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Sample records for excimer laser source

  1. Excimer lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Hess, L. D.; Stephens, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation into the possibility of achieving CW discharge pumped excimer laser oscillation is reported. Detailed theoretical modeling of capillary discharge pumping of the XeF and KXe and K2 excimer systems was carried out which predicted the required discharge parameters for reaching laser threshold on these systems. Capillary discharge pumping of the XeF excimer system was investigated experimentally. The experiments revealed a lower excimer level population density than predicted theoretically by about an order of magnitude. The experiments also revealed a fluorine consumption problem in the discharge in agreement with theory.

  2. Excimer lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Hess, L. D.; Stephens, R. R.; Pepper, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a two-year investigation into the possibility of developing continuous wave excimer lasers are reported. The program included the evaluation and selection of candidate molecular systems and discharge pumping techniques. The K Ar/K2 excimer dimer molecules and the xenon fluoride excimer molecule were selected for study; each used a transverse and capillary discharges pumping technique. Experimental and theoretical studies of each of the two discharge techniques applied to each of the two molecular systems are reported. Discharge stability and fluorine consumption were found to be the principle impediments to extending the XeF excimer laser into the continuous wave regime. Potassium vapor handling problems were the principal difficulty in achieving laser action on the K Ar/K2 system. Of the four molecular systems and pumping techniques explored, the capillary discharge pumped K Ar/K2 system appears to be the most likely candidate for demonstrating continuous wave excimer laser action primarily because of its predicted lower pumping threshold and a demonstrated discharge stability advantage.

  3. Excimer laser calibration system.

    PubMed

    Gottsch, J D; Rencs, E V; Cambier, J L; Hall, D; Azar, D T; Stark, W J

    1996-01-01

    Excimer laser photoablation for refractive and therapeutic keratectomies has been demonstrated to be feasible and practicable. However, corneal laser ablations are not without problems, including the delivery and maintenance of a homogeneous beam. We have developed an excimer laser calibration system capable of characterizing a laser ablation profile. Beam homogeneity is determined by the analysis of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based thin-film using video capture and image processing. The ablation profile is presented as a color-coded map. Interpolation of excimer calibration system analysis provides a three-dimensional representation of elevation profiles that correlates with two-dimensional scanning profilometry. Excimer calibration analysis was performed before treating a monkey undergoing phototherapeutic keratectomy and two human subjects undergoing myopic spherocylindrical photorefractive keratectomy. Excimer calibration analysis was performed before and after laser refurbishing. Laser ablation profiles in PMMA are resolved by the excimer calibration system to .006 microns/pulse. Correlations with ablative patterns in a monkey cornea were demonstrated with preoperative and postoperative keratometry using corneal topography, and two human subjects using video-keratography. Excimer calibration analysis predicted a central-steep-island ablative pattern with the VISX Twenty/Twenty laser, which was confirmed by corneal topography immediately postoperatively and at 1 week after reepithelialization in the monkey. Predicted central steep islands in the two human subjects were confirmed by video-keratography at 1 week and at 1 month. Subsequent technical refurbishing of the laser resulted in a beam with an overall increased ablation rate measured as microns/pulse with a donut ablation profile. A patient treated after repair of the laser electrodes demonstrated no central island. This excimer laser calibration system can precisely detect laser-beam ablation

  4. Excimer Lasers In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Saidi, Iyad S.; Pettit, George H.; Wisoff, P. J.; Sauerbrey, Roland A.

    1989-06-01

    Excimer lasers emit light energy, short optical pulses at ultraviolet wavelengths, that results in a unique laser tissue interaction. This has led to an increasing number of studies into medical applications of these lasers in fields such as ophthalmology, urology, cardiology and neurology.

  5. Excimer laser system Profile-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atejev, V. V.; Bukreyev, V. S.; Vartapetov, Serge K.; Semenov, A. D.; Sugrobov, V. A.; Turin, V. S.; Fedorov, Sergei N.

    1999-07-01

    The description of ophthalmological excimer laser system 'PROFILE-500' for photorefractive and physiotherapeutic keratectomy is presented. Excimer Laser Systems 'PROFILE- 500' are optical system that use ArF excimer lasers to perform photorefractive keratectomy or LASIK; surgical procedures used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

  6. Pulsed excimer laser processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, D.

    1985-01-01

    The status of pulsed excimer laser processing of PV cells is presented. The cost effective feasibility of fabricating high efficiency solar cells on Czochralski wafers using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation, surface passivation, and front metallization. Laser annealing results were promising with the best AR coated cell having an efficiency of 16.1%. Better results would be expected with larger laser spot size because there was some degradation in open circuit voltage caused by laser spot overlap and edge effects. Surface heating and photolytic decomposition by the laser was used to deposit tungsten from the reaction of tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen. The line widths were 5 to 10 mils, and the depositions passed the tape adhesion test. Thinner lines are practical using an optimized optical system.

  7. Excimer laser decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, Marc L.; Delaporte, Philippe C.; Marine, Wladimir; Uteza, Olivier P.

    2000-04-01

    The application of excimer laser ablation process to the decontamination of radioactive surfaces is discussed. This technology is very attractive because it allows to efficiently remove the contaminated particles without secondary waste production. To demonstrate the capability of such technology to efficiently decontaminate large area, we studied and developed a prototype which include a XeCl laser, an optical fiber delivery system and an ablated particles collection cell. The main physical processes taking place during UV laser ablation will be explained. The influence of laser wavelength, pulse duration and absorption coefficient of material will be discussed. Special studies have been performed to understand the processes which limit the transmission of high average power excimer laser through optical fiber, and to determine the laser conditions to optimize the value of this transmission. An in-situ spectroscopic analysis of laser ablation plasma allows the real time control of the decontamination. The results obtained for painting or metallic oxides removal from stainless steel surfaces will be presented.

  8. Picosecond excimer laser-plasma x-ray source for microscopy, biochemistry, and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Ross, Ian N.; Trenda, P.; Wharton, C. W.; Meldrum, R. A.; Daido, Hiroyuki; Schulz, M. S.; Fluck, P.; Michette, Alan G.; Juna, A. P.; Maldonado, Juan R.; Shields, Harry; Tallents, Gregory J.; Dwivedi, L.; Krishnan, J.; Stevens, D. L.; Jenner, T.; Batani, Dimitri; Goodson, H.

    1994-02-01

    At Rutherford Appleton Laboratory we developed a high repetition rate, picosecond, excimer laser system which generates a high temperature and density plasma source emitting approximately 200 mW (78 mW/sr) x ray average power at h(nu) approximately 1.2 KeV or 0.28 KeV < h(nu) < 0.53 KeV (the `water window'). At 3.37 nm wavelength the spectral brightness of the source is approximately 9 X 1011 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth. The x-ray source serves a large user community for applications such as: scanning and holographic microscopy, the study of the biochemistry of DNA damage and repair, microlithography and spectroscopy.

  9. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  10. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  11. Excimer Laser Curing Of Polymer Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klick, David; Akerman, M. Alfred; Paul, George L.; Supurovic, Darko; Tsuda, Haruki

    1988-12-01

    The use of the excimer laser as a source of energy for photo-assisted curing of industrial polymeric coatings was investigated. Presently, UV lamps are sometimes used to excite a photoinitiating molecule mixed with the starting monomers and oligomers of a coating. The resulting polymeric chain reaction multiplies the effect of the initial photons, making economical use of the light source. The high cost of laser photons may thus be justifiable if lasers provide advantages over lamps. A series of visibly transparent 7 μm coatings (a typical thickness for 'slick' magazine coatings) with various photoinitiators, monomers, and oligomers was illuminated with excimer laser light of various wavelengths, fluences, and pulse repetition rates. For the optimum parameters, it was found that the laser had large advantages in curing speed over existing UV lamp processes, due to its monochromaticity. Pigmented coatings (20 μm TiO2 mixtures typical of appliance or automotive finishes) are not easily cured with UV lamps due to the inability of light to penetrate the absorbing and scattering pigmented layer. However, economically-viable cure rates were achieved with certain photoinitiators using a tunable excimer-pumped dye laser. A prototype of such a laser suitable for factory use was built and used to cure these coatings. Results are scaled to a factory situation, and costs are calculated to show the advantages of the laser method over currently used processes.

  12. Excimer laser in arthroscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koort, Hans J.

    1991-05-01

    The development of efficient high-power lasersystems for use in surgery, especially in arthroscopic fields, leads to a new push for all endoscopic techniques. Both techniques, laser and endoscope, complete each other in an ideal way and allow applications which could not be reached with conventional techniques. One of the newer laser types is the excimer laser, which will be a good choice for surface treatment because of its very considerate interaction with tissue. One example is the ablation or smoothing of articular cartilage and meniscal shaving in orthopaedics. On the other hand, the power of this laser system is high enough to cut tissue, for instance in the lateral release, and offers therefore an alternative to the mechanical and electrical instruments. All lasers can only work fine with effective delivery systems. Sometimes there is only a single fiber, which becomes very stiff at diameters of more than 800 micrometers . This fiber often allows only the tangential treatment of tissue, most of the laser power is lost in the background. New fiber systems with many, sometimes hundreds of very thin single fibers, could offer a solution. Special handpieces and fibersystems offer distinct advantages in small joint arthroscopy, especially those for use with excimer lasers will be discussed.

  13. Applications of the Excimer Laser: A Review.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Sarah; Short, Jack; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Ehrlich, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The 308-nm excimer laser has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo. Its ability to treat localized areas has led to many studies determining its potential in the treatment of focal diseases with inflammation or hypopigmentation. To review the different applications of the 308-nm excimer laser for treating dermatologic conditions. An extensive literature review was conducted by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, and ClinicalKey to find articles pertaining to dermatologic conditions treated with the 308-nm excimer laser. Articles published that contributed to new applications of the excimer laser were included, as well as initial studies utilizing the excimer laser. The outcomes and results were compiled for different dermatologic conditions treated with the excimer laser. The 308-nm excimer laser has a wide range of uses for focal inflammatory and hypopigmented conditions. Treatment is generally well tolerated, with few adverse reactions. Larger studies and studies evaluating the long-term effects of the 308-nm excimer laser are needed.

  14. [Astigmatism correction with Excimer laser].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, L

    2012-03-01

    Excimer laser is the best and the more used technique for Astigmatism correction. Lasik is generally preferred to PRK and must be the choice for hyperopic and mix astigmatisms. Myopic astigmatisms are the easier cases to treat: the length of the photoablation is placed on the flat meridian. Hyperopic and mix astigmatisms are more difficult to correct because they are more technically demanding and because the optical zone of the photoablation must be large. Flying spots lasers are the best for these cases. The most important point is to trace the photoablation very precisely on the astigmatism axis. The use of eye trackers with iris recognition or a preoperative marking of the reference axis avoid cyclotorsion or a wrong position of the head. Irregular astigmatism are better corrected with topoguided or wavefront guided photoablations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Excimer laser: a module of the alopecia areata common protocol.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by T cell-mediated attack of the hair follicle. The inciting antigenic stimulus is unknown. A dense perbulbar lymphocytic infiltrate and reproducible immunologic abnormalities are hallmark features of the condition. The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. The xenon chloride excimer laser emits its total energy at the wavelength of 308 nm and therefore is regarded as a "super-narrowband" UVB light source. Excimer laser treatment is highly effective in psoriasis, another T cell-mediated disorder that shares many immunologic features with AA. The excimer laser is superior in inducing T cell apoptosis in vitro compared with narrowband UVB, with paralleled improved clinical efficacy. The excimer laser has been used successfully in patients with AA. In this context, evaluation of the potential benefit of 308-nm excimer laser therapy in the treatment of AA is clinically warranted. Herein, the use of a common treatment protocol with a specifically designed module to study the outcome of excimer laser treatment on moderate-to-severe scalp AA in adults is described.

  16. 308nm Excimer Laser in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mehraban, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  17. The Excimer Laser: Its Impact on Science and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basting, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    After the laser was demonstrated in 1960, 15 years were required to develop a practical method for extending laser emission into the UV: the Excimer laser. This historical review will describe the challenges with the new medium and provide an insight into the technological achievements. In the transition from Science to Industry it will be shown how start-ups successfully commercialized laboratory prototypes. The pioneers in this rapidly expanding field will be identified and the influence of government-funded research as well as the role of venture capital will be discussed. In scientific applications, the fields of photochemistry and material research were particularly stimulated by the advent of a reliable UV light source. Numerous industrial applications and worldwide research in novel applications were fueled In the early and mid 80's by progress in excimer laser performance and technology. The discovery of ablative photocomposition of polymer materials by Srinivasan at IBM opened the door to a multitude of important excimer applications. Micromachining with extreme precision with an excimer laser enabled the success of the inkjet printer business. Biological materials such as the human cornea can also be ``machined'' at 193nm, as proposed in 1983 by Trokel and Srinivasan. This provided the foundation of a new medical technology and an industry relying on the excimer laser to perform refractive surgery to correct vision Today, by far the largest use of the excimer laser is in photolithography to manufacture semiconductor chips, an application discovered by Jain at IBM in the early 80's. Moore's law of shrinking the size of the structure to multiply the number of transistors on a chip could not have held true for so long without the deep UV excimer laser as a light source. The presentation will conclude with comments on the most recent applications and latest market trends.

  18. An experimental study on laser drilling and cutting of composite materials for the aerospace industry using excimer and CO2 sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Erba, M.; Galantucci, L. M.; Miglietta, S.

    This paper reports on the results of research which investigated the potential for the application of an excimer laser in the field of composite material drilling and cutting, by comparing this technology with that using CO2 sources. In particular, the scope of the work was to check whether the interaction between excimer lasers and composite materials, whose characteristic feature is the absence of thermal transfer, could yield better results than those obtainable with CO2 sources once heat transfer-induced difficulties had been eliminated. The materials selected for the experiments were multilayer composites having an epoxy resin matrix (65 percent in volume), with aramid fiber (Kevlar), carbon fiber and glass fiber as reinforcing materials, all of considerable interest for the aerospace industry. Optimal operational parameters were identified in relation to each source with a view to obtaining undersize holes or through cuts exhibiting severed areas of good quality. A comparison between the two types of processing carried out show that rims processed by excimer lasers are of better quality - particularly so with Kevlar - whereas the ablation rate is undoubtedly rather low compared with the CO2 technology.

  19. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  20. 308-nm excimer laser in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenhoff, Tim

    1992-06-01

    Root canal preparation was performed on 20 extracted human teeth. After opening the coronal pulp, the root canals were prepared by 308 nm excimer laser only. All root canals were investigated under SEM after separation in the axial direction. By sagittal separation of the mandibles of freshly slaughtered cows, it was possible to get access to the tissues and irradiate under optical control. Under irradiation of excimer laser light, tissue starts to fluoresce. It was possible to demonstrate that each tissue (dentin, enamel, bone, pulpal, and connective tissue) has a characteristic spectral pattern. The SEM analyses showed that it is well possible to prepare root canals safely. All organic soft tissue has been removed by excimer laser irradiation. There was no case of via falsa. The simultaneous spectroscopic identification of the irradiated tissue provides a safe protection from overinstrumentation. First clinical trials on 20 patients suffering of chronical apical parodontitis have been carried out successfully.

  1. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  2. Excimer laser photorefractive surgery of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaster, Ronald N.

    1998-09-01

    The 193 nm argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser can effectively be used to change the radius of curvature of the cornea and thus alter the refractive state of the eye. This change allows myopic (nearsighted) patients to see well with less dependence on glasses or contact lenses. The two major techniques of laser refractive surgery currently in effect in the United States are photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This paper will discuss these refractive cornea surgical techniques.

  3. Triggering Excimer Lasers by Photoionization from Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Duffey, Thomas; Brown, Daniel; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    High repetition rate ArF (192 nm) excimer lasers are used for photolithography sources in microelectronics fabrication. In highly attaching gas mixtures, preionization is critical to obtaining stable, reproducible glow discharges. Photoionization from a separate corona discharge is one technique for preionization which triggers the subsequent electron avalanche between the main electrodes. Photoionization triggering of an ArF excimer laser sustained in multi-atmosphere Ne/Ar/F2/Xe gas mixtures has been investigated using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model including radiation transport. Continuity equations for charged and neutral species, and Poisson's equation are solved coincident with the electron temperature with transport coefficients obtained from solutions of Boltzmann's equation. Photoionizing radiation is produced by a surface discharge which propagates along a corona-bar located adjacent to the discharge electrodes. The consequences of pulse power waveform, corona bar location, capacitance and gas mixture on uniformity, symmetry and gain of the avalanche discharge will be discussed.

  4. Excimer laser irradiation of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, Grant

    In this work a new method of enhancing CO2 laser processing by modifying the radiative properties of a metal surface is studied. In this procedure, an excimer laser (XeCl) or KrF) exposes the metal surface to overlapping pulses of high intensity, 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) W cm(exp -2), and short pulse duration, 30 nsec FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum), to promote structural and chemical change. The major processing effect at these intensities is the production of a surface plasma which can lead to the formation of a laser supported detonation wave (LSD wave). This shock wave can interact with the thin molten layer on the metal surface influencing to a varying degree surface oxidation and roughness features. The possibility of the expulsion, oxidation and redeposition of molten droplets, leading to the formation of micron thick oxide layers, is related to bulk metal properties and the incident laser intensity. A correlation is found between the expulsion of molten droplets and a Reynolds number, showing the interaction is turbulent. The permanent effects of these interactions on metal surfaces are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transient calorimetric measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Observed surface textures are related to the scanning procedures used to irradiate the metal surface. Fundamental radiative properties of a metal surface, the total hemispherical emissivity, the near-normal spectral absorptivity, and others are examined in this study as they are affected by excimer laser radiation. It is determined that for heavily exposed Al surface, alpha' (10.6 microns) can be increased to values close to unity. Data relating to material removal rates and chemical surface modification for excimer laser radiation is also discussed. The resultant reduction in the near-normal reflectivity solves the fundamental problem of coupling laser radiation into highly reflective and conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. The

  5. Photochemical and Spectroscopic Effects Resulting from Excimer Laser Excitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan Xiao

    a broadband excimer laser operating at 248 nm and 308 nm as the source of excitation. Absolute fluorescence quantum yields for the substances under study were measured at 248 nm using toluene as the fluorescence standard. Fluorescence spectra from species produced from nonlinear photochemical processes were also studied.

  6. Unresolved issues in excimer laser corneal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokel, Stephen L.

    1991-06-01

    More than one hundred fifty clinical excimer laser units designed for corneal surgery have been developed and sold commercially. Manufacturers include Meditec Lasers in Germany, Summit Engineering, Taunton Technologies, and Visx in the United States, and Synthelabo in France. Furthermore a number of prototypes have been built in the USSR and other countries which are being investigated for their clinical use. While in the United States and Canada, substantial regulation of these devices has limited their distribution and use, sales in other parts of the world have been restricted only by market forces. Early clinical successes have created an enthusiasm for this new technology. In spite of this, substantial technical issues remain uncertain and have not been carefully studied. Indeed we have accepted certain parameters for on an almost serendipitous, empirical basis. It is a proper time to pause and consider the bases for these laser techniques.

  7. Excimer Pumped Pulsed Tunable Dye Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Michael G.

    1988-06-01

    It has been recently shown and reported for the first time at this meeting, that Excimer pumping of a single-mode, short-cavity, grazing-incidence, longitudinally-pumped pulsed dye laser is feasible. In this paper the key concepts upon which this latest development is based are presented and are in a somewhat unusual form. This manuscript describes five specific dye laser examples. The five examples represent a progression from the simplest type of dye laser to the single-mode version mentioned above. The examples thus serve as a tutorial introduction to potential users of dye lasers. The article is organized into five sections or STEPS, each of which describes a different pulsed dye laser. Since the subtle points about dye lasers are best appreciated only after one actually attempts to build a working model, a PROCEDURES category is included in which details about the construction of the particular form of laser are given. As one reads through this category, think of it as looking over the shoulder of the laser builder. The NOTES category which follows is a brief but essential discussion explaining why various components and procedures are used, as well as how laser performance specifications are obtained. This subsection can he viewed as a discussion with the laser builder concerning the reasons for specific actions and choices made in the assembly of the example laser. The last category contains COMMENTS which provide additional related information pertaining to the example laser that goes beyond the earlier annotated discussion. If you like, these are the narrator's comments. At the end of the article, after the five sequential forms of the laser have been presented, there is a brief summation.

  8. [Therapeutic excimer laser treatment of the cornea].

    PubMed

    Linke, S J; Steinberg, J; Katz, T

    2013-06-01

    Concomitant with new innovations in the field of refractive surgery, therapeutic excimer laser applications like phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) and topography-guided customised ablation treatment are gaining high importance and undergoing rapid evolution. Nowadays, PTK is an effective treatment modality for superficial corneal pathologies. Primary indications are decreased epithelial adherence, superficial opacifications and an irregular corneal surface. For the right indication and successful treatment of corneal pathologies with PTK, a knowledge of the size, depth and nature of the pathology, as well as the refractive status of both eyes is important. Next to slit-lamp examination, objective measuring systems like the topography, confocal microscopy and the anterior segment OCT facilitate presurgical planning. Regarding the treatment procedure the surgeon can choose between a variety of methods. PTK can be combined with manual epithelial debridement or done by only using the excimer laser. In the case of an irregular corneal surface, depending on the pathology, masking fluids or topography-guided custom ablation protocols can increase the visual outcome. To avoid recurrence of the underlying pathology (e.g., corneal dystrophy, haze), the topical application of 0.02% mitomycin C for 20-60 seconds has proved to be a safe and effective procedure. If the surgeon considers all the patient-related factors carefully and manages to combine the available treatment options correctly, PTK embodies an effective and minimally invasive alternative to lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Excimer laser annealing for low-voltage power MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Okada, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Takashi; Mazzamuto, Fulvio; Huet, Karim

    2016-08-01

    Excimer laser annealing of lumped beam was performed to form the P-base junction for high-performance low-voltage-power MOSFET. An equivalent shallow-junction structure for the P-base junction with a uniform impurity distribution is realized by adopting excimer laser annealing (ELA). The impurity distribution in the P-base junction can be controlled precisely by the irradiated pulse energy density and the number of shots of excimer laser. High impurity activation for the shallow junction has been confirmed in the melted phase. The application of the laser annealing technology in the fabrication process of a practical low-voltage trench gate MOSFET was also examined.

  10. Calcified lesion modeling for excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Holly A.; Archuleta, Andrew; Splinter, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Objective: Develop a representative calcium target model to evaluate penetration of calcified plaque lesions during atherectomy procedures using 308 nm Excimer laser ablation. Materials and Methods: An in-vitro model representing human calcified plaque was analyzed using Plaster-of-Paris and cement based composite materials as well as a fibrinogen model. The materials were tested for mechanical consistency. The most likely candidate(s) resulting from initial mechanical and chemical screening was submitted for ablation testing. The penetration rate of specific multi-fiber catheter designs and a single fiber probe was obtained and compared to that in human cadaver calcified plaque. The effects of lasing parameters and catheter tip design on penetration speed in a representative calcified model were verified against the results in human cadaver specimens. Results: In Plaster of Paris, the best penetration was obtained using the single fiber tip configuration operating at 100 Fluence, 120 Hz. Calcified human lesions are twice as hard, twice as elastic as and much more complex than Plaster of Paris. Penetration of human calcified specimens was highly inconsistent and varied significantly from specimen to specimen and within individual specimens. Conclusions: Although Plaster of Paris demonstrated predictable increases in penetration with higher energy density and repetition rate, it can not be considered a totally representative laser ablation model for calcified lesions. This is in part due to the more heterogeneous nature and higher density composition of cadaver intravascular human calcified occlusions. Further testing will require a more representative model of human calcified lesions.

  11. New 223-nm excimer laser surgical system for photorefractive keratectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaev, Sergei N.; Razhev, Alexander M.; Zhupikov, Andrey A.

    1999-02-01

    The using of KrCl (223 nm) excimer laser in ophthalmic devices for Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) and phototherapeutic Keratectomy (PTK) is offered. The structure and functions of a new surgical UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex using ArF (193 nm) or KrCl (223 nm) excimer laser for corneal surgery are presented. The systems Medilex with the new optical delivery system is used for photoablative reprofiling of the cornea to correct refraction errors (myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism) and to treat a corneal pathologies. The use of the 223 nanometer laser is proposed to have advantages over the 193 nanometer laser. The results of application of the ophthalmic excimer laser systems Medilex for treatment of myopia are presented.

  12. Latest result of PRK with excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Shinseiro; Okamoto, Michika

    1996-05-01

    We have in the last two years, performed PRK operation on over 300 human myopic eyes using ArF excimer laser with a Summit 'Omnimed' machine. For the initial 53 myopic eyes we treated, results were very good for those with correction less than minus 6 diopters. However, as previously reported, we also witnessed some regression for those eyes exceeding correction of more than minus 6 diopters. To counter such ill results of PRK we devised and suggested many new procedures for PRK with very good results. One such invention is the 'Okamoto-type' cooling machine for the cornea which reduces and stabilizes cornea temperature at 0 degrees Celsius while simultaneously bathing the cornea with special cooling fluid. After the operation, EGF, fibronectin and hexapeptide were administered using eyedrops. Soft contact lenses were used to protect the cornea, improve delivery of medication to the operated area, prevent infection and inflammation and also promote uniform and faster ephiterium regrowth. We were able to document very good post-operative results using this method, thereby giving us strong assurance that we have reached a significant milestone in PRK operation. Our report today covers post operative results of the 52 eyes we operated on and tracked for more than one year.

  13. Changing profile of excimer laser coronary angioplasty: refinements in catheters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittl, John A.

    1994-07-01

    During more than five years of investigation with excimer laser angioplasty, several changes have been made in patient selection and laser catheters. It is unclear, however, whether these changes have improved the outcome of excimer laser angioplasty. A total of 2041 patients underwent treatment with excimer laser coronary angioplasty for 2324 lesions with clinical success in 89%, ischemic complications in 7.5%, and vessel perforation in 2.1%. When the entire 5-year period of investigation was divided into four discrete phases, as defined by the successive release of improved laser catheters (prototype, flexible, extremely flexible, and eccentric), clinical success was seen to improve from 86% to 95% (p<0.001) despite the increased incidence of advanced age (pequals0.01) and unstable angina (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis identified improved laser catheters, saphenous vein graft lesions, and unclarified stenoses as predictors of favorable outcome. Operator experience was associated with decreased complications. Reduced catheter size relative to vessel size was associated with decreased risk of vessel perforation. Thus, refinements in patient selection and in laser technique have been associated with enhanced safety and efficacy of excimer laser angioplasty.

  14. Development of compact excimer lasers for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Mcdermid, I. S.; Pacala, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of excimer lasers for remote sensing applications are illustrated in a discussion of the development of a compact tunable XeCl excimer laser for the detection of atmospheric OH radicals. Following a brief review of the operating principles and advantages of excimer lasers, measurements of the wavelength dependence of the net small signal gain coefficient of a discharge excited XeCl laser are presented which demonstrate the overlap of several absorption lines of the A-X(0,0) transition of OH near 308 nm with the wavelengths of the XeCl laser. A range of continuous narrow bandwidth tunability of from 307.6 to 308.4 nm with only a 30 percent variation in output is reported for an XeCl laser used as a double-pass amplifier for a frequency-doubled dye laser, and measurements demonstrating the detection of laser-induced fluorescence from OH in a methane-oxygen flame are also noted. The design of an oscillator-amplifier excimer system comprising a corona-preionized, transverse-discharge oscillator and amplifier is then presented. Output energies of 12-15 mJ have been achieved in the regions where injection locking was established, with energies of 8-10 mJ elsewhere.

  15. Forming n/p Junctions With An Excimer Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Paul, Jr.; Campbell, Robert B.; Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William L.; Byron, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Compact equipment yields high-quality solar cells. Computer controls pulses of excimer laser and movement of silcon wafer. Mirrors direct laser beam to wafer. Lenses focus beam to small spot on surface. Process suitable for silicon made by dendritic-web-growth process.

  16. Excimer laser interaction with dentin of the human tooth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Gilliam, Ruth L.; Baker, George R.

    1989-01-01

    The use an excimer laser produced many unusual conical structures within the dentin of the inner part of the human tooth. By varying the frequency of the laser one can disperse the energy and cause more bleeding in laser surgery, but not destroy the cells associated with the incision. Therefore, the healing process will virtually be without scarring. Whereas, using the infrared laser the blood loss would be less, but the healing process would tend to be longer because cells are being destroyed due to the cauterization effect of the laser. The question is, are these structures produced as an interaction with the laser or are they an intrinsic part of the structure. The effects of the laser interaction upon dentin was studied, and in using electron microscopy the interaction of the excimer laser upon the tooth dentin and other various biological tissue is more clearly understood.

  17. Mini-excimer laser corneal reshaping using a scanning device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jui T.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper we present an update on the Mini-Excimer photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) laser system with an emphasis on the scanning device. We also compare the systems of various manufacturers. This paper also presents PMMA ablation profiles and clinical results from China with over 100 cases of myopic corrections ranging from -2.5 D to -12 D. In contrast to the old technology which uses industrial-type high-power excimer lasers, the advanced Mini-Excimer system uses the most recent technology involving a compact, high repetition-rate excimer laser operated at a much smaller beam spot size of (0.8 - 1.2) mm in a scanning mode which requires a beam energy per pulse of only (0.9 - 1.2) mJ on the corneal surface to achieve the same range of fluence (or energy density) (160 - 200) mJ/cm2 as that of the high-power excimer lasers.

  18. Pulsed excimer laser processing for cost-effective solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of excimer laser in the fabrication of photovoltaic devices was investigated extensively. Processes included junction formation, laser assisted chemical vapor deposition metallization, and laser assisted chemical vapor deposition surface passivation. Results demonstrated that implementation of junction formation by laser annealing in production is feasible because of excellent control in junction depth and quality. Both metallization and surface passivation, however, were found impractical to be considered for manufacturing at this stage.

  19. Excimer laser processing of backside-illuminated CCDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    An excimer laser is used to activate previously implanted dopants on the backside of a backside-illuminated CCD. The controlled ion implantation of the backside and subsequent thin layer heating and recrystallization by the short wavelength pulsed excimer laser simultaneously activates the dopant and anneals out implant damage. This improves the dark current response, repairs defective pixels and improves spectral response. This process heats a very thin layer of the material to high temperatures on a nanosecond time scale while the bulk of the delicate CCD substrate remains at low temperature. Excimer laser processing backside-illuminated CCD's enables salvage and utilization of otherwise nonfunctional components by bringing their dark current response to within an acceptable range. This process is particularly useful for solid state imaging detectors used in commercial, scientific and government applications requiring a wide spectral response and low light level detection.

  20. Generation of strongly coupled plasmas by high power excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongxiang; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Zhang, Jiyan; Zheng, Zhijian; Ye, Xisheng

    2013-05-01

    (ultraviolet). To generate strongly coupled plasmas (SCP) by high power excimer laser, an Au-CH-Al-CH target is used to make the Al sample reach the state of SCP, in which the Au layer transforms laser energy to X-ray that heating the sample by volume and the CH layers provides necessary constraints. With aid of the MULTI-1D code, we calculate the state of the Al sample and its relationship with peak intensity, width and wavelength of laser pulses. The calculated results suggest that an excimer laser with peak intensity of the magnitude of 1013W/cm2 and pulse width being 5ns - 10ns is suitable to generate SCP with the temperature being tens of eV and the density of electron being of the order of 1022/cm-3. Lasers with shorter wavelength, such as KrF laser, are preferable.

  1. Topographic steep central islands following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; McDonnell, Peter J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that topographic irregularities in the form of central islands of higher refractive power can be seen following excimer laser refractive surgery. We reviewed the computerized corneal topographic maps of 35 patients undergoing excimer laser PRK for compound myopic astigmatism or anisometropia from 8/91 to 8/93 at the USC/Doheny Eye Institute. The topographic maps were generated by the Computed Anatomy Corneal Modeling System, and central islands were defined as topographic areas of steepening of at least 3 diopters and 3 mm in diameter. A grading system was developed based on the presence of central islands during the postoperative period. Visually significant topographic steep central islands may be seen in over 50% of patients at 1 month following excimer laser PRK, and persist at 3 months in up to 24% of patients without nitrogen gas blowing. Loss of best corrected visual acuity or ghosting is associated with island formation, and may prolong visual rehabilitation after excimer laser PRK.

  2. Treatment of oral lichen planus using 308-nm excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Bing; Sun, Li-Wei; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2017-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, has prolonged courses, repeated attacks and resistance to treatment. The traditional narrow spectrum UVB treatment has an established efficacy on skin lichen planus, and high safety. However, most of ultraviolet phototherapy devices have a huge volume, thereby cannot be used in the treatment of OLP. Lymphocytic infiltration is evident in the lesions of lichen planus, and the direct irradiation of 308-nm excimer laser can induce apoptosis of the T lymphocytes in skin lesions, thereby has a unique therapeutic effect on the diseases involving T lymphocytes. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP. A total of six OLP patients were enrolled into this study, and further pathological diagnosis was conducted, then 308-nm excimer laser was used in the treatment. The efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP was satisfactory. The clinical symptoms of five patients were significantly improved. In two patients, the erosion surface based on congestion and the surrounding white spots completely disappeared, and clinical recovery was achieved. Three patients achieved partial remission, that is, the erosion surface healed, congestion and white spot area shrunk by more than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. In the remaining one patient, the erosion surface had not completely healed after treatment, and congestion and white spot area shrunk by less than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. Only one patients had developed mild pain during the treatment, and this symptom alleviated by itself. The 308-nm excimer laser therapy can serve as a safe and effective treatment for OLP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2007-12-01

    Alopecia areata is loss of hair from localized or diffuse areas of hair-bearing area of the skin. Recently there are reports of efficacy of the 308-nm excimer radiation for this condition. To study the effect of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata. Eighteen patients with 42 recalcitrant patches (including 1 adult with alopecia totalis) were enrolled in this study. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks; one lesion on each patient was left as a control for comparison. There were 7 males and 11 females in this study. Regrowth of hair was observed in 17 (41.5%) patches. Thirteen of the 18 lesions in scalp showed a complete regrowth of hair. The extremity regions failed to show a response. Atopic diatheses had an unfavorable effect on the outcome in our patients. The 308-nm excimer laser is an effective therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata of the scalp and for some cases with patchy alopecia areata of the beard area. It does not work for patchy alopecia areata of the extremities.

  4. Impacts of excimer laser annealing on Ge epilayer on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Mao, Yichen; Yi, Xiaohui; Lin, Guangyang; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jianyuan

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of excimer laser annealing on the crystallinity of Ge epilayers on Si substrate grown by low- and high-temperature two-step approach in an ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition system were investigated. The samples were treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) at various laser power densities with the temperature above the melting point of Ge, while below that of Si, resulting in effective reduction of point defects and dislocations in the Ge layer with smooth surface. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of X-ray diffraction patterns of the low-temperature Ge epilayer decreases with the increase in laser power density, indicating the crystalline improvement and negligible effect of Ge-Si intermixing during ELA processes. The short laser pulse time and large cooling rate cause quick melting and recrystallization of Ge epilayer on Si in the non-thermal equilibrium process, rendering tensile strain in Ge epilayer as calculated quantitatively with thermal mismatch between Si and Ge. The FWHM of X-ray diffraction patterns is significantly reduced for the two-step grown samples after treated by a combination of ELA and conventional furnace thermal annealing, indicating that the crystalline of Ge epilayer is improved more effectively with pre- annealing by excimer laser.

  5. Excimer laser coronary angioplasty: relative risk analysis of clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittl, John A.

    1992-08-01

    Reports of successful use of excimer laser coronary angioplasty for complex coronary artery disease abound, yet firm indications for its use have not been defined. We attempted to treat 858 coronary stenoses in 764 consecutive patients (mean age 61 years; range 32 - 91 years; 75% men; 76% with Class III or IV angina) with excimer laser angioplasty at 308 nm. Successful treatment was achieved in 86% of patients, as indicated by excimer laser angioplasty, we used relative risk analysis. This showed that certain angiographic features, such as lesions at a vessel bifurcation (odds ratio, OR equals 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.23, 0.88; P equals 0.017;) or in a tortuous segment (OR equals 0.54; 95% CI equals 0.34, 0.88; P equals 0.041), have decreased likelihood of clinical success. On the other hand, ostial stenoses (OR equals 1.06; 95% CI equals 0.44, 2.56, P equals 0.903) and saphenous vein graft lesions (OR equals 2.17; 95% CI equals 0.98, 4.82; P equals 0.051) have acceptable success rates. Diffuse disease (> 20 mm), total occlusions and calcified lesions were treated as successfully as all other lesion types. Successful treatment with excimer laser coronary angioplasty was also achieved in almost all patients (15/16) who had a prior unsuccessful attempt at balloon angioplasty in the lesion was crossed with a guidewire yet resists either balloon catheter passage or full dilatation. Follow-up angiography was obtained in 70% of eligible patients. Angiographic restenosis, defined by > 50% stenosis, was seen in 60% of patients. Relative risk analysis showed an increased risk of restenosis when adjunctive balloon angioplasty was not used (OR equals 1.68; 95% CI equals 1.02, 2.28; P equals 0.039). Other variables known to affect the outcome of balloon angioplasty, such as lesion length or stenosis in degenerated saphenous vein bypass graft, did not influence the

  6. Myopic keratomileusis by excimer laser on a lathe.

    PubMed

    Ganem, S; Aron-Rosa, D; Gross, M; Rosolen, S

    1994-01-01

    We designed an excimer laser keratomileusis delivery system to increase the regularity of the refractive cut surface and allow greater precision in the level and shape of the ablated zone. A parallel faced corneal disc was produced by microkeratectomy from six human eyes and surgical keratectomy in 12 beagle corneas. A 193-nanometer excimer laser that was used to project an oval beam onto the corneal disc was rotated on a flat surface to ensure overlapping of the ovally ablated areas between pulses. Electron microscopy of eye bank lenticules demonstrated a circular smooth regularly concave ablation zone. Histological examination of nine clear corneas confirmed thinning of the stroma without fibroblastic reaction and no epithelial hypertrophy. Mean preoperative corneal power of 43.15 +/- 2.18 decreased postoperatively to 33.61 +/- 2.34. The new technique of excimer laser keratomileusis has the advantage of a cut surface smoother and the clear zone is devoid of the stepwise concavity and irregularity seen in diaphragm based photoablation delivery systems.

  7. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  8. Excimer laser ablation of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, George H.; Ediger, Marwood N.; Weiblinger, Richard P.

    1995-03-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation is being extensively investigated clinically to reshape the optical surface of the eye and correct vision defects. Current knowledge of the laser/tissue interaction and the present state of the clinical evaluation are reviewed. In addition, the principal findings of internal Food and Drug Administration research are described in some detail, including a risk assessment of the laser-induced-fluorescence and measurement of the nonlinear optical properties of cornea during the intense UV irradiation. Finally, a survey is presented of the alternative laser technologies being explored for this ophthalmic application.

  9. Controlled study of excimer and pulsed dye lasers in the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Taibjee, S M; Cheung, S-T; Laube, S; Lanigan, S W

    2005-11-01

    The excimer laser delivers high energy monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) B at 308 nm. Advantages over conventional UV sources include targeting of lesional skin, reducing cumulative dose and inducing faster clearance. Studies of the pulsed dye laser (PDL) in psoriasis report between 57% and 82% response rates; remission may extend to 15 months. To our knowledge, this is the first study assessing both excimer and PDL in psoriasis. We conducted a within-patient controlled prospective trial of treatment of localized plaque psoriasis. Twenty-two adult patients, mean Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 7.1, were recruited. Fifteen patients completed the full treatment, of which 13 were followed up to 1 year. Two selected plaques were treated with excimer twice weekly and V Beam PDL, pretreated with salicylic acid (SA), every 4 weeks, respectively. Two additional plaques, treated with SA alone or untreated, served as controls. The primary outcome measures were: (i) changes in plaque-modified Psoriasis Activity and Severity Index (PSI) scores from baseline to end of treatment; (ii) clinical response to treatment (CR(T)), assessed by serial photographs; (iii) percentage of plaques clear at the end of treatment; and (iv) percentage of plaques clear at 1-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures were: (i) number of laser treatments to clearance; (ii) time to relapse; (iii) frequency of side-effects; and (iv) qualitative observations with SIAscope. The mean improvement in PSI was 4.7 (SD 2.1) with excimer and 2.7 (SD 2.4) with PDL. PSI improvement was significantly greater in excimer than PDL (P = 0.003) or both control plaques (P < 0.001). CR(T) indicated 13 patients responded best with excimer, two patients best with PDL, and in seven patients there was no difference between the two lasers. CR(T) was significantly greater for excimer than PDL (P = 0.003) or both controls (P < 0.001). CR(T) was also significantly greater for PDL than SA alone (P = 0.004) or untreated control

  10. Cross Sections for Ionization of Rare Gas Excimers by Electron Impact and Atomic and Molecular Processes in Excimer Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    6.1 Excimers and Exciplexes : Background 55 6.2 Rare Gas-Halide Lasers 58 6.3 Formation, Quenching and Absorption Processes for Rare Gas-Halides 60... exciplex such as KrF* and XeF* laser systems as well as in various types of gas discharges. They are also of fundamental significance in their own...collision processes contributing to the formation and quenching of the excited molecular states in exciplex (such as KrF ) and excimer (such as Xe2

  11. Study on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics of discharging excimer laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Duliang; Liang, Xu; Fang, Xiaodong; Wang, Qingsheng

    2016-10-01

    Excimer laser in condition of high voltage, large current and fast discharge will produce strong electromagnetic pulse radiation and electromagnetic interference on the around electrical equipment. The research on characteristics and distribution of excimer laser electromagnetic radiation could provide important basis for electromagnetic shielding and suppressing electromagnetic interference, and further improving the electromagnetic compatibility of system. Firstly, electromagnetic radiation source is analyzed according to the working principle of excimer laser. The key test points of the electromagnetic radiation, hydrogen thyratron, main discharge circuit and laser outlet, are determined by the mechanical structure and the theory of electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, characteristics of electromagnetic field were tested using a near field probe on the key positions of the vertical direction at 20, 50, and 80 cm, respectively. The main radiation frequencies and the radiation field characteristics in the near field are obtained. The experimental results show that the main radiation frequencies distribute in 47, 65, and 130 MHz for electric field and the main radiation frequencies distribute in 34, 100, and 165 MHz for magnetic field. The intensity of electromagnetic field decreases rapidly with the increase of test distance. The higher the frequency increases, the faster the amplitude attenuate. Finally, several electromagnetic interference suppression measurement methods are proposed from the perspective of electromagnetic compatibility according to the test results.

  12. Effect of volatile compounds on excimer laser power delivery.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Stewart D; Hovanesian, John A; Maloney, Robert K

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether vapors from perfume, hairspray, oil-based paint, or water-based paint affect excimer laser beam power delivery at the corneal surface. We measured the power delivery of an Apex Plus laser before, during, and after exposure to vapors from the following volatile compounds: three types of perfume, hair spray, an oil-based paint, and a water-based paint. A digital calorimeter was used to measure the steady-state beam power of the laser during laser discharge at the corneal plane. Multiple trials were run with each compound, and the change in laser energy over time was examined to determine if any of the compounds caused degradation of the laser optics. The presence of a volatile compound in the room caused no change in mean laser energy in comparison to before and after the compound was present. However, perfumes caused a progressive decline in laser beam power throughout the trials. Controlling for this progressive decline, there was no significant difference from perfume to perfume. None of the compounds tested caused a decline in laser beam power while present in the room. However, the presence of any perfume caused a deterioration in beam power over time, suggesting a degradation of the laser optics for all perfumes. Laser centers should consider advising their patients and staff to not wear perfumes in the laser suite.

  13. Excimer laser delivery system for astigmatic and hyperopic photorefractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rasmus; Foerster, Werner

    1994-06-01

    Ablation of corneal tissue with excimer laser light is an effective way to correct refractive errors of the eye. For this purpose a beam-stop (iris diaphragm or interchangeable masks) is illuminated by the laser radiation. The beam-stop is imaged onto the cornea, and circular or elliptic ablations are produced. The computer-controlled process varies the diameter of the ablation area in a way that the inner portions of the treatment zone receive more laser energy than the outer portions, thus flattening the curvature of the refractive surface. For the treatment of hyperopia, the outer portions of the ablation area receive more laser energy to steepen the surface profile of the cornea. The beam delivery system employs several sets of circular, elliptic and ring shaped masks which are etched into a stainless-steel tape.

  14. Applications of the 308-nm excimer laser in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, A.; Kemeny, L.

    2006-05-01

    Excimer lasers contain a mixture of a noble inert gas and a halogen, which form excited dimers only in the activated state. High-energy current is used to produce these dimers, which have a very short lifetime, and after their fast dissociation they release the excitation energy through ultraviolet photons. The application of these lasers proved to be successful in medicine, including the field of ophthalmology, cardiology, angiology, dentistry, orthopaedics, and, in recent years, dermatology. For medical purposes, the 193-nm argon fluoride, the 248-nm krypton fluoride, the 351-nm xenon fluoride, and the 308-nm xenon chloride lasers are used. Recently, the 308-nm xenon chloride laser has gained much attention as a very effective treatment modality in dermatological disorders. It was successfully utilized in psoriasis; later, it proved to be useful in handling other lightsensitive skin disorders and even in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review summarizes the possible applications of this promising tool in dermatology.

  15. Features of plasma produced by excimer laser at low intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergunova, G. A.; Magunov, A. I.; Dyakin, V. M.; Faenov, A. Ya; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Batani, D.; Bossi, S.; Bernardinello, A.; Flora, F.; di Lazzaro, P.; Bollanti, S.; Lisi, N.; Letardi, T.; Reale, A.; Palladino, L.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.; Osterheld, A. L.; Goldstein, W. H.

    1997-04-01

    A plasma, created at interaction of short-wavelength excimer laser radiation with flat targets was investigated (tlas = 12 ns, λlas = 0.308 μm, qlas = 4 - 8 × 1012 W/cm2) with the help of various x-ray spectroscopic methods. The comparison of shapes and intensities of some observable spectral lines of H-, He and Li-like ions of Na, Mg and Al with results of model calculations has allowed to determine space distributions of laser plasma parameters up to distances of 0.4 mm from the target surface. Comparison of obtained results with theoretical models of absorption of short-wavelength radiation in a plasma shows, that the absorption of short-wavelength laser radiation in a plasma (at considered values of laser flux density) is executed due to inverse bremsstrahlung process in the areas with Ne < Ne, crit..

  16. Scattered UV irradiation during VISX excimer laser keratorefractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Hope, R J; Weber, E D; Bower, K S; Pasternak, J P; Sliney, D H

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the potential occupational health hazards associated with scattered ultraviolet (UV) radiation during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using the VISX Star S3 excimer laser. The Laser Vision Center, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Intraoperative radiometric measurements were made with the Ophir Power/Energy Meter (LaserStar Model PD-10 with silicon detector) during PRK treatments as well as during required calibration procedures at a distance of 20.3 cm from the left cornea. These measurements were evaluated using a worst-case scenario for exposure, and then compared with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygeinists (ACGIH) Threshold Value Limits (TVL) to perform a risk/hazard analysis. During the PRK procedures, the highest measured value was 248.4 nJ/pulse. During the calibration procedures, the highest measured UV scattered radiation level was 149.6 nJ/pulse. The maximum treatment time was 52 seconds. Using a worst-case scenario in which all treatments used the maximum power and time, the total energy per eye treated was 0.132 mJ/cm2 and the total UV radiation at close range (80 cm from the treated eye) was 0.0085 mJ/cm2. With a workload of 20 patients, the total occupational exposure at 80 cm to actinic UV radiation in an 8-hour period would be 0.425 mJ/cm2. The scattered actinic UV laser radiation from the VISX Star S3 excimer laser did not exceed occupational exposure limits during a busy 8-hour workday, provided that operating room personnel were at least 80 cm from the treated eye. While the use of protective eyewear is always prudent, this study demonstrates that the trace amounts of scattered laser emissions produced by this laser do not pose a serious health risk even without the use of protective eyewear.

  17. Design and performance of a production-worthy excimer-laser-based stepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Robert; Sparkes, Christopher; Disessa, Peter A.; Elliott, David J.

    1992-06-01

    Excimer-laser-based steppers have matured to a production-worthy state. Widefield high-NA lenses have been developed and characterized for imaging down to 0.35 micron and below. Excimer lasers have attained practical levels of performance capability and stability, reliability, safety, and operating cost. Excimer stepper system integration and control issues such as focus, exposure, and overlay stability have been addressed. Enabling support technologies -- resist systems, resist processing, metrology and conventional mask making -- continue to progress and are becoming available. This paper discusses specific excimer stepper design challenges, and presents characterization data from several field installations of XLSTM deep-UV steppers configured with an advanced lens design.

  18. Excimer laser beam delivery systems for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Uichi; Hashishin, Yuichi; Okada, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    1993-05-01

    We have been doing the basic experiments of UV laser beams and biotissue interaction with both KrF and XeCl lasers. However, the conventional optical fiber can not be available for power UV beams. So we have been investigating about UV power beam delivery systems. These experiments carry on with the same elements doped quartz fibers and the hollow tube. The doped elements are OH ion, chlorine and fluorine. In our latest work, we have tried ArF excimer laser and biotissue interactions, and the beam delivery experiments. From our experimental results, we found that the ArF laser beam has high incision ability for hard biotissue. For example, in the case of the cow's bone incision, the incision depth by ArF laser was ca.15 times of KrF laser. Therefore, ArF laser would be expected to harden biotissue therapy as non-thermal method. However, its beam delivery is difficult to work in this time. We will develop ArF laser beam delivery systems.

  19. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. An optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production is to be developed, and increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis demonstrated. An excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon.

  20. The development and progress of XeCl Excimer laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Ma, Lianying; Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhu, Yongxiang; Hu, Yun; Qian, Hang; Shao, Bibo; Yi, Aiping; Liu, Jingru

    2015-05-01

    A large angularly multiplexed XeCl Excimer laser system is under development at the Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology (NINT). It is designed to explore the technical issues of uniform and controllable target illumination. Short wavelength, uniform and controllable target illumination is the fundamental requirement of high energy density physics research using large laser facility. With broadband, extended light source and multi-beam overlapping techniques, rare gas halide Excimer laser facility will provide uniform target illumination theoretically. Angular multiplexing and image relay techniques are briefly reviewed and some of the limitations are examined to put it more practical. The system consists of a commercial oscillator front end, three gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers and the optics required to relay, encode and decode the laser beam. An 18 lens array targeting optics direct and focus the laser in the vacuum target chamber. The system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The total 18 beams output energy is more than 100J and the pulse width is 7ns (FWHM), the intensities on the target will exceed 1013W/cm2. The aberration of off-axis imaging optics at main amplifier should be minimized to improve the final image quality at the target. Automatic computer controlled alignment of the whole system is vital to efficiency and stability of the laser system, an array of automatic alignment model is under test and will be incorporated in the system soon.

  1. Gaussian broad-beam excimer laser: clinical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Schraepen, P; Eskina, E; Gobin, L; Trau, R; Timmermans, J; Tassignon, M J

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the mid-term (1-3 years) results of the Gaussian broad-beam excimer laser Delivery System (DS) after single treatment for the correction of myopia. To study the corneal surface with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after excimer laser ablation using a flying spot delivery system (Bausch & Lomb) and a Gaussian Delivery System (GDS) (InPro). The 1035 consecutive eyes studied were split in four groups with respect to the treated myopia, expressed in spherical equivalent: low myopia up to -3.00 D (183 eyes), moderate myopia from -3.25 D to -6.00 D (540 eyes), high myopia from -6.25 D to -10.00 D (210 eyes) and very high myopia from -10.25 D to -20.00 D (102 eyes). Four post-mortem eyes of two donors were treated using the flying spot DS on one eye and the GDS on the other eye. We achieved postoperative spheriqual equivalent within +/- 1 D of emmetropia in respectively 99.1%, 98.9%, 83% and 21% of the eyes of group 1, 2, 3 and 4. UCVA was 10/10 or better in respectively 65%, 51% and 19% of group 1, 2 and 3. UCVA was 5/10 or better in respectively 86% and 75% of group 3 and 4. The defocus equivalent refraction was 1.0 or less in respectively 98%, 93%, 62%, and 7% of the four groups. On SEM, the corneal surface presented a smooth and polished profile for the GDS. The Gaussian Delivery System gives comparable results to the flying spot laser system for surface laser ablation in myopic eyes up to -10 D. Advantages of this system are: smooth ablation surface, short treatment time, low haze rate, high reliability and easy maintenance of the device due to the optical DS. It is an interesting alternative for the more complex mechanical DS.

  2. Combination treatment with excimer laser and narrowband UVB light in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sungsik; Hann, Seung-Kyung; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    For the treatment of vitiligo, narrowband UVB (NBUVB) light is considered the most effective for nonsegmental vitiligo, while excimer laser treatment is commonly used for localized vitiligo. However, treatment areas may potentially be missed with excimer laser treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effect of combinational treatment with NBUVB light and excimer laser on vitiligo. All patients were first treated with NBUVB; excimer laser was then applied in conjunction with NBUVB phototherapy due to a slow response or no further improvement with continuous NBUVB treatment alone. To minimize adverse effects, a fixed dose of NBUVB was administered, and the dose of excimer laser was increased based on patient response. Among 80 patients, 54 patients showed responses after combination with excimer laser; however, 26 patients (32.5%) showed no remarkable change after combination therapy. Of the 26 patients who showed no further response, 12 patients (46.1%) presented with vitiligo on the acral areas, which are known to the least responsive sites. Our study suggests that combined treatment of NBUVB and excimer laser in vitiligo may enhance the treatment response without remarkable side effects, therefore might also increase the compliance of the patients to the treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Calibration of a tunable excimer laser using the optogalvanic effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbitt, John D.

    1991-01-01

    A device for the calibration of a tunable excimer laser is currently under development. The laser provides UV radiation at three principal wavelengths, 193, 248, and 308 nm and is tunable over a range of 1 nm at each of these wavelengths. The laser is used as a non-intrusive optical probe to excite electronic transitions, and thereby induce fluorescence, of the principle molecules or atoms of interest in supersonic flowfields, both reacting and nonreacting. The fluorescence resulting from the excitation is observed with an intensified camera. Over the range of tunability at the three wavelengths are a number of transitions that can be observed. The intensity of the fluorescence depends in part on the local temperature and density. The nature of this thermodynamic dependence is variable among transitions; thus, identification of the transition under observation is required. The specific transition excited corresponds directly to the wavelength of the radiation. The present technique used for transition identification consists of scanning the laser across the range of tunability and observing the fluorescence resulting from various molecular transitions.

  4. Studies in fiber guided excimer laser surgery for cutting and drilling bone and meniscus.

    PubMed

    Dressel, M; Jahn, R; Neu, W; Jungbluth, K H

    1991-01-01

    Our experiments on transmitting high-power excimer laser pulses through optical fibers and our investigations on excimer laser ablation of hard tissue show the feasibility of using the excimer laser as an additional instrument in general and accident surgery involving minimal invasive surgery. By combining XeCl-excimer lasers and tapered fused silica fibers we obtained output fluences up to 32 J/cm2 and ablation rates of 3 microns/pulse of hard tissue. This enables us to cut bone and cartilage in a period of time which is suitable for clinical operations. Various experiments were carried out on cadavers in order to optimize the parameters of the excimer laser and fibers: e.g., wavelength, pulse duration, energy, repetition rate, fiber core diameter. The surfaces of the cut tissue are comparable to cuts with conventional instruments. No carbonisation was observed. The temperature increase is below 40 degrees C in the tissue surrounding the laser spot. The healing rate of an excimer laser cut is not slower than mechanical treatments; the quality is comparable.

  5. Excimer laser for the treatment of psoriasis: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Abrouk, Michael; Levin, Ethan; Brodsky, Merrick; Gandy, Jessica R; Nakamura, Mio; Zhu, Tian Hao; Farahnik, Benjamin; Koo, John; Bhutani, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 308 nm excimer laser is a widely used device throughout the field of dermatology for many diseases including psoriasis. Although the laser has demonstrated clinical efficacy, there is a lack of literature outlining the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the excimer laser. Methods A literature search on PubMed was used with combinations of the terms “excimer”, “excimer laser”, “308 nm”, “psoriasis”, “protocol”, “safety”, “efficacy”, acceptability”, “side effects”, and “dose”. The search results were included if they contained information pertaining to excimer laser and psoriasis treatment and description of the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the treatment. Results The 308 nm excimer laser is generally safe and well tolerated with minimal side effects including erythema, blistering, and pigmentary changes. It has a range of efficacies depending on the protocol used with several different treatment protocols, including the induration protocol, the minimal erythema dose protocol, and the newer minimal blistering dose protocol. Conclusion Although the excimer laser is not a first-line treatment, it remains an excellent treatment option for psoriasis patients and has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment with little to no side effects. PMID:29387603

  6. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  7. Photo-triggering and secondary electron produced ionization in electric discharge ArF* excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2011-10-01

    Electric discharge excimer lasers are sustained in multi-atmosphere attaching gas mixtures that are typically preionized to enable a reproducible, uniform glow, which maximizes optical quality and gain. This preionization is often accomplished using UV light produced by a corona discharge within the plasma cavity. To quantify the relationship between corona discharge properties and those of the laser discharge, the triggering of electron avalanche by preionizing UV light in an electric discharge-pumped ArF* excimer laser was numerically investigated using a two-dimensional model. The preionizing UV fluxes were generated by a corona-bar discharge driven by the same voltage pulse as the main discharge sustained in a multi-atmospheric Ne/Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture. The resulting peak photo-electron density in the inter-electrode spacing is around 108 cm-3, and its distribution is biased toward the UV source. The preionization density increases with increasing dielectric constant and capacitance of the corona bar. The symmetry and uniformity of the discharge are, however, improved significantly once the main avalanche develops. In addition to bulk electron impact ionization, the ionization generated by sheath accelerated secondary electrons was found to be important in sustaining the discharge current at experimentally observed values. At peak current, the magnitude of the ionization by sheath accelerated electrons is comparable to that from bulk electron impact in the vicinity of the cathode.

  8. 308-nm excimer laser ablation of human cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodoehl, John A.; Rhodes, Anthony L.; Meller, Menachem M.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1993-07-01

    The XeCl excimer laser was investigated as an ablating tool for human fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Quantitative measurements were made of tissue ablation rates as a function of fluence in meniscal fibrocartilage and articular hyaline cartilage. A force of 1.47 Newtons was applied to an 800 micrometers fiber with the laser delivering a range of fluences (40 to 190 mj/mm2) firing at a frequency of 5 Hz. To assess the effect of repetition rate on ablation rate, a set of measurements was made at a constant fluence of 60 mj/mm2, with the repetition rate varying from 10 to 40 Hz. Histologic and morphometric analysis was performed using light microscopy. The results of these studies revealed that the ablation rate was directly proportional to fluence over the range tested. Fibrocartilage was ablated at a rate 2.56 times faster than hyaline cartilage at the maximum fluence tested. Repetition rate had no effect on the penetration per pulse. Adjacent tissue damage was noted to be minimal (10 - 70 micrometers ).

  9. Investigation on gas medium parameters for an ArF excimer laser through orthogonal experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xingliang; Sha, Pengfei; Fan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, R.; Zhao, Jiangshan; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Junhong; Xiong, Guangliang; Wang, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Due to complex kinetics of formation and loss mechanisms, such as ion-ion recombination reaction, neutral species harpoon reaction, excited state quenching and photon absorption, as well as their interactions, the performance behavior of different laser gas medium parameters for excimer laser varies greatly. Therefore, the effects of gas composition and total gas pressure on excimer laser performance attract continual research studies. In this work, orthogonal experimental design (OED) is used to investigate quantitative and qualitative correlations between output laser energy characteristics and gas medium parameters for an ArF excimer laser with plano-plano optical resonator operation. Optimized output laser energy with good pulse to pulse stability can be obtained effectively by proper selection of the gas medium parameters, which makes the most of the ArF excimer laser device. Simple and efficient method for gas medium optimization is proposed and demonstrated experimentally, which provides a global and systematic solution. By detailed statistical analysis, the significance sequence of relevant parameter factors and the optimized composition for gas medium parameters are obtained. Compared with conventional route of varying single gas parameter factor sequentially, this paper presents a more comprehensive way of considering multivariables simultaneously, which seems promising in striking an appropriate balance among various complicated parameters for power scaling study of an excimer laser.

  10. Excimer-laser-induced shock wave and its dependence on atmospheric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Radzewicz, Czeslaw

    1993-06-01

    High speed shadow photography is performed on excimer laser ablated porcine corneas and rubber stoppers to capture the excimer laser induced shock waves at various time delays between 40 and 320 nanoseconds. The shock waves in air, nitrogen, and helium are recorded by tangentially illuminating the ablated surface with a tunable dye laser, the XeCl excimer laser pulse. The excimer laser ablates the specimen and excites the dye laser, which is then passed through an optical delay line before illuminating the specimen. The shadow of the shock wave produced during ablation is then cast on a screen and photographed with a CCD video camera. The system is pulsed at 30 times per second to allow a video recording of the shock wave at a fixed time delay. We conclude that high energy acoustic waves and gaseous particles are liberated during excimer laser corneal ablation, and dissipate on a submicrosecond time scale. The velocity of their dissipation is dependent on the atmospheric environment and can be increased two-fold when the ablation is performed in a helium atmosphere. Therefore, local temperature increases due to the liberation of high energy gases may be reduced by using helium during corneal photoablation.

  11. Average power scaling of UV excimer lasers drives flat panel display and lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Delmdahl, Ralph F.; Paetzel, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Average power scaling of 308nm excimer lasers has followed an evolutionary path over the last two decades driven by diverse industrial UV laser microprocessing markets. Recently, a new dual-oscillator and beam management concept for high-average power upscaling of excimer lasers has been realized, for the first time enabling as much as 1.2kW of stabilized UV-laser average output power at a UV wavelength of 308nm. The new dual-oscillator concept enables low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) fabrication to be extended to generation six glass substrates. This is essential in terms of a more economic high-volume manufacturing of flat panel displays for the soaring smartphone and tablet PC markets. Similarly, the cost-effective production of flexible displays is driven by 308nm excimer laser power scaling. Flexible displays have enormous commercial potential and can largely use the same production equipment as is used for rigid display manufacturing. Moreover, higher average output power of 308nm excimer lasers aids reducing measurement time and improving the signal-to-noise ratio in the worldwide network of high altitude Raman lidar stations. The availability of kW-class 308nm excimer lasers has the potential to take LIDAR backscattering signal strength and achievable altitude to new levels.

  12. Ablation algorithms and corneal asphericity in myopic correction with excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.; Yablokov, Michail G.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this work is studying a corneal asphericity change after a myopic refractive correction by mean of excimer lasers. As the ablation profile shape plays a key role in the post-op corneal asphericity, ablation profiles of recent lasers should be studied. The other task of this research was to analyze operation (LASIK) outcomes of one of the lasers with generic spherical ablation profile and to compare an asphericity change with theoretical predictions. The several correction methods, like custom generated aspherical profiles, may be utilized for mitigation of unwanted effects of asphericity change. Here we also present preliminary results of such correction for one of the excimer lasers.

  13. Treatment of alopecia areata with the 308-nm xenon chloride excimer laser: case report of two successful treatments with the excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Cuneyt; Greve, Bärbel; Raulin, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common disease of unknown etiology; it causes significant cosmetic and psycho-social distress for most of the people it affects. We report on an innovative form of treatment in two patients with typical alopecia areata on the capillitium. We successfully treated two patients whose alopecia areata had worsened progressively for 3 and 14 weeks. The treatment involved the use of a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser (dosage 300-2,300 mJ/cm(2) per session). After 11 and 12 sessions within a 9-week and 11-week period, the entire affected focus showed homogenous and thick regrowth. No relapse was observed during the follow-up period of 5 and 18 months. The use of the excimer laser is an effective, elegant, and safe means of treatment and has good tolerability. Analogous to topical treatment of alopecia areata, the immunosuppressive mechanism of the excimer laser can be interpreted as an induction of T-cell apoptosis. This new means of treatment has yet to be discussed in medical literature. Further studies with greater numbers are needed to assess its potential more precisely and evaluate the excimer laser in treating alopecia areata. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Excimer laser induced surface chemical modification of polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Révész, K.; Hopp, B.; Bor, Z.

    1997-02-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene has a notoriously non adhesive and non reactive character. Its successful surface photochemical modification was performed by irradiating the polytetrafluoroethylene/liquid triethylamine interface with an ArF excimer laser (λ=193 nm). Due to the photochemical treatment the polytetrafluoroethylene surface became more hydrophilic. The water receding contact angle decreased from 94° to 43°. The reaction cross section was determined from the decrease of the contact angles. It was found to be as high as 6.4×10-18 cm2. XPS measurements evidenced the removal of fluorine from the polytetrafluoroethylene, incorporation of alkyl carbon and nitrogen. Photochemical dissociation path of the triethylamine makes probable that it bonded to the fluoropolymer backbone via the α-carbon atom of an ethyl group. A radical, or a photoinduced electron transfer mechanism was suggested to describe this reaction. A selective area electroless plating of silver was performed after pretreating the sample with patterned photomodification. The increased adhesion of the sample was proved by gluing with epoxy resin. As a result of the surface modification the tensile strength of gluing increased by 210× and reached 24% of the value characteristic for the bulk material.

  15. Excimer laser debridement of necrotic erosions of skin without collateral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, James J.; Felsenstein, Jerome M.; Trzcinski, Robert; Zupanski-Nielsen, Donna; Connors, Daniel P.

    2011-07-01

    Pulsed ArF excimer laser radiation at 6.4 eV, at fluence exceeding the ablation threshold, will debride burn eschar and other dry necrotic erosions of the skin. Debridement will cease when sufficiently moist viable tissue is exposed, due to absorption by aqueous chloride ions (Cl-) through the non-thermal process of electron photodetachment, thereby inhibiting collateral damage to the viable tissue. ArF excimer laser radiation debrides/ablates ~1 micron of tissue with each pulse. While this provides great precision in controlling the depth of debridement, the process is relatively time-consuming. In contrast, XeCl excimer laser radiation debrides ~8 microns of tissue with each pulse. However the 4.0 eV photon energy of the XeCl excimer laser is insufficient to photodetach an electron from a Cl- ion, so blood or saline will not inhibit debridement. Consequently, a practical laser debridement system should incorporate both lasers, used in sequence. First, the XeCl excimer laser would be used for accelerated debridement. When the necrotic tissue is thinned to a predetermined thickness, the ArF excimer laser would be used for very precise and well-controlled debridement, removing ultra-thin layers of material with each pulse. Clearly, the use of the ArF laser is very desirable when debriding very close to the interface between necrotic tissue and viable tissue, where the overall speed of debridement need not be so rapid and collateral damage to viable tissue is undesirable. Such tissue will be sterile and ready for further treatment, such as a wound dressing and/or a skin graft.

  16. Laser-driven hydrothermal process studied with excimer laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariella, Raymond; Rubenchik, Alexander; Fong, Erika; Norton, Mary; Hollingsworth, William; Clarkson, James; Johnsen, Howard; Osborn, David L.

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we discovered [Mariella et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 014904 (2013)] that modest-fluence/modest-intensity 351-nm laser pulses, with insufficient fluence/intensity to ablate rock, mineral, or concrete samples via surface vaporization, still removed the surface material from water-submerged target samples with confinement of the removed material, and then dispersed at least some of the removed material into the water as a long-lived suspension of nanoparticles. We called this new process, which appears to include the generation of larger colorless particles, "laser-driven hydrothermal processing" (LDHP) [Mariella et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 014904 (2013)]. We, now, report that we have studied this process using 248-nm and 193-nm laser light on submerged concrete, quartzite, and obsidian, and, even though light at these wavelengths is more strongly absorbed than at 351 nm, we found that the overall efficiency of LDHP, in terms of the mass of the target removed per Joule of laser-pulse energy, is lower with 248-nm and 193-nm laser pulses than with 351-nm laser pulses. Given that stronger absorption creates higher peak surface temperatures for comparable laser fluence and intensity, it was surprising to observe reduced efficiencies for material removal. We also measured the nascent particle-size distributions that LDHP creates in the submerging water and found that they do not display the long tail towards larger particle sizes that we had observed when there had been a multi-week delay between experiments and the date of measuring the size distributions. This is consistent with transient dissolution of the solid surface, followed by diffusion-limited kinetics of nucleation and growth of particles from the resulting thin layer of supersaturated solution at the sample surface.

  17. Comparing laser induced plasmas formed in diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Markosyan, Aram H.

    Here, lasing on the D 1 transition (6 2P 1/2 → 6 2S 1/2) of cesium can be reached in both diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers. The first uses D 2 transition (6 2S 1/2 → 6 2P 3/2) for pumping, whereas the second is pumped by photoexcitation of ground state Cs-Ar collisional pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically-excited CsAr molecules (excimers). Despite lasing on the same D 1 transition, differences in pumping schemes enables chemical pathways and characteristic timescales unique for each system. We investigate unavoidable plasma formation during operation of both systems side by side inmore » Ar/C 2H 6/Cs.« less

  18. Comparing laser induced plasmas formed in diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Markosyan, Aram H.

    2018-01-05

    Here, lasing on the D 1 transition (6 2P 1/2 → 6 2S 1/2) of cesium can be reached in both diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers. The first uses D 2 transition (6 2S 1/2 → 6 2P 3/2) for pumping, whereas the second is pumped by photoexcitation of ground state Cs-Ar collisional pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically-excited CsAr molecules (excimers). Despite lasing on the same D 1 transition, differences in pumping schemes enables chemical pathways and characteristic timescales unique for each system. We investigate unavoidable plasma formation during operation of both systems side by side inmore » Ar/C 2H 6/Cs.« less

  19. Comparing laser induced plasmas formed in diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Aram H

    2018-01-08

    Lasing on the D 1 transition (6 2 P 1/2 → 6 2 S 1/2 ) of cesium can be reached in both diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers. The first uses D 2 transition (6 2 S 1/2 → 6 2 P 3/2 ) for pumping, whereas the second is pumped by photoexcitation of ground state Cs-Ar collisional pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically-excited CsAr molecules (excimers). Despite lasing on the same D 1 transition, differences in pumping schemes enables chemical pathways and characteristic timescales unique for each system. We investigate unavoidable plasma formation during operation of both systems side by side in Ar/C 2 H 6 /Cs.

  20. Physical and optical limitations using ArF-excimer and Er:YAG lasers for PRK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semchishen, Vladimir A.; Mrochen, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    1998-06-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser emitting at a wavelength of 2,94 micrometer have been promised as an alternative laser for the ArF-excimer laser (193 nm) in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). This report discusses the limitations of laser parameters such as wavelength, energy density and pulse duration for the ablation of the cornea. In addition, the melting process during ablation on the corneal surface roughness may play a role.

  1. Excimer laser annealing: A gold process for CZ silicon junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William R.; Byron, Stanley; Alexander, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A cold process using an excimer laser for junction formation in silicon has been evaluated as a way to avoid problems associated with thermal diffusion. Conventional thermal diffusion can cause bulk precipitation of SiOx and SiC or fail to completely activate the dopant, leaving a degenerate layer at the surface. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of fabricating high quality p-n junctions using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation at remelt temperature with ion-implanted surfaces. Solar-cell efficiency exceeding 16 percent was obtained using Czochralski single-crystal silicon without benefit of back surface field or surface passivation. Characterization shows that the formation of uniform, shallow junctions (approximately 0.25 micron) by excimer laser scanning preserves the minority carrier lifetime that leads to high current collection. However, the process is sensitive to initial surface conditions and handling parameters that drive the cost up.

  2. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia: preliminary results at one year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Keith P.; Waring, George O., III; Steinert, Roger; Durrie, Daniel S.; Gordon, Michael; Brint, Stephen F.

    1992-08-01

    Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is presently under investigation for the correction of myopia. Two companies in the United States, Summit Technology (Waltham, Mass.) and VisX, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.) have developed excimer laser delivery systems and are participating in an FDA study to determine the safety and efficacy of PRK. This is a preliminary report on the refractive and visual results of 51 of 100 eyes treated between October 10, 1990 and March 7, 1991 by the Summit Technology UV200LA excimer laser under the FDA Phase IIB FDA protocol one year after surgery. More detailed information on eight patients treated at Emory University Eye Center (Emory Subgroup) is also reported.

  3. [The 308 nm Excimer laser for the treatment of psoriasis and inflammatory skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Fritz, K; Salavastru, C

    2018-01-01

    Overall, the 308 nm Excimer laser enables not only a more effective and safer UVB therapy than classical UV phototherapy, but also targeted irradiation in higher doses with a lower cumulative load, which results in faster healing of mainly circumscribed skin changes. This also applies to therapy-resistant residual lesions which, despite systemic therapy, did not diminish. Combination therapies usually improve the result and enable the dose of UVB and systemic medication to be reduced. Excimer laser therapy can be used for an increasing number of skin diseases, especially those that respond to phototherapy or photochemotherapy.

  4. Bragg reflector based gate stack architecture for process integration of excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L.; Cuscunà, M.; Privitera, V.; La Magna, A.; Spinella, C.; Magrı, A.; Camalleri, M.; Salinas, D.; Simon, F.; Svensson, B.; Monakhov, E.

    2006-12-01

    An advanced gate stack structure, which incorporates a Bragg reflector, has been developed for the integration of excimer laser annealing into the power metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor fabrication process. This advanced gate structure effectively protects the gate stack from melting, thus solving the problem related to protrusion formation. By using this gate stack configuration, power MOS transistors were fabricated with improved electrical characteristics. The Bragg reflector based gate stack architecture can be applied to other device structures, such as scaled MOS transistors, thus extending the possibilities of process integration of excimer laser annealing.

  5. A review of protocols for 308 nm excimer laser phototherapy in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Mudigonda, Tejaswi; Dabade, Tushar S; Feldman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    308 nm excimer laser phototherapy is efficacious in the treatment of localized psoriasis. Different approaches regarding dose fluency, number of treatments, and maintenance have been utilized, and there is yet to be a consensus on standard protocol. To characterize treatment parameters for 308 nm excimer laser phototherapy. We performed a PubMed search for studies describing excimer laser treatment protocol with particular attention to dosage determination, dose adjustment, dose fluency, number of treatments, and maintenance. Seven prospective studies were found describing the excimer efficacy for psoriasis. All studies determined the initial treatment dose using either the minimal erythema dose (MED) or induration. Fluency ranged from 0.5 MED (low) to 16 MED (high); one study demonstrated that medium to high fluencies yielded better improvement in fewer number of treatments. Fluency adjustments during the course of treatment were important to minimize phototherapy-associated side effects. The use of higher fluencies was reported to result in higher occurrences of blistering. One study implemented a maintenance tapering of dose-frequency phase to better manage psoriasis flare-ups. The 308 nm excimer laser is an effective therapy for psoriasis regardless of the method used to determine initial dosage, dose fluency, or number of treatments. As its usage as a targeted monotherapy increases, future trials should consider evaluating and modifying these parameters to determine the most optimal management of localized psoriasis. Based on our reviewed studies, there is no consensus for a single excimer laser therapy protocol and as a result, patient preferences should continue to be an important consideration for phototherapy regimen planning.

  6. Effect of a 308-nm excimer laser on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Taek; Kwon, Tae-Rin; Seok, Joon; Choi, Eun Ja; Kim, Soon Re; Jang, Yu-Jin; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sungeun; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Myeung Nam; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease that can affect all age groups. It has a relapsing course, which dramatically affects the quality of life of patients. A 308-nm excimer laser has been reported to be a safe and effective treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, although the range of potential application has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a 308-nm laser on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Dermatophagoides farinae-exposed NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 12 were treated with either a 308-nm excimer laser or narrowband-UVB (NB-UVB). The effects of the 308-nm excimer laser were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, including IgE and Th2-mediated cytokines. The 308-nm excimer laser significantly reduced the severity of skin lesions and decreased the total serum levels of IgE and Th2-mediated cytokines. The excimer laser also significantly reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into AD-induced skin lesions. Moreover, treatment with the 308-nm excimer laser led to recovery of skin barrier function in AD-induced skin lesions. The 308-nm excimer laser can be considered a valid and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of localized AD. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:629-637, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. ArF excimer laser debrides burns without destruction of viable tissue: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Atulya; Sawicka, Katarzyna M; Pablo, Kelly B; Macri, Lauren K; Felsenstein, Jerome; Wynne, James J; Clark, Richard A F

    2018-05-01

    Recent evidence indicates that early removal of eschar by tangential debridement can promote healing. Laser debridement can be used for debridement of areas that prove challenging for debridement using tangential excision. In particular, irradiation with an ArF excimer laser ablates desiccated eschar and is self-terminating, preserving hydrated or viable tissue. Thermal burns were created on the flanks of two outbred, female Yorkshire pigs using aluminum bars heated to 70°C and applied for different lengths of time. Three days after injury, burns were debrided using an ArF excimer laser (193nm). Tissue was harvested immediately after debridement and 7days after debridement (10days after burn). Data from a pilot study demonstrates that ArF excimer laser irradiation removes burn eschar and promotes healing at 10days after burn. ArF excimer laser debridement is self-terminating and preserves underlying and adjacent perfused tissue. Potentially, this modality would be ideal for the complex curvilinear structures of the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Excimer laser therapy and narrowband ultraviolet B therapy for exfoliative cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Bhavnit K; Bahr, Brooks A; Murase, Jenny E

    2015-06-01

    Exfoliative cheilitis is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by hyperkeratosis and scaling of vermilion epithelium with cyclic desquamation. It remains largely refractory to treatment, including corticosteroid therapy, antibiotics, antifungals, and immunosuppressants. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of excimer laser therapy and narrowband ultraviolet B therapy in female patients with refractory exfoliative cheilitis. We reviewed the medical records of two female patients who had been treated unsuccessfully for exfoliative cheilitis. We implemented excimer laser therapy, followed by hand-held narrowband UVB treatments for maintenance therapy, and followed them for clinical improvement and adverse effects. Both patients experienced significant clinical improvement with minimal adverse effects with excimer laser therapy 600-700 mJ/cm 2 twice weekly for several months. The most common adverse effects were bleeding and burning, which occurred at higher doses. The hand-held narrowband UVB unit was also an effective maintenance tool. Limitations include small sample size and lack of standardization of starting dose and dose increments. Excimer laser therapy is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for refractory exfoliative cheilitis with twice weekly laser treatments of up to 700 mJ/cm 2 . Transitioning to the hand-held narrowband UVB device was also an effective maintenance strategy.

  9. A comparative study of corneal incisions induced by diamond and steel knives and two ultraviolet radiations from an excimer laser.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J; Trokel, S; Rothery, S; Krueger, R R

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential role of excimer lasers in corneal surgery. The morphology of incisions induced by two wavelengths of excimer laser radiation, 193 nm and 248 nm, are compared with the morphology of incisions produced by diamond and steel knives. Analysis suggests that ablation induced by excimer laser results from highly localised photochemical reactions and that 193 nm is the optimal wavelength for surgery. The only significant complication of laser surgery is loss of endothelial cells when incisions are within 40 micron of Descemet's membrane. Images PMID:3013283

  10. Formation of short high-power laser radiation pulses in excimer mediums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losev, V. F., Sr.; Ivanov, N. G.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2007-06-01

    Presently an excimer mediums continue are examined as one of variants for formation of powerful and over powerful pulses of laser radiation with duration from units of nanosecond up to tens femtosecond. The researches on such powerful installations as "NIKE" (USA) and << SUPER ASHURA >>, Japan) proceed in this direction. The main advantage of excimer mediums is the opportunity to work in a frequency mode, absence of restriction on the size of active area, high uniformity of a gas working medium, high efficiency (up to 10 %) and wide spectral range of laser radiation (KrF, XeCl ~ 2nm, XeF (C-A), Xe IICl ~ 50-100 nanometers). Research in area of high quality laser beams formation in excimer mediums and its amplification in high power amplifiers are carried out the long time in Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia. The wide aperture XeCl laser system of MELS-4k is used for these investigations. Last time we take part in program on development of high power excimer laser system with a petawatt level of power. This system supposes the formation and amplification high quality laser beams with different pulse duration from units of nanosecond up to tens femtosecond. We research the possibility of laser beams formation in excimer mediums with ps-ns pulse duration having the low noise and divergence near to diffraction limit. In other hand, we are developing the wide aperture XeF(C-A) amplifier with optical pump on base electron accelerator. According to our estimations of the XeF(C-A) amplifier based on the converter of e-beam energy to the Xe II* fluorescence at 172 nm will allow to obtain up to 100 TW peak power in a 30 fs pulse.

  11. Collagen crosslinking for ectasia following PRK performed in excimer laser-assisted keratoplasty for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Spadea, Leopoldo

    2012-01-01

    To report the results of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) in a patient with corneal ectasia developed after excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus and a secondary photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for residual refractive error. A 33-year-old woman, who had originally been treated for keratoconus in the right eye by excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty, subsequently had her residual ametropia treated by topographically guided, transepithelial excimer laser PRK. Five years after PRK, the patient developed corneal ectasia showing concomitant visual changes of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) reduced to 20/33 with a refraction of -6.00 +6.00 × 30. The minimum corneal thickness at the ectasia apex was 406 µm. A treatment of riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal CXL was performed on the right eye. Two years after the CXL treatment, the right eye improved to 20/20 BSCVA with a refraction of plano +1.00 × 50 while exhibiting a clear lamellar graft. Corneal CXL provided safe and effective management of ectasia developed after excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty and PRK.

  12. Spectrally narrowed lasing of a self-injection KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Yasuhiro; Wani, Koichi; Miki, Tadaaki; Kawahara, Hidehito; Mimasu, Mutsumi; Ogata, Yoshiro

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally nantwed lasing of a KrF excimer laser has teen ahieved by a self-injection technique using abeam splitter for power extraction aixi intravity etalons for spectral-narrowing. The laser cavity is divithi into an amplifying branch aix! a spectralnarrowing branch. The spectral bandwidth was narrowed to <3pm FWHM with air-sed etalons placed in the spectral-narrowing branch. A laser propagation model was intrOdUced for describing the laser intensity traveling in the laser cavity. The calculated intensityincident onthe intracavityetalons wassmaller thanthat in theconventional Fabry-Perotcavity withplane-parallel mirrors.

  13. Electronic-beam analysis of excimer lasers used for photorefractive keratotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, Carlos B.

    1998-07-01

    Excimer lasers are an excellent instrument for performing photorefractive keratotomy, PRK. The UV light from the laser causes an ablation of the cornea in proportion to the intensity of the light. The primary characteristic essential to successful PRK is the uniformity of the Top Hat, or working portion of the laser beam. In order for this intensity profile to be sufficiently uniform for PRK, it is essential to periodically measure the equality of the laser beam profile. This ensures that the laser continues to operate properly and provide the expected performance.

  14. A design of energy detector for ArF excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zebin; Han, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Yi; Bai, Lujun

    2017-08-01

    ArF excimer lasers with short wavelength and high photon energy are widely applied in the field of integrated circuit lithography, material processing, laser medicine, and so on. Excimer laser single pulse energy is a very important parameter in the application. In order to detect the single pulse energy on-line, one energy detector based on photodiode was designed. The signal processing circuit connected to the photodiode was designed so that the signal obtained by the photodiode was amplified and the pulse width was broadened. The amplified signal was acquired by a data acquisition card and stored in the computer for subsequent data processing. The peak of the pulse signal is used to characterize the single pulse energy of ArF excimer laser. In every condition of deferent pulse energy value levels, a series of data about laser pulses energy were acquired synchronously using the Ophir energy meter and the energy detector. A data set about the relationship between laser pulse energy and the peak of the pulse signal was acquired. Then, by using the data acquired, a model characterizing the functional relationship between the energy value and the peak value of the pulse was trained based on an algorithm of machine learning, Support Vector Regression (SVR). By using the model, the energy value can be obtained directly from the energy detector designed in this project. The result shows that the relative error between the energy obtained by the energy detector and by the Ophir energy meter is less than 2%.

  15. Corneal limbal marking in the treatment of myopic astigmatism with the excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Celine; Zuberbuhler, Bruno; Goggin, Michael; Esterman, Adrian; Schipper, Isaak

    2010-07-01

    To determine whether preoperative marking of the limbal cornea improves treatment of myopic astigmatism with the excimer laser. Retrospective study on 108 eyes with myopic astigmatism that underwent LASIK or laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) with the Technolas 217 (Bausch & Lomb) excimer laser. Preoperative limbal marking was performed in 47 eyes (marked group). The 12-month results were used for refractive and visual analysis. The achieved cylinder reduction, spherical reduction, and refractive predictability were similar for the marked and unmarked groups in the overall study collective, in the LASIK and LASEK subgroup analysis, and in a higher astigmatism (> 1.25 diopters) subgroup analysis. Limbal marking showed no influence on the refractive results, and vector analysis showed no significant difference in angle of error among groups. Corneal limbal marking failed to improve the refractive outcome in LASIK and LASEK for myopic astigmatism.

  16. Characterization of absorption and degradation on optical components for high power excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.; Eva, E.; Granitza, B.

    1996-12-31

    At Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen, the performance of UV optical components for high power excimer lasers is characterized, aiming to employ testing procedures that meet industrial conditions, i.e. very high pulse numbers and repetition rates. Measurements include determination of single and multiple pulse damage thresholds, absorption loss and degradation of optical properties under long-term irradiation. Absorption of excimer laser pulses is investigated by a calorimetric technique which provides greatly enhanced sensitivity compared to transmissive measurements. Thus, it allows determining both single and two photon absorption coefficients at intensities of standard excimer lasers. Results of absorption measurements at 248nm are presented for baremore » substrates (CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, z-cut quartz and fused silica). UV calorimetry is also employed to investigate laser induced aging phenomena, e.g. color center formation in fused silica. A separation of transient and cumulative effects as a function of intensity is achieved, giving insight into various loss mechanisms.« less

  17. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  18. Clinical efficacy of flumetasone/salicylic acid ointment combined with 308-nm excimer laser for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; He, Yanling; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Yixuan; Tian, Yongjing; Wang, Jie

    2012-06-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of combining flumetasone ointment with 308-nm excimer laser therapy vs. 308-nm excimer laser monotherapy for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Forty patients with psoriasis vulgaris were recruited; 20 were treated with flumetasone ointment plus 308-nm excimer laser therapy, and the other 20 received only excimer laser monotherapy. The flumetasone ointment was applied topically twice a day, and laser treatments were scheduled twice weekly for a total of 10 treatments. Clinical efficacy was evaluated in a blinded manner by two independent physicians using photographs taken before and after treatment. Of the 40 patients who received and completed the entire course of therapy, the psoriasis area and severity index score was improved by 82.51 ± 11.24% and 72.01 ± 20.94% in the combination group and laser group, respectively (P > 0.05), and the average cumulative dose was 5.06 ± 2.20 j/cm(2) in the combination group and 7.75 ± 2.25 j/cm(2) in the laser-only group, respectively (P < 0.05). The clinical data suggest that combination treatment using flumetasone ointment and a 308-nm excimer laser is superior to laser monotherapy for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. The combination therapy can increase effectiveness and decrease the total laser dose, thus potentially reducing side effects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata in children.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common skin disease which is characterized by nonscarring localized or diffused hair loss. In this study we assessed the efficacy of 308-nm Excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata in children. A total of 9 children with 30 recalcitrant patches alopecia areata and two children with alopecia areata totalis were enrolled in this study which included seven male and four female patients, aged between 4 and 14 years and the durations of their disease were between 7 and 25 months. All of these patients had more than one lesion of alopecia areata and at least one of them was left as a control for comparison. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm Excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks. Regrowth of hair was observed in 18 (60%) alopecia patches in the scalp, while there was no response in the control patches and over the extremities. Only four patients with scalp lesions showed a recurrence of alopecia after 6 months post laser therapy. So, 308-nm Excimer laser is considered an effective safe therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata in children.

  20. Determination of excimer laser ablation rate of the human cornea using in vivo Scheimpflug videography.

    PubMed

    Huebscher, H J; Genth, U; Seiler, T

    1996-01-01

    To determine in vivo the amount of human corneal tissue removed by each excimer laser pulse, the so-called ablation rate, during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). There is confusion in the literature because the experimentally determined ablation rate of 0.4 to 0.5 microns per pulse differs from the nominal ablation rate of 0.23 to 0.3 microns per pulse, which is the value used in clinical procedures. Eleven eyes of 11 patients were treated with PRK for correction of myopia. The corneal curvature was determined by Scheimpflug videography before and immediately after surgery. Starting from this curvature change, the authors calculated the real ablation rate. The real ablation rate is coincident with the nominal ablation rate and differs significantly from the ablation rate derived from deep keratectomy experiments. The outer layers of the cornea show significantly different ablation behavior than the deeper stroma. This information has clinical relevance for the predictability of intrastromal excimer laser procedures.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of excimer laser treated alumina films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, D. G.; Kolev, K.; Laude, L. D.; Mednikarov, B.; Starbov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous alumina layers are deposited on a single crystal Si substrate by a e-gun evaporation technique. These films are then thermally annealed in oxygen to be crystallized and, further, irradiated with an excimer laser beam. At each stage of the film preparation, an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis is performed at the film surface and in depth, upon ion beam grinding. Results give evidence for the formation of an aluminosilicate upon thermal annealing of the film in oxygen. At the surface itself, this compound is observed to decompose upon excimer laser irradiation at energy densities exceeding 1.75 J/cm2, giving rise to free Si atoms and SiO2, however with complete disappearance of Al atoms. Model photochemical reactions are proposed to explain such transformations.

  2. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy for shield ulcers and corneal plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J A; Antonios, S R; Badr, I A

    1995-01-01

    Shield-shaped corneal ulcers and corneal plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with delayed epithelial healing, as well as the risks of infectious keratitis and sterile stromal ulceration. Significant visual impairment due to scarring and irregular astigmatism may result from central corneal lesions. Three eyes with central corneal lesions resulting from vernal keratoconjunctivitis were treated by excimer laser after active vernal keratoconjunctivitis was controlled and inflammatory plaque overlying the shield ulcers was removed. All three eyes showed rapid reepithelialization within 1 week. Spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/30 or better was obtained in each eye. In selected patients, excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of shield-shaped corneal ulcers and plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

  3. Clinical results of PRK touch-up using Chiron/Technolas Keracor 116 excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidian, Mary E.; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    Regression of effect as well as undercorrection are well established complications of excimer photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia. In thirteen eyes initially treated with the VISX Taunton excimer laser and then retreated with the Chiron Technolas laser, the minimum follow-up time was six months. The mean postoperative refraction at six months was -0.442 +/- 0.996 D (diopters), significantly different from the pretreatment mean of -1.904 +/- 1.297 D. At six months after retreatment (10/13 eyes) 76.9% had an uncorrected visual acuity greater than or equal to 20/40 and (10/13 eyes) 76.9% were within 1 diopter of emmetropia. Only one eye had a significant increase in postoperative haze. The results of this study indicate that the majority of photorefractive keratectomy regressions and undercorrections can be successfully retreated.

  4. New Class of Excimer-Pumped Atomic Lasers (XPALS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-27

    quantum efficiency greater thnn one, has been demonstrated. We believe this laser to represent a breakthrough in laser technology because the system...navy.mil Prepared by J. G. Eden and A. E. Mironov Laboratory For Optical Physics and Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...viability of an atomic laser having a quantum efficiency greater than one. We believe this laser to represent a breakthrough in laser technology

  5. Improved model for the angular dependence of excimer laser ablation rates in polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedder, J. E. A.; Holmes, A. S.; Dyer, P. E.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of the angle-dependent ablation rates of polymers that have applications in microdevice fabrication are reported. A simple model based on Beer's law, including plume absorption, is shown to give good agreement with the experimental findings for polycarbonate and SU8, ablated using the 193 and 248 nm excimer lasers, respectively. The modeling forms a useful tool for designing masks needed to fabricate complex surface relief by ablation.

  6. Effective treatment of etanercept and phototherapy-resistant psoriasis using the excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Park, Kelly K; Swan, James; Koo, John

    2012-03-15

    Treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis often requires the use of phototherapy or systemic therapy, which includes immunosuppressants, retinoids, and biologic agents. Although biologic use is becoming increasingly popular, it is not uncommon for patients to experience treatment failure. We describe a patient who had a suboptimal response to etanercept monotherapy after twelve weeks of induction dosing (50 mg twice weekly), as well as to a combination of etanercept (50 mg once weekly-maintenance dosing) and narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy three times weekly for an additional twelve weeks. Noticeable improvement was noted after the addition of NB-UVB and the patient's promising response to phototherapy influenced further management. Etanercept and NB-UVB were discontinued and the patient was initiated on excimer laser treatments twice weekly. After 4 weeks, the patient had a 75 percent reduction in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score and after 7 weeks had over 95 percent clearance of psoriasis. The unique properties of the excimer laser may account for its clinical efficacy in our patient as well as in other cases of recalcitrant psoriasis. We propose that the excimer laser be considered in cases of biologic or conventional phototherapy failure in addition to being a standard treatment option or adjunct for the treatment of psoriasis.

  7. LASIK for myopia and astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser: an international multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Maria Clara; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Barraquer, Carmen; Carones, Francesco; Feuermannova, Alena; Neuhann, Tobias; Rozsival, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    To assess the efficacy, predictability, and safety of LASIK for the surgical correction of low to moderate myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. Six international study sites enrolled 358 eyes with a manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) from -0.50 to -7.38 diopters (D) (mean sphere: -3.13+/-1.58 D) with up to -5.00 D of astigmatism (mean: -0.69+/-0.67 D). All eyes underwent treatment with the nonwavefront-guided aspheric algorithm of the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. All eyes were targeted for emmetropia. Refractive outcomes and corneal higher order aberrations were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Visual quality was assessed using photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity. Six-month postoperative outcomes are reported. At 6 months postoperative, the MRSE for all eyes was -0.21+/-0.20 D, and 96% (343/358) of eyes had MRSE within +/-0.50 D. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 98% (351/358) of eyes, and no eyes lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. The total corneal higher order aberrations root-mean-square increased by 0.09 microm, spherical aberration increased by 0.08 microm, and coma increased by 0.04 microm postoperatively. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity did not change 6 months postoperatively. Treatment of myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser is safe, efficacious, predictable, and maintains visual quality.

  8. Precision drilling of fused silica with 157-nm excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Thorsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kulik, Christian; Meyer, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    μFor drilling fused silica, mechanical techniques like with diamond drills, ultrasonic machining, sand blasting or water jet machining are used. Also chemical techniques like laser assisted wet etching or thermal drilling with CO2-lasers are established. As an extension of these technologies, the drilling of micro-holes in fused silica with VUV laser radiation is presented here. The high absorption of the 157 nm radiation emitted by the F2 excimer laser and the short pulse duration lead to a material ablation with minimised impact on the surrounding material. Contrary to CO2-laser drilling, a molten and solidified phase around the bore can thus be avoided. The high photon energy of 7.9 eV requires either high purity nitrogen flushing or operation in vacuum, which also effects the processing results. Depending on the required precision, the laser can be used for percussion drilling as well as for excimer laser trepanning, by applying rotating masks. Rotating masks are especially used for high aspect ratio drilling with well defined edges and minimised debris. The technology is suitable particularly for holes with a diameter below 200 μm down to some microns in substrates with less than 200 μm thickness, that can not be achieved with mechanical methods. Drilling times in 200 μm fused silica substrates are in the range of ten seconds, which is sufficient to compete with conventional methods while providing similar or even better accuracy.

  9. Composition of the excimer laser-induced plume produced during LASIK refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Liu, Yun; Mayo, George L.; Baribeau, Alan D.; Starck, Tomy; Bankhead, Tom

    2003-07-01

    Because of concerns about potential hazards to surgical personnel of the plume associated with laser refractive surgery, this study was performed to characterize the composition of such plumes. Filter elements were removed from the smoke evacuator of a VISX S3 excimer laser (filter pore size ~0.3 microns) and from a Mastel Clean Room ( filter pore size ~0.2 microns) used with a LADARVISION excimer laser. The filters from both laser systems captured the laser-induced plumes from multiple, routine, LASIK patient procedures. Some filters were processed for scanning electron microscopy, while others were extracted with methanol and chloroform for biochemical analysis. Both the VISX "Final Air" filter and the Mastel "Clean Room" filter captured material that was not observed in filters that had clean operating room air only passed through them. In the VISX system, air flows through the filter unit parallel to the filter matrix. SEM analysis showed these filters captured discrete particles of 0.3 to 3.0 microns in size. In the Mastel Clean Room unit, air flows orthogonally through the filter, and the filter matrix was heavily layered with captured debris so that individual particles were not readily distinguished. Amino acid analysis and gel electrophoresis of extracted material revealed proteinaceous molecules as large as 5000 molecular weight. Such large molecules in the laser plume are not predicted by the existing theory of photochemical ablation. The presence of relatively large biomolecules may constitute a risk of allergenic reactions in personnel exposed to the plume, and also calls into question the precise mechanism of excimer laser photochemical ablation. Supported by the RMG Research Endowment, and Research to Prevent Blindness

  10. Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Cheng, Tsarng-Sheng; Pitz, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A narrow-band tunable KrF excimer laser is used as a spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering source to demonstrate that single-pulse concentration and temperature measurements, with only minimal fluorescence interference, are possible for all major species (O2, N2, H2O, and H2) at all stoichiometries (fuel-lean to fuel rich) of H2-air flames. Photon-statistics-limited precisions in these instantaneous and spatially resolved single-pulse measurements are typically 5 percent, which are based on the relative standard deviations of single-pulse probability distributions. In addition to the single-pulse N2 Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio temperature measurement technique, a time-averaged temperature measurement technique is presented that matches the N2 Stokes Raman spectrum to theoretical spectra by using a single intermediate state frequency to account for near-resonance enhancement. Raman flame spectra in CH4-air flames are presented that have good signal-to-noise characteristics and show promise for single-pulse UV Raman measurements in hydrocarbon flames.

  11. Wavelength Dependence of Excimer Laser Irradiation Effects on Ethylene-Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuji; Kawanishi, Shunichi; Nishii, Masanobu; Sugimoto, Shun'ichi; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    1994-08-01

    Irradiation with an ArF laser at wavelength of 193 nm formed diene in a whole ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE) film and irradiation with a KrF and a XeCl laser at 248 and 308 nm induced the carbonization of ETFE. ArF-laser radiation at 193 nm formed diene in the bulk of ETFE via the process of single-photon absorption, and in case of KrF and XeCl-laser irradiation multiphoton absorption brought about the carbonization of ETFE. The surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that excimer laser-induced elimination of fluorine atoms depended on the laser wavelength.

  12. Excimer laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Adrian; Martinović, Zeljka Karaman; Kalauz, Miro

    2012-06-01

    The broad acceptance of "spot scanning" or "flying spot" excimer lasers in the last decade has enabled the domination of corneal ablative laser surgery over other refractive surgical procedures for the correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism. This review outlines the most important reasons why the ablative laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism for many years lagged behind that of myopia. Most of today's scanning laser systems, used in the LASIK and PRK procedures, can safely and effectively perform low, moderate and high hyperopic and hyperopic astigmatic corrections. The introduction of these laser platforms has also significantly improved the long term refractive stability of hyperopic treatments. In the future, further improvements in femtosecond and nanosecond technology, eye-tracker systems, and the development of new customized algorithms, such as the ray-tracing method, could additionally increase the upper limit for the safe and predictable corneal ablative laser correction ofhyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism.

  13. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of vascular obstruction

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1984-01-09

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290 to 400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. 2 figures.

  14. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290-400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area.

  15. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1985-02-19

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290 to 400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area. 6 figs.

  16. Pulse Repetition Frequency Effects In A High Average Power X-Ray Preionised Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Bernard L.; Forestier, Bernard M.; Delaporte, Philippe C.; Canarelli, Patrick

    1989-10-01

    Experimental study of waves damping in a high repetition rate excimer laser is undertaken. Excitation of laser active medium in a subsonic loop is achieved by means of a classical discharge, through transfer capacitors. The discharge stability is controlled by a wire ion plasma (w.i.p.) X-rays gun. The strong acoustic waves induced by the active medium excitation may lead to a decrease, at high PRF, of the energy per pulse. First results of the influence of a damping of induced density perturbations between two successive pulses are presented.

  17. The influence of ArF excimer laser micromachining on physicochemical properties of bioresorbable poly(L-lactide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepak, Bogusz D.; Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Szustakiewicz, Konrad; Pezowicz, Celina; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2016-03-01

    The main advantage of laser processing is a non-contact character of material removal and high precision attainable thanks to low laser beam dimensions. This technique enables forming a complex, submillimeter geometrical shapes such as vascular stents which cannot be manufactured using traditional techniques e.g. injection moulding or mechanical treatment. In the domain of nanosecond laser sources, an ArF excimer laser appears as a good candidate for laser micromachining of bioresorbable polymers such as poly(L-lactide). Due to long pulse duration, however, there is a risk of heat diffusion and accumulation in the material. In addition, due to short wavelength (193 nm) photochemical process can modify the chemical composition of ablated surfaces. The motivation for this research was to evaluate the influence of laser micromachining on physicochemical properties of poly(L-lactide). We performed calorimetric analysis of laser machined samples by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It allowed us to find the optimal process parameters for heat affected zone (HAZ) reduction. The chemical composition of the ablated surface was investigated by FTIR in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode.

  18. Excimer laser annealing of NiTi shape memory alloy thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiong; Huang, Weimin; Hong, Ming Hui; Song, Wendong; Chong, Tow Chong

    2003-02-01

    NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is with great potential for actuation in microsystems. It is particularly suitable for medical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility. In MEMS, local annealing of SMA is required in the process of fabrication. In this paper, local annealing of Ni52Ti48 SMA with excimer laser is proposed for the first time. The Ni52Ti48 thin film in a thickness of 5 μm was deposited on Si (100) wafer by sputtering at room temperature. After that, the thin film was annealed by excimer laser (248nm KrF laser) for the first time. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the surface profile of the deposited film after laser annealing. The phase transformation was measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) test. It is concluded that NiTi film sputtering on Si(100) substrate at room temperature possesses phase transformation after local laser annealing but with cracks.

  19. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configurationmore » with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.« less

  20. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Benerji, N S; Singh, A; Varshnay, N; Singh, Bijendra

    2015-07-01

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  1. Endothelial reaction to perforating and non-perforating excimer laser excisions in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W.; Lang, G.K.; Naumann, G.O.

    1991-05-01

    With an ArF excimer laser (193 nm, 750 mJ/cm2, 20 Hz) and a special slit-mask system, perforating and non-perforating linear keratectomies were performed in 55 rabbit corneas with a follow-up from 1 hour to 6 months. Varying the pulse number according to ablation rate (0.8 micron/pulse) and corneal thickness, four linear radial excisions (3 mm length, 70 microns width) of increasing depth (70%, 80%, 90%, 100% perforation) were produced. The corneas were processed for light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and vital staining of the endothelium. Except for mild cell contact alterations and discrete single cell damage in themore » 90% deep excisions, no endothelial damage could be detected after non-perforating keratectomies. Minute (less than 20 microns) and small (20 to 100 microns maximal diameter) perforations induced cell enlargement, formation of pseudopodia, rosette-like figures, multi-nucleated giant cells, and ultimately uniform reformation of the cell pattern (1 hour to 7 days postoperatively). Larger excimer laser defects of Descemet's membrane (greater than 100 microns) were overgrown by dedifferentiated endothelial cells producing a new PAS-positive basement membrane. Vital staining revealed the complete and stable reorganization of the endothelium over these lesions within 6 months. The authors observations are similar to those reported on the endothelial repair process following other surgical manipulations (knife incisions, direct Nd:YAG-laser trauma) and support the applicability of excimer lasers for corneal trephination in patients.« less

  2. [Surface modifications of titanium implant material with excimer laser for more effective osseointegration].

    PubMed

    Pelsoczi, Kovács István; Bereznai, Miklós; Tóth, Zsolt; Turzó, Kinga; Radnai, Márta; Bor, Zsolt; Fazekas, András

    2004-12-01

    The biointegration of dental and orthopaedic implants depends mainly on the morphology and physical-chemical properties of their surfaces. Accordingly, the development of the desired microstructure is a relevant requirement in the bulk manufacture. Besides the widely used sandblasting plus acid etching and plasma-spray coating techniques, the laser surface modification method offers a plausible alternative. In order to analyze the influence of the laser treatment, the surfaces of titanium samples were exposed to excimer laser irradiation. The aim of this study was to develop surfaces that provide optimal conditions for bone-implant contact, bone growth, formation and maintenance of gingival attachment. For this purpose, holes were ablated on the surface of samples by nanosecond (18 ns, ArF) and also sub-picosecond (0,5 ps, KrF) laser pulses. Using pulses of ns length, due to melt ejection, crown-like protrusions were formed at the border of the holes, which made them sensitive to mechanical effects. To avoid these undesirable crown-like structures ultrashort KrF excimer laser pulses were successfully applied. On the other hand, titanium samples were laser-polished in favour of formation and connection of healthy soft tissues. Irradiation by a series of nanosecond laser pulses resulted in an effective smoothening as detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM). By inhibiting plaque accumulation this favours formation of gingival attachment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that laser treatment, in addition to micro-structural and morphological modification, results in decreasing of surface contamination and thickening of the oxide layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the original alpha-titanium crystalline structure of the laser-polished titanium surface was not altered by the irradiation.

  3. Cleaning of optical surfaces by excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, K.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Müller, F.

    1996-04-01

    The effect of particle removal from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way to clean future very large telescope (VLT) mirrors [1]. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence, being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be restored, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied.

  4. Random noise can help to improve synchronization of excimer laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Mingesz, Róbert; Barna, Angéla; Gingl, Zoltán; Mellár, János

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we have reported on a compact microcontroller-based unit developed to accurately synchronize excimer laser pulses (Mingesz et al. 2012 Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240007 (doi:10.1142/S021947751240007X)). We have shown that dithering based on random jitter noise plus pseudorandom numbers can be used in the digital control system to radically reduce the long-term drift of the laser pulse from the trigger and to improve the accuracy of the synchronization. In this update paper, we present our new experimental results obtained by the use of the delay-controller unit to tune the timing of a KrF excimer laser as an addition to our previous numerical simulation results. The hardware was interfaced to the laser using optical signal paths in order to reduce sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and the control algorithm tested by simulations was applied in the experiments. We have found that the system is able to reduce the delay uncertainty very close to the theoretical limit and performs well in real applications. The simple, compact and flexible system is universal enough to also be used in various multidisciplinary applications.

  5. Oxygen effects on the performance of XeCl excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, S. H.; Soh, B. S.; Kim, Y. P.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the degradation of window transmittance of XeCl excimer laser with oxygen, from which it was analyzed the laser performances such as stability of output energy, pre-ionization voltage, and spatial shift of laser beam. We found that oxygen suppressed the generation of by-products due to the chemical reactions between electrode material and chlorine. The degradation of transmittance ratio of laser window with oxygen improved from 10.4% to 1.4% after 20 million shots compared to without oxygen. Analyzing XPS spectrum for the contaminated window, we have confirmed that W and Cu on window surface were reduced in case of with oxygen, which means oxygen has a role to suppress the contamination on window surface.

  6. AlGaAs growth by OMCVD using an excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Wilt, David M.; Pouch, John J.; Aron, Paul R.

    1986-01-01

    AlGaAs has been grown on GaAs by laser assisted OMCVD using an excimer laser, wavelength 193 nm, and a Cambridge OMCVD reactor. Films were grown at temperatures of 450 and 500 C with the laser beam parallel to the surface and impinging onto the surface at 15 deg from parallel. The samples were heated by RF coils while the laser beam was perpendicular to the gas flow. Typical gas flow parameters are 12 slm of H2, 15 sccm of Ga(CH3)3, 13 sccm of Al(CH3)3, and a pressure of 250 mbar. The initial energy density of the beam at the surface was 40 mJ/sq cm, the pulse rate was 20 pps, and the growth time was 7 min. The films were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy for the aluminum concentration and by TEM for the surface morphology.

  7. Pulsed Excimer Laser Processing for Cost-Effective Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, D.

    1985-01-01

    Residual lattice damage by 5 keV ion implantation and surface flaws induced by wafer cleaning are proven to affect the V sub oc more adversely for laser annealed cells than conventional thermal diffusion. However, an alternative, molecular implantation of molecular species holds potential. The first experimental results are encouraging. The lack of a commercially available mass analyzed implantation with low energy, high fluence ions is constraining.

  8. Impact of Angioscopic Evaluation for Femoropopliteal In-Stent Restenosis Before and After Excimer Laser Atherectomy.

    PubMed

    Idemoto, Akiko; Okamoto, Naotaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Mori, Naoki; Nakamura, Daisuke; Yano, Masamichi; Makino, Nobuhiko; Egami, Yasuyuki; Shutta, Ryu; Tanouchi, Jun; Nishino, Masami

    2017-07-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is a prevalent problem following stenting of femoropopliteal lesions. A potential novel treatment modality for ISR including excimer laser atherectomy (ELA) has become available. We performed ELA for in-stent chronic total occlusion (CTO) of femoropopliteal lesions and evaluated lesion morphology before and after ELA by angioscopy in 2 patients. The angioscopic findings clearly showed removal of in-stent thrombi after ELA. Thus, ELA may be effective for in-stent CTO of femoropopliteal lesions. This is the first report describing the direct visualization of ELA effect for vaporization of thrombi in femoropopliteal in-stent lesions by angioscopy.

  9. Preliminary results of VISX excimer laser myopic photorefractive keratectomy at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Berlin, Michael S.; Hofbauer, John; Macy, Jonathan I.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Salz, James J.

    1992-08-01

    Sixty-two eyes underwent excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopia at Cedars-Sinai-Medical-Center. The first group of 12 patients are presented with follow up data of ten months postoperatively. The second group of 50 patients are presented with follow up data of three months postoperatively. An in-depth comparison of pre and postoperative refractive data is presented. Comparisons between pre and postoperative corrected and uncorrected Snellen visual acuities are provided in order to asses the functional visual result of the procedure.

  10. Towards excimer-laser-based stereolithography: a rapid process to fabricate rigid biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Beke, S.; Anjum, F.; Tsushima, H.; Ceseracciu, L.; Chieregatti, E.; Diaspro, A.; Athanassiou, A.; Brandi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution photocross-linking of biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF) using UV excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. The curing depth can be tuned in a micrometre range by adjusting the total energy dose (total fluence). Young's moduli of the scaffolds are found to be a few gigapascal, high enough to support bone formation. The results presented here demonstrate that the proposed technique is an excellent tool for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures on a micrometre scale with defined patterns of high resolution in all three spatial dimensions. Using UV laser photocuring at 308 nm will significantly improve the speed of rapid prototyping of biocompatible and biodegradable polymer scaffolds and enables its production in a few seconds, providing high lateral and horizontal resolution. This short timescale is indeed a tremendous asset that will enable a more efficient translation of technology to clinical applications. Preliminary cell tests proved that PPF : DEF scaffolds produced by excimer laser photocuring are biocompatible and, therefore, are promising candidates to be applied in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:22696484

  11. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshnay, N. K.; Singh, A.; Benerji, N. S.

    2017-02-01

    Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for repetitive operation. A magnetically coupled tangential blower is used for gas circulation inside the laser chamber for repetitive operation. The exciter consists of C-C energy transfer circuit and thyratron is used as a high-voltage main switch with single-stage magnetic pulse compression (MPC) between thyratron and the laser electrodes. Low inductance of the laser head and uniform and intense pre-ionization are the main features of the electric circuit used in the laser. A 250 ns rise time voltage pulse was compressed to 100 ns duration with a single-stage magnetic pulse compressor using Ni-Zn ferrite cores. The laser can generate about 150 mJ at ˜100 Hz rep-rate reliably from a discharge volume of 100 cm 3. 2D spatial laser beam profile generated is presented here. The profile shows that the laser beam is completely filled with flat-top which is suitable for material processing applications. The SEM image of the microhole generated on copper target is presented here.

  12. Design Considerations For A Clinical XeC1 Excimer Laser Angioplasty System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudenslager, James B.; Goldenberg, Tsvi; Naghieh, Harry R.; Pham, Andrew A.; Narciso, Hugh L.; Tranis, Art; Pacala, Thomas J.

    1989-09-01

    Laser ablation and removal of intravascular plaque has long been a goal of physicians and physicists as an alternative treatment for coronary and peripheral artery disease. Early application of cw free light beam visible and infrared lasers such as argon ion or Nd:YAG lasers for this application were plagued by thermal side effects of the ablation process. Specifically, imprecise control of the boundary tissue injury produced by the deep penetration depth of the laser beam gave rise to early reclosure of the vessel due to the thermal nature of the ablation process. Pulsed ultraviolet laser free beam ablation of atherosclerotic plaque, however, does not produce thermal effects, cuts tissue precisely leaving a smooth wall and can ablate hard calcific lesions. We have chosen to develop a XeC1 excimer laser-fiberoptic delivery system for the clinical application of laser angioplasty based on achieving the desired therapeutic results for a laser revascularization procedure. Four major engineering design issues must be considered in order to produce a successful clinical laser angioplasty product. These engineering issues are: 1) Functional clinical engineering, 2) Regulatory design issues, 3) Hospital facility and user requirements, and 4) Economic issues for the manufacturer, the hospital and the patient.

  13. Diamagnetic to ferromagnetic switching in VO2 epitaxial thin films by nanosecond excimer laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, R.; Bayati, R.; Nori, S.; Kumar, D.; Prater, J. T.; Narayan, J.

    2013-12-01

    VO2(010)/NiO(111) epitaxial heterostructures were integrated with Si(100) substrates using a cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) buffer. The epitaxial alignment across the interfaces was determined to be VO2(010)‖NiO(111)‖c-YSZ(001)‖Si(001) and VO2[100]‖NiO⟨110⟩‖c-YSZ⟨100⟩‖Si⟨100⟩. The samples were subsequently treated by a single shot of a nanosecond KrF excimer laser. Pristine as-deposited film showed diamagnetic behavior, while laser annealed sample exhibited ferromagnetic behavior. The population of majority charge carriers (e-) and electrical conductivity increased by about two orders of magnitude following laser annealing. These observations are attributed to the introduction of oxygen vacancies into the VO2 thin films and the formation of V3+ defects.

  14. An alternative method of fabricating sub-micron resolution masks using excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, C. J.; Eijkel, J. C. T.; Dalton, C.

    2004-06-01

    In the work presented here, an excimer laser micromachining system has been used successfully to fabricate high-resolution projection and contact masks. The contact masks were subsequently used to produce chrome-gold circular ac electro-osmotic pump (cACEOP) microelectrode arrays on glass substrates, using a conventional contact photolithography process. The contact masks were produced rapidly (~15 min each) and were found to be accurate to sub-micron resolution, demonstrating an alternative route for mask fabrication. Laser machined masks were also used in a laser-projection system, demonstrating that such fabrication techniques are also suited to projection lithography. The work addresses a need for quick reproduction of high-resolution contact masks, given their rapid degradation when compared to non-contact masks.

  15. Temperature monitoring by infrared radiation measurements during ArF excimer laser ablation with cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Arai, Tsunenori; Sato, Shunichi; Nakano, Hironori; Obara, Minoru; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1999-06-01

    We measured infrared thermal radiation from porcine cornea during various fluences ArF excimer laser ablations with 1 microsecond(s) rise time. To obtain absolute temperature by means of Stefan-Boltzman law of radiation, we carried out a collection efficiency and detective sensitivity by a pre-experiment using panel heater. We measured the time course of the thermal radiation intensity with various laser fluences. We studied the relation between the peak cornea temperature during the ablation and irradiation fluences. We found the ablation situations, i.e., sub-ablation threshold, normal thermal ablation, and over-heated ablation, may be judged by both of the measured temperature transient waveforms and peak temperature. The boundary fluences corresponding to normal thermal ablation were 90 and 160 mJ/cm2. Our fast remote temperature monitoring during cornea ablation might be useful to control ablation quality/quantity of the cornea ArF laser ablation, that is PRK.

  16. Influence of the ablation plume on the removal process during ArF-excimer laser photoablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerbecker, Christina; Lubatschowski, Holger; Lohmann, Stefan; Ruff, Christine; Kermani, Omid; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Correction of myopia with the ArF-excimer laser (PRK) sometimes leads to a so called 'central island' formation on the anterior corneal surface. The attenuation of the laser beam by the ablation plume might be one reason for this phenomenon. The attenuation properties of the ablation plume were investigated by a probe beam parallel to the surface of the tissue probe. By varying the laser parameters (fluence, repetition rate, spot size) and the target tissue (cornea, PMMA) the attenuation of the probe beam was measured time and spatial resolved. As a result of this study, a significant influence of the removal process due to scattering and absorption within the ablation plume can be assumed as a function of repetition rate, spot size and air flow on the tissue surface.

  17. Excimer-laser-induced surface treatments on metal and ceramic materials: applications to automotive, aerospace, and microelectronic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autric, Michel L.

    1999-09-01

    Surface treatments by laser irradiation can improve materials properties in terms of mechanical and physico- chemical behaviors, these improvements being related to the topography, the hardness, the microstructure, the chemical composition. Up to now, the use of excimer lasers for industrial applications remained marginal in spite of the interest related to the short wavelength (high photon energy and better energetic coupling with materials and reduced thermal effects in the bulk material). Up to now, the main limitations concerned the beam quality, the beam delivery, the gas handling and the relatively high investment cost. At this time, the cost of laser devices is going down and the ultraviolet radiation can be conducted through optical fibers. These two elements give new interest in using excimer laser for industrial applications. The main objective of this research program which we are involved in, is to underline some materials processing applications for automotive, aerospace or microelectronic industries for which it could be more interesting to use excimer lasers (minimized thermal effects). This paper concerns the modifications of the roughness, porosity, hardness, structure, phase, residual stresses, chemical composition of the surface of materials such as metallic alloys (aluminum, steel, cast iron, titanium, and ceramics (oxide, nitride, carbide,...) irradiated by KrF and XeCl excimer lasers.

  18. Micro flow-through PCR in a PMMA chip fabricated by KrF excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Yao, Liying; Liu, Baoan; Chen, Tao; Liu, Shibing; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-09-01

    As the third PCR technology, micro flow-through PCR chip can amplify DNA specifically in an exponential fashion in vitro. Nowadays many academies in the world have successfully amplified DNA using their own-made flow-through PCR chip. In this paper, the ablation principle of PMMA at 248 nm excimer laser was studied, then a PMMA based flow-through PCR chip with 20 cycles was fabricated by excimer laser at 19 kv and 18 mm/min. The chip was bonded together with another cover chip at 105( composite function)C, 160 N and 20 minutes. In the end, it was integrated with electrical thermal thin films and Pt 100 temperature sensors. The temperature controllers was built standard PID digital temperature controller, the temperature control precision was +/- 0.2( composite function)C. The temperature grads between the three temperature zones were 16.5 and 22.2( composite function)C respectively, the gaps between the temperature zones could realize heat insulation.

  19. Effects of XeCl excimer lasers and fluoride application on artificial caries-like lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Phan, T.; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Berns, Michael W.

    1994-09-01

    In this study the affects of a pulsed excimer laser emitting at 308 nm (XeCl) on enamel susceptibility to artificial caries-like lesions were investigated. Additional effects of fluoride (F) application were also studied and SEC examinations performed. Sixty-four extracted human molar teeth were coated with acid resistant varnish leaving four windows, then sectioned, leaving one window on each tooth quarter. The windows were treated in one of the following ways: untreated (control), or lased, or exposed to 4 min. APF (1.23% F) before lasing, or exposed to 4 min. APF (1.23% F) after lasing. After lasing, microhardness profiles were obtained and SEM was performed. Caries resistance was generally increased at moderate fluences. F application combined with lasing enhanced caries resistance at some parameters. SEM showed effects ranging from minimal to localized effects to extended glazing. Pulsed excimer laser irradiation, especially combined with topical F application can inhibit development of artificial caries-like lesions.

  20. Excimer laser decoating of chromium titanium aluminium nitride to facilitate re-use of cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, M.; Whitehead, D.; Mativenga, P. T.; Li, L.; Cooke, K. E.

    2009-11-01

    This work reports on the technical feasibility and establishment of a process window for removing chromium titanium aluminium nitride (CrTiAlN) coating from steel substrates by laser irradiation. CrTiAlN coating has high hardness and oxidation resistance, with applications for use with cutting tools. The motivation for removing such coatings is to facilitate re-use of tooling by enabling regrinding or reshaping of a worn tool and hence promote sustainable material usage. In this work, laser decoating was performed using an excimer laser. The effect of laser fluence, number of pulses, frequency, scanning speed and laser beam overlap on the decoating performance was investigated in detail. The minimum threshold laser fluence for removing the CrTiAlN coating was lower than that of the steel substrate and this factor is beneficial in controlling the decoating process. Successful laser removal of CrTiAlN coating without noticeable damage to the steel substrate was demonstrated.

  1. Visual and refractive outcomes following myopic laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy with a flying-spot excimer laser.

    PubMed

    McAlinden, Colm; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Moore, Jonathan E

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the visual and refractive outcomes following laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) surgery with a flying-spot excimer laser. Private practice, Ireland. Case series. In this prospective study, the mean manifest spherical equivalent (SE), sphere, and cylinder were measured preoperatively. All eyes had LASEK surgery with an aberration-free algorithm with the Schwind Amaris excimer laser. Outcomes measured at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), manifest refraction, corrected distance visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, aberrometry, and complications. Accuracy, efficacy, and safety were evaluated at 1 year. Preoperatively, the mean SE, sphere, and cylinder in the 80 eyes (48 patients) were -3.58 diopters (D) ± 2.00 (SD), -3.23 ± 1.93 D, and -0.85 ± 0.65 D, respectively. One year postoperatively, the mean SE was -0.00 ± 0.22 D; 57 eyes (71%) were within -0.13 to +0.13 D of the SE, and 71 eyes (98%) were within ±0.50 D. The mean UDVA was -0.06 ± 0.07 logMAR, with an efficacy index of 1.04. The postoperative SE was stable between 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year. One eye (1%) had a change in SE by more than 0.50 D at 6 months and 1 year. There were no statistically significant differences in any aberrations at 1 year. The contrast sensitivity improved from 1.66 ± 0.17 log units preoperatively to 1.72 ± 0.15 log units at 1 month postoperatively (P=.0003), which was unchanged at 6 months and 1 year. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of LASEK for the treatment of myopia with this flying-spot excimer laser. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative charge emission due to excimer laser bombardment of sodium trisilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, S. C.; Jensen, L. C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Pederson, L. R.

    1990-10-01

    We describe measurements of negative charge emission accompanying irradiation of sodium trisilicate glass (Na2Oṡ3SiO2) with 248-nm excimer laser light at fluences on the order of 2 J/cm2 per pulse, i.e., at the threshold for ablative etching of the glass surface. The negative charge emission consists of a very prompt photoelectron burst coincident with the laser pulse, followed by a much slower plume of electrons and negative ions traveling with a high density cloud of positive ions, previously identified as primarily Na+. Using combinations of E and B fields in conjunction with time-of-flight methods, the negative ions were successfully separated from the plume and tentatively identified as O-, Si-, NaO-, and perhaps NaSi-. These negative species are probably formed by gas phase collisions in the near-surface region which result in electron attachment.

  3. In-vitro ablation of fibrocartilage by XeCl excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchelt, Martin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Fishbein, Michael C.; Peters, Werner; Beeder, Clain; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    A 308 nm excimer laser was employed for ablation of human fibrocartilage. Experiments were conducted in vitro. The tissue response was investigated with respect to dosimetry (ablation rate versus radiant exposure) and thermal effect (thermographic analysis). Irradiation was performed via a 600 um fiber, with radiant exposures ranging between 20mj/mm2 and 80mj/mm2, at 20Hz. The ablation rates were found to range from 3um/pulse to 80um/pulse depending on the radiant exposure and/or the applied pressure on the delivery system. Thermographic analysis, during ablation, revealed maximum average temperatures of about 65 degree(s)C. Similar measurements performed, for the purpose of comparison, with a CW Nd:YAG and a CW CO2 laser showed higher values, of the order of 200 degree(s)C.

  4. Application Of The Excimer Laser To Area Recontouring Of The Cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Paul R.; Telfair, William B.; Warner, John W.; Martin, Clifford A.; L'Esperance, Francis A.

    1989-04-01

    Excimer lasers operating at 193 nm are being used experimentally in a special type of materials processing wherein the central portion of the anterior surface of the human cornea is selectively ablated so as to change its refractive power and, hopefully, improve impaired vision. Research to date has demonstrated recontouring as a potential means for reducing myopia and hyperopia of cadaver eyes while studies of ablations on the corneas of living monkeys and of blind human volunteers show promise of prompt and successful healing. The procedure has also shown merit in removing superficial scars from the corneal surface. In this paper, we describe the electro-optical system used to deliver the UV laser beam in these experiments and report some preliminary results of the ablation studies.

  5. Modulation of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis using topical mitomycin C and steroids

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, J.H.; Gollamudi, S.; Green, W.R.

    1991-08-01

    A 193-nm excimer laser system was used to create deep stromal ablations in seven New Zealand white rabbits and shallow ablations in three. Eyes were randomized for treatment with topical mitomycin C, steroids, and erythromycin; topical steroids and erythromycin; or topical erythromycin only. All treatment regimens were instituted twice daily for 14 days. All eyes reepithelialized normally within 3 to 5 days. During 10 weeks of follow-up, all eyes developed moderate reticular subepithelial haze without significant differences among treatment groups. Results of light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic examination showed anterior stromal scarring and markedly reduced new subepithelial collagen formation inmore » the group treated with mitomycin C, corticosteroids, and erythromycin. Focal abnormalities of Descemet's membrane and endothelial abnormalities were present in all treatment groups. Combination therapy with topical steroids, mitomycin C, and erythromycin to control the corneal wound healing response after refractive laser surgery appears promising and warrants further study.« less

  6. About Losses in Pumping Generators of High-Power Electrodischarge Excimer Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, N. G.; Losev, V. F.

    2015-04-01

    Energy losses in pumping systems of discharge high-power lasers are investigated. To estimate the losses, the discharge circuit operation was modeled, and its calculation was performed using the program PSpice. Results of measurements and calculations demonstrate that the resistance of a rail gap with electric field distortion exceeds several times the resistance of a single-channel gap without field distortion. A difference in the resistances is explained by different mechanisms of discharge burning: in the first case diffusion mechanism and in the second case the spark mechanism. The low efficiency of the high-power excimer lasers (~1%) is explained by high energy losses in the rail gap that reach more than 50% of the initially stored energy.

  7. Update on laser vision correction using wavefront analysis with the CustomCornea system and LADARVision 193-nm excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Pettit, George H.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2002-06-01

    A study was undertaken to assess whether results of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION 193-nm excimer laser (Alcon-Autonomous technologies) can be improved with the use of wavefront analysis generated by a proprietary system including a Hartman-Schack sensor and expressed using Zernicke polynomials. A total of 82 eyes underwent LASIK in several centers with an improved algorithm, using the CustomCornea system. A subgroup of 48 eyes of 24 patients was randomized so that one eye undergoes conventional treatment and one eye undergoes treatment based on wavefront analysis. Treatment parameters were equal for each type of refractive error. 83% of all eyes had uncorrected vision of 20/20 or better and 95% were 20/25 or better. In all groups, uncorrected visual acuities did not improve significantly in eyes treated with wavefront analysis compared to conventional treatments. Higher order aberrations were consistently better corrected in eyes undergoing treatment based on wavefront analysis for LASIK at 6 months postop. In addition, the number of eyes with reduced RMS was significantly higher in the subset of eyes treated with a wavefront algorithm (38% vs. 5%). Wavefront technology may improve the outcomes of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION excimer laser. Further refinements of the technology and clinical trials will contribute to this goal.

  8. Efficacy of the 308-nm excimer laser for treatment of psoriasis: results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Steven R; Mellen, Beverly G; Housman, Tamara Salam; Fitzpatrick, Richard E; Geronemus, Roy G; Friedman, Paul M; Vasily, David B; Morison, Warwick L

    2002-06-01

    Our purpose was to demonstrate the efficacy of the 308-nm excimer laser for treatment of psoriasis. This study was a multicenter open trial from 5 dermatology practices (one university-based and 4 private practices). Up to 30 patients per center with stable mild to moderate plaque-type psoriasis constituted the study population. Patients received 308-nm ultraviolet B doses to affected areas. The initial dose was based on multiples of a predetermined minimal erythema dose. Subsequent doses were based on the response to treatment. Treatments were scheduled twice weekly for a total of 10 treatments. The main outcome measure was 75% clearing of the target plaque. Time to clearing was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods, accounting for truncated observations. One hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study, and 80 completed the entire protocol. The most common reason for exiting from the study was noncompliance. Of the patients who met the protocol requirements of 10 treatments or clearing, 72% (66/92) achieved at least 75% clearing in an average of 6.2 treatments. Eighty-four percent of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 79%-87%) reached improvement of 75% or better after 10 or fewer treatments. Fifty percent of patients (95% CI, 35%-61%) reached improvement of 90% or better after 10 or fewer treatments. Common side effects included erythema, blisters, hyperpigmentation, and erosions, but they were well tolerated. Monochromatic 308-nm excimer laser treatment appears to be effective and safe for psoriasis. It requires fewer patient visits than conventional phototherapy, and, unlike those treatments, the laser targets only the affected areas of the skin, sparing the surrounding uninvolved skin.

  9. Cracking and Exfoliation of TiO2 Film Irradiated with Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, H. X.; Zhou, W.; Zheng, H. Y.

    TiO2 film deposited on glass was irradiated in air with single-shot KrF excimer laser pulse. The surface roughened as the result of the laser ablation. It is further noted that single-pulse irradiation with fluence ranging from 400 to 1200 mJ/cm2 gave rise to protrusion of the irradiated surface above the original surface, which is in contrast to usual expectation that irradiated surface is below the unirradiated surface. The surface protrusion is mainly attributed to the effect of surface tension. At the laser fluence of 1000 mJ/cm2, cracks were formed in the irradiated area and severe film exfoliation was observed at the periphery of the irradiated area due to the release of internal stress. With higher laser fluence above 1000 mJ/cm2, patches of film were observed to peel off within the irradiated areas. Hydrodynamic ablation is proposed to account for film exfoliation. The observed phenomenon is useful for further understanding how TiO2 film reacts to strong UV laser irradiation.

  10. Irradiation planning for automated treatment of psoriasis with a high-power excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klämpfl, Florian; Schmidt, Michael; Hagenah, Hinnerk; Görtler, Andreas; Wolfsgruber, Frank; Lampalzer, Ralf; Kaudewitz, Peter

    2006-02-01

    American and European statistics have shown that 1-2 per cent of the human population is affected by the skin disease psoriasis. Recent research reports promising treatment results when irradiating skin areas affected by psoriasis with high powered excimer lasers with a wavelength of 308 nm. In order to apply the necessary high energy dose without hurting healthy parts of the skin new approaches regarding the system technology must be considered. The aim of the current research project is the development of a sensor-based, automated laser treatment system for psoriasis. In this paper we present the algorithms used to cope with the diffculties of irradiating irregularly shaped areas on curved surfaces with a predefined energy level using a pulsed laser. Patients prefer the treatment to take as little time as possible. This also helps to reduce costs. Thus the distribution of laser pulses on the surface to achieve the given energy level on every point of the surface has to be calculated within a limited time frame. The remainder of the paper will describe in detail an efficient method to plan and optimize the laser pulse distribution. Towards the end, some first results will be presented.

  11. Analyses of surface coloration on TiO 2 film irradiated with excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. Y.; Qian, H. X.; Zhou, W.

    2008-01-01

    TiO 2 film of around 850 nm in thickness was deposited on a soda-lime glass by PVD sputtering and irradiated using one pulse of krypton-fluorine (KrF) excimer laser (wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 25 ns) with varying fluence. The color of the irradiated area became darker with increasing laser fluence. Irradiated surfaces were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Surface undergoes thermal annealing at low laser fluence of 400 and 590 mJ/cm 2. Microcracks at medium laser fluence of 1000 mJ/cm 2 are attributed to surface melting and solidification. Hydrodynamic ablation is proposed to explain the formation of micropores and networks at higher laser fluence of 1100 and 1200 mJ/cm 2. The darkening effect is explained in terms of trapping of light in the surface defects formed rather than anatase to rutile phase transformation as reported by others. Controlled darkening of TiO 2 film might be used for adjustable filters.

  12. Levels of interleukin-6 in tears before and after excimer laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Resan, Mirko; Stanojević, Ivan; Petković, Aleksandra; Pajić, Bojan; Vojvodić, Danilo

    2015-04-01

    Immune response and consequent inflammatory process which originate on ocular surface after a trauma are mediated by cytokines. Photoablation of corneal stroma performed by excimer laser causes surgically induced trauma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mostly known as a proinflammatory cytokine. However, it also has regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects. It is supposed that this cytokine is likely to play a significant role in the process of corneal wound healing response after photoablation of stroma carried out by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) methods. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the levels of IL-6 in tears before and after treatment with LASIK and PRK methods. The study included 68 shortsighted eyes up to -3.0 diopter sphere, i.e. 198 samples of tears (per three samples taken from each of the eyes), divided into two groups according to the kind of excimer laser intervention performed: the group 1--eyes treated by LASIK method (n=31), and the group 2--eyes treated by the PRK method (n=37). The samples of tears were taken from each eye at the following time points: before excimer laser treatment (0 h, the control group), 1 h after the treatment (1 h) and 24 h after the treatment (24 h). The patients did not use anti-inflammatory therapy 24 h after the intervention. Tear samples were collected using microsurgical sponge. Level of IL-6 in tear fluid was determined by the flow cytometry method, applying a commercial test kit which allowed cytokine detection from a small sample volume. Results. The values of IL-6 were detectable in 16% of samples before LASIK treatment and in 30% of samples before PRK treatment. One h after the treatment IL-6 was detectable in 29% of samples for the LASIK group and 43% of samples for the PRK group, and 24 h after the treatment it was detectable in 19% of samples for the LASIK group and in 57% of samples for the PRK group. When we analyzed the dynamics of IL76 production

  13. LASERS: Excimer XeCl laser excited by microsecond megawatt microwave pulses from a commercial 3.07-GHz microwave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulin, V. A.; Slinko, V. N.; Sulakshin, S. S.

    1990-12-01

    An excimer laser (λ approx 308 nm) utilizing an Ne-Xe-HCl mixture was excited by microwave (ν0 = 3.07 GHz) pulses of 2.8-μs duration and ~ 0.9 MW power delivered by a commercial microwave oscillator. A peak laser radiation power of 130 W was obtained in pulses of 280 ns duration. Laser radiation from along the center of a laser tube was recorded in addition to that from the skin layer.

  14. 80 A/cm2 electron beams from metal targets irradiated by KrCl and XeCl excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloglazov, A.; Martino, M.; Nassisi, V.

    1996-05-01

    Due to the growing demand for high-current and long-duration electron-beam devices, laser electron sources were investigated in our laboratory. Experiments on electron-beam generation and propagation from aluminium and copper targets illuminated by XeCl (308 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excimer lasers, were carried out under plasma ignition due to laser irradiation. This plasma supplied a spontaneous accelerating electric field of about 370 kV/m without an external accelerating voltage. By applying the modified one-dimensional Poisson equation, we computed the expected current and we also estimated the plasma concentration during the accelerating process. At 40 kV of accelerating voltage, an output current pulse of about 80 A/cm2 was detected from an Al target irradiated by the shorter wavelength laser.

  15. Interaction of 308-nm excimer laser light with temporomandibular joint related structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenhoff, Tim; Funk, Armin

    1994-02-01

    Arthroscopy of TMJ has become a clinically important and more and more accepted method for diagnosis and treatment of TMJ alteration. This minimal invasive method is clearly limited by the anatomical dimensions of the TMJ. A 308 nm excimer laserlight has already found clinical applications in angioplasty, ophthalmology, and dentistry. The aim of the presented study was to find out if it is possible to ablate TMJ related structures under arthroscopic conditions. It also aims to evaluate the energy-threshold for ablation and the maximal possible rate of ablation. Contrary to other laser systems it offers a unique combination of minimal tissue alteration, precise tissue ablation guidability through optical fibers, and a good transmission through water.

  16. [Excimer laser therapy of alopecia areata--side-by-side evaluation of a representative area].

    PubMed

    Raulin, Christian; Gündogan, Cüneyt; Greve, Bärbel; Gebert, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    We report for the first time on hair regrowth in alopecia areata of the scalp achieved with the 308-nm xenon-chloride excimer laser in a prospective side-by-side trial. The alopecia areata had shown progression over a period of three years, and various treatments had not been effective. Out of a number of affected areas, one representative lesion was chosen; one half of it was treated, the other half remained untreated. After 27 sessions (200 - 4000 mJ/cm2, cumulative dose 52.6 J/cm2) over 3 months, only the treated area showed hair growth; which suggests that this was most probably not a spontaneous remission.

  17. Factors affecting the outcome of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: a preliminary multivariable regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Salz, James J.; Warren, Cathy; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1996-05-01

    Multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate the combined effects of some preoperative and operative variables on the change of refraction following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia (PRK). This analysis was performed on 152 eyes (at 6 months postoperatively) and 156 eyes (at 12 months postoperatively). The following variables were considered: intended refractive correction, patient age, treatment zone, central corneal thickness, average corneal curvature, and intraocular pressure. At 6 months after surgery, the cumulative R2 was 0.43 with 0.38 attributed to the intended correction and 0.06 attributed to the preoperative corneal curvature. At 12 months, the cumulative R2 was 0.37 where 0.33 was attributed to the intended correction, 0.02 to the preoperative corneal curvature, and 0.01 to both preoperative corneal thickness and to the patient age. Further model augmentation is necessary to account for the remaining variability and the behavior of the residuals.

  18. Cleaning of copper traces on circuit boards with excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesner, D. A.; Mertin, M.; Lupp, F.; Kreutz, E. W.

    1996-04-01

    Cleaning of Cu traces on circuit boards is studied using pulsed excimer laser radiation (pulse width ˜ 20 ns, wavelength 248 nm), with the goal of improving the properties of the Cu surface for soldering and bonding. Traces with well-defined oxide overlayers are cleaned by irradiation in air using ≤ 10 3 laser pulses at fluences per pulse of ≤ 2 J cm -2. After treatment the surface morphology is analyzed using optical microscopy, optical profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy, while the chemical state of the surface is investigated with X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. Ellipsometry is used to determine the oxide overlayer thickness. Prior to cleaning samples exhibit a contamination overlayer about 15-25 nm in thickness containing Cu 2O and C. Cleaning reduces the overlayer thickness to ≤ 10 nm by material removal. The process tends to be self-limiting, since the optical reflectivity of the oxidized Cu surface for laser radiation is smaller than that of the cleaned surface. Additionally, the interaction with the laser radiation results in surface segregation of a minor alloy component out of the bulk (e.g. Zn), which may help to passivate the surface for further chemical reactions.

  19. Stretchable multilayer self-aligned interconnects fabricated using excimer laser photoablation and in situ masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kevin L.; Jain, Kanti

    2009-02-01

    Stretchable interconnects are essential to large-area flexible circuits and large-area sensor array systems, and they play an important role towards the realization of the realm of systems which include wearable electronics, sensor arrays for structural health monitoring, and sensor skins for tactile feedback. These interconnects must be reliable and robust for viability, and must be flexible, stretchable, and conformable to non-planar surfaces. This research describes the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of stretchable interconnects on polymer substrates using metal patterns both as functional interconnect layers and as in-situ masks for excimer laser photoablation. Excimer laser photoablation is often used for patterning of polymers and thin-film metals. The fluences for photoablation of polymers are generally much lower than the threshold fluence for removal or damage of high-thermallyconductive metals; thus, metal thin films can be used as in-situ masks for polymers if the proper fluence is used. Selfaligned single-layer and multi-layer interconnects of various designs (rectilinear and 'meandering') have been fabricated, and certain 'meandering' interconnect designs can be stretched up to 50% uniaxially while maintaining good electrical conductivity and structural integrity. These results are compared with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and are observed to be in good accordance with them. This fabrication approach eliminates masks and microfabrication processing steps as compared to traditional fabrication approaches; furthermore, this technology is scalable for large-area sensor arrays and electronic circuits, adaptable for a variety of materials and interconnects designs, and compatible with MEMS-based capacitive sensor technology.

  20. Analysis of the change in peak corneal temperature during excimer laser ablation in porcine eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Samuel Arba; Verma, Shwetabh

    2015-07-01

    The objective is to characterize the impact of different ablation parameters on the thermal load during corneal refractive surgery by means of excimer laser ablation on porcine eyes. One hundred eleven ablations were performed in 105 porcine eyes. Each ablation was recorded using infrared thermography and analyzed mainly based on the two tested local frequencies (40 Hz, clinical local frequency; 1000 Hz, no local frequency). The change in peak corneal temperature was analyzed with respect to varying ablation parameters [local frequency, system repetition rate, pulse energy, optical zone (OZ) size, and refractive correction]. Transepithelial ablations were also compared to intrastromal ablations. The average of the baseline temperature across all eyes was 20.5°C±1.1 (17.7°C to 22.2°C). Average of the change in peak corneal temperature for all clinical local frequency ablations was 5.8°C±0.8 (p=3.3E-53 to baseline), whereas the average was 9.0°C±1.5 for all no local frequency ablations (p=1.8E-35 to baseline, 1.6E-16 to clinical local frequency ablations). A logarithmic relationship was observed between the changes in peak corneal temperature with increasing local frequency. For clinical local frequency, change in peak corneal temperature was comparatively flat (r2=0.68 with a range of 1.5°C) with increasing system repetition rate and increased linearly with increasing OZ size (r2=0.95 with a range of 2.4°C). Local frequency controls help maintain safe corneal temperature increase during excimer laser ablations. Transepithelial ablations induce higher thermal load compared to intrastromal ablations, indicating a need for stronger thermal controls in transepithelial refractive procedures.

  1. Analysis of excimer laser radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume at LASIK procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiati, Rima Fitria; Rini Rizki, Artha Bona; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Rahmadiansah, Andi

    2016-11-01

    LASIK (Laser Asissted In Situ Interlamelar Keratomilieusis) is a technique for correcting refractive disorders of the eye such as myopia and astigmatism using an excimer laser. This procedure use photoablation technique to decompose corneal tissues. Although preferred due to its efficiency, permanency, and accuracy, the inappropriate amount radiant exposure often cause side effects like under-over correction, irregular astigmatism and problems on surrounding tissues. In this study, the radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume has been modelled through several processes. Data collecting results is laser data specifications with 193 nm wavelength, beam diameter of 0.065 - 0.65 cm, and fluence of 160 mJ/cm2. For the medical data, the myopia-astigmatism value, cornea size, corneal ablation thickness, and flap data are taken. The first modelling step is determining the laser diameter between 0.065 - 0.65 cm with 0.45 cm increment. The energy, power, and intensity of laser determined from laser beam area. Number of pulse and total energy is calculated before the radiant exposure of laser is obtained. Next is to determine the parameters influence the ablation volume. Regression method used to create the equation, and then the spot size is substituted to the model. The validation used is statistic correlation method to both experimental data and theory. By the model created, it is expected that any potential complications can be prevented during LASIK procedures. The recommendations can give the users clearer picture to determine the appropriate amount of radiant exposure with the corneal ablation volume necessary.

  2. Comparison of 2 wavefront-guided excimer lasers for myopic laser in situ keratomileusis: one-year results.

    PubMed

    Yu, Charles Q; Manche, Edward E

    2014-03-01

    To compare laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) outcomes between 2 wavefront-guided excimer laser systems in the treatment of myopia. University eye clinic, Palo Alto, California, USA. Prospective comparative case series. One eye of patients was treated with the Allegretto Wave Eye-Q system (small-spot scanning laser) and the fellow eye with the Visx Star Customvue S4 IR system (variable-spot scanning laser). Evaluations included measurement of uncorrected visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, and wavefront aberrometry. One hundred eyes (50 patients) were treated. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) refraction was -3.89 diopters (D) ± 1.67 (SD) and -4.18 ± 1.73 D in the small-spot scanning laser group and variable-spot scanning laser group, respectively. There were no significant differences in preoperative higher-order aberrations (HOAs) between the groups. Twelve months postoperatively, all eyes in the small-spot scanning laser group and 92% in the variable-spot scanning laser group were within ±0.50 D of the intended correction (P = .04). At that time, the small-spot scanning laser group had significantly less spherical aberration (0.12 versus 0.15) (P = .04) and significantly less mean total higher-order root mean square (0.33 μm versus 0.40 μm) (P = .01). Subjectively, patients reported that the clarity of night and day vision was significantly better in the eye treated with the small-spot scanning laser. The predictability and self-reported clarity of vision of wavefront-guided LASIK were better with the small-spot scanning laser. Eyes treated with the small-spot scanning laser had significantly fewer HOAs. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Report on the Study of Radiation Damage in Calcium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride Crystals for use in Excimer Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-10-04

    A study was performed to investigate the effects of radiation damage in calcium fluoride and magnesium fluoride crystals caused by gamma rays and UV photons from excimer lasers. The purpose was to study and correlate the damage caused by these two different mechanisms in various types of material used for fabricating optical elements in high power excimer lasers and lens systems of lithography tools. These optical systems are easily damaged by the laser itself, and it is necessary to use only the most radiation resistant materials for certain key elements. It was found that a clear correlation exists between the,more » radiation induced damage caused by high energy gamma rays and that produced by UV photons from the excimer laser. This correlation allows a simple procedure to be developed to select the most radiation resistant material at the ingot level, which would be later used to fabricate various components of the optical system. This avoids incurring the additional cost of fabricating actual optical elements with material that would later be damaged under prolonged use. The result of this screening procedure can result in a considerable savings in the overall cost of the lens and laser system.« less

  4. Thermodynamic measurements in a high pressure hydrogen-oxygen flame using Raman scattering from a broadband excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Raman scattering is an inelastic molecular scattering process in which incident radiation is reemitted at a fixed change in frequency. Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the number density and temperature of the irradiated species. The strength of the Raman signal is inversely proportional to the wavelength raised to the fourth power. Consequently, high signal to noise ratios are obtained by using ultraviolet (UV) excitation sources. Using UV sources for Raman Spectroscopy in flames is complicated by the fact that some of the primary constituents in hydrogen-oxygen combustion absorb and reemit light in the UV and these fluorescence processes interfere with the Raman signals. This problem has been handled in atmospheric pressure flames in some instances by using a narrowband tunable excimer laser as a source. This allows for detuning from absorption transitions and the elimination of interfering fluorescence signals at the Raman wavelengths. This approach works well in the atmospheric pressure flame; however, it has two important disadvantages. First, injection-locked narrowband tunable excimer lasers are very expensive. More importantly, however, is the fact that at the high pressures characteristic of rocket engine combustion chambers, the absorption transitions are broadened making it difficult to tune to a spectral location at which substantial absorption would not occur. The approach taken in this work is to separate the Raman signal from the fluorescence background by taking advantage of the fact that Raman signal has nonisotropic polarization characteristics while the fluorescence signals are unpolarized. Specifically, for scattering at right angles to the excitation beam path, the Raman signal is completely polarized. The Raman signal is separated from the fluorescence background by collecting both horizontally and vertically polarized signals separately. One of the polarizations has both the Raman signal and the fluorescence background while the

  5. Depth-profile investigations of triterpenoid varnishes by KrF excimer laser ablation and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakopoulos, C.; Zafiropulos, V.

    2009-07-01

    The ablation properties of aged triterpenoid dammar and mastic films were investigated using a Krypton Fluoride excimer laser (248 nm, 25 ns). Ablation rate variations between surface and bulk layers indicated changes of the ablation mechanisms across the depth profiles of the films. In particular, after removal of the uppermost surface varnish layers there was a reduction of the ablation step in the bulk that was in line with a significant reduction of carbon dimer emission beneath the surface layers as detected by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The results are explicable by the generation of condensation, cross-linking and oxidative gradients across the depth profile of triterpenoid varnish films during the aging degradation process, which were recently quantified and established on the molecular level.

  6. Effects of excimer laser illumination on microdrilling into an oblique polymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chih-Yang; Shu, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Zhi-Chang

    2006-08-01

    In this work, we present the experimental results of micromachining into polymethy-methacrylate exposed to oblique KrF excimer laser beams. The results of low-aspect-ratio ablations show that the ablation rate decreases monotonously with the increase of incident angle for various fluences. The ablation rate of high-aspect-ratio drilling with opening center on the focal plane is almost independent of incident angles and is less than that of low-aspect-ratio ablation. The results of high-aspect-ratio ablations show that the openings of the holes at a distance from the focal plane are enlarged and their edges are blurred. Besides, the depth of a hole in the samples oblique to the laser beam at a distance from the focal plane decreases with the increase of the distance from the focal plane. The number of deep holes generated by oblique laser beams through a matrix of apertures decreases with the increase of incident angle. Those phenomena reveal the influence of the local light intensity on microdrilling into an oblique surface.

  7. Evaluation of corneal ablation by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at 2.94 μm and an Er:YAG laser and comparison to ablation by a 193-nm excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfair, William B.; Hoffman, Hanna J.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Eiferman, Richard A.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: This study first evaluated the corneal ablation characteristics of (1) an Nd:YAG pumped OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) at 2.94 microns and (2) a short pulse Er:YAG laser. Secondly, it compared the histopathology and surface quality of these ablations with (3) a 193 nm excimer laser. Finally, the healing characteristics over 4 months of cat eyes treated with the OPO were evaluated. Methods: Custom designed Nd:YAG/OPO and Er:YAG lasers were integrated with a new scanning delivery system to perform PRK myopic correction procedures. After initial ablation studies to determine ablation thresholds and rates, human cadaver eyes and in-vivo cat eyes were treated with (1) a 6.0 mm Dia, 30 micron deep PTK ablation and (2) a 6.0 mm Dia, -5.0 Diopter PRK ablation. Cadaver eyes were also treated with a 5.0 mm Dia, -5.0 Diopter LASIK ablation. Finally, cats were treated with the OPO in a 4 month healing study. Results: Ablation thresholds below 100 mJ/cm2 and ablation rates comparable to the excimer were demonstrated for both infrared systems. Light Microscopy (LM) showed no thermal damage for low fluence treatments, but noticeable thermal damage at higher fluences. SEM and TEM revealed morphologically similar surfaces for low fluence OPO and excimer samples with a smooth base and no evidence of collagen shrinkage. The Er:YAG and higher fluence OPO treated samples revealed more damage along with visible collagen coagulation and shrinkage in some cases. Healing was remarkably unremarkable. All eyes had a mild healing response with no stromal haze and showed topographic flattening. LM demonstrated nothing except a moderate increase in keratocyte activity in the upper third of the stroma. TEM confirmed this along with irregular basement membranes. Conclusions: A non- thermal ablation process called photospallation is demonstrated for the first time using short pulse infrared lasers yielding damage zones comparable to the excimer and healing which is also comparable to

  8. The early results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for compound myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Horgan, S E; Pearson, R V

    1996-01-01

    An excimer laser (VISX Twenty/Twenty Excimer Refractive System) was used to treat 51 eyes for myopia and astigmatism. Uncorrected pretreatment visual acuity was between 6/18 and 6/60 (log unit +0.45 to +1.0) in 59% and worse than 6/60 in 29%. The mean pretreatment spherical refractive error was -4.05 dioptre (range 1.25 to 13.25), and the mean pretreatment cylindrical error was -0.97 dioptre (range 0.25 to 4.00). Uncorrected visual acuity measured 6/6 or better (log unit 0.0 or less) in 80% at three months, and averaged 6/6 for all eyes at six months post-treatment, with 75% eyes obtaining 6/6 or better. The mean post-treatment spherical error decayed according to pre-treatment values, with a mean sphere of -0.20 dioptre for eyes initially less than -2.00 dioptre, -0.40 dioptre (for those between -2.25 and -3.00), -0.71 dioptre (for those between -4.25 and -5.00), and -1.15 dioptre for eyes initially above -6.25 dioptre. Vectored cylindrical correction exhibited response proportional to initial refraction, with a mean post-treatment cylinder of -1.83 dioptre for eyes formerly averaging -3.08 dioptre, -0.55 dioptre (eyes initially averaging -1.63 dioptre), and -0.51 dioptre (eyes initially averaging -0.67 dioptre). Vector analysis of post-treatment astigmatism showed 58% eyes exhibiting 51 or more degrees of axis shift, although 34% eyes remained within 20 degrees of their pretreatment axis. An effective reduction in spherocylindrical error was achieved with all eyes, although axis misalignment was a common event.

  9. Excimer Laser Versus Phakic Intraocular Lenses for Myopia and Astigmatism: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiting; Liu, Yu; Niu, Guangzeng; Ma, Jingxue

    2018-05-01

    Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared excimer laser refractive surgery and phakic intraocular lenses (PIOLs) for the treatment of myopia and astigmatism. An electronic literature search was performed using the PubMed, EBSCO, CNKI, and Cochrane Library database to identify prospective RCTs which compared excimer laser refractive surgery and PIOL with a follow-up time of at least 12 months. Efficacy, accuracy, safety outcomes, and complications were analyzed by standardized mean difference, risk ratio, and the pooled estimates according to a fixed effect model or random effect model. This review included 5 RCTs with a sum of 405 eyes. The range of myopia was 6.0 to 20.0 D with up to 4.0 D of astigmatism. The PIOL group was more likely to achieve a spherical equivalence within±1.0 D of target refraction at 12 months postoperatively (P=0.009), and was less likely to lose one or more lines of best spectacle corrected visual acuity than the LASER group (P=0.002). On the whole, there is no significant difference in efficacy and complications between the two kinds of surgeries. This meta-analysis indicated that PIOLs were safer and more accurate within 12 months of follow-up compared with excimer laser surgical for refractive errors.

  10. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments of polyamide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Yiu Wan Joanne

    Polyamides have found widespread application in various industrial sectors, for example, they are used in apparel, home furnishings and similar uses. However, the requirements for high quality performance products are continually increasing and these promote a variety of surface treatments for polymer modification. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments are ideally suited for polyamide modification because they can change the physical and chemical properties of the material without affecting its bulk features. This project aimed to study the modification of polyamides by UV excimer laser irradiation and low temperature plasma treatment. The morphological changes in the resulting samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). The chemical modifications were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and chemical force microscopy (CFM). Change in degree of crystallinity was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After high-fluence laser irradiation, topographical results showed that ripples of micrometer size form on the fibre surface. By contrast, sub-micrometer size structures form on the polyamide surface when the applied laser energy is well below its ablation threshold. After high-fluence laser irradiation, chemical studies showed that the surface oxygen content of polyamide is reduced. A reverse result is obtained with low-fluence treatment. The DSC result showed no significant change in degree of crystallinity in either high-fluence or low-fluence treated samples. The same modifications in polyamide surfaces were studied after low temperature plasma treatment with oxygen, argon or tetrafluoromethane gas. The most significant result was that the surface oxygen content of polyamide increased after oxygen and argon plasma treatments. Both treatments induced many hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxylic acid (-COOH

  11. Safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a 1000-Hz scanning spot excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Khoramnia, Ramin; Salgado, Josefina P; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof; Lohmann, Chris P; Winkler von Mohrenfels, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a 1000-Hz scanning spot excimer laser (Concept System 1000; WaveLight GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). LASIK was performed on twenty eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism (mean spherical equivalent refraction: -3.97±1.72 dioptres (D); mean cylinder: -0.84±0.77 D) using a microkeratome for flap creation and the Concept System 1000 for photoablation. Patients were examined preoperatively as well as 1, 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Manifest sphere and cylinder, uncorrected (UCDVA) and best corrected (BCDVA) distance visual acuity, corneal topography and pachymetry were analysed. We observed no adverse events that might have been associated with the use of a repetition rate of 1000 Hz. All eyes maintained or had improved BCDVA at 6 months after treatment when compared to preoperative values. Six months after LASIK, UCDVA was 20/20 or better in 85% and 20/25 or better in 100% of the eyes. The spherical equivalent refraction was within ±0.50 D in 95% of the eyes at 6 months after surgery. The refraction stayed stable over time; 95% of the eyes changed<0.5 D postoperatively. LASIK with the prototype 1000-Hz excimer laser was safe, efficient and predictable. The postoperative refraction was stable over time. There were no specific clinical side-effects that might be associated with the use of such a high repetition rate. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  12. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors with location-controlled crystal grains fabricated by excimer laser crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chun-Chien; Lee, Yao-Jen; Chiang, Ko-Yu; Wang, Jyh-Liang; Lee, I.-Che; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Wei, Kai-Fang; Chang, Ting-Kuo; Chen, Bo-Ting; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, location-controlled silicon crystal grains are fabricated by the excimer laser crystallization method which employs amorphous silicon spacer structure and prepatterned thin films. The amorphous silicon spacer in nanometer-sized width formed using spacer technology is served as seed crystal to artificially control superlateral growth phenomenon during excimer laser irradiation. An array of 1.8-μm-sized disklike silicon grains is formed, and the n-channel thin-film transistors whose channels located inside the artificially-controlled crystal grains exhibit higher performance of field-effect-mobility reaching 308cm2/Vs as compared with the conventional ones. This position-manipulated silicon grains are essential to high-performance and good uniformity devices.

  13. Topography-guided treatment of irregular astigmatism with the wavelight excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Jankov, Mirko R; Panagopoulou, Sophia I; Tsiklis, Nikolaos S; Hajitanasis, Georgos C; Aslanides, loannis M; Pallikaris, loannis G

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and predictability of correcting high irregular astigmatism in symptomatic eyes with the use of topography-guided photoablation. In a prospective, non-comparative case series, 16 consecutive symptomatic eyes of 11 patients with small hyperopic and myopic excimer laser optical zones, decentered and irregular ablation after corneal graft, and corneal scars were operated. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest and cycloplegic refraction, and corneal topography, with asphericity and regularity, were analyzed. LASIK (n = 10) and photorefractive keratectomy (n = 6) were performed using the ALLEGRETTO WAVE excimer laser and T-CAT software (Topography-guided Customized Ablation Treatment; WaveLight Laser Technologie AG, Erlangen, Germany). In the LASIK group, UCVA improved from 0.81 +/- 0.68 IogMAR (20/130) (range: 0.2 to 2.0) to 0.29 +/- 0.21 logMAR (20/39) (range: 0.1 to 0.7) at 6 months. In the PRK group, mean UCVA improved from 0.89 +/- 0.87 IogMAR (20/157) (range: 0.1 to 2.0) to 0.42 +/- 0.35 logMAR (20/53) (range: 0.1 to 1.0) at 6 months. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity did not change significantly in either group. One PRK patient lost one line of BSCVA. Refractive cylinder for the LASIK group improved from -2.53 +/- 1.71 diopters (D) (range: -0.75 to -5.75 D) to -1.28 +/- 0.99 D (range: 0 to -2.50 D) at 6 months. Refractive cylinder in the PRK group improved from -2.21 +/- 2.11 D (range: -0.25 to -5.50 D) to -1.10 +/- 0.42 D (range: -0.50 to -1.50 D). Index of surface irregularity showed a decrease from 60 +/- 12 (range: 46 to 89) to 50 +/- 9 (range: 32 to 63) at 6 months in the LASIK group whereas no significant change was noted in the PRK group. Subjective symptoms, such as glare, halos, ghost images, starbursts, and monocular diplopia, were not present postoperatively. Topography-guided LASIK and PRK resulted in a significant reduction of refractive cylinder and

  14. Negative charge emission due to excimer laser bombardment of sodium trisilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, S.C.; Jensen, L.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    We describe measurements of negative charge emission accompanying irradiation of sodium trisilicate glass (Na{sub 2}O{center dot}3SiO{sub 2}) with 248-nm excimer laser light at fluences on the order of 2 J/cm{sup 2} per pulse, i.e., at the threshold for ablative etching of the glass surface. The negative charge emission consists of a very prompt photoelectron burst coincident with the laser pulse, followed by a much slower plume of electrons and negative ions traveling with a high density cloud of positive ions, previously identified as primarily Na{sup +}. Using combinations of {bold E} and {bold B} fields in conjunction with time-of-flight methods,more » the negative ions were successfully separated from the plume and tentatively identified as O{sup {minus}}, Si{sup {minus}}, NaO{sup {minus}}, and perhaps NaSi{sup {minus}}. These negative species are probably formed by gas phase collisions in the near-surface region which result in electron attachment.« less

  15. CAD/CAM interface design of excimer laser micro-processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Tao; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-12-01

    Recently CAD/CAM technology has been gradually used in the field of laser processing. The excimer laser micro-processing system just identified G instruction before CAD/CAM interface was designed. However the course of designing a part with G instruction for users is too hard. The efficiency is low and probability of making errors is high. By secondary development technology of AutoCAD with Visual Basic, an application was developed to pick-up each entity's information in graph and convert them to each entity's processing parameters. Also an additional function was added into former controlling software to identify these processing parameters of each entity and realize continue processing of graphic. Based on the above CAD/CAM interface, Users can design a part in AutoCAD instead of using G instruction. The period of designing a part is sharply shortened. This new way of design greatly guarantees the processing parameters of the part is right and exclusive. The processing of complex novel bio-chip has been realized by this new function.

  16. Dynamics of excimer laser ablation of thin tungsten films studied by fast photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Zsolt; Hopp, Bela; Kantor, Zoltan; Ignacz, Ferenc; Szoerenyi, Tamas; Bor, Zsolt

    1994-09-01

    The time evolution of ablation and material transport during ArF excimer laser induced blow off of tungsten films from glass substrates is studied by fast photography using delayed dye laser pulses. The analysis of experimental results combined with heat flow calculations provides evidence that tungsten removal in the solid phase is the dominant mechanism in the 40 - 200 mJ/cm2 fluence domain, while partially inhomogeneous melting is observed between 200 and 800 mJ/cm2. In this fluence range, solid fragments and a halo consisting of molten droplets are observed indicating spatial separation of the two phases. The molten phase advances faster, forming a protective mist in front of the solid piece(s). At yet higher fluences (800 - 1000 mJ/cm2), a well separated solid phase could be recorded under the halo although model calculations suggest full vaporization of the layer. This unexpected phenomenon is explained by the optical shielding effect of the halo.

  17. Excimer laser assisted very fast exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide at room temperature under air ambient for Supercapacitors electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek Hosseini, S. M. B.; Baizaee, S. M.; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Dare Kordi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Excimer laser was used for reduction and exfoliation of graphite oxide (GO) at room temperature under air ambient. The prepared excimer laser reduced graphite oxide (XLRGO) is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis absorption techniques for surface, structural functional groups and band gap analysis. Electrochemical properties are investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and continues cyclic voltammetry (CCV) in 0.5 M Na2SO4 as electrolyte. Electrochemical investigations revealed that XLRGO electrode has enhanced supercapacitive performance including specific capacitance of 299 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s. Furthermore, CCV measurement showed that XLRGO electrode kept 97.8% of its initial capacitance/capacity after 4000 cycles. The obtained results from electrochemical investigations confirm that the reduction of GO by using an excimer laser produces high-quality graphene for supercapacitor applications without the need for additional operations.

  18. Does imiquimod pretreatment optimize 308-nm excimer laser (UVB) therapy in psoriasis patients?

    PubMed

    Tacastacas, Joselin D; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Soler, David C; Young, Andrew; Groft, Sarah; Honda, Kord; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Psoriasis continues to be a debilitating skin disease affecting 1-3% of the United States population. Although the effectiveness of several current biologic therapies have described this pathology as a IL-23, TNF-a and Th17-mediated disease, less invasive approaches are still in use and in need of refinement. One of these is the usage of narrow band-UVB (NB-UVB) therapy to deplete specifically intra-epidermal CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells to clear psoriatic plaques. In order to improve NB-UVB therapy, we sought to determine whether skin pre-treatment with the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) would help increase the efficiency of the former at resolving psoriatic plaques. Eucerin ® Original Moisturizing Lotion (topical vehicle) or Aldara ® (imiquimod 5% topical cream) were applied for 5 days once daily to a maximum contiguous area of 25 cm 2 (5 cm × 5 cm area). Patients were provided with sachets containing 12.5 mg of imiquimod each and were instructed to apply imiquimod (I) to two psoriasis plaques (5 sachets of imiquimod allotted to each plaque). A PHAROS excimer Laser EX-308 (Ra Medical Systems, Inc. Carlsbad, CA, USA) with an output of monochromatic 308-nm light and pulse width of 20-50 ns was used for all patients. Punch biopsies of psoriatic lesions (6 mm) were taken at 4 and 48 h after final application of topical treatment with or without excimer laser treatment. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed according to manufacturer's instructions and Inmunohistochemistry was used as described before. Our results suggests that although IMQ seemed to activate the type I interferon pathway as previously described, its concomitant usage with NB-UVB for clearing psoriatic skin was ineffective. Although upregulation of genes MxA, GRAMD1A and DMXL2 suggested that IMQ treatment did induce skin changes in psoriasis patients, more optimal dosing of IMQ and NB-UVB might be necessary to achieve desired treatment responses. The observation that psoriasis involvement was not

  19. Photoinitiator-free 3D scaffolds fabricated by excimer laser photocuring.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Balázs; Dante, Silvia; Brandi, Fernando

    2017-01-20

    Photoinitiator-free fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) scaffolds is achieved using a novel three-dimensional (3D) printing method called mask projected excimer laser stereolithography (MPExSL). The spatial resolution of photoinitiator-free curing is suitable for 3D layer-by-layer fabrication with a single layer thickness well controllable at tens to hundreds of microns using 248 nm wavelength for the irradiation. The photoinitiator-free scaffolds are superior compared to their counterparts fabricated by using photoinitiator molecules, showing a higher level of biocompatibility. A release of toxic chemicals from the photoinitiator containing scaffolds is proven by cell proliferation tests. In contrast, no toxic release is found from the photoinitiator-free scaffolds, resulting in the very same level of cell proliferation as the control sample. The demonstration of photoinitiator-free PEGDA scaffolds enables the fabrication of 3D scaffolds with the highest level of biocompatibility for both in vitro and in vivo applications.

  20. On the importance of electron impact processes in excimer-pumped alkali laser-induced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Markosyan, Aram H.

    We present that the excimer-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has recently been demonstrated in several different mixtures of alkali vapor and rare gas. Without special preventive measures, plasma formation during operation of XPAL is unavoidable. Some recent advancements in the availability of reliable data for electron impact collisions with atoms and molecules have enabled development of a complete reaction mechanism to investigate XPAL-induced plasmas. Here, we report on pathways leading to plasma formation in an Ar/C 2H 6/CsAr/C2H6/Cs XPAL sustained at different cell temperatures. We find that depending on the operating conditions, the contribution of electron impact processes can bemore » as little as bringing the excitation of Cs(P 2) states to higher level Cs** states, and can be as high as bringing Cs(P 2) excited states to a full ionization. Increasing the input pumping power or cell temperature, or decreasing the C 2H 6 mole fraction leads to electron impact processes dominating in plasma formation over the energy pooling mechanisms previously reported in literature.« less

  1. Post-growth annealing of germanium-tin alloys using pulsed excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lanxiang; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qian

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the impact of pulsed excimer laser anneal on fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}) epitaxially grown on Ge substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} with Sn content up to 17% after annealing using various conditions is studied. Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples annealed at 80 mJ/cm{sup 2} or 150 mJ/cm{sup 2} have no observable changes with respect to the as-grown sample. However, Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples annealed at 250 mJ/cm{sup 2} or 300 mJ/cm{sup 2} have Sn-richmore » islands on the surface, which is due to Sn segregation in the compressively strained epitaxial film. For Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11}, significant Sn redistribution occurs only when annealed at 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}, indicating that it has better thermal stability than Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of Sn-rich islands and Sn-depleted regions.« less

  2. Coronary Intervention with the Excimer Laser: Review of the Technology and Outcome Data

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, John; Din, Jehangir N; Talwar, Suneel

    2016-01-01

    Excimer laser coronary atherectomy (ELCA) is a long-established adjunctive therapy that can be applied during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Technical aspects have evolved and there is an established safety and efficacy record across a number of clinical indications in contemporary interventional practice where complex lesions are routinely encountered. The role of ELCA during PCI for thrombus, non-crossable or non-expandable lesions, chronic occlusions and stent under-expansion are discussed in this review. The key advantage of ELCA over alternative atherectomy interventions is delivery on a standard 0.014-inch guidewire. Additionally, the technique can be mastered by any operator after a short period of training. The major limitation is presence of heavy calcification although when rotational atherectomy (RA) is required but cannot be applied due to inability to deliver the dedicated RotaWireTM (Boston Scientific), ELCA can create an upstream channel to permit RotaWire passage and complete the case with RA – the RASER technique. PMID:29588701

  3. Ruthenium Grubbs' catalyst nanostructures grown by UV-excimer-laser ablation for self-healing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aïssa, B.; Nechache, R.; Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W.; Merle, P. G.; Rosei, F.

    2012-10-01

    A self healing composite material consisting of 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene (5E2N) monomer reacted with Ruthenium Grubbs' Catalyst (RGC) was prepared. First, the kinetics of the 5E2N ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) reaction RGC was studied as a function of temperature. We show that the polymerization reaction is still effective in a large temperature range (-15 to 45 °C), occurring at short time scales (less than 1 min at 40 °C). Second, the amount of RGC required for ROMP reaction significantly decreased through its nanostructuration by means of a UV-excimer laser ablation process. RGC nanostructures of few nanometers in size where successfully obtained directly on silicon substrates. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data strongly suggest that the RGC still keep its original stoichiometry after nanostructuration. More importantly, the associated ROMP reaction was successfully achieved at an extreme low RGC concentration equivalent to (11.16 ± 1.28) × 10-4 Vol.%, occurring at very short time reaction. This approach opens new prospects for using healing agent nanocomposite materials for self-repair functionality, thereby obtaining a higher catalytic efficiency per unit mass.

  4. Hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass surfaces for fiber reinforced composite implants via surface ablation by Excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Huhtinen, Hannu; Mattila, Riina; Donati, Ivan; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2017-11-01

    In skeletal reconstructions, composites, such as bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate resin reinforced with glass fibers, are potentially useful alternatives to metallic implants. Recently, we reported a novel method to prepare bioactive surfaces for these composites. Surface etching by Excimer laser was used to expose bioactive glass granules embedded in the resin. The purpose of this study was to analyze two types of bioactive surfaces created by this technique. The surfaces contained bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite granules. The selected processing parameters were adequate for the creation of the surfaces. However, the use of porous hydroxyapatite prevented the complete exposure the granules. In cell culture, for bioactive glass coatings, the pattern of proliferation of MG63 cells was comparable to that in the positive control group (Ti6Al4V) while inferior cell proliferation was observed on the surfaces containing hydroxyapatite granules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed osteointegration of implants with both types of surfaces. The technique is suitable for the exposure of solid bioactive glass granules. However, the long-term performance of the surfaces needs further assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Excimer Laser Surgery: Biometrical Iris Eye Recognition with Cyclorotational Control Eye Tracker System.

    PubMed

    Pajic, Bojan; Cvejic, Zeljka; Mijatovic, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Mueller, Joerg

    2017-05-25

    A prospective comparative study assessing the importance of the intra-operative dynamic rotational tracking-especially in the treatment of astigmatisms in corneal refractive Excimer laser correction-concerning clinical outcomes is presented. The cyclotorsion from upright to supine position was measured using iris image comparison. The Group 1 of patients was additionally treated with cyclorotational control and Group 2 only with X-Y control. Significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the mean postoperative cylinder refraction ( p < 0.05). The mean cyclotorsion can be calculated to 3.75° with a standard deviation of 3.1°. The total range of torsion was from -14.9° to +12.6°. Re-treatment rate was 2.2% in Group 1 and 8.2% in Group 2, which is highly significant ( p < 0.01). The investigation confirms that the dynamic rotational tracking system used for LASIK results in highly predictable refraction quality with significantly less postoperative re-treatments.

  6. Excimer Laser Surgery: Biometrical Iris Eye Recognition with Cyclorotational Control Eye Tracker System

    PubMed Central

    Pajic, Bojan; Cvejic, Zeljka; Mijatovic, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Mueller, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    A prospective comparative study assessing the importance of the intra-operative dynamic rotational tracking—especially in the treatment of astigmatisms in corneal refractive Excimer laser correction—concerning clinical outcomes is presented. The cyclotorsion from upright to supine position was measured using iris image comparison. The Group 1 of patients was additionally treated with cyclorotational control and Group 2 only with X-Y control. Significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the mean postoperative cylinder refraction (p < 0.05). The mean cyclotorsion can be calculated to 3.75° with a standard deviation of 3.1°. The total range of torsion was from −14.9° to +12.6°. Re-treatment rate was 2.2% in Group 1 and 8.2% in Group 2, which is highly significant (p < 0.01). The investigation confirms that the dynamic rotational tracking system used for LASIK results in highly predictable refraction quality with significantly less postoperative re-treatments. PMID:28587100

  7. On the importance of electron impact processes in excimer-pumped alkali laser-induced plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Markosyan, Aram H.

    2017-10-18

    We present that the excimer-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has recently been demonstrated in several different mixtures of alkali vapor and rare gas. Without special preventive measures, plasma formation during operation of XPAL is unavoidable. Some recent advancements in the availability of reliable data for electron impact collisions with atoms and molecules have enabled development of a complete reaction mechanism to investigate XPAL-induced plasmas. Here, we report on pathways leading to plasma formation in an Ar/C 2H 6/CsAr/C2H6/Cs XPAL sustained at different cell temperatures. We find that depending on the operating conditions, the contribution of electron impact processes can bemore » as little as bringing the excitation of Cs(P 2) states to higher level Cs** states, and can be as high as bringing Cs(P 2) excited states to a full ionization. Increasing the input pumping power or cell temperature, or decreasing the C 2H 6 mole fraction leads to electron impact processes dominating in plasma formation over the energy pooling mechanisms previously reported in literature.« less

  8. Fabrication of self-organized conical microstructures by excimer laser irradiation of cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuming; Liu Liang; Fan Shoushan

    2005-02-07

    Self-organized conical microstructures are fabricated by 308 nm XeCl excimer laser irradiation of cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube composites in air. The morphology of the surface on the composite films is studied, varying the total number and fluence of the applied laser pulses. A simple mechanism of the fabrication based on the evaporation of cyanoacrylate and the burning of carbon nanotubes is proposed. The conical peak structures of cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube composite films show good field-emission properties. Similar structures are also observed on carbon nanotube arrays.

  9. Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center: 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Warren, Cathy; Macy, Jonathan I.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Hofbauer, John; Berlin, Michael S.

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the authors' 3-year experience with excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on 240 eyes of 161 patients. With constant laser emission parameters, nitrogen (N2) flow across the cornea was used on 79 eyes while 161 eyes had no N2 flow. 74 eyes were operated on without fixation with a suction ring. Postoperative pain management included patching and oral analgesics in 77 eyes and the use of topical Diclofenac or Ketorolac, and a therapeutic soft contact lens in 163 eyes. Follow up ranged from 1 month (206 eyes) to 36 months (10 eyes).

  10. Excimer laser-induced hydrohynamical effects and surface modifications on silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Gines; Autric, Michel

    1996-04-01

    The use of lasers in many applications requires an understanding and control of the fundamental processes involved during the laser radiation-material interaction. The importance and the duration of the phenomena involved (optical, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, radiative) depend on parameters such as the power density of the laser radiation, the nature and the surface morphology of the material, the surrounding gas and the wavelength of the radiation. A part of the incident energy is reflected by the surface, while the remaining quantity of this energy is absorbed by the material. This incident energy contributes to heating, melting, vaporization and plasma formation if the laser intensity is sufficiently high. The present study is devoted to the ceramic material irradiation in air by an excimer laser at a wavelength of 248 nm and a pulse duration of 20 ns. The objective is to understand the different phenomena induced by radiation and to improve mechanical properties of the surface. Presented results concern the dynamics of plasmas and shock waves, plus surface modifications (porosity, roughness, composition changes) on silicon carbide samples (SiC). A part of the study has resulted in the characterization of the flow created in front of the sample revealing different hydrodynamical regimes. Visualizations of the luminous plasma front and shock waves have been obtained using a fast electronic camera IMACON 790 and a ICCD camera. These optical devices have permitted us to observe simultaneously the formation and expansion of different fronts (plasma and shock waves) propagating into the surrounding gas. The results have been compared to the theory. Complex structures inside the plume have been observed inducing a turbulence phenomena some milliseconds after the irradiation. On the other hand, the surface morphology has been characterized by observations with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showing important modifications of the morphology according to

  11. Microgroove fabrication with excimer laser ablation techniques for optical fiber array alignment purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naessens, Kris; Van Hove, An; Coosemans, Thierry; Verstuyft, Steven; Vanwassenhove, Luc; Van Daele, Peter; Baets, Roel G.

    2000-11-01

    Currently, an ever increasing need for bandwidth, compactness and efficiency characterizes the world of interconnect and data communication. This tendency has already led to serial links being gradually replaced by parallel optical interconnect solutions. However, as the maximum capacity for the latter will be reached in the near future, new approaches are required to meet demand. One possible option is to switch to 2D parallel implementations of fiber arrays. In this paper we present the fabrication of a 2D connector for coupling a 4x8 array of plastic optical fibers to RCLED or VCSEL arrays. The connector consists primarily of dedicated PMMA plates in which arrays of 8 precisely dimensioned grooves at a pitch of 250 micrometers are introduced. The trenches are each 127 micrometers deep and their width is optimized to allow fixation of plastic optical fibers. We used excimer laser ablation for prototype fabrication of these alignment microstructures. In a later stage, the plates can be replicated using standard molding techniques. The laser ablation technique is extremely well suited for rapid prototyping and proves to be a versatile process yielding high accuracy dimensioning and repeatability of features in a wide diversity of materials. The dependency of the performance in terms of quality of the trenches (bottom roughness) and wall angle on various parameters (wavelength, energy density, pulse frequency and substrate material) is discussed. The fabricated polymer sheets with grooves are used to hold optical fibers by means of a UV-curable adhesive. In a final phase, the plates are stacked and glued in order to realize the 2D-connector of plastic optical fibers for short distance optical interconnects.

  12. Clinical results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: a multicenter study of 265 eyes.

    PubMed

    Aron-Rosa, D S; Colin, J; Aron, B; Burin, N; Cochener, B; Febraro, J L; Gallinaro, C; Ganem, S; Valdes, R

    1995-11-01

    Efficacy, predictability, and safety of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy were evaluated at centers in Paris and Brest, France. Photoablation was performed with the VISX laser on 265 eyes (151 at the Paris center and 114 at the Brest center). The eyes were clinically and statistically evaluated over a six month follow-up. Initial myopia ranged from -0.7 to -19.4 diopters (D) (mean spherical equivalent [SE] -5.9 D) in the Paris center and from -0.9 to -14.5 D (SE -4.5 D) in the Brest center. At both centers, the mean uncorrected visual acuity was worse than 20/200; over 90% of cases in each center had a best uncorrected visual acuity of 20/100 or worse. Results are reported globally and for subgroups of myopia: Group A, SE better than or equal to -3.0 D; Group B, SE worse than -3.0 D and better than or equal to -7.0 D; Group C, SE worse than -7.0 D. Uncorrected visual acuity was significantly improved in the patients followed for six months; 64% of Paris cases and 62% of Brest cases obtained an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Predictability of the treatment was good; 67% of Paris eyes and 74% of Brest eyes were less than 1.0 D from the intended correction after six months. The data suggest that the initial myopia affected the efficacy and predictability of the treatment; results in the mild to moderate myopia eyes were significantly better than results in the severe myopia eyes. One case of visual acuity regression (less than one line) was observed in the two groups. This was associated with corneal haze of moderate intensity.

  13. Treatment of psoriasis and long-term maintenance using 308 nm excimer laser, clobetasol spray, and calcitriol ointment: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jillian W; Nguyen, Tien V; Bhutani, Tina; Koo, John Y M

    2012-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by thickened red plaques covered with silvery scales. Excimer laser therapy is a cutting-edge advancement in UVB phototherapy. In contrast to traditional phototherapy, the 308 nm excimer laser only targets psoriasis plaques, while it spares uninvolved skin. It allows for treatment with a supra-erythmogenic dose of UVB irradiation. Targeted UVB therapy is a possible treatment especially for many who have failed topical treatments, systemic therapy, and traditional phototherapy. For safe and effective psoriasis treatment, a combination of therapies may be used, including a combination of laser treatment with topical medications. We present two cases demonstrating effective treatment with excimer laser in conjunction with clobetasol spray and calcitriol ointment for 12 weeks. Long-term near-clearance of psoriasis was sustained after 6 months and one-year follow up periods without further therapy.

  14. Effectiveness of 308-nm Excimer Laser Therapy in Treating Alopecia Areata, Determined by Examining the Treated Sides of Selected Alopecic Patches.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ji Won; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Bang, Chan Yl; Shin, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have reported the use of 308-nm excimer laser therapy for treating alopecia areata (AA); however, the effectiveness of this therapy on a theoretical basis has not yet been comparatively analyzed. To determine the therapeutic effect of excimer laser therapy on AA. One alopecic patch was divided into control and treated sides in 10 patients with AA. Then, 308-nm excimer laser therapy was administered twice a week for 12 weeks. Photograph and phototrichogram analyses were performed. Photographic assessments by both dermatologists and individuals of the general population showed objective improvements after excimer laser therapy. On the treated side, the hair count and hair diameter had statistically increased after treatment. However, only the hair diameter was found to be significantly high in the treated half when it was compared with the control side. The 308-nm excimer laser has a therapeutic effect on AA, which is proven by photograph and phototrichogram analysis by a side-by-side comparison. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Treatment of moderate-to-high hyperopia with the WaveLight Allegretto 400 and EX500 excimer laser systems

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Manoj; Pei, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of treating patients with +3.00 diopters (D) to +6.00 D of hyperopia via laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the WaveLight Allegretto 400 and EX500 excimer laser systems. Setting Private clinical ophthalmology practice. Patients and methods This was a retrospective study of patients undergoing LASIK treatments of +3.00 to +6.00 D on two different WaveLight laser systems: 163 eyes on the 400 (Hertz) Hz system and 54 eyes on the 500 Hz system. The duration of follow-up was 6 months postoperation. Data were evaluated for uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical equivalents (SEQs), and changes in these parameters (eg, loss of vision, regression over time). Results Treatment with both lasers was safe and effective, with loss of one line of CDVA in four of 162 eyes using the 400 Hz laser system, and none of the 54 eyes with the 500 Hz laser system. Overall, regression ≥0.75 D from goal at 6 months was observed in 11.7% (19/163) of eyes in the 400 Hz laser group and 9.26% (5/54) of eyes in the 500 Hz laser group (regression ≥0.50 D =77.9% [127/163] and 77.8% [42/54], respectively). The mean SEQ regressions for all eyes with moderate hyperopia were 0.10 and 0.18 D for those with high hyperopia. Conclusions Both the 400 and 500 Hz excimer laser systems were safe and effective for the LASIK treatment of moderate-to-high hyperopia. The overall rate of regression was low and the amount of regression was relatively small with both systems. PMID:28579751

  16. Surface morphology and subsurface damaged layer of various glasses machined by 193-nm ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunn-shiuan; Chen, Ying-Tung; Chao, Choung-Lii; Liu, Yih-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the high bonding energy, most of the glasses are removed by photo-thermal rather than photo-chemical effect when they are ablated by the 193 or 248nm excimer lasers. Typically, the machined surface is covered by re-deposited debris and the sub-surface, sometimes surface as well, is scattered with micro-cracks introduced by thermal stress generated during the process. This study aimed to investigate the nature and extent of the surface morphology and sub-surface damaged (SSD) layer induced by the laser ablation. The effects of laser parameters such as fluence, shot number and repetition rate on the morphology and SSD were discussed. An ArF excimer laser (193 nm) was used in the present study to machine glasses such as soda-lime, Zerodur and BK-7. It is found that the melt ejection and debris deposition tend to pile up higher and become denser in structure under a higher energy density, repetition rate and shot number. There are thermal stress induced lateral cracks when the debris covered top layer is etched away. Higher fluence and repetition rate tend to generate more lateral and median cracks which propagate into the substrate. The changes of mechanical properties of the SSD layer were also investigated.

  17. Perspectives of using the 223-nm wavelength of the KrCl excimer laser for refractive surgery and for the treatment of some eye diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayev, Sergei N.; Chernikh, Valery V.; Razhev, Alexander M.; Zhupikov, Andrey A.

    2000-06-01

    The new surgical UV ophthalmic laser system Medilex based on the KrCl (223 nm) excimer laser for refractive surgery was created. The comparative analysis of using the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex based on the ArF (193 nm) and the KrCl (223 nm) excimer lasers for the correction of refractive errors was performed. The system with the radiation wavelength of 223 nanometer of the KrCl excimer laser for refractive surgery was shown to have several medical and technical advantages over the system with the traditionally used radiation wavelength of 193 nanometer of the ArF excimer laser. In addition the use of the wavelength of 223 nanometer extends functional features of the system, allowing to make not only standard for this type systems surgical and therapeutic procedures but also to treat such ocular diseases as the glaucoma and herpetic keratities. For the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex three variations of the beam delivery system including special rotating masks and different beam homogenize systems were developed. All created beam delivery systems are able to make the correction of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and myopic or hyperopic astigmatism and may be used for therapeutic procedures. The results of the initial treatments of refractive error corrections using the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex for both photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK procedures are presented.

  18. [Analysis of AC/A ratio after myopic excimer laser in situ keratomileusis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-ying; Liu, Shuang-zhen

    2003-03-01

    To study the changes of AC/A ratio of myopia after excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). 135 myopia patients were treated by LASIK, their AC/A ratios were measured with synoptohore before surgery and 3 months after surgery. The average AC/A ratios of naked eyes or eyes wearing glasses before surgery and the naked after surgery were (0.724 +/- 0.587) (Delta)/D, (2.754 +/- 1.565) (Delta)/D, (1.618 +/- 1.027) (Delta)/D in turn. There were significant difference among those groups (P < 0.001). That also appeared in different degree of myopia naked before surgery (P < 0.01). We found no significant difference between the groups wearing glasses before surgery and naked after surgery (P > 0.05). A positive correlation was built up between postoperative AC/A ratio and AC/A ratio of wearing glasses or refractive diopter before surgery (r = 0.550, P < 0.001; r = 0.185, P < 0.005). And the postoperative AC/A ratios had a negative correlation to age or length of ocular axis (r = -0.340, P < 0.001; r = -0.192, P < 0.002). The regression equation for postoperative AC/A ratios was figured out as Y((Delta)/D) = 4.080 0 - 0.031 8X(1) - 0.097 1X(2) + 0.325 0X(3) (P < 0.001). X(1) = age (year), X(2) = length of ocular axis (mm), X(3) = preoperative AC/A ratio with weaning glasses ((Delta)/D). The naked AC/A ratios are higher than the preoperative's after LASIK, but lower than the wearing glasses's before surgery. It is influenced by the factors, such as: the preoperative AC/A ratio of wearing glasses, the length of ocular axis and the age.

  19. [Histopathological study of wound healing process of rat tongue and femur by excimer laser irradiation--possibility of cutting of vital tissue by laser irradiation].

    PubMed

    Ochiai, S

    1990-12-01

    The possibilities of bone and soft tissue ablation without thermal damage by 248 nm KrF excimer laser irradiation were examined. A defect was made on the rat tongue by laser at pulse width: 15 nsec, power density: 12 W/cm2, pulse repetition rate: 20 Hz and irradiated time: 60 seconds. The same size defect was made by stainless steel surgical knife for control. The tongues were examined histopathologically at timed sequence from 1 hour to 7 days after operation. The rat femur was cut by laser at pulse width: 15 nsec, power density: 2.6 kW/cm2, pulse repetition rate: 30 Hz and irradiated time: 3 minutes. The femur was amputated by dental diamond disc for control. The femurs were examined histopathologically at timed sequence from 1 hour to 16 weeks after operation. The rat tongue was easily excised with little thermal injury by laser irradiation, and its healing process is almost the same as that of the control. The laser irradiation had no hemostatic effect. The femur could be amputated by laser irradiation but its wound healing was prolonged. The laser ablation stump showed massive necrosis probably due to the thermal injury and these necrotic bones likely disturbed the wound repair. The degree of the thermal injury by the excimer laser irradiation might depend on the irradiation condition because the condition of bone amputation was stronger than that of tongue excision.

  20. Controllable Change of Photoluminescence Spectra of Silicone Rubber Modified by 193 nm ArF Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Iyono, Minako; Inoue, Narumi

    2009-12-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of silicone rubber ([SiO(CH3)2]n) photochemically modified by a 193 nm ArF excimer laser was found to be controllable. Compared with the modification in air, the photoluminescence spectra could be blueshifted by the modification in vacuum or the additional irradiation of ArF excimer laser in vacuum after the modification in air. To redshift, on the other hand, the additional irradiation of a 157 nm F2 laser in air after the modification in air, the modification in oxygen gas, or the postannealing after the modification in oxygen gas was effective. The blue and redshifts of the photoluminescence were essentially due to the acceleration of reduction and oxidation reactions of silicone rubber, respectively, because the photoluminescence derives its origin from oxygen deficiency centers and peroxy centers of the silica structure in the modified silicone rubber. On the basis of the spectra changes, colorful light-guiding sheets made of silicone rubber under illumination of a 375 nm light-emitting diode were successfully fabricated for cellular phone use.

  1. Endobronchial Forceps-Assisted and Excimer Laser-Assisted Inferior Vena Cava Filter Removal: The Data, Where We Are, and How It Is Done.

    PubMed

    Chen, James X; Montgomery, Jennifer; McLennan, Gordon; Stavropoulos, S William

    2018-06-01

    The recognition of inferior vena cava filter related complications has motivated increased attentiveness in clinical follow-up of patients with inferior vena cava filters and has led to development of multiple approaches for retrieving filters that are challenging or impossible to remove using conventional techniques. Endobronchial forceps and excimer lasers are tools for designed to aid in complex inferior vena cava filter removals. This article discusses endobronchial forceps-assisted and excimer laser-assisted inferior vena cava filter retrievals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Space qualified laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Frank; Schwander, Thomas; Lange, Robert; Smutny, Berry

    2006-04-01

    Tesat-Spacecom has developed a series of fiber coupled single frequency lasers for space applications ranging from onboard metrology for space borne FTIR spectrometers to step tunable seed lasers for LIDAR applications. The cw-seed laser developed for the ESA AEOLUS Mission shows a 3* 10 -11 Allen variance from 1 sec time intervals up to 1000 sec. Q-switched lasers with stable beam pointing under space environments are another field of development. One important aspect of a space borne laser system is a reliable fiber coupled laser diode pump source around 808nm. A dedicated development concerning chip design and packaging yielded in a 5*10 6h MTTF (mean time to failure) for the broad area emitters. Qualification and performance test results for the different laser assemblies will be presented and their application in the different space programs.

  3. Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis with optimized, fast-repetition, and cyclotorsion control excimer laser to treat hyperopic astigmatism with high cylinder.

    PubMed

    Alió Del Barrio, Jorge L; Tiveron, Mauro; Plaza-Puche, Ana B; Amesty, María A; Casanova, Laura; García, María J; Alió, Jorge L

    2017-10-18

    To evaluate the visual outcomes after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery to correct primary compound hyperopic astigmatism with high cylinder using a fast repetition rate excimer laser platform with optimized aspheric profiles and cyclotorsion control. Eyes with primary simple or compound hyperopic astigmatism and a cylinder power ≥3.00 D had uneventful femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK with a fast repetition rate excimer laser ablation, aspheric profiles, and cyclotorsion control. Visual, refractive, and aberrometric results were evaluated at the 3- and 6-month follow-up. The astigmatic outcome was evaluated using the Alpins method and ASSORT software. This study enrolled 80 eyes at 3 months and 50 eyes at 6 months. The significant reduction in refractive sphere and cylinder 3 and 6 months postoperatively (p<0.01) was associated with an improved uncorrected distance visual acuity (p<0.01). A total of 23.75% required retreatment 3 months after surgery. Efficacy and safety indices at 6 months were 0.90 and 1.00, respectively. At 6 months, 80% of eyes had an SE within ±0.50 D and 96% within ±1.00 D. No significant differences were detected between the third and the sixth postoperative months in refractive parameters. A significant increase in the spherical aberration was detected, but not in coma. The correction index was 0.94 at 3 months. Laser in situ keratomileusis for primary compound hyperopic astigmatism with high cylinder (>3.00 D) using the latest excimer platforms with cyclotorsion control, fast repetition rate, and optimized aspheric profiles is safe, moderately effective, and predictable.

  4. Update on excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center: two-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Warren, Cathy; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Macy, Jonathan I.; Hofbauer, John; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1993-06-01

    Our two year experience with excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia on 160 eyes of 128 patients is described. All eyes were treated with a VISX Twenty- Twenty excimer laser, with the following parameters: radiant exposure 160 mJ/cm2, frequency 5 Hz, ablation zone diameter 5.0 to 5.5 mm, and stromal ablation rate 0.18 to 0.33 (mu) /pulse. A suction fixation ring was used in all cases either with nitrogen flow (79 eyes) or without nitrogen flow (81 eyes) across the cornea. Follow-up ranged from one month (152 eyes) to 24 months (12 eyes). The results are stable between 3 and 24 months with less than 0.25 D change in the mean postoperative spherical equivalents. In eyes with a follow-up of 6 to 24 months, 77% to 100% were 20/40 or better uncorrected, and 84% to 92% were corrected to within +/- 1 D of emmetropia. Further follow-up is needed to assess the long term safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  5. How predictable are the results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy? A review.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, T

    1995-10-01

    At the close of 1994, the AOA News reported that at least 14 companies were preparing to market equipment for excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). More than a dozen PRK centers had been formed for the purpose of recruiting optometrists to co-manage PRK patients. Because the surgery is a "no-touch" computer-driven procedure whose duration is measured in seconds, the preoperative and postoperative care of PRK patients will assume major importance. Optometrists who will be asked to take part in the management of PRK patients must be able to counsel patients on matters such as the predictability of the procedure in terms of postoperative refractive error and visual acuity, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences such as difficulty in night driving. Information currently available, mainly as a result of studies conducted in other countries, shows that the results of PRK are highly predictable for preoperative myopia up to about -3.00 D and somewhat less predictable for myopia between -3.00 and -6.00 D, whereas for myopia greater than -6.00 D the probability of achieving a full correction decreases rapidly with increasing amounts of myopia. As compared to radial keratotomy (RK) in which the postoperative refractive error drifts relentlessly in the hyperopic direction, PRK brings about an initial hyperopic shift followed by regression leading to increasing myopia. Researchers disagree on the cause of the postoperative hyperopic shift and regression, and on the value of various methods of controlling regression including the use of wider and deeper ablation profiles and the postoperative use of corticosteroids and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. It is too early to determine whether the myopic creep in PRK will be as persistent as the hyperopic creep in RK, but it is likely that whereas presbyopic post-RK patients may have adequate distance vision but require corrective lenses for reading, presbyopic post-PRK patients may be sufficiently myopic

  6. Visualization of corona discharge induced by UV (248 nm) pulses of a KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Ohkubo, Toshikazu; Kanazawa, Seiji; Nomoto, Yukiharu; Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Kocik, Marek

    2000-11-01

    A KrF excimer laser (248 nm) was used to induce DC corona discharge streamers in air between the electrodes of a needle-to-plane geometry. The UV laser beam pulses were transformed into the form of a laser sheet (1.5 mm thick and 20 mm-wide) that was positioned along the axis directed from the needle electrode to the plane electrode. The laser pulses were time-synchronized with the exposure of an ICCD camera that record images of the corona streamers induced by the laser sheet. The laser pulse energy flux (75 MW/cm2) crossing the gap was high enough to induce corona streamers with a reliability of 100% even at relatively low operating voltages (e.g., 15 kV) at which self-sustained streamers could not occur. Due to the full synchronization of the corona streamer onset, induced by the laser pulse and the exposure of the ICCD camera, 2-D visualization of the corona streamer evolution with a time resolution of 10 ns was possible. The recorded images made possible determining such features of the corona discharge streamer as its velocity (2.5 105 m/s) and the diameters of the leader channel (200 micrometers ) and the leader streamers (100 micrometers ).

  7. High-tensile strength sticking induced by ArF excimer laser surface treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Bela; Revesz, K.; Bor, Zsolt

    1998-07-01

    A successful enhancement of sticking of PTFE is demonstrated using ArF excimer laser irradiation in the presence of novel photoreagents. The applied laser fluence was very low at the sample - photoreagent liquid interface compared to the energy density applied in earlier investigations. After the treatment the PTFE films were glued by epoxy resin. It was found that at low doses the tensile strength of the sticking increased rapidly with the UV pulse number and the reached a saturation value, which was 6.66 MPa for triethylamine, 5.56 MPa in the case of 1,2-diaminoethane and 4.64 MPa for triethylene-tetramine. These are around two hundred times higher than the value of the untreated surface. It was found that this procedure makes the metallization and painting of PTFE surface also possible. A photoinduced electron transfer mechanism was suggested to describe the photoreaction, which is responsible for the increase of adhesion features on PTFE surface.

  8. One-kilohertz eye tracker and active intraoperative torsion detection in the NIDEK CXIII and Quest excimer lasers.

    PubMed

    Waring, George O

    2009-10-01

    To describe recent technological additions to the NIDEK CXIII and Quest excimer lasers. A summary article with data from previous published studies outlining the benefits of newer technology. The addition of a 1-kHz infrared eye tracker decreased the spread of laser spot placement from a mean of 228.79 microm without a tracker to 38.47 microm with the eye tracker. The addition of real-time torsion error correction produced a statistically significantly lower cylinder dispersion, mean manifest refractive cylinder, and error of angle postoperatively in eyes that underwent LASIK. The incorporation of an ultrahigh speed eye tracker and active cyclotorsion correction surpasses the minimal technology criteria required for accurate wavefront-based ablations. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    PubMed

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of central venous gradient using excimer laser lead extraction of chronic indwelling pacemaker leads in the setting of ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Alexies; Gentlesk, Philip J; Peele, Mark E; Eckart, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Device therapy is becoming common in those patients with renal insufficiency. Coexisting need for arteriovenous (AV) fistula placement is often contemplated relative to device placement. We describe the excimer laser lead extraction of a malfunctioning chronic atrial pacemaker lead ipsilateral to an AV fistula.

  11. Experimental investigation of a pulsed Rb-Ar excimer-pumped alkali laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongling; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Mingqiang; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Xu, Zuyan

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results of an exciplex-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) at 780 nm based on the 52P3/2 → 52S1/2 transition of the Rb atom in mixtures of Rb vapor and Ar. A laboratory-built Ti:sapphire laser with a pulse repetition rate of 3 kHz and a pulse width of 100 ns is used as the pump source. The maximum laser pulse energy of 0.26 µJ at 780 nm is obtained under an absorbed pump pulse energy of 42 µJ at 755 nm in mixtures of Rb vapor and Ar at a temperature of 423 K, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 0.62%. Further experiments show that the output laser at 780 nm can always be detected for pump wavelengths ranging from 754 to 759 nm, indicating that Rb-Ar mixtures can be effectively pumped by commercial laser diodes (LDs) with a bandwidth of 5 nm.

  12. Comparison of two techniques of marking the horizontal axis during excimer laser keratorefractive surgery for myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Burka, Jenna M; Bower, Kraig S; Cute, David L; Stutzman, Richard D; Subramanian, Prem S; Rabin, Jeff C

    2005-04-01

    To compare two methods of limbal marking used during laser refractive surgery for myopic astigmatism. Retrospective chart review. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients who underwent photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) or laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopic astigmatism were marked preoperatively to identify the horizontal axis. In 18 eyes, marks were placed at the slit lamp (SL) with the slit beam set at 180 degrees as a reference. In 24 eyes, marks were placed in the laser room (LR) immediately before reclining under the laser. All treatments were performed with the Alcon LADARVision excimer laser system. Vector analysis of postoperative cylinder and reduction in cylinder and uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity were evaluated for both groups. The mean postoperative magnitude of error was -0.19 +/- 0.44 diopters for the LR group and -0.09 +/- 0.42 diopters for the SL group (P = .439, NS). Both groups had a mean angle of error indicating an overall counterclockwise rotation of axis with an angle of error of 6.3 +/- 8.7 degrees for the LR group and 8.0 +/- 10.2 degrees for the SL group (P = .562, NS). We found no significant difference in outcomes with an overall trend toward undercorrection of cylinder in both groups, leaving room for improvement after refractive surgery for myopic astigmatism.

  13. Evaluation of some technical factors affecting surgical outcome in photorefractive keratectomy with the VISX 2020 excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    1995-05-01

    Some technical factors relating to the use of the VISX model 20/20 excimer laser for photorefractive keratectomy will be discussed and the way they affect the final optical correction will be demonstrated, as follows: (1) Discontinuation of nitrogen flow: improved corneal haze but induced a mean undercorrection of 0.8 D, 18 months postoperatively. (2) Discontinuation of the use of the fixation ring did not affect centration in a statistically significant fashion. (3) Enlargement of the optical from 5.0 mm to 6.0 mm zone did not affect the refractive outcome. Visual acuity was improved in eyes which had PRK done with a 6.0 mm optical zone.

  14. The safety and efficacy of the 308-nm excimer laser for pigment correction of hypopigmented scars and striae alba.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Bernstein, Leonard J; Friedman, Paul M; Geronemus, Roy G

    2004-08-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of the 308-nm excimer laser in pigment correction of hypopigmented scars and striae alba. Institutional review board-approved randomized controlled trial. Private research center. Volunteer sample of 31 adult subjects with hypopigmented scars or striae alba distributed on the face, torso, or extremities. Lesions were randomized to receive treatment or not, with site-matched normal control areas. Treatments were initiated with a minimal erythema dose minus 50 mJ/cm(2) to affected areas. Subsequent treatments were performed biweekly until 50% to 75% pigment correction, then every 2 weeks thereafter until a maximum of 10 treatments, 75% increase in colorimetric measurements, or 100% visual pigment correction. Pigment correction by visual and colorimetric assessments compared with untreated control lesions and site-matched normal skin before each treatment and at 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-month follow-up intervals. Occurrence of erythema, blistering, dyspigmentation, or other adverse effects was monitored. The percentage pigment correction by both assessments increased in direct proportion to the number of treatments. The mean percentage pigment correction by visual assessment relative to control of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55%-67%) for scars and 68% (95% CI, 62%-74%) for striae was achieved after 9 treatments. The mean percentage pigmentation by colorimetric measurements relative to control of 101% (95% CI, 99%-103%) for scars and 102% (95% CI, 99%-104%) for striae was achieved after 9 treatments. Both sets of values gradually declined toward baseline levels during the 6-month follow-up. No blistering or dyspigmentation occurred. Therapy with the 308-nm excimer laser is safe and effective in pigment correction of hypopigmented scars and striae alba. Mean final pigment correction rates relative to control sites of approximately 60% to 70% by visual assessment and 100% by colorimetric analysis were observed after 9 treatments

  15. Comparison of Wavelight Allegretto Eye-Q and Schwind Amaris 750S excimer laser in treatment of high astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Bohac, Maja; Biscevic, Alma; Koncarevic, Mateja; Anticic, Marija; Gabric, Nikica; Patel, Sudi

    2014-10-01

    To compare functional outcomes of Wavelight Allegretto Eye-Q 400Hz and Schwind Amaris 750S excimer laser for astigmatism between 2 and 7 diopters(D). Prospective comparative non-randomized case series of 480 eyes assigned in two laser groups and further divided into myopic and mixed astigmatism subgroups. All treatments were centered on corneal vertex. One-year results were compared between the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using z-test. Both Allegretto and Amaris postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) improved in comparison to preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). The difference was significant in the Allegretto group for myopic astigmatism (p = 0.017). There was no difference in postoperative UDVA between lasers. Average sphere decreased in all groups for both lasers (p < 0.001) without difference in effectiveness of spherical correction between lasers for both groups. In Allegretto, average cylinder decreased from -3.30D to -0.55D in myopic astigmatism (p < 0.001) and from -3.84D to -0.85D in mixed astigmatism (p < 0.001). In Amaris average cylinder decreased from -3.21D to -0.43D in myopic astigmatism (p < 0.001) and from -3.66D to -0.58D in mixed astigmatism (p < 0.001). Amaris group had less residual astigmatism (myopic astigmatism p = 0.023, mixed astigmatism p < 0.001). Mean spherical aberration shifted from positive to negative in mixed astigmatism for both lasers. Both lasers are effective in terms of UDVA, CDVA, spherical correction, and preservation of high-order aberrations. However, Amaris was more effective in cylinder correction.

  16. Investigation of gold and bimetallic gold/silver nanoparticles in soda-lime-silicate glasses formed by means of excimer laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, M.; Dubiel, M.; Meinertz, J.; Ihlemann, J.; Hoell, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, plasmonic Au and Au/Ag nanostructures in soda-lime-silicate glasses have been generated by means of ArF-excimer laser irradiation (193 nm) below the ablation threshold of the glass. For this purpose pure and silver/sodium ion-exchanged float glasses have been coated by gold and then irradiated by the laser. The formation of Au and Au/Ag nanoparticles could be verified by the surface plasmon resonances between 420 and 620 nm, which were obtained by optical spectroscopy. Both, pure Au and Ag particles as well as bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles, could be observed by means of small angle X-ray scattering experiments. These results demonstrate that such procedures enable the spaceselected generation of plasmonic nanostructures in glass surfaces by excimer laser irradiation.

  17. Rapid fabrication of rigid biodegradable scaffolds by excimer laser mask projection technique: a comparison between 248 and 308 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beke, S.; Anjum, F.; Ceseracciu, L.; Romano, I.; Athanassiou, A.; Diaspro, A.; Brandi, F.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution photocrosslinking of the biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF), using pulsed laser light at 248 and 308 nm is presented. The curing depth can be modulated between a few hundreds of nm and a few μm when using 248 nm and ten to a hundred μm when using 308 nm. By adjusting the total fluence (pulse numbers×laser fluence) dose and the weight ratios of PPF, DEF, and the photoinitiator in the photocrosslinkable mixtures, the height of polymerized structures can be precisely tuned. The lateral resolution is evaluated by projecting a pattern of a grid with a specified line width and line spacing. Young’s modulus of the cured parts is measured and found to be several GPa for both wavelengths, high enough to support bone formation. Several 2D and 2.5D microstructures, as well as porous 3D scaffolds fabricated by a layer-by-layer method, are presented. The results demonstrate that excimer laser-based photocuring is suitable for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures with defined patterns of micrometer resolution in all three spatial dimensions.

  18. Randomized controlled study of excimer laser atherectomy for treatment of femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis: initial results from the EXCITE ISR trial (EXCImer Laser Randomized Controlled Study for Treatment of FemoropopliTEal In-Stent Restenosis).

    PubMed

    Dippel, Eric J; Makam, Prakash; Kovach, Richard; George, Jon C; Patlola, Raghotham; Metzger, D Christopher; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos; Beasley, Robert; Soukas, Peter; Colon-Hernandez, Pedro J; Stark, Matthew A; Walker, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of excimer laser atherectomy (ELA) with adjunctive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) versus PTA alone for treating patients with chronic peripheral artery disease with femoropopliteal bare nitinol in-stent restenosis (ISR). Femoropopliteal stenting has shown superiority to PTA for lifestyle-limiting claudication and critical limb ischemia, although treating post-stenting artery reobstruction, or ISR, remains challenging. The multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled EXCITE ISR (EXCImer Laser Randomized Controlled Study for Treatment of FemoropopliTEal In-Stent Restenosis) trial was conducted across 40 U.S. centers. Patients with Rutherford Class 1 to 4 and lesions of target lesion length ≥4 cm, vessel diameter 5 to 7 mm were enrolled and randomly divided into ELA + PTA and PTA groups by a 2:1 ratio. The primary efficacy endpoint was target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6-month follow up. The primary safety endpoint was major adverse event (death, amputation, or TLR) at 30 days post-procedure. Study enrollment was stopped at 250 patients due to early efficacy demonstrated at a prospectively-specified interim analysis. A total of 169 ELA + PTA subjects (62.7% male; mean age 68.5 ± 9.8 years) and 81 PTA patients (61.7% male; mean age 67.8 ± 10.3 years) were enrolled. Mean lesion length was 19.6 ± 12.0 cm versus 19.3 ± 11.9 cm, and 30.5% versus 36.8% of patients exhibited total occlusion. ELA + PTA subjects demonstrated superior procedural success (93.5% vs. 82.7%; p = 0.01) with significantly fewer procedural complications. ELA + PTA and PTA subject 6-month freedom from TLR was 73.5% versus 51.8% (p < 0.005), and 30-day major adverse event rates were 5.8% versus 20.5% (p < 0.001), respectively. ELA + PTA was associated with a 52% reduction in TLR (hazard ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.31 to 0.74). The EXCITE ISR trial is the first large, prospective, randomized study

  19. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Myopic Patients Having Thin Residual Corneal Thickness after Excimer Laser Surface Ablation.

    PubMed

    Kocamış, Sücattin İlker; Çakmak, Hasan Basri; Gerçeker, Sıdıka; Çağıl, Nurullah

    2017-01-01

    To investigate and compare the long-term safety, efficacy, and accuracy of PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASEK (laser epithelial keratomileusis) in myopic corneas having residual corneal thickness less than 400 micron meters (µm). The medical reports of the patients who had undergone excimer laser surface ablation between 2007-2011 and had a residual corneal thickness less than 400 µm were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with a mean age of 28.79±7.76 years were enrolled into the study. Twenty-two PRK and 20 LASEK procedures were performed. The mean follow-up time was 45.00±11.80 months. At the end of follow-up, no ectasia was detected. Nineteen percent of eyes had trace haze. No eyes lost any lines in corrected distance visual acuity. Eighty-one percent of the patients had an uncorrected distance visual acuity better than 20/40. The regression rate was 16.7%. Sixty-two percent of eyes were within ±1.00 D. The safety and efficacy indexes were 1.19±0.42 and 1.00±0.40, respectively. There was not any difference between LASEK and PRK regarding achieved spherical equivalent refraction, haze ratio, visual acuity, safety, efficacy, and regression. Both PRK and LASEK are safe and effective in myopic corneas having thin residual thickness.

  20. Location-Control of Large Si Grains by Dual-Beam Excimer-Laser and Thick Oxide Portion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Ryoichi; Burtsev, Artyom; Alkemade, Paul F. A.

    2000-07-01

    An array of large Si grains was placed at a predetermined position by dual excimer-laser irradiation of a multi-layer structure of silicon (Si), silicon dioxide (SiO2) with an array of bumps and metal on a glass substrate. We have investigated the effects of irradiating energy density and the topology of the structure on the grain size and crystallographic structure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattering pattern (EBSP) analysis. In the low-energy-density regime, numerous small grains and petal shaped grains formed on top of the SiO2 bumps. The number of small grains on the bumps decreased with increasing irradiating energy density. At sufficiently high energy densities, one single Si grain as large as 3.5 μm was positioned at the center of the bumps. Although most of the area of the large Si grain has a single crystallographic orientation, twins and low-angle grain boundaries are often formed at the periphery of the grain. There was no preferred crystallographic orientation in the center of the location-controlled Si grain. Numerical analysis of the temperature profile showed that a temperature drop occurs at the center of the bump, during and immediately after laser irradiation. The diameter of the location-controlled Si grain increased with total thickness of the intermediate SiO2 layer, and took the maximum value of 6.2 μm.

  1. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of room temperature deposited Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films by excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hamali, S. O.; Cranton, W. M.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Hou, X.; Ranson, R.; Koutsogeorgis, D. C.

    2016-05-01

    High quality transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) often require a high thermal budget fabrication process. In this study, Excimer Laser Annealing (ELA) at a wavelength of 248 nm has been explored as a processing mechanism to facilitate low thermal budget fabrication of high quality aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films. 180 nm thick AZO films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature on fused silica substrates. The effects of the applied RF power and the sputtering pressure on the outcome of ELA at different laser energy densities and number of pulses have been investigated. AZO films deposited with no intentional heating at 180 W, and at 2 mTorr of 0.2% oxygen in argon were selected as the optimum as-deposited films in this work, with a resistivity of 1×10-3 Ω.cm, and an average visible transmission of 85%. ELA was found to result in noticeably reduced resistivity of 5×10-4 Ω.cm, and enhancing the average visible transmission to 90% when AZO is processed with 5 pulses at 125 mJ/cm2. Therefore, the combination of RF magnetron sputtering and ELA, both low thermal budget and scalable techniques, can provide a viable fabrication route of high quality AZO films for use as transparent electrodes.

  2. Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanza, F. J.; Laguna, M. F.; Casquel, R.; Holgado, M.; Barrios, C. A.; Ortega, F. J.; López-Romero, D.; García-Ballesteros, J. J.; Bañuls, M. J.; Maquieira, A.; Puchades, R.

    2011-04-01

    Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures on a silicon substrate were developed using 248 nm excimer laser KrF projection, studying the influence of the different variables on the final pattern geometry, finding out that the most critical are exposure dose and post-bake condition. Also a novel and cost effective type of photomask based on commercial polyimide Kapton produced by 355 nm DPSS laser microprocessing was developed, studying the influence of the cutting conditions on the photomask. Finally, as a likely application the biosensing capability with a standard BSA/antiBSA immunoassay over a 10 × 10 micro-plates square lattice of around 10 μm in diameter, 15 μm of spacing and 400 nm in height was demonstrated, finding a limit of detection (LOD) of 33.4 ng/ml which is in the order of magnitude of bioapplications such as detection of cortisol hormone or insulin-like growth factor. Low cost fabrication and vertical interrogation characterization techniques lead to a promising future in the biosensing technology field.

  3. X-Ray Radiation Measurements With Photodiodes In Plasmas Generated By 1017 W/Cm2 Intensity Krf Excimer Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, E.; Földes, I. B.; Ryć, L.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out using a prepulse-free hybrid KrF excimer-dye laser system (700fs pulse duration, 248nm wavelength, 15mJ pulse energy). The intensity of the p-polarized, focused laser beam was 1.5ṡ1017 W/cm2. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and x-rays from solid state laser plasmas were generated in the laser-plasma interaction of subpicosecond laser pulses of nonrelativistic laser intensities. An x-ray sensitive FLM photodiode (ITE, Warsaw) was used to detect x-rays between 1-19 keV in front of the targets. The diode was filtered by a 4μm Al foil. The dependence of the x-ray flux on laser intensity and the angular distribution of x-rays for aluminum and copper targets in the half space of the front side of the targets were investigated.

  4. A retrospective comparison of efficacy and safety of 680 consecutive lasik treatments for high myopia performed with two generations of flying-spot excimer lasers.

    PubMed

    Gazieva, Lola; Beer, Mette Hjuler; Nielsen, Kim; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2011-12-01

    To compare the visual refractive outcome and complication of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) carried out with a Carl Zeiss-Meditec MEL-70 Excimer laser and a MEL-80 laser for treatment of high myopia. Journal records of 680 consecutive eyes that underwent LASIK with a Schwind Supratome microkeratome and a MEL-70 Excimer laser (Group A), or a Moria M2 microkeratome and a MEL-80 Excimer laser (Group B) were reviewed. Manifest refraction, uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), corneal topography and central corneal thickness (CCT) were recorded before and 3 months after treatment. Pre- and postoperative complications, visual and refractive outcome and frequency of retreatments were registered. Mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -8.52 dioptres (-5.50- -18 dioptres), and the mean attempted laser correction was -8.02 dioptres (-5.50- -11 dioptres). Three months after LASIK, the average treatment error (difference between achieved and attempted correction) was 1.20 (SD=1.19) dioptres of under correction in Group A and 0.52 (SD=1.00) dioptres in Group B. Four eyes lost more than two lines of BSCVA (0.6%). In 110 eyes (16%), a re-LASIK procedure was performed to reduce remaining myopia after the primary procedure. Laser in situ keratomileusis treatment for high myopia can effectively reduce high degrees of myopia. Under correction was observed in both treatment groups but Group B has a slightly better predictability. Significant loss of BSCVA occurs infrequently after LASIK for even considerable grades of myopia (0.6% in each group). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  5. The Improvement of Electrical Characteristics of Pt/Ti Ohmic Contacts to Ga-Doped ZnO by Homogenized KrF Pulsed Excimer Laser Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Suk

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of KrF excimer laser surface treatment on Pt/Ti ohmic contacts to Ga-doped n-ZnO ( N d = 4.3 × 1017 cm-3). The treatment of the n-ZnO surfaces by laser irradiation greatly improved the electrical characteristics of the metal contacts. The Pt/Ti ohmic layer on the laser-irradiated n-ZnO showed specific contact resistances of 2.5 × 10-4 ˜ 4.8 × 10-4 Ω cm2 depending on the laser energy density and gas ambient, which were about two orders of magnitude lower than that of the as-grown sample, 8.4 × 10-2 Ω cm2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements showed that the KrF excimer laser treatments increased the electron concentration near the surface region of the Ga-doped n-ZnO due to the preferential evaporation of oxygen atoms from the ZnO surface by the laser-induced dissociation of Zn-O bonds.

  6. Quality of vision after excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-C for Salzmann nodular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jagadesh C; Rapuano, Christopher J; Felipe, Anthony F; Nagra, Parveen K; Hammersmith, Kristin M

    2014-07-01

    To assess the effect of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) with intraoperative mitomycin-C (MMC) on the quality of vision in patients with Salzmann nodular degeneration (SND). Thirteen eyes of 12 patients were enrolled in the study between December 2010 and March 2012. Uncorrected and best-corrected Snellen distance visual acuities were measured at every visit. Contrast sensitivity and manifest refraction were measured preoperatively, at 1 month and at 3 months. Corneal topography, Galilei dual Scheimpflug imaging, VISX WaveScan, and ultrasound central corneal pachymetry were measured preoperatively and at 3 months after PTK procedure. Contrast sensitivity was statistically significantly better both at 1 month (P<0.01) and 3 months (P<0.01). Postoperatively, there was 46% increase in eyes with measurable corneal topography, 69% increase in Galilei dual Scheimpflug imaging, and a 77% increase in WaveScan measurements. The third-order (P<0.01) and total corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) (P=0.01) were significantly lower postoperatively compared with the preoperative corneal aberrations measured on Galilei dual Scheimpflug imaging. Significant improvement in contrast sensitivity and corneal HOAs was seen after PTK for SND. Phototherapeutic keratectomy with MMC can be considered as an effective procedure in the improvement of the quality of vision in patients with SND.

  7. Outcomes of LASIK for Myopia or Myopic Astigmatism Correction with the FS200 Femtosecond Laser and EX500 Excimer Laser Platform

    PubMed Central

    Niparugs, Muanploy; Tananuvat, Napaporn; Chaidaroon, Winai; Tangmonkongvoragul, Chulaluck; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, predictability, stability and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using the FS200 femtosecond laser and EX500 excimer laser platform. Methods: The outcomes of 254 eyes of 129 consecutive patients with myopia or myopic astigmatism who underwent full correction femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK at CMU LASIK Center were assessed. Pre-operative and post-operative parameters including manifest refraction, Uncorrected Distance Visual Acuity (UDVA), Best Corrected Distance Visual Acuity (BDVA), corneal topography and tomography were analyzed. The results between low to moderate myopia and high myopia were compared up to 12 months. Results: Mean pre-operative Spherical Equivalent (SE) was -5.15±2.41 Diopters (D) (range -0.50 to -11.50 D) and -0.13±0.28 D, -0.13±0.27 D, -0.13±0.28 D and -0.14±0.30 D at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, post-operatively. At 12 months, the propor¬tion of eyes achieving UDVA ≥ 20/20 was 90.0% and ≥20/40 was 98.8%. The proportion of eyes achieving post-operative mean SE ±0.5 D, and ±1 D was 91.3%, and 98.5%. No eyes lost more than two lines of BDVA. The low to moderate myopic group had a statistically significant better UDVA at one (p=0.017) and three months (p=0.014) but no difference at six (p=0.061) and 12 months (p=0.091). The mean post-operative SE was better in low to moderate myopic group at every follow-up visit (p=0.001, 0.007, <0.001 and <0.001). Conclusion: One-year clinical results of LASIK with the FS200 femtosecond laser and EX500 excimer laser showed high efficacy, predictability, stability and safety. PMID:29872485

  8. [Reduction of decentration after LASIK using a modified eye tracker ring for the MEL-70 excimer laser].

    PubMed

    Schulze, S; Nietgen, G; Sekundo, W

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the rate of eccentric laser ablation after LASIK depending on the eye tracker ring used. All LASIK treatments were carried out using the MEL-70 flying spot excimer laser (Zeiss-Meditec, Jena). The flap was produced using a Corneal Shaper trade mark or Hansatome trade mark Microkeratome (B and L Surgical, Heidelberg). Initially we used an 11 mm eye tracker ring without hinge protector. At the end of February 2001 this ring was replaced by a 10 mm and a 9.5 mm ring with built-in hinge protector. An additional modification was introduced by us: at 1 mm separations little teeth-like spikes were engraved into the eyeward side of the ring, thus stabilising the position of the ring on the globe and allowing free liquid to flow through the spaces between each spike. The built-in calibration system of the corneal topography (TMS 3, Tomey, Erlangen) from patients with a follow-up of one month or longer was used to determine the distance between the centre of the ablation zone from the fixation point. In group I patients (old ring) 42 eyes were treated. In 4 eyes ablation was perfect, in 21 eyes the ablation centre was located 0.1 to 0.49 mm from the fixation point, in 11 eyes 0.51 to 0.99 mm and in 5 eyes 1.1 to 1.49 mm whereas one eye showed a decentred ablation of 1.53 mm. In group II (new ring) 42 eyes were investigated also. In 11 eyes ablation was perfect, in 20 eyes the ablation centre was located 0.1 to 0.49 mm from the fixation point, in 10 eyes 0.5 to 0.99 mm and one eye had an eccentric ablation of 1.28 mm from the fixation point. The further development of our eye tracker ring for the MEL-70 laser considerably reduced the rate of decentred ablations. An enhanced grip of the ring onto the globe reduces a slow slide during the laser procedure.

  9. Removal of dust particles from metal-mirror surfaces by excimer-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser-induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence, being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width, and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.

  10. Removal of dust particles from metal mirror surfaces by excimer laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope (VLT) mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence,more » being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.« less

  11. Modeling of solid-state and excimer laser processes for 3D micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Andrew S.; Onischenko, Alexander I.; George, David S.; Pedder, James E.

    2005-04-01

    An efficient simulation method has recently been developed for multi-pulse ablation processes. This is based on pulse-by-pulse propagation of the machined surface according to one of several phenomenological models for the laser-material interaction. The technique allows quantitative predictions to be made about the surface shapes of complex machined parts, given only a minimal set of input data for parameter calibration. In the case of direct-write machining of polymers or glasses with ns-duration pulses, this data set can typically be limited to the surface profiles of a small number of standard test patterns. The use of phenomenological models for the laser-material interaction, calibrated by experimental feedback, allows fast simulation, and can achieve a high degree of accuracy for certain combinations of material, laser and geometry. In this paper, the capabilities and limitations of the approach are discussed, and recent results are presented for structures machined in SU8 photoresist.

  12. H and Au diffusion in high mobility a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors via low temperature KrF excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo S.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2017-03-01

    We report the fabrication of high mobility amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by a single shot of a 248 nm KrF excimer laser. Very high mobilities (μ) of up to 43.5 cm2/V s were obtained after the low temperature excimer laser annealing (ELA) process. ELA induces high temperatures primarily in the upper layers and maintains very low temperatures of less than 50 °C in the substrate region. Scanning Transmission Electron micrographs show no laser induced damage and clear interfaces after the laser irradiation. In addition, several characterization studies were performed to determine the μ improvement mechanism. The analysis of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy suggests incorporation of H mainly from the hybrid passivation layer into the channel. Moreover, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy results show that Au diffused into the channel after ELA. Both KrF ELA-induced H and Au diffusion contributed to the higher μ. These results demonstrate that ELA can greatly enhance the electrical properties of a-IGZO TFTs for promising applications in large area, transparent, and flexible electronics.

  13. Fabrication of microgrooves with excimer laser ablation techniques for plastic optical fiber array alignment purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naessens, Kris; Van Hove, An; Coosemans, Thierry; Verstuyft, Steven; Ottevaere, Heidi; Vanwassenhove, Luc; Van Daele, Peter; Baets, Roel G.

    2000-06-01

    Laser ablation is extremely well suited for rapid prototyping and proves to be a versatile technique delivering high accuracy dimensioning and repeatability of features in a wide diversity of materials. In this paper, we present laser ablation as a fabrication method for micro machining in of arrays consisting of precisely dimensioned U-grooves in dedicated polycarbonate and polymethylmetacrylate plates. The dependency of the performance on various parameters is discussed. The fabricated plates are used to hold optical fibers by means of a UV-curable adhesive. Stacking and gluing of the plates allows the assembly of a 2D connector of plastic optical fibers for short distance optical interconnects.

  14. Mitomycin-C in corneal surface excimer laser ablation techniques: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Majmudar, Parag A; Schallhorn, Steven C; Cason, John B; Donaldson, Kendall E; Kymionis, George D; Shtein, Roni M; Verity, Steven M; Farjo, Ayad A

    2015-06-01

    To review the published literature assessing the efficacy and safety of mitomycin-C (MMC) as an adjunctive treatment in corneal surface excimer laser ablation procedures. Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted on August 19, 2014, without language or date limitations. The searches retrieved a total of 239 references. Of these, members of the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Refractive Management/Intervention Panel selected 26 articles that were considered to be of high or medium clinical relevance, and the panel methodologist rated each article according to the strength of evidence. Ten studies were rated as level I evidence, 5 studies were rated as level II evidence, and the remaining 11 studies were rated as level III evidence. The majority of the articles surveyed in this report support the role of MMC as an adjunctive treatment in surface ablation procedures. When MMC is applied in the appropriate concentration and confined to the central cornea, the incidence of post-surface ablation haze is decreased. Although a minority of studies that evaluated endothelial cell density (ECD) reported an MMC-related decrease in ECD, no clinical adverse outcomes were reported. Over the past 15 years, the use of MMC during surgery in surface ablation has become widespread. There is good evidence of the effectiveness of MMC when used intraoperatively as prophylaxis against haze in higher myopic ablations. Although there are reports of decreased endothelial counts after the administration of MMC during surgery, the clinical significance of this finding remains uncertain, because no adverse outcomes were reported with as much as 5 years of follow-up. Optimal dosage, effectiveness as prophylaxis in lower myopic and hyperopic ablations, and long-term safety, particularly in eyes with reduced corneal endothelial cell counts from prior intraocular surgery, have yet to be established. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of

  15. Imaging of acoustic waves induced by excimer laser ablation of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Siano, Salvatore; Salimbeni, Renzo

    1996-12-01

    In this present study a pump-and-probe imaging set up was arranged to image and analyze the evolution of pressure waves induced by ArF ablation of the cornea, during their propagation into the eyeball. In vitro experiments simulating the effects of clinical PRK have been performed by using an artificial model of the human eyeball, composed of a cell filled with hyaluronic acid gel with a sample of freshly excised bovine cornea placed on the gel surface. LAser irradiation was provided at a fluence of 180 mJ/cm2. Irradiation spot diameters were varied in the range 2.0-5.0 mm. Images of the traveling acoustic waves evidenced diffraction effects, related to the diameter of laser spots on the corneal surface.

  16. Four-year to seven-year outcomes of advanced surface ablation with excimer laser for high myopia.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob; Grønbech, Keea Treu; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate and compare outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy with cooling (cPRK) and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) for high myopia. This was a retrospective, single-masked follow-up study of patients treated for myopia between 2007 and 2009 with cPRK or LASEK, using a high-frequency flying-spot excimer laser with eye-tracker (MEL80; Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis. Re-treated eyes were excluded. Forty-six cPRK patients and 35 LASEK patients were included. Spherical equivalent averaged -7.69 ± 1.47 diopters (D) in cPRK eyes and -7.98 ± 2.06 D in LASEK eyes (p = 0.31) before surgery. The average follow-up time was 4.6 years in cPRK patients and 6.0 years in LASEK patients (p < 0.05). At final follow-up, no cPRK eyes and one LASEK eye (p = 0.46) had lost two lines of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). No eyes had significant haze at final follow-up, although trace haze was found in four cPRK eyes and six LASEK eyes (p = 0.44). However, at 6 weeks after surgery, zero cPRK eyes and nine LASEK eyes (p < 0.05) had significant haze. At final follow-up, 63 % of cPRK eyes and 35 % of LASEK eyes (p = 0.17) were within ±1.0 D of intended refraction. Finally, 100 % of cPRK patients and 92 % of LASEK patients (p = 0.87) were satisfied or very satisfied with the surgery at final follow-up. cPRK and LASEK seemed safe and with high patient satisfaction 4 to 7 years after surgery for high myopia. However, cPRK was more effective than LASEK in reducing initial significant corneal haze.

  17. Wavefront-optimized laser in situ keratomileusis with the Allegretto Wave Eye-Q excimer laser and the FEMTO LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser: 6 month visual and refractive results.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, Mohammed; Mearza, Ali A; Allamby, David

    2015-08-01

    To present the first reported series of patients undergoing myopic LASIK with the FEMTO LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser and the WaveLight Allegretto Eye-Q excimer laser. We report the uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA), refractive predictability, efficacy and safety of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) performed with the above laser platforms. This prospective interventional case series study evaluated consecutive eyes with low to moderate myopic astigmatism that underwent LASIK with the FEMTO LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser and the WaveLight Allegretto Eye-Q 400 Hz excimer laser. Visual and refractive changes as well as complications were evaluated after wavefront-optimized laser treatment. Four hundred and forty four patients (887 eyes) reached the 6-month time gate. Mean age at time of procedure was 31 years (range: 20-59). Mean pre-op spherical-equivalent (SE) was -3.44 diopters (D)±1.34D (range: -0.50 to -7.00) whilst the postoperative spherical equivalent decreased to -0.08±0.31D (range -2.25 to 1.00). At 6-month follow up, 96.9% of patients had monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better with 95.2% of patients within ±0.5D of intended refractive outcome. All patients achieved 20/20 binocular distance uncorrected visual acuity. No significant intra-operative or postoperative complications were encountered during the 6-month follow-up period. The combination of the above laser platforms provides safe, effective and predictable results in correcting compound myopic astigmatism with excellent visual outcomes. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface micro-structuring of silicon by excimer-laser irradiation in reactive atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, A. J.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Jesse, S.; Mao, C.; Lowndes, D. H.

    2000-12-01

    The formation mechanisms of cones and columns by pulsed-laser irradiation in reactive atmospheres were studied using scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. Deep etching takes place in SF6- and O2- rich atmospheres and consequently, silicon-containing molecules and clusters are released. Transport of silicon from the etched/ablated regions to the tip of columns and cones and to the side of the cones is required because both structures, columns and cones, protrude above the initial surface. The laser-induced micro-structure is influenced not only by the nature but also by the partial pressure of the reactive gas in the atmosphere. Irradiation in Ar following cone formation in SF6 produced no additional growth but rather melting and resolidification. Subsequent irradiation using again a SF6 atmosphere lead to cone restructuring and growth resumption. Thus the effects of etching plus re-deposition that produce column/cone formation and growth are clearly separated from the effects of just melting. On the other hand, irradiation continued in air after first performed in SF6 resulted in: (a) an intense etching of the cones and a tendency to transform them into columns; (b) growth of new columns on top of the existing cones and (c) filamentary nano-structures coating the sides of the columns and cones.

  19. Fabrication of functional fibronectin patterns by nanosecond excimer laser direct write for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, S; Hindié, M; Axente, E; Carreiras, F; Anselme, K; Werckmann, J; Mihailescu, I N; Gallet, O

    2013-07-01

    Laser direct write techniques represent a prospective alternative for engineering a new generation of hybrid biomaterials via the creation of patterns consisting of biological proteins onto practically any type of substrate. In this paper we report on the characterization of fibronectin features obtained onto titanium substrates by UV nanosecond laser transfer. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements evidenced no modification in the secondary structure of the post-transferred protein. The molecular weight of the transferred protein was identical to the initial fibronectin, no fragment bands being found in the transferred protein's Western blot migration profile. The presence of the cell-binding domain sequence and the mannose groups within the transferred molecules was revealed by anti-fibronectin monoclonal antibody immunolabelling and FITC-Concanavalin-A staining, respectively. The in vitro tests performed with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts showed that the cells' morphology and spreading were strongly influenced by the presence of the fibronectin spots.

  20. High-speed photography of plasma during excimer laser-tissue interaction.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrea K; Dickinson, Mark R

    2004-08-07

    During high fluence laser-tissue interaction, ablation of tissue occurs, debris is removed from the ablation site and is then ejected at high velocity. This debris may be observed as a combination of luminous plasma and non-luminous plume, both of which have the potential to shield the ablation site. This study examined the role of ablation debris in shielding the tissue and determined its effects on the ablation rate over a range of laser pulse energies, pulse repetition rates and pulse numbers for dentine; the velocity differences between hard and soft tissues were also examined. High-speed photography was carried out at up to 1 x 10(8) frames per second. A maximum velocity of 2.58 +/- 0.52 x 10(4) m s(-1) was recorded for dentine debris within the first 10 ns following ejection. The maximum duration of tissue shielding due to a single pulse, determined by attenuation of a probe beam, was found to be approximately 7 ms, approximately 80 micros of which was due to luminous plasma and the remainder due to the non-luminous plume.

  1. Some optical and electron microscope comparative studies of excimer laser-assisted and nonassisted molecular-beam epitaxically grown thin GaAs films on Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lao, Pudong; Tang, Wade C.; Rajkumar, K. C.; Guha, S.; Madhukar, A.; Liu, J. K.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The quality of GaAs thin films grown via MBE under pulsed excimer laser irradiation on Si substrates is examined in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas using Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and by photoluminescence (PL), as a function of temperature, and by TEM. The temperature dependence of the PL and Raman peak positions indicates the presence of compressive stress in the thin GaAs films in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas. This indicates incomplete homogeneous strain relaxation by dislocations at the growth temperature. The residual compressive strain at the growth temperature is large enough such that even with the introduction of tensile strain arising from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of GaAs and Si, a compressive strain is still present at room temperature for these thin GaAs/Si films.

  2. Excimer laser deinsulation of Parylene-C on iridium for use in an activated iridium oxide film-coated Utah electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Je-Min; Negi, Sandeep; Tathireddy, Prashant; Solzbacher, Florian; Song, Jong-In; Rieth, Loren W.

    2013-01-01

    Implantable microelectrodes provide a measure to electrically stimulate neurons in the brain and spinal cord and record their electrophysiological activity. A material with a high charge capacity such as activated or sputter-deposited iridium oxide film (AIROF or SIROF) is used as an interface. The Utah electrode array (UEA) uses SIROF for its interface material with neural tissue and oxygen plasma etching (OPE) with an aluminium foil mask to expose the active area, where the interface between the electrode and neural tissue is formed. However, deinsulation of Parylene-C using OPE has limitations, including the lack of uniformity in the exposed area and reproducibility. While the deinsulation of Parylene-C using an excimer laser is proven to be an alternative for overcoming the limitations, the iridium oxide (IrOx) suffers from fracture when high laser fluence (>1000 mJ/cm2) is used. Iridium (Ir), which has a much higher fracture resistance than IrOx, can be deposited before excimer laser deinsulation and then the exposed Ir film area can be activated by electrochemical treatment to acquire the AIROF. Characterisation of the laser-ablated Ir film and AIROF by surface analysis (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope) and electrochemical analysis (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry) shows that the damage on the Ir film induced by laser irradiation is significantly less than that on SIROF, and the AIROF has a high charge storage capacity. The results show the potential of the laser deinsulation technique for use in high performance AIROF-coated UEA fabrication. PMID:23458659

  3. Investigations of large area electron beam diodes for excimer lasers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of a one year research program at the University of Michigan to investigate the physics and technology of microsecond electron beam diodes. These experiments were performed on the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator (MELBA) at parameters: Voltage {equals} {minus}0.65 to {minus}0.9 MV, current {equals} 1 {minus}50 kA, and pulselength {equals} 0.5 {minus} 5 microseconds. Major accomplishments include: (1) the first two-wavelength (CO2 and HeNe) laser deflection measurements of diode plasma and neutrals; (2) measurements of the effects on magnetic field gradient on microsecond diode closure; (3) demonstration of good fidelity of processed x-ray signals asmore » a diagnostic of beam voltage; (4) extended-pulselength scaling of electron beam diode arcing and diode closure; and (5) innovative Cerenkov plate diagnostics of e-beam dynamics.« less

  4. Two-photon equivalent weighting of spatial excimer laser beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eva, Eric; Bauer, Harry H.; Metzger, K.; Pfeiffer, A.

    2001-04-01

    Damage in optical materials for semiconductor lithography applications caused by exposure to 248 or 193 nm light is usually two-photon driven, hence it is a nonlinear function of incident intensity. Materials should be tested with flat- topped temporal and spatial laser beam profiles to facilitate interpretation of data, but in reality this is hard to achieve. Sandstrom provided a formula that approximates any given temporal pulse shape with a two- photon equivalent rectangular pulse (Second Symposium on 193 nm Lithography, Colorado Springs 1997). Known as the integral-square pulse duration, this definition has been embraced as an industry standard. Originally faced with the problem of comparing results obtained with pseudo-Gaussian spatial profiles to literature data, we found that a general solution for arbitrarily inhomogeneous spatial beam profiles exists which results in a definition much similar to Sandstrom's. In addition, we proved the validity of our approach in experiments with intentionally altered beam profiles.

  5. Excimer laser produced plasmas in copper wire targets and water droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Elastically scattered incident radiation (ESIR) from a copper wire target illuminated by a KrF laser pulse at lambda = 248 nm shows a dinstinct two-peak structure which is dependent on the incident energy. The time required to reach the critical electron density (n(sub c) approximately = 1.8 x 10(exp 22) electrons/cu cm) is estimated at 11 ns based on experimental results. Detailed ESIR characteristics for water have been reported previously by the authors. Initiation of the broadband emission for copper plasma begins at 6.5 +/- 1.45 ns after the arrival of the laser pulse. However, the broadband emission occurs at 11 +/- 0.36 ns for water. For a diatomic substance such as water, the electron energy rapidly dissipates due to dissociation of water molecules, which is absent in a monatomic species such as copper. When the energy falls below the excitation energy of the lowest electron state for water, it becomes a subexcitation electron. Lifetimes of the subexcited electrons to the vibrational states are estimated to be of the order of 10(exp -9) s. In addition, the ionization potential of copper (440-530 nm) is approximately 6 eV, which is about two times smaller than the 13 eV ionization potential reported for water. The higher ionization potential contributes to the longer observed delay time for plasma formation in water. After initiation, a longer time is required for copper plasma to reach its peak value. This time delay in reaching the maximum intensity is attributed to the energy loss during the interband transition in copper.

  6. Influence of spatial and temporal spot distribution on the ocular surface quality and maximum ablation depth after photoablation with a 1050 Hz excimer laser system.

    PubMed

    Mrochen, Michael; Schelling, Urs; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of temporal and spatial distributions of laser spots (scan sequences) on the corneal surface quality after ablation and the maximum ablation of a given refractive correction after photoablation with a high-repetition-rate scanning-spot laser. IROC AG, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. Bovine corneas and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated using a 1050 Hz excimer laser prototype for corneal laser surgery. Four temporal and spatial spot distributions (scan sequences) with different temporal overlapping factors were created for 3 myopic, 3 hyperopic, and 3 phototherapeutic keratectomy ablation profiles. Surface quality and maximum ablation depth were measured using a surface profiling system. The surface quality factor increased (rough surfaces) as the amount of temporal overlapping in the scan sequence and the amount of correction increased. The rise in surface quality factor was less for bovine corneas than for PMMA. The scan sequence might cause systematic substructures at the surface of the ablated material depending on the overlapping factor. The maximum ablation varied within the scan sequence. The temporal and spatial distribution of the laser spots (scan sequence) during a corneal laser procedure affected the surface quality and maximum ablation depth of the ablation profile. Corneal laser surgery could theoretically benefit from smaller spot sizes and higher repetition rates. The temporal and spatial spot distributions are relevant to achieving these aims.

  7. Consistent comparison of angle Kappa adjustment between Oculyzer and Topolyzer Vario topography guided LASIK for myopia by EX500 excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Shen; Zhang, Li; Guo, Ning; Song, Yan-Zheng; Zhang, Feng-Ju

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the uniformity of angle Kappa adjustment between Oculyzer and Topolyzer Vario topography guided ablation of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) by EX500 excimer laser for myopia. Totally 145 cases (290 consecutive eyes )with myopia received LASIK with a target of emmetropia. The ablation for 86 cases (172 eyes) was guided manually based on Oculyzer topography (study group), while the ablation for 59 cases (118 eyes) was guided automatically by Topolyzer Vario topography (control group). Measurement of adjustment values included data respectively in horizontal and vertical direction of cornea. Horizontally, synclastic adjustment between manually actual values (dx manu ) and Oculyzer topography guided data (dx ocu ) accounts 35.5% in study group, with mean dx manu /dx ocu of 0.78±0.48; while in control group, synclastic adjustment between automatically actual values (dx auto ) and Oculyzer topography data (dx ocu ) accounts 54.2%, with mean dx auto /dx ocu of 0.79±0.66. Vertically, synclastic adjustment between dy manu and dy ocu accounts 55.2% in study group, with mean dy manu /dy ocu of 0.61±0.42; while in control group, synclastic adjustment between dy auto and dy ocu accounts 66.1%, with mean dy auto /dy ocu of 0.66±0.65. There was no statistically significant difference in ratio of actual values/Oculyzer topography guided data in horizontal and vertical direction between two groups ( P =0.951, 0.621). There is high consistency in angle Kappa adjustment guided manually by Oculyzer and guided automatically by Topolyzer Vario topography during corneal refractive surgery by WaveLight EX500 excimer laser.

  8. Excimer Laser Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    and sample cylinder were repeatedly allowed to outgas at room temperature (under vacuum but valved off) and then cooled with liquid N_ snd pumped...i i I i | I I I I i I i i i | I I i i i i i l i | I l I I I 320 330 340 350 360 E7470 WAVELENGTH (nm) 2 2 Fig. 9 Densitometer Trace of XeF...2, Xs are within 10%. eFor Arl, Nel, NeBr, NeCl, and the helium halides the inert-gas ionization potential is so large that the Coulomb curve does

  9. Excimer Laser Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    X> X ^^ X X E o lmm X X X X X > J Ä2 NX x xs 10 n N(P) X...to the cell through a stainless steel valve. The crystals and sample cylinder were repeatedly allowed to outgas at room temperature (under vacuum... 350 (1975). 3. J.J. Ewing and C.A. Brau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 557(1975). 4. J.J. Ewing and C.A. Brau, Phys. Rev. A12, 129(1975). 5

  10. Periodic structure with a periodicity of 2-3.5 μm on crystalline TiO2 induced by unpolarized KrF excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rong; Ma, Hongliang; Zheng, Jiahui; Han, Yongmei; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on the TiO2 bulk surface under the irradiation of 248 nm unpolarized KrF excimer laser pulses in air. Spatial LIPSS periods ranging from 2 to 3.5 μm are ascribed to the capillary wave. These microstructures were analyzed at different laser pulse numbers with the laser energy from 192 to 164 mJ. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated eventually stripes that have been disrupted as the increase in the laser pulse numbers, which is reasonably explained by the energy accumulating effect. In addition, investigations were concentrated on the surface modifications at pre-focal plane, focal plane and post-focal plane in the same defocusing amount. Compared with condition at pre-focal plane, in addition to the plasma produced at target, the air was also breakdown for the situation of post-focal plane. So it was reasonable that stripes appeared at pre-focal plane but not at post-focal plane.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of small diode pumped UV solid state (DPSS) Nd:YAG lasers as new radiation sources for atmospheric pressure laser ionization mass spectrometry (APLI-MS).

    PubMed

    Kersten, Hendrik; Lorenz, Matthias; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-06-01

    The performance of a KrF* bench top excimer laser and a compact diode pumped UV solid state (DPSS) Nd:YAG laser as photo-ionizing source in LC-APLI MS is compared. The commonly applied bench-top excimer laser, operating at 248 nm, provides power densities of the order of low MW/cm(2) on an illuminated area of 0.5 cm(2) (8 mJ/pulse, 5 ns pulse duration, beam waist area 0.5 cm(2), 3 MW/cm(2)). The DPSS laser, operating at 266 nm, provides higher power densities, however, on a two orders of magnitude smaller illuminated area (60 μJ/pulse, 1 ns pulse duration, beam waist area 2 × 10(-3) cm(2), 30 MW/cm(2)). In a common LC-APLI MS setup with direct infusion of a 10 nM pyrene solution, the DPSS laser yields a significantly smaller ion signal (0.9%) and signal to noise ratio (1.4%) compared with the excimer laser. With respect to the determined low detection limits (LODs) for PAHs of 0.1 fmol using an excimer laser, LODs in DPSS laser LC-APLI MS in the low pmol regime are expected. The advantages of the DPSS laser with respect to applicability (size, cost, simplicity) may render this light source the preferred one for APLI applications not focusing on ultimately high sensitivities. Furthermore, the impact of adjustable ion source parameters on the performance of both laser systems is discussed in terms of the spatial sensitivity distribution described by the distribution of ion acceptance (DIA) measurements. Perspectives concerning the impact on future APLI-MS applications are given.

  12. F 2 excimer laser (157 nm) radiation modification and surface ablation of PHEMA hydrogels and the effects on bioactivity: Surface attachment and proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin; Chirila, Traian V.; Barnard, Zeke; Watson, Gregory S.; Toh, Chiong; Blakey, Idriss; Whittaker, Andrew K.; Hill, David J. T.

    2011-02-01

    Physical and chemical changes at the surface of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels modified by ablation with an F 2 excimer laser were investigated experimentally. An important observation was that only the outer exposed surface layers of the hydrogel were affected by the exposure to 157 nm radiation. The effect of the surface changes on the tendency of cells to adhere to the PHEMA was also investigated. A 0.5 cm 2 area of the hydrogel surfaces was exposed to laser irradiation at 157 nm to fluences of 0.8 and 4 J cm -2. The changes in surface topography were analysed by light microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface chemistry was characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Cell-interfacial interactions were examined based on the proliferation of human corneal limbal epithelial (HLE) cells cultured on the laser-modified hydrogels, and on the unexposed hydrogels and tissue culture plastic for comparison. It was observed that the surface topography of laser-exposed hydrogels showed rippled patterns with a surface roughness increasing at the higher exposure dose. The changes in surface chemistry were affected not only by an indirect effect of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, formed by water photolysis, on the PHEMA, but also by the direct action of laser radiation on PHEMA if the surface layers of the gel become depleted of water. The laser treatment led to a change in the surface characteristics, with a lower concentration of ester side-chains and the formation of new oxygenated species at the surface. The surface also became more hydrophobic. Most importantly, the surface chemistry and the newly created surface topographical features were able to improve the attachment, spreading and growth of HLE cells.

  13. Visual and refractive outcomes of LASIK with the SCHWIND ESIRIS and WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-q excimer lasers: a prospective, contralateral study.

    PubMed

    Mearza, Ali A; Muhtaseb, Mohammed; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2008-11-01

    To compare the safety, efficacy, and predictability of LASIK with the SCHWIND ESIRIS and WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q excimer laser platforms. This prospective study comprised 44 eyes of 22 consecutive patients who were treated with LASIK using the Moria M2 microkeratome. One eye was treated with the SCHWIND ESIRIS laser and the fellow eye treated with the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q laser. All eyes operated with the SCHWIND ESIRIS were treated with standard aspheric ablation, whereas the eyes operated with the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q received treatment with three different ablation types according to the common practice at our clinic. Outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction, and proximity to target refraction at 6-month follow-up. At 6 months postoperative, mean decimal UCVA was 0.96+/-0.22 (range: 0.3 to 1.2) for ESIRIS eyes and 0.98+/-0.17 (range: 0.6 to 1.2) for ALLEGRETTO eyes (P=.57). Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -0.02+/-0.28 diopters (D) (range: -0.75 to +0.75 D) for ESIRIS eyes and 0.11+/-0.91 D (range: -1.00 to +3.88 D) for ALLEGRETTO eyes (P=.49). Of the ESIRIS eyes, 20/22 (91%) were within +/-1.00 D of target refraction and 20/22 (91%) were within +/-0.50 D of target refraction. Of the ALLEGRETTO eyes, 20/22 (91%) and 19/22 (86%) were within +/-1.00 D and +/-0.50 D, respectively, of target refraction. No patient lost > or =2 lines of BSCVA in either group. No differences were seen in safety and efficacy outcome parameters between the SCHWIND ESIRIS and WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q excimer lasers when used according to a previously established treatment algorithm at our clinic in the treatment of refractive error.

  14. Comparison of outcomes of conventional WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® and Technolas® excimer lasers in myopic laser in situ keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Daphne CY; Chen, Jean; Htoon, Hla Myint; Tan, Donald TH; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q® and Technolas® 217z excimer lasers. Method A retrospective, comparative case series of 442 eyes matched for age and myopia: half each were treated with Allegretto’s wavefront-optimized algorithm and Technolas PlanoScan. Outcome measures were postoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), cylinder, safety and efficacy indices, refractive predictability, and optical zone size selection. Refractive predictability of a subgroup treated for −2.50 to −4.0 diopter (D) was analyzed separately. Results At mean follow-up of 80.5 days, mean logMAR UCVA, mean MRSE and mean postoperative cylinder were 0.02 ± 0.07 (range −0.12 to 0.30), 0.27 ± 0.36 D (range −1.25 to 1.50 D) and −0.33 ± 0.30 D (range 0.00 to −1.50 D) for Allegretto versus 0.02 ± 0.08 (range −0.12 to 0.40), 0.095 ± 0.47 D (range −1.25 to 1.13 D) and −0.44 ± 0.5 2 D (range 0.00 to −2.25 D) for Technolas (P = 0.98, 0.80 and 0.006). Mean safety and efficacy indices were 1.05 ± 0.13 (0.75–1.33) and 0.97 ± 0.13 (0.50–1.33) for Allegretto and 1.07 ± 0.14 (0.75–1.49) and 0.97 ± 0.17 (0.40–1.49) for Technolas (P = 0.23 and 0.69). Proportions of eyes achieving postoperative MRSE within ±1.0 D, ±0.5 D, and ±0.25 D were 98.2%, 91.9% and 75.6% for Allegretto and 99.1%, 97.8% and 72.4% for Technolas (P = 0.68, 0.20 and 0.51). Mean optical zone size selected was 6.48 ± 0.10 mm (range 6.0–6.5 mm) for Allegretto and 6.38 ± 0.19 mm (range 5.6–6.6 mm) for Technolas (P < 0.001). Of the subgroup with treatment between −2.5 and −4.0 D, 86.8% and 58.5% of eyes treated with Allegretto achieved postoperative MRSE within ±0.50 D and ±0.25 D versus 70.4% and 44.4% for Technolas (P = 0.006 and 0.057). Conclusion No differences were seen in postoperative mean

  15. Effect of excimer laser annealing on a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors passivated by solution-processed hybrid passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of excimer laser annealing (ELA) as a low temperature annealing alternative to anneal amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) passivated by a solution-processed hybrid passivation layer. Usually, a-IGZO is annealed using thermal annealing at high temperatures of up to 400 °C. As an alternative to high temperature thermal annealing, two types of ELA, XeCl (308 nm) and KrF (248 nm) ELA, are introduced. Both ELA types enhanced the electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs leading to a mobility improvement of ~13 cm2 V-1 s-1 and small threshold voltage which varied from ~0-3 V. Furthermore, two-dimensional heat simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics was used to identify possible degradation sites, analyse laser heat localization, and confirm that the substrate temperature is below 50 °C. The two-dimensional heat simulation showed that the substrate temperature remained at very low temperatures, less than 30 °C, during ELA. This implies that any flexible material can be used as the substrate. These results demonstrate the large potential of ELA as a low temperature annealing alternative for already-passivated a-IGZO TFTs.

  16. Raman Shifting a Tunable ArF Excimer Laser to Wavelengths of 190 to 240 nm With a Forced Convection Raman Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    Tunable radiation, at ultraviolet wavelengths, is produced by Raman shifting a modified 285-mJ ArF excimer laser. Multiple Stokes outputs are observed in H2, CH4, D2, N2, SF6, and CF4 (20, 22, 53, 21, 2.1, and 0.35 percent, respectively). Numbers in parentheses are the first Stokes energy conversion efficiencies. We can access 70 percent of the frequency range 42000-52000 cm (exp -1) (190-240 nm) with Stokes energies that vary from 0.2 microJoule to 58 mJ inside the Raman cell. By using 110 mJ of pump energy and D 2 , the tunable first Stokes energy varies over the 29-58 mJ range as the wavelength is tuned over the 204-206 nm range. Dependence on input energy, gas pressure, He mixture fraction, and circulation of the gas in the forced convection Raman cell is discussed; Stokes conversion is also discussed for laser repetition rates from 1 to 100 Hz. An empirical equation is given to determine whether forced convection can improve outputs for a given repetition rate.

  17. Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the expression of Th17, Treg, TGF-beta1, and IL-6 in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guo-Xin; Li, Xin-Zhong

    2017-11-01

    The effects of laser irradiation on the expression of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells and their related cytokines, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), respectively, in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were investigated. 38 patients with psoriasis vulgaris in the stable state were selected as the treatment group that was treated twice a week for eight weeks. Another 38 healthy persons were chosen as the control group. Before and after treatment, the percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in the patients’ peripheral blood were detected using flow cytometry, the content of TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the patients’ sera were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the extent and severity of lesions were determined by weighing the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). After laser treatment, the percentage of Th17 cells, the Th17/Treg cell ratio and the level of IL-6 in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the same patients before the treatment (P  <  0.01), while the percentage of Treg and the content of TGF-β1 in the patients’ sera were significantly higher than before the treatment (P  <  0.01). The effective rate for laser irradiation of psoriasis vulgaris was 84.21%, and the PASI score was significantly lower (P  <  0.01). Excimer laser irradiation can positively affect the Th17/Treg cell ratio and the expression of related cytokines in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

  18. Surface 3D Micro Free Forms: Multifunctional Microstructured Mesoporous α-Alumina by in Situ Slip Casting Using Excimer Laser Ablated Polycarbonate Molds.

    PubMed

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Böhlen, Karl; Bowen, Paul; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2015-11-11

    Ceramic surface microstructuring is a rapidly growing field with a variety of applications in tribology, wetting, biology, and so on. However, there are limitations to large-area microstructuring and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) micro free forms. Here, we present a route to obtain intricate surface structures through in situ slip casting using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) negative molds which are replicated from excimer laser ablated polycarbonate (PC) master molds. PC sheets are ablated with a nanosecond KrF (λ = 248 nm) excimer laser mask projection system to obtain micron-scale 3D surface features over a large area of up to 3 m(2). Complex surface structures that include 3D free forms such as 3D topography of Switzerland, shallow structures such as diffractive optical elements (60 nm step) and conical micropillars have been obtained. The samples are defect-free produced with thicknesses of up to 10 mm and 120 mm diameter. The drying process of the slip cast alumina slurry takes place as a one-dimensional process, through surface evaporation and water permeation through the PDMS membrane. This allows homogeneous one-dimensional shrinkage during the drying process, independent of the sample's lateral dimensions. A linear mass diffusion model has been proposed to predict and explain the drying process of these ceramic colloidal suspensions. The calculated drying time is linearly proportional to the height of the slurry and the thickness of the negatively structured PDMS and is validated by the experimental results. An experimentally observed optimum Sylgard PDMS thickness range of ∼400 μm to 1 mm has achieved the best quality microstructured green compacts. Further, the model predicts that the drying time is independent of the microstructured areas and was validated using experimental observations carried out with microstructured areas of 300 mm(2), 1200 mm(2), and 120 cm(2). Therefore, in principle, the structures can be further replicated in areas up

  19. Deposition of silicon carbide thin films by pulsed excimer laser ablation technique in the 25-700°C deposition temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khakani, My A.; Gat, E.; Beaudoin, Yves; Chaker, Mohamed; Monteil, C.; Guay, Daniel; Letourneau, G.; Pepin, Henri

    1995-04-01

    Laser ablation deposition technique was used to deposit silicon carbide thin films on both Si(100) and quartz substrates. The deposition was accomplished by ablating SiC sintered ceramic targets, using a KrF (248 nm) excimer laser. At a laser intensity of about 1 X 109 W/cm2, substrate temperatures in the (25-700) degree(s)C range were investigated. When the deposition temperature is varied from 27 to 650 degree(s)C, (i) the density of a-SiC films increases from 2.6 to 3.0 g cm-3, while their mean roughness value (for a film thickness of about 1 micrometers ) slightly changes from 0.44 to 0.5 nm; (ii) the optical transmission of a-SiC films is significantly improved (the absorption coefficient at 632.8 nm wavelength was reduced by a factor of about 5); and (iii) their Si-C bond density, as determined by FTIR spectroscopy, increases from (13.1 +/- 1.3) to (23.4 +/- 2.4) 1022 bond cm-3. The increased number of Si-C bonds is correlated to the increase of the optical transmission. Over all the investigated deposition temperature range, the a-SiC films were found to be under high compressive stress around a mean value of about 1.26 GPa. The control of the stress of a-SiC films was achieved by means of post- thermal annealings and the annealed a-SiC films were successfully used to fabricate x-ray membranes.

  20. Differences in optical coherence tomographic findings and clinical outcomes between excimer laser and cutting balloon angioplasty for focal in-stent restenosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Masami; Lee, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Takahiro; Taniike, Masayuki; Makino, Nobuhiko; Kato, Hiroyasu; Egami, Yasuyuki; Shutta, Ryu; Tanouchi, Jun; Yamada, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR), especially focal ISR, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains one of the major clinical problems in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era. Several reports have revealed that excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is useful for ISR; however, detailed findings after ELCA are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the condition of the neointima after ELCA for ISR with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and compared the OCT findings and clinical outcome between ELCA and cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA). Twenty-one consecutive patients with focal ISR who underwent ELCA or CBA were enrolled. All patients underwent 12- to 15-month follow-up coronary angiography. OCT was performed immediately after successful PCI to evaluate the neointimal condition in the ISR lesion. We compared the following OCT parameters between ELCA and CBA groups: maximal thickness of remaining in-stent neointima (MTN), number of tears, minimum lumen dimension (MLD), and minimum lumen area (MLA). We also evaluated clinical outcomes, including target vessel revascularization, acute myocardial infarction, death, and stent thrombosis. MLA in the ELCA group (n = 10) was significantly larger than in the CBA group, and number of tears in the ELCA group was significantly lower than in the CBA group. A trend was shown toward lower TLR with ELCA versus CBA (10.0% vs 45.5%). OCT immediately after ELCA for ISR lesions revealed larger lumen area and smaller number of tears compared with CBA, which may support favorable effects of ELCA for focal ISR.

  1. Cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) and tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in management of infragenicular arterial occlusion in critical lower limb ischemia (CLI).

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sherif; Tawfick, Wael; Hynes, Niamh

    2013-04-01

    We aim to compare cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) versus tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) with tibial artery occlusive disease. The primary end point is sustained clinical improvement (SCI) and amputation-free survival (AFS). The secondary end points are binary restenosis, target extremity revascularization (TER), and cost-effectiveness. From June 2005 to October 2010, 1506 patients were referred with peripheral vascular disease and 572 with CLI. A total of 80 patients underwent 89 endovascular revascularizations (EVRs) for tibial occlusions, 47 using TBA and 42 using CELA. All patients were Rutherford category 4 to 6. Three-year SCI was enhanced with CELA (81%) compared to TBA (63.8%; P = .013). Three-year AFS significantly improved with CELA (95.2%) versus TBA (89.4%; P = .0165). Three-year freedom from TER was significantly improved with CELA (92.9%) versus 78.7% TBA (P = .026). Three-year freedom from MACE was comparable in both the groups (P = .455). Patients with CELA had significantly improved quality time without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) at 3 years (10.5 months; P = .048) with incremental cost of €2073.19 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Tibial EVR provides exceptional outcome in CLI. The CELA has superior SCI, AFS, and freedom from TER, with improved Q-TWiST and cost-effectiveness.

  2. Preliminary results of tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) for mild to moderate myopia with the autonomous technologies excimer laser at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    1997-05-01

    Preliminary results of the correction of myopia up to -7.00 D by tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) with a scanning and tracking excimer laser by Autonomous Technologies are discussed. 41 eyes participated (20 males). 28 eyes were evaluated one month postop. At epithelization day mean uncorrected vision was 20/45.3. At one month postop, 92.8 of eyes were 20/40 and 46.4% were 20/20. No eye was worse than 20/50. 75% of eyes were within +/- 0.5 D of emmetropia and 82% were within +/- 1.00 D of emmetropia. Eyes corrected for monovision were included. One eye lost 3 lines of best corrected vision, and had more than 1.00 D induced astigmatism due to a central corneal ulcer. Additional complications included symptomatic recurrent corneal erosions which were controlled with topical hypertonic saline. T-PRK appears to allow effective correction of low to moderate myopia. Further study will establish safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  3. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In2O3 thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; van der Cingel, Johan; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T.; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-06-01

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In2O3 (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  4. Schlieren with a laser diode source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Franke, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a laser diode as a light source for a schlieren system designed to study phase objects such as a wind-tunnel flow is explored. A laser diode schlieren photograph and a white light schlieren photograph (zirconium arc source) are presented for comparison. The laser diode has increased sensitivity, compared with light schlieren, without appreciable image degradiation, and is an acceptable source for schlieren flow visualization.

  5. Arthroscopic cartilage debridement by excimer laser in chondromalacia of the knee joint. A prospective randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Raunest, J; Löhnert, J

    1990-01-01

    A new operative technique in arthroscopic treatment of chondromalacia using ultraviolet laser systems is introduced. The postoperative results are evaluated in a prospective and randomized clinical trial. One hundred and forty patients stage II or III chondromalacia according to Outerbridge were randomly assigned to arthroscopic operation using either laser or mechanical instruments. After a 6-month follow-up period the clinical results were compared, guided by a specially designed modification of the Lysholm scoring scale. In the short-term follow-up laser surgery gave superior results in regard to reducing pain (P less than 0.05) and leading to a lower incidence of reactive synovitis (P less than 0.01). No difference was found in respect of disability and functional impairment. Our results lead to the conclusion that arthroscopic laser application seems to be a successful procedure in the treatment of degenerative cartilage disorders, providing precise ablation of tissue without significant thermal damage to the remaining cartilage.

  6. Experimental Results Of The Application Of Excimer Lasers In Surgical Treatment Of Cartilage Removal In Knee Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Karl O.; Hohlbach, G.; Baretton, G.; Schramm, U.

    1989-04-01

    The aim of surgical therapy for osteoarthritic cartilage is the removal of the arthritic areas while maintaining the healthy tissue. Removal of calified areas by arthroscopy is preferably used in knee joints. The following investigations were performed to obtain the ablation rates during laser application in order to improve the ablation ratio of the calcified cartilage. For this purpose, specimens were immersed in tetracycline solution which has an absorption maximum at the laser's wavelength.

  7. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    DOEpatents

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  8. Low resistance nonalloyed Ni/Au Ohmic contacts to p-GaN irradiated by KrF excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Min-Suk; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Lim, Jae-Hong

    2006-07-24

    A specific contact resistance of 8.9x10{sup -5} {omega} cm{sup 2} was obtained for a Ni/Au Ohmic layer on the KrF laser-irradiated p-GaN. It was found that laser irradiation increases the hole concentration from 4.1x10{sup 17} to 9.7x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} by removing hydrogen atoms from p-GaN layer. The native oxide was also removed as evidenced by the Ga 2p peak shift and the decrease in the intensity of O 1s peak in the x-ray photoelectron spectra. The formation of a low resistance is attributed to the increase in the hole concentration and the removal of native oxide from p-GaN bymore » laser irradiation.« less

  9. Low temperature sputter-deposited ZnO films with enhanced Hall mobility using excimer laser post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakonas, C.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Cranton, W. M.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Abusabee, K. M.; Koutsogeorgis, D. C.; Abeywickrama, N.; Edwards, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    We report the low temperature (T  <  70 °C) fabrication of ZnO thin films (~140 nm) with Hall mobility of up to 17.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 making them suitable for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at T  <  70 °C and subsequently laser processed in ambient temperature in order to modify the Hall mobility and carrier concentration. Medium-to-low energy laser radiation densities and a high number of pulses were used to avoid damaging the films. Laser annealing of the films after aging in the lab under 25%-35% relative humidity and at an average illuminance of 120 lux resulted in an overall higher mobility and relatively low carrier concentration in comparison to the non-aged films that were laser processed immediately after deposition. A maximum overall measured Hall mobility of 17.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 at a carrier density of 2.3  ×  1018 cm-3 was measured from a 1 GΩ as deposited and aged film after the laser treatment. We suggest that the aging of non-processed films reduces structural defects mainly at grain boundaries by air species chemisorption, with concomitant increase in thermal conductivity so that laser processing can have an enhancing effect. Such a processing combination can act synergistically and produce suitable active layers for TFT applications with low temperature processing requirements.

  10. Energy-density and repetition-rate dependences of the KrF-excimer-laser-induced 1.9-eV emission band in type-III fused silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuu, Nobu; Komatsu, Yoshikazu; Murahara, Masataka

    1993-02-01

    The energy-density and repetition-rate dependences of the intensity of KrF-excimer-laser (5.0 eV) -induced 1.9-eV emission band in type-III fused silicas synthesized under different conditions were investigated. The intensity of the 1.9-eV band is proportional to the 1.7-th power of the energy density and the 0.6-th power of the repetition rate of the laser pulse. The origin of these dependencies was discussed based on the trapped-oxygen-molecule model proposed by Awazu and Kawazoe; by irradiating with the excimer laser, ozone molecules are formed from dissolved oxygen molecules and 1.9-eV photons are emitted in the course of the photodecomposition of the ozone molecules. Therefore, a two-step photon-absorption process is needed to emit the 1.9-eV photon. To form the ozone molecule, diffusion of the oxygen atoms produced by the photodecomposition of the trapped oxygen molecules are needed. This model suggests that the intensity of the 1.9-eV band is proportional to the square of the energy density and the square root of the repetition rate; this dependency is nearly the same as that of our experimental result.

  11. Characterizing the absorption and aging behavior of DUV optical material by high-resolution excimer laser calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Eva, Eric

    1998-06-01

    Absorption loss in DUV optics during 193 nm irradiation is investigated by employing a high-resolution calorimetric technique which allows determining both single and two photon absorption coefficients at energy densities of several 10 mJ/cm2, avoiding a significant thermal load on the samples. UV calorimetry is also employed to investigate laser induced aging phenomena, e.g. color center formation in fused silica or CaF2. A separation of transient and cumulative effects as a function of intensity can be achieved, giving insight into various loss mechanisms. Moreover, the influence of dielectric coatings on the absorption characteristics is discussed.

  12. Laser fusion neutron source employing compression with short pulse lasers

    DOEpatents

    Sefcik, Joseph A; Wilks, Scott C

    2013-11-05

    A method and system for achieving fusion is provided. The method includes providing laser source that generates a laser beam and a target that includes a capsule embedded in the target and filled with DT gas. The laser beam is directed at the target. The laser beam helps create an electron beam within the target. The electron beam heats the capsule, the DT gas, and the area surrounding the capsule. At a certain point equilibrium is reached. At the equilibrium point, the capsule implodes and generates enough pressure on the DT gas to ignite the DT gas and fuse the DT gas nuclei.

  13. Induction of lambda prophage by 213 nm laser radiation: a quantitative comparison with 193 nm excimer radiation using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Matchette, L S; Grossman, L W; Hahn, D W; Cooney, C

    1996-03-01

    We compared the DNA damage produced by radiation from two UV laser wavelengths, 213 nm and 193 nm, with that produced by noncoherent 254 nm radiation. Following irradiation of Escherichia coli BR339, a bacteriophage lambda lysogen containing the lacZ gene, pro-phage induction was measured by assaying for beta-galactosidase. Because of the limited penetration by UV laser wavelengths an agar overlay of the lysogen was used as the irradiation target. Irradiation of 254 nm was performed in buffer suspension followed by transfer of 5 microL spots onto assay plants. Computer image analysis was used to monitor the rate of product formation, observed as an increase in optical density of the irradiated zones on assay plates. We found that the rate of product formation was a more reproducible unit of comparison than the optical density present at the end of the reaction. Although the rate of product formation was not linearly related to enzyme concentration, the data could be fit to a simple logarithmic function. Using this method, we concluded that the DNA damaging ability of 213 nm radiation was 10 times more efficient than 193 nm radiation and about 100 times less efficient than 254 nm noncoherent radiation.

  14. Laser Sources for Generation of Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Two laser systems have been built and used to demonstrate enhancements beyond current technology used for laser-based generation and detection of ultrasound. The first system consisted of ten Nd:YAG laser cavities coupled electronically and optically to permit sequential bursts of up to ten laser pulses directed either at a single point or configured into a phased array of sources. Significant enhancements in overall signal-to-noise ratio for laser ultrasound incorporating this new source system was demonstrated, using it first as a source of narrowband ultrasound and secondly as a phased array source producing large enhanced signal displacements. A second laser system was implemented using ultra fast optical pulses from a Ti:Sapphire laser to study a new method for making laser generated ultrasonic measurements of thin films with thicknesses on the order of hundreds of angstroms. Work by prior investigators showed that such measurements could be made based upon fluctuations in the reflectivity of thin films when they are stressed by an arriving elastic pulse. Research performed using equipment purchased under this program showed that a pulsed interferometric system could be used as well as a piezoreflective detection system to measure pulse arrivals even in thin films with very low piezoreflective coefficients.

  15. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  16. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE PAGES

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; ...

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 10 11,more » which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  17. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi, E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 10{sup 11}, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAGmore » laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  18. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: fuwa@kyticr.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at themore » exit of RF resonator by a probe.« less

  19. Contralateral comparison of wavefront-guided LASIK surgery with iris recognition versus without iris recognition using the MEL80 Excimer laser system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Yang, Yabo; Dougherty, Paul J

    2009-05-01

    To compare outcomes in wavefront-guided LASIK performed with iris recognition software versus without iris recognition software in different eyes of the same patient. A randomised, prospective study of 104 myopic eyes of 52 patients undergoing LASIK surgery with the MEL80 excimer laser system was performed. Iris recognition software was used in one eye of each patient (study group) and not used in the other eye (control group). Higher order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity, uncorrected vision (UCV), visual acuity (VA) and corneal topography were measured and recorded pre-operatively and at one month and three months post-operatively for each eye. The mean post-operative sphere and cylinder between groups was similar, however the post-operative angles of error (AE) by refraction were significantly smaller in the study group compared to the control group both in arithmetic and absolute means (p = 0.03, p = 0.01). The mean logMAR UCV was significantly better in the study group than in the control group at one month (p = 0.01). The mean logMAR VA was significantly better in the study group than in control group at both one and three months (p = 0.01, p = 0.03). In addition, mean trefoil, total third-order aberration, total fourth-order aberration and the total scotopic root-mean-square (RMS) HOAs were significantly less in the study group than those in the control group at the third (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, p = 0.04, p = 0.02). By three months, the contrast sensitivity had recovered in both groups but the study group performed better at 2.6, 4.2 and 6.6 cpd (cycles per degree) than the control group (p = 0.01, p < 0.01, p = 0.01). LASIK performed with iris recognition results in better VA, lower mean higher-order aberrations, lower refractive post-operative angles of error and better contrast sensitivity at three months post-operatively than LASIK performed without iris recognition.

  20. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Laser system based on a commercial microwave oscillator with time compression of a microwave pump pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteev, M. S.; Vaulin, V. A.; Slinko, V. N.; Chumerin, P. Yu; Yushkov, Yu G.

    1992-06-01

    An analysis is made of the possibility of using a commercial microsecond microwave oscillator, supplemented by a device for time compression of microwave pulses, in pumping of industrial lasers with a high efficiency of conversion of the pump source energy into laser radiation. The results are reported of preliminary experiments on the commissioning of an excimer XeCl laser.

  1. Surface-pattern geometry, topography, and chemical modifications during KrF excimer laser micro-drilling of p-type Si (111) wafers in ambient environment of HCl fumes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakria Butt, Muhammad; Saher, Sobia; Waqas Khaliq, Muhammad; Siraj, Khurram

    2016-11-01

    Eight mirror-like polished p-type Si (111) wafers were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 KrF excimer laser pulses in ambient environment of HCl fumes in air. The laser parameters were: wavelength = 248 nm, pulse width = 20 ns, pulse energy = 20 mJ, and repetition rate = 20 Hz. For each set of laser pulses, characterization of the rectangular etched patterns formed on target surface was done by optical/scanning electron microscopy, XRD, and EDX techniques. The average etched depth increased with the increase in number of laser pulses from 100 to 2000 in accord with Sigmoidal (Boltzmann) function, whereas the average etch rate followed an exponential decay with the increase in number of laser pulses. However, the etched area, maximum etched depth, and maximum etch rate were found to increase linearly with the number of laser pulses, but the rate of increase was faster for 100-400 laser pulses (region I) than that for 800-2000 laser pulses (region II). The elemental composition for each etched-pattern determined by EDX shows that both O and Cl contents increase progressively with the increase in the number of laser shots in region I. However, in region II both O and Cl contents attain saturation values of about 39.33 wt.% and 0.14 wt.%, respectively. Perforation of Si wafers was achieved on irradiation with 1200-2000 laser pulses. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of SiO2, SiCl2 and SiCl4 phases in Si (111) wafers due to chemical reaction of silicon with both HCl fumes and oxygen in air.

  2. Atomic force microscopy analysis of human cornea surface after UV (λ=266 nm) laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Moutsouris, K.; Bacharis, C.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2009-07-01

    Efficient cornea reshaping by laser irradiation for correcting refractive errors is still a major issue of interest and study. Although the excimer laser wavelength of 193 nm is generally recognized as successful in ablating corneal tissue for myopia correction, complications in excimer refractive surgery leads to alternative laser sources and methods for efficient cornea treatment. In this work, ablation experiments of human donor cornea flaps were conducted with the 4th harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser, with different laser pulses. AFM analysis was performed for examination of the ablated cornea flap morphology and surface roughness.

  3. Excimer laser with fluoropolymer lining

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    A cavity formed of Teflon to provide extended static fill lifetimes for gases containing halogens. A double cavity configuration provides structural integrity to the inner Teflon cavity by maintaining an identical multi-atmospheric pressure within the outer structural cavity to minimize tension on the Teflon inner cavity. Use of a quantity of the lasing gas in the outer cavity or a constituent of that gas minimizes contamination of the lasing gas.

  4. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of highly efficient coherent optical sources was reviewed. This work has focused on nonlinear frequency conversion of the highly coherent output of the non-planar ring laser oscillators developed earlier in the program, and includes high efficiency second harmonic generation and the operation of optical parametric oscillators for wavelength diversity and tunability.

  5. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of highly efficient coherent optical sources is reviewed. This work focusses on nonlinear frequency conversion of the highly coherent output of the Non-Planar Ring Laser Oscillators developed earlier in the program, and includes high efficiency second harmonic generation and the operation of optical parametric oscillators for wavelength diversity and tunability.

  6. Preliminary results of tracked laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (T-LASIK) for myopia and hyperopia using the autonomous technologies excimer laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Salz, James J.

    2000-06-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of LASIK with the LADARVision laser by Autonomous Technologies, (Orlando, FL). The study included four subsets: Spherical myopia -- up to -11.00D, spherical hyperopia -- up to +6.00D. Both myopic and hyperopic astigmatism could be corrected, up to 6.00D of astigmatism. A total of 105 patients participated. Sixty-six patients were myopic and 39 were hyperopic. The mean (+/- SD) age was 42.8 +/- 9.3 years for myopia and 53.2 +/- 9.9 years for hyperopia. At 3 months postop. Sixty-one myopic eyes were available for evaluation. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 in 70% of eyes and 20/40 in 92.9% of all eyes. The refractive outcome was within +/- 0.50D in 73.8% of eyes and within +/- 1.00D in 96.7 of eyes. Thirty-eight hyperopic eyes were available. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 in 42.1% of eyes and 20/40 in 88% of all eyes. The refractive outcome was within +/- 0.50D in 57.9% of eyes and within +/- 1.00D in 86.8% of eyes. Complications were not sight threatening and were discussed in detail. Lasik with the LADARVision laser appears to be safe and effective.

  7. Skin graft take and healing following 193-nm excimer, continuous-wave carbon dioxide (CO2), pulsed CO2, or pulsed holmium: YAG laser ablation of the graft bed.

    PubMed

    Green, H A; Burd, E E; Nishioka, N S; Compton, C C

    1993-08-01

    Ablative lasers have been used for cutaneous surgery for greater than two decades since they can remove skin and skin lesions bloodlessly and efficiently. Because full-thickness skin wounds created after thermal laser ablation may require skin grafting in order to heal, we have examined the effect of the residual laser-induced thermal damage in the wound bed on subsequent skin graft take and healing. In a pig model, four different pulsed and continuous-wave lasers with varying wavelengths and radiant energy exposures were used to create uniform fascial graft bed thermal damage of approximately 25, 160, 470, and 1100 microns. Meshed split-thickness skin graft take and healing on the thermally damaged fascial graft beds were examined on a gross and microscopic level on days 3 and 7, and then weekly up to 42 days. Laser-induced thermal damage on the graft bed measuring greater than 160 +/- 60 microns in depth significantly decreased skin graft take. Other deleterious effects included delayed graft revascularization, increased inflammatory cell infiltrate at the graft-wound bed interface, and accelerated formation of hypertrophied fibrous tissue within the graft bed and underlying muscle. Ablative lasers developed for cutaneous surgery should create less than 160 +/- 60 microns of residual thermal damage to permit optimal skin graft take and healing. Pulsed carbon dioxide and 193-nm excimer lasers may be valuable instruments for the removal of full-thickness skin, skin lesions, and necrotic tissue, since they create wound beds with minimal thermal damage permitting graft take comparable to that achieved with standard surgical techniques.

  8. Neutron Source from Laser Plasma Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xuejing; Shaw, Joseph; McCary, Eddie; Downer, Mike; Hegelich, Bjorn

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven electron beams and ion beams were utilized to produce neutron sources via different mechanism. On the Texas Petawatt laser, deuterized plastic, gold and DLC foil targets of varying thickness were shot with 150 J , 150 fs laser pulses at a peak intensity of 2 ×1021W /cm2 . Ions were accelerated by either target normal sheath acceleration or Breakout Afterburner acceleration. Neutrons were produced via the 9Be(d,n) and 9Be(p,n) reactions when accelerated ions impinged on a Beryllium converter as well as by deuteron breakup reactions. We observed 2 ×1010 neutron per shot in average, corresponding to 5 ×1018n /s . The efficiencies for different targets are comparable. In another experiment, 38fs , 0.3 J UT3 laser pulse interacted with mixed gas target. Electrons with energy 40MeV were produced via laser wakefield acceleration. Neutron flux of 2 ×106 per shot was generated through bremsstrahlung and subsequent photoneutron reactions on a Copper converter.

  9. Projection lenses for high-resolution ablation with excimer lasers: high-performance, wide-field and high-UV laser power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Johannes; Winkler, Kerstin; Koerner, Lienhard; Schletterer, Thomas; Burghardt, Berthold; Kahlert, Hans-Juergen

    2000-10-01

    The productive and accurate ablation of microstructures demands the precise imaging of a mask pattern onto the substrate under work. The job can be done with high performance wide field lenses as a key component of ablation equipment. The image field has dimensions of 20 to 30 mm. Typical dimensions and accuracy of the microstructures are in the order of some microns. On the other hand, the working depth of focus (DOF) has to be in the order of some 10 microns to be successful on drilling through 20 to 50 μm substrates. All these features have to be reached under the conditions of high power laser UV light. Some design principles for such systems are applied, such as optimum number of elements, minimum tolerance sensitivity, material restrictions for the lens elements as well as mechanical parts (mounting), restrictions of possible power densities on lens surfaces (including ghosts), matched quality for the manufactures system. The special applications require appropriate performance criteria for theoretical calculation and measurements, which allow to conclude the performance of the application. The base is wave front calculation and measurement (using Shack- Hartmann sensor) in UV. Derived criteria are calculated and compared with application results.

  10. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  11. A tunable mid-infrared laser source for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    1991-01-01

    Many remote sensing needs can be effectively addressed with a tunable laser source in the mid infrared. One potential laser source is an optical parametric oscillator and amplifier system pumped by a near infrared solid state laser. Advantages of such a system and progress made at NASA Langley Research Center to date on such a system are described.

  12. Controlled reshaping of the front surface of the cornea through its full-area ablation outside of the optical zone with a Gaussian ArF excimer laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semchishen, A. V.; Semchishen, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied in vitro the response of the topography of the cornea to its full-area laser ablation (the laser beam spot diameter is commensurable with the size of the interface) outside of the central zone with an excimer laser having a Gaussian fluence distribution across the beam. Subject to investigation were the topographically controlled surface changes of the anterior cornea in 60 porcine eyes with a 5 ± 1.25-diopter artificially induced astigmatism, the changes being caused by laser ablation of the stromal collagen in two 3.5-mm-dia. circular areas along the weaker astigmatism axis. Experimental relationships are presented between the actual astigmatism correction and the expected correction for the intact optical zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm in diameter. The data for each zone were approximated by the least-squares method with the function d = a + bx. The coefficient b is given with the root-mean-square error. The statistical processing of the data yielded the following results: d = (0.14 ± 0.037)x for the 1-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.10 ± 0.036)x for the 2-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.04 ± 0.020)x for the 3-mm-dia. optical zone, and (0.55 ± 0.04)x for the 4-mm-dia. optical zone. Full astigmatism correction was achieved with ablation effected outside of the 3-mm-dia. optical zone. The surface changes of the cornea are shown to be due not only to the removal of the corneal tissue, but also to the biomechanical topographic response of the cornea to its strain caused by the formation of a dense pseudomembrane in the ablation area.

  13. High-Power Laser Source Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    uniform:«»! had been:taped. A sample beam profile at the receiver Zerodur Au-coated mirror 20 cm diameter f/6 Diode laser Diode bars 1 21 m beam...amplifiers and mirrors . This is of concern to the NIF Project and the use of unconverted 1.06 p.m light to produce these x-ray sources might require...they may result in DSWA Final Report - 34 NWET ANNUAL REPORT - QDV-99-0001 undesirable conditions at the turning mirrors or ghosts in the up-beam

  14. Excimer Potential Curves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    lasers see A. V. Phelps, JILA Report 110, "Tunable Gas Lasers Using Ground State Dissociation," (1972) and references therein. 2. This requires highly...possibility of using GaXe as a laser if the Ga can be obtained from dissociation of Gal 3 . Consequently the GaKr curves should also be of intrinsic interest... laser transitions The interest in the group IIIB-rare gas systems arises from the possibility of their use as visible laser systems. In order to judge

  15. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    DOE PAGES

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion sourcemore » for regular operation.« less

  16. Investigation on RGB laser source applied to dynamic photoelastic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Songgang; Yang, Guobiao; Zeng, Weiming

    2014-06-01

    When the elastomer sustains the shock load or the blast load, its internal stress state of every point will change rapidly over time. Dynamic photoelasticity method is an experimental stress analysis method, which researches the dynamic stress and the stress wave propagation. Light source is one of very important device in dynamic photoelastic experiment system, and the RGB laser light source applied in dynamic photoelastic experiment system is innovative and evolutive to the system. RGB laser is synthesized by red laser, green laser and blue laser, either as a single wavelength laser light source, also as synthesized white laser light source. RGB laser as a light source for dynamic photoelastic experiment system, the colored isochromatic can be captured in dynamic photoelastic experiment, and even the black zero-level stripe can be collected, and the isoclinics can also be collected, which conducively analysis and study of transient stress and stress wave propagation. RGB laser is highly stable and continuous output, and its power can be adjusted. The three wavelengths laser can be synthesized by different power ratio. RGB laser light source used in dynamic photoelastic experiment has overcome a number of deficiencies and shortcomings of other light sources, and simplifies dynamic photoelastic experiment, which has achieved good results.

  17. PHARAO space atomic clock: new developments on the laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccoccio, Muriel; Loesel, Jacques; Coatantiec, Claude; Simon, Eric; Laurent, Philippe; Lemonde, Pierre; Maksimovic, I.; Abgrall, M.

    2017-11-01

    The PHARAO project purpose is to open the way for a new atomic clock generation in space, where laser cooling techniques and microgravity allow high frequency stability and accuracy. The French space agency, CNES is funding and managing the clock construction. The French SYRTE and LKB laboratories are scientific and technical advisers for the clock requirements and the follow-up of subsystem development in industrial companies. EADS SODERN is developing two main subsystems of the PHARAO clock: the Laser Source and the Cesium Tube where atoms are cooled, launched, selected and detected by laser beams. The Laser Source includes an optical bench and electronic devices to generate the laser beams required. This paper describes PHARAO and the role laser beams play in its principle of operation. Then we present the Laser Source design, the technologies involved, and the status of development. Lastly, we focus of a key equipment to reach the performances expected, which is the Extended Cavity Laser Diode.

  18. High power green lasers for gamma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Magali; Sevillano, Pierre; Alexaline, Olivier; Sangla, Damien; Casanova, Alexis; Aubourg, Adrien; Saci, Abdelhak; Courjaud, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    A high intensity Gamma source is required for Nuclear Spectroscopy, it will be delivered by the interaction between accelerated electron and intense laser beams. Those two interactions lasers are based on a multi-stage amplification scheme that ended with a second harmonics generation to deliver 200 mJ, 5 ps pulses at 515 nm and 100 Hz. A t-Pulse oscillator with slow and fast feedback loop implemented inside the oscillator cavity allows the possibility of synchronization to an optical reference. A temporal jitter of 120 fs rms is achieved, integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz. Then a regenerative amplifier, based on Yb:YAG technology, pumped by fiber-coupled QCW laser diodes, delivers pulses up to 30 mJ. The 1 nm bandwidth was compressed to 1.5 ps with a good spatial quality: M2 of 1.1. This amplifier is integrated in a compact sealed housing (750 x 500 x 150 mm), which allows a pulse-pulse stability of 0.1 % rms, and a long-term stability of 1,9 % over 100 hours (with +/-1°C environment). The main amplification stage uses a cryocooled Yb:YAG crystal in an active mirror configuration. The crystal is cooled at 130 K via a compact and low-vibration cryocooler, avoiding any additional phase noise contribution, 340 mJ in a six pass scheme was achieved, with 0.9 of Strehl ratio. The trade off to the gain of a cryogenic amplifier is the bandwidth reduction, however the 1030 nm pulse was compressed to 4.4 ps. As for the regenerative amplifier a long-term stability of 1.9 % over 30 hours was achieved in an environment with +/-1°C temperature fluctuations The compression and Second Harmonics Generation Stages have allowed the conversion of 150 mJ of uncompressed infrared beam into 60 mJ at 515 nm.

  19. High power lasers for gamma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Magali; Sangla, Damien; Trophème, Benoit; Sevillano, Pierre; Casanova, Alexis; Caillon, Laurianne; Courjaud, Antoine

    2017-02-01

    A high intensity Gamma source is required for Nuclear Spectroscopy, it will be delivered by the interaction between accelerated electron and intense laser beams. Those two interactions lasers are based on a multi-stage amplification scheme that ended with a second harmonics generation to deliver 200 mJ, 3.5 ps pulses at 515 nm and 100 Hz. A t-Pulse oscillator with slow and fast feedback loop implemented inside the oscillator cavity allows the possibility of synchronization to an optical reference. A temporal jitter of 120 fs rms is achieved, integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz. Then a regenerative amplifier, based on Yb:YAG technology, pumped by fiber-coupled QCW laser diodes, delivers pulses up to 30 mJ. The 1 nm bandwidth was compressed to 1.5 ps with a good spatial quality: M2 of 1.1. This amplifier is integrated in a compact sealed housing (750x500x150 cm), which allows a pulse-pulse stability of 0.1% rms, and a long-term stability of 1,9% over 100 hours (with +/-1°C environment). The main amplification stage uses a cryocooled Yb:YAG crystal in an active mirror configuration. The crystal is cooled at 130 K via a compact and low-vibration cryocooler, avoiding any additional phase noise contribution, 340 mJ in a six pass scheme was achieved, with 0.9 of Strehl ratio. The trade off to the gain of a cryogenic amplifier is the bandwidth reduction, however the 1030 nm pulse was compressed to 3.5 ps.

  20. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  1. Light source employing laser-produced plasma

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S

    2013-09-17

    A system and a method of generating radiation and/or particle emissions are disclosed. In at least some embodiments, the system includes at least one laser source that generates a first pulse and a second pulse in temporal succession, and a target, where the target (or at least a portion the target) becomes a plasma upon being exposed to the first pulse. The plasma expand after the exposure to the first pulse, the expanded plasma is then exposed to the second pulse, and at least one of a radiation emission and a particle emission occurs after the exposure to the second pulse. In at least some embodiments, the target is a solid piece of material, and/or a time period between the first and second pulses is less than 1 microsecond (e.g., 840 ns).

  2. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-11-18

    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy.

  3. Investigation of laser dynamics, modulation and control by means of intra-cavity time varying perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.; Siegman, A. E.; Kuizenga, D. J.; Kung, A. H.; Young, J. F.; Bekkers, G. W.; Bloom, D. M.; Newton, J. H.; Phillion, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    The generation of tunable visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light is examined, along with the control of this light by means of novel mode-locking and modulation techniques. Transient mode-locking of the Nd:YAG laser and generation of short tunable pulses in the visible and the alkali metal inert gas excimer laser systems were investigated. Techniques for frequency conversion of high power and high energy laser radiation are discussed, along with high average power blue and UV laser light sources.

  4. Surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking-based tissue saving treatment with the Technolas 217z excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Athiya; Maity, Amrita

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes and expected benefits of Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking. This prospective, interventional case series comprised 122 eyes (70 patients). Pre- and postoperative assessment included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refraction, and higher order aberrations. All patients underwent Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking using the Technolas 217z 100-Hz excimer platform (Technolas Perfect Vision GmbH). Follow-up was performed up to 6 months postoperatively. Theoretical benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the algorithm's outcomes compared to others. Preoperative spherocylindrical power was sphere -3.62 ± 1.60 diopters (D) (range: 0 to -6.75 D), cylinder -1.15 ± 1.00 D (range: 0 to -3.50 D), and spherical equivalent -4.19 ± 1.60 D (range: -7.75 to -2.00 D). At 6 months, 91% (111/122) of eyes were within ± 0.50 D of attempted correction. Postoperative UDVA was comparable to preoperative CDVA at 1 month (P=.47) and progressively improved at 6 months (P=.004). Two eyes lost one line of CDVA at 6 months. Theoretical benefit analysis revealed that of 101 eyes with astigmatism, 29 would have had cyclotorsion-induced astigmatism of ≥ 10% if iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking were not used. Furthermore, the mean percentage decrease in maximum depth of ablation by using the Tissue Saving Treatment was 11.8 ± 2.9% over Aspheric, 17.8 ± 6.2% over Personalized, and 18.2 ± 2.8% over Planoscan algorithms. Tissue saving surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking was safe and effective in this series of eyes. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Monitoring of KrF excimer laser ablation for burn scars: a comparative study of transient reflection measurement and time-resolved photography of ablation plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Akio; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto; Iwaya, Akimi; Arai, Katsuyuki; Inazaki, Satoshi; Takaoka, Takatsugu; Kato, Masayoshi

    1995-05-01

    A simple laser ablation monitoring during burn scar removal by KrF laser irradiation was studied to control laser fluence in real-time. Because, to obtain suitable surface for auto skin-graft, the laser fluence should be precisely controlled at each laser shot. We employed simple probe transmission method which could detect ejected material/phenomena from irradiated surface. The time-course of measured probe intensity contained a couple of attenuated peaks, which might corresponded to a shock wave front and debris plume. The delay time from laser irradiation to the debris plume peak appearance varied with the ablation fluence. The delay time of 1 J/cm2 (near ablation threshold) case prolonged 25% from 8 J/cm2 (far above threshold) case. Therefore, we think the delay time measurement by means of the simple probe transmission method may be available to attain the laser fluence control for nonuniform burn scar removal. The time-resolved photography and probe reflection method were also studied to understand the measured time-course of the transmitted probe intensity.

  6. Excimer PRK testing in the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Gary T.

    1994-06-01

    Testing of the excimer lasers used in PRK requires special considerations in terms of ease of use, day-to-day reliability, and high resolution to see details of beam interference effects. SensorPhysics employs a patented photochromic material on a polyester substrate to record permanent, instant records of the laser and laser system output. Since each SensorCard is used only once concerns about detection device deterioration are not an issue. The SensorCards have a demonstrated resolving power on the order of 0.1 micrometers . A small, portable reading device is used to convert the SensorCard optical density to a mJ/cm2 value. Special software also measures beam uniformity to +/- 1% to provide both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results of use in clinic environments will be presented. In particular detection of exposure `islands' will be demonstrated. The techniques employed are similar to those we developed for UV laser micromachining and lithography four years ago.

  7. An open-source laser electronics suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisenti, Neal C.; Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Barker, Daniel S.; Restelli, Alessandro; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We present an integrated set of open-source electronics for controlling external-cavity diode lasers and other instruments in the laboratory. The complete package includes a low-noise circuit for driving high-voltage piezoelectric actuators, an ultra-stable current controller based on the design of, and a high-performance, multi-channel temperature controller capable of driving thermo-electric coolers or resistive heaters. Each circuit (with the exception of the temperature controller) is designed to fit in a Eurocard rack equipped with a low-noise linear power supply capable of driving up to 5 A at +/- 15 V. A custom backplane allows signals to be shared between modules, and a digital communication bus makes the entire rack addressable by external control software over TCP/IP. The modular architecture makes it easy for additional circuits to be designed and integrated with existing electronics, providing a low-cost, customizable alternative to commercial systems without sacrificing performance.

  8. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-01-01

    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy. PMID:27857214

  9. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes were investigated. A new generation on nonplanar oscillator was fabricated, and it is anticipated that passive linewidths will be pushed to the kilohertz regime. A number of diode-pumped laser transitions were demonstrated in the rod configuration. Second-harmonic conversion efficiencies as high as 15% are routinely obtained in a servo-locked external resonant doubling crystal at 15 mW cw input power levels at 1064 nm.

  10. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    SciTech Connect

    Lévèque, T., E-mail: thomas.leveque@cnes.fr; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the lasermore » source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.« less

  11. Absorptivity Measurements and Heat Source Modeling to Simulate Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Florian; Eisenbarth, Daniel; Wegener, Konrad

    The laser cladding process gains importance, as it does not only allow the application of surface coatings, but also additive manufacturing of three-dimensional parts. In both cases, process simulation can contribute to process optimization. Heat source modeling is one of the main issues for an accurate model and simulation of the laser cladding process. While the laser beam intensity distribution is readily known, the other two main effects on the process' heat input are non-trivial. Namely the measurement of the absorptivity of the applied materials as well as the powder attenuation. Therefore, calorimetry measurements were carried out. The measurement method and the measurement results for laser cladding of Stellite 6 on structural steel S 235 and for the processing of Inconel 625 are presented both using a CO2 laser as well as a high power diode laser (HPDL). Additionally, a heat source model is deduced.

  12. 0.35-μm excimer DUV photolithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arugu, Donald O.; Green, Kent G.; Nunan, Peter D.; Terbeek, Marcel; Crank, Sue E.; Ta, Lam; Capsuto, Elliott S.; Sethi, Satyendra S.

    1993-08-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that DUV excimer laser based imaging will be one of the technologies for printing sub-half micron devices. This paper reports the investigation of 0.35 micrometers photolithography process using chemically amplified DUV resists on organic anti- reflective coating (ARC). Production data from the GCA XLS excimer DUV tools with nominal gate width of 0.35 micrometers lines, 0.45 micrometers spaces was studied to demonstrate device production worthiness. This data included electrical yield information for device characterization. Exposure overlay was done by mixing and matching DUV and I-line GCA steppers for critical and non critical levels respectively. Working isolated transistors down to 0.2 micrometers have been demonstrated.

  13. Modulated Pulsed Laser Sources for Imaging Lidars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    doped PM fiber . The ytterbium ions in the fiber are cladding-pumped to their excited states using four, 6-Watt multimode lasers at 976 nm. Yh-dop...next amplified using a fiber amplifier to an average power of 10-15 Watts. A highly efficient, periodically poled nonlinear optical material will be...establish the feasibility of both pulsing a 1064 nm laser to produce enough average power to successfully seed a Yb- doped fiber amplifier so it will

  14. PRK by Er:YAG laser: in-vitro studies and first in-vivo experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Rudolf W.; Leiacker, Richard; Russ, Detlef; Seiler, Theo

    1996-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is usually performed by an excimer laser at 193 nm wavelength. Ablatio of corneal tissue is, however, not only possible in the UV region of the optical spectrum but also in the IR where water is an excellent absorber. Therefore, an Er:YAG laser was used at 2.94 micrometer wavelength as an alternative laser light source to perform in vitro studies of corneal ablation and also first clinical experiments to correct myopia of patients with blind eyes.

  15. Prospects for Practical Applications of a Discharge Chemical HF Laser as a Coherent Source for IR Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, O. G.; Fomin, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    Preliminary experimental results on recording of phase and amplitude holograms using the radiation of electric-discharge HF lasers are presented, and prospects for applications of such lasers in diagnostics of various objects are discussed. It is shown that lasers with homogeneous working medium may generate coherent radiation with a coherence length of greater than 6 m in the absence of mode selection. Methods for control of spatial distribution of electron concentration in excimer and discharge chemical HF (DF) lasers and distributions of the main combustible components are considered. Deposition of holographic identification marks on artworks is studied.

  16. Compact diode laser source for multiphoton biological imaging

    PubMed Central

    Niederriter, Robert D.; Ozbay, Baris N.; Futia, Gregory L.; Gibson, Emily A.; Gopinath, Juliet T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact, pulsed diode laser source suitable for multiphoton microscopy of biological samples. The center wavelength is 976 nm, near the peak of the two-photon cross section of common fluorescent markers such as genetically encoded green and yellow fluorescent proteins. The laser repetition rate is electrically tunable between 66.67 kHz and 10 MHz, with 2.3 ps pulse duration and peak powers >1 kW. The laser components are fiber-coupled and scalable to a compact package. We demonstrate >600 μm depth penetration in brain tissue, limited by laser power. PMID:28101420

  17. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; ...

    2015-04-22

    Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  18. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are examined. Two basic techniques for metal deposition are investigated; (1) photochemical decomposition of liquid or gas phase organometallic compounds utilizing either a focused, CW ultraviolet laser (System 1) or a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, such as that provided by a repetitively pulsed, defocused excimer laser (System 2), for pattern definition, and (2) thermal deposition of metals from organometallic solutions or vapors utilizing a focused, CW laser beam as a local heat source to draw the metallization pattern.

  19. Effects of laser source parameters on the generation of narrow band and directed laser ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicer, James B.; Deaton, John B., Jr.; Wagner, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Predictive and prescriptive modeling of laser arrays is performed to demonstrate the effects of the extension of array elements on laser array performance. For a repetitively pulsed laser source (the temporal laser array), efficient frequency compression is best achieved by detecting longitudinal waves off-epicenter in plates where the source size and shape directly influence the longitudinal wave shape and duration; the longitudinal array may be tailored for a given repetition frequency to yield efficient overtone energy compression into the fundamental frequency band. For phased arrays, apparent array directivity is heavily influenced by array element size.

  20. Widely tunable quantum cascade laser-based terahertz source.

    PubMed

    Danylov, Andriy A; Light, Alexander R; Waldman, Jerry; Erickson, Neal; Qian, Xifeng

    2014-07-10

    A compact, tunable, ultranarrowband terahertz source, Δν∼1  MHz, is demonstrated by upconversion of a 2.324 THz, free-running quantum cascade laser with a THz Schottky-diode-balanced mixer using a swept, synthesized microwave source to drive the nonlinearity. Continuously tunable radiation of 1 μW power is demonstrated in two frequency regions: ν(Laser) ± 0 to 50 GHz and ν(Laser) ± 70 to 115 GHz. The sideband spectra were characterized with a Fourier-transform spectrometer, and the radiation was tuned through CO, HDO, and D2O rotational transitions.

  1. Status of the laser ion source at IMP

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, S.; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; School of Nuclear science and technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 73000

    2012-02-15

    A laser (Nd:YAG laser, 3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) ion source has been built and under development at IMP to provide pulsed high-charge-state heavy ion beams to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for upgrading the IMP accelerators with a new low-energy beam injector. The laser ion source currently operates in a direct plasma injection scheme to inject the high charge state ions produced from a solid target into the RFQ. The maximum power density on the target was about 8.4 x 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. The preliminary experimental results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  3. Lasers and light sources for rosacea.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J

    2005-03-01

    Pharmacologic agents remain the mainstay for initial and maintenance treatment of rosacea. However, monochromatic (i.e., laser) and polychromatic light-based therapies are increasingly being used for the treatment of certain signs of rosacea. Despite the increased use of lasers and other light-based therapies, few well-controlled studies have been conducted on their use for the treatment of rosacea. The studies that do exist suggest that these modalities have value in treating erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, including persistent erythema and phymatous rosacea. Light-based therapies should be strongly considered in cases of serious erythema, flushing, and telangiectasia because these signs are not optimally addressed by pharmacologic interventions.

  4. Recent advances in laser-driven neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Green, A.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to the limited number and high cost of large-scale neutron facilities, there has been a growing interest in compact accelerator-driven sources. In this context, several potential schemes of laser-driven neutron sources are being intensively studied employing laser-accelerated electron and ion beams. In addition to the potential of delivering neutron beams with high brilliance, directionality and ultra-short burst duration, a laser-driven neutron source would offer further advantages in terms of cost-effectiveness, compactness and radiation confinement by closed-coupled experiments. Some of the recent advances in this field are discussed, showing improvements in the directionality and flux of the laser-driven neutron beams.

  5. Unstable Resonator Mid-Infrared Laser Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    of individual materials depending on metal species and growth temperatures . Fig. 8 (a) Average power consumption and (b) delay of C2MOS and double...feedback lasers, chirped gratings, interferometric lithography, nanowire transistors, tunnel field- effect transistors, nanoscale epitaxial growth, nanowire...technical approaches. Approaches to wavelength tuning include thermal/operation temperature tuning [1], variable cavity length with cantilever/piezo

  6. Disruptive laser diode source for embedded LIDAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Active imaging based on laser illumination is used in various fields such as medicine, security, defense, civil engineering and in the automotive sector. In this last domain, research and development to bring autonomous vehicles on the roads has been intensified these last years with an emphasis on lidar technology that is probably the key to achieve full automation level. Based on time-of-flight measurements, the profile of objects can be measured together with their location in various conditions, creating a 3D mapping of the environment. To be embedded on a vehicle as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), these sensors require compactness, low-cost and reliability, as it is provided by a flash lidar. An attractive candidate, especially with respect to cost reduction, for the laser source integrated in these devices is certainly laser diodes as long as they can provide sufficiently short pulses with a high energy. A recent breakthrough in laser diode and diode driver technology made by Quantel (Les Ulis, France) now allows laser emission higher than 1 mJ with pulses as short as 12 ns in a footprint of 4x5 cm2 (including both the laser diode and driver) and an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of the whole laser diode source higher than 25% at this level of energy. The components used for the laser source presented here can all be manufactured at low cost. In particular, instead of having several individual laser diodes positioned side by side, the laser diodes are monolithically integrated on a single semiconductor chip. The chips are then integrated directly on the driver board in a single assembly step. These laser sources emit in the range of 800-1000 nm and their emission is considered to be eye safe when taking into account the high divergence of the output beam and the aperture of possible macro lenses so that they can be used for end consumer applications. Experimental characterization of these state-of-the-art pulsed laser diode sources

  7. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1986-10-01

    An intense and efficient source for blue green laser useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, the hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and the dense plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200 to 400nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400nm). As a result of optimization of the DPF light at 355nm, the blue green dye (LD490) laser output exceeding 4mJ was obtained at the best cavity tunning of the laser system. With the HCP pumped system a significant enhancement of the blue green laser outputs with dye LD490 and coumarin 503 has been achieved through the spectrum conversion of the pumping light by mixing a converter dye BBQ. The maximum increase of laser output with the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ and coumarin 503+BBQ was greater than 80%. In addition, the untunned near UV lasers were also obtained. The near UV laser output energy of P-terphenyl dye was 0.5mJ at lambda sub C=337nm with the bandwidth of 3n m for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2microsec.

  8. Final Report: High Power Semiconductor Laser Sources,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Mittelstein, Yasuhiko Arakawa, ) Anders Larssonb) and Amnon Yariv California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91 125~412 (Received 7 July...Electronics and Commu- nication Engineers of Japan. He is a member of the Institute of Electronics Yasuhiko Arakawa S󈨑-M󈨔) was born in Ai- and...Gain, Modulation Response, and Spectral Linewidth in AlGaAs Quantum Well Lasers YASUHIKO ARAKAWA. MEMBER, IEEE. AND AMNON YARIV. FELLOW. IEEE Abstract

  9. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    DOEpatents

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  10. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons inmore » the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.« less

  11. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons inmore » the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.« less

  12. A Novel Source of Mesoscopic Particles for Laser Plasma Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-16

    variety of micro- nanoplasma environment for not only basic studies of understanding the intense laser field science but also to provide new...Distribution approved for public release 5 7Rajeev P. P., Taneja P., Ayyub P., Sandhu A. S., and Kumar G. R. Metal Nanoplasmas as Bright Sources of...of micro- nanoplasma environment for not only basic studies of understanding the intense laser field science but also to provide new technologies for

  13. Optically Controlled Devices and Ultrafast Laser Sources for Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-30

    A2 are input/output cavity coupling elements. C1 and C2 are coaxial cables. The resistance (R) and inductance L) provide isolation between the DC power ...the same power . 3. The continuously operating phosphate Nd:glass laser has been modelocked for the first time ever to generate 7 ps pulses. We have...media in a modelocked laser to understand the fundamental pulse generation mechanism. 2. Develop compact, high- power sources of short pulses using

  14. Intense Excitation Source of Blue-Green Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-15

    plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200-300nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near uv and blue green dye lasers (300-400nm...existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense- plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the...optimization of the DPF device as the uv pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as

  15. A source to deliver mesoscopic particles for laser plasma studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, R.; Kumar, R.; Anand, M.; Kulkarni, A.; Singh, D. P.; Krishnan, S. R.; Sharma, V.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2017-02-01

    Intense ultrashort laser produced plasmas are a source for high brightness, short burst of X-rays, electrons, and high energy ions. Laser energy absorption and its disbursement strongly depend on the laser parameters and also on the initial size and shape of the target. The ability to change the shape, size, and material composition of the matter that absorbs light is of paramount importance not only from a fundamental physics point of view but also for potentially developing laser plasma sources tailored for specific applications. The idea of preparing mesoscopic particles of desired size/shape and suspending them in vacuum for laser plasma acceleration is a sparsely explored domain. In the following report we outline the development of a delivery mechanism of microparticles into an effusive jet in vacuum for laser plasma studies. We characterise the device in terms of particle density, particle size distribution, and duration of operation under conditions suitable for laser plasma studies. We also present the first results of x-ray emission from micro crystals of boric acid that extends to 100 keV even under relatively mild intensities of 1016 W/cm2.

  16. Development of Advanced Laser Diode Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, J. J.; Papen, G. C.

    1998-01-01

    The design and operation of InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs asymmetric cladding ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers is presented. Targeted for the remote sensing of water vapor with absorption lines in the lambda approximately 930 nm region, these devices operate CW with threshold currents as low as 11 MA and slope efficiencies as high as 0.37 W/A. Tbey also operate with over 30-dB side-mode suppression, and the typical CW characteristic temperature, T(sub o), is 95 K.

  17. Luminescent light source for laser pumping and laser system containing same

    DOEpatents

    Hamil, Roy A.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a pumping lamp for use with lasers comprising a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting light upon interaction of the component with exciting radiation and a source of exciting radiation. Preferably, the pumping lamp comprises a source of exciting radiation, such as an electron beam, and an aerogel or xerogel substrate loaded with a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce light, e.g., visible light, of a suitable band width and of a sufficient intensity to generate a laser beam from a laser material.

  18. Random laser illumination: an ideal source for biomedical polarization imaging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Mariana T.; Lotay, Amrit S.; Kenny, Fiona M.; Girkin, John M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-03-01

    Imaging applications increasingly require light sources with high spectral density (power over spectral bandwidth. This has led in many cases to the replacement of conventional thermal light sources with bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers and superluminescent diodes. Although lasers and superluminescent diodes appear to be ideal light sources due to their narrow bandwidth and power, however, in the case of full-field imaging, their spatial coherence leads to coherent artefacts, such as speckle, that corrupt the image. LEDs, in contrast, have lower spatial coherence and thus seem the natural choice, but they have low spectral density. Random Lasers are an unconventional type of laser that can be engineered to provide low spatial coherence with high spectral density. These characteristics makes them potential sources for biological imaging applications where specific absorption and reflection are the characteristics required for state of the art imaging. In this work, a Random Laser (RL) is used to demonstrate speckle-free full-field imaging for polarization-dependent imaging in an epi-illumination configuration. We compare LED and RL illumination analysing the resulting images demonstrating that the RL illumination produces an imaging system with higher performance (image quality and spectral density) than that provided by LEDs.

  19. Review of laser-driven ion sources and their applications.

    PubMed

    Daido, Hiroyuki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Pirozhkov, Alexander S

    2012-05-01

    For many years, laser-driven ion acceleration, mainly proton acceleration, has been proposed and a number of proof-of-principle experiments have been carried out with lasers whose pulse duration was in the nanosecond range. In the 1990s, ion acceleration in a relativistic plasma was demonstrated with ultra-short pulse lasers based on the chirped pulse amplification technique which can provide not only picosecond or femtosecond laser pulse duration, but simultaneously ultra-high peak power of terawatt to petawatt levels. Starting from the year 2000, several groups demonstrated low transverse emittance, tens of MeV proton beams with a conversion efficiency of up to several percent. The laser-accelerated particle beams have a duration of the order of a few picoseconds at the source, an ultra-high peak current and a broad energy spectrum, which make them suitable for many, including several unique, applications. This paper reviews, firstly, the historical background including the early laser-matter interaction studies on energetic ion acceleration relevant to inertial confinement fusion. Secondly, we describe several implemented and proposed mechanisms of proton and/or ion acceleration driven by ultra-short high-intensity lasers. We pay special attention to relatively simple models of several acceleration regimes. The models connect the laser, plasma and proton/ion beam parameters, predicting important features, such as energy spectral shape, optimum conditions and scalings under these conditions for maximum ion energy, conversion efficiency, etc. The models also suggest possible ways to manipulate the proton/ion beams by tailoring the target and irradiation conditions. Thirdly, we review experimental results on proton/ion acceleration, starting with the description of driving lasers. We list experimental results and show general trends of parameter dependences and compare them with the theoretical predictions and simulations. The fourth topic includes a review of

  20. Laser ion source activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro

    2015-07-31

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have been developing laser ion sources for diverse accelerators. Tabletop Nd:YAG lasers with up to several Joules of energy are mainly used to create ablation plasmas for stable operations. The obtained charge states depend on laser power density and target species. Two types of ion extraction schemes, Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) and conventional static extraction, are used depending on application. We optimized and select a suitable laser irradiation condition and a beam extraction scheme to meet the requirement of the following accelerator system. We have demonstrated to accelerate more than 5 x 10more » 10 of C 6+ ions using the DPIS. We successfully commissioned low charge ion beam provider to the user facilities in BNL. As a result, to achieve higher current, higher charge state and lower emittance, further studies will continue.« less

  1. Optical materials for use with excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, Jan H. C.; Rothschild, Mordechai

    1993-04-01

    Synthetic UV-grade fused silica, crystalline fluorides, and dielectric coatings have been evaluated for transparency and durability at 193 nm. Most bulk materials eventually develop color centers, and fused silica also changes its density and index of refraction. However, the rate at which these changes occur and their magnitude vary strongly with material, grade, and other more subtle details. Careful selection and possibly pretesting are recommended, in order to ensure optimal matching between the intended application and the material properties.

  2. Lasers '81

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in lasers is discussed. The subjects addressed include: excimer lasers, surface spectroscopy, modern laser spectroscopy, free electron lasers, cavities and propagation, lasers in medicine, X-ray and gamma ray lasers, laser spectroscopy of small molecules and clusters, optical bistability, excitons, nonlinear optics in the X-ray and gamma ray regions, collective atomic phenomena, tunable IR lasers, far IR/submillimeter lasers, and laser-assisted collisions. Also treated are: special applications, multiphoton processes in atoms and small molecules, nuclear pumped lasers, material processing and applications, polarization, high energy lasers, laser chemistry, IR molecular lasers, laser applications of collision and dissociation phenomena, solid state laser materials,more » phase conjugation, advances in laser technology for fusion, metal vapor lasers, picosecond phenomena, laser ranging and geodesy, and laser photochemistry of complex molecules.« less

  3. Effect of laser speckle on light from laser diode-pumped phosphor-converted light sources.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Felipe; Jadwisienczak, Wojciech M; Rahman, Faiz

    2017-01-10

    Laser diode (LD) pumped white light sources are being developed as an alternative to light-emitting diode-pumped sources for high efficiency and/or high brightness applications. While several performance metrics of laser-pumped phosphor-converted light sources have been investigated, the effect of laser speckle has not been sufficiently explored. This paper describes our experimental studies on how laser speckle affects the behavior of light from laser-excited phosphor lamps. A single LD pumping a phosphor plate was the geometry explored in this work. Overall, our findings are that the down-converted light did not exhibit any speckle, whereas speckle was present in the residual pump light but much reduced from that in direct laser light. Furthermore, a thicker coating of small-grained phosphors served to effectively reduce speckle through static pump light diffusion in the phosphor coating. Our investigations showed that speckle is not of concern in illumination from LD-pumped phosphor-converted light sources.

  4. 11 W narrow linewidth laser source at 780nm for laser cooling and manipulation of Rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sané, S. S.; Bennetts, S.; Debs, J. E.; Kuhn, C. C. N.; McDonald, G. D.; Altin, P. A.; Close, J. D.; Robins, N. P.

    2012-04-01

    We present a narrow linewidth continuous laser source with over 11 Watts of output power at 780nm, based on single-pass frequency doubling of an amplified 1560nm fibre laser with 36% efficiency. This source offers a combination of high power, simplicity, mode quality and stability. Without any active stabilization, the linewidth is measured to be below 10kHz. The fibre seed is tunable over 60GHz, which allows access to the D2 transitions in 87Rb and 85Rb, providing a viable high-power source for laser cooling as well as for large-momentum-transfer beamsplitters in atom interferometry. Sources of this type will pave the way for a new generation of high flux, high duty-cycle degenerate quantum gas experiments.

  5. Laser interaction with tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, M.W.

    These proceedings collect papers on laser biomedicine. Topics include: light distributions on tissue; chemical byproducts of laser/tissue interactions; laser applications in ophthalmology; phododynamic therapy; diode pumped solid state lasers at two and three micrometers; and applications of excimer lasers to peripheral nerve repair.

  6. Current developments with TRIUMF's titanium-sapphire laser based resonance ionization laser ion source. An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassen, J.; Li, R.; Raeder, S.; Zhao, X.; Dekker, T.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; P. Levy, C. D.; Mostanmand, M.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Ames, F.

    2017-11-01

    Developments at TRIUMF's isotope separator and accelerator (ISAC) resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) in the past years have concentrated on increased reliability for on-line beam delivery of radioactive isotopes to experiments, as well as increasing the number of elements available through resonance ionization and searching for ionization schemes with improved efficiency. The current status of these developments is given with a list of two step laser ionization schemes implemented recently.

  7. Portable multiwavelength laser diode source for handheld photoacoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The ageing population faces today an increase of chronic diseases such as rheumatism/arthritis, cancer and cardio vascular diseases for which appropriate treatments based on a diagnosis at an early-stage of the disease are required. Some imaging techniques are already available in order to get structural information. Within the non-invasive group, ultrasound images are common in these fields of medicine. However, there is a need for a point-of-care device for imaging smaller structures such as blood vessels that cannot be observed with purely ultrasound based devices. Photoacoustics proved to be an attractive candidate. This novel imaging technique combines pulsed laser light for excitation of tissues and an ultrasound transducer as a receptor. Introduction of this technique into the clinic requires to drastically shrink the size and cost of the expensive and bulky nanosecond lasers generally used for light emission. In that context, demonstration of ultra-short pulse emission with highly efficient laser diodes in the near-infrared range has been performed by Quantel, France. A multi-wavelength laser source as small as a hand emitted more than 1 mJ per wavelength with four different wavelengths available in pulses of about 90 ns. Such a laser source can be integrated into high sensitivity photoacoustic handheld systems due to their outstanding electrical-to-optical efficiency of about 25 %. Further work continues to decrease the pulse length as low as 40 ns while increasing the pulse energy to 2 mJ.

  8. Laser-ablation-based ion source characterization and manipulation for laser-driven ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, P.; Metzkes-Ng, J.; Brack, F.-E.; Cowan, T. E.; Kraft, S. D.; Obst, L.; Rehwald, M.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.

    2018-05-01

    For laser-driven ion acceleration from thin foils (∼10 μm–100 nm) in the target normal sheath acceleration regime, the hydro-carbon contaminant layer at the target surface generally serves as the ion source and hence determines the accelerated ion species, i.e. mainly protons, carbon and oxygen ions. The specific characteristics of the source layer—thickness and relevant lateral extent—as well as its manipulation have both been investigated since the first experiments on laser-driven ion acceleration using a variety of techniques from direct source imaging to knife-edge or mesh imaging. In this publication, we present an experimental study in which laser ablation in two fluence regimes (low: F ∼ 0.6 J cm‑2, high: F ∼ 4 J cm‑2) was applied to characterize and manipulate the hydro-carbon source layer. The high-fluence ablation in combination with a timed laser pulse for particle acceleration allowed for an estimation of the relevant source layer thickness for proton acceleration. Moreover, from these data and independently from the low-fluence regime, the lateral extent of the ion source layer became accessible.

  9. Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source.

    PubMed

    Choma, Michael A; Hsu, Kevin; Izatt, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    The increased sensitivity of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has driven the development of a new generation of technologies in OCT, including rapidly tunable, broad bandwidth swept laser sources and spectral domain OCT interferometer topologies. In this work, the operation of a turnkey 1300-nm swept laser source is demonstrated. This source has a fiber ring cavity with a semiconductor optical amplifier gain medium. Intracavity mode selection is achieved with an in-fiber tunable fiber Fabry-Perot filter. A novel optoelectronic technique that allows for even sampling of the swept source OCT signal in k space also is described. A differential swept source OCT system is presented, and images of in vivo human cornea and skin are presented. Lastly, the effects of analog-to-digital converter aliasing on image quality in swept source OCT are discussed.

  10. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    PubMed

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  11. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  12. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  13. Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Dong, P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Pan, H.; Wang, W.; Jiang, W.; Long, J.; Xia, L.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 108 W/cm2. The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu+ ions (˜1012 ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm2 from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 π mm mrad.

  14. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    DOE PAGES

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; ...

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled bymore » the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.« less

  15. Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H., E-mail: bamboobbu@hotmail.com; School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871; Zhang, K.

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2}. The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu{sup +} ions (∼10{sup 12} ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 π mm mrad.

  16. Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molpeceres, C.; Lauzurica, S.; Ocaña, J. L.; Gandía, J. J.; Urbina, L.; Cárabe, J.

    2005-06-01

    Selective ablation of thin films for the development of new photovoltaic panels and sensoring devices based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) is an emerging field, in which laser micromachining systems appear as appropriate tools for process development and device fabrication. In particular, a promising application is the development of purely photovoltaic position sensors. Standard p-i-n or Schottky configurations using transparent conductive oxides (TCO), a-Si and metals are especially well suited for these applications, appearing selective laser ablation as an ideal process for controlled material patterning and isolation. In this work a detailed study of laser ablation of a widely used TCO, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), and a-Si thin films of different thicknesses is presented, with special emphasis on the morphological analysis of the generated grooves. Excimer (KrF, λ = 248 nm) and DPSS lasers (λ = 355 and λ = 1064 nm) with nanosecond pulse duration have been used for material patterning. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques have been applied for the characterization of the ablated grooves. Additionally, process parametric windows have been determined in order to assess this technology as potentially competitive to standard photolithographic processes. The encouraging results obtained, with well-defined ablation grooves having thicknesses in the order of 10 µm both in ITO and in a-Si, open up the possibility of developing a high-performance double Schottky photovoltaic matrix position sensor.

  17. Bubble formation during pulsed laser ablation: mechanism and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Ton G. J. M.; Jansen, E. Duco; Motamedi, Massoud; Welch, Ashley J.; Borst, Cornelius

    1993-07-01

    Holmium ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) and excimer ((lambda) equals 308 nm) lasers are used for ablation of tissue. In a previous study it was demonstrated that both excimer and holmium laser pulses produce fast expanding and collapsing vapor bubbles. To investigate whether the excimer induced bubble is caused by vaporization of water, the threshold fluence for bubble formation at a bare fiber tip in water was compared between the excimer laser (pulse length 115 ns) and the Q-switched and free-running holmium lasers (pulse length 1 microsecond(s) to 250 microsecond(s) , respectively). To induce bubble formation by excimer laser light in water, the absorber oxybuprocaine-hydrochloride (OBP-HCl) was added to the water. Fast flash photography was used to measure the threshold fluence as a function of the water temperature (6 - 90 degree(s)C) at environmental pressure. The ultraviolet excimer laser light is strongly absorbed by blood. Therefore, to document the implications of bubble formation at fluences above the tissue ablation threshold, excimer laser pulses were delivered in vitro in hemoglobin solution and in vivo in the femoral artery of the rabbit. We conclude that the principal content of the fast bubble induced by a 308 nm excimer laser pulse is water vapor. Therefore, delivery of excimer laser pulses in a water or blood environment will cause fast expanding water vapor bubbles, which may induce mechanical damage to adjacent tissue.

  18. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    SciTech Connect

    White, Thomas A., E-mail: taw@physics.org; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show thatmore » the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.« less

  19. Broadband pulsed difference frequency generation laser source centered 3326 nm based on ring fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangwei; Li, Wenlei

    2018-03-01

    A broadband pulsed mid-infrared difference frequency generation (DFG) laser source based on MgO-doped congruent LiNbO3 bulk is experimentally demonstrated, which employs a homemade pulsed ytterbium-doped ring fiber laser and a continuous wave erbium-doped ring fiber laser to act as seed sources. The experimental results indicate that the perfect phase match crystal temperature is about 74.5∘C. The maximum spectrum bandwidth of idler is about 60 nm with suitable polarization states of fundamental lights. The central wavelength of idlers varies from 3293 nm to 3333 nm over the crystal temperature ranges of 70.4-76∘C. A jump of central wavelength exists around crystal temperature of 72∘C with variation of about 30 nm. The conversion efficiency of DFG can be tuned with the crystal temperature and polarization states of fundamental lights.

  20. Laser induced heat source distribution in bio-tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Fan, Shifu; Zhao, Youquan

    2006-09-01

    During numerical simulation of laser and tissue thermal interaction, the light fluence rate distribution should be formularized and constituted to the source term in the heat transfer equation. Usually the solution of light irradiative transport equation is given in extreme conditions such as full absorption (Lambert-Beer Law), full scattering (Lubelka-Munk theory), most scattering (Diffusion Approximation) et al. But in specific conditions, these solutions will induce different errors. The usually used Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is more universal and exact but has difficulty to deal with dynamic parameter and fast simulation. Its area partition pattern has limits when applying FEM (finite element method) to solve the bio-heat transfer partial differential coefficient equation. Laser heat source plots of above methods showed much difference with MCS. In order to solve this problem, through analyzing different optical actions such as reflection, scattering and absorption on the laser induced heat generation in bio-tissue, a new attempt was made out which combined the modified beam broaden model and the diffusion approximation model. First the scattering coefficient was replaced by reduced scattering coefficient in the beam broaden model, which is more reasonable when scattering was treated as anisotropic scattering. Secondly the attenuation coefficient was replaced by effective attenuation coefficient in scattering dominating turbid bio-tissue. The computation results of the modified method were compared with Monte Carlo simulation and showed the model provided reasonable predictions of heat source term distribution than past methods. Such a research is useful for explaining the physical characteristics of heat source in the heat transfer equation, establishing effective photo-thermal model, and providing theory contrast for related laser medicine experiments.

  1. Diode-pumped Tunable 3 Micron Laser Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-21

    DoD Ballistic Missile Defense Organization U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command SBIR Phase I Final Report AC Materials, Inc. 2721 Forsyth...pumped tunable 3 micron laser sources 6. AUTHORISI Arlete Cassanho, Hans Jenssen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AC Materials, Inc...impurities in the final crystal, starting materials for the crystal growth were prepared at AC Materials from optical grade barium fluoride and

  2. Laser-induced tissue autofluorescence versus exogenous chemical probe induced fluorescence as an arterial layer detection method: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Arakawa, Koh; Grundfest, Warren S.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Fishbein, Michael C.; Litvack, Frank

    1990-07-01

    The goal ofihis sludy was o develop a reliable laser inducedfluorescence specira analysis system using the 308nm Excimer Laser as an ablaiion andfluorescence inducing source. During our analysis we also aflempled lo determine whether exogenous chloroeiracycline hydrocloride (CTC) increased the discrimination capacity of the LIFS system. We then assessed the ability of CTC to improve the detection of the boundary between atheroma and normal media.

  3. A review of biomedical multiphoton microscopy and its laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been the subject of major development efforts for about 25 years for imaging biological specimens at micron scale and presented as an elegant alternative to classical fluorescence methods such as confocal microscopy. In this topical review, the main interests and technical requirements of MPM are addressed with a focus on the crucial role of excitation source for optimization of multiphoton processes. Then, an overview of the different sources successfully demonstrated in literature for MPM is presented, and their physical parameters are inventoried. A classification of these sources in function with their ability to optimize multiphoton processes is proposed, following a protocol found in literature. Starting from these considerations, a suggestion of a possible identikit of the ideal laser source for MPM concludes this topical review. Dedicated to Martin.

  4. Laser- and Particle-Beam Chemical Processes on Surfaces. Volume 129

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-26

    explosive decomposition of organometallic compounds with single pulse laser irradiation . This new... ultrashort , meaning ultra high intensity , excimer laser pulses , two-photon absorption becomes important and limits the penetration depth of the laser ...requires a higher photon load before suffering damage to its chemical structure. With extremely high light intensities , ultrashort excimer laser pulses

  5. Neutron imaging with the short-pulse laser driven neutron source at the TRIDENT Laser Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Guler, Nevzat; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Favalli, Andrea; ...

    2016-10-17

    Emerging approaches to short-pulse laser-driven neutron production offer a possible gateway to compact, low cost, and intense broad spectrum sources for a wide variety of applications. They are based on energetic ions, driven by an intense short-pulse laser, interacting with a converter material to produce neutrons via breakup and nuclear reactions. Recent experiments performed with the high-contrast laser at the Trident laser facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated a laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism operating in the regime of relativistic transparency, featuring a volumetric laser-plasma interaction. This mechanism is distinct from previously studied ones that accelerate ions at themore » laser-target surface. The Trident experiments produced an intense beam of deuterons with an energy distribution extending above 100 MeV. This deuteron beam, when directed at a beryllium converter, produces a forward-directed neutron beam with ~5x10 9 n/sr, in a single laser shot, primarily due to deuteron breakup. The neutron beam has a pulse duration on the order of a few nanoseconds with an energy distribution extending from a few hundreds of keV to almost 80 MeV. For the experiments on neutron-source spot-size measurements, our gated neutron imager was setup to select neutrons in the energy range of 2.5 to 35 MeV. The spot size of neutron emission at the converter was measured by two different imaging techniques, using a knife-edge and a penumbral aperture, in two different experimental campaigns. The neutron-source spot size is measured ~1 mm for both experiments. The measurements and analysis reported here give a spatial characterization for this type of neutron source for the first time. In addition, the forward modeling performed provides an empirical estimate of the spatial characteristics of the deuteron ion-beam. Finally, these experimental observations, taken together, provide essential yet unique data to benchmark and verify theoretical

  6. Neutron imaging with the short-pulse laser driven neutron source at the TRIDENT Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Guler, Nevzat; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Favalli, Andrea

    Emerging approaches to short-pulse laser-driven neutron production offer a possible gateway to compact, low cost, and intense broad spectrum sources for a wide variety of applications. They are based on energetic ions, driven by an intense short-pulse laser, interacting with a converter material to produce neutrons via breakup and nuclear reactions. Recent experiments performed with the high-contrast laser at the Trident laser facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated a laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism operating in the regime of relativistic transparency, featuring a volumetric laser-plasma interaction. This mechanism is distinct from previously studied ones that accelerate ions at themore » laser-target surface. The Trident experiments produced an intense beam of deuterons with an energy distribution extending above 100 MeV. This deuteron beam, when directed at a beryllium converter, produces a forward-directed neutron beam with ~5x10 9 n/sr, in a single laser shot, primarily due to deuteron breakup. The neutron beam has a pulse duration on the order of a few nanoseconds with an energy distribution extending from a few hundreds of keV to almost 80 MeV. For the experiments on neutron-source spot-size measurements, our gated neutron imager was setup to select neutrons in the energy range of 2.5 to 35 MeV. The spot size of neutron emission at the converter was measured by two different imaging techniques, using a knife-edge and a penumbral aperture, in two different experimental campaigns. The neutron-source spot size is measured ~1 mm for both experiments. The measurements and analysis reported here give a spatial characterization for this type of neutron source for the first time. In addition, the forward modeling performed provides an empirical estimate of the spatial characteristics of the deuteron ion-beam. Finally, these experimental observations, taken together, provide essential yet unique data to benchmark and verify theoretical

  7. A compact high brightness laser synchrotron light source for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    1999-07-01

    The present high-brightness hard X-ray sources have been developed as third generation synchrotron light sources based on large high energy electron storage rings and magnetic undulators. Recently availability of compact terawatt lasers arouses a great interest in the use of lasers as undulators. The laser undulator concept makes it possible to construct an attractive compact synchrotron radiation source which has been proposed as a laser synchrotron light source. This paper proposes a compact laser synchrotron light source for mediacal applications, such as an intravenous coronary angiography and microbeam therapy.

  8. Raman dissipative soliton fiber laser pumped by an ASE source.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuezong; Feng, Yan

    2017-12-15

    The mode locking of a Raman fiber laser with an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) pump source is investigated for performance improvement. Raman dissipative solitons with a compressed pulse duration of 1.05 ps at a repetition rate of 2.47 MHz are generated by utilizing nonlinear polarization rotation and all-fiber Lyot filter. A signal-to-noise ratio as high as 85 dB is measured in a radio-frequency spectrum, which suggests excellent temporal stability. Multiple-pulse operation with unique random static distribution is observed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, at higher pump power in mode-locked Raman fiber lasers.

  9. Characterization of a Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG laser with a Cr:GSAG laser as pumping source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Rare earth lasers were in existance since the first laser was developed. The primary lasing elements for the class of lasers in the infrared was neodymium and chromium. However, the need for eye safe lasers in the mid-infrared range has prompted an enormous amount of research to the use of other elements. Holmium was investigated extensively as the source of infrared radiation for atmospheric research as well as medical research. The results and procedure are briefly discussed.

  10. Sources of background light on space based laser communications links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas C.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the sources and levels of background light that should be expected on space based laser communication (lasercom) crosslinks and uplinks, as well as on downlinks to ground stations. The analyses are valid for both Earth orbiting satellites and inter-planetary links. Fundamental equations are derived suitable for first order system engineering analyses of potential lasercom systems. These divide sources of background light into two general categories: extended sources which fill the field of view of a receiver's optics, and point sources which cannot be resolved by the optics. Specific sources of background light are discussed, and expected power levels are estimated. For uplinks, reflected sunlight and blackbody radiation from the Earth dominates. For crosslinks, depending on specific link geometry, sources of background light may include the Sun in the field of view (FOV), reflected sunlight and blackbody radiation from planets and other bodies in the solar system, individual bright stars in the FOV, the amalgam of dim stars in the FOV, zodiacal light, and reflected sunlight off of the transmitting spacecraft. For downlinks, all of these potentially come into play, and the effects of the atmosphere, including turbulence, scattering, and absorption contribute as well. Methods for accounting for each of these are presented. Specific examples are presented to illustrate the relative contributions of each source for various link geometries.

  11. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  12. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  13. Efficient 1.6 Micron Laser Source for Methane DIAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Timothy; Burnham, Ralph; Nehrir, Amin R.; Ismail, Syed; Hair, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and on a per molecule basis has a warming influence 72 times that of carbon dioxide over a 20 year horizon. Therefore, it is important to look at near term radiative effects due to methane to develop mitigation strategies to counteract global warming trends via ground and airborne based measurements systems. These systems require the development of a time-resolved DIAL capability using a narrow-line laser source allowing observation of atmospheric methane on local, regional and global scales. In this work, a demonstrated and efficient nonlinear conversion scheme meeting the performance requirements of a deployable methane DIAL system is presented. By combining a single frequency 1064 nm pump source and a seeded KTP OPO more than 5 mJ of 1.6 µm pulse energy is generated with conversion efficiencies in excess of 20%. Even without active cavity control instrument limited linewidths (50 pm) were achieved with an estimated spectral purity of 95%. Tunable operation over 400 pm (limited by the tuning range of the seed laser) was also demonstrated. This source demonstrated the critical needs for a methane DIAL system motivating additional development of the technology.

  14. Laser assisted deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of laser-based processing techniques to solar cell metallization are discussed. Laser-assisted thermal or photolytic maskless deposition from organometallic vapors or solutions may provide a viable alternative to photovoltaic metallization systems currently in use. High power, defocused excimer lasers may be used in conjunction with masks as an alternative to direct laser writing to provide higher throughput. Repeated pulsing with excimer lasers may eliminate the need for secondary plating techniques for metal film buildup. A comparison between the thermal and photochemical deposition processes is made.

  15. Fiber-coupled three-micron pulsed laser source for CFRP laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyga, Sebastian; Blass, David; Katzy, Veronika; Westphalen, Thomas; Jungbluth, Bernd; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter

    2018-02-01

    We present a laser source providing up to 18 W and 1.5 mJ at a wavelength of 3 μm. The output is generated by frequency conversion of randomly polarized multimode radiation at 1064 nm of an Nd:YAG laser in a two-stage conversion setup. The frequency converter comprises an optical parametric oscillator and a subsequent optical parametric amplifier using PPLN as nonlinear medium in both stages. To implement fiber-based beam delivery for materials processing, we coupled the output at 3 μm to a multimode ZrF4-fiber. This source was then used to remove epoxy resin from the surface of CFRP samples.

  16. Erosion resistant nozzles for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources

    DOEpatents

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Bernardez, II, Luis J.

    2000-01-04

    A gas nozzle having an increased resistance to erosion from energetic plasma particles generated by laser plasma sources. By reducing the area of the plasma-facing portion of the nozzle below a critical dimension and fabricating the nozzle from a material that has a high EUV transmission as well as a low sputtering coefficient such as Be, C, or Si, it has been shown that a significant reduction in reflectance loss of nearby optical components can be achieved even after exposing the nozzle to at least 10.sup.7 Xe plasma pulses.

  17. Lasers '92; Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Applications, 15th, Houston, TX, Dec. 7-10, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: x-ray lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, high power lasers, blue-green lasers, dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, gas and discharge lasers, carbon dioxide lasers, ultrafast phenomena, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, dynamic gratings and wave mixing, laser radar, lasers in medicine, optical filters and laser communication, optical techniques and instruments, laser material interaction, and industrial and manufacturing applications.

  18. Wide-field Fourier ptychographic microscopy using laser illumination source

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jaebum; Lu, Hangwen; Ou, Xiaoze; Zhou, Haojiang; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic (FP) microscopy is a coherent imaging method that can synthesize an image with a higher bandwidth using multiple low-bandwidth images captured at different spatial frequency regions. The method’s demand for multiple images drives the need for a brighter illumination scheme and a high-frame-rate camera for a faster acquisition. We report the use of a guided laser beam as an illumination source for an FP microscope. It uses a mirror array and a 2-dimensional scanning Galvo mirror system to provide a sample with plane-wave illuminations at diverse incidence angles. The use of a laser presents speckles in the image capturing process due to reflections between glass surfaces in the system. They appear as slowly varying background fluctuations in the final reconstructed image. We are able to mitigate these artifacts by including a phase image obtained by differential phase contrast (DPC) deconvolution in the FP algorithm. We use a 1-Watt laser configured to provide a collimated beam with 150 mW of power and beam diameter of 1 cm to allow for the total capturing time of 0.96 seconds for 96 raw FPM input images in our system, with the camera sensor’s frame rate being the bottleneck for speed. We demonstrate a factor of 4 resolution improvement using a 0.1 NA objective lens over the full camera field-of-view of 2.7 mm by 1.5 mm. PMID:27896016

  19. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  20. Laser ion source for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Masahiro

    The proposed heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF) scenarios require ampere class low charge state ion beams of heavy species. A laser ion source (LIS) is recognized as one of the promising candidates of ion beam providers, since it can deliver high brightness heavy ion beams to accelerators. A design of LIS for the HIF depends on the accelerator structure and accelerator complex following the source. In this article, we discuss the specifications and design of an appropriate LIS assuming two major types of the accelerators: radio frequency (RF) high quality factor cavity type and non-resonant induction core type. We believemore » that a properly designed LIS satisfies the requirements of both types, however some issues need to be verified experimentally.« less

  1. Loss-tolerant quantum secure positioning with weak laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Xu, Feihu; Siopsis, George; Chitambar, Eric; Evans, Philip G.; Qi, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Quantum position verification (QPV) is the art of verifying the geographical location of an untrusted party. Recently, it has been shown that the widely studied Bennett & Brassard 1984 (BB84) QPV protocol is insecure after the 3 dB loss point assuming local operations and classical communication (LOCC) adversaries. Here, we propose a time-reversed entanglement swapping QPV protocol (based on measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography) that is highly robust against quantum channel loss. First, assuming ideal qubit sources, we show that the protocol is secure against LOCC adversaries for any quantum channel loss, thereby overcoming the 3 dB loss limit. Then, we analyze the security of the protocol in a more practical setting involving weak laser sources and linear optics. In this setting, we find that the security only degrades by an additive constant and the protocol is able to verify positions up to 47 dB channel loss.

  2. Laser ion source for heavy ion inertial fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2018-01-10

    The proposed heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF) scenarios require ampere class low charge state ion beams of heavy species. A laser ion source (LIS) is recognized as one of the promising candidates of ion beam providers, since it can deliver high brightness heavy ion beams to accelerators. A design of LIS for the HIF depends on the accelerator structure and accelerator complex following the source. In this article, we discuss the specifications and design of an appropriate LIS assuming two major types of the accelerators: radio frequency (RF) high quality factor cavity type and non-resonant induction core type. We believemore » that a properly designed LIS satisfies the requirements of both types, however some issues need to be verified experimentally.« less

  3. New quantum cascade laser sources for sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troccoli, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    In this presentation we will review our most recent results on development of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for analytical and industrial applications. QCLs have demonstrated the capability to cover the entire range of Mid-IR, Far-IR, and THz wavelengths by skillful tuning of the material design and composition and by use of intrinsic material properties via a set of techniques collectively called "bandgap engineering". The use of MOCVD, pioneered on industrial scale by AdTech Optics, has enabled the deployment of QCL devices into a diverse range of environments and applications. QCLs can be tailored to the specific application requirements due to their unprecedented flexibility in design and thanks to the leveraging of well-known III-V fabrication technologies inherited from the NIR domain. Nevertheless, several applications and new frontiers in R and D need the constant support of new developments in device features, capabilities, and performances. We have developed a wide range of devices, from high power, high efficiency multi-mode sources, to narrow-band, single mode devices with low-power consumption, and from non-linear, multi-wavelength generating devices to broadband sources and multi-emitter arrays. All our devices are grown and processed using MOCVD technology and allow us to attain competitive performances across the whole mid-IR spectral range. This talk will present an overview of our current achievements. References 1. M. Troccoli, "High power emission and single mode operation of quantum cascade lasers for industrial applications", J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron., 21 (6), 1-7 (2015). Invited Review. 2. Seungyong Jung, Aiting Jiang, Yifan Jiang, Karun Vijayraghavan, Xiaojun Wang, Mariano Troccoli, and Mikhail A. Belkin, "Broadly Tunable Monolithic Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources", Nature Comm. 5, 4267 (2014).. 3. Mariano Troccoli, Arkadiy Lyakh, Jenyu Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Richard Maulini, Alexei G Tsekoun, Rowel Go, C Kumar N Patel, "Long

  4. Development of a 0.1 μm linewidth fabrication process for x-ray lithography with a laser plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkowski, Romuald; Fedosejevs, Robert; Broughton, James N.

    1999-06-01

    A process has been developed for the purpose of fabricating 0.1 micron linewidth interdigital electrode patterns based on proximity x-ray lithography using a laser-plasma source. Such patterns are required in the manufacture of surface acoustic wave devices. The x-ray lithography was carried out using emission form a Cu plasma produced by a 15Hz, 248nm KrF excimer laser. A temporally multiplexed 50ps duration seed pulse was used to extract the KrF laser energy producing a train of several 50ps pulses spaced approximately 2ns apart within each output pulse. Each short pulse within the train gave the high focal spot intensity required to achieve high efficiency emission of keV x-rays. The first stage of the overall process involves the fabrication of x-ray mask patterns on 1 micron thick Si3N4 membranes using 3-beam lithography followed by gold electroplating. The second stage involves x-ray exposure of a chemically amplified resist through the mask patterns to produce interdigital electrode patterns with 0.1 micron linewidth. Helium background gas and thin polycarbonate/aluminum filters are employed to prevent debris particles from the laser-plasma source form reaching the exposed sample. A computer control system fires the laser and monitors the x-ray flux from the laser-plasma source to insure the desired x-ray exposure is achieved at the resist. In order to reduce diffusion effects in the chemically amplified resist during the post exposure bake the temperature had to be reduced from that normally used. Good reproduction of 0.1 micron linewidth patterns into the x-ray resist was obtained once the exposure parameters and post exposure bake were optimized. A compact exposure station using flowing helium at atmospheric pressure has also been developed for the process, alleviating the need for a vacuum chamber. The details of the overall process and the compact exposure station will be presented.

  5. New lasers and light sources - old and new risks?

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Schwandt, Antje; Seeber, Nikolaus; Kautz, Gerd; Grunewald, Sonja; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments (new wavelengths, treatment concepts, and combinations) in the field of lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL), LED, as well as new energy and light sources have opened up new therapeutic options that extend beyond mere aesthetic indications. Thus, while fractional lasers used to be employed to merely treat wrinkles, the same devices - in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery - have now become important tools in the treatment of scars, field cancerization, and epithelial tumors. The requirements posed to physicians, both with respect to establishing the indication and conducting treatment, have been growing along with the increase in technological complexity as well as the rising number of comorbidities and comedications in a patient population that continues to age. At the same time, home-use devices have been introduced for a variety of indications. These devices are characterized by low power and special safety features aimed at preventing accidents, risks, and side effects. Despite the reduced efficacy of such self-treatment devices, there is an increased risk of misuse, given that the basic prerequisite for adequate treatment cannot be ensured, to wit, the exact diagnosis and therapeutic indication. Consequently, during hair removal or anti-wrinkle treatment, pigmented lesions and cutaneous neoplasms may be altered, thus giving rise to expected, unexpected and new side effects and complications. In the aforementioned setting, it is important that all potential users of these new technologies be properly trained in a manner that ensures those treated a maximum of safety and efficacy in accordance with the guiding principle "diagnosis certa - ullae therapiae fundamentum". © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An All-Solid-State High Repetiton Rate Titanium:Sapphire Laser System For Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattolat, C.; Rothe, S.; Schwellnus, F.; Gottwald, T.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.

    2009-03-01

    On-line production facilities for radioactive isotopes nowadays heavily rely on resonance ionization laser ion sources due to their demonstrated unsurpassed efficiency and elemental selectivity. Powerful high repetition rate tunable pulsed dye or Ti:sapphire lasers can be used for this purpose. To counteract limitations of short pulse pump lasers, as needed for dye laser pumping, i.e. copper vapor lasers, which include high maintenance and nevertheless often only imperfect reliability, an all-solid-state Nd:YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system has been constructed. This could complement or even replace dye laser systems, eliminating their disadvantages but on the other hand introduce shortcomings on the side of the available wavelength range. Pros and cons of these developments will be discussed.

  7. Visible high-power laser sources for today and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Gregory L.

    1995-04-01

    The diversity and proliferation of 'real-world' laser applications continues to put increasing demand on laser technology. New system constraints, often dictated by the operation environment, stretch the capabilities of conventional laboratory lasers. As the applications proliferate, so too do the users. Today's laser user is often not a laser engineer, but rather views the laser simply as a tool to help him perform his job. For lasers to reach their true market potential, laser designers must respond to these user-mandated requirements with simple, compact, rugged devices. Traditional commercial lasers are far too large, bulky and complex for many of these new applications. Design techniques for shrinking, simplifying the ruggedizing solid-state lasers for today's applications will be discussed.

  8. Violet laser diodes as light sources for cytometry.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, H M; Perlmutter, N G

    2001-06-01

    Violet laser diodes have recently become commercially available. These devices emit 5-25 mW in the range of 395-415 nm, and are available in systems that incorporate the diodes with collimating optics and regulated power supplies in housing incorporating thermoelectric coolers, which are necessary to maintain stable output. Such systems now cost several thousand dollars, but are expected to drop substantially in price. Materials and Methods A 4-mW, 397-nm violet diode system was used in a laboratory-built flow cytometer to excite fluorescence of DAPI and Hoechst dyes in permeabilized and intact cells. Forward and orthogonal light scattering were also measured. DNA content histograms with good precision (G(0)/G(1) coefficient of variation 1.7%) were obtained with DAPI staining; precision was lower using Hoechst 33342. Hoechst 34580, with an excitation maximum nearer 400 nm, yielded the highest fluorescence intensity, but appeared to decompose after a short time in solution. Scatter signals exhibited relatively broad distributions. Violet laser diodes are relatively inexpensive, compact, efficient, and quiet light sources for DNA fluorescence measurement using DAPI and Hoechst dyes; they can also excite several other fluorescent probes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Miniaturized pulsed CO2 laser with sealed electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Y. I.; Orlovskiy, V. M.; Osipov, V. V.; Poteryayev, A. G.

    1984-04-01

    A new miniature electron beam-controlled CO2 laser (the MIG-3) contains an electron accelerator, gas cell and DC supply in one large unit (0.22 x 0,16 x 0.7 m) and the accelerator power supply and laser control panel in a second smaller unit. The overall weight of the instrument in 30 kg. The electron beam is controlled by four vacuum diodes in parallel; a 180 KV pulse is fed to the vacuum diode inputs from a "NORA" series-produced X-ray source (the MIRA-3D) also is used). The total electron beam current from all diodes was 600 A following the foil with a half-height width of 10 ns. The lasing medium is CO2:N2 - 1:1 at 4.5 atm. The maximum stimulated emission pulse energy was 1 J with an efficiency of 8% when the pressure was 4 atm. With a pulse repetition rate of 4 Hz, the average power consumption of the unit was 100 W.

  10. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  11. Method for efficient, narrow-bandwidth, laser compton x-ray and gamma-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    A method of x-ray and gamma-ray generation via laser Compton scattering uses the interaction of a specially-formatted, highly modulated, long duration, laser pulse with a high-frequency train of high-brightness electron bunches to both create narrow bandwidth x-ray and gamma-ray sources and significantly increase the laser to Compton photon conversion efficiency.

  12. Low-Cost, Single-Frequency Sources for Spectroscopy using Conventional Fabry-Perot Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial (uncoated) Fabry-Perot laser diodes are converted to single-frequency spectroscopy sources by passively locking the laser frequency to the band edge of a fiber Bragg grating, which phase-locks the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding.

  13. Low-Cost, Single-Frequency Sources for Spectroscopy Using Conventional Fabry-Perot Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Duerksen, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial (uncoated) Fabry-Perot laser diodes are converted to single-frequency spectroscopy sources by passively locking the laser frequency to the band edge of a fiber Bragg grating, which phase-locks the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding.

  14. New laser sources for clinical treatment and diagnostics of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-06-01

    An elevated serum bilirubin concentration in the newborn infant presents a therapeutic as well as a diagnostic problem to the physician. It has long been recognized that high levels of bilirubin cause irreversible brain damage and even death. The authors introduce the use of semiconductor diode lasers and diode-pumped solid-state lasers that can be used for solving such diagnostic and therapeutic problems. These new laser sources can improve the ergonomics of using laser, enhance performance capabilities and reduce the cost of employing laser energy to pump bilirubin out of an infant's body. The choice of laser wavelengths follows the principles of bilirubinometry and phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. The wide spread use of these new laser sources for clinical monitoring and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia will be made possible as each incremental or quantum jump cost reduction is achieved. Our leading clinical experience as well as the selection rules of laser wavelengths will be presented.

  15. Fabrication of 0.25-um electrode width SAW filters using x-ray lithography with a laser plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkowski, Romuald; Li, Yunlei; Fedosejevs, Robert; Broughton, James N.

    1996-05-01

    A process for the fabrication of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with line widths of 250 nm and less, based on x-ray lithography using a laser-plasma source has been developed. The x-ray lithography process is based on keV x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 15 Hz, 50 ps, 248 nm KrF excimer laser pulses. The full structure of a 2 GHz surface acoustic wave filter with interdigital transducers in a split-electrode geometry has been manufactured. The devices require patterning a 150 nm thick aluminum layer on a LiNbO3 substrate with electrodes 250 nm wide. The manufacturing process has two main steps: x-ray mask fabrication employing e-beam lithography and x-ray lithography to obtain the final device. The x-ray masks are fabricated on 1 micrometers thick membranes of Si2N4. The line patterns on the masks are written into PMMA resist using a scanning electron microscope which has been interfaced to a personal computer equipped to control the x and y scan voltages. The opaque regions of the x-ray mask are then formed by electroplating fine grain gold into the open spaces in the etched PMMA. The mask and sample are mounted in an exposure cassette with a fixed spacer of 10 micrometers separating them. The sample consists of a LiNbO3 substrate coated with Shipley XP90104C x-ray resist which has been previously characterized. The x-ray patterning is carried out in an exposure chamber with flowing helium background gas in order to minimize debris deposition on the filters. After etching the x-ray resist, the final patterns are produced using metallization and a standard lift-off technique. The SAW filters are then bonded and packaged onto impedance matching striplines. The resultant devices are tested using Scalar Network Analyzers. The final devices produced had a center frequency of 1.93 GHz with a bandwidth of 98 MHz, close to the expected performance of our simple design.

  16. Microchip laser mid-infrared supercontinuum laser source based on an As2Se3 fiber.

    PubMed

    Gattass, Rafael R; Brandon Shaw, L; Sanghera, Jasbinder S

    2014-06-15

    We report on a proof of concept for a compact supercontinuum source for the mid-infrared wavelength range based on a microchip laser and nonlinear conversion inside a selenide-based optical fiber. The spectrum extends from 3.74 to 4.64 μm at -10  dB from the peak and 3.65 to 4.9 μm at -20  dB from the peak; emitting beyond the wavelength range that periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) starts to display a power penalty. Wavelength conversion occurs inside the core of a single-mode fiber, resulting in a high-brightness emission source. A maximum average power of 5 mW was demonstrated, but the architecture is scalable to higher average powers.

  17. Loss-tolerant quantum secure positioning with weak laser sources

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Xu, Feihu; Siopsis, George; ...

    2016-09-14

    Quantum position verification (QPV) is the art of verifying the geographical location of an untrusted party. It has recently been shown that the widely studied Bennett & Brassard 1984 (BB84) QPV protocol is insecure after the 3 dB loss point assuming local operations and classical communication (LOCC) adversaries. Here in this paper, we propose a time-reversed entanglement swapping QPV protocol (based on measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography) that is highly robust against quantum channel loss. First, assuming ideal qubit sources, we show that the protocol is secure against LOCC adversaries for any quantum channel loss, thereby overcoming the 3 dB loss limit.more » Then, we analyze the security of the protocol in a more practical setting involving weak laser sources and linear optics. Lastly, in this setting, we find that the security only degrades by an additive constant and the protocol is able to verify positions up to 47 dB channel loss.« less

  18. A Plasma Ultraviolet Source for Short Wavelength Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-10

    A high power blue-green laser was pumped with an array of the dense plasma focus . As the result of optimizing the operating conditions of the dense... plasma focus and laser system, the maximum untuned laser output exceeded 2.lmJ corresponding to the energy density 3J/cu cm which is much higher than

  19. Two-photon fluorescence bioimaging with an all-semiconductor laser picosecond pulse source.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Masaru; Kitajima, Nobuyoshi; Guo, Hengchang; Furushima, Yuji; Ikeda, Masao; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-15

    We have demonstrated successful two-photon excitation fluorescence bioimaging using a high-power pulsed all-semiconductor laser. Toward this purpose, we developed a pulsed light source consisting of a mode-locked laser diode and a two-stage diode laser amplifier. This pulsed light source provided optical pulses of 5 ps duration and having a maximum peak power of over 100 W at a wavelength of 800 nm and a repetition frequency of 500 MHz.

  20. Resonance ionization laser ion sources for on-line isotope separators (invited).

    PubMed

    Marsh, B A

    2014-02-01

    A Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is today considered an essential component of the majority of Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) facilities; there are seven laser ion sources currently operational at ISOL facilities worldwide and several more are under development. The ionization mechanism is a highly element selective multi-step resonance photo-absorption process that requires a specifically tailored laser configuration for each chemical element. For some isotopes, isomer selective ionization may even be achieved by exploiting the differences in hyperfine structures of an atomic transition for different nuclear spin states. For many radioactive ion beam experiments, laser resonance ionization is the only means of achieving an acceptable level of beam purity without compromising isotope yield. Furthermore, by performing element selection at the location of the ion source, the propagation of unwanted radioactivity downstream of the target assembly is reduced. Whilst advances in laser technology have improved the performance and reliability of laser ion sources and broadened the range of suitable commercially available laser systems, many recent developments have focused rather on the laser/atom interaction region in the quest for increased selectivity and/or improved spectral resolution. Much of the progress in this area has been achieved by decoupling the laser ionization from competing ionization processes through the use of a laser/atom interaction region that is physically separated from the target chamber. A new application of gas catcher laser ion source technology promises to expand the capabilities of projectile fragmentation facilities through the conversion of otherwise discarded reaction fragments into high-purity low-energy ion beams. A summary of recent RILIS developments and the current status of laser ion sources worldwide is presented.

  1. Laser cutting metallic plates using a 2kW direct diode laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahi Sichani, E.; Hauschild, D.; Meinschien, J.; Powell, J.; Assunção, E. G.; Blackburn, J.; Khan, A. H.; Kong, C. Y.

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using a 2kW direct diode laser source for producing high-quality cuts in a variety of materials. Cutting trials were performed in a two-stage experimental procedure. The first phase of trials was based on a one-factor-at-a-time change of process parameters aimed at exploring the process window and finding a semi-optimum set of parameters for each material/thickness combination. In the second phase, a full factorial experimental matrix was performed for each material and thickness, as a result of which, the optimum cutting parameters were identified. Characteristic values of the optimum cuts were then measured as per BS EN ISO 9013:2002.

  2. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    PubMed

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  3. Development and thermal management of 10 kW CW, direct diode laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Hao, Mingming; Zhang, Jianwei; Ji, Wenyu; Lin, Xingchen; Zhang, Jinsheng; Ning, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of direct diode laser source with high-power and high reliability. The laser source was realized by the polarization and wavelength combination of four diode laser stacks. When at the operating current of 122 A, the source was capable of producing 10,120 W output while maintaining 46% electro-optical conversion efficiency. The maximum temperature on the lens was decreased from 442.2 K to 320 K by utilizing an efficient thermal dissipation structure, and the corresponding maximum von Mises stress was reduced from 75.4 MPa to 14 MPa. In addition, a reliability test demonstrated that our laser source was reliable and potential in the applications of laser cladding and heat treatment.

  4. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Patrik U; Lönn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤10(12) W cm(-2) is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  5. Development of Technologies to Utilize Laser Plasma Radiations Sources for Radiation Effects Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J F

    2007-01-31

    This final report will cover work performed over the period of November 11, 2005 to September 30, 2006 on the contract to develop technologies using laser sources for radiation effects sciences. The report will discuss four topic areas; the laser source experiments on the Gekko Laser at Osaka, Japan, planning for the Charge State Freeze Out experiments to be performed in calendar year 2007, a review of previous xenon gasbags on the LANL Trident laser to provide planning support to the May-June 2007 HELEN experiments.

  6. Laser-based ion sources for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Brantov, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Interaction of relativistic short laser pulses with thin foils is studied by using 3D PIC simulations in the context of ICAN's "dream laser". It is shown that such a laser will make it possible to accelerate protons and deuterons to multi-MeV energies with a current density of 100 A/cm2. The laser-triggered hadron beams may trigger nuclear reactions of interest for nuclear medicine and pharmacy. As an example, the yields C-11 for PET, of Tc-99m for SPECT, and neutrons for therapy have been analyzed.

  7. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  8. Fully utilizing high power diode lasers by synergizing diode laser light sources and beam shaping micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yingmin; Wang, Jingwei; Cai, Lei; Mitra, Thomas; Hauschild, Dirk; Zah, Chung-En; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode lasers (HPDLs) offer the highest wall-plug efficiency, highest specific power (power-to-weight ratio), arguably the lowest cost and highest reliability among all laser types. However, the poor beam quality of commercially HPDLs is the main bottleneck limiting their direct applications requiring high brightness at least in one dimension. In order to expand the applications of HPDLs, beam shaping and optical design are essential. In this work, we report the recent progresses on maximizing applications of HPDLs by synergizing diode laser light source and beam shaping micro-optics. Successful examples of matching of diode laser light sources and beam shaping micro-optics driving new applications are presented.

  9. Guidelines of care for vascular lasers and intense pulse light sources from the European Society for Laser Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Adamič, M; Pavlović, M D; Troilius Rubin, A; Palmetun-Ekbäck, M; Boixeda, P

    2015-09-01

    Lasers and non-coherent intense pulse light sources (IPLS) are based on the principle of selective photothermolysis and can be used for the treatment of many vascular skin lesions. A variety of lasers has been developed for the treatment of congenital and acquired vascular lesions which incorporate these concepts into their design. Although laser and light sources are very popular due to their non-invasive nature, caution should be considered by practitioners and patients to avoid permanent side-effects. The aim of these guidelines is to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of lasers and IPLS in the treatment of vascular lesions. These guidelines were produced by a Consensus Panel made up of experts in the field of vascular laser surgery under the auspices of the European Society of Laser Dermatology. Recommendations on the use of vascular lasers and IPLS were made based on the quality of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction/preference and, where appropriate, on the experts' opinion. The recommendations of these guidelines are graded according to the American College of Chest Physicians Task Force recommendations on Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines. Lasers and IPLS are very useful and sometimes the only available method to treat various vascular lesions. It is of a paramount importance that the type of laser or IPLS and their specific parameters are adapted to the indication but also that the treating physician is familiar with the device to be used. The crucial issue in treating vascular lesions is to recognize the immediate end-point after laser treatment. This is the single most important factor to ensure both the efficacy of the treatment and avoidance of serious side-effects. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Microwave tunable laser source: A stable, precision tunable heterodyne local oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    The development and capabilities of a tunable laser source utilizing a wideband electro-optic modulator and a CO2 laser are described. The precision tunability and high stability of the device are demonstrated with examples of laboratory spectroscopy. Heterodyne measurements are also presented to demonstrate the performance of the laser source as a heterodyne local oscillator. With the use of five CO2 isotope lasers and the 8 to 18 GHz sideband offset tunability of the modulator, calculations indicate that 50 percent spectral coverage in the 9 to 12 micron region is achievable. The wavelength accuracy and stability of this laser source is limited by the CO2 laser and is more than adequate for the measurement of narrow Doppler-broadened line profiles. The room-temperature operating capability and the programmability of the microwave tunable laser source are attractive features for its in-the-field implementation. Although heterodyne measurements indicated some S/N degradation when using the device as a local oscillator, there does not appear to be any fundamental limitation to the heterodyne efficiency of this laser source. Through the use of a lower noise-figure traveling wave tube amplifier and optical matching of the output beam with the photomixer, a substantial increase in the heterodyne S/N is expected.

  11. A Plasma Ultraviolet Source for Short Wavelength Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-15

    plasma focus (DPF) device was evaluated for the feasibility of blue-green and near ultraviolet laser pumping. As the result of optimizing the operating conditions of DPF and laser system, the maximum untuned laser output exceeded 4.0mJ corresponding to the energy density 8.3J/liter which is much higher than the typical flashlamp dye laser. The spectral irradiance of DPF at the absorption bands for LD390 and LD490 were 5.5W/sq cm-nm, 0.3W.sq cm-nm, respectively. Due to the lower pump power of DPF at 355nm than the threshold of LD390, the laser pumping of LD390 dye was not

  12. Integrated ultraviolet and tunable mid-infrared laser source for analyses of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazama, Hisanao; Takatani, Yoshiaki; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Mass spectrometry using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique is one of the most widely used method to analyze proteins in biological research fields. However, it is difficult to analyze insoluble proteins which have important roles in researches on disease mechanisms or in developments of drugs by using ultraviolet (UV) lasers which have commonly been used for MALDI. Recently, a significant improvement in MALDI process of insoluble proteins using a combination of a UV nitrogen laser and a tunable mid-infrared (MIR) free electron laser (FEL) was reported. Since the FEL is a very large and expensive equipment, we have developed a tabletop laser source which can generate both UV and tunable MIR lasers. A tunable MIR laser (5.5-10 μm) was obtained by difference frequency generation (DFG) between a Nd:YAG and a tunable Cr:forsterite lasers using two AgGaS II crystals. The MIR laser can generate pulses with an energy of up to 1.4 mJ at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. A UV laser was obtained by third harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser splitted from that used for DFG. A time interval between the UV and the MIR laser pulses can be adjusted with a variable optical delay.

  13. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  14. Construction of a Visible Diode Laser Source for Free Radical Photochemistry and Spectroscopy Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Bronjelyn; Halpern, Joshua B.

    1997-01-01

    Tunable diode lasers are reliable sources of narrow-band light and comparatively cheap. Optical feedback simplifies frequency tuning of the laser diodes. We are building an inexpensive diode laser system incorporating optical feedback from a diffraction grating. The external optical cavity can be used with lasers that emit between 2 and 100 mW, and will also work if they are pulsed, although this will significantly degrade the bandwidth. The diode laser output power and bandwidth are comparable to CW dye lasers used in kinetics and dynamics experiments. However, their cost and maintenance will be much less as will alignment time. We intend to use the diode lasers to investigate CN and C2 kinetics as well as to study dissociation dynamics of atmospherically important molecules.

  15. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated.

  16. Narrow bandwidth Laser-Plasma Accelerator driven Thomson photon source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, C. G. R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Otero, G.; Liu, X.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-10-01

    Compact, high-quality photon sources at MeV energies can be provided by Thomson scattering of a laser from the electron beam of a Laser-Plasma Accelerator (LPA). Recent experiments and simulations demonstrate controllable LPAs in the energy range appropriate to MeV sources. Simulations indicate that high flux with narrow energy spread can be achieved via control of the scattering laser pulse shape and laser guiding, and that undesired background bremsstrahlung can be mitigated by plasma based deceleration of the electron beam after photon production. Construction of experiments and laser capabilities to combine these elements will be presented, along with initial operations, towards a compact photon source system. Work supported by US DOE NNSA DNN R&D and by Sc. HEP under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  17. Development of ultrashort x-ray/gamma-ray sources using ultrahigh power lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Hojbota, Calin; Jeon, Jong Ho; Rhee, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Seong Ku; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Hwang Woon; Pathak, Vishwa B.; Pae, Ki Hong; Sebban, Stéphane; Tissandier, Fabien; Gautier, Julien; Ta Phuoc, Kim; Malka, Victor; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-05-01

    Short-pulse x-ray/gamma-ray sources have become indispensable light sources for investigating material science, bio technology, and photo-nuclear physics. In past decades, rapid advancement of high intensity laser technology led extensive progresses in the field of radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions - x-ray lasers, betatron radiation and Compton gamma-rays. Ever since the installation of a 100-TW laser in 2006, we have pursued the development of ultrashort x-ray/gamma-ray radiations, such as x-ray lasers, relativistic high-order harmonics, betatron radiation and all-optical Compton gamma-rays. With the construction of two PW Ti:Sapphire laser beamlines having peak powers of 1.0 PW and 1.5 PW in 2010 and 2012, respectively [1], we have investigated the generation of multi-GeV electron beams [2] and MeV betatron radiations. We plan to carry out the Compton backscattering to generate MeV gamma-rays from the interaction of a GeV electron beam and a PW laser beam. Here, we present the recent progress in the development of ultrashort x-ray/gamma-ray radiation sources based on laser plasma interactions and the plan for developing Compton gamma-ray sources driven by the PW lasers. In addition, we will present the applications of laser-plasma x-ray lasers to x-ray holography and coherent diffraction imaging. [references] 1. J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yu, T. M. Jeong, and J. Lee, Opt. Lett. 35, 3021 (2010). 2. H. T. Kim, K. H. Pae, H. J. Cha, I J. Kim, T. J. Yu, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, T. M. Jeong, J. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 165002 (2013).

  18. Determination of photoionization cross-sections of different organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to single-photon ionization (SPI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with an electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL): influence of molecular structure and analytical implications.

    PubMed

    Eschner, Markus S; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    This work describes a fast and reliable method for determination of photoionization cross-sections (PICS) by means of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (SPI-MS). Photoionization efficiency (PIE) data for 69 substances was obtained at a photon energy of 9.8 ± 0.4 eV using an innovative electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL) filled with argon. The investigated analytes comprise 12 alkylbenzenes as well as 11 other substituted benzenes, 23 n-alkanes, ten polyaromatic hydrocarbons, seven aromatic heterocycles, and six polyaromatic heterocycles. Absolute PICS for each substance at 9.8 eV are calculated from the relative photoionization efficiencies of the compounds with respect to benzene, whose photoionization cross-section data is well known. Furthermore, a direct correlation between the type of benzene substituents and their absolute PICS is presented and discussed in depth. Finally, comparison of previously measured photoionization cross-sections for 20 substances shows good agreement with the data of the present work.

  19. Single cell-based analysis of torenia petal pigments by a combination of ArF excimer laser micro sampling and nano-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro; Harada, Kazuo; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

    2006-12-01

    The molecular constituents of the petal pigments of the Torenia plant (Torenia hybrida) were analyzed on a single-cell basis by a combination of newly developed laser-microsampling and nano-flow liquid chromatography-electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS) techniques. Our method should provide a facile method for obtaining precise metabolic profiles of each cell in a single plant tissue.

  20. Laser welding of polypropylene using two different sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Brabazon, Dermot; McCarthy, Éanna; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla; Ahad, Inam Ul

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, laser weldability of neutral polypropylene has been investigated using fibre and carbon dioxide lasers. A design of experiment (DoE) was conducted in order to establish the influence of the main working parameters on the welding strength of the two types of laser. The welded samples were characterized by carrying out visual and microscopic inspection for the welding morphology and cross-section, and by distinguishing the tensile strength. The resulting weld quality was investigated by means of optical microscopy at weld cross-sections. The tensile strength of butt-welded materials was measured and compared to that of a corresponding bulk material.

  1. Imaging of molecular hydrogen and oxygen by single and two-photon fluorescence using laser and flashlamp sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Glenn S.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.; Kumar, Vinod; Glesk, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    Two flow visualization techniques, i.e., simultaneous two-dimensional fluorescence imaging of H2 and O2 in a diffusion flame, and quasi-linear fluorescence imaging of O2, are presented. The first uses an injection-locked argon-fluoride excimer laser and a partial overlap of a two-photon ground state absorption in H2 with a single photon absorption from a vibrational level in O2. The second uses a simple, high-intensity ultraviolet flashlamp which provides a flux of photons in the 180-195 nm range, sufficient to produce a quasi-one-dimensional fluorescence image of hot/room temperature oxygen. Both techniques do not require that a seed material be introduced into the flow, they can image major flow constituents, and provide an instantaneous snapshot of the flow.

  2. Utility and safety of a novel surgical microscope laser light source

    PubMed Central

    Bakhit, Mudathir S.; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Sakuma, Jun; Fujii, Masazumi; Murakami, Yuta; Ito, Yuhei; Sugano, Tetsuo; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Objective Tissue injuries caused by the thermal effects of xenon light microscopes have previously been reported. Due to this, the development of a safe microscope light source became a necessity. A newly developed laser light source is evaluated regarding its effectiveness and safety as an alternative to conventional xenon light source. Methods We developed and tested a new laser light source for surgical microscopes. Four experiments were conducted to compare xenon and laser lights: 1) visual luminance comparison, 2) luminous and light chromaticity measurements, 3) examination and analysis of visual fatigue, and 4) comparison of focal temperature elevation due to light source illumination using porcine muscle samples. Results Results revealed that the laser light could be used at a lower illumination value than the xenon light (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in visual fatigue status between the laser light and the xenon light. The laser light was superior to the xenon light regarding luminous intensity and color chromaticity. The focal temperature elevation of the muscle samples was significantly higher when irradiated with xenon light in vitro than with laser light (p < 0.01). Conclusion The newly developed laser light source is more efficient and safer than a conventional xenon light source. It lacks harmful ultraviolet waves, has a longer lifespan, a lower focal temperature than that of other light sources, a wide range of brightness and color production, and improved safety for the user’s vision. Further clinical trials are necessary to validate the impact of this new light source on the patient’s outcome and prognosis. PMID:29390016

  3. Effectiveness of laser sources for contactless sampling of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmalov, Artem E.; Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.

    2016-05-01

    A mass-spectrometric study of photo processes initiated by ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation in explosives adsorbed on metal and dielectric substrates has been performed. A calibrated quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to determine a value of activation energy of desorption and a quantity of explosives desorbed by laser radiation. A special vacuumoptical module was elaborated and integrated into a vacuum mass-spectrometric system to focus the laser beam on a sample. It has been shown that the action of nanosecond laser radiation set at q= 107 - 108 W/cm2, λ=266 nm on adsorbed layers of molecules of trinitrotoluene (TNT ) and pentaerytritoltetranitrate (PETN) leads not only to an effective desorption, but also to the non-equilibrium dissociation of molecules with the formation of nitrogen oxide NO. The cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) dissociation products are observed only at high laser intensities (q> 109 W/cm2) thus indicating the thermal nature of dissociation, whereas desorption of RDX is observed even at q> 107 W/cm2 from all substrates. Desorption is not observed for cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) under single pulse action: the dissociation products NO and NO2 are registered only, whereas irradiation at 10Hz is quite effective for HMX desorption. The results clearly demonstrate a high efficiency of nanosecond laser radiation with λ = 266 nm, q ~ 107 - 108 W/cm2, Epulse= 1mJ for desorption of molecules of explosives from various surfaces.

  4. Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Angela; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Di Franco, Cinzia; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques. PMID:22303143

  5. Development of a picosecond CO2 laser system for a high-repetition γ-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.; Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Yakimenko, Vitaly E.; Platonenko, Victor T.

    2008-10-01

    The concept of a high-repetition-rate, high-average power γ-source is based on Compton backscattering from the relativistic electron beam inside a picosecond CO2 laser cavity. Proof-of-principle experiments combined with comput

  6. Laser-driven powerful kHz hard x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minghua; Huang, Kai; Chen, Liming; Yan, Wenchao; Tao, Mengze; Zhao, Jiarui; Ma, Yong; Li, Yifei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-08-01

    A powerful hard x-ray source based on laser plasma interaction is developed. By introducing the kHz, 800 nm pulses onto a rotating molybdenum (Mo) disk target, intense Mo Kα x-rays are emitted with suppressed bremsstrahlung background. Results obtained with different laser intensities suggest that the dominant absorption mechanism responsible for the high conversion efficiency is vacuum heating (VH). The high degree of spatial coherence is verified. With the high average flux and a source size comparable to the laser focus spot, absorption contrast imaging and phase contrast imaging are carried out to test the imaging capability of the source. Not only useful for imaging application, this compact x-ray source is also holding great potential for ultrafast x-ray diffraction (XRD) due to the intrinsic merits such as femtosecond pulse duration and natural synchronization with the driving laser pulses.

  7. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscope/microscope based on a widely tunable laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dementjev, A.; Gulbinas, V.; Serbenta, A.; Kaucikas, M.; Niaura, G.

    2010-03-01

    We present a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a robust and simple laser source. A picosecond laser operating in a cavity dumping regime at the 1 MHz repetition rate was used to pump a traveling wave optical parametric generator, which serves as a two-color excitation light source for the CARS microscope. We demonstrate the ability of the presented CARS microscope to measure CARS spectra and images by using several detection schemes.

  8. Emission intensity modulation of radio-frequency helium glow-discharge emission source by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Matsuta, Hideyuki; Naeem, Tariq M; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2003-06-01

    A novel emission excitation source comprising a high repetition rate diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a Grimm-style glow-discharge lamp is described. Laser-ablated atoms are introduced into the He glow discharge plasma, which then give emission signals. By using phase-sensitive detection with a lock-in amplifier, the emission signal modulated by the pulsed laser can be detected selectively. It is possible to estimate only the emission intensity of sample atoms ablated by laser irradiation with little interference from the other species in the plasma.

  9. High flux, narrow bandwidth compton light sources via extended laser-electron interactions

    DOEpatents

    Barty, V P

    2015-01-13

    New configurations of lasers and electron beams efficiently and robustly produce high flux beams of bright, tunable, polarized quasi-monoenergetic x-rays and gamma-rays via laser-Compton scattering. Specifically, the use of long-duration, pulsed lasers and closely-spaced, low-charge and low emittance bunches of electron beams increase the spectral flux of the Compton-scattered x-rays and gamma rays, increase efficiency of the laser-electron interaction and significantly reduce the overall complexity of Compton based light sources.

  10. Recycling of laser and plasma radiation energy for enhancement of extreme ultraviolet sources for nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, K.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed comprehensive integrated models for detailed simulation of laser-produced plasma (LPP) and laser/target interaction, with potential recycling of the escaping laser and out-of-band plasma radiation. Recycling, i.e., returning the escaping laser and plasma radiation to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) generation region using retroreflective mirrors, has the potential of increasing the EUV conversion efficiency (CE) by up to 60% according to our simulations. This would result in significantly reduced power consumption and/or increased EUV output. Based on our recently developed models, our High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS) computer simulation package was upgraded for LPP devices to include various radiation recycling regimes and to estimate the potential CE enhancement. The upgraded HEIGHTS was used to study recycling of both laser and plasma-generated radiation and to predict possible gains in conversion efficiency compared to no-recycling LPP devices when using droplets of tin target. We considered three versions of the LPP system including a single CO2 laser, a single Nd:YAG laser, and a dual-pulse device combining both laser systems. The gains in generating EUV energy were predicted and compared for these systems. Overall, laser and radiation energy recycling showed the potential for significant enhancement in source efficiency of up to 60% for the dual-pulse system. Significantly higher CE gains might be possible with optimization of the pre-pulse and main pulse parameters and source size.

  11. Corneal reshaping using a pulsed UV solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiushi; Simon, Gabriel; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Shen, Jin-Hui; Takesue, Yoshiko

    1993-06-01

    Replacing the gas ArF (193 nm) excimer laser with a solid state laser source in the far-UV spectrum region would eliminate the hazards of a gas laser and would reduce its size which is desirable for photo-refractive keratectomy (PRK). In this study, we investigated corneal reshaping using a frequency-quintupled (213 nm) pulsed (10 ns) Nd:YAG laser coupled to a computer-controlled optical scanning delivery system. Corneal topographic measurements showed myopic corrections ranging from 2.3 to 6.1 diopters. Post-operative examination with the slit-lamp and operating microscope demonstrated a smoothly ablated surface without corneal haze. Histological results showed a smoothly sloping surface without recognizable steps. The surface quality and cellular effects were similar to that of previously described excimer PRK. Our study demonstrated that a UV solid state laser coupled to an optical scanning delivery system is capable of reshaping the corneal surface with the advantage of producing customized, aspheric corrections without corneal haze which may improve the quality of vision following PRK.

  12. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  13. A 12 GHz wavelength spacing multi-wavelength laser source for wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, R. K.; Bitew, M. A.; Chang, T. L.; Lai, C. H.; Junior, J. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a multi-wavelength laser source with 12 GHz wavelength spacing based on a single distributed feedback laser. A light wave generated from the distributed feedback laser is fed into a frequency shifter loop consisting of 50:50 coupler, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, optical amplifier, optical filter, and polarization controller. The frequency of the input wavelength is shifted and then re-injected into the frequency shifter loop. By re-injecting the shifted wavelengths multiple times, we have generated 84 optical carriers with 12 GHz wavelength spacing and stable output power. For each channel, two wavelengths are modulated by a wireless data using the phase modulator and transmitted through a 25 km single mode fiber. In contrast to previously developed schemes, the proposed laser source does not incur DC bias drift problem. Moreover, it is a good candidate for radio-over-fiber systems to support multiple users using a single distributed feedback laser.

  14. Femtosecond Laser--Pumped Source of Entangled Photons for Quantum Cryptography Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Donaldson, W.; Sobolewski, R.

    2007-07-31

    We present an experimental setup for generation of entangled-photon pairs via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, based on the femtosecond-pulsed laser. Our entangled-photon source utilizes a 76-MHz-repetition-rate, 100-fs-pulse-width, mode-locked, ultrafast femtosecond laser, which can produce, on average, more photon pairs than a cw laser of an equal pump power. The resulting entangled pairs are counted by a pair of high-quantum-efficiency, single-photon, silicon avalanche photodiodes. Our apparatus is intended as an efficient source/receiver system for the quantum communications and quantum cryptography applications.

  15. Mitigation of Hot Electrons from Laser-Plasma Instabilities in Laser-Generated X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fein, Jeffrey R.

    This thesis describes experiments to understand and mitigate energetic or "hot" electrons from laser-plasma instabilities (LPIs) in an effort to improve radiographic techniques using laser-generated x-ray sources. Initial experiments on the OMEGA-60 laser show evidence of an underlying background generated by x-rays with energies over 10 keV on radiographs using backlit pinhole radiography, whose source is consistent with hard x-rays from LPI-generated hot electrons. Mitigating this background can dramatically reduce uncertainties in measured object densities from radiographs and may be achieved by eliminating the target components in which LPIs are most likely to grow. Experiments were performed on the OMEGA-EP laser to study hot electron production from laser-plasma instabilities in high-Z plasmas relevant to laser-generated x-ray sources. Measurements of hard x-rays show a dramatic reduction in hot-electron energy going from low-Z CH to high-Z Au targets, in a manner that is consistent with steepening electron density profiles that were also measured. The profile-steepening, we infer, increased thresholds of LPIs and contributed to the reduced hot-electron production at higher Z. Possible mechanisms for generating hot electrons include the two-plasmon decay and stimulated Raman scattering instabilities driven by multiple laser beams. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations using the CRASH code predict that both of these instabilities were above threshold with linear threshold parameters that decreased with increasing Z due to steepening length-scales, as well as enhanced laser absorption and increased collisional and Landau damping of electron plasma waves. Another set of experiments were performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to test whether hard x-ray background could be mitigated in backlit pinhole imagers by controlling laser-plasma instabilities. Based on the results above, we hypothesized that LPIs and hot electrons that lead to hard x-ray background would be reduced

  16. Treatment of alopecia areata with 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Toshio; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2010-12-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder. The 308-nm excimer lamp is thought to be capable of inducing T-cell apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that the lamp might be effective for the treatment of alopecia areata. We examined the effectiveness of the 308-nm excimer lamp for the treatment of alopecia areata. We recruited three patients with single alopecia areata lesions that were resistant to conventional treatment. The lesions were exposed to a 308-nm excimer lamp at 2-weekly intervals. Hair regrowth was observed in all three patients after approximately 10 treatment sessions. Our study showed that exposure to the 308-nm excimer lamp effectively induced hair regrowth in solitary alopecia areata lesions. Apart from erythema, there were no significant adverse effects. Therefore, we suggest that it may be considered as a treatment modality for recalcitrant alopecia areata. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Experimental demonstration of a compact epithermal neutron source based on a high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Raspino, D.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, L. A.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Kelleher, J.; Murphy, C. D.; Notley, M.; Rusby, D. R.; Schooneveld, E.; Borghesi, M.; McKenna, P.; Rhodes, N. J.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Epithermal neutrons from pulsed-spallation sources have revolutionised neutron science allowing scientists to acquire new insight into the structure and properties of matter. Here, we demonstrate that laser driven fast (˜MeV) neutrons can be efficiently moderated to epithermal energies with intrinsically short burst durations. In a proof-of-principle experiment using a 100 TW laser, a significant epithermal neutron flux of the order of 105 n/sr/pulse in the energy range of 0.5-300 eV was measured, produced by a compact moderator deployed downstream of the laser-driven fast neutron source. The moderator used in the campaign was specifically designed, by the help of MCNPX simulations, for an efficient and directional moderation of the fast neutron spectrum produced by a laser driven source.

  18. Spectral radiance source based on supercontinuum laser and wavelength tunable bandpass filter: the spectrally tunable absolute irradiance and radiance source.

    PubMed

    Levick, Andrew P; Greenwell, Claire L; Ireland, Jane; Woolliams, Emma R; Goodman, Teresa M; Bialek, Agnieszka; Fox, Nigel P

    2014-06-01

    A new spectrally tunable source for calibration of radiometric detectors in radiance, irradiance, or power mode has been developed and characterized. It is termed the spectrally tunable absolute irradiance and radiance source (STAIRS). It consists of a supercontinuum laser, wavelength tunable bandpass filter, power stabilization feedback control scheme, and output coupling optics. It has the advantages of relative portability and a collimated beam (low étendue), and is an alternative to conventional sources such as tungsten lamps, blackbodies, or tunable lasers. The supercontinuum laser is a commercial Fianium SC400-6-02, which has a wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm and a total power of 6 W. The wavelength tunable bandpass filter, a PhotonEtc laser line tunable filter (LLTF), is tunable between 400 and 1000 nm and has a bandwidth of 1 or 2 nm depending on the wavelength selected. The collimated laser beam from the LLTF filter is converted to an appropriate spatial and angular distribution for the application considered (i.e., for radiance, irradiance, or power mode calibration of a radiometric sensor) with the output coupling optics, for example, an integrating sphere, and the spectral radiance/irradiance/power of the source is measured using a calibration optical sensor. A power stabilization feedback control scheme has been incorporated that stabilizes the source to better than 0.01% for averaging times longer than 100 s. The out-of-band transmission of the LLTF filter is estimated to be < -65 dB (0.00003%), and is sufficiently low for many end-user applications, for example the spectral radiance calibration of earth observation imaging radiometers and the stray light characterization of array spectrometers (the end-user optical sensor). We have made initial measurements of two end-user instruments with the STAIRS source, an array spectrometer and ocean color radiometer.

  19. Improved Characteristics of Laser Source of Ions Using a Frequency Mode Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Khaydarov, R. T.

    2008-04-07

    We used a mass-spectrometric method to investigate the characteristics of laser-produced plasma ions depending on the nature of the target and on the parameters of the laser radiation. Experiments are carried out on porous Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets with different densities {rho}, subjected to a laser radiation, where the laser works in a frequency mode (v = l-12 Hz). We found that the laser frequency has a significant effect on the parameters of plasma ions: with increasing the frequency of the laser the charge, energy and intensity of ions increase for a given parameters of the target. This effect ismore » more pronounced for small densities of the target. We related these two effects to a non-linear ionization process in the plasma due to the formation of dense plasma volume inside the sample absorbing the laser radiation and to the change of the focusing conditions in the case of the frequency mode laser.« less

  20. Laser Wakefield Accelerators: Next-Generation Light Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, Felicie

    2018-01-01

    Here, a new breed of compact particle accelerators, capable of producing electron-beam energies in the GeV range, could soon bring some of the experimental power of synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers to a tabletop near you.

  1. Solid-state laser sources for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.; Kane, T.; Eggleston, J.; Long, S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in slab-geometry and conventional rod Nd:YAG solid-state lasers for applications in remote sensing is presented. Developments in slab geometry lasers, which were aimed at improving pulse energy and tuning range, have been based on the use of a Nd:glass substrate with a zig-zag optical path, with selective Raman shifting in gases and harmonic generation in LiNbO3 and KDP to extend the tuning range into the UV and visible regions. The theoretically predicted advantages of the elimination of birefringence and thermal and stress-induced focusing in the slab-geometry laser have been confirmed in measurements on a test-bed Nd:glass system, and a CW lamp pumped Nd:YAG oscillator, which have also demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement in laser performance. A single axial mode Nd:YAG oscillator has also been designed which, operating in a 3-msec quasi-CW mode, has a chirp rate of 30 kHz/microsec and a free-running stability of + or - 20 MHz. With chirp compensation, this stability is adequate for wind velocity measurements by coherent lidar.

  2. Enabling vendor independent photoacoustic imaging systems with asynchronous laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yixuan; Zhang, Haichong K.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2018-02-01

    Channel data acquisition, and synchronization between laser excitation and PA signal acquisition, are two fundamental hardware requirements for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Unfortunately, however, neither is equipped by most clinical ultrasound scanners. Therefore, less economical specialized research platforms are used in general, which hinders a smooth clinical transition of PA imaging. In previous studies, we have proposed an algorithm to achieve PA imaging using ultrasound post-beamformed (USPB) RF data instead of channel data. This work focuses on enabling clinical ultrasound scanners to implement PA imaging, without requiring synchronization between the laser excitation and PA signal acquisition. Laser synchronization is inherently consisted of two aspects: frequency and phase information. We synchronize without communicating the laser and the ultrasound scanner by investigating USPB images of a point-target phantom in two steps. First, frequency information is estimated by solving a nonlinear optimization problem, under the assumption that the segmented wave-front can only be beamformed into a single spot when synchronization is achieved. Second, after making frequencies of two systems identical, phase delay is estimated by optimizing the image quality while varying phase value. The proposed method is validated through simulation, by manually adding both frequency and phase errors, then applying the proposed algorithm to correct errors and reconstruct PA images. Compared with the ground truth, simulation results indicate that the remaining errors in frequency correction and phase correction are 0.28% and 2.34%, respectively, which affirm the potential of overcoming hardware barriers on PA imaging through software solution.

  3. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-statemore » Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.« less

  4. Laser Wakefield Accelerators: Next-Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Felicie

    Here, a new breed of compact particle accelerators, capable of producing electron-beam energies in the GeV range, could soon bring some of the experimental power of synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers to a tabletop near you.

  5. Studies of discharge mechanisms in high pressure gases-applications to high efficiency high power lasers. Ph.D. Thesis. Semiannual Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherrington, B. E.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Eden, J. G.; Leslie, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    By measuring the absorption and emission cantinua of various states in the cesium/xenon molecule, the collisional rates critical in populating the alkali/rare gas excimer levels have been estimated. Cs atomic states that are weakly optically connected to ground have been shown to form excimer levels that are attractive as potential dissociation lasers. In particular, the (Cs/7 2S/Xe) excited molecule appears promising as a source of high energy laser radiation due to its large dissociation energy, stimulated emission cross section, and small population inversion densities. Monitoring of the optically pumped Cs2 molecular absorption profile in the presence of xenon shows a drastic change with increasing xenon pressure for the Cs2C band. Dominant absorption at large xenon densities is centered around approximately 6380 A as opposed to 6300 A for lower perturber pressure.

  6. Integration of high power laser diodes with microoptical components in a compact pumping source for visible fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goering, Rolf; Hoefer, Bernd; Kraeplin, Anke; Schreiber, Peter; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Schmeisser, Volkmar

    1999-04-01

    A novel technique, the so-called skew ray imaging concept, has been developed for beam transformation of high power diode laser bars. It leads to beam circularization with optimum brightness conservation. This concept uses two key microoptical components: a fast axis collimator microlens (FAC) of high isoplanatism and a special array of beam deflecting elements, the number of which corresponds to the single emitter number of the diode laser. Using this concept of skew ray imaging in a modified form, prototypes of pumping sources for visible fiber laser have been developed and built up. Several watts of optical power have been focused into a small spot of 25 micrometers with a numerical aperture of 0.35. GRIN cylindrical microlenses with 0.1 mm focal length and diffractive blazed gratings as redirector have been used. The grating periods of the redirector sections have been between 8 and 100 (mu) M. They have been produced by e-beam direct writing in resist. After optimization of the fabrication process the diffraction efficiencies of al sections have been beyond 86 percent with good reproducibility. Special techniques have been sued for system integration. The FAC microlenses have been attached to a copper lens holder with a subsequent gluing process of the holder to the laser diode heatsink. A UV-curable adhesive with extremely low shrinkage has been selected. The redirector element has been integrated with an additional possibility for lateral adjustment in order to compensate minor residual walk-off effects of the microlens when the laser power is varied from zero to maximum. A very compact pumping source of 3 inches X 1 inch X 1 inch dimensions has been realized with 5 W optical power in the desired spot. First diode pumped fiber laser operation in the visible has been demonstrated with this source.

  7. Highly reproducible laser beam scanning device for an internal source laser desorption microprobe Fourier transform mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, mass spectrometry has relied on manipulating the sample target to provide scanning capabilities for laser desorption microprobes. This has been problematic for an internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LD-FTMS) because of the high magnetic field (7 Tesla) and geometric constraints of the superconducting magnet bore. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented a unique external laser scanning mechanism for an internal source LD-FTMS. This mechanism provides adjustable resolution enhancement so that the spatial resolution at the target is not limited to that of the stepper motors at the light source (˜5 μm/step). The spatial resolution is now limited by the practical optical diffraction limit of the final focusing lens. The scanning mechanism employs a virtual source that is wavelength independent up to the final focusing lens, which can be controlled remotely to account for focal length dependence on wavelength. A binary index provides an automatic alignment feature. The virtual source is located ˜9 ft from the sample; therefore, it is completely outside of the vacuum system and beyond the 50 G line of the fringing magnetic field. To eliminate reproducibility problems associated with vacuum pump vibrations, we have taken advantage of the magnetic field inherent to the FTMS to utilize Lenz's law for vibrational dampening. The LD-FTMS microprobe has exceptional reproducibility, which enables successive mapping sequences for depth-profiling studies.

  8. Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources

    DOE PAGES

    Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2016-04-25

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. Moreover, as a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results tomore » demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. We found that this combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.« less

  9. Optimizing laser produced plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Photon sources produced by laser beams with moderate laser intensities, up to 1014 W/cm2, are being developed for many industrial applications. The performance requirements for high volume manufacture devices necessitate extensive experimental research supported by theoretical plasma analysis and modeling predictions. We simulated laser produced plasma sources currently being developed for several applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography using 13.5% ± 1% nm bandwidth, possibly beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography using 6.× nm wavelengths, and water-window microscopy utilizing 2.48 nm (La-α) and 2.88 nm (He-α) emission. We comprehensively modeled plasma evolution from solid/liquid tin, gadolinium, and nitrogen targets as three promising materials for the above described sources, respectively. Results of our analysis for plasma characteristics during the entire course of plasma evolution showed the dependence of source conversion efficiency (CE), i.e., laser energy to photons at the desired wavelength, on plasma electron density gradient. Our results showed that utilizing laser intensities which produce hotter plasma than the optimum emission temperatures allows increasing CE for all considered sources that, however, restricted by the reabsorption processes around the main emission region and this restriction is especially actual for the 6.× nm sources.

  10. Environmentally stable seed source for high power ultrafast laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartsev, Igor; Bordenyuk, Andrey; Gapontsev, Valentin

    2017-02-01

    We present an environmentally stable Yb ultrafast ring oscillator utilizing a new method of passive mode-locking. The laser is using all-fiber architecture which makes it insensitive to environmental factors, like temperature, humidity, vibrations, and shocks. The new method of mode-locking is utilizing crossed bandpass transmittance filters in ring architecture to discriminate against CW lasing. Broadband pulse evolves from cavity noise under amplification, after passing each filter, causing strong spectral broadening. The laser is self-starting. It generates transform limited spectrally flat pulses of 1 - 50 nm width at 6 - 15 MHz repetition rate and pulse energy 0.2 - 15 nJ at 1010 - 1080 nm CWL.

  11. Remote defect imaging for plate-like structures based on the scanning laser source technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Maeda, Atsuya; Nakao, Shogo

    2018-04-01

    In defect imaging with a scanning laser source technique, the use of a fixed receiver realizes stable measurements of flexural waves generated by laser at multiple rastering points. This study discussed the defect imaging by remote measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer as a receiver. Narrow-band burst waves were generated by modulating laser pulse trains of a fiber laser to enhance signal to noise ratio in frequency domain. Averaging three images obtained at three different frequencies suppressed spurious distributions due to resonance. The experimental system equipped with these newly-devised means enabled us to visualize defects and adhesive objects in plate-like structures such as a plate with complex geometries and a branch pipe.

  12. Fiber-Based Lasers as an Option for GRACE Follow-On Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Fiber based lasers offer a number of attractive characteristics for space application: state of the art laser technology, leverage of design and reliability from the substantial investments of the telecon industry, and convenient redundancy of higher risk components through fiber splicing. At NASA/Goddard we are currently investigating three GFO fiber-based laser options: a fiber oscillator built in our laboratory; an effort to space qualify a commercial design that uses a proprietary high-gain fiber cavity; and the space qualification of a promising new commercial external cavity laser, notable for its low-mass, compact design. In my talk I will outline these efforts, and suggest that the GFO Project may soon have the option of a US laser vendor for its light source.

  13. Development and Characterization of a Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption Source.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhipeng; Ossenbrüggen, Tim; Rubinsky, Igor; Schust, Matthias; Horke, Daniel A; Küpper, Jochen

    2018-03-20

    A laser-induced acoustic desorption source, developed for use at central facilities, such as free-electron lasers, is presented. It features prolonged measurement times and a fixed interaction point. A novel sample deposition method using aerosol spraying provides a uniform sample coverage and hence stable signal intensity. Utilizing strong-field ionization as a universal detection scheme, the produced molecular plume is characterized in terms of number density, spatial extend, fragmentation, temporal distribution, translational velocity, and translational temperature. The effect of desorption laser intensity on these plume properties is evaluated. While translational velocity is invariant for different desorption laser intensities, pointing to a nonthermal desorption mechanism, the translational temperature increases significantly and higher fragmentation is observed with increased desorption laser fluence.

  14. Solid-State Laser Source of Tunable Narrow-Bandwidth Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Lew; Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A solid-state laser source of tunable and narrow-bandwidth UV light is disclosed. The system relies on light from a diode laser that preferably generates light at infrared frequencies. The light from the seed diode laser is pulse amplified in a light amplifier, and converted into the ultraviolet by frequency tripling, quadrupling, or quintupling the infrared light. The narrow bandwidth, or relatively pure light, of the seed laser is preserved, and the pulse amplifier generates high peak light powers to increase the efficiency of the nonlinear crystals in the frequency conversion stage. Higher output powers may be obtained by adding a fiber amplifier to power amplify the pulsed laser light prior to conversion.

  15. Characteristics of laser-induced plasma as a spectroscopic light emission source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q. L.; Motto-Ros, V.; Lei, W. Q.; Wang, X. C.; Boueri, M.; Laye, F.; Zeng, C. Q.; Sausy, M.; Wartelle, A.; Bai, X. S.; Zheng, L. J.; Zeng, H. P.; Baudelet, M.; Yu, J.

    2012-05-01

    Laser-induced plasma is today a widespread spectroscopic emission source. It can be easily generated using compact and reliable nanosecond pulsed lasers and finds applications in various domains with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). It is however such a particular medium which is intrinsically a transient and non-point light emitting source. Its timeand space-resolved diagnostics is therefore crucial for its optimized use. In this paper, we review our work on the investigation of the morphology and the evolution of the plasma. Different time scales relevant for the description of the plasma's kinetics and dynamics are covered by suitable techniques. Our results show detailed evolution and transformation of the plasma with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The effects of the laser parameters as well as the background gas are particularly studied.

  16. In vitro photoacoustic measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using a single pulsed broadband supercontinuum laser source.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changho; Jeon, Mansik; Jeon, Min Yong; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-06-20

    We have utilized a single pulsed broadband supercontinuum laser source to photoacoustically sense total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SO2) in bloods in vitro. Unlike existing expensive and bulky laser systems typically used for functional photoacoustic imaging (PAI), our laser system is relatively cost-effective and compact. Instead of using two single wavelengths, two wavelength bands were applied to distinguish the concentrations of two different chromophores in the mixture. In addition, we have successfully extracted the total dye concentration and the ratio of the red dye concentration to the total dye concentration in mixed red and blue dye solutions in phantoms. The results indicate that PAI with a cheap and compact fiber based laser source can potentially provide HbT and SO2 in live animals in vivo.

  17. Spectral characteristics of quantum-cascade laser operating at 10.6 μm wavelength for a seed application in laser-produced-plasma extreme UV source.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Endo, Akira

    2012-11-15

    In this Letter, we investigate, for the first time to our knowledge, the spectral properties of a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) from a point of view of a new application as a laser seeder for a nanosecond-pulse high-repetition frequency CO(2) laser operating at 10.6 μm wavelength. The motivation for this work is a renewed interest in such a pulse format and wavelength driven by a development of extreme UV (EUV) laser-produced-plasma (LPP) sources. These sources use pulsed multikilowatt CO(2) lasers to drive the EUV-emitting plasmas. Basic spectral performance characteristics of a custom-made QCL chip are measured, such as tuning range and chirp rate. The QCL is shown to have all essential qualities of a robust seed source for a high-repetition nanosecond-pulsed CO(2) laser required by EUV LPP sources.

  18. Acute effects of pulsed-laser irradiation on the arterial wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kvasnicka, Jan; Lu, Hanjiang; Geschwind, Herbert J.; Levame, Micheline; Bousbaa, Hassan; Lange, Francoise

    1992-08-01

    Pulsed laser coronary angioplasty with an excimer or a holmium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser may become an alternative treatment for patients with coronary artery disease. However, little is known about its acute consequences on the normal arterial wall. This study was designed to examine the acute histologic consequences of these two pulsed lasers on the arterial wall of normal iliac arteries in rabbits. Irradiation with each laser was performed in 15 normal iliac sites on eight male New Zealand white rabbits. The excimer laser was operated at 308 nm, 25 Hz, 50 mJ/mm2/pulse, and 135 nsec/pulse and the Ho:YAG laser was operated at 2.1 micrometers , 3/5 Hz, 400 mJ/pulse, and 250 microsecond(s) ec/pulse. The excimer and Ho:YAG laser were coupled into a multifiber wire-guided catheter of 1.4 and 1.5 mm diameter, respectively. The sites irradiated with excimer or Ho:YAG laser had the same kinds of histologic features, consisting of exfoliation of the endothelium, disorganization of internal elastic lamina, localized necrosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, and fissures in the medial layer. However, the sites irradiated with excimer laser had lower grading scores than those irradiated with Ho:YAG laser (p < 0.05). Laser irradiation with excimer or Ho:YAG laser of normal arteries results in localized mechanical vascular injury.

  19. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  20. Development of a gas cell-based laser ion source for RIKEN PALIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T.; Noto, T.; Iimura, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Shinozuka, T.; Wakui, T.; Mita, H.; Naimi, S.; Furukawa, T.; Itou, Y.; Schury, P.; Miyatake, H.; Jeong, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Hirayama, Y.

    2013-04-01

    We developed a prototype laser ionization gas cell with a beam extraction system. This device is for use of PArasitic Laser Ion-Source (PALIS), which will be implemented into RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS as a part of SLOWRI. Off-line resonant laser ionization for stable Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Nb, Sn, In and Pd inside the gas cell, ion extraction and transport to the high-vacuum region via SPIG and QMS have been confirmed (Sonoda et al, Nucl Instrum Meth B 295:1, 2013).

  1. Versatile Chromium-Doped Zinc Selenide Infrared Laser Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    ability of the fixed- angle curved mirrors in the Z- cavity to compensate for the increasing astigmatism from the Brewster - angle thermal lens in the...duty cycle at varying PRFs. 20 Table 4: Thermal Lensing Power at 1 kHz PRF, 1 W peak power, Q-switched Laser PRF (kHz) Thermal lens power (m-1...with it some negative astigmatism effects which are compounded by thermal lensing in the crystal which is now at an angle . To counteract this

  2. Mass-Selective Laser Photoionization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and applications of mass-selective laser photoionization. The ionization can be done with a single intense laser pulse lasting a few billionths of a second with no molecular fragmentation. Applications focus on: (1) benzene clusters, excimers, and exciplexes; (2) metal clusters; and (3) triplet formation and decay. (Author/JN)

  3. Multi-keV X-ray area source intensity at SGII laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-rong; An, Hong-hai; Xie, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Experiments for investigating the feasibility of multi-keV backlighters for several different metallic foil targets were performed at the Shenguang II (SGII) laser facility in China. Emission spectra in the energy range of 1.65-7.0 keV were measured with an elliptically bent crystal spectrometer, and the X-ray source size was measured with a pinhole camera. The X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size for titanium targets at different laser intensity irradiances were studied. By adjusting the total laser energy at a fixed focal spot size, laser intensity in the range of 1.5-5.0 × 1015 W/cm2, was achieved. The results show that the line emission intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size are dependent on the laser intensity and increase as the laser intensity increases. However, an observed "peak" in the X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV occurs at an irradiance of 4.0 × 1015 W/cm2. For the employed experimental conditions, it was confirmed that the laser intensity could play a significant role in the development of an efficient multi-keV X-ray source. The experimental results for titanium indicate that the production of a large (˜350 μm in diameter) intense backlighter source of multi-keV X-rays is feasible at the SGII facility.

  4. Continuous-wave, single-frequency 229  nm laser source for laser cooling of cadmium atoms.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Yushi; Yarborough, J M; Merzlyak, Yevgeny; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashida, Keitaro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-15

    Continuous-wave output at 229 nm for the application of laser cooling of Cd atoms was generated by the fourth harmonic using two successive second-harmonic generation stages. Employing a single-frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser as a fundamental source, 0.56 W of output at 229 nm was observed with a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity with 1.62 W of 458 nm input. Conversion efficiency from 458 nm to 229 nm was more than 34%. By applying a tapered amplifier (TA) as a fundamental source, we demonstrated magneto-optical trapping of all stable Cd isotopes including isotopes Cd111 and Cd113, which are applicable to optical lattice clocks.

  5. Laser-induced electron source in a vacuum diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghera, U.; Boxman, R. L.; Kleinman, H.; Ruschin, S.

    1989-11-01

    Experiments were conducted in which a high-power CO2 TEA laser interacted with metallic cathode in a high-vacuum (10 to the -8th Torr) diode. For power densities lower than 5 x 10 to the 7th W/sq cm, no current was detected. For power densities in the range of 5 x 10 to the 7th to 5 x 10 to the 8th W/sq cm, the Cu cathode emitted a maximum current of 40 mA. At a higher power density level, a circuit-limited current of 8 A was detected. The jump of a few orders of magnitude in the current is attributed to breakdown of the diode gap. The experimental results are similar to those of a triggered vacuum gap, and a thorough comparison is presented in this paper. The influence of the pressure in the vacuum chamber on the current magnitude shows the active role that adsorbed gas molecules have in the initial breakdown. When the cathode material was changed from metal to metal oxide, much lower laser power densities were required to reach the breakdown current region.

  6. Coherent sources for mid-infrared laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honzátko, Pavel; Baravets, Yauhen; Mondal, Shyamal; Peterka, Pavel; Todorov, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is useful for molecular trace gas concentration measurements in gas mixtures. While the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is still the gold standard in gas analysis, LAS offers several advantages. It takes tens of minutes for a gas mixture to be separated in the capillary column precluding gas chromatography from real-time control of industrial processes, while LAS can measure the concentration of gas species in seconds. LAS can be used in a wide range of applications such as gas quality screening for regulation, metering and custody transfer,1 purging gas pipes to avoid explosions,1 monitoring combustion processes,2 detection and quantification of gas leaks,3 by-products monitoring to provide feedback for the real-time control of processes in petrochemical industry,4 real-time control of inductively coupled plasma etch reactors,5, 6 and medical diagnostics by means of time-resolved volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis in exhaled breath.7 Apart from the concentration, it also permits us to determine the temperature, pressure, velocity and mass flux of the gas under observation. The selectivity and sensitivity of LAS is linked to a very high spectral resolution given by the linewidth of single-frequency lasers. Measurements are performed at reduced pressure where the collisional and Doppler broadenings are balanced. The sensitivity can be increased to ppb and sometimes to ppt ranges by increasing the interaction length in multi-pass gas cells or resonators and also by adopting modulation techniques.8

  7. The selective and efficient laser ion source and trap project LIST for on-line production of exotic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Klaus; Gottwald, Tina; Hanstorp, Dag; Mattolat, Christoph; Raeder, Sebastian; Rothe, Sebastian; Schwellnus, Fabio; Havener, Charles; Lassen, Jens; Liu, Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. A recent trend is the complementary installation of reliable state-of-the-art all solid-state Ti:Sapphire laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the Periodic Table are available at laser ion sources by using these novel laser systems, which complements the overall accessibility to 54 elements including use of traditional dye lasers. Recent progress in the field concerns the identification of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:Sapphire laser excitation as well as technical developments of the source in respect to geometry, cavity material as well as by incorporation of an ion guide system in the form of the laser ion source trap LIST.

  8. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  9. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  10. OCT imaging with temporal dispersion induced intense and short coherence laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Suman K.; le Gall, Stephen; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-10-01

    Lower coherence length and higher intensity are two indispensable requirements on the light source for high resolution and large penetration depth OCT imaging. While tremendous interest is being paid on engineering various laser sources to enlarge their bandwidth and hence lowering the coherence length, here we demonstrate another approach by employing strong temporal dispersion onto the existing laser source. Cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cells with suitable dispersive slope at the edge of 1-D organic photonic band gap have been designed to provide maximum reduction in coherence volume while maintaining the intensity higher than 50%. As an example, the coherence length of a multimode He-Ne laser is reduced by more than 730 times.

  11. A compact tunable polarized X-ray source based on laser-plasma helical undulators

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J.; Chen, M.; Zeng, M.; Vieira, J.; Yu, L. L.; Weng, S. M.; Silva, L. O.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators have great potential as the basis for next generation compact radiation sources because of their extremely high accelerating gradients. However, X-ray radiation from such devices still lacks tunability, especially of the intensity and polarization distributions. Here we propose a tunable polarized radiation source based on a helical plasma undulator in a plasma channel guided wakefield accelerator. When a laser pulse is initially incident with a skew angle relative to the channel axis, the laser and accelerated electrons experience collective spiral motions, which leads to elliptically polarized synchrotron-like radiation with flexible tunability on radiation intensity, spectra and polarization. We demonstrate that a radiation source with millimeter size and peak brilliance of 2 × 1019 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth can be made with moderate laser and electron beam parameters. This brilliance is comparable with third generation synchrotron radiation facilities running at similar photon energies, suggesting that laser plasma based radiation sources are promising for advanced applications. PMID:27377126

  12. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROJECT BULLETIN: LASER INDUCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The process developed by Energy and Environmental Engineering, Incorporated, is designed to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an Excimer laser. The photochemical reactor can destroy low to moderate concentrations...

  14. Concepts and performance of solid state RGB laser sources for large-frame laser projection displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Achim; Wallenstein, Richard E.

    2000-04-01

    We report on concepts and the performance of diode pumped solid state laser systems which generate simultaneously red (R), green (G) and blue (B) laser light with output powers of up to 7.1 W at 629 nm, 6.9 W at 532 nm and 5.0 W at 446 nm. The superposition of this RGB radiation provides white light with a power of 19 W. In respect to the diode pump power of 110 W the RGB output corresponds to an optical efficiency of 17%.

  15. High-power diode laser bars as pump sources for fiber lasers and amplifiers (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonati, G.; Hennig, P.; Wolff, D.; Voelckel, H.; Gabler, T.; Krause, U.; T'nnermann, A.; Reich, M.; Limpert, J.; Werner, E.; Liem, A.

    2005-04-01

    Fiber lasers are pumped by fibercoupled, multimode single chip devices at 915nm. That"s what everybody assumes when asked for the type of fiber laser pumps and it was like this for many years. Coming up as an amplifier for telecom applications, the amount of pump power needed was in the range of several watts. Highest pump powers for a limited market entered the ten watts range. This is a range of power that can be covered by highly reliable multimode chips, that have to survive up to 25 years, e.g. in submarine applications. With fiber lasers entering the power range and the application fields of rod and thin disc lasers, the amount of pump power needed raised into the area of several hundred watts. In this area of pump power, usually bar based pumps are used. This is due to the much higher cost pressure of the industrial customers compared to telecom customers. We expect more then 70% of all industrial systems to be pumped by diode laser bars. Predictions that bar based pumps survive for just a thousand hours in cw-operation and fractions of this if pulsed are wrong. Bar based pumps have to perform on full power for 10.000h on Micro channel heat sinks and 20.000h on passive heatsinks in industrial applications, and they do. We will show a variety of data, "real" long time tests and statistics from the JENOPTIK Laserdiode as well as data of thousands of bars in the field, showing that bar based pumps are not just well suitable for industrial applications on high power levels, but even showing benefits compared to chip based pumps. And it"s reasonable, that the same objectives of cost effectiveness, power and lifetime apply as well to thin disc, rod and slab lasers as to fiber lasers. Due to the pumping of fiber lasers, examples will be shown, how to utilize bars for high brightness fiber coupling. In this area, the automation is on its way to reduce the costs on the fibercoupling, similar to what had been done in the single chip business. All these efforts are

  16. Neutron detection by scintillation of noble-gas excimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, Jacob Collin

    Neutron detection is a technique essential to homeland security, nuclear reactor instrumentation, neutron diffraction science, oil-well logging, particle physics and radiation safety. The current shortage of helium-3, the neutron absorber used in most gas-filled proportional counters, has created a strong incentive to develop alternate methods of neutron detection. Excimer-based neutron detection (END) provides an alternative with many attractive properties. Like proportional counters, END relies on the conversion of a neutron into energetic charged particles, through an exothermic capture reaction with a neutron absorbing nucleus (10B, 6Li, 3He). As charged particles from these reactions lose energy in a surrounding gas, they cause electron excitation and ionization. Whereas most gas-filled detectors collect ionized charge to form a signal, END depends on the formation of diatomic noble-gas excimers (Ar*2, Kr*2,Xe* 2) . Upon decaying, excimers emit far-ultraviolet (FUV) photons, which may be collected by a photomultiplier tube or other photon detector. This phenomenon provides a means of neutron detection with a number of advantages over traditional methods. This thesis investigates excimer scintillation yield from the heavy noble gases following the boron-neutron capture reaction in 10B thin-film targets. Additionally, the thesis examines noble-gas excimer lifetimes with relationship to gas type and gas pressure. Experimental data were collected both at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research, and on a newly developed neutron beamline at the Maryland University Training Reactor. The components of the experiment were calibrated at NIST and the University of Maryland, using FUV synchrotron radiation, neutron imaging, and foil activation techniques, among others. Computer modeling was employed to simulate charged-particle transport and excimer photon emission within the experimental apparatus. The observed excimer

  17. Enabling laser applications in microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Brune, Jan; Fechner, Burkhard; Senczuk, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    In this experimental study, we report on high-pulse-energy excimer laser drilling into high-performance build-up films which are pivotal in microelectronics manufacturing. Build-up materials ABF-GX13 from Ajinomoto as well as ZS-100 from Zeon Corporation are evaluated with respect to their viability for economic excimer laser-based micro-via formation. Excimer laser mask imaging projection at laser wavelengths of 193, 248 and 308 nm is employed to generate matrices of smaller micro-vias with different diameters and via pitches. High drilling quality is achievable for all excimer laser wavelengths with the fastest ablation rates measured in the case of 248 and 308 nm wavelengths. The presence of glass fillers in build-up films as in the ABF-GX13 material poses some limitations to the minimum achievable via diameter. However, surprisingly good drilling results are obtainable as long as the filler dimensions are well below the diameter of the micro-vias. Sidewall angles of vias are controllable by adjusting the laser energy density and pulse number. In this work, the structuring capabilities of excimer lasers in build-up films as to taper angle variations, attainable via diameters, edge-stop behavior and ablation rates will be elucidated.

  18. Direct generation of superhydrophobic microstructures in metals by UV laser sources in the nanosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Jose L.; Jagdheesh, R.; García-Ballesteros, J. J.

    2016-02-01

    The current availability of new advanced fiber and DPSS lasers with characteristic pulse lengths ranging from ns to fs has provided a unique frame in which the development of laser-generated microstructures has been made possible for very diverse kinds of materials and applications. At the same time, the development of the appropriate laser-processing workstations granting the appropriate precision and repeatability of the respective laser interaction processes in line with the characteristic dimension features required in the microstructured samples has definitively consolidated laser surface microstructuring as a reference domain, nowadays, unavoidable for the design and manufacturing of current use microsystem: MEMSs, fluidic devices, advanced sensors, biomedical devices and instruments, etc., are all among the most well-known developments of the micromanufacturing technology. Completing the broad spectrum of applications developed mostly involving the generation of geometrical features on a subtrate with specific functional purposes, a relatively new, emerging class of laser-microstructuring techniques is finding an important niche of application in the generation of physically structured surfaces (particularly of metallic materials) with specific contact, friction, and wear functionalities, for whose generation the concourse of different types of laser sources is being found as an appropriate tool. In this paper, the application of laser sources with emission in the UV and at ns time regime to the surface structuration of metal surfaces (specifically Al) for the modification of their wettability properties is described as an attractive application basis for the generation of self-cleaning properties of extended functional surfaces. Flat aluminum sheets of thickness 100 μm were laser machined with ultraviolet laser pulses of 30 ns with different laser parameters to optimize the process parameters. The samples produced at the optimum conditions with respect to

  19. Endothermic singlet fission is hindered by excimer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dover, Cameron B.; Gallaher, Joseph K.; Frazer, Laszlo; Tapping, Patrick C.; Petty, Anthony J.; Crossley, Maxwell J.; Anthony, John E.; Kee, Tak W.; Schmidt, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    Singlet fission is a process whereby two triplet excitons can be produced from one photon, potentially increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Endothermic singlet fission is desired for a maximum energy-conversion efficiency, and such systems have been considered to form an excimer-like state with multiexcitonic character prior to the appearance of triplets. However, the role of the excimer as an intermediate has, until now, been unclear. Here we show, using 5,12-bis((triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl)tetracene in solution as a prototypical example, that, rather than acting as an intermediate, the excimer serves to trap excited states to the detriment of singlet-fission yield. We clearly demonstrate that singlet fission and its conjugate process, triplet-triplet annihilation, occur at a longer intermolecular distance than an excimer intermediate would impute. These results establish that an endothermic singlet-fission material must be designed to avoid excimer formation, thus allowing singlet fission to reach its full potential in enhancing photovoltaic energy conversion.

  20. Endothermic singlet fission is hindered by excimer formation.

    PubMed

    Dover, Cameron B; Gallaher, Joseph K; Frazer, Laszlo; Tapping, Patrick C; Petty, Anthony J; Crossley, Maxwell J; Anthony, John E; Kee, Tak W; Schmidt, Timothy W

    2018-03-01

    Singlet fission is a process whereby two triplet excitons can be produced from one photon, potentially increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Endothermic singlet fission is desired for a maximum energy-conversion efficiency, and such systems have been considered to form an excimer-like state with multiexcitonic character prior to the appearance of triplets. However, the role of the excimer as an intermediate has, until now, been unclear. Here we show, using 5,12-bis((triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl)tetracene in solution as a prototypical example, that, rather than acting as an intermediate, the excimer serves to trap excited states to the detriment of singlet-fission yield. We clearly demonstrate that singlet fission and its conjugate process, triplet-triplet annihilation, occur at a longer intermolecular distance than an excimer intermediate would impute. These results establish that an endothermic singlet-fission material must be designed to avoid excimer formation, thus allowing singlet fission to reach its full potential in enhancing photovoltaic energy conversion.

  1. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; ...

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~10 6 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10 7 laser pulses, wemore » also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  2. Modulated method for efficient, narrow-bandwidth, laser Compton X-ray and gamma-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    A method of x-ray and gamma-ray generation via laser Compton scattering uses the interaction of a specially-formatted, highly modulated, long duration, laser pulse with a high-frequency train of high-brightness electron bunches to both create narrow bandwidth x-ray and gamma-ray sources and significantly increase the laser to Compton photon conversion efficiency.

  3. A microchip laser source with stable intensity and frequency used for self-mixing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Sun, Liqun

    2016-05-01

    We present a stable 40 × 40 × 30 mm(3) Laser-diode (LD)-pumped-microchip laser (ML) laser source used for self-mixing interferometry which can measure non-cooperative targets. We simplify the coupling process of pump light in order to make its polarization and intensity robust against environmental disturbance. Thermal frequency stabilization technology is used to stabilize the laser frequency of both LD and ML. Frequency stability of about 1 × 10(-7) and short-term intensity fluctuation of 0.1% are achieved. The theoretical long-term displacement accuracy limited by frequency and intensity fluctuation is about 10 nm when the measuring range is 0.1 m. The line-width of this laser is about 25 kHz corresponding to 12 km coherent length and 6 km measurement range for self-mixing interference. The laser source has been equipped to a self-mixing interferometer, and it works very well.

  4. Laser driven plasmas based incoherent x-ray sources at PALS and ELI Beamlines (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlová, Michaela

    2017-05-01

    We will present data on a various X-ray production schemes from laser driven plasmas at the PALS Research Center and discuss the plan for the ELI Beamlines project. One of the approaches, how to generate ultrashort pulses of incoherent X-ray radiation, is based on interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with solid or liquid targets. So-called K-alpha source depending on used targets emits in hard X-ray region from micrometric source size. The source exhibits sufficient spatial coherence to observe phase contrast. Detailed characterization of various sources including the x-ray spectrum and the x-ray average yield along with phase contrast images of test objects will be presented. Other method, known as laser wakefield electron acceleration (LWFA), can produce up to GeV electron beams emitting radiation in collimated beam with a femtosecnond pulse duration. This approach was theoretically and experimentally examined at the PALS Center. The parameters of the PALS Ti:S laser interaction were studied by extensive particle-in-cell simulations with radiation post-processors in order to evaluate the capabilities of our system in this field. The extensions of those methods at the ELI Beamlines facility will enable to generate either higher X-ray energies or higher repetition rate. The architecture of such sources and their considered applications will be proposed.

  5. Compact quasi-monoenergetic photon sources from laser-plasma accelerators for nuclear detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Rykovanov, Sergey; Matlis, Nicholas H.; Steinke, Sven; Vay, Jean-Luc; Esarey, Eric H.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Nakamura, Kei; Quiter, Brian J.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim P.

    2015-05-01

    Near-monoenergetic photon sources at MeV energies offer improved sensitivity at greatly reduced dose for active interrogation, and new capabilities in treaty verification, nondestructive assay of spent nuclear fuel and emergency response. Thomson (also referred to as Compton) scattering sources are an established method to produce appropriate photon beams. Applications are however restricted by the size of the required high-energy electron linac, scattering (photon production) system, and shielding for disposal of the high energy electron beam. Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) produce GeV electron beams in centimeters, using the plasma wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense laser. Recent LPA experiments are presented which have greatly improved beam quality and efficiency, rendering them appropriate for compact high-quality photon sources based on Thomson scattering. Designs for MeV photon sources utilizing the unique properties of LPAs are presented. It is shown that control of the scattering laser, including plasma guiding, can increase photon production efficiency. This reduces scattering laser size and/or electron beam current requirements to scale compatible with the LPA. Lastly, the plasma structure can decelerate the electron beam after photon production, reducing the size of shielding required for beam disposal. Together, these techniques provide a path to a compact photon source system.

  6. QCL seeded, ns-pulse, multi-line, CO2 laser oscillator for laser-produced-plasma extreme-UV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Krzysztof Michał; Suganuma, Takashi; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Saitou, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Sumitani, Akira; Endo, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Successful merger of state-of-the-art, semiconductor quantum-cascade lasers (QCL), with the mature CO2 laser technology, resulted in a delivery of highly-desired qualities of CO2 laser output that were not available previously without much effort. These qualities, such as multi-line operation, excellent spectro-temporal stability and pulse waveform control, became available from a single device of moderate complexity. This paper describes the operation principle and the unique properties of the solid{state seeded CO2 laser, invented for an application in laser-produced-plasma (LPP), extreme-UV (EUV) light source.

  7. Electrically switchable organo–inorganic hybrid for a white-light laser source

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jui-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chia-Rong; Lee, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a spectrally discrete white-light laser device based on a photonic bandgap hybrid, which is composed of a soft photonic crystal; i.e., a layer of dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), sandwiched between two imperfect but identical, inorganic multilayer photonic crystals. With a sole optical pump, a mono-, bi-, or tri-chromatic laser can be obtained and, through the soft photonic crystal regulated by an applied voltage, the hybrid possesses electrical tunability in laser wavelength. The three emitted spectral peaks originate from two bandedges of the CLC reflection band as well as one of the photonic defect modes in dual-mode lasing. Thanks to the optically bistable nature of CLC, such a white-light laser device can operate in quite an energy-saving fashion. This technique has potential to fulfill the present mainstream in the coherent white-light source. PMID:27324219

  8. Laser plasma source for soft x-ray imaging in CIOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhongxing; Wang, Zhanshan; Xu, Fengming; Lu, Junxia; Chen, Xingdan

    1997-10-01

    We previously reported 18 nm Schwartzchild microscope by using a laser plasma source. Now we are planning to improve our Nd:YAG laser system and the multilayers mirror of Mo/B4C instead of Mo/Si, for producing shorter wavelength radiation and developing a new soft x-ray imaging setup. To compress the pulse width of the laser, the SBS (Stimulated Brillouin Scattering) cells is available. To short the wavelength to the 4th harmonics of the laser with high as 0.4 J energy per pulse, the hindrance is the low, less than 20%, nonlinear conversion efficiency. In this paper we are going to briefly introduce the new method to overcome the hindrance and the configuration of the SBS cell.

  9. Table-top laser-driven ultrashort electron and X-ray source: the CIBER-X source project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardeau-Montaut, Jean-Pierre; Kiraly, Bélà; Girardeau-Montaut, Claire; Leboutet, Hubert

    2000-09-01

    We report on the development of a new laser-driven table-top ultrashort electron and X-ray source, also called the CIBER-X source . X-ray pulses are produced by a three-step process which consists of the photoelectron emission from a thin metallic photocathode illuminated by 16 ps duration laser pulses at 213 nm. The e-gun is a standard Pierce diode electrode type, in which electrons are accelerated by a cw electric field of ˜11 MV/m up to a hole made in the anode. The photoinjector produces a train of 70-80 keV electron pulses of ˜0.5 nC and 20 A peak current at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The electrons are then transported outside the diode along a path of 20 cm length, and are focused onto a target of thullium by magnetic fields produced by two electromagnetic coils. X-rays are then produced by the impact of electrons on the target. Simulations of geometrical, electromagnetic fields and energetic characteristics of the complete source were performed previously with the assistance of the code PIXEL1 also developed at the laboratory. Finally, experimental electron and X-ray performances of the CIBER-X source as well as its application to very low dose imagery are presented and discussed. source Compacte d' Impulsions Brèves d' Electrons et de Rayons X

  10. Laser Angioplasty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The principal method of dealing with coronary artery blockage is bypass surgery. A non-surgical alternative available to some patients is balloon angioplasty. For several years, medical researchers have been exploring another alternative that would help a wider circle of patients than the balloon treatment and entail less risk than bypass surgery. A research group is on the verge of an exciting development: laser angioplasty with a 'cool' type of laser, called an excimer laser, that does not damage blood vessel walls and offers non-surgical cleansing of clogged arteries with extraordinary precision. The system is the Dymer 200+ Excimer Laser Angioplasty System, developed by Advanced Intraventional Systems. Used in human clinical tests since 1987, the system is the first fully integrated 'cool' laser capable of generating the requisite laser energy and delivering the energy to target arteries. Thirteen research hospitals in the U.S. have purchased Dymer 200+ systems and used them in clinical trials in 121 peripheral and 555 coronary artery cases. The success rate in opening blocked coronary arteries is 85 percent, with fewer complications than in balloon angioplasty. Food and Drug Administration approval for the system is hoped for in the latter part of 1990. * Advanced Intraventional Systems became Spectranetics in 1994 and discontinued the product.

  11. A Flexible 360-Degree Thermal Sound Source Based on Laser Induced Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Ying; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Tian, He; Xie, Qian-Yi; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    A flexible sound source is essential in a whole flexible system. It’s hard to integrate a conventional sound source based on a piezoelectric part into a whole flexible system. Moreover, the sound pressure from the back side of a sound source is usually weaker than that from the front side. With the help of direct laser writing (DLW) technology, the fabrication of a flexible 360-degree thermal sound source becomes possible. A 650-nm low-power laser was used to reduce the graphene oxide (GO). The stripped laser induced graphene thermal sound source was then attached to the surface of a cylindrical bottle so that it could emit sound in a 360-degree direction. The sound pressure level and directivity of the sound source were tested, and the results were in good agreement with the theoretical results. Because of its 360-degree sound field, high flexibility, high efficiency, low cost, and good reliability, the 360-degree thermal acoustic sound source will be widely applied in consumer electronics, multi-media systems, and ultrasonic detection and imaging. PMID:28335239

  12. Electron Microscopic and Spectroscopic Characterization for Soot Source Differentiation by Laser Derivatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Chethan K.

    Combustion produced soot is highly variable with nanostructure and chemistry dependent upon combustion conditions and fuel. Previous studies have shown soot nanostructure to be dependent upon the source via quantification of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanostructural parameters. In principle this permits identification of the soot source and its contribution to any particular receptor site. Yet many structural aspects are subtle, and the chemistry of lamellae is unaddressed for reasons of poorly resolved or differentiated nanostructure and insufficient sample quantity for traditional analytical methods. This characterization gap then leads to the formative question prompting this study: how best to bring out small differences in nanostructure and other seemingly subtle differences in chemistry? A process of pulsed laser annealing is proposed to highlight compositional and structural differences thereby distinctively and uniquely identifying the source of the soot. The operative premise being that small variations in nanostructure and unresolved differences in chemistry exist and are specific to the particular combustion process. The overall goal is then to develop the laser-based heating as an analytical tool by identifying the process conditions and operational parameters for optimal derivatization. Specific objectives directed towards achieving this goal include: 1) Identifying optimal laser operational parameters for derivatization. 2) Defining the dependence upon nanostructure and molecular composition using model soots while also identifying variability and range of outcomes. 3) Demonstrating differentiation upon combustion derived soots from real engines, e.g. diesel, gasoline, gas-turbines, combustors, etc. 4) Applying image processing algorithms to the laser heated soots to quantify and differentiate the transformed carbon nanostructures. For laser derivatization, a sample-housing chamber was custom built using a

  13. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.

    1997-03-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power CO2 laser may be used for prototype LSS demonstration. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps CO2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 Å) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ˜1019photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to the e-beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 1022 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact "table-top" LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible.

  14. On the use of a laser ablation as a laboratory seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengyi; Brito, Daniel; Diaz, Julien; Zhang, Deyuan; Poydenot, Valier; Bordes, Clarisse; Garambois, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Mimic near-surface seismic imaging conducted in well-controlled laboratory conditions is potentially a powerful tool to study large scale wave propagations in geological media by means of upscaling. Laboratory measurements are indeed particularly suited for tests of theoretical modellings and comparisons with numerical approaches. We have developed an automated Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) platform, which is able to detect and register broadband nano-scale displacements on the surface of various materials. This laboratory equipment has already been validated in experiments where piezoelectric transducers were used as seismic sources. We are currently exploring a new seismic source in our experiments, a laser ablation, in order to compensate some drawbacks encountered with piezoelectric sources. The laser ablation source is considered to be an interesting ultrasound wave generator since the 1960s. It was believed to have numerous potential applications such as the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and the measurements of velocities and attenuations in solid samples. We aim at adapting and developing this technique into geophysical experimental investigations in order to produce and explore complete micro-seismic data sets in the laboratory. We will first present the laser characteristics including its mechanism, stability, reproducibility, and will evaluate in particular the directivity patterns of such a seismic source. We have started by applying the laser ablation source on the surfaces of multi-scale homogeneous aluminum samples and are now testing it on heterogeneous and fractured limestone cores. Some other results of data processing will also be shown, especially the 2D-slice V P and V S tomographic images obtained in limestone samples. Apart from the experimental records, numerical simulations will be carried out for both the laser source modelling and the wave propagation in different media. First attempts will be done to compare quantitatively the

  15. Optical Riblet Sensor: Beam Parameter Requirements for the Probing Laser Source.

    PubMed

    Tschentscher, Juliane; Hochheim, Sven; Brüning, Hauke; Brune, Kai; Voit, Kay-Michael; Imlau, Mirco

    2016-03-30

    Beam parameters of a probing laser source in an optical riblet sensor are studied by considering the high demands on a sensors' precision and reliability for the determination of deviations of the geometrical shape of a riblet. Mandatory requirements, such as minimum intensity and light polarization, are obtained by means of detailed inspection of the optical response of the riblet using ray and wave optics; the impact of wavelength is studied. Novel measures for analyzing the riblet shape without the necessity of a measurement with a reference sample are derived; reference values for an ideal riblet structure obtained with the optical riblet sensor are given. The application of a low-cost, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO₄ laser pointer sufficient to serve as a reliable laser source in an appropriate optical riblet sensor is discussed.

  16. Optical Riblet Sensor: Beam Parameter Requirements for the Probing Laser Source

    PubMed Central

    Tschentscher, Juliane; Hochheim, Sven; Brüning, Hauke; Brune, Kai; Voit, Kay-Michael; Imlau, Mirco

    2016-01-01

    Beam parameters of a probing laser source in an optical riblet sensor are studied by considering the high demands on a sensors’ precision and reliability for the determination of deviations of the geometrical shape of a riblet. Mandatory requirements, such as minimum intensity and light polarization, are obtained by means of detailed inspection of the optical response of the riblet using ray and wave optics; the impact of wavelength is studied. Novel measures for analyzing the riblet shape without the necessity of a measurement with a reference sample are derived; reference values for an ideal riblet structure obtained with the optical riblet sensor are given. The application of a low-cost, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser pointer sufficient to serve as a reliable laser source in an appropriate optical riblet sensor is discussed. PMID:27043567

  17. Degradation sources in GaAs--AlGaAs double-heterostructure lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, R.; Nakashima, H.; Kishino, S.

    1975-07-01

    Several sources of the dark-line defect (DLD) that causes rapid degradation of GaAs-AlGaAs double-heterostructure (DH) lasers have been identified by means of photoluminescence (PL) topography and a laser-induced degradation technique. All the sources that have been identified correspond to crystal defects, among which dark-spot defects (DSD) that are native to as-grown wafers are found to be most important. The growth and propagation processes of DLDs and DSDs have also been investigated. These defects are found to be highly mobile under high-intensity laser pumping. The correlation between the substrate dislocations and the DSDs has been examined by etching and x-ray topography.more » Although most DSDs correspond to etch-pits in epilayers, they are not always correlated with substrate dislocations. (auth)« less

  18. Single-mode 140 nm swept light source realized by using SSG-DBR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Yoshimura, R.; Kato, K.; Ishii, H.; Kano, F.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Ohbayashi, K.; Oohashi, H.

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode and fast wavelength swept light source by using Superestrucuture grating distributed Bragg reflector (SSG-DBR) lasers for use in optical frequency-domain reflectometry optical coherence tomography. The SSG-DBR lasers provide single-mode operation resulting in high coherency. Response of the wavelength tuning is very fast; several nanoseconds, but there was an unintentional wavelength drift resulting from a thermal drift due to injecting tuning current. The dri1ft unfortunately requires long time to converge; more than a few milliseconds. For suppressing the wavelength drift, we introduced Thermal Drift Compensation mesa (TDC) parallel to the laser mesa with the spacing of 20 μm. By controlling TDC current to satisfy the total electric power injected into both the laser mesa and the TDC mesa, the thermal drift can be suppressed. In the present work, we fabricated 4 wavelength's kinds of SSG-DBR laser, which covers respective wavelength band; S-band (1496-1529 nm), C-band (1529-1564 nm), L --band (1564-1601 nm), and L +-band (1601-1639). We set the frequency channel of each laser with the spacing 6.25 GHz and 700 channels. The total frequency channel number is 2800 channels (700 ch × 4 lasers). We simultaneously operated the 4 lasers with a time interval of 500 ns/channel. A wavelength tuning range of more than 140 nm was achieved within 350 μs. The output power was controlled to be 10 mW for all channels. A single-mode, accurate, wide, and fast wavelength sweep was demonstrated with the SSG-DBR lasers having TDC mesa structure for the first time.

  19. Miniaturized pulsed laser source for time-domain diffuse optics routes to wearable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sieno, Laura; Nissinen, Jan; Hallman, Lauri; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Contini, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Kostamovaara, Juha; Mora, Alberto Dalla

    2017-08-01

    We validate a miniaturized pulsed laser source for use in time-domain (TD) diffuse optics, following rigorous and shared protocols for performance assessment of this class of devices. This compact source (12×6 mm2) has been previously developed for range finding applications and is able to provide short, high energy (˜100 ps, ˜0.5 nJ) optical pulses at up to 1 MHz repetition rate. Here, we start with a basic level laser characterization with an analysis of suitability of this laser for the diffuse optics application. Then, we present a TD optical system using this source and its performances in both recovering optical properties of tissue-mimicking homogeneous phantoms and in detecting localized absorption perturbations. Finally, as a proof of concept of in vivo application, we demonstrate that the system is able to detect hemodynamic changes occurring in the arm of healthy volunteers during a venous occlusion. Squeezing the laser source in a small footprint removes a key technological bottleneck that has hampered so far the realization of a miniaturized TD diffuse optics system, able to compete with already assessed continuous-wave devices in terms of size and cost, but with wider performance potentialities, as demonstrated by research over the last two decades.

  20. Miniaturized pulsed laser source for time-domain diffuse optics routes to wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Di Sieno, Laura; Nissinen, Jan; Hallman, Lauri; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Contini, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Kostamovaara, Juha; Mora, Alberto Dalla

    2017-08-01

    We validate a miniaturized pulsed laser source for use in time-domain (TD) diffuse optics, following rigorous and shared protocols for performance assessment of this class of devices. This compact source (12×6  mm2) has been previously developed for range finding applications and is able to provide short, high energy (∼100  ps, ∼0.5  nJ) optical pulses at up to 1 MHz repetition rate. Here, we start with a basic level laser characterization with an analysis of suitability of this laser for the diffuse optics application. Then, we present a TD optical system using this source and its performances in both recovering optical properties of tissue-mimicking homogeneous phantoms and in detecting localized absorption perturbations. Finally, as a proof of concept of in vivo application, we demonstrate that the system is able to detect hemodynamic changes occurring in the arm of healthy volunteers during a venous occlusion. Squeezing the laser source in a small footprint removes a key technological bottleneck that has hampered so far the realization of a miniaturized TD diffuse optics system, able to compete with already assessed continuous-wave devices in terms of size and cost, but with wider performance potentialities, as demonstrated by research over the last two decades. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).