superporous beads having an average superpore diameter of 30 microns. The superpore fluid velocity as % of interstitial fluid velocity was determined to be 2-5% for columns packed with 300-500-micron beads (3% average value), 6-12% for columns packed with 180-300-micron beads (7% average value) and 11-24% for columns packed with 106-180-micron beads (17% average value). These data were compared to and found to agree with theoretically calculated values based on the Kozeny-Carman equation. In order to observe and accurately measure fluid velocities within a chromatographic bed, special techniques were adopted. Also, precautions were made to ensure that the experimental conditions used were representative of normal chromatography runs.

  10. Optical trapping force reduction and manipulation of nanoporous beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Fan; Oehrlein, Stefan; Zeng, Erliang; Kershner, Ryan; Cerrina, Franco

    2012-04-01

    We studied the interaction of infrared optical traps with controlled-pore glass (CPG) beads in aqueous medium. The lateral optical trapping force and stiffness were experimentally found considerably smaller than those of their solid counterparts. The simulation using an average refractive index revealed significant losses of effective trapping efficiency, which quantitatively agreed well with experimentally fitted curves. This effect was ascribed to the reduced relative refractive index of medium-filled CPG beads with respect to the medium. Combining optical trapping with mechanical confinements, we demonstrated a microfluidic platform allowing for the synthesis of multiple DNA oligonucleotide sequences on individual beads of interest.

  11. Patterning surface by site selective capture of biopolymer hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Guyomard-Lack, Aurélie; Moreau, Céline; Delorme, Nicolas; Marquis, Mélanie; Fang, Aiping; Bardeau, Jean-François; Cathala, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    This communication describes the fabrication of microstructured biopolymer surfaces by the site-selective capture of pectin hydrogel beads. A positively charged surface consisting of poly-L-lysine (PLL) was subjected to site-selective enzymatic degradation using patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps covalently modified with trypsin, according to the recently described method. The patterned surface was used to capture ionically cross-linked pectin beads. The desired patterning of the hydrogel surfaces was generated by site-selective immobilization of these pectin beads. The ability of the hydrogels to be dried and swollen in water was assessed.

  12. Patterning surface by site selective capture of biopolymer hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Guyomard-Lack, Aurélie; Moreau, Céline; Delorme, Nicolas; Marquis, Mélanie; Fang, Aiping; Bardeau, Jean-François; Cathala, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    This communication describes the fabrication of microstructured biopolymer surfaces by the site-selective capture of pectin hydrogel beads. A positively charged surface consisting of poly-L-lysine (PLL) was subjected to site-selective enzymatic degradation using patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps covalently modified with trypsin, according to the recently described method. The patterned surface was used to capture ionically cross-linked pectin beads. The desired patterning of the hydrogel surfaces was generated by site-selective immobilization of these pectin beads. The ability of the hydrogels to be dried and swollen in water was assessed. PMID:22326339

  13. Immobilization of pectin depolymerising polygalacturonase using different polymers.

    PubMed

    Ur Rehman, Haneef; Aman, Afsheen; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Karim, Asad; Ghani, Maria; Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Ul Qader, Shah Ali

    2016-01-01

    Polygalacturonase catalyses the hydrolysis of pectin substances and widely has been used in food and textile industries. In current study, different polymers such as calcium alginate beads, polyacrylamide gel and agar-agar matrix were screened for the immobilization of polygalacturonase through entrapment technique. Polyacrylamide gel was found to be most promising one and gave maximum (89%) immobilization yield as compared to agar-agar (80%) and calcium alginate beads (46%). The polymers increased the reaction time of polygalacturonase and polymers entrapped polygalacturonases showed maximum pectinolytic activity after 10 min of reaction as compared to free polygalacturonase which performed maximum activity after 5.0 min of reaction time. The temperature of polygalacturonase for maximum enzymatic activity was increased from 45°C to 50°C and 55°C when it was immobilized within agar-agar and calcium alginate beads, respectively. The optimum pH (pH 10) of polygalacturonase was remained same when it was immobilized within polyacrylamide gel and calcium alginate beads, but changed from pH 10 to pH 9.0 after entrapment within agar-agar. Thermal stability of polygalacturonase was improved after immobilization and immobilized polygalacturonases showed higher tolerance against different temperatures as compared to free enzyme. Polymers entrapped polygalacturonases showed good reusability and retained more than 80% of their initial activity during 2nd cycles.

  14. Microgravity Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A one-day, interactive workshop considering the effects of gravity on polymer materials science was held in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 9, 1985. Selected programmatic and technical issues were reviewed to introduce the field to workshop participants. Parallel discussions were conducted in three disciplinary working groups: polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer engineering. This proceedings presents summaries of the workshop discussions and conclusions.

  15. Rupture dynamics in model polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Borah, Rupam; Debnath, Pallavi

    2016-05-11

    In this paper we explore the rupture dynamics of a model polymer system to capture the microscopic mechanism during relative motion of surfaces at the single polymer level. Our model is similar to the model for friction introduced by Filippov, Klafter, and Urbakh [Filippov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004, 92, 135503]; but with an important generalization to a flexible transducer (modelled as a bead spring polymer) which is attached to a fixed rigid planar substrate by interconnecting bonds (modelled as harmonic springs), and pulled by a constant force FT. Bonds are allowed to rupture stochastically. The model is simulated, and the results for a certain set of parameters exhibit a sequential rupture mechanism resulting in rupture fronts. A mean field formalism is developed to study these rupture fronts and the possible propagating solutions for the coupled bead and bond dynamics, where the coupling excludes an exact analytical treatment. Numerical solutions to mean field equations are obtained by standard numerical techniques, and they agree well with the simulation results which show sequential rupture. Within a travelling wave formalism based on the Tanh method, we show that the velocity of the rupture front can be obtained in closed form. The derived expression for the rupture front velocity gives good agreement with the stochastic and mean field results, when the rupture is sequential, while propagating solutions for bead and bond dynamics are shown to agree under certain conditions. PMID:27087684

  16. Mesoporous silica beads embedded with semiconductor quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals: dual-function microcarriers for optical encoding and magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Tushar R; Agrawal, Amit; Nie, Shuming

    2006-08-15

    Mesoporous beads are promising materials for embedding functional nanoparticles because of their nanometer-sized pores and large surface areas. Here we report the development of silica microbeads embedded with both semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocrystals as a new class of dual-function carriers for optical encoding and magnetic separation. The embedding (doping) process is carried out by either simultaneous or sequential addition of quantum dots and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocrystals in solution. The doping process is fast and quantitative, but the incorporated iron oxide strongly attenuates the signal intensity of QD fluorescence. We find that this attenuation is not due to conventional fluorescence quenching but is caused by the broad optical absorption spectrum of mixed-valence Fe3O4. For improved biocompatibility and reduced nonspecific binding, the encoded beads are further coated with amphiphilic polymers such as octylamine poly(acrylic acid). The results indicate that the polymer-coated beads are well suited for target capturing and enrichment, yielding magnetic separation efficiencies higher than 99%. By combining the multiplexing capability of QDs with the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals, this class of encoded beads is expected to find broad applications in high-throughput and multiplexed biomolecular assays. PMID:16906704

  17. 7. Detail, beaded mortar joint, stepped wingwall coping at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, beaded mortar joint, stepped wingwall coping at the east portal of Tunnel 18, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 18, Milepost 410, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

  18. Dual magnetic circuit magnetic bead coagulation test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Guo, Shuangmao; Wang, Jun

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a dual magnetic circuit magnetic bead method and corresponding system for testing human blood coagulation. The system is composed mainly of a dual magnetic circuit magnetic beads test assembly, a signal modulation and demodulation module, a digital filter as well as a waveform processor. Smart hardware design together with subsequent software algorithm is presented for the system to overcome the defects of traditional dual magnetic circuit magnetic bead method. Experiments for verifying the system are carried out in comparison with an ACL200 coagulometer from Coulter Co. USA. Experimental results indicate that the system features excellent precision, repeatability better than 2.10%, and show that the dual magnetic circuit magnetic bead system suppresses external interference factors effectively.

  19. Guided self-assembly of magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Nguyen, Ha; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Fischbacher, Johann; Özelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Brandl, Martin; Schrefl, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Micromagnetic beads are widely used in biomedical applications for cell separation, drug delivery, and hyperthermia cancer treatment. Here we propose to use self-organized magnetic bead structures which accumulate on fixed magnetic seeding points to isolate circulating tumor cells. The analysis of circulating tumor cells is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Microfluidic chips for isolating circulating tumor cells use either affinity, size or density capturing methods. We combine multiphysics simulation techniques to understand the microscopic behavior of magnetic beads interacting with soft magnetic accumulation points used in lab-on-chip technologies. Our proposed chip technology offers the possibility to combine affinity and size capturing with special antibody-coated bead arrangements using a magnetic gradient field created by Neodymium Iron Boron permanent magnets. The multiscale simulation environment combines magnetic field computation, fluid dynamics and discrete particle dynamics.

  20. 8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

  1. Polymer escape from a confining potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mökkönen, Harri; Ikonen, Timo; Jónsson, Hannes; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2014-02-07

    The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.

  2. Polymer escape from a confining potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mökkönen, Harri; Ikonen, Timo; Jónsson, Hannes; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2014-02-01

    The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.

  3. Nanocrystal coated beads for optical coding and whispering gallery modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Claudine Nì; Lequeux, Nicolas; Chassenieux, Christophe; Cyr, Guillaume; Tessier, Gilles; Dubertret, Benoit

    2007-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals (QDs) have unique optical properties such as size tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength and a chemically functionalized sufrace. Our CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanocrystals have been made water-soluble by encapsulation in a micelle of positively charged amphiphilic copolymers. Layer-by-layer deposition of these QDs was done on sub-micrometer silica beads as well as magnetic and polymeric micro-sized beads. The negative surface charge of these various beads allowed successive stacking of cationic polyethylnimine, anionic polyacrylic acid sodium salt and the cationic encapsulated QDs. Multiple QD layers can be added by repeating the stacking process. The PL spectral of green QDs is moduoated by whispering galley mode resonances when the QDs arecoating a singe 3 μm bead. Depending on the quality factor of this microsphere, it can also be possible to detect perturbations caused by sufficient adsorption of biomolecules or even living microorganisms on a bead's surface by observing spectral shifts of the resonances. If different colorsof QDs are used to coat smaller beads where the modes are not spectrally resolved, an optical coating system can be devised base on the relative emission intensity for each color. The uniformity of a bead ensemble coded with 2 QD colors has been invesetigated, revealing a ~20% relataive standard deviation for various intensity levels. Better control of photobleaching through QD passivation reduced this number to ~8%, which would allow us to differentiate up to 2.6x10 10 optical codes on our setup. Labelling large amount of molecules in solution, e.g. DNA sequences, then becomes possible with an appropriate biofunctionalization of bead surfaces.

  4. Plasma membrane isolation using immobilized concanavalin A magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Josic, Djuro; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of highly purified plasma membranes is the key step in constructing the plasma membrane proteome. Traditional plasma membrane isolation method takes advantage of the differential density of organelles. While differential centrifugation methods are sufficient to enrich for plasma membranes, the procedure is lengthy and results in low recovery of the membrane fraction. Importantly, there is significant contamination of the plasma membranes with other organelles. The traditional agarose affinity matrix is suitable for isolating proteins but has limitation in separating organelles due to the density of agarose. Immobilization of affinity ligands to magnetic beads allows separation of affinity matrix from organelles through magnets and could be developed for the isolation of organelles. We have developed a simple method for isolating plasma membranes using lectin concanavalin A (ConA) magnetic beads. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. The ConA magnetic beads are used to bind glycosylated proteins present in the membranes. The bound membranes are solubilized from the magnetic beads with a detergent containing the competing sugar alpha methyl mannoside. In this study, we describe the procedure of isolating rat liver plasma membranes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation as described by Neville. We then further purify the membrane fraction by using ConA magnetic beads. After this purification step, main liver plasma membrane proteins, especially the highly glycosylated ones and proteins containing transmembrane domains could be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. While not described here, the magnetic bead method can also be used to isolate plasma membranes from cell lysates. This membrane purification method should expedite the cataloging of plasma membrane proteome.

  5. Reversing adhesion with light: a general method for functionalized bead release from cells.

    PubMed

    Goulet-Hanssens, Alexis; Magdesian, Margaret H; Lopez-Ayon, G Monserratt; Grutter, Peter; Barrett, Christopher J

    2016-07-19

    Coated beads retain great importance in the study of cell adhesion and intracellular communication; we present a generally applicable method permitting spatiotemporal control of bead adhesion from cells. Herein we demonstrate in vitro release of a poly-d-lysine (PDL) layer from anionic polystyrene beads, allowing complete bead release from rat cortical neurons post-adhesion. PMID:27165466

  6. Surfactant Mediated Cationic and Anionic Suspension Polymerization of PEG-Based Resins in Silicon Oil: Beaded SPOCC 1500 and POEPOP 1500.

    PubMed

    Grøtli; Rademan; Groth; Lubell; Miranda; Meldal

    2001-01-01

    A novel surfactant has been synthesized for use in cationic and anionic ring-opening suspension polymerization of PEG-based macromonomers in silicon oil. A polymer of acrylate esters containing pentamethyldisiloxane and PEG was prepared by radical polymerization. The surfactant can stabilize an emulsion of PEG-based macromonomers, initiator, and solvent in silicon oil such that polymer beads are obtained by ring-opening polymerization, initiated either by a Lewis acid (cationic ring opening) or potassium tert-butoxide (anionic ring opening). The average bead size could be controlled by varying the stirring rate and the amount of surfactant and solvent. The surfactant does not interfere with the polymerization and can be removed together with residual silicon oil by a simple washing procedure. PMID:11148061

  7. Serum albumin-alginate coated beads: mechanical properties and stability.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Lévy, F; Lévy, M C

    1999-11-01

    According to a previously described method, alginate beads were prepared from a Na-alginate solution containing propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The solution was added dropwise to a CaCl2 solution. The beads were treated with NaOH, which started the formation of amide bonds between HSA and PGA at the periphery, giving a membrane. Batches of beads with increasingly thick membranes were prepared using growing concentrations of NaOH, and studied with a texture analyser. When raising NaOH concentration, the rupture strength progressively increased, and the resistance strength to a deformation of 50% of total height also increased before slightly decreasing for the highest NaOH concentration. Variations of bead elasticity were also observed. When the beads were prepared with saline reducing gelation time from 10 to 5 min, and reaction time from 15 to 5 min, mechanical properties varied more progressively with the NaOH concentration, while the results became more reproducible. A series of assays conducted with 0.01 M NaOH confirmed the importance of using a short gelation time, and saline rather than water. Stability assays were also performed. The results were compared to those of alginate-polylysine coated beads and showed the interest of the transacylation method. PMID:10535819

  8. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in defined protein beads.

    PubMed

    Lund, Amanda W; Bush, Jeff A; Plopper, George E; Stegemann, Jan P

    2008-10-01

    There is a need to develop improved methods for directing and maintaining the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a method for embedding cells in defined protein microenvironments for the directed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Composite matrices of collagen I and agarose were produced by emulsification and simultaneous polymerization in the presence of hMSC to produce 30-150 mum diameter hydrogel "beads." The proliferation, morphology, osteogenic gene expression, and calcium deposition of hMSC in bead environments were compared to other two- and three-dimensional culture environments over 14-21 days in culture. Cells embedded within 40% collagen beads exhibited equivalent proliferation rates to those in gel disks, but showed upregulation of bone sialoprotein and increased calcium deposition over 2D controls. Osteocalcin gene expression was not changed in 3D beads and disks, while collagen type I gene expression was downregulated relative to cells in 2D culture. The hydrogel bead format allows controlled cell differentiation and is a cell delivery vehicle that may also enhance vascular invasion and host incorporation. Our results indicate that the application of such beads can be used to promote the osteogenic phenotype in hMSC, which is an important step toward using them in bone repair applications.

  9. Configurational Statistics of Magnetic Bead Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic beads that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic bead depends on the location of the bead relative to the sensor. Consequently, the signal from multiple beads also depends on their locations. Thus, a given coverage of the functionalized area with magnetic beads does not result in a given detector response, except on the average, over many realizations of the same coverage. We present a systematic theoretical analysis of how this location-dependence affects the sensor response. The analysis is done for beads magnetized by a homogeneous in-plane magnetic field. We determine the expected value and standard deviation of the sensor response for a given coverage, as well as the accuracy and precision with which the coverage can be determined from a single sensor measurement. We show that statistical fluctuations between samples may reduce the sensitivity and dynamic range of a sensor significantly when the functionalized area is larger than the sensor area. Hence, the statistics of sampling is essential to sensor design. For illustration, we analyze three important published cases for which statistical fluctuations are dominant, significant, and insignificant, respectively. PMID:26496495

  10. Structure and Properties of Magnetic (Co, Fe, Fe{sub 3}C and Ni) Carbon Beads

    SciTech Connect

    Leonowicz, Marcin; Izydorzak, Marta; Pomogailo, Anatolii D.; Dzhardimalieva, Gulzhian I.

    2010-12-02

    Nanoparticles exhibit unique physical properties due to the surface or quantum-size effects. Particular attention has been focused on magnetic nanoparticles and substantial progress has been done in this field. In this work magnetic composites, consisting of elementary metals or carbides nanocrystallites, stabilized in carbon matrix, were prepared by the procedure comprising formation of appropriate metal acrylamide complexes, followed by frontal polymerization and pyrolysis of the polymer at various temperatures. Application of frontal polymerization and further pyrolysis enables formation of composite beads consisting of Co, Fe, Fe{sub 3}C or Ni nanocrystallites stabilized in carbon matrix. It was found that the lowest pyrolysis temperature, which enables the production of metallic nanocrystallites, was 673 K for Co and Ni, and 773 K for Fe. The magnetic properties of the beads, percentage of the metallic component, their composition and shape depended on the pyrolysis temperature. Extracts on the basis of composites containing Fe{sub 3}C showed no cytotoxicity, whereas those containing Co and Ni exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to concentrations of 6.25 mg/ml.

  11. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  12. Spreading dynamics of polymer nanodroplets.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Grest, Gary Stephen; Heine, David R.

    2003-08-01

    The spreading of polymer droplets is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. To study the dynamics of both the precursor foot and the bulk droplet, large hemispherical drops of 200 000 monomers are simulated using a bead-spring model for polymers of chain length 10, 20, and 40 monomers per chain. We compare spreading on flat and atomistic surfaces, chain length effects, and different applications of the Langevin and dissipative particle dynamics thermostats. We find diffusive behavior for the precursor foot and good agreement with the molecular kinetic model of droplet spreading using both flat and atomistic surfaces. Despite the large system size and long simulation time relative to previous simulations, we find that even larger systems are required to observe hydrodynamic behavior in the hemispherical spreading droplet.

  13. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  14. Beads: Long Lasting Stationary Optical Features in Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Luque, A.; Ahrns, M. J.; Kanmae, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are spectacular transient luminous structures observed in the 50-95 km altitude range above active thunderstorms following large cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. Recordings at 10,000 images per second show impressive streamer activity with bright streamers moving up or down at velocities up to half the speed of light. Not surprisingly, the streamers have attracted much research attention. However, here we will concentrate on sprite beads, which together with sprite glows, are the dominant features in video images (30 or 25 images per second) and in photographs. Sprite glow forms after streamer activity near the sprite onset altitude and beads are small point-like optical features also associated with streamer activity. The reason that the glow and the beads are dominant in longer exposure images is primarily that they do not move much and hence light can integrate over the longer exposure times. In general, streamer activity at the start of the sprite lasts a few 10s of ms, while glow and beads last considerable longer; we have observed beads lasting in excess of 500 ms. High-speed imaging shows the glow and the beads to form along the path of streamers, but they do not appear optically before almost a millisecond after streamer passage. To first order, beads appear to be stationary, but a detailed analysis of high-speed observations often indicates a slow upward or downward motion. The optical emissions decay much slower than in other parts of the sprite indicating the presence of a longer lasting source of energy. The processes in beads leave an imprint, presumably creating a local irregularity, on the atmosphere lasting longer than the optical emissions. This imprint can serve as seed for streamer initiation in a subsequent sprite (re-ignition). Based on our observations the imprint can last up to 1 second. There have been suggestions that beads are formed around local pre-existing inhomogineities, but a recent observation indicate their formation more

  15. A polymer lab-on-a-chip for magnetic immunoassay with on-chip sampling and detection capabilities.

    PubMed

    Do, Jaephil; Ahn, Chong H

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a new polymer lab-on-a-chip for magnetic bead-based immunoassay with fully on-chip sampling and detection capabilities, which provides a smart platform of magnetic immunoassay-based lab-on-a-chip for point-of-care testing (POCT) toward biochemical hazardous agent detection, food inspection or clinical diagnostics. In this new approach, the polymer lab-on-a-chip for magnetic bead-based immunoassay consists of a magnetic bead-based separator, an interdigitated array (IDA) micro electrode, and a microfluidic system, which are fully incorporated into a lab-on-a-chip on cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Since the polymer lab-on-a-chip was realized using low cost, high throughput polymer microfabrication techniques such as micro injection molding and hot embossing method, a disposable polymer lab-on-a-chip for the magnetic bead-based immunoassay can be successfully realized in a disposable platform. With this newly developed polymer lab-on-a-chip, an enzyme-labelled electrochemical immunoassay (ECIA) was performed using magnetic beads as the mobile solid support, and the final enzyme product produced from the ECIA was measured using chronoamperometry. A sampling and detection of as low as 16.4 ng mL(-1) of mouse IgG has been successfully performed in 35 min for the entire procedure.

  16. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  17. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Cash, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  18. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, S. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Gouldstone, C. A.; Sharpe, P. H. G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T. J.; Clark, C. H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size (<5 mm), low cost, reusability and inert nature. This study investigated the dosimetric characteristics of glass beads. The beads were irradiated by 6 MV photons using a medical linear-accelerator and 60Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy.

  19. Synthesis and adsorption performance of lead ion-imprinted micro-beads with combination of two functional monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linyan; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Ronghua; Hong, Jun; Qiu, Yanling

    2011-01-01

    A novel ion-imprinted polymer, lead ion-imprinted micro-beads with combination of two functional monomers, was synthesized using the W/O/W polymerization method. Two functional monomers, 1,12-dodecanediol-O,O'-diphenyl-phosphonic acid (DDDPA) and 4-vinylpyridine, were used to form a suitable construction with micro-pores fitting the template and recognition sites. The effects of adsorbent dosage, solution pH and the competitive ions on the adsorption and separation efficiency of lead ions were investigated. The lead ion-imprinted micro-beads were efficient for lead ions removal from aqueous solution in a broad pH range (4-9), when the adsorbent dosage was above 0.1 g/L. The adsorption process obeyed the pseudo second-order kinetics model and it only took half an hour to reach the equilibrium. The adsorption isotherm of lead ion was described by the Langmuir model (R2 > 0.99) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 116.9 mg/g. In the presence of competitive ions Co2+ and Cd2+, the lead ion-imprinted micro-beads showed a high selectivity for lead ions. The selectivity coefficient of Pb2+/Cd2+ and Pb2+/Co2+ are 99.3 and 114.7, respectively. PMID:22432324

  20. Synthesis and adsorption performance of lead ion-imprinted micro-beads with combination of two functional monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linyan; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Ronghua; Hong, Jun; Qiu, Yanling

    2011-01-01

    A novel ion-imprinted polymer, lead ion-imprinted micro-beads with combination of two functional monomers, was synthesized using the W/O/W polymerization method. Two functional monomers, 1,12-dodecanediol-O,O'-diphenyl-phosphonic acid (DDDPA) and 4-vinylpyridine, were used to form a suitable construction with micro-pores fitting the template and recognition sites. The effects of adsorbent dosage, solution pH and the competitive ions on the adsorption and separation efficiency of lead ions were investigated. The lead ion-imprinted micro-beads were efficient for lead ions removal from aqueous solution in a broad pH range (4-9), when the adsorbent dosage was above 0.1 g/L. The adsorption process obeyed the pseudo second-order kinetics model and it only took half an hour to reach the equilibrium. The adsorption isotherm of lead ion was described by the Langmuir model (R2 > 0.99) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 116.9 mg/g. In the presence of competitive ions Co2+ and Cd2+, the lead ion-imprinted micro-beads showed a high selectivity for lead ions. The selectivity coefficient of Pb2+/Cd2+ and Pb2+/Co2+ are 99.3 and 114.7, respectively.

  1. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  2. Characterization on Eye Glass Bead Found at Khao Sri Vichai (Surat Thani), Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongkam, Y.; Dhammanonda, W.; Dutchaneephet, J.; Kamwanna, T.; Intarasiri, S.; Tancharakorn, S.; Tanthanuch, W.; Dararutana, P.

    It was known that eye glass beads originated in the Near East during the mid 2nd millennium BC and spread to Mediterranean and Asia. In Thailand, they have been found at various archaeological sites in southern areas, especially the ancient maritime ports. In this work, Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE), micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy based on synchrotron radiation (μ-SRXRF) and Raman spectroscopy were carried out to characterize the composition of the eye-glass bead which excavated from Khao Sri Vichai at Surat Thani Province. It has a black body, dark blue pupil and ochre circle pattern on the inlaid white eyeball. It was found that its shape was similar as those which were unearthed from the ancient tombs of the Early Warring State Period (∼500 B.C.) at China. The main compositions were alkali-silicate glass. Surface microstructure has been found to be corroded. This data was one of the evidences which confirmed the ancient long distance trade or exchange network.

  3. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  4. Microfluidic, Bead-Based Assay: Theory and Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jason A.; Bau, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    Microbeads are frequently used as a solid support for biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids in heterogeneous microfluidic assays. However, relatively few studies investigate the binding kinetics on modified bead surfaces in a microfluidics context. In this study, a customized hot embossing technique is used to stamp microwells in a thin plastic substrate where streptavidin-coated agarose beads are selectively placed and subsequently immobilized within a conduit. Biotinylated quantum dots are used as a label to monitor target analyte binding to the bead's surface. Three-dimensional finite element simulations are carried out to model the binding kinetics on the bead's surface. The model accounts for surface exclusion effects resulting from a single quantum dot occluding multiple receptor sites. The theoretical predictions are compared and favorably agree with experimental observations. The theoretical simulations provide a useful tool to predict how varying parameters affect microbead reaction kinetics and sensor performance. This study enhances our understanding of bead-based microfluidic assays and provides a design tool for developers of point-of-care, lab-on-chip devices for medical diagnosis, food and water quality inspection, and environmental monitoring. PMID:19766545

  5. Formation of RNA Beads from Various DNA Nanoring Structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Jong Bum

    2016-05-01

    By taking advantages of rolling circle transcription, one of the powerful methods to overcome the instability of RNA, we successfully synthesized RNA particles having high copy numbers of RNA strands. To examine dependence of RNA particle formation to template circular DNA strands, we synthesized RNA beads with 65-nt, 92-nt and 200-nt DNA nanoring structures as template circular DNA. Our conclusion is that characteristics of RNA beads could be controlled with various template circular DNA for RCT. It is feasible that our RNA beads could be used for RNAzyme-based metal sensors such as aqueous lead ion sensing. In this case, we expect that multi-metal ion detection would be possible by using 200-nt circular DNA bearing multiple desired functions as a template for RNA bead formation. Furthermore, certain features of RNA beads such as sensitivity to nuclease digestion and maximum loading amount of drugs when used as a carrier are expected to be further adjusted by choosing appropriate porosity and size.

  6. Polymer-solid contacts described by soft, coarse-grained models.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marcus; Steinmüller, Birger; Daoulas, Kostas Ch; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; de Pablo, Juan J

    2011-06-14

    The ability of soft, coarse-grained models to describe the narrow interface of a nearly incompressible polymer melt in contact with a solid is explored by numerical self-consistent field calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations. We investigate the effect of the discreteness of the bead-spring architecture by quantitatively comparing the results of a bead-spring model with different number of beads, N, but identical end-to-end distance, R(e), and a continuous Gaussian-thread model. If the width, ξ, of the narrow polymer-solid contact is smaller or comparable to the length of a statistical segment, b=R(e)/√N-1, strong differences in the interface tension and the density profiles between the two models are observed, and strategies for compensating the discrete nature of the bead-spring model are investigated. Compensating the discretization of the chain contour in the bead-spring model by applying an external segment-solid potential, we simultaneously adjust the interface tension and the density profile to the predictions of the Gaussian-thread model. We suggest that the geometry of the polymer-solid contact and the interface tension are relevant characteristics that a coarse-grained model of polymer-solid contacts must reproduce in order to establish a quantitative relationship to an experimental system.

  7. Tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films used in the coating of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, M; Kuppler, F; Bodmeier, R

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to determine the tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films in order to make predictions on the tackiness (agglomeration) of coated dosage forms during coating and curing. Force-displacement curves of the detachment process of two polymeric films were used as a measure of tackiness. Various polymers (cellulosic (Aquacoat and acrylics (Eudragit RS 30D, L 30D, NE 30D)), plasticizers (triacetin, triethyl citrate, tributyl citrate, acetyltributyl citrate) and anti-tacking agents (talc and glyceryl monostearate) were investigated. The order of tackiness for films prepared from the different aqueous polymer dispersions was in order of Eudragit NE 30D > RS 30D > RL 30D > Aquacoat. The tackiness increased with increasing plasticizer concentration due to the softening of the polymer. A correlation between the minimum film formation temperature and the tackiness was observed, however, no correlation between the tackiness and the lipophilicity of the plasticizer was seen. Talc and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) reduced the tackiness of the films significantly, with GMS being effective at much lower concentrations. Curing of Eudragit RS 30D-coated theophylline beads at temperatures higher than 40 degrees C in an irreversible agglomeration of the beads and damage of the coating upon separation of the beads. This resulted in a faster release than with uncured beads. Blending the beads with talc just prior to the curing step eliminated the agglomeration and therefore film damage, even at a curing temperature of 60 degrees C. PMID:10234529

  8. Tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films used in the coating of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, M; Kuppler, F; Bodmeier, R

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to determine the tackiness of acrylic and cellulosic polymer films in order to make predictions on the tackiness (agglomeration) of coated dosage forms during coating and curing. Force-displacement curves of the detachment process of two polymeric films were used as a measure of tackiness. Various polymers (cellulosic (Aquacoat and acrylics (Eudragit RS 30D, L 30D, NE 30D)), plasticizers (triacetin, triethyl citrate, tributyl citrate, acetyltributyl citrate) and anti-tacking agents (talc and glyceryl monostearate) were investigated. The order of tackiness for films prepared from the different aqueous polymer dispersions was in order of Eudragit NE 30D > RS 30D > RL 30D > Aquacoat. The tackiness increased with increasing plasticizer concentration due to the softening of the polymer. A correlation between the minimum film formation temperature and the tackiness was observed, however, no correlation between the tackiness and the lipophilicity of the plasticizer was seen. Talc and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) reduced the tackiness of the films significantly, with GMS being effective at much lower concentrations. Curing of Eudragit RS 30D-coated theophylline beads at temperatures higher than 40 degrees C in an irreversible agglomeration of the beads and damage of the coating upon separation of the beads. This resulted in a faster release than with uncured beads. Blending the beads with talc just prior to the curing step eliminated the agglomeration and therefore film damage, even at a curing temperature of 60 degrees C.

  9. Photoaddressable Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieringer, T.

    Polymers are the perfect materials for a variety of applications in almost every field of technical as well as human life. Because of their macromolecular architecture there are a lot of degrees of freedom in the synthesis of polymers. Owing to the change of their functional composition, they can be tailored even for quite difficult demands. Since a whole industry deals with the processing of polymers, cheap production lines have been developed for almost every polymer. This is the reason why not only the molecular composition but even the price of polymers has been optimized. Therefore these materials can be considered as encouraging components even in highly sophisticated areas of applications.

  10. [Research Progress on Cytometric Bead Assay for Platelet Antibody Detection].

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Kong, Xin; Chen, Bao-An

    2015-08-01

    Anti-platelet specific antibody is one of the most important reasons leading to thrombocytopenia and megakaryocyte dysmaturity. The detection of platelet autoantibodies is an important step in the diagnosis of ITP because of the absence of specific clinic feature. The monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) has become a "gold standard" for determination of PLT specific antibody, which has high specificity and low sensitivity. However, this assay is time-consuming and tedious work. Routine use of this assay in hospital is difficult. Recently, some researches reporded the cytometric bead assay that has higher sensitivity than MAIPA, and so probably solves the problem of time-consuming partly, that also can use different beads for simultaneous detection. This review focuses on recent progress of the cytometric bead assay. PMID:26314475

  11. Enhanced arsenic removal using mixed metal oxide impregnated chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Jamila S; Miller, Sarah M; Spaulding, Matthew L; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2012-09-15

    Mixed metal oxide impregnated chitosan beads (MICB) containing nanocrystalline Al₂O₃ and nanocrystalline TiO₂ were successfully developed. This adsorbent exploits the high capacity of Al₂O₃ for arsenate and the photocatalytic activity of TiO₂ to oxidize arsenite to arsenate, resulting in a removal capacity higher than that of either metal oxide alone. The composition of the beads was optimized for maximum arsenite removal in the presence of UV light. The mechanism of removal was investigated and a mode of action was proposed wherein TiO₂ oxidizes arsenite to arsenate which is then removed from solution by Al₂O₃. Pseudo-second order kinetics were used to validate the proposed mechanism. MICB is a more efficient and effective adsorbent for arsenic than TiO₂-impregnated chitosan beads (TICB), previously reported on, yet maintains a desirable life cycle, free of complex synthesis processes, toxic materials, and energy inputs. PMID:22743162

  12. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  13. Butterfly wing colours: scale beads make white pierid wings brighter.

    PubMed Central

    Stavenga, D. G.; Stowe, S.; Siebke, K.; Zeil, J.; Arikawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the scales contain an absorbing pigment, reflectance is suppressed in the absorption wavelength range of the pigment. The reflectance of the white wing areas of P. rapae, where the scales are studded with beads, is considerably higher than that of the white wing areas of H. melpomene, which has scales lacking beads. The beads presumably cause the distinct matt-white colour of the wings of pierids and function to increase the reflectance amplitude. This will improve the visual discrimination between conspecific males and females. PMID:15306303

  14. Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2010-07-01

    Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic beads in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep partial differential B(x)/ partial differential y constant and B large enough to saturate the bead. We achieved fields of 300-600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T/m over a sample space of 0.5x4 mm(2) in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 microm diameter Dynabead was 12 pN with a spatial variation of approximately 10%. Use of the magnet in a biophysical experiment is illustrated by showing that gliding microtubules propelled by the molecular motor kinesin can be stopped by the force of an attached magnetic bead.

  15. Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B.; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C.; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2010-07-01

    Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic beads in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep ∂Bx/∂y constant and B large enough to saturate the bead. We achieved fields of 300-600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T/m over a sample space of 0.5×4 mm2 in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 μm diameter Dynabead was 12 pN with a spatial variation of approximately 10%. Use of the magnet in a biophysical experiment is illustrated by showing that gliding microtubules propelled by the molecular motor kinesin can be stopped by the force of an attached magnetic bead.

  16. Towards hybrid swimming microrobots: bacteria assisted propulsion of polystyrene beads.

    PubMed

    Behkam, Bahareh; Sitti, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Compactness and efficiency of biomotors makes them superior to man-made actuators and a very attractive choice of actuation for micro/nanorobots. However, biomotors are difficult to work with due to complications associated with their isolation and reconstitution. To circumvent this problem, here we use flagellar motors inside the intact cell of S. marcescens bacteria. An array of bacteria is used as propeller for a 10 microm polystyrene (PS) bead. PS bead is tracked for several seconds and its displacements is compared with diffusion length of a 10 microm particle. It is shown that the bead moves with an average velocity of 17 microm/s. Orientation of adhesion of S. marcescens to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips and microscale PS fibers was also investigated. It is shown that for both substrates; only bacteria from farther behind the leading edge of the swarm adhere in end-on configuration.

  17. Coated hydralazine hydrochloride beads for sustained release after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Mughal, M Akhlaq; Saripella, Kalyan K; Kouba, Chahinaz; Iqbal, Zafar; Neau, Steven H

    2013-09-01

    Hydralazine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive used alone or in combination with isosorbide nitrate for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Since control of blood pressure should be continuous, sustained release delivery of this drug is considered therapeutically beneficial. Core beads for oral administration of this drug were prepared by extrusion-spheronization. Using experimental design to define the coat that was applied, the core beads were coated using a fluid bed coater to different coat thickness with combinations of two commercially available products dissolved in a hydroalcoholic solvent. The coat is a film with a combination of ethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose that can provide desirable release profiles. Visually spherical and rugged bead products were obtained. Two products were identified that exhibited essentially a zero order release profile following a 2-h lag time with release of greater than 70% of the drug over the next 10 h in simulated intestinal fluid.

  18. Microinjected magnetic beads induce curvature in Chara rhizoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherp, P.; Hasenstein, K.

    The gravitropic response of the Chara rhizoid is based on the interaction between the statoliths and the actin network located in the rhizoid apex. The rhizoid represents a model system for the study of gravitropism, because its apical cell contains the gravity sensing and response mechanism. In order to study the function of the statoliths and the cytoskeleton, we supplemented the naturally occurring statoliths with magnetic beads. These beads can be moved by an external magnetic field and they can be coated to interact with the cytoskeleton. The magnetic beads (1μm diameter) were injected close to the tip of the rhizoid in the presence of an external osmoticum to offset turgor pressure. The injection caused the formation of a noticeable plug of dense material at the site of impalement. After a recovery period of ca. 2 - 4 hours, the whole plant was mounted on the rotatable stage of a custom- built horizontal microscope, equipped with a long-working distance objective and a video camera. This stage is designed to reorientate the cell and/or the injected beads. In order to study the effect of the displacement of magnetic beads, an external magnetic field was applied. This external field was capable of displacing the magnetic particles but did not affect the natural statoliths. Work is in progress to quantify the response, to study the effect of microinjection on wall formation, and utilize coating of the beads to investigate their possible interaction with the original statoliths and with the microfilament network. Supported by NASA grant NAG 2- 1423.

  19. Quantum dot-encoded mesoporous beads with high brightness and uniformity: rapid readout using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaohu; Nie, Shuming

    2004-04-15

    A new generation of optically encoded beads has been prepared by using mesoporous polystyrene beads and surfactant-coated semiconductor quantum dots. In comparison with nonporous beads of similar sizes and chemical compositions, the encoded porous beads are approximately 1000 times brighter and 5 times more uniform in fluorescence intensities. Using both absolute intensity and ratiometric fluorescence coding, we show that the beads can be identified with a standard flow cytometer at 1000 beads/s. This result indicates that the multiple excited-state lifetimes and relaxation pathways of quantum dots do not limit their applications in high-speed optical detection and imaging.

  20. Preparation and cytotoxicity of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/alginate beads containing gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martins, Alessandro F; Facchi, Suelen P; Monteiro, Johny P; Nocchi, Samara R; Silva, Cleiser T P; Nakamura, Celso V; Girotto, Emerson M; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2015-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex beads based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and sodium alginate (ALG) were obtained. This biomaterial was characterised by FTIR, TGA/DTG, DSC and SEM analysis. The good properties of polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel beads were associated, for the first time, with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Through a straightforward methodology, AuNPs were encapsulated into the beads. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays on the Caco-2 colon cancer cells and healthy VERO cells showed that the beads presented good biocompatibility on both cell lines, whereas the beads loaded with gold nanoparticles (beads/AuNPs) was slightly cytotoxic on the Caco-2 and VERO cells.

  1. Designing string-of-beads vaccines with optimal spacers.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Benjamin; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2016-01-26

    String-of-beads polypeptides allow convenient delivery of epitope-based vaccines. The success of a polypeptide relies on efficient processing: constituent epitopes need to be recovered while avoiding neo-epitopes from epitope junctions. Spacers between epitopes are employed to ensure this, but spacer selection is non-trivial.We present a framework to determine optimally the length and sequence of a spacer through multi-objective optimization for human leukocyte antigen class I restricted polypeptides. The method yields string-of-bead vaccines with flexible spacer lengths that increase the predicted epitope recovery rate fivefold while reducing the immunogenicity from neo-epitopes by 44% compared to designs without spacers.

  2. Disappearance of high frequency modes in polymer dilute solution viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Ronald; Jain, Semant

    2009-03-01

    We address the problem of the ``missing modes'' in the high frequency rheology of dilute polymer solutions. According to the Rouse-Zimm theory, the slow viscoelastic response of dilute polymers is dominated by the collective motion of the chain, as described by a bead-spring model. However, one expects this description to break down at high frequencies at which chain motion on scales too small to be represented by beads and springs should be evident; this motion should be controlled by rotations of individual backbone bonds of the polymer. The viscoelastic response produced by these ``local modes'' is observable in polymer melts; however, for dilute polymer solutions, the ``local modes'' are absent from viscoelastic spectra, as shown by Schrag and coworkers (Peterson, et al., J. Polym. Sci. B, 39:2860 (2001)). Here we address this problem by directly simulating single polymer chains using Brownian dynamics simulations, with realistic bending and torsional potentials. We show using these simulations that the ``missing modes'' result from barriers to bond rotation that make the chain ``dynamically rigid'' at high frequencies. As a result, the ``dynamical Kuhn length'' of the chain exceeds the static one, and the chain at high frequencies is not able to explore local conformations as fast as would be needed for their relaxation to contribute to the mechanical relaxation spectrum.

  3. Improvement of Protein Immobilization and Bioactivity of Magnetic Carriers Using a Brushed Beads-on-Beads Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peirui; Xu, Ping; Wang, Pingping; Deng, Lingling; Gu, Hongchen; Xu, Hong

    2015-11-11

    To achieve higher protein immobilization and bioactivity, as well as automatic manipulation, we prepared a new type of biocarrier based on the brushed beads-on-beads structure. Many poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushed nanoparticles were packed onto the surface of amino-functionalized magnetic particles through an efficient carbodiimide-assisted coupling reaction to attain a hierarchical structure, a unique three-dimensional (3D) space and automatic manipulation characteristics. The proposed biocarrier was evaluated in the recognition capability of the immunocomplex and showed a 6.7-fold increase compared with control beads with a hard surface. The results of this study suggest promising applications in targeted capture and high-performance biodetection processes.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1328 - Heat exchange systems provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Heat exchange systems provisions. 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1328 Heat exchange... of this subpart. (h) The compliance date for heat exchange systems subject to the provisions of...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1328 - Heat exchange systems provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Heat exchange systems provisions. 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1328 Heat exchange... of this subpart. (h) The compliance date for heat exchange systems subject to the provisions of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1328 - Heat exchange systems provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat exchange systems provisions. 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1328 Heat exchange... of this subpart. (h) The compliance date for heat exchange systems subject to the provisions of...

  7. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.21 Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in...

  8. Central-metal exchange, improved catalytic activity, photoluminescence properties of a new family of d(10) coordination polymers based on the 5,5'-(1H-2,3,5-triazole-1,4-diyl)diisophthalic acid ligand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huarui; Huang, Chao; Han, Yanbing; Shao, Zhichao; Hou, Hongwei; Fan, Yaoting

    2016-05-01

    The rigid and planar tetracarboxylic acid 5,5'-(1H-2,3,5-triazole-1,4-diyl)diisophthalic acid (H4L), incorporating a triazole group, has been used with no or different pyridine-based linkers to construct a family of d(10) coordination polymers, namely, {[H2N(CH3)2]3[Cd3(L)2(HCOO)]}n (), {[Cd2(L)(py)6]·H2O}n (), {[H2N(CH3)2] [Cd2(L)(HCOO)(H2O)4]}n (), {[Zn(H2L)]·H2O}n (), and {[Zn(H2L)(4,4'-bipy)0.5]·C2H5OH·H2O}n () (py = pyridine, 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine). constructs a 3D porous network containing two kinds of channels: one is filled with coordinated HCOO(-) anions, and the other with [H2N(CH3)2](+) cations. The framework of can be described as a rare (5,6,7)-connected net with the Schläfli symbol of (4(12)·5·6(2))(4(5)·5(3)·6(2))2(4(8)·5(3)·6(8)·8(2))2. The Cd(ii) ions in are connected through the carboxylate ligands to form a 2D layer, with aperture dimensions of ∼15.1 Å × 16.2 Å. The network of features a 3D (3,4)-connected (6·8·10)2(6·8(3)·10(2)) topology. A 3D network with the (4(2)·6·8(3)) topology of possesses an open 1D channel with the free volume of 29.2%. is a 2D layer structure with the (4(2)·6(3)·8)(4(2)·6) topology. The fluorescence lifetime τ values of are on the nanosecond timescale at room temperature. In particular, central-metal exchange in leads to a series of isostructural M(ii)-Cd frameworks [M = Cu (), Co (), Ni ()] showing improved catalytic activity for the synthesis of 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives. Based on this, a plausible mechanism for the catalytic reaction has been proposed and the reactivity-structure relationship has been further clarified. PMID:27063339

  9. Comparison of three magnetic bead surface functionalities for RNA extraction and detection.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nicholas M; Bordelon, Hali; Wang, Kwo-Kwang A; Albert, Laura E; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2015-03-25

    Magnetic beads are convenient for extracting nucleic acid biomarkers from biological samples prior to molecular detection. These beads are available with a variety of surface functionalities designed to capture particular subsets of RNA. We hypothesized that bead surface functionality affects binding kinetics, processing simplicity, and compatibility with molecular detection strategies. In this report, three magnetic bead surface chemistries designed to bind nucleic acids, silica, oligo (dT), and a specific oligonucleotide sequence were evaluated. Commercially available silica-coated and oligo (dT) beads, as well as beads functionalized with oligonucleotides complementary to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid gene, respectively recovered ∼75, ∼71, and ∼7% target RSV mRNA after a 1 min of incubation time in a surrogate patient sample spiked with the target. RSV-specific beads required much longer incubation times to recover amounts of the target comparable to the other beads (∼77% at 180 min). As expected, silica-coated beads extracted total RNA, oligo (dT) beads selectively extracted total mRNA, and RSV-specific beads selectively extracted RSV N gene mRNA. The choice of bead functionality is generally dependent on the target detection strategy. The silica-coated beads are most suitable for applications that require nucleic acids other than mRNA, especially with detection strategies that are tolerant of a high concentration of nontarget background nucleic acids, such as RT-PCR. On the other hand, oligo (dT) beads are best-suited for mRNA targets, as they bind biomarkers rapidly, have relatively high recovery, and enable detection strategies to be performed directly on the bead surface. Sequence-specific beads may be best for applications that are not tolerant of a high concentration of nontarget nucleic acids that require short RNA sequences without poly(A) tails, such as microRNAs, or that perform RNA detection directly on the bead surface.

  10. Bioglass/alginate composite hydrogel beads as cell carriers for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiongyu; Han, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Chang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Cell carrier is a useful biomedical tool to deliver particular kind of cells to a specific site for cell therapy or tissue regeneration. In the current study, 45S5 bioglass (BG) was introduced into alginate (ALG) to generate BG/ALG composite hydrogel beads as cell carriers. The ions releasing behavior, dimensional stability and in vitro bioactivity of the beads were investigated. Results showed that the BG/ALG beads revealed similar calcium ion releasing behavior as compared with ALG beads. In addition, silicon ion releasing was detected in BG/ALG beads. BG/ALG and ALG beads shared similar dimensional stability, and BG/ALG beads could induce apatite deposition on their surface after being soaked in stimulated body fluid. Then, the effects of ion extracts from hydrogel beads on cell behavior were investigated. Results confirmed that extracts of BG/ALG beads could simulate proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as well as angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1 cells were successfully encapsulated in hydrogel beads. BG/ALG beads enhanced the cell proliferation and stimulated osteogenic differentiation of the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells as compared with ALG beads. Therefore, BG/ALG composite hydrogel beads loaded with bone forming cells may be useful tools for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications.

  11. Preparation of novel silica-coated alginate gel beads for efficient encapsulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song-Wei; Lu, Yang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Jiang, Zhong-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Biomimetic formation has undoubtedly inspired the preparation of novel organic-inorganic hybrid composites. In this study, silica-coated alginate gel beads were prepared by coating the surface of alginate gel beads with silica film derived from tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). The composition and structure of the silica film were characterized by FT-IR and SEM equipped with EDX. The swelling behavior of silica-coated alginate gel beads was studied to be more stable against swelling than that of alginate gel beads. The results showed that silica-coated alginate gel beads exhibited appropriate diffusion property. The effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of NADH in silica-coated alginate beads was 1.76 x 10(-10) m2/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient in alginate beads was 1.84 x 10(-10) m2/s. The model enzyme yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) was encapsulated in silica-coated alginate and pure alginate beads, respectively. Enzyme leakage of YADH in alginate gel beads was determined to be 32%, while the enzyme leakage in silica-coated alginate gel beads was as low as 11%. Furthermore, the relative activity of YADH in alginate gel beads decreased almost to zero after 10 recycles, while the relative activity of YADH in silica-coated alginate gel beads was 81.3%. The recycling stability of YADH in silica-coated alginate gel beads was found to be increased significantly mainly due to the effective inhibition of enzyme leakage by compact silica film.

  12. A new device for efficient preparation of standard antibiotic bead chains and customized antibiotic delivery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baochang; Ju, Weina; Yu, Tiecheng; Wang, Tiejun; Zhao, Yi; Sun, Dahui

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads are widely used in orthopedic practice for the prevention of infections after open fractures and in the management of osteomyelitis. The use of commercial beads is limited by insufficient flexibility, lack of provision for selection of specific antibiotic, and short drug-release time. Further, the manual procedure for the preparation of PMMA beads is slow, and the products are not uniform in size. Uniformity of the bead size is crucial because the placement of oversized beads place at sites with limited space (e.g., narrow medullary canal) is difficult, and their retrieval from such sites is painful to the patient. To overcome the limitations of commercial beads and manually prepared beads, we developed a simple device for the efficient preparation of antibiotic-loaded PMMA beads of uniform sizes. We describe the device, bead preparation, and the characteristics of the beads prepared using our device, and the preliminary clinical results. The beads obtained using this device were relatively small, had excellent flexibility, and were suitable for implantation in small spaces. The device permits the selection of the antibiotic to be loaded on to the beads. The results of preliminary studies of the beads prepared using our device have been positive, highlighting the need for more large-scale and longitudinal investigations.

  13. A new device for efficient preparation of standard antibiotic bead chains and customized antibiotic delivery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baochang; Ju, Weina; Yu, Tiecheng; Wang, Tiejun; Zhao, Yi; Sun, Dahui

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads are widely used in orthopedic practice for the prevention of infections after open fractures and in the management of osteomyelitis. The use of commercial beads is limited by insufficient flexibility, lack of provision for selection of specific antibiotic, and short drug-release time. Further, the manual procedure for the preparation of PMMA beads is slow, and the products are not uniform in size. Uniformity of the bead size is crucial because the placement of oversized beads place at sites with limited space (e.g., narrow medullary canal) is difficult, and their retrieval from such sites is painful to the patient. To overcome the limitations of commercial beads and manually prepared beads, we developed a simple device for the efficient preparation of antibiotic-loaded PMMA beads of uniform sizes. We describe the device, bead preparation, and the characteristics of the beads prepared using our device, and the preliminary clinical results. The beads obtained using this device were relatively small, had excellent flexibility, and were suitable for implantation in small spaces. The device permits the selection of the antibiotic to be loaded on to the beads. The results of preliminary studies of the beads prepared using our device have been positive, highlighting the need for more large-scale and longitudinal investigations. PMID:27004369

  14. Development of a miniature analytical system in a lab-on-valve for determination of trace copper by bead injection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Ying; He, Rong-Huan

    2012-01-15

    A miniature analytical system based on a lab-on-valve platform is developed for trace metal analysis by bead injection spectroscopy. A multipurpose flow cell integrated into a lab-on-valve is furnished with two pieces of fiber optics to communicate with light source and charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer, respectively, in order to monitor real-time absorbance of the samples. Micro-beads loaded with chromogenic reagent are packed into the multipurpose flow cell to form a renewable microcolumn for solid phase extraction by bead injection. When the sample solution flows through the microcolumn, the target analyte will be captured on the surface of beads and detected directly by the CCD spectrometer without elution. The beads are automatically discarded from the multipurpose flow cell after each analytical cycle. This analytical system was employed to determine trace copper by loading of a chromogenic reagent 2-carboxy-2'-hydroxy-5'-sulfoformazylbenzene (zincon) on the beads of an anion exchanger (Sephadex QAE A-25). With a sample volume of 2.5mL, a detection limit of 3μgL(-1) and a linear range of 10-100μgL(-1) were obtained for copper, along with a RSD value of 2.5% (at the 50μgL(-1) level). The accuracy and practical applicability of the proposed system were validated by analysing certified reference materials, i.e., GBW10010, GBW09101, GBW08608, and further demonstrated by spiking recovery of copper in a water sample.

  15. Polymer adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanny, Jean-Francois

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this talk is to review Pierre-Gilles deGennes' work on polymer adsorption and the impact that it has now in our understanding of this problem. We will first present the self-consistent mean-field theory and its applications to adsorption and depletion. De Gennes most important contribution is probably the derivation of the self-similar power law density profile for adsorbed polymer layers that we will present next, emphasizing the differences between the tail sections and the loop sections of the adsorbed polymers. We will then discuss the kinetics of polymer adsorption and the penetration of a new polymer chain in an adsobed layer that DeGennes described very elegantly in analogy with a quantum tunneling problem. Finally, we will discuss the role of polymer adsorption for colloid stabilization.

  16. Brownian Dynamics Simulations of Flow Induced Conformation of Single Polymer Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oztekin, Alparslan; Webb, Edward; Zhang, Frank; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2012-11-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of single polymer chains is conducted to examine flow induced conformational changes of single polymer chains in shear and extensional flows. Dynamic properties of polymeric molecules are described using bead-spring models; these models put coarse grain groups of atoms into single particles, connected to adjacent particles via spring like interactions. A common representation of the bonded interaction, or spring, is given by the Finitely Extensible Non-linear Elastic model. The constants used in the model are determined form single-molecule force spectroscopic experiments. Simulations and experiments will help to achieve a clear picture of how von Willebrand Factor, a blood clotting protein, model system for flow-induced activation, achieves flow sensing at the single protein/polymer level. The model includes bead-bead interactions, hydrodynamic interaction, the volume of the beads and spring-spring interaction for finitely extensible dumbbell and other spring models. The effects of walls on the dynamics of polymer chains are also presented. The results are presented for various chain lengths and flow conditions. Hydrodynamic interaction and the presence of wall have strong influences on the dynamics of the polymer chain.

  17. Diclofenac sodium (DS) loaded bioerodible polymer based constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, M.; Chiellini, F.; Nikkola, L.; Ashammakhi, N.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-02-01

    Pain is a prevalent problem that can raise morbidity of patients. Pain killer releasing biodegradable materials have been developed by using different techniques and biomaterials. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the use of a new bioerodible polymer for release of diclofenac sodium (DS). 1-butanol hemiester poly(maleic anhydride-alt-2-methoxyethyl vinyl ether) (PAM14) was prepared in the university of Pisa and selected as polymer of choice for the study. Polymer solutions of 5-10% (in ethanol or in acetic acid) were prepared, half of them containing 2% DS. The solutions were then electrospun to produce nanomats that were subsequently characterized using SEM. Fiber diameter was 160 nm 1 μm. Increasing polymer concentration increased the size of the fibers but reduced the number of beads (with or without DS). In the specimens obtained from acetic acid solution, the addition of DS resulted in a reduction in fiber diameter and an increase in the inter-bead distance. Corresponding ethanol solutions gave more homogeneous specimens than did acetic acid, having a lower number of beads. With the addition of DS a reduction in fiber diameter was observed for the acetic acid specimens. However, in ethanol, adding DS resulted in increased fiber diameter. Accordingly, it can be concluded that it is feasible to develop electrospun diclofenac releasing bioerodible nanostructures that have potential use in pain management. Their further evaluation is however, needed both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of dilute polymer solutions—Inertial effects and hydrodynamic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Tongyang; Wang, Xiaogong; Jiang, Lei; Larson, Ronald G.

    2014-07-01

    We examine the accuracy of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations of polymers in dilute solutions with hydrodynamic interaction (HI), at the theta point, modeled by setting the DPD conservative interaction between beads to zero. We compare the first normal-mode relaxation time extracted from the DPD simulations with theoretical predictions from a normal-mode analysis for theta chains. We characterize the influence of bead inertia within the coil by a ratio L{sub m}/R{sub g}, where L{sub m} is the ballistic distance over which bead inertia is lost, and R{sub g} is the radius of gyration of the polymer coil, while the HI strength per bead h* is determined by the ratio of bead hydrodynamic radius (r{sub H}) to the equilibrium spring length. We show how to adjust h* through the spring length and monomer mass, and how to optimize the accuracy of DPD for fixed h* by increasing the friction coefficient (γ ≥ 9) and by incorporating a nonlinear distance dependence into the frictional interaction. Even with this optimization, DPD simulations exhibit deviations of over 20% from the theoretical normal-mode predictions for high HI strength with h* ≥ 0.20, for chains with as many as 100 beads, which is a larger deviation than is found for Stochastic rotation dynamics simulations for similar chains lengths and values of h*.

  19. Antimicrobial N-brominated hydantoin and uracil grafted polystyrene beads.

    PubMed

    Farah, Shady; Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-10-28

    Hydantoin-N-halamine derivatives conjugated on polystyrene beads are promising disinfectants with broad antimicrobial activity affected by the gradual release of oxidizing halogen in water. The objective of this work was to identify and test of hydantoin-like molecules possessing urea moiety, which may provide N-haloamines releasing oxidizing halogens when exposed to water at different rates and release profiles for tailored antimicrobial agents. In this work, several hydantoin (five member ring) and for the first time reported, uracil (six member ring) derivatives have been conjugated to polystyrene beads and tested for their lasting antimicrobial activity. Four molecules of each series were conjugated onto polystyrene beads from the reaction of the N-potassium hydantoin or uracil derivatives onto chloromethylated polystyrene beads. A distinct difference in bromine loading capacity and release profiles was found for the different conjugated derivatives. All tested materials exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriophages MS2 of 7 and ~4 log reduction, respectively. These results highlight the antimicrobial potential of halogenated cyclic molecules containing urea groups as water disinfection agents.

  20. An integrated microfluidic system using magnetic beads for virus detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan-Chi; Lien, Kang-Yi; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2008-01-01

    An integrated system capable of sample pretreatment using antibody-conjugated magnetic beads and one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on a microfluidic system was developed to accelerate the detection of RNA viruses such as dengue virus or enterovirus 71. The targeted virus in the sample was first captured by the specific antibody-conjugated magnetic beads, which were manipulated by micro-electromagnets made of micro-electro-mechanical systems technology. The RNA of the targeted virus then underwent thermal lysis and was reverse-transcripted to cDNA using a microRT-PCR module. The sensitivity to detect dengue virus is around 10-100 PFU, which is equivalent to the commercial RNA extraction kit and a large-scale RT-PCR machine. This microsystem can specifically detect 4 serotypes of dengue virus, as well as enterovirus 71. The specificity was warranted by both antibody and primer. The microfluidic system allows automatic process of sample including mixing, incubation, and reaction. The antibody-conjugated magnetic beads offer sample pretreatment of purification and concentration. The integration of antibody-conjugated magnetic beads into the microfluidic system is promising for fast molecular diagnosis of microorganisms.

  1. Purification of Lysozyme by Intrinsically Shielded Hydrogel Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Zhang, R.; Wang, L.; Bowyer, A.; Eisenthal, R.; Shen, Yehua; Hubble, J.

    2013-07-01

    Macro-sized intrinsically shielded hydrogel beads have been prepared from BSA and CM-dextran grafted with CB using a technique based on freeze-thawing gelation method. The size of the beads lies in around 500 μm. Isothemal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that the relative binding affinities of the lysozyme for CB, compared with BSA, at pH 3.0 was stronger than that at pH 7.4. They were employed for the affinity separation of lysozyme using chromatography column. Their adsorption capacity for lysozyme at pH 3.0 is higher than that at pH 9. In a binary mixture of lysozyme and ovalbumin, the beads showed very high selectivity toward lysozyme. Lysozyme of very high purity (> 93%) was obtained from a mixture of lysozyme and ovalbumin, and 85% from egg white solution. The results indicate that the macro-sized bead can be used for the separation, purification, and recovery of lysozyme in a chromatograph column.

  2. Collection Development: From Beads to Bangles (Jewelry Making)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanrahan, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Jewelry making began exploding as a hobby about ten years ago, largely because the flush economy gave individuals more leisure time and disposable income. Jewelry classes, bead stores, and special events have multiplied like craft shows at Christmas time. While the recent economic downturn has slowed the growth of the hobby, it is still as popular…

  3. Bead-Based Microfluidic Sediment Analogues: Fabrication and Colloid Transport.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Huang, Jingwei; Xiao, Feng; Yin, Xiaolong; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Neeves, Keith B; Wu, Ning

    2016-09-13

    Mobile colloids can act as carriers for low-solubility contaminants in the environment. However, the dominant mechanism for this colloid-facilitated transport of chemicals is unclear. Therefore, we developed a bead-based microfluidic platform of sediment analogues and measured both single and population transport of model colloids. The porous medium is assembled through a bead-by-bead injection method. This approach has the versatility to build both electrostatically homogeneous and heterogeneous media at the pore scale. A T-junction at the exit also allowed for encapsulation and enumeration of colloids effluent at single particle resolution to give population dynamics. Tortuosity calculated from pore-scale trajectory analysis and its comparison with lattice Boltzmann simulations revealed that transport of colloids was influenced by the size exclusion effect. The porous media packed by positively and negatively charged beads into two layers showed distinctive colloidal particle retention and significant remobilization and re-adsorption of particles during water flushing. We demonstrated the potential of our method to fabricate porous media with surface heterogeneities at the pore scale. With both single and population dynamics measurement, our platform has the potential to connect pore-scale and macroscale colloid transport on a lab scale and to quantify the impact of grain surface heterogeneities that are natural in the subsurface environment. PMID:27548505

  4. Antimicrobial N-brominated hydantoin and uracil grafted polystyrene beads.

    PubMed

    Farah, Shady; Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-10-28

    Hydantoin-N-halamine derivatives conjugated on polystyrene beads are promising disinfectants with broad antimicrobial activity affected by the gradual release of oxidizing halogen in water. The objective of this work was to identify and test of hydantoin-like molecules possessing urea moiety, which may provide N-haloamines releasing oxidizing halogens when exposed to water at different rates and release profiles for tailored antimicrobial agents. In this work, several hydantoin (five member ring) and for the first time reported, uracil (six member ring) derivatives have been conjugated to polystyrene beads and tested for their lasting antimicrobial activity. Four molecules of each series were conjugated onto polystyrene beads from the reaction of the N-potassium hydantoin or uracil derivatives onto chloromethylated polystyrene beads. A distinct difference in bromine loading capacity and release profiles was found for the different conjugated derivatives. All tested materials exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriophages MS2 of 7 and ~4 log reduction, respectively. These results highlight the antimicrobial potential of halogenated cyclic molecules containing urea groups as water disinfection agents. PMID:26220618

  5. Reagentless cell lysis on a PDMS CD using beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jitae; Jang, She-Hee; Zoval, Jim V.; Da Silva, Nancy A.; Madou, Marc J.

    2004-08-01

    Reagentless mechanical cell lysis was demonstrated on a microfluidic CD (Compact Disc) microfabricated in PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane). The motion of beads in a lysis chamber on the CD causes disruption of mammalian (CHO-K1), bacterial (Escherichia coli), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. Interactions between beads and cells are generated in the rimming flow established inside a partially filled annular chamber in the CD rotating around a horizontal axis. To maximize bead-cell interactions, the CD was spun forward and backwards around this axis, using high acceleration for up to 7 minutes. Based on our theoretical work, we investigated the following control parameters: bead density, angular velocity, acceleration rate, and solid volume fraction, all of which influence cell lysis efficiency. Cell disruption efficiency was verified either through direct microscopic viewing or measurement of DNA concentration after cell lysing. Lysis efficiency relative to a conventional lysis protocol was also determined. In the long term, this work is geared towards CD based sample-to-answer nucleic acid analysis which will include cell lysis, DNA purification, DNA amplification, and DNA hybridization detection.

  6. "Micro-robots" pick up a glass bead

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    "Micro-robots", which are really collections of particles animated by magnetic fields, pick up a glass bead and move it around the screen. Each movement is precisely controlled. The "asters" were designed by Alexey Snezkho and Igor Aronson at Argonne National Laboratory. Video courtesy Nature Materials. Read the full story at http://go.usa.gov/KAT

  7. Hydraulic and acoustic investigation of sintered glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueven, Ibrahim; Luding, Stefan; Steeb, Holger

    2013-06-01

    In the present contribution, we are focussing on the hydraulical and acoustical charcterization of sintered glass beads. For the experiments sintered mono-and weakly polydisperse glass bead samples were applied. Depending on the particle size, degree of particle dispersion and sample treatment during the sintering process, the produced cylindircal samples exhibit different hydraulic and acoustic properties. The more general focus of our research lies on the physical behaviour of oil-water emulsions in porous media by means of combined electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation. For this purpose, a hydraulic multi-task measuring cell was developed. This cell allows carrying out simple hydraulic permeability and challenging ultrasound experiments in porous materials saturated with Pickering emulsions. In the first phase of our experiments, hydraulical and acoustical measurements of cylindrical sintered glass bead samples were performed in order to determine their intrinsic permeabilities and effective ultrasound velocities. The intrinsic permeability ks, a coupling parameter between the solid matrix and the pore fluid, has a huge influence on wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media. For the assessment of permeabilities, particle size distributions and porosities of the investigated glass beads were determined.

  8. Physicochemical design of the morphology and ultrastructure of cellulose beads.

    PubMed

    Trygg, Jani; Fardim, Pedro; Gericke, Martin; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose was dissolved in NaOH-urea-water and beads were prepared by coagulation into nitric acid as well as saline solution. Morphology and ultrastructure of the beads were modified by controlling the molarity of the acid (0-10M) and temperature (5-50°C) of the coagulation media and the cellulose concentration (3-7%). The beads were characterized by optical image analysis (shape, volume, and size distribution) and weight (total porosity). Cross-sections of CO2 critical point dried beads were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and specific surface areas of 336-470m(2)g(-1) were determined from nitrogen adsorption isoterms. Pore size distribution was analyzed using solute exclusion technique. Our results demonstrate that the ultrastructure can be controlled by alteration of the coagulation conditions. Changes in size, shape and surface area were substential. Also generation of micro- (⩽2Å), meso-, or macropores (⩾50Å) can be favored.

  9. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  10. [Efficacy of the glass bead sterilizer on endodontic instruments].

    PubMed

    Canalda-Sahli, C; Pumarola-Suñe, J; Espias-Gomez, A; Jimenez-Polancos, P

    1989-12-01

    The time taken to achieve the sterilization of K files impregnated in a Bacillus subtilis culture was evaluated, placing the files in a glass bead sterilizer. The minimum time needed was 20 seconds at 240 degrees C and the previous cleaning of the file with a sterile wipe impregnated by alcohol reduced this time to 15 seconds.

  11. Selection of bead-displayed, PNA-encoded chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Natalie R.; Nelli, J. Patrick; Dutta, Samrat; Kuhn, Adam; Bonin, Keith; Pianowski, Zbigniew; Winssinger, Nicolas; Guthold, Martin; Macosko, Jed C.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of efficient identification and isolation methods for specific molecular binders has fundamentally limited drug discovery. Here, we have developed a method to select peptide nucleic acid (PNA) encoded molecules with specific functional properties from combinatorially generated libraries. This method consists of three essential stages: (1) creation of a Lab-on-Bead™ library, a one-bead, one-sequence library that, in turn, displays a library of candidate molecules, (2) fluorescence microscopy-aided identification of single target-bound beads and the extraction – wet or dry – of these beads and their attached candidate molecules by a micropipette manipulator, and (3) identification of the target-binding candidate molecules via amplification and sequencing. This novel integration of techniques harnesses the sensitivity of DNA detection methods and the multiplexed and miniaturized nature of molecule screening to efficiently select and identify target-binding molecules from large nucleic acid encoded chemical libraries. Beyond its potential to accelerate assays currently used for the discovery of new drug candidates, its simple bead-based design allows for easy screening over a variety of prepared surfaces that can extend this technique's application to the discovery of diagnostic reagents and disease markers. PMID:19957300

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF TIRE BEAD BREAKER (LEFT) AND PRESSURE MONITOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TIRE BEAD BREAKER (LEFT) AND PRESSURE MONITOR PANEL (RIGHT), ROOM 1M9, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Bead Roller, at right, used for preparing flume sheeting (still ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bead Roller, at right, used for preparing flume sheeting (still in use, 2004); on left is a pipe cutter. Facing southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  14. Chitosan coated alginate beads for the survival of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum in pomegranate juice.

    PubMed

    Nualkaekul, Sawaminee; Lenton, Dominique; Cook, Michael T; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris

    2012-10-15

    This work studied the effect of multi-layer coating of alginate beads on the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum in simulated gastric solution and during storage in pomegranate juice at 4°C. Uncoated, single and double chitosan coated beads were examined. The survival of the cells in simulated gastric solution (pH 1.5) was improved in the case of the chitosan coated beads by 0.5-2 logs compared to the uncoated beads. The cell concentration in pomegranate juice after six weeks of storage was higher than 5.5logCFU/mL for single and double coated beads, whereas for free cells and uncoated beads the cells died after 4 weeks of storage. In simulated gastric solution, the size of the beads decreased and their hardness increased with time; however, the opposite trend was observed for pomegranate juice, indicating that there is no correlation between cell survival and the hardness of the beads.

  15. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  16. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  17. Electrospinning polymer blends for biomimetic scaffolds for ACL tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Vanessa Lizeth

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common knee injuries. Current ACL reconstructive strategies consist of using an autograft or an allograft to replace the ligament. However, limitations have led researchers to create tissue engineered grafts, known as scaffolds, through electrospinning. Scaffolds made of natural and synthetic polymer blends have the potential to promote cell adhesion while having strong mechanical properties. However, enzymes found in the knee are known to degrade tissues and affect the healing of intra-articular injuries. Results suggest that the natural polymers used in this study modify the thermal properties and tensile strength of the synthetic polymers when blended. Scanning electron microscopy display bead-free and enzyme biodegradability of the fibers. Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the natural and synthetic polymers in the scaffolds while, amino acid analysis present the types of amino acids and their concentrations found in the natural polymers.

  18. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-03-19

    An apparatus is described for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  19. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Scott, Timothy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  20. Novel chitosan goethite bionanocomposite beads for arsenic remediation.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Gehin, Antoine; Silvester, Ewen; Charlet, Laurent

    2016-09-15

    We report on the synthesis and As adsorption properties of a novel chitosan - iron (oxyhydr)oxide composite material for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated water supplies. FE-SEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy, ICP-OES and synchrotron (Bulk XAS, μXRF) techniques were applied to determine the composition of the new material and investigate the As uptake efficiency and mechanism. The iron (oxyhydr)oxide phase has been identified as a nano-sized goethite, well dispersed in the chitosan matrix, leading to the name 'chitosan goethite bionanocomposite' (CGB). The CGB material is prepared in the form of beads of high density and excellent compression strength; the embedding of the goethite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix allows for the high adsorption capacity of nanoparticles to be realized. CGB beads remove both As(III) and As(V) efficiently from water, over the pH range 5-9, negating the need for pre-oxidation of As(III). Kinetic studies and μXRF analysis of CGB bead sections show that diffusion-adsorption of As(V) into CGB beads is faster than for As(III). Using CGB beads, synthetic high-arsenic water (0.5 mg-As/L) could be purified to world drinking standard level (<0.01 mg-As/L) using only 1.4 g/L CGB. When considered in combination with the advantages of the low-cost of raw materials required, and facile (green) synthesis route, CGB is a promising material for arsenic remediation, particularly in developing countries, which suffer a diversity of socio-economical-traditional constraints for water purification and sanitation. PMID:27240296

  1. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF R3f GARNET BEAD FILTRATION AND MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION SYSTEMS; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of tests conducted to date at the EPA T&E Facility on the R3f filtration system utilizing fine beads (such as garnet beads or glass beads) and a conventional multimedia filtration system. Both systems have been designed and built by Enprotec, a...

  2. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and...

  3. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...

  4. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...

  5. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and...

  6. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and...

  7. Influence of immobilized biomolecules on magnetic bead plug formation and retention in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Henken, Rachel L; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Gilman, S Douglass

    2012-03-01

    Significant changes in the formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs in a capillary during electrophoresis were studied, and it was demonstrated that these effects were due to the type of biological molecule immobilized on the surface of these beads. Three biological molecules, an antibody, an oligonucleotide, and alkaline phosphatase (AP), were attached to otherwise identical streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-avidin binding in order to isolate differences in bead immobilization in a magnetic field resulting from the type of biological molecule immobilized on the bead surface. AP was also attached to the magnetic beads using epoxy groups on the bead surfaces (instead of avidin-biotin binding) to study the impact of immobilization chemistry. The formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs were studied quantitatively using light scattering detection of magnetic particles eluting from the bead plugs and qualitatively using microscopy. Both the types of biomolecule immobilized on the magnetic bead surface and the chemistry used to link the biomolecule to the magnetic bead impacted the formation and retention of the bead plugs. PMID:22437880

  8. Bead-beating artefacts in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio of the human stool metagenome.

    PubMed

    Vebø, Heidi C; Karlsson, Magdalena Kauczynska; Avershina, Ekaterina; Finnby, Lene; Rudi, Knut

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated bead-beating cell-lysis in analysing the human stool metagenome, since this is a key step. We observed that two different bead-beating instruments from the same producer gave a three-fold difference in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio. This illustrates that bead-beating can have a major impact on downstream metagenome analyses. PMID:27498349

  9. Prednisolone Delivery Platforms: Capsules and Beads Combination for a Right Timing Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Russo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a platform of alginate beads loaded with Prednisolone in hypromellose/gellan gum capsules (F6/Cps) able to delay steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (SAID) release as needed for chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis is proposed. Rheumatoid arthritis, showing a worsening in symptoms in the morning upon waking, is a pathology that can benefit from chronotherapy. With the aim to maximize prednisolone therapeutic action allowing the right timing of glucocorticoid therapy, different engineered microparticles (gel-beads) were manufactured using prilling (laminar jet break-up) as micro-encapsulation technique and Zn-alginate as gastroresistant carrier. Starting from various feed solutions and process parameters, the effect of the variables on particles size, morphology, solid state properties and drug release was studied. The optimization of operative and prilling/ionotropic gelation variables led to microspheres with almost spherical shape and a narrow dimensional range. The feed solution with the highest alginate (2.5% w/v) amount and drug/polymer ratio (1:5 w/w) gave rise to the highest encapsulation efficiency (78.5%) as in F6 formulation. As to drug release, F6 exhibited an interesting dissolution profile, releasing about 24% of the drug in simulated gastric fluid followed by a more sustained profile in simulated intestinal fluid. #F6, acting as a gastro-resistant and delayed release formulation, was selected for in vivo studies on male Wistar rats by means of a carrageenan-induced oedema model. Finally, this efficacious formulation was used as core material for the development of a final dosage form: F6/Cps allowed to significantly reduce prednisolone release in simulated gastric fluid (12.6%) and delayed drug release up to about 390 minutes. PMID:27472446

  10. Prednisolone Delivery Platforms: Capsules and Beads Combination for a Right Timing Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Russo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a platform of alginate beads loaded with Prednisolone in hypromellose/gellan gum capsules (F6/Cps) able to delay steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (SAID) release as needed for chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis is proposed. Rheumatoid arthritis, showing a worsening in symptoms in the morning upon waking, is a pathology that can benefit from chronotherapy. With the aim to maximize prednisolone therapeutic action allowing the right timing of glucocorticoid therapy, different engineered microparticles (gel-beads) were manufactured using prilling (laminar jet break-up) as micro-encapsulation technique and Zn-alginate as gastroresistant carrier. Starting from various feed solutions and process parameters, the effect of the variables on particles size, morphology, solid state properties and drug release was studied. The optimization of operative and prilling/ionotropic gelation variables led to microspheres with almost spherical shape and a narrow dimensional range. The feed solution with the highest alginate (2.5% w/v) amount and drug/polymer ratio (1:5 w/w) gave rise to the highest encapsulation efficiency (78.5%) as in F6 formulation. As to drug release, F6 exhibited an interesting dissolution profile, releasing about 24% of the drug in simulated gastric fluid followed by a more sustained profile in simulated intestinal fluid. #F6, acting as a gastro-resistant and delayed release formulation, was selected for in vivo studies on male Wistar rats by means of a carrageenan-induced oedema model. Finally, this efficacious formulation was used as core material for the development of a final dosage form: F6/Cps allowed to significantly reduce prednisolone release in simulated gastric fluid (12.6%) and delayed drug release up to about 390 minutes.

  11. Prednisolone Delivery Platforms: Capsules and Beads Combination for a Right Timing Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Aquino, Rita P.; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a platform of alginate beads loaded with Prednisolone in hypromellose/gellan gum capsules (F6/Cps) able to delay steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (SAID) release as needed for chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis is proposed. Rheumatoid arthritis, showing a worsening in symptoms in the morning upon waking, is a pathology that can benefit from chronotherapy. With the aim to maximize prednisolone therapeutic action allowing the right timing of glucocorticoid therapy, different engineered microparticles (gel-beads) were manufactured using prilling (laminar jet break-up) as micro-encapsulation technique and Zn-alginate as gastroresistant carrier. Starting from various feed solutions and process parameters, the effect of the variables on particles size, morphology, solid state properties and drug release was studied. The optimization of operative and prilling/ionotropic gelation variables led to microspheres with almost spherical shape and a narrow dimensional range. The feed solution with the highest alginate (2.5% w/v) amount and drug/polymer ratio (1:5 w/w) gave rise to the highest encapsulation efficiency (78.5%) as in F6 formulation. As to drug release, F6 exhibited an interesting dissolution profile, releasing about 24% of the drug in simulated gastric fluid followed by a more sustained profile in simulated intestinal fluid. #F6, acting as a gastro-resistant and delayed release formulation, was selected for in vivo studies on male Wistar rats by means of a carrageenan-induced oedema model. Finally, this efficacious formulation was used as core material for the development of a final dosage form: F6/Cps allowed to significantly reduce prednisolone release in simulated gastric fluid (12.6%) and delayed drug release up to about 390 minutes. PMID:27472446

  12. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  13. Polymers & People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  14. Planar Hall effect bridge sensors with NiFe/Cu/IrMn stack optimized for self-field magnetic bead detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2016-03-01

    The stack composition in trilayer Planar Hall effect bridge sensors is investigated experimentally to identify the optimal stack for magnetic bead detection using the sensor self-field. The sensors were fabricated using exchange-biased stacks Ni80Fe20(tFM)/Cu(tCu)/Mn80Ir20(10 nm) with tFM = 10, 20, and 30 nm, and 0 ≤ tCu ≤ 0.6 nm. The sensors were characterized by magnetic hysteresis measurements, by measurements of the sensor response vs. applied field, and by measurements of the sensor response to a suspension of magnetic beads magnetized by the sensor self-field due to the sensor bias current. The exchange bias field was found to decay exponentially with tCu and inversely with tFM. The reduced exchange field for larger values of tFM and tCu resulted in higher sensitivities to both magnetic fields and magnetic beads. We argue that the maximum magnetic bead signal is limited by Joule heating of the sensors and, thus, that the magnetic stacks should be compared at constant power consumption. For a fixed sensor geometry, the figure of merit for this comparison is the magnetic field sensitivity normalized by the sensor bias voltage. In this regard, we found that sensors with tFM = 20 nm or 30 nm outperformed those with tFM = 10 nm by a factor of approximately two, because the latter have a reduced AMR ratio. Further, the optimum layer thicknesses, tCu ≈ 0.6 nm and tFM = 20-30 nm, gave a 90% higher signal compared to the corresponding sensors with tCu = 0 nm.

  15. Bioadhesive polymers as platforms for oral controlled drug delivery III: oral delivery of chlorothiazide using a bioadhesive polymer.

    PubMed

    Longer, M A; Ch'ng, H S; Robinson, J R

    1985-04-01

    Bioadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purposes of (a) retaining a dosage from in the GI tract and (b) increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. Polycarbophil has previously been shown to have bioadhesive properties in the rat stomach and small intestine and was employed in the present study with a sustained-release delivery system to demonstrate improved drug delivery. Using chlorothiazide as the model drug, drug containing albumin beads were prepared and used as the sustained-release system. The beads were physically mixed with equally sized particles of polycarbophil and placed in a capsule to produce a bioadhesive dosage form. When the dosage form contacts the stomach, the gelatin capsule dissolves, exposing the polycarbophil to the bathing fluid. The bioadhesive polymer rapidly hydrates, retaining the albumin beads and attaching to the mucin coating of the stomach. Plasma drug levels in rats showed a longer duration of action and greater bioavailability for the bioadhesive dosage form than for either albumin beads or drug powder alone. The results suggest that the principle of bioadhesion can significantly improve therapy, due to a reduced rate of gastric emptying, an increase in contact time, and the intimacy of contact of the drug with the absorbing membrane.

  16. Under-Liquid Self-Assembly of Submerged Buoyant Polymer Particles.

    PubMed

    Multanen, Victor; Pogreb, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Shulzinger, Evgeny; Whyman, Gene; Frenkel, Mark; Bormashenko, Edward

    2016-06-14

    The self-assembly of submerged cold-plasma-treated polyethylene beads (PBs) is reported. The plasma-treated immersed millimetrically sized PBs formed well-ordered 2D quasicrystalline structures. The submerged floating of "light" (buoyant) PBs is possible because of the energy gain achieved by the wetting of the high-energy plasma-treated polymer surface prevailing over the energy loss due to the upward climb of the liquid over the beads. The capillary "immersion" attraction force is responsible for the observed self-assembly. The observed 2D quasicrystalline structures demonstrate "dislocations" and "point defects". The mechanical vibration of self-assembled rafts built of PBs leads to the healing of point defects. The immersion capillary lateral force governs the self-assembly, whereas the elastic force is responsible for the repulsion of polymer beads. PMID:27193509

  17. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in chromatography paper and its application to latex bead detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahara, Shohei; Miki, Masashi; Hori, Fumitaka; Uno, Shigeyasu

    2014-01-01

    The principle of the quantitative immunochromatographic strip test (IST) is proposed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is shown to be capable of detecting latex beads in chromatography paper, where latex beads can serve as a label in IST. Measurements to examine the impedance changes in the absence and presence of latex beads are conducted. In the presence of latex beads, an increase of 12.5% in the bulk solution resistance is observed. This indicates that the latex-bead-labeled antigen-antibody complex can be detected electrochemically by actual IST.

  18. Elution characteristics of vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin and clindamycin from calcium sulphate beads.

    PubMed

    Wichelhaus, T A; Dingeldein, E; Rauschmann, M; Kluge, S; Dieterich, R; Schäfer, V; Brade, V

    2001-07-01

    The in vitro release of vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin and clindamycin from biodegradable calcium sulphate (CaSO(4)) carrier beads is described. All antibiotics showed prolonged release from the carrier beads, which was elevated during the first 24 h, with peak levels exceeding 2500 microg/bead. Doubling the antibiotic load of the beads revealed a more prolonged elution and a two-fold increase in antibiotic release. Local carrier-associated antibiotic treatment with CaSO(4) beads may prove to be effective in the management of chronic bone infections.

  19. Beads on a Chain (BOC) Polymers Formed from the Reaction of NH2PhSiO1.5]x[PhSiO1.5]10-x and [NH2PhSiO1.5]x[PhSiO1.5]12-x Mixtures (x = 2-4) with the Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jae Hwan; Laine, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that catalytic amounts of F cause rapid rearrangement of silsesquioxane (SQ) T₈ cages in THF at room temperature. These rearrangements lead primarily to the T₁₀ and T₁₂ cages as long as the Fis trapped for example using CaCl₂ to form insoluble CaF₂ in situ. In this report, we use this approach to make di- and triaminophenyl, phenyl silsesquioxane T₁₀ and T₁₂ mixtures: (NH2Ph)2xPh10/12–x(SiO1.5)10/12. Thereafter, we isolate the fraction that consists primarily of x = 2–3 via column chromatography. We then explore the reaction of this fraction (fraction 3) with the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) to form a soluble epoxy resin wherein the cage SQs are contained in the chain backbone. We call these products beads on a chain (BoC) polymers. The use of 1:1 mole ratios of [epoxide]:[NH2Ph] of DGEBA and (NH2Ph)2xPh10/12–x(SiO1.5)10/12 leads to insoluble products. However, the reaction of 0.8:1 mole ratio of [epoxide]:[NH2Ph] provides a soluble but bimodal distribution of products (after 24 h reaction at 90 °C in THF). The low MW component is much more soluble in THF than the higher MW component, allowing simple separation. The low MW polymer has a Mn of 6000 Da with a PDI of 1.6. The higher MW material has an Mn of 21 000 000 Da with a PDI of 21. Both components offer similar ceramic yields (to SiO₂) of 32 ± 1%, indicating that the relative contents of cages are identical. They also exhibit very similar FTIR spectra, suggesting that they are the same material. Two explanations are possible for the bimodal size distribution. One is that the positioning of the NH₂ groups on the cage leads to cyclic trimers given that the average monomer unit will mass ≈1700–1900 Da, which represents the low MW fraction. Alternately and more

  20. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    SciTech Connect

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further the potential for ion-exchange media (resin beads or powdered filter media) to support biological growth. A mixed microbial culture was grown from resin wastes obtained from the BNL HFBR by mixing the resin with a nutrient salt solution containing peptone and yeast extract. Bacterial and fungal growths appeared in the solution and on the resins after 7 to 10 days incubation at 337)degree)C. The mixed microbial cultures were used to inoculate several resin types, both irradiated and unirradiated. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Statics of polymer droplets on deformable surfaces.

    PubMed

    Léonforte, F; Müller, M

    2011-12-01

    The equilibrium properties of polymer droplets on a soft deformable surface are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of a bead-spring model. The surface consists of a polymer brush with irreversibly end-tethered linear homopolymer chains onto a flat solid substrate. We tune the softness of the surface by varying the grafting density. Droplets are comprised of bead-spring polymers of various chain lengths. First, both systems, brush and polymer liquid, are studied independently in order to determine their static and dynamic properties. In particular, using a numerical implementation of an AFM experiment, we measure the shear modulus of the brush surface and compare the results to theoretical predictions. Then, we study the wetting behavior of polymer droplets with different surface/drop compatibility and on substrates that differ in softness. Density profiles reveal, under certain conditions, the formation of a wetting ridge beneath the three-phase contact line. Cap-shaped droplets and cylindrical droplets are also compared to estimate the effect of the line tension with respect to the droplet size. Finally, the results of the simulations are compared to a phenomenological free-energy calculation that accounts for the surface tensions and the compliance of the soft substrate. Depending on the surface/drop compatibility, surface softness, and drop size, a transition between two regimes is observed: from one where the drop surface energy balances the adhesion with the surface, which is the classical Young-Dupré wetting regime, to another one where a coupling occurs between adhesion, droplet and surface elastic energies.

  2. Preparation and characterization of novel macroporous cellulose beads regenerated from ionic liquid for fast chromatography.

    PubMed

    Du, Kai-Feng; Yan, Min; Wang, Quan-Yi; Song, Hang

    2010-02-19

    Macroporous cellulose beads (MCB) used as anion exchangers were successfully prepared from cellulose solution in ionic liquid by double emulsification followed by cross-linking and modification with diethylaminoethyl. The pore structure and properties of the MCB were investigated and the results were compared with homogeneous cellulose beads (HCB). The MCB in size of about 71 microm is characterized by two sets of pores, i.e., diffusion pores (10-20 nm) and macropores (800-2000 nm), determined by mercury porosimeter. In addition, the bed permeability and effective porosity for BSA of MCB-packed column are 58% and 25% higher than those of HCB-packed column, respectively. The adsorption properties of MCB were evaluated, and compared with HCB and commercial absorbent (Sepharose 6 Fast Flow, CSFF). It is found that the pore diffusivity of BSA in MCB is over 7.9 times higher than HCB, and 6.7 times higher than CSFF, respectively. While the equilibrium adsorption capacity (q(m)) of BSA on MCB is obviously lower than that on HCB and CSFF, the dynamic binding capacity (DBC) on MCB at 10% breakthrough reaches 47.7 mg/mL, higher than HCB (40.3mg/mL) and CSFF (46.2mg/mL) at flow rate of 360 cm/h. In addition, the MCB-packed column showed better column efficiency over the HCB packed one. Therefore, we demonstrated that the MCB possessed more advantages than other ones, like HCB and CSFF, and was expected as an ideal material for fast chromatography.

  3. Fabrication of superporous agarose beads for protein adsorption: effect of CaCO3 granules content.

    PubMed

    Du, Kai-Feng; Bai, Shu; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2010-09-10

    Agarose gels were fabricated by water-in-oil emulsification with the addition of CaCO(3) granules at 8-16 wt%. Thus agarose beads of different superporosities were produced after dissolving the solid porogen. The superporous agarose (SA) and homogeneous agarose gels were double cross-linked and modified with diethylaminoethyl chloride to produce anion exchangers. We have proposed to use a superporous replica (porous titania microspheres) to examine the superporous structure and pore size distribution of the soft gel. The replica was prepared with the agarose gel entrapping CaCO(3) granules by a sol-gel-templating method. It was found that the superpores created by CaCO(3) granules were uniformly distributed and ranged from 0.95 microm to 1.33 microm. The physical properties of the gels were significantly affected by the porogen content. Importantly, by increasing the solid porogen to 12 wt%, the bed permeability and effective porosity increased about 48% and 33%, respectively. Further increase in the porogen to 16 wt% led to a decrease of the mechanical strength. With increasing superpores in the beads, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the packed columns increased obviously at 305-916 cm/h. Besides, the column efficiency changed less with increasing flow velocity up to 1200 cm/h. It was concluded that the use of 12 wt% CaCO(3) granules in agarose solution was beneficial for the fabrication of the SA gel with good mechanical stability and promising performance for protein chromatography.

  4. Polymer nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Jennifer M.

    Nanolithography involves making patterns of materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Surprisingly, writable CDs can provide polymer nanostructures for pennies a piece. Building on work previously done in the Drain lab, with an inherited home-built oven press, this research will explore the relationships between polymer chemical reactivity, polymer printing, and material surface energies. In addition, a relatively inexpensive entry point into high school and undergraduate education in nanolithography is presented. The ability to pattern cheaply at the nanoscale and microscale is necessary and attractive for many technologies towards biosensors, organic light emitting diodes, identification tags, layered devices, and transistors.

  5. Effect of Cellulose Acetate Beads on the Release of Transforming Growth Factor-β.

    PubMed

    Nishise, Shoichi; Abe, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yu; Iwano, Daisuke; Yagi, Makoto; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Rika; Mizumoto, Naoko; Kanno, Nana; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is released by activated platelets and induces the differentiation of T-helper 17 from naïve T cells. Contact between blood and cellulose acetate (CA) beads induces cytokine release, although their inflammatory effects on TGF-β release are unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of CA beads on the release of TGF-β in vitro. We incubated peripheral blood with and without CA beads and measured platelets and TGF-β. Compared with blood samples incubated without beads, the platelet count and amount of TGF-β significantly decreased in blood samples incubated with CA beads. In conclusion, CA beads inhibited the release of TGF-β from adsorbed platelets. The biological effects of this reduction of TGF-β release during platelet adsorption to CA beads need further clarification.

  6. Frictionless Demonstration Using Fine Plastic Beads For Teaching Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2010-07-28

    New equipment for demonstrating laws of mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine sphere plastic beads (0.3 mm in diameter). Fine plastic beads function as ball bearings to reduce the friction between the object and the plate surface. By this method, a quantitative measurement of energy conservation law has successfully been carried out with a small error of less 3%. The strong advantage of this frictionless method is that we can always use the same objects like Petri dishes for demonstrating many kinds of mechanics laws, such as the first, second, and the third laws of motion, momentum conservation law, and energy conservation law. This demonstration method surely has a beneficial effect for students, who can then understand mechanics laws systematically with a unified concept and no confusion.

  7. Purification of alpha-amylases using magnetic alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Teotia, S; Gupta, M N

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic alginate beads were used to purify alpha-amylases from porcine pancreas, starchzyme, BAN 240L (a commercial purification from Bacillus subtilis), and wheat germ. The beads bound a significant level of alpha-amylase activity from porcine pancreas, BAN 240L, and wheat germ. In each case, the enzyme activity could be eluted by using 1.0 M maltose, a known competitive inhibitor of alpha-amylase. In the case of BAN 240L, 3.6-fold purification with 72% recovery of activity was observed. In the case of wheat germ enzyme, starting from the crude extract, 48-fold purification with 70% activity recovery was observed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis also indicated considerable purification in the latter case.

  8. Direct measurement of intraparticle fluid velocity in superporous agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P O; Gustavsson, P E; Axelsson, A

    1998-01-01

    Superporous agarose beads contain both normal diffusion pores and special, very wide superpores through which part of the chromatographic flow is transported, a situation that may greatly improve the chromatographic performance. For the first time such pore flow was measured directly by following the movement of microparticles (dyed yeast cells) through superporous beads packed in a chromatographic bed. The passage of the microparticles through the superpores and through the interstitial pores was recorded by a microscope/video camera. The video recordings were subsequently used to determine flow paths as well as the convective fluid velocities in both the superpores and the interstitial pores. The superpore fluid velocity was found to be proportional to the ratio between the squares of the respective pore diameters, which is in agreement with the Kozeny-Carman equation. Values for two-dimensional and three-dimensional tortuosity of the flow paths were measured and calculated respectively.

  9. An Abiotic Glass-Bead Collector Exhibiting Active Transport

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Youhei; Kanda, Masato; Yamamoto, Daigo; Shioi, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    Animals relocate objects as needed by active motion. Active transport is ubiquitous in living organisms but has been difficult to realize in abiotic systems. Here we show that a self-propelled droplet can gather scattered beads toward one place on a floor and sweep it clean. This is a biomimetic active transport with loadings and unloadings, because the transport was performed by a carrier and the motion of the carrier was maintained by the energy of the chemical reaction. The oil droplet produced fluctuation of the local number density of the beads on the floor, followed by its autocatalytic growth. This mechanism may inspire the technologies based on active transport wherein chemical and physical substances migrate as in living organisms. PMID:26387743

  10. Plasticity of an Amorphous Assembly of Elastic Gel Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, D.; Knaebel, A.; Lequeux, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the rheological properties of an assembly of swollen gel beads in a lack of solvent. The system is an amorphous assembly of packed soft spheres in a given volume. We have studied the plastic behavior of the system, and interpreted it in terms of bead rearrangements within the assembly. Nous avons étudié les propriétés rhéologiques d'un assemblage de billes de gel gonflées en défaut de solvant. Le système est donc une assemblée amorphe de sphères molles écrasées à volume total constant. Nous avons étudié divers aspects du comportement plastique et nous l'avons interprété en termes de réorganisations de billes dans l'assemblage.

  11. An Abiotic Glass-Bead Collector Exhibiting Active Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Youhei; Kanda, Masato; Yamamoto, Daigo; Shioi, Akihisa

    2015-09-01

    Animals relocate objects as needed by active motion. Active transport is ubiquitous in living organisms but has been difficult to realize in abiotic systems. Here we show that a self-propelled droplet can gather scattered beads toward one place on a floor and sweep it clean. This is a biomimetic active transport with loadings and unloadings, because the transport was performed by a carrier and the motion of the carrier was maintained by the energy of the chemical reaction. The oil droplet produced fluctuation of the local number density of the beads on the floor, followed by its autocatalytic growth. This mechanism may inspire the technologies based on active transport wherein chemical and physical substances migrate as in living organisms.

  12. Current recordings of ion channel proteins immobilized on resin beads.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Minako; Takeuchi, Yuko; Aoki, Takaaki; Yanagida, Toshio; Ide, Toru

    2009-04-15

    Current ion channel current measurement techniques are cumbersome, as they require many steps and much time. This is especially true when reconstituting channels into liposomes and incorporating them into lipid bilayers. Here, we report a novel method that measures ion channel current more efficiently than current methods. We applied our method to KcsA and MthK channels by binding them to cobalt affinity gel beads with histidine tags and then forming a lipid bilayer membrane on the bead. This allowed channels to incorporate into the bilayer and channel currents to be measured quickly and easily. The efficiency was such that currents could be recorded with extremely low amounts of protein. In addition, the channel direction could be determined by the histidine tag. This method has the potential to be applied to various channel proteins and channel research in general.

  13. Structural response of bead-stiffened thermoplastic shear webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall

    1991-01-01

    The results of an experimental and analytical study of the structural response and failure characteristics of selected bead-stiffened thermoplastic shear-webs are presented. Results are given for specimens with one stiffeneer, with two stiffeners, and different stiffener geometries. Selected analytical results that were obtained with the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed computer code are presented. Analytical results that describe normal and transverse shear stress are also presented.

  14. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-02-02

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections.

  15. Liquid morphologies and capillary forces between three spherical beads.

    PubMed

    Semprebon, Ciro; Scheel, Mario; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Equilibrium shapes of coalesced pendular bridges in a static assembly of spherical beads are computed by numerical minimization of the interfacial energy. Our present study focuses on generic bead configurations involving three beads, one of which is in contact to the two others while there is a gap of variable size between the latter. In agreement with previous experimental studies, we find interfacial "trimer" morphologies consisting of three coalesced pendular bridges, and "dimers" of two coalesced bridges. In a certain range of the gap opening we observe a bistability between the dimer and trimer morphology during changes of the liquid volume. The magnitude of the corresponding capillary forces in presence of a trimer or dimer depends, besides the gap opening, only on the volume or Laplace pressure of the liquid. For a given Laplace pressure, and for the same gap opening, the capillary forces induced by a trimer are only slightly larger than the corresponding forces in the presence of three pendular bridges. This observation is consistent with a plateau of capillary cohesion in terms of the saturation of a wetting liquid in the funicular regime, as reported in the experimental work [Scheel et al., Nat. Mater. 7, 189 (2008)1476-112210.1038/nmat2117]. PMID:27575206

  16. Applied usage of yeast spores as chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haini; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we present a nonhazardous biological method of producing chitosan beads using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells cultured under conditions of nutritional starvation cease vegetative growth and instead form spores. The spore wall has a multilaminar structure with the chitosan layer as the second outermost layer. Thus, removal of the outermost dityrosine layer by disruption of the DIT1 gene, which is required for dityrosine synthesis, leads to exposure of the chitosan layer at the spore surface. In this way, spores can be made to resemble chitosan beads. Chitosan has adsorptive features and can be used to remove heavy metals and negatively charged molecules from solution. Consistent with this practical application, we find that spores are capable of adsorbing heavy metals such as Cu(2+), Cr(3+), and Cd(2+), and removal of the dityrosine layer further improves the adsorption. Removal of the chitosan layer decreases the adsorption, indicating that chitosan works as an adsorbent in the spores. Besides heavy metals, spores can also adsorb a negatively charged cholesterol derivative, taurocholic acid. Furthermore, chitosan is amenable to chemical modifications, and, consistent with this property, dit1Δ spores can serve as a carrier for immobilization of enzymes. Given that yeast spores are a natural product, our results demonstrate that they, and especially dit1Δ mutants, can be used as chitosan beads and used for multiple purposes. PMID:24907339

  17. Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Jose R.; Bordallo, Eduardo; Canetti, Dora; Leon, Vivian; Otero-Diaz, Luis C.; Negro, Carlos; Gomez, Adrian; Saez-Puche, Regino

    2010-08-15

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were obtained starting from a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) solutions in a preset total iron concentration from 0.04 to 0.8 mol l{sup -1} with ammonia at 25 and 70 {sup o}C. The regeneration of cellulose from viscose produces micrometrical spherical cellulose beads in which synthetic magnetite were embedded. The characterization of cellulose-magnetite beads by X-ray diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and magnetic measurement is reported. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the higher is the total iron concentration and temperature the higher is the crystal size of the magnetite obtained. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies of cellulose-magnetite beads revealed the distribution of magnetite nanoparticles inside pores of hundred nanometers. Magnetite as well as the cellulose-magnetite composites exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics. Field cooling and zero field cooling magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the superparamagnetic behaviour and the blocking temperature for the magnetite with a mean size of 12.5 nm, which is 200 K.

  18. Chitosan and chemically modified chitosan beads for acid dyes sorption.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Kamari; Wan Saime, Wan Ngah; Lai Ken, Liew

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan for both acid dyes were comparatively higher than those of chitosan-EGDE. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed the best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment. PMID:19634439

  19. Random Glycopeptide Bead Libraries for Seromic Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kračun, Stjepan K.; Cló, Emilano; Clausen, Henrik; Levery, Steven B.; Jensen, Knud J.; Blixt, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Identification of disease specific biomarkers is important to address early diagnosis and management of disease. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins such as O-glycosylations (O-PTMs) are emerging as triggers of autoantibodies that can serve as sensitive biomarkers. Here we have developed a random glycopeptide bead library screening platform for detection of autoantibodies and other binding proteins. Libraries were build on biocompatible PEGA beads including a safety-catch C-terminal amide linker (SCAL) that allowed mild cleavage conditions (I2/NaBH4 and TFA) for release of glycopeptides and sequence determination by ESI-MSn. As proof-of principle, tumor specific glycopeptide reporter epitopes were built-in into the libraries and were detected by tumor specific monoclonal antibodies and autoantibodies from cancer patients. Sequenced and identified glycopeptides were re-synthesized at preparative scale by automated parallel peptide synthesis and printed on microarrays for validation and broader analysis with larger sets of sera. We further showed that chemical synthesis of the monosaccharide O-glycopeptide library (Tn-glycoform) could be diversified to other tumor glycoforms by on-bead enzymatic glycosylation reactions with recombinant glycosyltransferases. Hence, we have developed a high-throughput flexible platform for rapid biomarker discovery O-glycopeptides and the method has applicability in other types of assays like lectin/antibody/enzyme specificity studies as well as investigation of other PTMs. PMID:20886906

  20. Liquid morphologies and capillary forces between three spherical beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprebon, Ciro; Scheel, Mario; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Equilibrium shapes of coalesced pendular bridges in a static assembly of spherical beads are computed by numerical minimization of the interfacial energy. Our present study focuses on generic bead configurations involving three beads, one of which is in contact to the two others while there is a gap of variable size between the latter. In agreement with previous experimental studies, we find interfacial "trimer" morphologies consisting of three coalesced pendular bridges, and "dimers" of two coalesced bridges. In a certain range of the gap opening we observe a bistability between the dimer and trimer morphology during changes of the liquid volume. The magnitude of the corresponding capillary forces in presence of a trimer or dimer depends, besides the gap opening, only on the volume or Laplace pressure of the liquid. For a given Laplace pressure, and for the same gap opening, the capillary forces induced by a trimer are only slightly larger than the corresponding forces in the presence of three pendular bridges. This observation is consistent with a plateau of capillary cohesion in terms of the saturation of a wetting liquid in the funicular regime, as reported in the experimental work [Scheel et al., Nat. Mater. 7, 189 (2008), 10.1038/nmat2117].

  1. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  2. Process to prepare stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers using a solvent/water mixture

    DOEpatents

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Han, Amy Qi

    2010-06-15

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer derived from trifluorostyrene on to at least one base polymer in a organic solvent/water mixture. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  3. Organometallic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions utilized to incorporate a metal-containing moiety into a polymer chain (addition, condensation, and coordination) are considered, emphasizing that these reactions also apply to smaller molecules. (JN)

  4. Factorial designed 5-fluorouracil-loaded microsponges and calcium pectinate beads plugged in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose capsules for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankita; Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Srivastava, Rishabh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The work was aimed to develop an enteric-coated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsules (ECHC) plugged with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded microsponges in combination with calcium pectinate beads. Materials and Methods: The modified quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to prepare microsponges. A 32 factorial design was employed to study the formulation and the effects of independent variables (volume of organic solvent and Eudragit-RS100 content) on dependent variables (particle size, %entrapment efficiency, and %cumulative drug release). The optimized microsponge (F4) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. F4 was plugged along with the calcium pectinate beads in HPMC capsules coated with enteric polymer Eudragit-L100 (Ed-L100) and/or Eudragit-S100 (Ed-S100) in different proportions. An in vitro release study of ECHC was performed in simulated gastric fluid for 2 h, followed by simulated intestinal fluid for next 6 h and then in simulated colonic fluid (in the presence and absence of pectinase enzyme for further 16 h). The optimized formulation was subjected to in vivo roentgenographic and pharmacokinetic studies in New Zealand white rabbits to analyze the in vivo behavior of the developed colon-targeted capsules. Results: Drug release was retarded on coating with Ed-S100 in comparison to a blend of Ed-S100:Ed-L100 coating. The percentage of 5-FU released at the end of 24 h from ECHC3 was 97.83 ± 0.12% in the presence of pectinase whereas in the control study, it was 40.08 ± 0.02%. Conclusion: Thus, enteric-coated HPMC capsules plugged with 5-FU-loaded microsponges and calcium pectinate beads proved to be a promising dosage form for colon targeting. PMID:26682194

  5. Using magnetic levitation to distinguish atomic-level differences in chemical composition of polymers, and to monitor chemical reactions on solid supports.

    PubMed

    Mirica, Katherine A; Phillips, Scott T; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-31

    This communication describes a density-based method that uses magnetic levitation for monitoring solid-supported reactions and for distinguishing differences in chemical composition of polymers. The method is simple, rapid, and inexpensive and is similar to thin-layer chromatography (TLC; for solution-phase chemistry) in its potential for monitoring reactions in solid-phase chemistry. The technique involves levitating a sample of beads (taken from a reaction mixture) in a cuvette containing a paramagnetic solution (e.g., GdCl(3) dissolved in H(2)O) positioned between two NdFeB magnets. The vertical position at which the beads levitate corresponds to the density of the beads and correlates with the progress of a chemical reaction on a solid support. The method is particularly useful for monitoring the kinetics of reactions occurring on polymer beads. PMID:19063630

  6. Finite-element approach to Brownian dynamics of polymers.

    PubMed

    Cyron, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2009-12-01

    In the last decades simulation tools for Brownian dynamics of polymers have attracted more and more interest. Such simulation tools have been applied to a large variety of problems and accelerated the scientific progress significantly. However, the currently most frequently used explicit bead models exhibit severe limitations, especially with respect to time step size, the necessity of artificial constraints and the lack of a sound mathematical foundation. Here we present a framework for simulations of Brownian polymer dynamics based on the finite-element method. This approach allows simulating a wide range of physical phenomena at a highly attractive computational cost on the basis of a far-developed mathematical background.

  7. Polymers All Around You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Susan

    Background information on natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and the properties of polymers is presented as an introduction to this curriculum guide. Details are provided on the use of polymer products in consumer goods, polymer recycling, polymer densities, the making of a polymer such as GLUEP, polyvinyl alcohol, dissolving plastics, polymers…

  8. Manitoba Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coss, Maurice

    Planning ideas and follow-up activities are described for a reciprocal exchange program between groups of 5th and 6th grade students in Manitoba who are "twinned" with another school in the province. Emphasis is on providing learning experiences which help students become familiar with the economic activity in the area, with the local government…

  9. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  10. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  11. Dynamic heat capacity of the east model and of a bead-spring polymer model.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, John Dwane; Brown, Jonathan R.; Adolf, Douglas Brian

    2011-10-01

    In this report we have presented a brief review of the glass transition and one means of characterizing glassy materials: linear and nonlinear thermodynamic oscillatory experiments to extract the dynamic heat capacity. We have applied these methods to the east model (a variation of the Ising model for glass forming systems) and a simple polymeric system via molecular dynamics simulation, and our results match what is seen in experiment. For the east model, since the dynamics are so simple, a mathematical model is developed that matches the simulated dynamics. For the polymeric system, since the system is a simulation, we can instantaneously 'quench' the system - removing all vibrational energy - to separate the vibrational dynamics from dynamics associated with particle rearrangements. This shows that the long-time glassy dynamics are due entirely to the particle rearrangements, i.e. basin jumping on the potential energy landscape. Finally, we present an extension of linear dynamic heat capacity to the nonlinear regime.

  12. Tailored bifunctional polymer for plutonium monitoring.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kumar, Pranaw; Kaity, Santu; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring of actinides with sophisticated conventional methods is affected by matrix interferences, spectral interferences, isobaric interferences, polyatomic interferences, and abundance sensitivity problems. To circumvent these limitations, a self-supported disk and membrane-supported bifunctional polymer were tailored in the present work for acidity-dependent selectivity toward Pu(IV). The bifunctional polymer was found to be better than the polymer containing either a phosphate group or a sulfonic acid group in terms of (i) higher Pu(IV) sorption efficiency at 3-4 mol L(-1) HNO3, (ii) selective preconcentration of Pu(IV) in the presence of a trivalent actinide such as Am(III), and (iii) preferential sorption of Pu(IV) in the presence of a large excess of U(VI). The bifunctional polymer was formed as a self-supported matrix by bulk polymerization and also as a 1-2 μm thin layer anchored on a microporous poly(ether sulfone) by surface grafting. The proportions of sulfonic acid and phosphate groups in both the self-supported disk and membrane-supported bifunctional polymer were found to be the same as expected from the mole proportions of monomers in polymerizing solutions used for syntheses. α radiography by a solid-state nuclear track detector indicated fairly homogeneous anchoring of the bifunctional polymer on the surface of the membrane. Pu(IV) preconcentrated on a single bifunctional bead was used for determination of the Pu isotopic composition by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The membrane-supported bifunctional polymer was used for preconcentration and subsequent quantification of Pu(IV) by α spectrometry using the absolute efficiency at a fixed counting geometry. The analytical performance of the membrane-supported-bifunctional-polymer-based α spectrometry method was found to be highly reproducible for assay of Pu(IV) in a variety of complex samples.

  13. Acceleration of microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion reactions by magnetite beads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2007-03-15

    In this study, we demonstrated that microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion could be greatly accelerated by multifunctional magnetite beads. The acceleration of microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion by the presence of the magnetite beads was attributable to several features of the beads. Their capacity to absorb microwave radiation leads to rapid heating of the beads. Furthermore, their negatively charged functionalities cause adsorption of proteins with opposite charges onto their surfaces by electrostatic interactions, leading to a concentration on the surfaces of the beads of proteins present in trace amounts in the solution. The adsorbed proteins are denatured and hence rendered vulnerable to enzymatic digestion and are digested on the beads. For microwave heating, 30 s was sufficient for carrying out the tryptic digestion of cytochrome c, in the presence of magnetite beads, while 1 min was adequate for tryptic digestion of myoglobin. The digestion products were characterized by MALDI-MS. This rapid enzymatic digestion allowed the entire time for identification of proteins to be greatly reduced. Furthermore, specific proteins present in trace quantities were enriched from the sample on the magnetite beads and could be rapidly isolated from the sample by employing an external magnetic field. These multiple roles of magnetite beads, as the absorber for microwave irradiation, the concentrating probe, and the agent for unfolding proteins, contributed to their capability of accelerating microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion. We also demonstrated that trypsin immobilized magnetite beads were suitable for use in microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion.

  14. The effect of wax on compaction of microcrystalline cellulose beads made by extrusion and spheronization.

    PubMed

    Iloañusi, N O; Schwartz, J B

    1998-01-01

    The effect of wax on the deformation behavior and compression characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-101) and acetaminophen (APAP) beads is described. Beads of Avicel PH-101 and APAP formulations were prepared using extrusion and spheronization technology. A waxy material, glyceryl behenate, N.F. (Compritol), was added to the formulations in amounts ranging from 10% to 70% of total solid weight. Beads with a selected particle size range of 16-30 mesh were compressed with an instrumented single punch Manesty F press utilizing a 7/16-in. flat-faced tooling set. Compaction profiles were generated for the tablets to evaluate the effect of wax on the densification of beads containing wax. Beads made without wax (the control formulation) required greater compression forces to form cohesive tablets. As the amount of wax in the bead formulation was increased, the beads become more plastic and compressible. The Heckel equation which relates densification to compression pressure was used to evaluate the deformation mechanisms of the bead formulations. The analysis shows that as the level of wax in the bead formulation is increased, the yield pressure decreases, indicating that the beads densify by a plastic deformation mechanism.

  15. Comparison between simulation and experimentally observed interactions between two magnetic beads in a fluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduwole, Olayinka; Grob, David Tim; Sheard, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Continuous flow separation of magnetic particles within a microfluidic device could lead to improved performance of magnetic bead-based assays but the undesirable formation of bead clusters reduces its efficiency; this efficiency refers to the ability to separate bound magnetic beads from a mixture of particles. Such agglomerates are formed due to magnetic binding forces while hydrodynamic interactions strongly influence the particles' movement. This paper presents a model for interactions between a pair of equal sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a comparison between simulated trajectories and the beads' movement captured on video; the beads were suspended in a stationary fluid placed within a uniform magnetic field. In conclusion, the model is a good approximation for beads interacting with their nearest neighbours and is able to predict the trajectory pattern of these particles in a magnetic bead-based assay. Predicting the magnetically induced interaction of nearby beads will help in determining the density of beads in an assay and in avoiding agglomeration over a fixed time duration.

  16. Entrapment of cross-linked cellulase colloids in alginate beads for hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Truc; Lau, Yun Song; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Entrapment of enzymes in calcium alginate beads is a popular enzyme immobilization method. However, leaching of immobilized enzymes from the alginate beads is a common problem because enzyme molecules are much smaller than the pore size of alginate beads (∼200nm). To address this issue, we employ a millifluidic reactor to prepare cross-linked cellulase aggregate (XCA) colloids with a uniform size (∼300nm). Subsequently, these colloids are immobilized in calcium alginate beads as biocatalysts to hydrolyze cellulose substrates. By using fluorescent microscopy, we conclude that the immobilized XCA colloids distribute uniformly inside the beads and do not leach out from the beads after long-term incubation. Meanwhile, the pore size of the alginate beads is big enough for the cellulose substrates and fibers to diffuse into the beads for hydrolysis. For example, palm oil fiber and microcrystalline cellulose can be hydrolyzed within 48h and release reducing sugar concentrations up to 2.48±0.08g/l and 4.99±0.09g/l, respectively. Moreover, after 10 cycles of hydrolysis, 96.4% of the XCA colloids remain inside the alginate beads and retain 67% of the original activity. In contrast, free cellulase immobilized in the alginate beads loses its activity completely after 10 cycles. The strategy can also be used to prepare other types of cross-linked enzyme aggregates with high uniformity.

  17. Entrapment of cross-linked cellulase colloids in alginate beads for hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Truc; Lau, Yun Song; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Entrapment of enzymes in calcium alginate beads is a popular enzyme immobilization method. However, leaching of immobilized enzymes from the alginate beads is a common problem because enzyme molecules are much smaller than the pore size of alginate beads (∼200nm). To address this issue, we employ a millifluidic reactor to prepare cross-linked cellulase aggregate (XCA) colloids with a uniform size (∼300nm). Subsequently, these colloids are immobilized in calcium alginate beads as biocatalysts to hydrolyze cellulose substrates. By using fluorescent microscopy, we conclude that the immobilized XCA colloids distribute uniformly inside the beads and do not leach out from the beads after long-term incubation. Meanwhile, the pore size of the alginate beads is big enough for the cellulose substrates and fibers to diffuse into the beads for hydrolysis. For example, palm oil fiber and microcrystalline cellulose can be hydrolyzed within 48h and release reducing sugar concentrations up to 2.48±0.08g/l and 4.99±0.09g/l, respectively. Moreover, after 10 cycles of hydrolysis, 96.4% of the XCA colloids remain inside the alginate beads and retain 67% of the original activity. In contrast, free cellulase immobilized in the alginate beads loses its activity completely after 10 cycles. The strategy can also be used to prepare other types of cross-linked enzyme aggregates with high uniformity. PMID:27318817

  18. Addressing Unsolved Mysteries of Polymer Viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Ronald G.

    2008-02-01

    By using coarse-grained bead-spring and entanglement tube models, much progress has been made over the past 50 years in understanding and modeling the dynamics and rheology of polymers, both in dilute solution state and in entangled solutions and melts. However, several major issues have remained unresolved, and these are now being addressed using microscopic simulations resolved at the level of the monomer. In the dilute solution state, the dynamics can be described by a coarse-grained bead-spring model, with each spring representing around 100 backbone bonds, even at frequencies high enough that one expects to see modes of relaxation associated with local motions of smaller numbers of bonds. The apparent absence of these local modes has remained a mystery, but microscopic simulations now indicate that these modes are slowed down by torsional barriers to the extent that they are coincident with much longer ranged spring-like modes. Other mysteries of dilute solution rheology include extension-thinning behavior observed at very high extension rates, an apparent lack of complete stretching of polymers in fast extensional flows as measured by light scattering experiments, and the unusual molecular weight dependence of polymer scission in fast flows. In entangled solutions, it is still not entirely clear how, or even if, the rheology can be mapped onto that of a "dynamically equivalent" melt, and, if so, what the scaling laws are for choosing the appropriate renormalized monomer size and renormalized time and modulus scales. It is also not yet clear to what extent "dynamic dilution" can be used to simplify and organize constraint release effects in the relaxation of monodisperse and polydisperse linear and long-chain branched polymers. For multiply-branched polymers, the motion of the branch point is critical in determining the rate of relaxation of the molecule, and theories for this motion have not been adequately tested. As with dilute solutions, simulations

  19. DC BeadM1™: towards an optimal transcatheter hepatic tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Andrew L; Dreher, Matthew R; O'Byrne, Vincent; Grey, David; Caine, Marcus; Dunn, Anthony; Tang, Yiqing; Hall, Brenda; Fowers, Kirk D; Johnson, Carmen Gacchina; Sharma, Karun V; Wood, Bradford J

    2016-01-01

    Clinical use of DC Bead™ loaded with doxorubicin (DEBDOX™) or irinotecan (DEBIRI™), for the treatment of primary and secondary tumours of the liver respectively, is showing great promise. Recently there has been a tendency to select smaller bead size ranges to treat tumours in an effort to allow more drug dose to be administered, improve tumoural penetration and resultant drug delivery and tumour coverage. Herein we describe the development and performance characterisation of a new DC Bead size range (DC BeadM1 (TM), 70-150 μm) capable of an increased bead delivery in the distal vasculature, corresponding to greater tumour coverage and drug dose delivered. Both unloaded and drug loaded DC BeadM1 were shown to have a greater density of distal volume of penetration although the ultimate distal level of penetration was the same as that of the 100-300 µm beads in an in vitro penetration model. Elution of doxorubicin was slower than irinotecan elution, but it was similar when comparing the same drug elution from 70 to 150 µm compared to 100-300 µm beads. Radiopaque versions of 70-150 and 100-300 µm beads were prepared in order to evaluate distribution ex vivo using µ-CT and doxorubicin distribution using epifluorescent microscopy. Liver distribution of the radiopaque versions of the beads was shown to be more distal and efficient at filling smaller vessels with the DC BeadM1 and correspondingly more beads were found per vessel histologically with a larger area of drug coverage with the smaller size range. This study indicates that the smaller (70-150 μm) beads should permit an increased dose of drug to be administered to both hypervascular and hypovascular tumours as compared to 100-300 µm beads.

  20. Dose-response curve of a microfluidic magnetic bead-based surface coverage sandwich assay.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, Matteo; Trouillon, Raphaël; Tekin, H Cumhur; Lehnert, Thomas; Gijs, Martin A M

    2015-09-25

    Magnetic micro- and nanoparticles ('magnetic beads') have been used to advantage in many microfluidic devices for sensitive antigen (Ag) detection. Today, assays that use as read-out of the signal the number count of immobilized beads on a surface for quantification of a sample's analyte concentration have been among the most sensitive and have allowed protein detection lower than the fgmL(-1) concentration range. Recently, we have proposed in this category a magnetic bead surface coverage assay (Tekin et al., 2013 [1]), in which 'large' (2.8μm) antibody (Ab)-functionalized magnetic beads captured their Ag from a serum and these Ag-carrying beads were subsequently exposed to a surface pattern of fixed 'small' (1.0μm) Ab-coated magnetic beads. When the system was exposed to a magnetic induction field, the magnet dipole attractive interactions between the two bead types were used as a handle to approach both bead surfaces and assist with Ag-Ab immunocomplex formation, while unspecific binding (in absence of an Ag) of a large bead was reduced by exploiting viscous drag flow. The dose-response curve of this type of assay had two remarkable features: (i) its ability to detect an output signal (i.e. bead number count) for very low Ag concentrations, and (ii) an output signal of the assay that was non-linear with respect to Ag concentration. We explain here the observed dose-response curves and show that the type of interactions and the concept of our assay are in favour of detecting the lowest analyte concentrations (where typically either zero or one Ag is carried per large bead), while higher concentrations are less efficiently detected. We propose a random walk process for the Ag-carrying bead over the magnetic landscape of small beads and this model description explains the enhanced overall capture probability of this assay and its particular non-linear dose response curves.