Science.gov

Sample records for excitation source generated

  1. Power Control of New Wind Power Generation System with Induction Generator Excited by Voltage Source Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori

    This paper investigates advantages of new combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronic equipment. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantage of it is impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets is sometimes used. In proposed scheme, the diode rectifier is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc voltage, while only the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from the voltage source converter (VSC). This means that the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the system with synchronous generator. Simulation study to investigate the control strategy of proposed system is performed. The results show the reduction of the VSC rating is prospective.

  2. Ultraviolet laser excitation source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Hohl, F.

    1980-01-01

    A new intense ultraviolet light source has been developed from an array of hypocycloidal pinch (HCP) devices. The basic unit of the array is constructed with three disk electrodes and is capable of producing dense plasmas at temperatures up to 10,000,000 K. Very high input power levels to the array are possible without significantly shortening its useful life, in strong contrast with conventional xenon flashlamps. The new light source, when operated with Ar and Xe gas mixtures at high pressures (approximately 5 x 10 to the 4th Pa), produced a light output of over 100 MW in the near-UV spectral range and successfully pumped an iodine photodissociation laser at 1.315 microns. A xenon recombination laser at 2.027 microns was also pumped in the HCP array.

  3. Loss of excitation of synchronous generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krištof, Vladimír; Mešter, Marián

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of study of loss-of-excitation phenomena simulations. Loss of excitation is a very common fault in synchronous machine operating and can be caused by short circuit of the field winding, unexpected field breaker open or loss-of-excitation relay mal-operation. According to the statistic [1], the generator failure due to loss-of-excitation accounts for 69% of all generator failures. There has been concern over possible incorrect operation of the relay when operating the generator in the under-excited region, during stable transient swings and during major system disturbances. This article can serve as inputs for system operators in preparation of operation area or protection relaying area.

  4. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOEpatents

    Ballou, Nathan E.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

  5. Fifth generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-12-01

    Coherent light sources are one of the most fundamental research tools in biology, technology and in other areas. Synchrotron light source consists of a few basic parts: energy source - which is an electron beam accelerator, energy converter between electron and photon beams - which is an undulator, and photon user experimental lines. Each of these parts is separately a complex system, which is currently a subject to fast technological development. Future light sources of the fifth generation are based on completely new solutions of these fundamental parts, in comparison with the sources of the previous generations. Energy source is a new generation laser - plasma accelerator with electrical field in the area of multiple GV/m. A miniature undulator is tested in the MEMS technology from new materials. Classical light beam lines, vacuum, and difficult for management and beam distribution, change their meaning in the case of availability of miniature undulators positioned immediately at or even inside the experimental stations. After an introduction concerning the light sources of the previous generations, the article shows current research efforts on the mentioned key components of the fifth generation light sources. In some cases this is a continuation and modernization of the previous technologies, in the majority it is a brave endeavour to apply completely new technologies, like laser - plasma acceleration.

  6. How to Generate Student Excitement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2005-01-01

    To successfully generate student excitement in science, teachers need to be flexible regarding their curriculums. Students also need to be open to novel, hands-on experiences. This article describes a student teacher (ST) who taught a science unit on "Our Environment." She had already prepared her lesson and unit thoroughly but she changed the…

  7. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  8. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  9. Love waves excited by a moving source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    The study analyzes the characteristics of surface Love waves excited by the moment of an oscillating torsional force with a point of action that moves uniformly and rectilinearly along the free flat boundary of a medium having the structure of a "layer on a half-space." The azimuthal-angular distribution of the amplitude and Doppler shift in frequency of the wave modes is studied as a function of the motion velocity of a vibrating source and the parameters of the medium.

  10. On Diversity of Configurations Generated by Excitable Cellular Automata with Dynamical Excitation Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Excitable cellular automata with dynamical excitation interval exhibit a wide range of space-time dynamics based on an interplay between propagating excitation patterns which modify excitability of the automaton cells. Such interactions leads to formation of standing domains of excitation, stationary waves and localized excitations. We analyzed morphological and generative diversities of the functions studied and characterized the functions with highest values of the diversities. Amongst other intriguing discoveries we found that upper boundary of excitation interval more significantly affects morphological diversity of configurations generated than lower boundary of the interval does and there is no match between functions which produce configurations of excitation with highest morphological diversity and configurations of interval boundaries with highest morphological diversity. Potential directions of future studies of excitable media with dynamically changing excitability may focus on relations of the automaton model with living excitable media, e.g. neural tissue and muscles, novel materials with memristive properties and networks of conductive polymers.

  11. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skliros, Dimitri P.; Copeland, Edmund J.; Saffin, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES). In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators) in general toroidal compactifications E =R D - 1 , 1 ×T Dcr - D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge fields and torsion). We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a ;reverse engineering; method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string) duality in string theory.

  12. 49. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EXCITER GENERATOR "c" LOCATED UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EXCITER GENERATOR "c" LOCATED UNDER CONTROL ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF TURBINE HALL. THE EXCITER GENERATORS PROVIDED DIRECT CURRENT TO THE FIELD COILS OF THE MAIN GENERATORS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Milliwatt generator heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mershad, E. A.

    1984-03-01

    All LANL hardware requirements were met during the reporting period as scheduled. Lot 12 of T-111 alloy sheet and Lot 8 of yttrium platelets were procured to meet future WR production needs. The GEND IP schedule requirements for 49 fueled MC2893 heat sources were met. Pressure burst surveillance activities continued to be conducted in accordance with SNLA document BB328965. Final results of evaluations of two pressure-burst capsules were normal, suggesting that the corresponding heat sources should be in good condition. The hardware production period ended with an overall hardware process yield of 98.4%.

  14. 51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, switchboard with overhead field rheostat (above). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  15. 12. GENERATING UNIT NO. 2, WITH (LR) CONTINUOUS CURRENT EXCITER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. GENERATING UNIT NO. 2, WITH (L-R) CONTINUOUS CURRENT EXCITER, ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR, AND TURBINE GOVERNOR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Powerhouse, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  16. Photoacoustic chemical sensing: layered systems and excitation source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Logan S.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a versatile tool that is well suited for the ranged interrogation of layered samples. We have previously demonstrated standoff photoacoustic (PA) chemical detection of condensed phase samples at one meter distance using an interferometric sensing platform. Current research investigates layered solid samples constructed from a thin layer of energetic material deposited on a substrate. The PA signal from the system, as measured by the interferometer, changes based on the differing optical and mechanical properties of the substrate. This signal variance must be understood in order to develop a sensor capable of detecting trace quantities of hazardous materials independent of the surface. Optical absorption and modal excitation are the two biggest sources of PA signal generated in the sample/substrate system. Finally, the mode of operation of the excitation source is investigated. Most PA sensing paradigms use a quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating in either pulsed or modulated CW mode. We will discuss photoacoustic signal generation with respect to these different operating modes.

  17. Photothermal measurements using a localized excitation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamodt, L. C.; Murphy, J. C.

    1981-08-01

    Optical-beam deflection (OBD) photothermal imaging uses spatially localized excitation to observe spatial variations in the sample surface temperature. This paper analyzes OBD signals produced by localized excitation in terms of three-dimensional thermal diffusion in the sample and in the fluid region in contact with the sample. The dependence of the signals on the local optical absorption coefficient, on gas/sample thermal properties, on modulation frequency, and on the probe/excitation beam radii are discussed with special attention being given to determining the spatial resolution possible for OBD imaging. A criterion for photothermal ''saturation'' appropriate to localized optical absorption is developed. Finally, a new variant of the OBD technique is introduced, which is especially adapted to studying optical and thermal boundaries in the plane of the sample. Some comparisons between theory and experiment are provided which illustrate transverse thermal diffusion.

  18. Photoacoustic generation by multiple picosecond pulse excitation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tan; Wang, Jing; Petrov, Georgi I; Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Zhang, Hao F

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that higher amplitude of ultrashort laser induced photoacoustic signal can be achieved by multiple-pulse excitation when the temporal duration of the pulse train is less than the minimum of the medium's thermal relaxation time and stress relaxation time. Thus, improved signal-to-noise ratio can thus be attained through multiple-pulse excitation while minimizing the energy of each pulse. The authors used a Michelson interferometer together with a picoseconds laser system to introduce two 6 ps pulses separated by a controllable delay by introducing a path length difference between the two arms of the interferometer. The authors then employed a series of three interferometers to create a pulse train consisting of eight pulses. The average pulse energy was 11 nJ and the temporal span of the pulse train was less than 1 ns. The detected peak-to-peak amplitude of the multiple-pulse induced photoacoustic waves were linearly dependent on the number of pulses in the pulse train and such a linearity held for different optical absorption coefficients. The signal-to-noise ratio improved when the number of pulses increased. Moreover, nonlinear effects were not detected and no photoacoustic saturation effect was observed. The authors have shown that multiple-pulse excitation improves the signal-to-noise ratio through an accumulated energy deposition effect. This method is invaluable for photoacoustic measurements that require ultrashort laser pulses with minimized pulse energy to avoid laser damage.

  19. VIEW OF #2 EXCITER WITH GOVERNOR ON GENERATOR FLOOR. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF #2 EXCITER WITH GOVERNOR ON GENERATOR FLOOR. THIS EXCITER IS DRIVEN BY A HORIZONTAL KAPLAN WHEEL LOCATED ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF WALL IN WHEELROOM. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  20. A focused electric spark source for non-contact stress wave excitation in solids.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaowei; Zhu, Jinying; Haberman, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    A focused electric spark is used as a non-contact acoustic source to excite stress waves in solids. The source consists of an electric spark source located at the near focus of an ellipsoidal reflector that focuses the acoustic disturbance generated by the spark source to the far focal point. Experimental studies using both contact and non-contact sensors indicate that the source has the capability to excite the Rayleigh surface wave and impact-echo mode (S1-zero-group-velocity Lamb mode) in a 250 mm thick concrete slab and to enable fully air-coupled testing of concrete specimens.

  1. 50. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATOR EXCITER AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATOR EXCITER AND CONTROL MECHANISM - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  2. 53. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATOR, EXCITER, GOVERNOR, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATOR, EXCITER, GOVERNOR, AND CONTROL MECHANISM - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  3. 4. POWERHOUSE, GROUND LEVEL, GENERATOR AND EXCITER LOCATED IN POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. POWERHOUSE, GROUND LEVEL, GENERATOR AND EXCITER LOCATED IN POWERHOUSE AT GROUND LEVEL LOOKING NORTHEAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  4. 47. INTERIOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING EXCITERS AND BASES FOR GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING EXCITERS AND BASES FOR GENERATOR UNITS. EEC print no. N-C-01-00033, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. View of governor, water wheel, generator #1 and exciter (west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of governor, water wheel, generator #1 and exciter (west end of Childs Powerhouse). Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  6. Role of Excited States In High-order Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S.; Camp, S.; Descamps, D.; Comby, A.; Wanie, V.; Petit, S.; Légaré, F.; Schafer, K. J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Catoire, F.; Mairesse, Y.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the role of excited states in high-order harmonic generation by studying the spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. We show that the population of excited states can lead either to direct extreme ultraviolet emission through free induction decay or to the generation of high-order harmonics through ionization from these states and recombination to the ground state. By using the attosecond lighthouse technique, we demonstrate that the high-harmonic emission from excited states is temporally delayed by a few femtoseconds compared to the usual harmonics, leading to a strong nonadiabatic spectral redshift.

  7. Role of Excited States In High-order Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, S; Camp, S; Descamps, D; Comby, A; Wanie, V; Petit, S; Légaré, F; Schafer, K J; Gaarde, M B; Catoire, F; Mairesse, Y

    2016-11-11

    We investigate the role of excited states in high-order harmonic generation by studying the spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. We show that the population of excited states can lead either to direct extreme ultraviolet emission through free induction decay or to the generation of high-order harmonics through ionization from these states and recombination to the ground state. By using the attosecond lighthouse technique, we demonstrate that the high-harmonic emission from excited states is temporally delayed by a few femtoseconds compared to the usual harmonics, leading to a strong nonadiabatic spectral redshift.

  8. Synchronous Generators with Superconductive Excitation Windings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-27

    Rozyci English pages: 23 B Distribution/_____ Source-: Gospodarka Paliwami i Energia , Vol. 24, aAvailability Cadeg Nr.4(263), 1976, pp. 12-17 1i vi~aIIand...1I. In industrially advanced countries the unit power of synchronous gene - rators doubles over a period of 7 to 10 years. It can be assumed that if the...not occur in a superconductor. However, in the loss balance one must take into account the expenditure of energy required for abstraction of heat

  9. Self Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.

    2004-11-01

    Traditional wind turbines are equipped with induction generators. Induction generators are preferred because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate. Because reactive power varies with the output power, the terminal voltage at the generator may become too low to compensate the induction generator. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation, are important aspects of wind generation. In this paper, we will show the interactions among the induction generator, capacitor compensation, power system network, and magnetic saturations and examine the cause of resonance conditions and self-excitation.

  10. 21. DETAIL TO SOUTHWEST OF HORIZONTAL EXCITER GENERATOR (LEFT) DRIVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL TO SOUTHWEST OF HORIZONTAL EXCITER GENERATOR (LEFT) DRIVEN BY DOUBLE-RUNNER PELTON WHEEL (RIGHT), FORMER OLD POWERHOUSE GENERATOR FLOOR - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

  11. Generation of finite wave trains in excitable media

    PubMed Central

    Yochelis, A.; Knobloch, E.; Xie, Y.; Qu, Z.; Garfinkel, A.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of excitable media is of paramount importance in the development of new applications, ranging from biology to physics. To this end, we identify and describe a qualitative property of excitable media that enables us to generate a sequence of traveling pulses of any desired length, using a one-time initial stimulus. The wave trains are produced by a transient pacemaker generated by a one-time suitably tailored spatially localized finite amplitude stimulus, and belong to a family of fast pulse trains. A second family, of slow pulse trains, is also present. The latter are created through a clumping instability of a traveling wave state (in an excitable regime) and are inaccessible to single localized stimuli of the type we use. The results indicate that the presence of a large multiplicity of stable, accessible, multi-pulse states is a general property of simple models of excitable media. PMID:21572974

  12. Radiative excitation of molecules near powerful compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rees, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Barvainis & Antonucci searched for and failed to detect CO J = 1 goes to 0 absorption from the obscuring torus in the nearby powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A. We show that a plausible explanation for the lack of absorption (assuming that the ionization parameter within the torus is low enough for the gas to be molecular) is that radiative excitation of the CO molecules by the nonthermal radio continuum increases the excitation temperature of the lower rotational levels substantially, reducing the optical depths. The excitation temperature may approach the brightness temperature of the radio source at high enough flux-to-density ratios. Heating of the gas by the nonthermal excitation may also be important. We discuss the region of parameter space in which this excitation mechanism will be important and the implications for observations of obscuring tori.

  13. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  14. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

  15. Compact ion source neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali; Chang-Hasnain, Constance; Rangelow, Ivo; Kwan, Joe

    2015-10-13

    A neutron generator includes a conductive substrate comprising a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips and a source of an atomic species to introduce the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips. A target placed apart from the substrate is voltage biased relative to the substrate to ionize and accelerate the ionized atomic species toward the target. The target includes an element capable of a nuclear fusion reaction with the ionized atomic species to produce a one or more neutrons as a reaction by-product.

  16. 5. POWERHOUSE, GROUND LEVEL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST GENERATOR, GOVERNOR, EXCITER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. POWERHOUSE, GROUND LEVEL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST GENERATOR, GOVERNOR, EXCITER AND KILOWATT-HOUR RECORDER LOCATED IN POWERHOUSE AT GROUND LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  17. 5. Exciter generator (right of center) and its governor stand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Exciter generator (right of center) and its governor stand (left of center), oil-pressure tank (left background), and brake stand (right foreground). View to west. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, Dam & Power House, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  18. 26. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 4 showing exciter, generator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 4 showing exciter, generator, air duct, water wheel housing, gate valve control and bypass, needle valve control, deflector motor, and bearing in background. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  19. View of water wheel, generator #3 and exciter (at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of water wheel, generator #3 and exciter (at east end of Childs Powerhouse) on a single shaft. In foreground the governor and shut-off valve are visible. Looking southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  20. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-29

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10(-4) only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system.

  1. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; de Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10-4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system.

  2. Localised excitation of a single photon source by a nanowaveguide

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Manceau, Mathieu; Rahbany, Nancy; Sallet, Vincent; De Vittorio, Massimo; Carbone, Luigi; Glorieux, Quentin; Bramati, Alberto; Couteau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, integrated photonics is a key technology in quantum information processing (QIP) but achieving all-optical buses for quantum networks with efficient integration of single photon emitters remains a challenge. Photonic crystals and cavities are good candidates but do not tackle how to effectively address a nanoscale emitter. Using a nanowire nanowaveguide, we realise an hybrid nanodevice which locally excites a single photon source (SPS). The nanowire acts as a passive or active sub-wavelength waveguide to excite the quantum emitter. Our results show that localised excitation of a SPS is possible and is compared with free-space excitation. Our proof of principle experiment presents an absolute addressing efficiency ηa ~ 10−4 only ~50% lower than the one using free-space optics. This important step demonstrates that sufficient guided light in a nanowaveguide made of a semiconductor nanowire is achievable to excite a single photon source. We accomplish a hybrid system offering great potentials for electrically driven SPSs and efficient single photon collection and detection, opening the way for optimum absorption/emission of nanoscale emitters. We also discuss how to improve the addressing efficiency of a dipolar nanoscale emitter with our system. PMID:26822999

  3. Excitation and dynamics of liquid tin micrometer droplet generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinger, B.; Abhari, R. S.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of capillary breakup-based droplet generation are studied for an excitation system based on a tunable piezoelectrically actuated oscillating piston, which generates acoustic pressure waves at the dispenser nozzle. First, the non-ideal pressure boundary conditions of droplet breakup are measured using a fast response pressure probe. A structural analysis shows that the axial modes of the excitation system are the main reasons for the resonance peaks in the pressure response. Second, a correlation between the nozzle inlet pressure and the droplet timing jitter is established with the help of experiments and a droplet formation model. With decreasing wave number, the growth rate of the main excitation decreases, while noise contributions with wave numbers with higher growth rates lead to a non-deterministic structure of the droplet train. A highly coherent and monodisperse droplet stream is obtained when the excitation system is tuned to generate high acoustic pressures at the desired operation frequency and when the noise level on the jet is limited. The jet velocity, hence droplet spacing for a set frequency is then adjusted by varying the reservoir pressure, according to the trade-off between lowest wave number and acceptable timing jitter.

  4. Low-Pressure Microwave Excited Microplasmas as Sources of VUV Photons and Metastable Excited Atoms: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark; Cooley, James; Xue, Jun; Urdhal, Randall

    2011-10-01

    Low pressure plasmas sustained in rare gases and rare gas mixtures can be efficient sources of VUV light from resonant optical transitions. Many applications would benefit from having small, inexpensive sources of plasma produced VUV light. To address this need, microwave wave excited microplasma sources in rare gases operating at pressures of <10 Torr are being developed. The microplasmas are sustained in ceramic cavities having cross sectional dimensions of <=1 mm, excited by a split-ring resonator antenna operated at 2.45 GHz. Power deposition is a few W. Hybrid computer modeling of microplasmas sustained in Ar has been performed to develop scaling laws for increasing the efficiency of VUV light production. The model includes a Monte Carlo simulation for the electron energy distribution and for radiation transport. Results from those studies will be discussed for plasma densities, electron energy distributions, VUV light production and excited state densities as a function of power, pressure and aspect ratio of the microplasma cavities. Modeling results will be compared to laser absorption spectroscopy of Ar excited state densities. Work supported by Agilent Technologies.

  5. An Optically Excited Metastable Krypton Atomic Beam Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Michael; Orzel, Chad

    2006-05-01

    We report the construction of an optically excited metastable krypton atomic beam source. Ground-state Kr atoms are excited to the 5s[3/2]1 state by a 123 nm photon from a krypton resonance line lamp, then to the 5p[5/2]2 state by an 819 nm photon from a diode laser. From the 5p[3/2]2 state, they spontaneously decay into the 5s[3/2]2 (^3P2) metastable state with 77% probability. We characterize the source using both resonant fluorescence at 811 nm and a surface ionization detector. The source will be used to load a Kr* magneto-optical trap for Kr background evaluation by Atom Trap Trace Analysis.

  6. Excited singlet molecular O2 (1Δg) is generated enzymatically from excited carbonyls in the dark

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Camila M.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Massari, Júlio; Ronsein, Graziella E.; Martinez, Glaucia R.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Cadet, Jean; Sies, Helmut; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Bechara, Etelvino J. H.; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian tissues, ultraweak chemiluminescence arising from biomolecule oxidation has been attributed to the radiative deactivation of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1Δg)] and electronically excited triplet carbonyl products involving dioxetane intermediates. Herein, we describe evidence of the generation of O2 (1Δg) in aqueous solution via energy transfer from excited triplet acetone. This involves thermolysis of 3,3,4,4-tetramethyl-1,2-dioxetane, a chemical source, and horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-methylpropanal, as an enzymatic source. Both sources of excited carbonyls showed characteristic light emission at 1,270 nm, directly indicative of the monomolecular decay of O2 (1Δg). Indirect analysis of O2 (1Δg) by electron paramagnetic resonance using the chemical trap 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine showed the formation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. Using [18O]-labeled triplet, ground state molecular oxygen [18O2 (3Σg-)], chemical trapping of 18O2 (1Δg) with disodium salt of anthracene-9,10-diyldiethane-2,1-diyl disulfate yielding the corresponding double-[18O]-labeled 9,10-endoperoxide, was detected through mass spectrometry. This corroborates formation of O2 (1Δg). Altogether, photoemission and chemical trapping studies clearly demonstrate that chemically and enzymatically nascent excited carbonyl generates 18O2 (1Δg) by triplet-triplet energy transfer to ground state oxygen O2 (3Σg−), and supports the long formulated hypothesis of O2 (1Δg) involvement in physiological and pathophysiological events that might take place in tissues in the absence of light. PMID:25087485

  7. Self-Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.

    2005-11-01

    Traditional wind turbines are commonly equipped with induction generators because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate; capacitor compensation is often used. Because the level of required reactive power varies with the output power, the capacitor compensation must be adjusted as the output power varies. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation are important aspects of wind generation that may result in self-excitation and higher harmonic content in the output current. This paper examines the factors that control these phenomena and gives some guidelines on how they can be controlled or eliminated.

  8. Dynamic Loads Generation for Multi-Point Vibration Excitation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    A random-force method has been developed to predict dynamic loads produced by rocket-engine random vibrations for new rocket-engine designs. The method develops random forces at multiple excitation points based on random vibration environments scaled from accelerometer data obtained during hot-fire tests of existing rocket engines. This random-force method applies random forces to the model and creates expected dynamic response in a manner that simulates the way the operating engine applies self-generated random vibration forces (random pressure acting on an area) with the resulting responses that we measure with accelerometers. This innovation includes the methodology (implementation sequence), the computer code, two methods to generate the random-force vibration spectra, and two methods to reduce some of the inherent conservatism in the dynamic loads. This methodology would be implemented to generate the random-force spectra at excitation nodes without requiring the use of artificial boundary conditions in a finite element model. More accurate random dynamic loads than those predicted by current industry methods can then be generated using the random force spectra. The scaling method used to develop the initial power spectral density (PSD) environments for deriving the random forces for the rocket engine case is based on the Barrett Criteria developed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1963. This invention approach can be applied in the aerospace, automotive, and other industries to obtain reliable dynamic loads and responses from a finite element model for any structure subject to multipoint random vibration excitations.

  9. The self-excited homopolar generator. I - Theory and electrical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcham, A. J.; Prothero, D. H.; Brooks, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe two types of self-excited homopolar generators which can be used to power an electromagnetic railgun. These are the single-rotating and contrarotating versions of the machine. A method is described for modeling both types of machine, and typical results are presented showing the performance of the overall system (generator and railgun). Results are also given for the performance of the current collection system and the stray field profile of both types of machine. The self-excited air-cored homopolar generator is shown to be an ideal power source for an electromagnetic railgun. It is capable of high overall efficiency, typically 40 percent for the complete system (generator and railgun), and gives an acceptably low peak/mean acceleration in the barrel. The single-rotating generator is much the simpler configuration mechanically, but the contrarotating machine has the advantage of eliminating the net torque reaction on the stator.

  10. Traveling excitable waves successively generated in a nonlinear proliferation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagiri, Kenta; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2009-05-01

    We study the dynamics of spatiotemporal pattern formation in a nonlinear proliferation system (e.g., cell division supported on a field of nutrition), in which the mechanism of activation and its self-suppression is simultaneously implemented. This dynamical model has been numerically realized with coupled cellular automata (CA), and various long-standing spatiotemporal patterns have been observed. Among others, a successive generation of traveling waves by implanting a spot of cells onto the field consisting of nutrition and activator is particularly interesting. This takes place despite the fact that the present reaction network has a stable fixed point and therefore autonomous temporal oscillatory does not exist in the mean field. Indeed, the reaction-diffusion equation method (RD) applied to this network reproduces only a single excitable wave and soon falls into a steady state (a fixed point) without the following propagating waves. This system, having a stable fixed point, is an excitable system of different kind from the FitzHugh-Nagumo model in that it can generate a pulse propagating outwards by adding only a single cell onto it from outside the system. The present excitation upon dropping a cell is amplified to macroscopic level by a hidden dynamics of oscillation between the activation and its self-suppression. A pulse thus generated is propagated in space time with the help of diffusion. Through a precise comparison between CA and RD, it is found that a very small amount of residue of the cells and activators, which are left unburned in the stochastic treatment of reactions by the CA, becomes a seed to excite the system and generate the next pulse wave. This newly born wave can leave another seed of reaction in the field after its propagation. Based on this analysis, we account for the appearance of other patterns observed. A possible control of these patterns by varying the spatial distribution of initial concentration of the relevant agents such as

  11. Development of a brushless HTS exciter for a 10 kW HTS synchronous generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Min; Jiang, Zhenan; Pantoja, Andres E.; Bernardo, Patrick; Park, Minwon; Buckley, Robert G.

    2016-02-01

    HTS synchronous generators, in which the rotor coils are wound from high-T c superconducting wire, are exciting attention due to their potential to deliver very high torque and power densities. However, injection of the large DC currents required by the HTS rotor coils presents a technical challenge. In this paper we discuss the development of a brushless HTS exciter which operates across the cryostat wall to inject a superconducting DC current into the rotor coil circuit. This approach fundamentally alters the thermal load upon the cryogenic system by removing the need for thermally inefficient normal-conducting current leads. We report results from an experimental laboratory device and show that it operates as a constant voltage source with an effective internal resistance. We then discuss the design of a prototype HTS-PM exciter based on our experimental device, and describe its integration with a demonstration HTS generator. This 200 RPM, 10 kW synchronous generator comprises eight double pancake HTS rotor coils which are operated at 30 K, and are energised to 1.5 T field through the injection of 85 A per pole. We show how this excitation can be achieved using an HTS-PM exciter consisting of 12 stator poles of 12 mm YBCO coated-conductor wire and an external permanent magnet rotor. We demonstrate that such an exciter can excite the rotor windings of this generator without forming a thermal-bridge across the cryostat wall. Finally, we provide estimates of the thermal load imposed by our prototype HTS-PM exciter on the rotor cryostat. We show that duty cycle operation of the device ensures that this heat load can be minimised, and that it is substantially lower than that of equivalently-rated conventional current leads.

  12. Circle diagram approach for self excited induction generators

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Carlin, P.W.; Osgood, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    When an induction generator is connected to a utility line supply, the voltage and frequency at the terminal output are the same as the voltage and frequency of the utility line supply to which the generator is connected. The reactive power needed by the induction generator is supplied by the utility and the real power is returned to the utility. With a fixed frequency dictated by the utility, the induction machine starts generating above the synchronous speed. The range of speed is also limited by the slip. At a very high slip, the copper losses increases as the current increases. On the other hand, in an isolated operation, the induction generator operates in self-excitation mode. It determines its own voltage and frequency. These two quantities depend on the size of the AC capacitor, the induction machine parameters, the electrical load, and the speed of the generator. The operating speed of the induction generator is extended without generating excessive loss. This paper presents an analytical study by utilizing a circle diagram to illustrate the operation of the induction generator in isolated operation. The steady-state calculations are presented to support the analysis. Possible applications for the system in variable-speed generation are currently under investigation. The output can be directly connected to equipment that is non-sensitive to the frequency (a heater, battery charger, etc.) or can be connected to a converter to get a fixed-frequency AC output.

  13. 124. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 2; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 2; looking east. This unit includes a Pelton wheel manufactured by Allis Chalmers, no. 262, type C-1, Breaking Horse Power 600, head 370 feet, and 360 rpm; and a General Electric DC generator, no. 1357610, type MPC 8, 340-350 form LD, 1360 amp, 350 rpm, 250 volts (no load), 250 volts (full load). Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. Extreme events in excitable systems and mechanisms of their generation.

    PubMed

    Ansmann, Gerrit; Karnatak, Rajat; Lehnertz, Klaus; Feudel, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    We study deterministic systems, composed of excitable units of FitzHugh-Nagumo type, that are capable of self-generating and self-terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics without the influence of noise or parameter change. These deviations are rare, short-lasting, and recurrent and can therefore be regarded as extreme events. Employing a range of methods we analyze dynamical properties of the systems, identifying features in the systems' dynamics that may qualify as precursors to extreme events. We investigate these features and elucidate mechanisms that may be responsible for the generation of the extreme events.

  15. Line-source excitation of realistic conformal metasurface cloaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padooru, Yashwanth R.; Yakovlev, Alexander B.; Chen, Pai-Yen; Alù, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Following our recently introduced analytical tools to model and design conformal mantle cloaks based on metasurfaces [Padooru et al., J. Appl. Phys. 112, 034907 (2012)], we investigate their performance and physical properties when excited by an electric line source placed in their close proximity. We consider metasurfaces formed by 2-D arrays of slotted (meshes and Jerusalem cross slots) and printed (patches and Jerusalem crosses) sub-wavelength elements. The electromagnetic scattering analysis is carried out using a rigorous analytical model, which utilizes the two-sided impedance boundary conditions at the interface of the sub-wavelength elements. It is shown that the homogenized grid-impedance expressions, originally derived for planar arrays of sub-wavelength elements and plane-wave excitation, may be successfully used to model and tailor the surface reactance of cylindrical conformal mantle cloaks illuminated by near-field sources. Our closed-form analytical results are in good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations, up to sub-wavelength distances from the metasurface, confirming that mantle cloaks may be very effective to suppress the scattering of moderately sized objects, independent of the type of excitation and point of observation. We also discuss the dual functionality of these metasurfaces to boost radiation efficiency and directivity from confined near-field sources.

  16. Excitable Oscillators as Models for Central Pattern Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, David; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Avis H.

    Chains of coupled oscillators have been used to model the central pattern generator for locomotion in lamprey1,2,3, as well as electrical waves in the mammalian small intestine4. In this paper we examine a variation on the equations for the coupled oscillators used in a number of these papers. In particular, we investigate the effect of modeling the uncoupled oscillators as excitable. The motivation behind this is that it may provide some insight into the electrical activity of the lamprey spinal cord with brainstem attached5

  17. Generation of Vibrationally Excited HCP from a Stable Synthetic Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Alexander W.; Jiang, Jun; Erickson, Trevor J.; Womack, Carrie; Nava, Matthew; Cummins, Christopher; Field, Robert W.

    2015-06-01

    HCP belongs to a class of reactive small molecules with much interest to spectroscopists. It bears certain similarities to HCN, including a strong {A}(bent) - {X}(linear) ultraviolet transition, associated with the HCP-HPC isomerization pathway. HCP has traditionally been generated by the in situ reaction of PH_3 and acetylene. In this talk, we will discuss a recently developed synthetic precursor molecule, 1,1-((triphenylphosphoranylidene)methyl)-9,10-phosphanoanthracene. At temperatures above 200 degrees Celsius, this precursor is thought to release HCP in a vibrationally excited state. We will present preliminary spectra on this system obtained by LIF and chirped pulse millimeter wave spectroscopy.

  18. Titanium: Sapphire laser as an excitation source in two-photon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.G.; Wachter, E.A.; Armas, M.; Seaton, C.

    1997-02-01

    The passively mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser provides new opportunities for acquiring two-photon spectral data in the near-infrared, a region not commonly accessible to synchronously pumped dye lasers. This source generates pulses with peak powers near 100 kW at average powers over 1 W and is capable of yielding two-photon signals roughly two orders of magnitude larger than is possible with synchronously pumped dye lasers. However, the multimode output of this laser exhibits significant temporal and spectral pulse profile variations as the laser wavelength is tuned. As a consequence, peak powers of the titanium:sapphire laser can vary independently from average power across the tuning range. This wavelength dependence, coupled with the quadratic dependence of the two-photon signal upon the instantaneous power of the laser, precludes simple average power correction of nonlinear spectral band shapes. Here, we investigate the key properties of the titanium:sapphire laser as an excitation source for two-photon spectroscopy. We also identify a chemical reference suitable for obtaining source-corrected excitation spectra in the near-infrared using a double-beam, ratiometric approach; this is based on a source-independent two-photon excitation spectrum for the laser dye coumarin-480 that has been obtained with a single-frequency titanium:sapphire laser. From these data, correction factors are generated for correction of multimode source data. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  19. 126. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 1; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 1; looking northwest. This unit includes a Pelton wheel manufactured by Allis Chalmers, no. 261, type C-1, Breaking Horse Power 600, head 370 feet, and 360 rpm; a General Electric DC generator, no. 1357609, type MPC 8, 340-350 form LD, 1360 amp, 350 rpm, 250 volts (no load), 250 volts (full load); and a General Electric induction motor, no. 4228863, type KT-4424, 20-500-360 form A, 60 cycles, 45 amp, 6,600 volts, 500 horsepower, continuous 50-degree centigrade rise, 350 rpm with full-load. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. Scaling of motor cortical excitability during unimanual force generation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Monica A; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2009-10-01

    During performance of a unimanual force generation task primary motor cortices (M1s) experience clear functional changes. Here, we evaluated the way in which M1s interact during parametric increases in right wrist flexion force in healthy volunteers. We measured the amplitude and the slope of motor evoked potentials (MEP) recruitment curves to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the left and right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and during 10%, 30% and 70% of maximal wrist flexion force. At rest, no differences were observed in the amplitude and slope of MEP recruitment curves in the left and right FCR muscles. With increasing right wrist flexion force, MEP amplitudes increased in both FCR muscles, with larger amplitudes in the right FCR. We found a significant correlation between the left and right MEP amplitudes across conditions. The slope of right and left FCR MEP recruitment curve was significantly steeper at 70% of force compared to rest and 10% of force. A significant correlation between the slope of left and right FCR MEP amplitudes was found at 70% of force only. Our results indicate a differential scaling of excitability in the corticospinal system controlling right and left FCR muscles at increasing levels of unimanual force generation. Specifically, these data highlights that at strong levels of unimanual force the increases in motor cortical excitability with increasing TMS stimulus intensities follow a similar pattern in both M1s, while at low levels of force they do not.

  1. Excitation threshold for subharmonic generation from contrast microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Amit; Sarkar, Kausik

    2011-01-01

    Six models of contrast microbubbles are investigated to determine the excitation threshold for subharmonic generation. The models are applied to a commercial contrast agent; its characteristic parameters according to each model are determined using experimentally measured ultrasound attenuation. In contrast to the classical perturbative result, the minimum threshold for subharmonic generation is not always predicted at excitation with twice the resonance frequency; instead it occurs over a range of frequencies from resonance to twice the resonance frequency. The quantitative variation of the threshold with frequency depends on the model and the bubble radius. All models are transformed into a common interfacial rheological form, where the encapsulation is represented by two radius dependent surface properties—effective surface tension and surface dilatational viscosity. Variation of the effective surface tension with radius, specifically having an upper limit (resulting from strain softening or rupture of the encapsulation during expansion), plays a critical role. Without the upper limit, the predicted threshold is extremely large, especially near the resonance frequency. Having a lower limit on surface tension (e.g., zero surface tension in the buckled state) increases the threshold value at twice the resonance frequency, in some cases shifting the minimum threshold toward resonance. PMID:22087942

  2. Properties of microplasmas excited by microwaves for VUV photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, James E.; Urdahl, Randall; Xue, Jun; Denning, Mark; Tian, Peng; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-12-01

    Microplasma sources typically take advantage of pd (pressure  ×  size) scaling by increasing pressure to operate at dimensions as small as tens of microns. In many applications, low pressure operation is desirable, which makes miniaturization difficult. In this paper, the characteristics of low pressure microplasma sources excited by microwave power are discussed based on results from experimental and computational studies. The intended application is production of VUV radiation for chemical analysis, and so emphasis in this study is on the production of resonant excited states of rare gases and radiation transport. The systems of interest operate at a few to 10 Torr in Ar and He/Ar mixtures with cavity dimensions of hundreds of microns to 1 mm. Power deposition is a few watts which produces fractional ionization of about 0.1%. We found that production of VUV radiation from argon microplasmas at 104.8 nm and 106.7 nm saturates as a function of power deposition due to a quasi-equilibrium that is established between the electron temperature (that is not terribly sensitive to power deposition) and the population of the Ar(4s) manifold.

  3. Generating Coherent Phonons and Spin Excitations with Ultrafast Light Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Recent work on the generation of coherent low-lying excitations by ultrafast laser pulses will be reviewed, emphasizing the microscopic mechanisms of light-matter interaction. The topics covered include long-lived phonons in ZnO [C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Men'endez and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev.B 71, 205211 (2005)], squeezed magnons [J. Zhao, A. V. Bragas, D. J. Lockwood and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107203 (2004)], spin- and charge-density fluctuations [J. M. Bao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 236601 (2004)] and cyclotron resonance [J. K. Wahlstrand, D. M. Wang, P. Jacobs, J. M. Bao, R. Merlin, K. W. West and L. N. Pfeiffer, AIP Conference Proceedings 772 (2005), p. 1313] in GaAs quantum wells. In addition, unpublished results on surface -avoiding phonons in GaAs-AlAs superlattices [M. Trigo et al., unpublished] and magnons in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs [D. M. Wang et al., unpublished] will be discussed. It will also be shown that frequencies can be measured using pump-probe techniques with a precision comparable to that of Brillouin scattering. It is now widely accepted that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is (often but not always) the mechanism responsible for the coherent coupling. Results will be presented showing that SRS is described by two separate tensors, one of which accounts for the excitation-induced modulation of the susceptibility, and the other one for the dependence of the amplitude of the oscillation on the light intensity [T. E. Stevens, J. Kuhl and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144304 (2002)]. These tensors have the same real component, associated with impulsive coherent generation, but different imaginary parts. If the imaginary term dominates, that is, for strongly absorbing substances, the mechanism for two-band processes becomes displacive in nature, as in the DECP (displacive excitation of coherent phonons) model. It will be argued that DECP is not a separate mechanism, but a particular case of SRS. In the final part of the talk, an

  4. Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.

  5. Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations.

    PubMed

    Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.

  6. Advanced nanoparticle generation and excitation by lasers in liquids.

    PubMed

    Barcikowski, Stephan; Compagnini, Giuseppe

    2013-03-07

    Today, nanoparticles are widely implemented as functional elements onto surfaces, into volumes and as nano-hybrids, resulting for example in bioactive composites and biomolecule conjugates. However, only limited varieties of materials compatible for integration into advanced functional materials are available: nanoparticles synthesized using conventional gas phase processes are often agglomerated into micro powders that are hard to re-disperse into functional matrices. Chemical synthesis methods often lead to impurities of the nanoparticle colloids caused by additives and precursor reaction products. In the last decade, laser ablation and nanoparticle generation in liquids has proven to be a unique and efficient technique to generate, excite, fragment, and conjugate a large variety of nanostructures in a scalable and clean manner. This editorial briefly highlights selected recent advancements and critical aspects in the field of pulsed laser-based nanoparticle generation and manipulation, including exemplary strategies to harvest the unique properties of the laser-generated nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine and catalysis. The presented critical aspects address future assignments such as size control and scale-up.

  7. Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence as an Excitation Source in the Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Carla M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Pinto da Silva, Luís

    2016-08-04

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is known for its limited number of side effects, and requires light, oxygen and photosensitizer. However, PDT is limited by poor penetration of light into deeply localized tissues, and the use of external light sources is required. Thus, researchers have been studying ways to improve the effectiveness of this phototherapy and expand it for the treatment of the deepest cancers, by using chemiluminescent or bioluminescent formulations to excite the photosensitizer by intracellular generation of light. The aim of this Minireview is to give a précis of the most important general chemi-/bioluminescence mechanisms and to analyze several studies that apply them for PDT. These studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing chemi-/bioluminescence as excitation source in the PDT of cancer, besides combining new approaches to overcome the limitations of this mode of treatment.

  8. Electricity generation by intermittent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2015-08-01

    This paper deals with the production of electricity by wind and photovoltaic (PV) power mostly in Germany. The German data of 2012 are scaled to a 100% supply of the electricity consumption by renewable sources. Wind and PV power are mixed in a ratio which minimises back-up energy. The 100%, optimal mix data are used to identify the powers to be installed, the accumulating backup and surplus energies, the size of storage to replace thermal back-up power, the possibilities of demand-side-management, and the specific CO2 production. The benefits of using an EU-wide field of renewable energies (RES) instead of the national one are quantified and the interconnection capacities specified. Finally, the costs of installing RES are discussed. The conclusion is that a 100% supply by RES may not be meaningful. Large-scale supply by RES alone has deficiencies and it will remain a major task for science and technology to either improve such a system or find a suitable replacement.

  9. Two-color beam generation based on wakefield excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, S.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S.

    2016-05-01

    Several beam manipulation methods have been studied and experimentally tested to generate two-color photon beams in free electron laser facilities to accommodate the user requests. We propose to use the interaction of the beam with an oscillating longitudinal wakefield source to obtain a suitable electron beam structure. The bunch generates two subpulses with different energies and delayed in time passing through a magnetic chicane after its longitudinal phase space has been modulated by the wakefield source. According to this approach the power of the emitted radiation is not degraded compared to the monochromatic beam, and the setup in the machine is quite simple because the bunch is manipulated only in the high energy section, where it is more rigid. We present the design applied to SwissFEL. We identified the parameters and the corresponding range of tunability of the time and energy separation among the two subbunches.

  10. Self-excited induction generator for variable-speed wind turbine generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E; Gregory, B; Broad, D

    1996-10-01

    When an induction generator is connected to a utility bus, the voltage and frequency at the terminal of the generator are the same as the voltage and frequency of the utility. The reactive power needed by the induction generator is supplied by the utility and the real power is returned to the utility. The rotor speed varies within a very limited range, and the reactive power requirement must be transported through a long line feeder, thus creating additional transmission losses. The energy captured by a wind turbine can be increased if the rotor speed can be adjusted to follow wind speed variations. For small applications such as battery charging or water pumping, a stand alone operation can be implemented without the need to maintain the output frequency output of the generator. A self- excited induction generator is a good candidate for a stand alone operation where the wind turbine is operated at variable speed. Thus the performance of the wind turbine can be unproved. In this paper, we examine a self-excited induction generator operated in a stand alone mode. A potential application for battery charging is given. The output power of the generator will be controlled to improve the performance of the wind turbine.

  11. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  12. Waste tank deflagration source generation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Paddleford, D.F.; Thomas, J.K.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the models employed and analyses performed to estimate the source terms which would result from deflagrations in waste storage and processing tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It should be noted that SRS waste tank deflagrations are very low probability events. The three main source generation mechanisms associated with waste tank deflagrations are: (1) entrainment from the liquid surface, (2) vaporization from the liquid surface, and (3) solids fire ignited as a result of the deflagration. The results of this work show that entrainment would be the dominant source term generation mode for cases where the liquid waste solution level is near the vent path. Vaporization would be the dominant mode for cases where the liquid level is lower. The maximum vaporization source term is approximately an order of magnitude less than that maximum entrainment source term. The source term associated with a solids fire would be insignificant in comparison.

  13. Source-corrected two-photon excited fluorescence measurements between 700 and 880 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.G.; Wachter, E.A.; Lytle, F.E.; Armas, M.; Seaton, C.

    1998-04-01

    Passively mode-locked titanium:sapphire (Ti:S) lasers are capable of generating a high-frequency train of transform-limited subpico-second pulses, producing peak powers near 10{sup 5}thinspW at moderate average powers. The low energy per pulse ({lt}20 nJ) permits low fluence levels to be maintained in tightly focused beams, reducing the possibility of saturating fluorescence transitions. These properties, combined with a wavelength tunability from approximately 700 nm to 1 {mu}m, provide excellent opportunities for studying simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). However, pulse formation is very sensitive to a variety of intracavity parameters, including group velocity dispersion compensation, which leads to wavelength-dependent pulse profiles as the wavelength is scanned. This wavelength dependence can seriously distort band shapes and apparent peak heights during collection of two-photon spectral data. Since two-photon excited fluorescence is proportional to the product of the peak and average powers, it is not possible to obtain source-independent spectra by using average power correction schemes alone. Continuous-wave, single-mode lasers can be used to generate source-independent two-photon data, but these sources are four to five orders of magnitude less efficient than the mode-locked Ti:S laser and are not practical for general two-photon measurements. Hence, a continuous-wave, single-mode Ti:S laser has been used to collect a source-independent excitation spectrum for the laser dye Coumarin 480. This spectrum may be used to correct data collected with multimode sources; this possibility is demonstrated by using a simple ratiometric method to collect accurate TPE spectra with the mode-locked Ti:S laser. An approximate value of the two-photon cross section for Coumarin 480 is also given. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  14. Next Generation Accelerator-Based Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn Williams

    2005-06-26

    We discuss the physics which is driving the evolution of new sources for microscopy and spectroscopy. A new generation of sources, called energy recovery linacs or ERL’s, will be described and reviewed with particular emphasis on the examples of imaging and spectroscopic applications enabled by them.

  15. Shifted excitation resonance Raman difference spectroscopy using a microsystem light source at 488 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, M.; Sowoidnich, K.; Schmidt, H.; Sumpf, B.; Erbert, G.; Kronfeldt, H.-D.

    2010-04-01

    Experimental results in shifted excitation resonance Raman difference spectroscopy (SERRDS) at 488 nm will be presented. A novel compact diode laser system was used as excitation light source. The device is based on a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser as a pump light source and a nonlinear frequency doubling using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide crystal. All elements including micro-optics are fixed on a micro-optical bench with a footprint of 25 mm × 5 mm. An easy temperature management of the DFB laser and the crystal was used for wavelength tuning. The second harmonic generation (SHG) provides an additional suppression of the spontaneous emission. Raman spectra of polystyrene demonstrate that no laser bandpass filter is needed for the Raman experiments. Resonance-Raman spectra of the restricted food colorant Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5, E 102) in distilled water excited at 488 nm demonstrate the suitability of this light source for SERRDS. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 μmol.l-1 of E102 enables SERRDS at 488 nm for trace detection in e.g. food safety control as an appropriate contactless spectroscopic technique.

  16. Generation of Antibunched Light by Excited Molecules in a Microcavity Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMartini, F.; DiGiuseppe, G.; Marrocco, M.

    1996-01-01

    The active microcavity is adopted as an efficient source of non-classical light. By this device, excited by a mode-locked laser at a rate of 100 MHz, single-photons are generated over a single field mode with a nonclassical sub-poissonian distribution. The process of adiabatic recycling within a multi-step Franck-Condon molecular optical-pumping mechanism, characterized in our case by a quantum efficiency very close to one, implies a pump self-regularization process leading to a striking n-squeezing effect. By a replication of the basic single-atom excitation process a beam of quantum photon (Fock states) can be created. The new process represents a significant advance in the modern fields of basic quantum-mechanical investigation, quantum communication and quantum cryptography.

  17. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .

  18. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  19. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

    2008-02-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development.

  20. Effect of excitation methods on electrical characteristics of fully superconducting generator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muta, Itsuya; Tsukiji, H.; Handa, N.; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Mukai, E.

    1994-07-01

    We have fabricated a fully superconducting generator of 20 kW class, in which both of armature and field coils are made of superconductors. Two different types of excitation system were selected and tested: a brushless excitation method consisted of 'magnetic flux pump' and a conventional excitation method equipped with collector ring and brushes. The paper describes the experimental machine model and the comparison of test results between the two different types of excitation methods.

  1. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  2. Analysis of series compensated self excited induction generators for autonomous power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S.; Vaishya, M.O.; Prabhu, C.; Tandon, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents an analytical technique to predict the steady state performance of a 3-phase self excited induction generator for autonomous power generation which employs both shunt and series capacitors for voltage regulation. The system is modeled using an equivalent circuit which interconnects the machine, capacitor and the load. Simplifying appropriate loop equations of the circuit leads to two non-linear equations in the unknown quantities namely the saturated magnetizing reactance and the generated per unit frequency for the given machine parameters, speed, capacitors and load. A numerical method based on newton Raphson technique is developed to solve these equations to predict the performance. The validity of the method is evaluated by computing predicted and experimental results on a laboratory machine. Performance results under different operating conditions are detailed, to study the effect of series compensation in practical realization of such systems.

  3. High power visible light emitting diodes as pulsed excitation sources for biomedical photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas J; Beard, Paul C

    2016-04-01

    The use of visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) as an alternative to Q-switched lasers conventionally used as photoacoustic excitation sources has been explored. In common with laser diodes, LEDs offer the advantages of compact size, low cost and high efficiency. However, laser diodes suitable for pulsed photoacoustic generation are typically available only at wavelengths greater than 750nm. By contrast, LEDs are readily available at visible wavelengths below 650nm where haemoglobin absorption is significantly higher, offering the prospect of increased SNR for superficial vascular imaging applications. To demonstrate feasibility, a range of low cost commercially available LEDs operating in the 420-620nm spectral range were used to generate photoacoustic signals in physiologically realistic vascular phantoms. Overdriving with 200ns pulses and operating at a low duty cycle enabled pulse energies up to 10µJ to be obtained with a 620nm LED. By operating at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) in order to rapidly signal average over many acquisitions, this pulse energy was sufficient to generate detectable signals in a blood filled tube immersed in an Intralipid suspension (µs' = 1mm(-1)) at a depth of 15mm using widefield illumination. In addition, a compact four-wavelength LED (460nm, 530nm, 590nm, 620nm) in conjunction with a coded excitation scheme was used to illustrate rapid multiwavelength signal acquisition for spectroscopic applications. This study demonstrates that LEDs could find application as inexpensive and compact multiwavelength photoacoustic excitation sources for imaging superficial vascular anatomy. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

  4. High power visible light emitting diodes as pulsed excitation sources for biomedical photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Thomas J.; Beard, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The use of visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) as an alternative to Q-switched lasers conventionally used as photoacoustic excitation sources has been explored. In common with laser diodes, LEDs offer the advantages of compact size, low cost and high efficiency. However, laser diodes suitable for pulsed photoacoustic generation are typically available only at wavelengths greater than 750nm. By contrast, LEDs are readily available at visible wavelengths below 650nm where haemoglobin absorption is significantly higher, offering the prospect of increased SNR for superficial vascular imaging applications. To demonstrate feasibility, a range of low cost commercially available LEDs operating in the 420-620nm spectral range were used to generate photoacoustic signals in physiologically realistic vascular phantoms. Overdriving with 200ns pulses and operating at a low duty cycle enabled pulse energies up to 10µJ to be obtained with a 620nm LED. By operating at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) in order to rapidly signal average over many acquisitions, this pulse energy was sufficient to generate detectable signals in a blood filled tube immersed in an Intralipid suspension (µs’ = 1mm−1) at a depth of 15mm using widefield illumination. In addition, a compact four-wavelength LED (460nm, 530nm, 590nm, 620nm) in conjunction with a coded excitation scheme was used to illustrate rapid multiwavelength signal acquisition for spectroscopic applications. This study demonstrates that LEDs could find application as inexpensive and compact multiwavelength photoacoustic excitation sources for imaging superficial vascular anatomy. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI. PMID:27446652

  5. A computer test bench for checking and adjusting the automatic regulators of generator excitation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dovganyuk, I. Ya.; Labunets, I. A.; Plotnikova, T. V.; Sokur, P. V.

    2008-05-15

    A computer test bench for testing and debugging natural samples of the automatic excitation regulation systems of generators, the protection units and the power part of the excitation system is described. The bench includes a personal computer with specialized input-output circuit boards for analog and digital signals, and enables the time and cost involved in developing and checking control systems to be reduced considerably. The program employed operates in real time and enables the automatic excitation regulators of synchronous generators and generators with longitudinal-transverse excitation in a specific power system to be adjusted.

  6. Infrasound Generation from the Source Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, L. A.; Schramm, K. A.; Jones, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the acoustic and infrasound source generation mechanisms from underground explosions is of great importance for usage of this unique data type in non-proliferation activities. One of the purposes of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a series of underground explosive shots at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), is to gain an improved understanding of the generation and propagation of physical signals, such as seismic and infrasound, from the near to far field. Two of the SPE shots (SPE-1 and SPE-4') were designed to be small "Green's Function" sources with minimal spall or permanent surface deformation. We analyze infrasound data collected from these two shots at distances from ~300 m to ~1 km and frequencies up to 20 Hz. Using weather models based upon actual observations at the times of these sources, including 3-D variations in topography, temperatures, pressures, and winds, we synthesized full waveforms using Sandia's moving media acoustic propagation simulation suite. Several source mechanisms were simulated and compared and contrasted with observed waveforms using full waveform source inversion. We will discuss results of these source inversions including the relative roll of spall from these small explosions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  8. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

    1998-04-28

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

  9. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; McCollister, Daryl R.

    1998-01-01

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

  10. Training Course for Power Operating Personnel. Lesson No. 6: Alternating-Current Generator Excitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Denver, CO. Engineering and Research Center.

    Subjects covered in this text are controlling the hydroelectric generator, generator excitation, basic principles of direct current generation, direction of current flow, basic alternating current generator, alternating and direct current voltage outputs, converting alternating current to direct current, review of the basic generator and…

  11. Microwave generated plasma light source apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ito, H.; Kodama, H.; Komura, H.; Minowa, Y.

    1985-02-05

    A microwave generated plasma light source including a microwave generator, a microwave cavity having a light reflecting member forming at least a portion of the cavity, and a member transparent to light and opaque to microwaves disposed across an opening of the cavity opposite the feeding opening through which the microwave generator is coupled. An electrodeless discharge bulb is disposed at a position in the cavity such that the cavity operates as a resonant cavity at least when the bulb is emitting light. In the bulb is encapsulated at least one discharge light emissive substance. The bulb has a shape and is sufficiently small that the bulb acts substantially as a point light source.

  12. Tunable THz radiation source from dielectric loaded waveguide excited by nonrelativistic electron bunch trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiwei; He, Zhigang; Lu, Yalin; Huang, Ruixuan; Liu, Weihao; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate a tunable narrow-band THz radiation. In this scheme, a train of laser pulses with THz repetition rate is used to drive a photocathode direct current (DC) gun, leading to the emission of a train of electron bunches. The electron bunch train is subsequently accelerated by the gun field and applied to selectively excite one of the modes in the dielectric loaded waveguide (DLW) structure, which is located downstream the DC gun. Thanks to the tunability of the repetition rate of laser pulses and the gun voltage, a tunable narrow-band THz radiation source can be obtained. This proposed source has the advantages of compactness, robustness and relatively high power.

  13. Dichotomous Role of Exciting the Donor or the Acceptor on Charge Generation in Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Koen H; Wijpkema, Alexandra S G; van Franeker, Jacobus J; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-08-10

    In organic solar cells, photoexcitation of the donor or acceptor phase can result in different efficiencies for charge generation. We investigate this difference for four different 2-pyridyl diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) polymer-fullerene solar cells. By comparing the external quantum efficiency spectra of the polymer solar cells fabricated with either [60]PCBM or [70]PCBM fullerene derivatives as acceptor, the efficiency of charge generation via donor excitation and acceptor excitation can both be quantified. Surprisingly, we find that to make charge transfer efficient, the offset in energy between the HOMO levels of donor and acceptor that govern charge transfer after excitation of the acceptor must be larger by ∼0.3 eV than the offset between the corresponding two LUMO levels when the donor is excited. As a consequence, the driving force required for efficient charge generation is significantly higher for excitation of the acceptor than for excitation of the donor. By comparing charge generation for a total of 16 different DPP polymers, we confirm that the minimal driving force, expressed as the photon energy loss, differs by about 0.3 eV for exciting the donor and exciting the acceptor. Marcus theory may explain the dichotomous role of exciting the donor or the acceptor on charge generation in these solar cells.

  14. Third-generation synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Wuilleumier, F.J.

    1993-09-01

    X rays are a powerful probe of matter because they interact with electrons in atoms, molecules, and solids. They are commonly produced by relativistic electrons or positrons stored in a synchrotron. Recent advances in technology are leading to the development of a new third generation of synchrotron radiation sources that produce vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray beams of unprecedented brightness. These new sources are characterized by a very low electron-beam emittance and by long straight sections to accommodate permanent-magnet undulators and wigglers. Several new low-energy light sources, including the Advanced Light Source, presently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and ELETTRA, presently being constructed in Trieste, will deliver the world`s brightest synchrotron radiation in the VUV and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. Applications include atomic and molecular physics and chemistry, surface and materials science, microscopy, and life sciences.

  15. Observations of ionospheric ELF and VLF wave generation by excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Moore, R C; Fujimaru, S; Kotovsky, D A; Gołkowski, M

    2013-12-06

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves.

  16. Observations of Ionospheric ELF and VLF Wave Generation by Excitation of the Thermal Cubic Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Gołkowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves.

  17. Eliminating unwanted far-field excitation in objective-type TIRF. Part I. identifying sources of nonevanescent excitation light.

    PubMed

    Brunstein, Maia; Teremetz, Maxime; Hérault, Karine; Tourain, Christophe; Oheim, Martin

    2014-03-04

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) achieves subdiffraction axial sectioning by confining fluorophore excitation to a thin layer close to the cell/substrate boundary. However, it is often unknown how thin this light sheet actually is. Particularly in objective-type TIRFM, large deviations from the exponential intensity decay expected for pure evanescence have been reported. Nonevanescent excitation light diminishes the optical sectioning effect, reduces contrast, and renders TIRFM-image quantification uncertain. To identify the sources of this unwanted fluorescence excitation in deeper sample layers, we here combine azimuthal and polar beam scanning (spinning TIRF), atomic force microscopy, and wavefront analysis of beams passing through the objective periphery. Using a variety of intracellular fluorescent labels as well as negative staining experiments to measure cell-induced scattering, we find that azimuthal beam spinning produces TIRFM images that more accurately portray the real fluorophore distribution, but these images are still hampered by far-field excitation. Furthermore, although clearly measureable, cell-induced scattering is not the dominant source of far-field excitation light in objective-type TIRF, at least for most types of weakly scattering cells. It is the microscope illumination optical path that produces a large cell- and beam-angle invariant stray excitation that is insensitive to beam scanning. This instrument-induced glare is produced far from the sample plane, inside the microscope illumination optical path. We identify stray reflections and high-numerical aperture aberrations of the TIRF objective as one important source. This work is accompanied by a companion paper (Pt.2/2).

  18. Eliminating Unwanted Far-Field Excitation in Objective-Type TIRF. Part I. Identifying Sources of Nonevanescent Excitation Light

    PubMed Central

    Brunstein, Maia; Teremetz, Maxime; Hérault, Karine; Tourain, Christophe; Oheim, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) achieves subdiffraction axial sectioning by confining fluorophore excitation to a thin layer close to the cell/substrate boundary. However, it is often unknown how thin this light sheet actually is. Particularly in objective-type TIRFM, large deviations from the exponential intensity decay expected for pure evanescence have been reported. Nonevanescent excitation light diminishes the optical sectioning effect, reduces contrast, and renders TIRFM-image quantification uncertain. To identify the sources of this unwanted fluorescence excitation in deeper sample layers, we here combine azimuthal and polar beam scanning (spinning TIRF), atomic force microscopy, and wavefront analysis of beams passing through the objective periphery. Using a variety of intracellular fluorescent labels as well as negative staining experiments to measure cell-induced scattering, we find that azimuthal beam spinning produces TIRFM images that more accurately portray the real fluorophore distribution, but these images are still hampered by far-field excitation. Furthermore, although clearly measureable, cell-induced scattering is not the dominant source of far-field excitation light in objective-type TIRF, at least for most types of weakly scattering cells. It is the microscope illumination optical path that produces a large cell- and beam-angle invariant stray excitation that is insensitive to beam scanning. This instrument-induced glare is produced far from the sample plane, inside the microscope illumination optical path. We identify stray reflections and high-numerical aperture aberrations of the TIRF objective as one important source. This work is accompanied by a companion paper (Pt.2/2). PMID:24606927

  19. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  20. Three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of three fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Wu, Juwell; Horton, Nicholas G; Lin, Charles P; Xu, Chris

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-based, three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous imaging of three fluorescent proteins (FPs) using two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM). The three excitation wavelengths at 775 nm, 864 nm and 950 nm, are obtained through second harmonic generation (SHG) of the 1550-nm pump laser and the 1728-nm and 1900-nm solitons generated through soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) in a large-mode-area (LMA) fiber. These energetic pulses are well matched to the two-photon excitation peaks of red, cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (TagRFPs, TagCFPs, and TagYFPs) for efficient excitation. We demonstrate simultaneous 2PM of human melanoma cells expressing a "rainbow" combination of these three fluorescent proteins.

  1. Laser Sources for Generation of Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Two laser systems have been built and used to demonstrate enhancements beyond current technology used for laser-based generation and detection of ultrasound. The first system consisted of ten Nd:YAG laser cavities coupled electronically and optically to permit sequential bursts of up to ten laser pulses directed either at a single point or configured into a phased array of sources. Significant enhancements in overall signal-to-noise ratio for laser ultrasound incorporating this new source system was demonstrated, using it first as a source of narrowband ultrasound and secondly as a phased array source producing large enhanced signal displacements. A second laser system was implemented using ultra fast optical pulses from a Ti:Sapphire laser to study a new method for making laser generated ultrasonic measurements of thin films with thicknesses on the order of hundreds of angstroms. Work by prior investigators showed that such measurements could be made based upon fluctuations in the reflectivity of thin films when they are stressed by an arriving elastic pulse. Research performed using equipment purchased under this program showed that a pulsed interferometric system could be used as well as a piezoreflective detection system to measure pulse arrivals even in thin films with very low piezoreflective coefficients.

  2. Implementation of a doubling cavity to produce a 423 nm light source for the excitation of Ca isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Higashimaru, H.; Kitajima, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    2009-03-17

    For selective excitation of isotopes of Ca, a 423 nm narrow linewidth, continuous wave (CW) light source which corresponds to the S-P transition (4s{sup 21}S{sub 0}-4s4p {sup 1}P{sub 1}) is required. A solid state CW light source which generates 423 nm is difficult to commercially use. Therefore, we have developed a Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) system to obtain 423 nm lights from 846 nm lights by using a nonlinear optical crystal.

  3. Comparison of exciplex generation under optical and X-ray excitation.

    PubMed

    Kipriyanov, A A; Melnikov, A R; Stass, D V; Doktorov, A B

    2017-09-07

    Exciplex generation under optical and X-ray excitation in identical conditions is experimentally compared using a specially chosen model donor-acceptor system, anthracene (electron acceptor) and N,N-dimethylaniline (electron donor) in non-polar solution, and the results are analyzed and interpreted based on analytically calculated luminescence quantum yields. Calculations are performed on the basis of kinetic equations for multistage schemes of bulk exciplex production reaction under optical excitation and combination of bulk and geminate reactions of radical ion pairs under X-ray excitation. These results explain the earlier experimentally found difference in the ratio of the quantum yields of exciplexes and excited electron acceptors (exciplex generation efficiency) and the corresponding change in the exciplex generation efficiency under X-irradiation as compared to the reaction under optical excitation.

  4. Excitation of XPS spectra from nanoscaled particles by local generation of x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Mallinson, Christopher F.; Castle, James E.

    2015-09-15

    In preliminary work, the authors have shown that use of an aluminum substrate to support a distribution of copper particles enables their characteristic photoelectrons to be observed within the Auger electron spectrum generated by an incident electron beam. This observation raises the possibility of the use of chemical shifts and the corresponding Auger parameter to identify the chemical states present on the surface of individual submicrometer particles within a mixture. In this context, the technique has an advantage in that, unlike conventional Auger electron spectroscopy, the electron beam does not dwell on the particle but on the substrate adjacent to it. Given the importance, for both medical and toxicological reasons, of the surface composition of such particles, the authors have continued to explore the potential of this development. In this contribution, the authors show that proximal excitation of x-rays is equally successful with magnesium substrates. In some regions of the x-ray photoelectron spectrum, the much larger Auger peaks generated by the electron beam can cause inconvenient clustering of Auger and photoelectron peaks. As in conventional x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the ability to switch between Al and Mg sources is useful in such situations. In this context, the authors have extended the studies to iron particles where the authors show that use of Al or Mg substrates, as necessary, can make a contribution to clear identification of individual components in the Fe 2p peaks. For this development in electron spectroscopy to achieve its full potential, it is necessary to optimize the beam conditions used to generate the local x-ray to give good selectivity of a given particle. Measurements made in support of this will be given. Of greater concern is a possible problem of local heating associated with x-ray generation. The authors continue to explore this problem and report some progress in minimizing heating of the particle while maintaining

  5. Documentation generator application for VHDL source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting VHDL source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary VHDL codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part three which describes the VHDL application. VHDL is used for behavioral description of the Optoelectronic system.

  6. Modeling Alfven Waves Generation by a Rotating Magnetic Field Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavaev, A. V.; Gumerov, N.; Shao, X.; Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.; Gigliotti, A. F.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2009-12-01

    Recent experiments conducted in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) located at UCLA demonstrated efficient excitation of whistler and shear Alfven waves by a Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF) source created by a phased orthogonal loop antenna. This paper presents a combination of computational results along with the experiments that emphasize the RMF properties for generation of MHD waves. In order to understand the RMF and magnetized plasma interaction and the resultant radiation patterns in frequency regimes below the ion cyclotron frequency a three-dimensional code was developed. The time-domain code solves the linearized Maxwell equations coupled to the two fluid magnetohydrodynamics description of cold plasma. The antenna excitation is modeled as a set of external currents. A comparison of the simulation results and the experiments shows good agreement between them. The scaling laws of the induced magnetic field as a function of the RMF frequency, the plasma parameters and the spatial decay rate of magnetic field, as well as the use of RMFs as efficient radiation sources of waves in space plasmas are also discussed. This work was sponsored by ONR MURI Grant 5-28828.

  7. MAIN GENERATOR EXCITER UNIT IN FOREGROUND, WITH CYCLOPS 75TON CRANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GENERATOR EXCITER UNIT IN FOREGROUND, WITH CYCLOPS 75-TON CRANE IN BACKGROUND. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  8. A 5-kg time-resolved luminescence photometer with multiple excitation sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A portable fluorometer was developed to detect food contaminants and environmental pollutants including, in particular, two classes of antibiotics: tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Time resolution was implemented to take advantage of lanthanide-sensitized luminescence. Excitation sources included...

  9. Direct connection of series self-excited generators and HVDC converters

    SciTech Connect

    Arrillaga, J.; Macdonald, S.J.; Watson, N.R.; Watson, S. )

    1993-10-01

    An alternative and simpler solution is proposed for the direct connection of generators to HVdc converters. The generator exciter windings are connected in series with the output of the HVdc converter and take the place of the conventional smoothing reactor. Existing steady state and time domain simulation programs are modified to represent the behavior of the series direct connection scheme. It is shown that series excitation extends naturally the power transmission capability and permits fast fault clearances.

  10. High Pulsed Power, Self Excited Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-27

    Degree of Ionization of Cesium on Performance 72 3.5.7. Effect of Channel Area Ratio on Performance 73 3.5.8. Comparison of Helium vs Argon Generator...EXPLOSIVE PULSED SYSTEM WEIGHTS,REF.2 32 TABLE 5: POWER DENSITY & ENTHALPY EXTRACTION OF CLOSED CYCLE GENERATORS 35 TABLE 6: ENTHALPY EXTRACTION VS PRESSURE...OF ALUMINUM PARTICLES 50 TABLE 11. ALUMINUM PARTICLE BURNING TIMES vs OPERATING CONDITIONS 52 TABLE 12. TOTAL COMBUSTION TIME OF Al. PARTICLES vs

  11. Ultraluminous X-ray sources - three exciting years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachetti, M.

    2015-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are off-nuclear extragalactic sources with (apparent) luminosities exceeding the Eddington limit for a stellar-mass black hole. This naturally suggests an association with the elusive class of intermediate-mass black holes, or with super-Eddington accreting black holes. As it turns out, this peculiar class of sources is actually a variegated zoo, including both classes of accreting black holes mentioned above and, rather unexpectedly, neutron stars. In this talk I will overview the astrophysical properties of these objects, and give an update on the many breakthroughs appeared in the literature in the last three years.

  12. BWR Source Term Generation and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Ryman

    2003-07-31

    This calculation is a revision of a previous calculation (Ref. 7.5) that bears the same title and has the document identifier BBAC00000-01717-0210-00006 REV 01. The purpose of this revision is to remove TBV (to-be-verified) -41 10 associated with the output files of the previous version (Ref. 7.30). The purpose of this and the previous calculation is to generate source terms for a representative boiling water reactor (BWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly for the first one million years after the SNF is discharged from the reactors. This calculation includes an examination of several ways to represent BWR assemblies and operating conditions in SAS2H in order to quantify the effects these representations may have on source terms. These source terms provide information characterizing the neutron and gamma spectra in particles per second, the decay heat in watts, and radionuclide inventories in curies. Source terms are generated for a range of burnups and enrichments (see Table 2) that are representative of the waste stream and stainless steel (SS) clad assemblies. During this revision, it was determined that the burnups used for the computer runs of the previous revision were actually about 1.7% less than the stated, or nominal, burnups. See Section 6.6 for a discussion of how to account for this effect before using any source terms from this calculation. The source term due to the activation of corrosion products deposited on the surfaces of the assembly from the coolant is also calculated. The results of this calculation support many areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), which include thermal evaluation, radiation dose determination, radiological safety analyses, surface and subsurface facility designs, and total system performance assessment. This includes MGR items classified as Quality Level 1, for example, the Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (Ref. 7.27, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the

  13. Surface plasmon polariton excitation by second harmonic generation in single organic nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Simesen, Paw; Søndergaard, Thomas; Skovsen, Esben; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-06-15

    Coherent local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by second-harmonic generation (SHG) in individual aligned crystalline organic functionalized para-phenylene nanofibers deposited on a thin silver film is demonstrated. The SH-SPP generation is considered theoretically and investigated experimentally with angular-resolved leakage radiation spectroscopy for normal incidence of the excitation beam. Both measurements and simulations show asymmetric excitation of left- and right-propagating SH-SPPs, which is explained as an effect of fiber molecules being oriented at an angle relative to the silver film surface.

  14. The excitation of normal modes by a curved line source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, E.

    1987-12-01

    The polynomial moments, up to total degree two, of the stress glut are calculated for a curved line source. The significance of the moments, whose total degree is one, is emphasized and the implication for inversion is discussed.

  15. Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

  16. Excitation of Love waves in a thin film layer by a line source.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Ponamgi, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    The excitation of a Love surface wave guided by a thin film layer deposited on a semiinfinite substrate is studied in this paper. Both the thin film and the substrate are considered to be elastically isotropic. Amplitudes of the surface wave in the thin film region and the substrate are found in terms of the strength of a line source vibrating in a direction transverse to the propagating wave. In addition to the surface wave, the bulk shear wave excited by the source is also studied. Analytical expressions for the bulk wave amplitude as a function of the direction of propagation, the acoustic powers transported by the surface and bulk waves, and the efficiency of surface wave excitation are obtained. A numerical example is given to show how the bulk wave radiation pattern depends upon the source frequency, the film thickness and other important parameters of the problem. The efficiency of surface wave excitation is also calculated for various parameter values.

  17. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  18. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  19. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  20. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  1. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  2. Multiple excitation nano-spot generation and confocal detection for far-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2010-03-01

    An imaging technique is developed for the controlled generation of multiple excitation nano-spots for far-field microscopy. The system point spread function (PSF) is obtained by interfering two counter-propagating extended depth-of-focus PSF (DoF-PSF), resulting in highly localized multiple excitation spots along the optical axis. The technique permits (1) simultaneous excitation of multiple planes in the specimen; (2) control of the number of spots by confocal detection; and (3) overcoming the point-by-point based excitation. Fluorescence detection from the excitation spots can be efficiently achieved by Z-scanning the detector/pinhole assembly. The technique complements most of the bioimaging techniques and may find potential application in high resolution fluorescence microscopy and nanoscale imaging.

  3. Signal generator exciting an electromagnetic field for ion beam transport to the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.; Kogan, V. T.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    A high-voltage high-frequency signal generator is described that excites an electric field for ion beam transport from an ion source to the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer. Excitation signals to the number of two are high-frequency sine-wave out-of-phase signals with the same amplitudes. The amplitude and phase of the signals vary from 20 to 100 V and from 10 kHz to 1 MHz, respectively. The generator also produces a controlled bias voltage in the interval 50-200 V. The frequency and amplitude of the signals, as well as the bias voltage, are computer-controlled via the USB interface.

  4. Overdense plasma generation in a compact ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, G.; Romano, F. P.; Celona, L.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Gambino, N.; Lanaia, D.; Miracoli, R.; Neri, L.; Sorbello, G.

    2017-05-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are widely used plasma based machines for the production of intense ion beams in science and industry. The performance of modern devices is limited by the presence of the density cut-off, above which electromagnetic (EM) waves sustaining the plasma are reflected. We hereby discuss the systematic data analysis of electrostatic wave generation in an ECR prototype operating at 3.75 GHz-0.1 THz. In particular, electron Bernstein waves (EBW) have been excited. EBW have already been generated in large-scale plasma devices for thermonuclear fusion purposes. In ion sources where L c ˜ λ RF (L c being the plasma chamber size and λ RF the pumping wave wavelength) the EM field assumes a modal behaviour; thus both plasma and EM field self-organize so that no optical-like wave launching is possible (i.e. the cavity effect dominates on the optical path). The collected data, however, supported by 3D full-wave simulations, actually demonstrate that a Budden-type X-B conversion scenario can be established above some critical RF power thresholds, operating in an off-ECR regime. The generation and absorption of the EBW has been demonstrated by the presence of three peculiar signatures: along with the establishment of an overdense plasma, generation of supra-thermal electrons and modification (non-linear broadening) of the EM spectrum measured within the plasma have been observed. At the threshold establishing such a heating regime, the collected data provide evidence for a fast rotation of the electron fluid.

  5. A new method for detection of loss-of-excitation of synchronous generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rostamkolai, N.; Butts, R.G.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for detection of loss-of-excitation of synchronous generators. By utilizing the apparent system resistance and reactance, and their rate-of-change, a new method of detection for loss-of-excitation was developed. Simulation results verified the reliability of the proposed algorithm, and it showed that the new method is faster and more secure than the existing protection methods.

  6. Generation of THz Radiation by Excitation of InAs with a Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mashiko Tani; Shunsuke Kono; Ping Gu; Kiyomi Sakai; Mamoru Usami; Michelle D. Shinn; Joseph F. Gubeli; George Neil; Jingzhou Xu; Roland Kersting; X.-C. Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is generated by exciting an un-doped InAs wafer with a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A microwatt level of THz radiation is detected from the unbiased InAs emitter when it is excited with the femtosecond FEL pulses operated at a wavelength of 1.06 {mu}-m and 10 W average power.

  7. Excitability and optical pulse generation in semiconductor lasers driven by resonant tunneling diode photo-detectors.

    PubMed

    Romeira, Bruno; Javaloyes, Julien; Ironside, Charles N; Figueiredo, José M L; Balle, Salvador; Piro, Oreste

    2013-09-09

    We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, excitable nanosecond optical pulses in optoelectronic integrated circuits operating at telecommunication wavelengths (1550 nm) comprising a nanoscale double barrier quantum well resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photo-detector driving a laser diode (LD). When perturbed either electrically or optically by an input signal above a certain threshold, the optoelectronic circuit generates short electrical and optical excitable pulses mimicking the spiking behavior of biological neurons. Interestingly, the asymmetric nonlinear characteristic of the RTD-LD allows for two different regimes where one obtain either single pulses or a burst of multiple pulses. The high-speed excitable response capabilities are promising for neurally inspired information applications in photonics.

  8. Record of source-generated overpressures, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B. )

    1996-01-01

    Fluid pressures affect migration of oil, gas, and water in continental margins. Burial and thermal history models describe the degree to which indercompaction or thermal expansion of fluids contribute to fluid pressure histories, but it is more difficult to evaluate how source-terms, such as oil yield or mineral dehydration reactions, impact paleo-fluid pressures. In this study, we document how a thick, maturing source rock helped create near-lithostatic fluid pressures that generated overpressures in reservoir rocks. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Fm. source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir in the W. Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Homogenization temperatures (Th) of oil-filled inclusions range from 25-42[degrees]C in the La Luna Fm. and from 25-105[degrees]C in the Cogollo Gp., and associated gravities (determined from fluorescence properties) range from 28-43[degrees]API and 17-45[degrees]API, respectively. Integration of Th with the burial and thermal history of the sampled horizons leads to the conclusion that fractures in the La Luna Fm. formed under near-lithostatic fluid pressure conditions in the presence of a gas-charged oil. The values from fractures in the Cogollo Gp. are higher than in the La Luna Fm and become more variable with increasing depth below La Luna. We interpret those fractures to have formed under lower fluid pressure conditions and/or with a less gas-charged oil than for La Luna. This interpretation of the distribution of paleo-fluid pressures is supported by the observation of modern inverted fluid pressure gradients between upper and lower Cogollo Gp. reservoirs. Thus late expulsion of a gas-charged oil created near-lithostatic fluid pressures in the La Luna Fm. source rock, and those fluid pressures bled downward through fractures into the adjoining reservoir rocks, contributing to the overpressures we observe today.

  9. Record of source-generated overpressures, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B.

    1996-12-31

    Fluid pressures affect migration of oil, gas, and water in continental margins. Burial and thermal history models describe the degree to which indercompaction or thermal expansion of fluids contribute to fluid pressure histories, but it is more difficult to evaluate how source-terms, such as oil yield or mineral dehydration reactions, impact paleo-fluid pressures. In this study, we document how a thick, maturing source rock helped create near-lithostatic fluid pressures that generated overpressures in reservoir rocks. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Fm. source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir in the W. Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Homogenization temperatures (Th) of oil-filled inclusions range from 25-42{degrees}C in the La Luna Fm. and from 25-105{degrees}C in the Cogollo Gp., and associated gravities (determined from fluorescence properties) range from 28-43{degrees}API and 17-45{degrees}API, respectively. Integration of Th with the burial and thermal history of the sampled horizons leads to the conclusion that fractures in the La Luna Fm. formed under near-lithostatic fluid pressure conditions in the presence of a gas-charged oil. The values from fractures in the Cogollo Gp. are higher than in the La Luna Fm and become more variable with increasing depth below La Luna. We interpret those fractures to have formed under lower fluid pressure conditions and/or with a less gas-charged oil than for La Luna. This interpretation of the distribution of paleo-fluid pressures is supported by the observation of modern inverted fluid pressure gradients between upper and lower Cogollo Gp. reservoirs. Thus late expulsion of a gas-charged oil created near-lithostatic fluid pressures in the La Luna Fm. source rock, and those fluid pressures bled downward through fractures into the adjoining reservoir rocks, contributing to the overpressures we observe today.

  10. Principles of vortex light generation from electronically excited nanoscale arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mathew D.; Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been shown possible to directly generate an optical vortex (a beam of light endowed with orbital angular momentum) by spontaneous emission from a molecular exciton array. This contrasts with most established methods, which typically rely on the modification of a conventional beam by an appropriate optical element (for example, a q-plate) to impose the requisite helical twist of a vortex. The new procedure is achieved by nanofabricating a chiral arrangement of chromophores into a ring of specifically configured symmetry, supporting a doubly degenerate (conjugated) exciton with the appropriate azimuthal phase progression. It emerges that the symmetry elements present in the phase structure of the optical field, produced by emission from these degenerate excitons on a array, exhibits precisely the sought character of an optical vortex. The highest order of exciton symmetry, including the corresponding splitting of the electronic states, dictates the maximum magnitude of the topological charge. Work is now progressing on computer simulations aiming to reveal the detailed pattern of polarization behaviour in the emitted light, in which the vector character of the beam progresses around the phase singularity along the beam propagation axis. Significantly, this analysis points to the emission of radiation with polarization varying over the beam profile.

  11. On the rolling noise generation due to wheel/track parametric excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. X.; Thompson, D. J.

    2006-06-01

    As a discretely supported railway track is essentially periodic, when a wheel rolls over the rail, it experiences the varying dynamic stiffness in a sleeper bay of the track, and thus the wheel and rail is periodically excited at the sleeper-passing frequency. The parametric excitation due to the varying track stiffness, in addition to the roughness or discontinuities on the wheel and rail rolling surfaces, also causes vibration and noise emission. A frequency-time domain methodology is applied for simulation of the wheel/rail interaction due to the parametric excitation. The wheel/rail interaction forces are calculated and Track-Wheel Interaction Noise Software (TWINS) is used to predict the noise radiation due to the parametric excitation at various train speeds. The results are compared with those from a moving irregularity model where no parametric excitation is generated. It is found that the components due to the parametric excitation are not significant at lower speeds compared with those due to the roughness excitation. Use of a moving irregularity model without considering the wheel/track parametric excitation may under-estimate the noise emission level at high speeds.

  12. Using a supercontinuum light source for instantaneous excitation-emission fluorescence mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescent species are commonly utilized to visualize molecular and biological processes in the chemical and life sciences. A fast method for characterizing the excitation-wavelength-dependent emission spectrum is proposed based on imaging the fluorescence from the dispersed radiation of a supercontinuum light source to a spectrograph. The full excitation-emission map can be acquired within a fraction of a second and hence the possibility for rapid screening and the investigation of transient phenomena.

  13. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1986-10-01

    An intense and efficient source for blue green laser useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, the hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and the dense plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense uv photons (200 to 400nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400nm). As a result of optimization of the DPF light at 355nm, the blue green dye (LD490) laser output exceeding 4mJ was obtained at the best cavity tunning of the laser system. With the HCP pumped system a significant enhancement of the blue green laser outputs with dye LD490 and coumarin 503 has been achieved through the spectrum conversion of the pumping light by mixing a converter dye BBQ. The maximum increase of laser output with the dye mixture of LD490+BBQ and coumarin 503+BBQ was greater than 80%. In addition, the untunned near UV lasers were also obtained. The near UV laser output energy of P-terphenyl dye was 0.5mJ at lambda sub C=337nm with the bandwidth of 3n m for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2us. Another near UV laser output energy obtained with BBQ dye was 25 mJ at lambda sub C=383nm with the bandwidth of 3nm for the pulse duration of 0.2microsec.

  14. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-3 Two generating sources. In addition to the emergency power... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources. ...

  15. EXCITATION OF A BURIED MAGMATIC PIPE: A SEISMIC SOURCE MODEL FOR VOLCANIC TREMOR.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    A model of volcanic tremor is presented in which the modes of vibration of a volcanic pipe are excited by the motion of the fluid within the pipe in response to a short-term perturbation in pressure. The model shows the relative importance of the various parts constituting this composite source in the radiated elastic field at near and intermediate distances. The paper starts with the presentation of the elastic field radiated by the source, and proceeds with an analysis of the energy balance between hydraulic and elastic motions. Next, the hydraulic excitation of the source is addressed and, finally, the ground response to this excitation is analyzed in the simple case of a pipe buried in a homogeneous half space.

  16. Efficient full waveform inversion using the excitation representation of the source wavefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Mahesh; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2017-09-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an iterative method of data-fitting, aiming at high-resolution recovery of the unknown model parameters. However, its conventional implementation is a cumbersome process, requiring a long computational time and large memory space/disk storage. One of the reasons for this computational limitation is the gradient calculation step. Based on the adjoint state method, it involves the temporal cross-correlation of the forward propagated source wavefield with the backward propagated residuals, in which we usually need to store the source wavefield, or include an extra extrapolation step to propagate the source wavefield from its storage at the boundary. We propose, alternatively, an amplitude excitation gradient calculation based on the excitation imaging condition concept that represents the source wavefield history by a single, specifically the most energetic arrival. An excitation based Born modelling allows us to derive the adjoint operation. In this case, the source wavelet is injected by a cross-correlation step applied to the data residual directly. Representing the source wavefield through the excitation amplitude and time, we reduce the large requirements for both storage and the computational time. We demonstrate the application of this approach on a two-layer model with an anomaly, the Marmousi II model and a marine data set acquired by CGG.

  17. Equivalent circuit and characteristic simulation of a brushless electrically excited synchronous wind power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Fengge; Guan, Tao; Yu, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    A brushless electrically excited synchronous generator (BEESG) with a hybrid rotor is a novel electrically excited synchronous generator. The BEESG proposed in this paper is composed of a conventional stator with two different sets of windings with different pole numbers, and a hybrid rotor with powerful coupling capacity. The pole number of the rotor is different from those of the stator windings. Thus, an analysis method different from that applied to conventional generators should be applied to the BEESG. In view of this problem, the equivalent circuit and electromagnetic torque expression of the BEESG are derived on the basis of electromagnetic relation of the proposed generator. The generator is simulated and tested experimentally using the established equivalent circuit model. The experimental and simulation data are then analyzed and compared. Results show the validity of the equivalent circuit model.

  18. Global excitation of wave phenomena in a dissipative multiconstituent medium. III - Response characteristics for different sources in the earth's thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Varosi, F.; Herrero, F. A.

    1987-01-01

    A linear trasnfer function model of the earth's thermosphere which includes the electric field momentum source is used to study the differences in the response characteristics for Joule heating and momentum coupling in the thermosphere. It is found that, for Joule/particle heating, the temperature and density perturbations contain a relatively large trapped component which has the property of a low-pass filter, with slow decay after the source is turned off. The decay time is sensitive to the altitude of energy deposition and is significantly reduced as the source peak moves from 125 to 150 km. For electric field momentum coupling, the trapped components in the temperature and density perturbations are relatively small. In the curl field of the velocity, however, the trapped component dominates, but compared with the temperature and density its decay time is much shorter. Outside the source region the form of excitation is of secondary importance for the generation of the various propagating gravity wave modes.

  19. Wheel/rail noise generation due to nonlinear effects and parametric excitation.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, Anders

    2002-04-01

    Two models are developed, one in the time domain and another in the frequency domain, to explain when a wheel/rail noise generation model requires the inclusion of discrete supports, parametric excitation, and the nonlinear contact spring. Numerical simulations indicate the inclusion of discrete supports to describe low frequency response, and also at higher frequencies, especially where the rail is very smooth or has a corrugation/wavelength corresponding to the pinned-pinned frequency. With a corrugation, it may become essential to include the nonlinear contact spring, as contact loss occurs at high corrugation amplitudes. As nonlinearity causes force generation over a broad frequency range, some contributions excite wheel resonances, resulting in high radiation levels, that require the inclusion of wheel/rail nonlinear effects and parametric excitation for accurate prediction.

  20. Coherent blue emission generated by Rb two-photon excitation using diode and femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jesus P.; Moreno, Marco P.; de Miranda, Marcio H. G.; Vianna, Sandra S.

    2017-04-01

    The coherent blue light generated in rubidium vapor due to the combined action of an ultrashort pulse train and a continuous wave diode laser is investigated. Each step of the two-photon transition 5S-5P{}3/2-5D is excited by one of the lasers, and the induced coherence between the 5S and 6P{}3/2 states is responsible for generating the blue beam. Measurements of the excitation spectrum reveal the frequency comb structure and allow us to identify the resonant modes responsible for inducing the nonlinear process. Further, each resonant mode excites a different group of atoms, making the process selective in atomic velocity. The signal dependency on the atomic density is characterized by a sharp growth and a rapid saturation. We also show that for high intensity of the diode laser, the Stark shift at resonance causes the signal suppression observed at low atomic density.

  1. Generating Excitement: Build Your Own Generator to Study the Transfer of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Kurt; Rommel-Esham, Katie; Farthing, Dori; Sheldon, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of energy from one form to another can be difficult to understand. The electrical energy that turns on a lamp may come from the burning of coal, water falling at a hydroelectric plant, nuclear reactions, or gusts of wind caused by the uneven heating of the Earth. The authors have developed and tested an exciting hands-on activity to…

  2. Generating Excitement: Build Your Own Generator to Study the Transfer of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Kurt; Rommel-Esham, Katie; Farthing, Dori; Sheldon, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of energy from one form to another can be difficult to understand. The electrical energy that turns on a lamp may come from the burning of coal, water falling at a hydroelectric plant, nuclear reactions, or gusts of wind caused by the uneven heating of the Earth. The authors have developed and tested an exciting hands-on activity to…

  3. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: One and two interacting units.

    PubMed

    Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina; Perc, Matjaž; Vasović, Nebojša; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We consider the coaction of two distinct noise sources on the activation process of a single excitable unit and two interacting excitable units, which are mathematically described by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations. We determine the most probable activation paths around which the corresponding stochastic trajectories are clustered. The key point lies in introducing appropriate boundary conditions that are relevant for a class II excitable unit, which can be immediately generalized also to scenarios involving two coupled units. We analyze the effects of the two noise sources on the statistical features of the activation process, in particular demonstrating how these are modified due to the linear or nonlinear form of interactions. Universal properties of the activation process are qualitatively discussed in the light of a stochastic bifurcation that underlies the transition from a stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations.

  4. Multi-Index Nonlinear Coordinated Control for Battery Energy Storage System and Generator Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingyi, Kong; Liying, Liao

    A multi-index nonlinear coordinated control scheme for BESS and generator excitation is proposed. The proposed multi-index nonlinear coordinated controller can effectively coordinate the dynamic and steady-state performance of the controlled system. It can enhance the stability of the system, improve the dynamic characteristics of state variables, and can improve the control accuracy of output variables such as terminal voltage, active power output of the generator. Simulation results show that to control BESS and generator coordinately has the advantage of enhancing the stability of the system. With the ability of BESS to control the active power and reactive power, and the regulate of generator excitation, the dynamic characteristics of state variables can changes more smoothness, responds more speediness.

  5. Generation of an ultra-short electrical pulse with width shorter than the excitation laser

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a rare phenomenon that the width of an electrical response is shorter than that of the excitation laser. In this work, generation of an ultrashort electrical pulse is by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and the generated electrical pulse width is shorter than that of the excitation laser from diode laser. When the pulse width and energy of the excitation laser are fixed at 25.7 ns and 1.6 μJ respectively, the width of the generated electrical pulse width by 3-mm-gap GaAs PCSS at the bias voltage of 9 kV is only 7.3 ns. The model of photon-activated charge domain (PACD) is used to explain the peculiar phenomenon in our experiment. The ultrashort electrical pulse width is mainly relevant to the time interval of PACD from occurrence to disappearance in the mode. The shorter the time interval is, the narrower the electrical pulse width will become. In more general terms, our result suggests that in nonlinear regime a response signal can have a much short width than the excitation pulses. The result clearly indicates that generating ultrashort electrical pulses can be achieved without the need of ultrashort lasers. PMID:27273512

  6. Generation of terahertz radiation by a surface ballistic photocurrent in semiconductors under subpicosecond laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziaziulia, P. A.; Malevich, V. L.; Manak, I. S.; Krotkus, A.

    2012-02-15

    An analytical model describing the onset of a surface ballistic photocurrent in cubic semiconductors under femtosecond laser excitation is proposed. It is shown that the contribution of the photocurrent component parallel to the surface to the generation of terahertz pulses may be comparable to the contribution of the perpendicular component. Consideration of the cubic symmetry of a semiconductor leads to the azimuthal anisotropy of terahertz generation.

  7. Excitation threshold of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs generated at pump frequency near the third electron gyroharmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Scales, W.

    2012-12-01

    Campaign SSRC at HAARP. The analytical results for the SIB waves at the 3rd and 4th gyroharmonics will be presented which shows good agreement with experimental data. The variation of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectrum during generation of the artificial plasma layer by HAARP transmitter has been studied during 2012 PARS campaign. It turns out that SEE features observed during the formation of artificial plasma layers may be used as a diagnostic tool to investigate the generation source of these artificial layers. Both experimental data and analytical results will be presented.

  8. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  9. Increasing efficiency of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation using ultrashort pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shuo; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Chen, Zhongping; Tempea, Gabriel; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2006-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an important tool for high-resolution and non-invasive imaging in biological tissues. However, the efficiencies of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) are relatively low because of their nonlinear nature. Therefore, it is critical to optimize laser parameters for most efficient excitation of MPM. Reducing the pulse duration can increase the peak intensity of excitation and thus potentially increase the excitation efficiency. In this paper, a multiphoton microscopy system using a 12 fs Ti:Sapphire laser is reported. With adjustable dispersion pre-compensation, the pulse duration at the sample location can be varied from 400 fs to sub-20 fs. The efficiencies of TPEF and SHG are studied for the various pulse durations, respectively. Both TPEF and SHG are found to increase proportionally to the inverse of the pulse duration for the entire tested range. To transmit most of the SHG and TPEF signals, the spectral transmission widow of the detection optics needs to be carefully considered. Limitation from phase-matching in SHG generation is not significant because the effective interaction length for SHG is less than 10 μm at the focal depth of the objectives. These results are important in improving MPM excitation efficiency using ultrashort pulses. MPM images from human artery wall are also demonstrated.

  10. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  11. Battery-Operated Atomic Emission Analyzer for Waterborne Arsenic Based on Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Excitation Source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; He, Dong; Zhu, Zhenli; Peng, Huan; Liu, Zhifu; Wen, Guojun; Bai, Jianghao; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-03-21

    In this paper, a sensitive atomic emission spectrometer (AES) based on a new low power and low argon consumption (<8 W, 100 mL min(-1)) miniature direct current (dc) atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma (3 mm × 5 mm) excitation source was developed for the determination of arsenic in water samples. In this method, arsenic in water was reduced to AsH3 by hydride generation (HG), which was then transported to the APGD source for excitation and detected by a compact CCD (charge-coupled device) microspectrometer. Different parameters affecting the APGD and the hydride generation reactions were investigated. The detection limit for arsenic with the proposed APGD-AES was 0.25 μg L(-1), and the calibration curves were found to be linear up to 3 orders of magnitude. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of certified reference material (GBW08605), tap water, pond water, groundwater, and hot spring samples. Measurements from the APGD analyzer showed good agreement with the certified value/values obtained with well-established hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). These results suggest that the developed robust, cost-effective, and fast analyzer can be used for field based arsenic determination and may provide an important tool for arsenic contamination and remediation programs.

  12. Analysis of self-excited induction generators using an iterative method

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the steady-state analysis of self-excited induction generators (SEIG) using an iterative method. By considering the conductances connected across the air gap nodes, an iteration procedure is developed of the determination of the self-excited per unit frequency, which enables the equivalent circuit to be completely solved. The proposed method involves only simple algebraic calculations, but the accuracy is good an convergence is rapid. The method is subsequently extended to include core loss effects and the analysis of SEIG with series capacitance compensation. Very good agreement between experimental and computed results has been obtained on a 2-kW laboratory machine.

  13. Metal-enhanced chemiluminescence: Radiating plasmons generated from chemically induced electronic excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Mustafa H.; Aslan, Kadir; Malyn, Stuart N.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2006-04-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of metal-enhanced chemiluminescence. Silver Island films, in close proximity to chemiluminescence species, can significantly enhance luminescence intensities; a 20-fold increase in chemiluminescence intensity was observed as compared to an identical control sample containing no silver. This suggests the use of silver nanostructures in the chemiluminescence-based immunoassays used in the biosciences today, to improve signal and therefore analyte detectability. In addition, this finding suggests that surface plasmons can be directly excited by chemically induced electronically excited luminophores, a significant finding toward our understanding of fluorophore-metal interactions and the generation of surface plasmons.

  14. Multiphoton excited hemoglobin fluorescence and third harmonic generation for non-invasive microscopy of stored blood.

    PubMed

    Saytashev, Ilyas; Glenn, Rachel; Murashova, Gabrielle A; Osseiran, Sam; Spence, Dana; Evans, Conor L; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) in two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy usually appear as dark disks because of their low fluorescent signal. Here we use 15fs 800nm pulses for TPEF, 45fs 1060nm pulses for three-photon excited fluorescence, and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging. We find sufficient fluorescent signal that we attribute to hemoglobin fluorescence after comparing time and wavelength resolved spectra of other expected RBC endogenous fluorophores: NADH, FAD, biliverdin, and bilirubin. We find that both TPEF and THG microscopy can be used to examine erythrocyte morphology non-invasively without breaching a blood storage bag.

  15. Multiphoton excited hemoglobin fluorescence and third harmonic generation for non-invasive microscopy of stored blood

    PubMed Central

    Saytashev, Ilyas; Glenn, Rachel; Murashova, Gabrielle A.; Osseiran, Sam; Spence, Dana; Evans, Conor L.; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) in two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy usually appear as dark disks because of their low fluorescent signal. Here we use 15fs 800nm pulses for TPEF, 45fs 1060nm pulses for three-photon excited fluorescence, and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging. We find sufficient fluorescent signal that we attribute to hemoglobin fluorescence after comparing time and wavelength resolved spectra of other expected RBC endogenous fluorophores: NADH, FAD, biliverdin, and bilirubin. We find that both TPEF and THG microscopy can be used to examine erythrocyte morphology non-invasively without breaching a blood storage bag. PMID:27699111

  16. Stabilizing stochastically-forced oscillation generators with hard excitement: a confidence-domain control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Chen, Guanrong; Ryashko, Lev

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, noise-induced destruction of self-sustained oscillations is studied for a stochastically-forced generator with hard excitement. The problem is to design a feedback regulator that can stabilize a limit cycle of the closed-loop system and to provide a required dispersion of the generated oscillations. The approach is based on the stochastic sensitivity function (SSF) technique and confidence domain method. A theory about the synthesis of assigned SSF is developed. For the case when this control problem is ill-posed, a regularization method is constructed. The effectiveness of the new method of confidence domain is demonstrated by stabilizing auto-oscillations in a randomly-forced generator with hard excitement.

  17. [Modeling neuropathologic syndromes by creating generators of pathologically enhanced excitation in the hypothalamus of rabbits].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Kotov, A V; Kulygina, O A; Tolpygo, S M; Sudakov, K V

    1977-10-01

    In the experiments on free behavior rabbits, tetanus toxin was injected into "pacemaker" motivational emotiogenic regions of the hypothalamus to form generators of pathologically enhanced excitation; this produced stable, long-term disorders in motivational-emotional behavior. The changes were manifested by intensification of the feeding behavior activity, including increase of the "secondary motivational reactions", intensification of the motor activity, excessive number of automatic masticatory movements, appearance of aggression, fear reaction and corresponding vegetative changes. The character of these reactions depended on the site of the toxin administration and on its dose. Formation of long-term generators of the pathologically enhanced excitation in the "pacemaker" motivational-emotiogenic centers of the hypothalamus by tetanus toxin can be used the modelling of psychopathological states in animals. The data obtained on the new model have confirmed the theory of generative mechanisms of neuropathological syndromes characterized by hyperactivity of the systems.

  18. Absorption and generation of femtosecond laser-pulse excited spin currents in noncollinear magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalieu, M. L. M.; Helgers, P. L. J.; Koopmans, B.

    2017-07-01

    Spin currents can be generated on an ultrafast time scale by excitation of a ferromagnetic (FM) thin film with a femtosecond laser pulse. Recently, it has been demonstrated that these ultrafast spin currents can transport angular momentum to neighboring FM layers, being able to change both the magnitude and orientation of the magnetization in the adjacent layer. In this paper, both the generation and absorption of these optically excited spin currents are investigated. This is done using noncollinear magnetic bilayers, i.e., two FM layers separated by a conductive spacer. Spin currents are generated in a Co/Ni multilayer with out-of-plane (OOP) anisotropy, and absorbed by a Co layer with an in-plane (IP) anisotropy. This behavior is confirmed by careful analysis of the laser-pulse induced magnetization dynamics, whereafter it is demonstrated that the transverse spin current is absorbed very locally near the injection interface of the IP layer (90 % within the first ≈2 nm). Moreover, it will also be shown that this local absorption results in the excitation of THz standing spin waves within the IP layer. The dispersion measured for these high-frequency spin waves shows a discrepancy with respect to the theoretical predictions, for which an explanation involving intermixed interface regions is proposed. Lastly, the spin current generation is investigated by using magnetic bilayers with a different number of repeats for the Co/Ni multilayer, which proves to be of great relevance for identifying the optical spin current generation mechanism.

  19. Waveguide slot-excited long racetrack electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for roll-to-roll (scanning) processing

    SciTech Connect

    You, H.-J.

    2013-07-15

    We present a SLot-excited ANtenna (SLAN) long racetrack ECR plasma source that is utilized for roll-to-roll plasma processing such as thin film encapsulation of large-area OLED (organic light emitting diode) panel or modification of fabric surfaces. This source is designed to be long, and to operate under high density uniform plasma with sub-milli-torr pressures. The above features are accomplished by a slot-excited long racetrack resonator with a toroidal geometry of magnetic field ECR configuration, and reinforced microwave electric distributions along the central region of plasma chamber. Also, a new feature has been added to the source. This is to employ a tail plunger, which allows the microwave electric field and the uniformity of the plasma profile to be easily adjustable. We have successfully generated Ar plasmas operating with the microwave power of 0.5–3 kW in the pressure range of 0.2–10 mTorr. The plasma is uniform (<10%) in the direction of the straight track and has a Gaussian profile in the roll-to-roll (scanning) direction. In addition, it is shown that the tail plunger could adjust the plasma profile in order to obtain plasma uniformity. Furthermore, based on the results, we suggest a newly designed up-scaled racetrack-SLAN source.

  20. A novel self-excited self-regulated single phase induction generator

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a newly developed single-phase capacitor self-excited induction generator with self-regulating features, suitable for engine-driven portable gen-sets for autonomous/standby power generation. The system is also suitable for microhydro and wind energy systems. The generator has two specially designed stator windings in quadrature, connected externally to a shunt and a series capacitor respectively. It employs a standard die-cast squirrel cage rotor. Special features, advantages and theoretical concepts of the system are highlighted in this part of the paper, detailed experimental results being presented in Part 2.

  1. Source monitoring in a generative task.

    PubMed

    Landau, Joshua D; Thomas, Danielle M; Thelen, Sarah E; Chang, PengKwei

    2002-05-01

    Following exposure to experimenter-provided examples of space creatures, people tend to conform to the features contained in the examples when creating their own novel space creatures. In three experiments, we manipulated factors known to affect source-monitoring accuracy to determine how these manipulations would influence conformity to experimenter-provided examples. In Experiment 1 we altered people's cognitive agenda by means of the instructions given before the drawing task. In Experiment 2 we examined how time pressure would affect the level of conformity, and in Experiment 3 we manipulated the availability of the creatures during the drawing task by making them available to half the participants. Conformity decreased when extended source-monitoring processes were engaged and increased when these processes were disrupted. The results from the three experiments were consistent with the principles of the source-monitoring framework.

  2. Exact solutions for the source-excited cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear nondispersive medium.

    PubMed

    Es'kin, V A; Kudrin, A V; Petrov, E Yu

    2011-06-01

    The behavior of electromagnetic fields in nonlinear media has been a topical problem since the discovery of materials with a nonlinearity of electromagnetic properties. The problem of finding exact solutions for the source-excited nonlinear waves in curvilinear coordinates has been regarded as unsolvable for a long time. In this work, we present the first solution of this type for a cylindrically symmetric field excited by a pulsed current filament in a nondispersive medium that is simultaneously inhomogeneous and nonlinear. Assuming that the medium has a power-law permittivity profile in the linear regime and lacks a center of inversion, we derive an exact solution for the electromagnetic field excited by a current filament in such a medium and discuss the properties of this solution.

  3. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the advanced light source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1995-06-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  4. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the Advanced Light Source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  5. Generation of multiwavelength light in the region of the biological windows in Tm3+-doped fiber excited at 1.064 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, A. S.; Silva, J. F.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Jacinto, C.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple wavelength infrared light generated within both "optical transmission windows" of biological tissues and blue light triggering photochemical reactions is produced, in Tm3+-doped fiber multi-excited in a single-pass configuration by a single fundamental source at 1.064 μm. In the process, amplified spontaneous emission at 810 nm (˜8 nm bandwidth) and blue emission at 480 nm are generated through frequency upconversion multiwavelength excitation using a single pump source at 1.064 μm and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) Stokes emissions around 1115 nm, 1173 nm, 1226 nm, 1284 nm, and a continuum up to 1400 nm and beyond. The proposed excitation mechanism for 810 nm and 480 nm thulium emissions is assigned to a multiphonon-assisted multiwavelength excitation from the 3H6 ground-state to the 3H5 excited-state, a rapid relaxation to the 3F4 level followed by a excited-state absorption of the pump and SRS Stokes photons mediated by multiphonons connecting the 3F4 level to the 3H4 and 1G4 main emitting levels.

  6. Investigation of self-excited induction generators for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Sallan, J.; Sanz, M.

    2000-02-28

    The use of squirrel-cage induction machines in wind generation is widely accepted as a generator of choice. The squirrel-cage induction machine is simple, reliable, cheap, lightweight, and requires very little maintenance. Generally, the induction generator is connected to the utility at constant frequency. With a constant frequency operation, the induction generator operates at practically constant speed (small range of slip). The wind turbine operates in optimum efficiency only within a small range of wind speed variation. The variable-speed operation allows an increase in energy captured and reduces both the torque peaks in the drive train and the power fluctuations sent to the utility. In variable-speed operation, an induction generator needs an interface to convert the variable frequency output of the generator to the fixed frequency at the utility. This interface can be simplified by using a self-excited generator because a simple diode bridge is required to perform the ac/dc conversion. The subsequent dc/ac conversion can be performed using different techniques. The use of a thyristor bridge is readily available for large power conversion and has a lower cost and higher reliability. The firing angle of the inverter bridge can be controlled to track the optimum power curve of the wind turbine. With only diodes and thyristors used in power conversion, the system can be scaled up to a very high voltage and high power applications. This paper analyzes the operation of such a system applied to a 1/3-hp self-excited induction generator. It includes the simulations and tests performed for the different excitation configurations.

  7. Forces exciting generation roll at rotor vibrations when rotor-to-stator rubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatokhin, V. F.

    2017-07-01

    The consequences of emergencies of turbosets for different application are revealed, the cause of forced shutdown and even catastrophic destructions of which many researchers consider the rotor-to-stator rubbing and development—to a greater or lesser extent—of the phenomena of the rotor generation roll over the stator. The synchronous or asynchronous generation roll is determined by the rotor precession direction, coinciding or not coinciding with the self-rotation direction of the rotor. Asynchronous generation roll is the most dangerous form of the rotor-stator contact interaction with the vibrations with rubbing. The basic equations of rotor vibrations are presented: symmetric rotor fixed on two supports and that fixed on several supports after abrupt imbalance with and without rotor coming in contact with a flexible stator. The vibration process is considered as the rotor motion in a backlash with subsequent contact with the stator, loss of contact, or development of generation roll. The latter essentially depends on the properties of the "rotor-support-stator" dynamic system. The stator stiffness characteristic is specified in "force-deformation" coordinates that make it possible to take into account damping in the supports and power loss in the stator. The diagram of elastic-damping device was presented, which makes it possible to ensure a certain level of power loss at the stator displacements. The exciting forces promoting development of self-exciting vibrations of the rotor in the form of asynchronous generation roll were compared with the exciting forces of oil film of sliding bearings and forces of aerodynamic excitation in the turbine flow path and sealings. For the rotor systems of high and medium pressure of a 300 MW capacity turboset, the simulation results of the process of development of asynchronous generation roll at the vibrations with rubbing were revealed, and the basic characteristics of development of generation roll in a span between

  8. Picosecond x-ray diagnostics for third and fourth generation synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeCamp, Matthew

    2016-03-30

    In the DOE-EPSCoR State/National Laboratory partnership grant ``Picosecond x-ray diagnostics for third and fourth generation synchrotron sources'' Dr. DeCamp set forth a partnership between the University of Delaware and Argonne National Laboratory. This proposal aimed to design and implement a series of experiments utilizing, or improving upon, existing time-domain hard x-ray spectroscopies at a third generation synchrotron source. Specifically, the PI put forth three experimental projects to be explored in the grant cycle: 1) implementing a picosecond ``x-ray Bragg switch'' using a laser excited nano-structured metallic film, 2) designing a robust x-ray optical delay stage for x-ray pump-probe studies at a hard x-ray synchrotron source, and 3) building/installing a laser based x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source for two-color x-ray pump-probe studies.

  9. Simulation for the radiation of Terahertz Horn Antenna with mixed-mode excitation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiang-qin; Wang, Jian-guo; Wang, Guang-qiang; Chen, Zai-gao; Cai, Li-bing

    2013-08-01

    Considering the overmoded structures of high-power Terahertz(THz) sources are often electrically large, it's difficult to compute the radiation of THz antennas on a personal computer due to over long time and prohibitive computation resources. A parallelized finite-difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm based on MPI platform and virtual topology structure, combined with theory of guided waves, is presented for analysis of the radiation of the large THz conical horn excited by mixed-mode souce. Cartesian virtual topology structure is firstly defined by MPI_CART_CREATE( ) function based on MPI platform. And MPI_CART_SHIFT() function is used to define the position relations of the subdomains. Then FDTD method is used in each subdomain. The absorbing boundary of the whole FDTD domain is uniaxial perfectly matchedlayer (UPML), and that of the waveguide is convolutional PML(CPML). Synchronous communication mode is used in parallelized FDTD between the adjacent subdomains. The coefficient of field components for each mode source can be got based on the given power of each mode. Thus the mixed-mode excitation source can be set by the coefficient and each mode's initial phase. Examples of an electrically large THz horn with 4 or 6 modes mixed excited are given in this paper. Considering the universal characteristic of FDTD method, the method shown in this paper can be used to simulate the radiation of other kinds of THz antennas with mixed-mode exicitation source. And it's useful for the design of those structures.

  10. The Rocketdyne Multifunction Tester. Part 2: Operation of a Radial Magnetic Bearing as an Excitation Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, L. A.; Murphy, Brian T.; Lang, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of the magnetic bearing used as an excitation source in the Rocketdyne Multifunction Tester is described. The tester is scheduled for operation during the summer of 1990. The magnetic bearing can be used in two control modes: (1) open loop mode, in which the magnetic bearing operates as a force actuator; and (2) closed loop mode, in which the magnetic bearing provides shaft support. Either control mode can be used to excite the shaft; however, response of the shaft in the two control modes is different due to the alteration of the eigenvalues by closed loop mode operation. A rotordynamic model is developed to predict the frequency response of the tester due to excitation in either control mode. Closed loop mode excitation is shown to be similar to the excitation produced by a rotating eccentricity in a conventional bearing. Predicted frequency response of the tester in the two control modes is compared, and the maximum response is shown to be the same for the two control modes when synchronous unbalance loading is not considered. The analysis shows that the response of this tester is adequate for the extraction of rotordynamic stiffness, damping, and inertia coefficients over a wide range of test article stiffnesses.

  11. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manard, Benjamin T.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Sarkar, Arnab; Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (Trot), excitation temperature (Texc), electron number density (ne), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N2 and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ~ 1000 K and ~ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ~ 3 × 1015 cm- 3 utilizing Stark broadening effects of the Hα line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source (< 1 mm3 volume), the LS-APGD is shown to be quite robust with plasma characteristics and temperatures being unaffected upon introduction of metal species, whether by liquid or laser ablation sample introduction.

  12. Transient performance of the self regulated short shunt self excited induction generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shridhar, L.; Singh, B.; Jha, C.S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper is an extension of the Authors` previous work on the self regulated short shunt Self Excited Induction Generator (SEIG). A detailed investigation is carried out on the transient behavior of the short shunt SEIG system subjected to different dynamic conditions. Analytical model incorporating cross-saturation effect, has been used to predict performance of the SEIG. Experimental results are presented along with the simulated ones. Response of the system to disturbances reveals its excellent transient performance. The system has a good overload capability and is free from operational problems related with short circuit and loss of excitation. By presenting typical results of a 3.7kW, three-phase squirrel cage machine, suitability of the short shunt SEIG for a simple, rugged and self regulated stand alone generating system, is established.

  13. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  14. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  15. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  16. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  17. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  18. 46 CFR 111.10-3 - Two generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two generating sources. 111.10-3 Section 111.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... drilling unit must have at least two electric generating sources....

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3 must...

  20. An excitation signal source with anti-interference ability for eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guodong; Li, Po

    2015-02-01

    An eddy current excitation signal source was designed based on the linear control theory. By analyzing the interference and characteristics of signal source, a multi-input-single-output (MISO) feedback control system was designed and created using a lock-in amplifier, and an eddy current sensor was applied in the feedback loop of the system. As a result, the noise in the loop circuit was suppressed; this resolved the current instability problem in eddy current sensor. Furthermore, a mathematical model was established, and the stability and bandwidth of the system were verified by simulations. Compared with the traditional signal sources, experimental results show that this signal source had steadier current output, smaller temperature drift and stronger load capability. Therefore, the foil thickness measurement based on this signal source had a very high accuracy.

  1. Energy localization and heat generation in composite energetic systems under high-frequency mechanical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Jesus O., Jr.

    In this work, the ability to use high frequency mechanical excitation to generate significant heating within plastic bonded explosives, as well as single energetic particles embedded within a viscoelastic binder, is studied. In this work, the fundamental mechanisms associated with the conversion of high-frequency mechanical excitation to heat as applied to these composite energetic systems are thoroughly investigated. High-frequency contact excitation has been used to generate a significant amount of heat within samples of PBX 9501 and representative inert mock materials. Surface temperature rises on the order of 10 °C were observed at certain frequencies over a range from 50 kHz to 40 MHz at thermal steady state conditions. The mechanical responses of these samples were also measured to explore the connection between the thermal and bulk motion of the samples. It was found that significant heating of the samples near the transducer resonance was driven by the bulk motion of the material while heating observed at higher frequencies were attributed to particle-scale interactions. To further investigate the interactions occurring at the particle scale, similar excitation was applied to samples of an elastic binder embedded with individual inert or energetic particles. Samples were excited over a range of 100 kHz to 20 MHz, and two distinct frequency regions were observed with separate characteristic heating trends. Through the comparison of the measured surface motion of the sample to the spatial temperature maps of the surface, it was determined that for heating observed in the samples at excitation frequencies above 1 MHz, the heat generation was due viscoelastic effects of the binder near the sample surface. However, at excitation frequencies near the transducer resonance of 215 kHz, it was determined that significant heat was generated at the inclusion and was associated with particle-binder interactions. For these cases of particle associated heating, an

  2. Performance Analysis of a Self-Excited Synchronous Reluctance Generator with Multiple-Barrier Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Kouichi; Fukami, Tadashi; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

    The modeling and steady-state performance of a self-excited synchronous reluctance generator (SESRG) that has a multiple-barrier (MB) rotor is set forth in this paper. In addition to the core loss, the magnetic saturation in both d-q axes is included in the developed model. Experimental results conducted on a 0.75-kVA testing machine are provided to justify the analytical approach and performance calculations.

  3. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  4. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  5. Experimental generating the partially coherent and partially polarized electromagnetic source.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrey S; Rodríguez-Zurita, Gustavo; Meneses-Fabián, Cruz; Olvera-Santamaría, Miguel A; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina

    2010-06-07

    The technique for generating the partially coherent and partially polarized source starting from the completely coherent and completely polarized laser source is proposed and analyzed. This technique differs from the known ones by the simplicity of its physical realization. The efficiency of the proposed technique is illustrated with the results of physical experiment in which an original technique for characterizing the coherence and polarization properties of the generated source is employed.

  6. The Exercise: An Exercise Generator Tool for the SOURCe Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakoyianni-Doa, Fryni; Tziafa, Eleni; Naskos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    The Exercise, an Exercise generator in the SOURCe project, is a tool that complements the properties and functionalities of the SOURCe project, which includes the search engine for the Searchable Online French-Greek parallel corpus for the UniveRsity of Cyprus (SOURCe) (Kakoyianni-Doa & Tziafa, 2013), the PENCIL (an alignment tool)…

  7. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  8. The optical theorem for local source excitation of a particle near a plane interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Based on classic Maxwell's theory and the Gauss Theorem we extended the Optical Theorem to the case of a penetrable particle excited by a local source deposited near a plane interface. We demonstrate that the derived Extinction Cross-Section involves the total point source radiating cross-section and some definite integrals responsible for the scattering by the interface. The derived extinction cross-section can be employed to estimate the quantum yield and the optical antenna efficiency without computation of the absorption cross-section.

  9. Intracerebral source generators characterizing concentrative meditation.

    PubMed

    Lavallee, Christina F; Hunter, Mathew D; Persinger, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Previous researchers have studied meditation practices as a means to understand consciousness as well as altered states of consciousness. Various meditation techniques, such as Transcendental Meditation (TM) and Qigong, have been explored with source localization tools; however, the concentrative meditation technique has yet to be fully studied in this manner. The current study demonstrates findings, which outline differential activation in a self-referential default network during meditation in participants who espouse themselves as regular concentrative meditation practitioners, as well as comparisons with a control group practicing a modified version of the relaxation response. The results are compared with other putative experimental findings employing other meditation techniques, and the findings outlined in the current study are discussed with respect to changes in perceptual awareness often reported by meditators.

  10. Direct-Drive Synchronous Generators with Excitation from Strontium-Ferrite Magnets: Efficiency Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryakov, A.; Levin, N.; Sokolov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors consider the possibility to raise the specific power of synchronous generators with excitation from inexpensive permanent magnets. For this purpose, it is proposed to use tooth-wise windings and permanent magnets based on inexpensive magneto-hard material, e.g. strontium-ferrite. The magnets are to be placed between the rotor teeth, the alternate polarity of which is facing the air-gap. This provides a simpler and cheaper technology of making such a generator and improves its reliability. The proposed rational bevelling of the stator teeth not only raises the specific power of the generator but also reduces the level of noise and vibrations, extends the longevity of the magnets and bearings as well as facilitates the starting torque of the electric machine, e.g. if it is employed as wind generator.

  11. The source of THz radiation based on dielectric waveguide excited by sequence of electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmark, A. M.; Kanareykin, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new method for excitation of THz Cherenkov radiation in a dielectric waveguide by relativistic electron bunches. A sequence of bunches generates monochromatic radiation. The frequency of radiation is defined by the distance between the bunches. The studies were carried by using the newly updated BBU-3000 code which permits taking into account a number of additional options: an external quadrupole focusing system, group velocity of the wakefield, and the dielectric material loss factor. In this paper, we present our algorithm for optimizing the number and sequential positions of bunches for generation of narrow band high power THz radiation.

  12. Micro-ionics: next generation power sources.

    PubMed

    Tuller, Harry L; Litzelman, Scott J; Jung, Woochul

    2009-05-07

    The desire for ever smarter systems-on-a-chip and plug-free portable electronics with longer operating times between recharge has stimulated growing interest in micro-ionic systems. The use of thin film and photolithographic processing techniques, commonly at temperatures considerably below those utilized in conventional ceramics processing methods, leads to ionic or mixed ionic-electronic materials with nanosized dimensions. The implications for nanosized grains on the conductivity of thin film solid oxide electrolytes are examined. Grain boundary engineering, as a means of controlling and ultimately enhancing transport along and across grain boundaries, becomes essential given that such boundaries often dominate the transport properties of such nano-dimensioned materials. Heterogeneous doping by selective in-diffusion along grain boundaries was introduced as a potentially powerful means of achieving this. This is coupled with the modeling of space charge distributions at such boundaries, taking into account possible dopant segregation to the boundaries. The use of lithographic methods for generating geometrically well defined structures is used to illustrate how one can achieve a much improved understanding of electrode processes in SOFC structures. Indeed, the more idealized structures achievable by application of microelectronic processing provide a marvelous opportunity to uncover the science underlying the technology of micro- and ultimately macro-ionics.

  13. Research on Primary Shielding Calculation Source Generation Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Mei, Qiliang; Li, Hui; Shangguan, Danhua; Zhang, Guangchun

    2017-09-01

    Primary Shielding Calculation (PSC) plays an important role in reactor shielding design and analysis. In order to facilitate PSC, a source generation code is developed to generate cumulative distribution functions (CDF) for the source particle sample code of the J Monte Carlo Transport (JMCT) code, and a source particle sample code is deveoped to sample source particle directions, types, coordinates, energy and weights from the CDFs. A source generation code is developed to transform three dimensional (3D) power distributions in xyz geometry to source distributions in r θ z geometry for the J Discrete Ordinate Transport (JSNT) code. Validation on PSC model of Qinshan No.1 nuclear power plant (NPP), CAP1400 and CAP1700 reactors are performed. Numerical results show that the theoretical model and the codes are both correct.

  14. The 4th Generation Light Source at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Albert Grippo; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Shukui Zhang; Gwyn Williams

    2007-04-25

    A number of "Grand Challenges" in Science have recently been identified in reports from The National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Many of these require a new generation of linac-based light source to study dynamical and non-linear phenomena in nanoscale samples. In this paper we present a summary of the properties of such light sources, comparing them with existing sources, and then describing in more detail a specific source at Jefferson Lab. Importantly, the JLab light source has developed some novel technology which is a critical enabler for other new light sources.

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Estimation of Excited Species Generation in Pulsed Electron Beam-Generated Plasmas Produced in Pure Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Their Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6750--11-9333 Experimental and Theoretical Estimation of Excited Species Generation in ...Pulsed Electron Beam–Generated Plasmas Produced in Pure Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Their Mixtures May 13, 2011 Approved for public release...PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Experimental and Theoretical Estimation of Excited Species Generation in Pulsed Electron Beam

  16. Mode excitation in a generator of diffraction radiation with a multistage interaction space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, V. S.; Senkevich, E. B.; Pivovarova, A. G.; Yudintsev, D. V.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of studying theoretically and experimentally the peculiarities of mode excitation in a generator of diffraction radiation with the two- and three-cascade interaction space in one open resonator. To describe the multistage interaction mechanism, the theoretical model used considers the excitation of the TEM0nq modes, which have n in-phase field “spots,” i.e., cascades, along the direction of the electron beam motion. It is shown that even the use of the two-cascade interaction space with the TEM01q modes allows one to reduce the starting current of the generator by 1.91 times. The results of studying experimentally the two-cascade generator in the 5 and 1.5-mm wavelength ranges are presented. The in-phase property of the electron beam with the resonance field was achieved by disrupting the periodicity of the lattice slots at the center of the interaction space. The output power of the two-stage generator of 5-mm diffraction radiation in the TEM013 mode ranged from 3 to 5 W. We also observed a 4-5-fold increase in the starting current for the regime of surface waves.

  17. The excitation of long period seismic waves by a source spanning a structural discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, J. H.

    Simple theoretical results are obtained for the excitation of seismic waves by an indigenous seismic source in the case that the source volume is intersected by a structural discontinuity. In the long wavelength approximation the seismic radiation is identical to that of a point source placed on one side of the discontinuity or of a different point source placed on the other side. The moment tensors of these two equivalent sources are related by a specific linear transformation and may differ appreciably both in magnitude and geometry. Either of these sources could be obtained by linear inversion of seismic data but the physical interpretation is more complicated than in the usual case. A source which involved no volume change would, for example, yield an isotropic component if, during inversion, it were assumed to lie on the wrong side of the discontinuity. The problem of determining the true moment tensor of the source is indeterminate unless further assumptions are made about the stress glut distribution; one way to resolve this indeterminancy is to assume proportionality between the integrated stress glut on each side of the discontinuity.

  18. In vitro imaging of thyroid tissues using two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zufang; Li, Zuanfang; Chen, Rong; Lin, Juqiang; Li, Yongzeng; Li, Chao

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging to discriminate the normal, nodular goiter and papillary cancerous thyroid tissue. In total, 45 fresh thyroid specimens (normal, 15; nodular goiter, 12; and papillary cancerous, 18) from 31 subjects were directly imaged by the TPEF and SHG combination method. The microstructure of follicle and collagen structure in thyroid tissue were clearly identified, morphologic changes between normal, nodular goiter, and papillary cancerous thyroid tissue were well characterized by using two-photon excitation fluorescence. SHG imaging of the collagen matrix also revealed the differences between normal and abnormal. Our preliminary study suggests that the TPEF and SHG combination method might be a useful tool in revealing pathologic changes in thyroid tissue.

  19. Neuropeptide-mediated excitability: a key triggering mechanism for seizure generation in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Hatalski, Carolyn G.

    2012-01-01

    Most human seizures occur early in life, consistent with established excitability-promoting features of the developing brain. Surprisingly, the majority of developmental seizures are not spontaneous but are provoked by injurious or stressful stimuli. What mechanisms mediate ‘triggering’ of seizures and limit such reactive seizures to early postnatal life? Recent evidence implicates the excitatory neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Stress activates expression of the CRH gene in several limbic regions, and CRH-expressing neurons are strategically localized in the immature rat hippocampus, in which this neuropeptide increases the excitability of pyramidal cells in vitro. Indeed, in vivo, activation of CRH receptors – maximally expressed in hippocampus and amygdala during the developmental period which is characterized by peak susceptibility to ‘provoked’ convulsions – induces severe, age-dependent seizures. Thus, converging data indicate that activation of expression of CRH constitutes an important mechanism for generating developmentally regulated, triggered seizures, with considerable clinical relevance. PMID:9829688

  20. High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Naotaka; Tamaya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2017-05-01

    The electronic properties of graphene can give rise to a range of nonlinear optical responses. One of the most desirable nonlinear optical processes is high-harmonic generation (HHG) originating from coherent electron motion induced by an intense light field. Here, we report on the observation of up to ninth-order harmonics in graphene excited by mid-infrared laser pulses at room temperature. The HHG in graphene is enhanced by an elliptically polarized laser excitation, and the resultant harmonic radiation has a particular polarization. The observed ellipticity dependence is reproduced by a fully quantum mechanical treatment of HHG in solids. The zero-gap nature causes the unique properties of HHG in graphene, and our findings open up the possibility of investigating strong-field and ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear behavior of massless Dirac fermions.

  1. Second- and third-harmonic generation and multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy for simultaneous imaging of cardiomyocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzda, Virginijus; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Aus der Au, Juerg; Squier, Jeffrey A.; Elmore, Steven; van Beek, Johannes H.

    2004-06-01

    Simultaneous detection of second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG) and multiphoton excitation fluorescence with ultrafast laser pulses from a Nd:Glass laser was used to image isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The simultaneous detection enabled visualization of different organelles of cardiomyocytes, based on the different contrast mechanisms. It was found that SHG signal depicted characteristic patterns of sarcomeres in a myofilament lattice. The regular pattern of the THG signal, which was anticorrelated with the SHG signal, suggested that the third harmonic is generated within mitochondria. By labeling the cardiomyocytes with the mitochondrial dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), comparisons could be made between the TMRM fluorescence, THG, and SHG images. The TMRM fluorescence had significant correlation with THG signal confirming that part of the THG signal originates from mitochondria.

  2. Microsystem light source at 488 nm for shifted excitation resonance Raman difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maiwald, Martin; Schmidt, Heinar; Sumpf, Bernd; Güther, Reiner; Erbert, Götz; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef; Tränkle, Günther

    2009-11-01

    A microsystem light source emitting at 488 nm was tested and applied as a light source for shifted excitation resonance Raman difference spectroscopy (SERRDS). A nonlinear frequency conversion using a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser emission at 976 nm and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide crystal was realized on a micro-optical bench with a footprint of 25 mm x 5 mm. Joint temperature management via the microbench is used for wavelength tuning. Two emission lines at 487.61 nm and 487.91 nm are used for the SERRDS experiments. The Raman spectra of the test sample polystyrene demonstrate that a laser bandpass filter did not need to be implemented. Resonance Raman spectra of Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5, E 102) in distilled water are presented to demonstrate the suitability of this light source for SERRDS in, e.g., food safety control.

  3. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  4. Source Term Model for an Array of Vortex Generator Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G. (Technical Monitor); Waithe, Kenrick A.

    2003-01-01

    A source term model was developed for numerical simulations of an array of vortex generators. The source term models the side force created by a vortex generator being modeled. The model is obtained by introducing a side force to the momentum and energy equations that can adjust its strength automatically based on a local flow. The model was tested and calibrated by comparing data from numerical simulations and experiments of a single low-profile vortex generator vane, which is only a fraction of the boundary layer thickness, over a flat plate. The source term model allowed a grid reduction of about seventy percent when compared with the numerical simulations performed on a fully gridded vortex generator without adversely affecting the development and capture of the vortex created. The source term model was able to predict the shape and size of the stream wise vorticity and velocity contours very well when compared with both numerical simulations and experimental data.

  5. Generation of whistler waves by a rotating magnetic field source

    SciTech Connect

    Karavaev, A. V.; Gumerov, N. A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, Xi; Sharma, A. S.; Gekelman, W.; Gigliotti, A.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.

    2010-01-15

    The paper discusses the generation of polarized whistler waves radiated from a rotating magnetic field source created via a novel phased orthogonal two loop antenna. The results of linear three-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamics simulations along with experiments on the generation whistler waves by the rotating magnetic field source performed in the large plasma device are presented. Comparison of the experimental results with the simulations and linear wave properties shows good agreement. The whistler wave dispersion relation with nonzero transverse wave number and the wave structure generated by the rotating magnetic field source are also discussed. The phase velocity of the whistler waves was found to be in good agreement with the theoretical dispersion relation. The exponential decay rate of the whistler wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field is determined by Coulomb collisions. In collisionless case the rotating magnetic field source was found to be a very efficient radiation source for transferring energy along the ambient magnetic field lines.

  6. Genetic activation of BK currents in vivo generates bidirectional effects on neuronal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Jenna R.; Meredith, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are potent negative regulators of excitability in neurons and muscle, and increasing BK current is a novel therapeutic strategy for neuro- and cardioprotection, disorders of smooth muscle hyperactivity, and several psychiatric diseases. However, in some neurons, enhanced BK current is linked with seizures and paradoxical increases in excitability, potentially complicating the clinical use of agonists. The mechanisms that switch BK influence from inhibitory to excitatory are not well defined. Here we investigate this dichotomy using a gain-of-function subunit (BKR207Q) to enhance BK currents. Heterologous expression of BKR207Q generated currents that activated at physiologically relevant voltages in lower intracellular Ca2+, activated faster, and deactivated slower than wild-type currents. We then used BKR207Q expression to broadly augment endogenous BK currents in vivo, generating a transgenic mouse from a circadian clock-controlled Period1 gene fragment (Tg-BKR207Q). The specific impact on excitability was assessed in neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, a cell type where BK currents regulate spontaneous firing under distinct day and night conditions that are defined by different complements of ionic currents. In the SCN, Tg-BKR207Q expression converted the endogenous BK current to fast-activating, while maintaining similar current-voltage properties between day and night. Alteration of BK currents in Tg-BKR207Q SCN neurons increased firing at night but decreased firing during the day, demonstrating that BK currents generate bidirectional effects on neuronal firing under distinct conditions. PMID:23112153

  7. Mechanism of oxidative stress generation in cells by localized near-infrared femtosecond laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Chan, Kam Tai; Kong, Siu Kai; Lee, Rebecca Kit Ying

    2009-12-01

    We examined the effect of femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) lasers at near-infrared range on the creation of reactive oxygen species in a human liver cancer cell line. By controlling the mitochondria electron transport chain (ETC), it was found that a major part of the oxidative stress was generated by the laser induced thermal effect on the mitochondria while the remaining part was created by direct free electron liberation by the fs pulses, which could be observed after breaking the ETC. The study helps clarify the major effects produced on animal cells when excited by fs lasers.

  8. Dissociation and excitation coefficients of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen monoxide generation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Na, Young H.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guangsup

    2013-08-15

    The excitation coefficient α{sub N2} is calculated for the excited metastable level of N{sub 2}(A{sub 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +}) in nitrogen molecules. In addition, the dissociation coefficient of nitrogen molecules is investigated by making use of the Boltzmann distribution of the electrons in atmospheric plasmas. The excitation and electron-impact dissociation coefficients of nitrogen molecules are analytically expressed in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} for evaluations of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in atmospheric plasmas. As an application example of these coefficients, the nitrogen monoxide generation through a microwave torch is carried out for a development of medical tool. The nitrogen monoxide concentration from a microwave plasma-torch can be easily controlled by the nitrogen flow rate, mole fraction of the oxygen gas, and the microwave power. A simple analytic expression of the nitrogen monoxide concentration is obtained in terms of the oxygen molecular density and gas flow rate. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results from the analytical expression. A microwave nitrogen-torch can easily provide an appropriate nitrogen monoxide concentration for the wound healings.

  9. Synchronized excitability in a network enables generation of internal neuronal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingxue; Roth, Zachary; Pastalkova, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal place field sequences are supported by sensory cues and network internal mechanisms. In contrast, sharp-wave (SPW) sequences, theta sequences, and episode field sequences are internally generated. The relationship of these sequences to memory is unclear. SPW sequences have been shown to support learning and have been assumed to also support episodic memory. Conversely, we demonstrate these SPW sequences were present in trained rats even after episodic memory was impaired and after other internal sequences – episode field and theta sequences – were eliminated. SPW sequences did not support memory despite continuing to ‘replay’ all task-related sequences – place- field and episode field sequences. Sequence replay occurred selectively during synchronous increases of population excitability -- SPWs. Similarly, theta sequences depended on the presence of repeated synchronized waves of excitability – theta oscillations. Thus, we suggest that either intermittent or rhythmic synchronized changes of excitability trigger sequential firing of neurons, which in turn supports learning and/or memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20697.001 PMID:27677848

  10. Distributed source model for the full-wave electromagnetic simulation of nonlinear terahertz generation.

    PubMed

    Fumeaux, Christophe; Lin, Hungyen; Serita, Kazunori; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Kaufmann, Thomas; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Abbott, Derek

    2012-07-30

    The process of terahertz generation through optical rectification in a nonlinear crystal is modeled using discretized equivalent current sources. The equivalent terahertz sources are distributed in the active volume and computed based on a separately modeled near-infrared pump beam. This approach can be used to define an appropriate excitation for full-wave electromagnetic numerical simulations of the generated terahertz radiation. This enables predictive modeling of the near-field interactions of the terahertz beam with micro-structured samples, e.g. in a near-field time-resolved microscopy system. The distributed source model is described in detail, and an implementation in a particular full-wave simulation tool is presented. The numerical results are then validated through a series of measurements on square apertures. The general principle can be applied to other nonlinear processes with possible implementation in any full-wave numerical electromagnetic solver.

  11. Low-cost laser scanning photoacoustic microscopy system with a pulsed laser diode excitation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Zhu, Quing

    2017-03-01

    We present a low-cost laser scanning photoacoustic microscopy system with a pulsed laser diode as the excitation source. The system utilizes a 905 nm pulsed laser diode with 120 ns pulse width and 1 KHz repetition rate. No averaging is performed in data acquisition, resulting in a short image acquisition time. The maximum field of view is 4.6 mm × 3.7 mm and the lateral resolution is 71 μm. Images of human hairs and mouse ear are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the system in imaging biological tissue.

  12. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  13. Triplet excited States as a source of relevant (bio)chemical information.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and α1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation.

  14. Analysis of Power Converter Losses in Vector Control System of a Self-Excited Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bašić, Mateo; Vukadinović, Dinko; Polić, Miljenko

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides analysis of losses in the hysteresis-driven three-phase power converter with IGBTs and free-wheeling diodes. The converter under consideration is part of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) vector control system. For the analysis, the SEIG vector control system is used in which the induction generator iron losses are taken into account. The power converter losses are determined by using a suitable loss estimation algorithm reported in literature. The chosen algorithm allows the power converter losses to be determined both by type (switching/conduction losses) and by converter component (IGBT/diode losses). The overall power converter losses are determined over wide ranges of rotor speed, dc-link voltage and load resistance, and subsequently used for offline correction of the overall control system's losses (efficiency) obtained through control system simulations with an ideal power converter. The control system's efficiency values obtained after the correction are compared with the measured values.

  15. Frequency spectra of magnetostrictive and Lorentz forces generated in ferromagnetic materials by a CW excited EMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouge, C.; Lhémery, A.; Aristégui, C.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetostriction arises in ferromagnetic materials subjected to magnetization, e.g., when an EMAT (Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) is used to generate ultrasonic waves. In such a case, the magnetostriction force must be taken into account as a transduction process that adds up to the Lorentz force. When the static magnetic field is high compared to the dynamic field, both forces are driven by the excitation frequency. For lower static relative values of the magnetic fields, the Lorentz force comprises both the excitation frequency and its first harmonic. In this work, a model is derived to predict the frequency content of the magnetostrictive force that comprises several harmonics. The discrete frequency spectrum strongly depends on both the static field and the relative amplitude of the dynamic field. The only material input data needed to predict it is the curve of macroscopic magnetostrictive strain that can be measured in the direction of an imposed magnetic field. Then, the various frequency-dependent distributions of Lorentz and magnetostriction body forces can be transformed into equivalent surface stresses. Examples of computation are given for different static and dynamic magnetic fields to study their influence on the frequency content of waves generated in ferromagnetic materials.

  16. Numerical Study of an AC MHD Generation with Double-side Exciting Winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intani, Pattana; Buttapeng, Chainarong; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nobuhiro

    This paper studies physical phenomena, performance and optimal operating point of an AC MHD generator under the slip value by using a numerical simulation. The double-side exciting winding of the generator is considered. Its structure consists of a channel, an insulator and stators. Channel type is a flat rectangular and the liquid flows along the channel as a conductor. Channel wall acted as an insulator separates metal fluid and stator coils. The top and bottom stator winding of the generator is connected to polyphase system. Under this condition, it can produce a magnetic field by means of time harmonic function in the same direction of the metal fluid. An interaction between traveling wave and metal fluid is explained by finite element method under Maxwell's equation and Ohm law. The distribution of magnetic vector potential and magnetic flux density throughout channel is evidently shown in xy-plane. Power flow in AC MHD generator is evaluated by slip value. The optimal operating point of an AC MHD generator performance is reported by active power 0.99kW, reactive power 50kVAR, mechanical power 1.58kW, power dissipation 0.59kW and electrical efficiency 62.5%.

  17. Integrated OLED as excitation light source in fluorescent lateral flow immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishak; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-12-15

    The integration of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation light sources for quantum dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay systems (LFIA) was investigated. This approach has the potential to deliver a sensitive visible detection scheme for low-cost, disposable lab-on-chip point-of-care (POC) diagnosis system. Thin film phosphorescent green OLEDs fabricated on plastic substrates were integrated on-chip to excite the test line of a quantum dot-based LFIA (QD-LFIA). OLEDs were fabricated by sequential deposition of organic thin films (total of ~100 nm) onto ITO-coated PET substrates. CdSe/ZnS QDs emitting at 655 nm and Au nanoparticles (NP - 10 nm size) conjugated antibodies were used for the fluorescence QD-LFIA and conventional reflection-mode Au NP-LFIA, respectively. Thin plastic color light filters were integrated for filtering the excitation light source and, thereby, increasing the contrast of the emitted light for optimized visual detection. Integration of the OLED and color filters with the analytical membrane was achieved using adhesive techniques facilitated by the planar nature of the layers, which suggests possible large scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing. Gray scale analysis from digital images captured with a digital camera was used to quantify the visual sensitivity. The signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit of detection (LOD) of OLED integrated QD-LFIAs were compared to Au NP LFIAs. OLED QD-LFIA exhibited superior performance in all signal aspects: 7-8× higher signal intensity and SNR, and a 7× lower LOD of 3 nM (measured at S/N=3). These results demonstrate the potential of OLED-integrated in LFIA devices for obtaining sensitive, fast and low-cost POC diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A liquid hydrocarbon deuteron source for neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwoebel, P. R.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental studies of a deuteron spark source for neutron generators using hydrogen isotope fusion reactions are reported. The ion source uses a spark discharge between electrodes coated with a deuterated hydrocarbon liquid, here Santovac 5, to inhibit permanent electrode erosion and extend the lifetime of high-output neutron generator spark ion sources. Thompson parabola mass spectra show that principally hydrogen and deuterium ions are extracted from the ion source. Hydrogen is the chief residual gas phase species produced due to source operation in a stainless-steel vacuum chamber. The prominent features of the optical emission spectra of the discharge are C+ lines, the hydrogen Balmer Hα-line, and the C2 Swan bands. Operation of the ion source was studied in a conventional laboratory neutron generator. The source delivered an average deuteron current of ˜0.5 A nominal to the target in a 5 μs duration pulse at 1 Hz with target voltages of -80 to -100 kV. The thickness of the hydrocarbon liquid in the spark gap and the consistency thereof from spark to spark influences the deuteron yield and plays a role in determining the beam-focusing characteristics through the applied voltage necessary to break down the spark gap. Higher breakdown voltages result in larger ion beam spots on the target and vice-versa. Because the liquid self-heals and thereby inhibits permanent electrode erosion, the liquid-based source provides long life, with 104 pulses to date, and without clear evidence that, in principle, the lifetime could not be much longer. Initial experiments suggest that an alternative cylindrical target-type generator design can extract approximately 10 times the deuteron current from the source. Preliminary data using the deuterated source liquid as a neutron-producing target are also presented.

  19. Tone generation by aeroacoustic sources in pipes with flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Sound production by axisymmetric ring cavities in internal flow has been investigated experimentally. These ring sources generate sound when the acoustic motion in the cavity is in resonance in one of many possible modes. Experimental results agree with predictions of a model eddy-driven oscillator. It is observed that the standing waves produced by reflections from regions upstream and downstream of the source are adjusted by the source such that the source is at a pressure antinode at the condition of maximum sound emission.

  20. a Comparison of Different Coherent Deep Ultraviolet Generations Using Second Harmonic Generation with Blue Laser Diode Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangtrongbenchasil, C.; Nonaka, K.

    2008-11-01

    Nano-focus beam applications of short wavelength approximately 220 nm now play important roles in engineering and industrial sections. At present, light sources at approximately 220 nm are commercially available but large size, difficult to maintain, and expensive. Compact wavelength tunable and cost effective light sources at approximately 220 nm are required. Laser diode with sum-frequency generation methods are employed to generated the shorter wavelength approximately 220 nm. This paper presents comparison of second harmonic generation schemes using a nonlinear optic crystal and two types of laser diode, which are a 440 nm single mode blue laser diode and a 450 nm multimode Fabry-Perot blue laser diode, has potential to generate wide tunable coherent deep ultraviolet-c at approximately 220 nm. Using the blue laser diode with the sum-frequency technique, a high second harmonic power is hardly observed due to low conversion efficiency. The best performance of second harmonic generation using blue laser diode, nonlinear optic crystal, and an high-Q external cavity laser diode was observed as 1.1 μW second harmonic ultraviolet-c power at 224.45 nm ultraviolet-c wavelength and 5.75 nm ultraviolet wavelength tunability. In addition, the improvement of increasing second harmonic power approximately 220 nm and the limitation of wavelength tuning of short wavelength are also theoretically discussed in this paper.

  1. Multi-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of multiple fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Wu, Juwell; Horton, Nicholas G.; Lin, Charles P.; Xu, Chris

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous imaging of cells expressing multiple fluorescent proteins (FPs) is of particular interest in applications such as mapping neural circuits, tracking multiple immune cell populations, etc. To visualize both in vivo and ex vivo tissue morphology and physiology at a cellular level deep within scattering tissues, two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) is a powerful tool that has found wide applications. However, simultaneous imaging of multiple FPs with 2PM is greatly hampered by the lack of proper ultrafast lasers offering multi-color femtosecond pulses, each targeting the two-photon absorption peak of a different FP. Here we demonstrate simultaneous two-photon fluorescence excitation of RFP, YFP, and CFP in human melanoma cells engineered to express a "rainbow" pallet of colors, using a novel fiber-based source with energetic, three-color femtosecond pulses. The three-color pulses, centered at 775 nm, 864 nm and 950 nm, are obtained through second harmonic generation of the 1550 nm pump laser and SHG of the solitons at 1728 nm and 1900 nm generated through soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) of the pump laser in a large-mode-area (LMA) fiber. The resulting wavelengths are well matched to the two-photon absorption peaks of the three FPs for efficient excitation. Our results demonstrate that multi-color femtosecond pulse generation using SSFS and a turn-key, fiber-based femtosecond laser can fulfill the requirements for simultaneous imaging of multiple FPs in 2PM, opening new opportunities for a wide range of biological applications where non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of multiple fluorescent indicators is required.

  2. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-02-15

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B{sub ECR} will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb{sub 3}Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development.

  3. Fifth-Generation Free-Electron Laser Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    2011-03-02

    During the past few years, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) have demonstrated the outstanding capability of free-electron lasers (FELs) as sources of coherent radiation in the soft and hard x-ray region. The high intensity, tens of GW, short pulses (few to less than 100 femtoseconds, and the unique transverse coherence properties are opening a new window to study the structure and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. The LCLS, FLASH, and the other FELs now under construction are only the beginning of the development of these light sources. The next generations will reach new levels of performance: terawatt, atto-second, ultra-small line-width, high repetition rate, full longitudinal and transverse coherence. These future developments and the R&D needed to successfully build and operate the next generation of FEL light sources will be discussed.

  4. Design and operational characteristics of a compact relativistic electron beam generator for the excitation of short wavelength lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito, Y.; Yamagishi, A.; Inaba, H.

    1980-11-01

    A compact and simple high current relativistic electron beam (REB) generator for the excitation of lasers in the short wavelength region has been designed and constructed. The REB generator which includes a Tesla transformer-type high-voltage generator, a water pulse forming line, and a cold cathode electron gun, generates 250 keV, 15 kA, and 15 ns pulsed electron beams.

  5. Employing static excitation control and tie line reactance to stabilize wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Guo, T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical representation of a wind turbine generator is presented which employs blade pitch angle feedback control. A mathematical model was formulated. With the functioning MOD-0 wind turbine serving as a practical case study, results of computer simulations of the model as applied to the problem of dynamic stability at rated load are also presented. The effect of the tower shadow was included in the input to the system. Different configurations of the drive train, and optimal values of the tie line reactance were used in the simulations. Computer results revealed that a static excitation control system coupled with optimal values of the tie line reactance would effectively reduce oscillations of the power output, without the use of a slip clutch.

  6. Raman parametric excitation effect upon the third harmonic generation by a metallic nanoparticle lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2015-08-21

    This work is a theoretical study on third harmonic generation in the nonlinear propagation of an intense laser pulse through a periodic three-dimensional lattice of nanoparticles. Using a perturbative method, the nonlinear equations that describe the laser–nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime are derived. Additionally, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the amplitude of the third harmonic are obtained. Finally, the effects of the nanoparticle radius and separation length, the distribution of the nanoparticle electron density, and the laser frequency upon the third harmonic efficiency are investigated. In addition to the expected resonance that occurs when the third harmonic resonates with the plasmon wave, another resonance appears when the nonlinear interaction of the fundamental mode with the third harmonic excites a longitudinal collective plasmon wave via the parametric Raman mechanism.

  7. Development of a microfocus x-ray tube with multiple excitation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Maeo, Shuji; Kraemer, Markus; Taniguchi, Kazuo

    2009-03-15

    A microfocus x-ray tube with multiple targets and an electron gun with a focal spot size of 10 {mu}m in diameter has been developed. The electron gun contains a LaB{sub 6} cathode and an Einzel lens. The x-ray tube can be operated at 50 W (50 kV, 1 mA) and has three targets, namely, Cr, W, and Rh on the anode that can be selected completely by moving the anode position. A focal spot size of 10 {mu}m in diameter can be achieved at 0.5 mA current. As demonstration of the usability of a multiexcitation x-ray tube, the fluorescence x-rays have been measured using a powder specimen mixed of TiO{sub 2}, Co, and Zr of the same quantity. The differences of excitation efficiency have clearly appeared according to the change in excitation source. From the results discussed here, it can be expected that the presented x-ray tube will be a powerful tool in microx-ray fluorescence spectrometers and various x-ray instruments.

  8. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Taniuchi, Tsutomu; Takano, Shiro; Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Fukami, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  9. Improvement of low speed induction generator performances and reducing the power of excitation and voltage control system

    SciTech Connect

    Budisan, N.; Hentea, T.; Mahil, S.; Madescu, G.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present the results of our investigations concerning the utilization of induction generators at very low speed. It is shown that, by proper design, it is possible to obtain high efficiency and high power factor values. The optimized induction generators require lower reactive power resulting in lower size and price of the excitation control system. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Power generation from base excitation of a Kevlar composite beam with ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes with piezoelectric properties have gained interest in the fabrication of small scale power harvesting systems. However, the practical applications of the nanoscale materials in structures with true mechanical strengths have not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, piezoelectric ZnO nanowires are integrated into the fiber reinforced polymer composites serving as an active phase to convert the induced strain energy from ambient vibration into electrical energy. Arrays of ZnO nanowires are grown vertically aligned on aramid fibers through a low-cost hydrothermal process. The modified fabrics with ZnO nanowires whiskers are then placed between two carbon fabrics as the top and the bottom electrodes. Finally, vacuum resin transfer molding technique is utilized to fabricate these multiscale composites. The fabricated composites are subjected to a base excitation using a shaker to generate charge due to the direct piezoelectric effect of ZnO nanowires. Measuring the generated potential difference between the two electrodes showed the energy harvesting application of these multiscale composites in addition to their superior mechanical properties. These results propose a new generation of power harvesting systems with enhanced mechanical properties.

  11. Order of multiphoton excitation of sulfonium photo-acid generators used in photoresists based on SU-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Henry E.; Diaz, Carlos; Padilla, Gabriel; Hernandez, Florencio E.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2017-06-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL), Z-scan spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations were employed to investigate the order of multiphoton excitation that occurs when femtosecond laser pulses are used to excite two sulfonium photo-acid generators (PAGs) commonly used in photoresists based on the cross-linkable epoxide SU-8. The mole-fractions of the mono- and bis-sulfonium forms of these PAGs were determined for the commercially available photoresist SU-8 2075 and for the PAGs alone from a separate source. Both were found to contain similar fractions of the mono- and bis-forms, with the mono form present in the majority. Reichert's method was used to determine the solvatochromic strength of the SU-8 matrix, so that results obtained for the PAGs in SU-8 and in solution could be reliably compared. The PAGs were found to exhibit a minimal solvatochromic shift for a series of solvents that span across the solvatochromic strength of SU-8 itself. Sub-micron-sized features were fabricated in SU-8 2075 by MPL using amplified and continuous-wave mode-locked laser pulses. Analysis of the features as a function of average laser power, scan speed, and excitation wavelength shows that the PAGs can be activated by both two- and three-photon absorption (2PA and 3PA). Which activation mode dominates depends principally upon the excitation wavelength because the average laser powers that can be used with the photoresist are limited by practical considerations. The power must be high enough to effect sufficient cross-linking, yet not so high as to exceed the damage threshold of the material. When the laser pulses have a duration on the order of 100 fs, 3PA dominates at wavelengths near 800 nm, whereas 2PA becomes dominant at wavelengths below 700 nm. These findings are corroborated by open-aperture Z-scan measurements and quantum chemical calculations of the cross-sections for 2PA and 3PA as a function of wavelength.

  12. Numerical simulations of current generation and dynamo excitation in a mechanically forced turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, R A; Forest, C B; Nornberg, M D; Spence, E J; Terry, P W

    2007-02-01

    The role of turbulence in current generation and self-excitation of magnetic fields has been studied in the geometry of a mechanically driven, spherical dynamo experiment, using a three-dimensional numerical computation. A simple impeller model drives a flow that can generate a growing magnetic field, depending on the magnetic Reynolds number Rm=micro0sigmaVa and the fluid Reynolds number Re=Vanu of the flow. For Re<420, the flow is laminar and the dynamo transition is governed by a threshold of Rmcrit=100, above which a growing magnetic eigenmode is observed that is primarily a dipole field transverse to the axis of symmetry of the flow. In saturation, the Lorentz force slows the flow such that the magnetic eigenmode becomes marginally stable. For Re>420 and Rm approximately 100 the flow becomes turbulent and the dynamo eigenmode is suppressed. The mechanism of suppression is a combination of a time varying large-scale field and the presence of fluctuation driven currents (such as those predicted by the mean-field theory), which effectively enhance the magnetic diffusivity. For higher Rm, a dynamo reappears; however, the structure of the magnetic field is often different from the laminar dynamo. It is dominated by a dipolar magnetic field aligned with the axis of symmetry of the mean-flow, which is apparently generated by fluctuation-driven currents. The magnitude and structure of the fluctuation-driven currents have been studied by applying a weak, axisymmetric seed magnetic field to laminar and turbulent flows. An Ohm's law analysis of the axisymmetric currents allows the fluctuation-driven currents to be identified. The magnetic fields generated by the fluctuations are significant: a dipole moment aligned with the symmetry axis of the mean-flow is generated similar to those observed in the experiment, and both toroidal and poloidal flux expulsion are observed.

  13. Optimization of native fluorescence detection of proteins using a pulsed nano laser excitation source

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Matthew S.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a mathematical description of the S/N ratio in a fluorescence-based protein detector for capillary electrophoresis that uses a pulsed UV laser at 266 nm as an excitation source. The model accounts for photobleaching, detector volume, laser repetition rate, and analyte flow rate. We have experimentally characterized such a system, and present a comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of the model. Using the model, the system was optimized for test analytes tryptophan, tyrosine, BSA, and conalbumin, producing detection limits (3σ) of 0.67 nM, 5.7 nM, 0.9 nM, and 1.5 nM, respectively. Based on the photobleaching data, a photobleaching cross section of 1.4×10−18 cm2 at 266 nm was calculated for tryptophan. PMID:21073798

  14. Source characterization of selected North Caspian events from the relative excitation of regional phases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Seismograms of seven recent events (presumed underground nuclear explosions) which occurred during 1976-1979 in the North Caspian Sea region of the western Soviet Kazakh are compared at regional distances for their relative source excitation characteristics. The body wave magnitude estimates of these events range from 5.1 to 6.0. The data consist of analog and digital records collected at stations ranging in instrumental sophistication from temporary sites with single component smoke drum capability to those of SRO, ASRO and array (ILPA) configurations with digitally recorded down-hole observations. The amplitude and frequency measurements of the analog seismograms for the first arrival and the peak amplitude of P coda as well as for the clear S wave signals recorded for different events at the same station are compared.

  15. The use of coherence functions to determine dynamic excitation sources on launch vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, S.; Halvorson, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of determining the relative contribution of simultaneous acoustic and mechanical inputs to the response of structures under combined dynamic loads was studied. An analytical technique developed by Bendat for calculating ordinary, partial, and multiple coherence functions, using an iterative nonmatrix approach was applied to data obtained from laboratory tests on a complex structural assembly. Testing was performed in an acoustically 'live' room. Up to three random inputs, having similar spectral content and varying degrees of mutual coherence, and a single output were used. Stationary and nonstationary inputs were used. It was concluded that the technique provided an effective method of identifying sources of dynamic excitation and evaluating their relative contributions to the measured output at structural resonances, for stationary random inputs. An attempt to apply the technique to nonstationary inputs did not yield consistent results.

  16. Optimization of native fluorescence detection of proteins using a pulsed nanolaser excitation source.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Matthew S; Farnsworth, Paul B

    2010-11-01

    We present a mathematical description of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in a fluorescence-based protein detector for capillary electrophoresis that uses a pulsed ultraviolet (UV) laser at 266 nm as an excitation source. The model accounts for photobleaching, detector volume, laser repetition rate, and analyte flow rate. We have experimentally characterized such a system, and we present a comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of the model. Using the model, the system was optimized for test analytes tryptophan, tyrosine, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and conalbumin, producing detection limits (3σ) of 0.67 nM, 5.7 nM, 0.9 nM, and 1.5 nM, respectively. Based on the photobleaching data, a photobleaching cross-section of 1.4 × 10(-18)cm(2) at 266 nm was calculated for tryptophan.

  17. Electromagnetic Modeling of Distributed-Source-Excitation of Coplanar Waveguides: Applications to Traveling-Wave Photomixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasqualini, Davide; Neto, Andrea; Wyss, Rolf A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work an electromagnetic model and subsequent design is presented for a traveling-wave, coplanar waveguide (CPW) based source that will operate in the THz frequency regime. The radio frequency (RF) driving current is a result of photoexcitation of a thin GaAs membrane using two frequency-offset lasers. The GaAs film is grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) and displays sub-ps carrier lifetimes which enable the material conductivity to be modulated at a very high rate. The RF current flows between electrodes deposited on the GaAs membrane which are biased with a DC voltage source. The electrodes form a CPW and are terminated with a double slot antenna that couples the power to a quasi-optical system. The membrane is suspended above a metallic reflector to launch all radiation in one direction. The theoretical investigation and consequent design is performed in two steps. The first step consists of a direct evaluation of the magnetic current distribution on an infinitely extended coplanar waveguide excited by an impressed electric current distributed over a finite area. The result of the analysis is the difference between the incident angle of the laser beams and the length of the excited area that maximizes the RF power coupled to the CPW. The optimal values for both parameters are found as functions of the CPW and membrane dimensions as well as the dielectric constants of the layers. In the second step, a design is presented of a double slot antenna that matches the CPW characteristic impedance and gives good overall performance. The design is presently being implemented and measurements will soon be available.

  18. Generation of highly vibrationally excited H2 and detection by 2+1 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robie, Daniel C.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Bischel, William K.

    1990-02-01

    We report the first detection by optical means of highly vibrationally excited H2 X1Σ+g(vx=6-11). Vibrationally excited H2 was generated using a recently discovered hot-wire effect in H2 gas, and was detected in 40 bands with 2+1 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization via the EF state (vEF=0-14). Rotational temperatures are in the range 200-650 K, well below that required for thermal excitation of the observed vibrational levels.

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... power interruption. (e) Vessels with electric propulsion that have two or more constant-voltage... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a...

  20. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power requirements, generating sources. 111.10-4 Section 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... services include cooking, heating, air conditioning (where installed), domestic refrigeration, mechanical...

  1. Source parameters controlling the generation and propagation of potential local tsunamis along the cascadia margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.; Yoshioka, S.

    1996-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in assessing hazards from local tsunamis along the Cascadia margin is estimating the possible earthquake source parameters. We investigate which source parameters exert the largest influence on tsunami generation and determine how each parameter affects the amplitude of the local tsunami. The following source parameters were analyzed: (1) type of faulting characteristic of the Cascadia subduction zone, (2) amount of slip during rupture, (3) slip orientation, (4) duration of rupture, (5) physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and (6) influence of secondary faulting. The effect of each of these source parameters on the quasi-static displacement of the ocean floor is determined by using elastic three-dimensional, finite-element models. The propagation of the resulting tsunami is modeled both near the coastline using the two-dimensional (x-t) Peregrine equations that includes the effects of dispersion and near the source using the three-dimensional (x-y-t) linear long-wave equations. The source parameters that have the largest influence on local tsunami excitation are the shallowness of rupture and the amount of slip. In addition, the orientation of slip has a large effect on the directivity of the tsunami, especially for shallow dipping faults, which consequently has a direct influence on the length of coastline inundated by the tsunami. Duration of rupture, physical properties of the accretionary wedge, and secondary faulting all affect the excitation of tsunamis but to a lesser extent than the shallowness of rupture and the amount and orientation of slip. Assessment of the severity of the local tsunami hazard should take into account that relatively large tsunamis can be generated from anomalous 'tsunami earthquakes' that rupture within the accretionary wedge in comparison to interplate thrust earthquakes of similar magnitude. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  2. Characteristics of a Laser-Generated Acoustic Source in Solids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aindow, Alan Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis describes a combined experimental and theoretical study of acoustic generation in solids by laser irradiation. Two basic types of laser acoustic source are identified, namely, the thermoelastic and the ablation source. Both sources are described in detail in metals and to a lesser extent in non-metals. The emphasis is on generation in the ultrasonic region. The thermoelastic source operates at comparatively low incident laser intensities, typically <3 times 10 ^{12} Wm^{ -2}, and is driven by dynamic thermal expansion due to transient surface heating. The second source takes over at higher intensities, and results from the effects of surface vaporisation and plasma formation. The resultant acoustic waveforms (bulk and surface) have been studied over a wide range of experimental conditions using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and both resonant and broad bandwidth detection probes. The surface forces produced under these various conditions are discussed in detail, and using acoustic theory, are related to the acoustic waveforms. In a wider context, thermoelastic generation is related to the photoacoustic effect in a generalised ID model.

  3. Thermographic inspection of a wind turbine rotor blade segment utilizing natural conditions as excitation source, Part I: Solar excitation for detecting deep structures in GFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worzewski, Tamara; Krankenhagen, Rainer; Doroshtnasir, Manoucher; Röllig, Mathias; Maierhofer, Christiane; Steinfurth, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates whether subsurface features in rotor blades, mainly made of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics (GFRP), can generally be detected with "solar thermography". First, the suitability of the sun is tested for acting as a heat source for applying active thermography on a 30 mm thick GFRP test specimen. Second, a defective rotor blade segment is inspected outdoors under ideal natural conditions using the sun as excitation source. Additionally, numerical FEM-simulations are performed and the comparability between experiment and simulation is evaluated for outdoor measurements.

  4. The Physical Basis of Lg Generation by Explosion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Stevens; G. E. Baker; H. Xu; T. J. Bennett; N. Rimer; S. D. Day

    2004-12-20

    The goal of this project has been to develop a quantitative predictive capability for explosion-generated Lg phases with a sound and unambiguous physical basis. The research program consisted of a theoretical investigation of explosion-generated Lg combined with an observational study. The specific question addressed by this research program is how the Lg phase is generated by underground nuclear explosions. This question is fundamental to how Lg phases are interpreted for use in explosion yield estimation and earthquake/explosion discrimination. To constrain modeling, we have extensively reviewed the existing literature and complemented that work with an examination of several explosion data sets, most notably: (1) Degelen Mountain explosions recorded between 7 and 57 km, with corresponding recordings at Borovoye, at approximately 650 km; (2) recordings from Russian deep seismic sounding experiments; (3) NTS explosion sources including the NPE and nuclear tests covering a range of source depths and media properties. A simple point explosion in an infinite medium generates no shear waves, so the Lg phase is generated entirely by non-spherical components of the source and conversions through reflections and scattering. We find that the most important contributors to the Lg phase are: (1) P to S conversion at the free surface and other near source interfaces, (2) S waves generated directly by a realistically distributed explosion source including nonlinear effects due to the free surface and gravity, and (3) Rg scattering to Lg. Additional effects that contribute significantly to Lg are scattering of converted S phases that traps more of the converted P-to-S in the crust, and randomization of the components of Lg. The pS phase from a spherically symmetric explosion source in media with P-wave velocity less than upper mantle S-wave velocity is trapped in the crust and can explain the observed radial and vertical Lg. The free surface pS converted phase from the same

  5. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Jiang, Zhenan; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-11-01

    The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  6. A revisit to self-excited push pull vacuum tube radio frequency oscillator for ion sources and power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlondo, L. R.; Lalremruata, B.; Punte, L. R. M.; Rebecca, L.; Lalnunthari, J.; Thanga, H. H.

    2016-04-01

    Self-excited push-pull vacuum tube oscillator is one of the most commonly used oscillators in radio frequency (RF)-ion plasma sources for generation of ions using radio frequency. However, in spite of its fundamental role in the process of plasma formation, the working and operational characteristics are the most frequently skip part in the descriptions of RF ion sources in literatures. A more detailed treatment is given in the present work on the RF oscillator alone using twin beam power tetrodes 829B and GI30. The circuit operates at 102 MHz, and the oscillation conditions, stability in frequency, and RF output power are studied and analyzed. A modified form of photometric method and RF peak voltage detection method are employed to study the variation of the oscillator output power with plate voltage. The power curves obtained from these measurements are quadratic in nature and increase with increase in plate voltage. However, the RF output power as measured by photometric methods is always less than the value calculated from peak voltage measurements. This difference is due to the fact that the filament coil of the ordinary light bulb used as load/detector in photometric method is not a perfect inductor. The effect of inductive reactance on power transfer to load was further investigated and a technique is developed to estimate the amount of power correction needed in the photometric measurement result.

  7. The recruiter's excitement--features of thoracic vibrations during the honey bee's waggle dance related to food source profitability.

    PubMed

    Hrncir, Michael; Maia-Silva, Camila; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Farina, Walter M

    2011-12-01

    The honey bee's waggle dance constitutes a remarkable example of an efficient code allowing social exploitation of available feeding sites. In addition to indicating the position (distance, direction) of a food patch, both the occurrence and frequency of the dances depend on the profitability of the exploited resource (sugar concentration, solution flow rate). During the waggle dance, successful foragers generate pulsed thoracic vibrations that putatively serve as a source of different kinds of information for hive bees, who cannot visually decode dances in the darkness of the hive. In the present study, we asked whether these vibrations are a reliable estimator of the excitement of the dancer when food profitability changes in terms of both sugar concentration and solution flow rate. The probability of producing thoracic vibrations as well as several features related to their intensity during the waggle phase (pulse duration, velocity amplitude, duty cycle) increased with both these profitability variables. The number of vibratory pulses, however, was independent of sugar concentration and reward rate exploited. Thus, pulse number could indeed be used by dance followers as reliable information about food source distance, as suggested in previous studies. The variability of the dancer's thoracic vibrations in relation to changes in food profitability suggests their role as an indicator of the recruiter's motivational state. Hence, the vibrations could make an important contribution to forager reactivation and, consequently, to the organisation of collective foraging processes in honey bees.

  8. A revisit to self-excited push pull vacuum tube radio frequency oscillator for ion sources and power measurements.

    PubMed

    Hlondo, L R; Lalremruata, B; Punte, L R M; Rebecca, L; Lalnunthari, J; Thanga, H H

    2016-04-01

    Self-excited push-pull vacuum tube oscillator is one of the most commonly used oscillators in radio frequency (RF)-ion plasma sources for generation of ions using radio frequency. However, in spite of its fundamental role in the process of plasma formation, the working and operational characteristics are the most frequently skip part in the descriptions of RF ion sources in literatures. A more detailed treatment is given in the present work on the RF oscillator alone using twin beam power tetrodes 829B and GI30. The circuit operates at 102 MHz, and the oscillation conditions, stability in frequency, and RF output power are studied and analyzed. A modified form of photometric method and RF peak voltage detection method are employed to study the variation of the oscillator output power with plate voltage. The power curves obtained from these measurements are quadratic in nature and increase with increase in plate voltage. However, the RF output power as measured by photometric methods is always less than the value calculated from peak voltage measurements. This difference is due to the fact that the filament coil of the ordinary light bulb used as load/detector in photometric method is not a perfect inductor. The effect of inductive reactance on power transfer to load was further investigated and a technique is developed to estimate the amount of power correction needed in the photometric measurement result.

  9. A revisit to self-excited push pull vacuum tube radio frequency oscillator for ion sources and power measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hlondo, L. R.; Lalremruata, B.; Punte, L. R. M.; Rebecca, L.; Lalnunthari, J.; Thanga, H. H.

    2016-04-15

    Self-excited push-pull vacuum tube oscillator is one of the most commonly used oscillators in radio frequency (RF)-ion plasma sources for generation of ions using radio frequency. However, in spite of its fundamental role in the process of plasma formation, the working and operational characteristics are the most frequently skip part in the descriptions of RF ion sources in literatures. A more detailed treatment is given in the present work on the RF oscillator alone using twin beam power tetrodes 829B and GI30. The circuit operates at 102 MHz, and the oscillation conditions, stability in frequency, and RF output power are studied and analyzed. A modified form of photometric method and RF peak voltage detection method are employed to study the variation of the oscillator output power with plate voltage. The power curves obtained from these measurements are quadratic in nature and increase with increase in plate voltage. However, the RF output power as measured by photometric methods is always less than the value calculated from peak voltage measurements. This difference is due to the fact that the filament coil of the ordinary light bulb used as load/detector in photometric method is not a perfect inductor. The effect of inductive reactance on power transfer to load was further investigated and a technique is developed to estimate the amount of power correction needed in the photometric measurement result.

  10. A comparison of active seismic source data to seismic excitations from the 2012 Tongariro volcanic eruptions, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Arthur; Kennedy, Ben; Keys, Harry; Lokmer, Ivan; Proctor, Jon; Lyons, John; Jolly, Gillian

    2014-05-01

    The 6 August 2012 eruption from Tongariro volcano's Te Maari vent comprised a complex sequence of events including at least 4 eruption jets, a large chasm collapse, and a debris avalanche (volume of ~7x105 m3) that propagated ~2 km beyond the eruptive vent. The eruption was poorly observed, being obscured by night time darkness, and the eruption chronology must be unravelled instead from a complex seismic record that includes discrete volcanic earthquakes, a sequence of low to moderate level spasmodic tremor and an intense burst of seismic and infrasound activity starting at 11:52:18 UTC that marked the eruption onset. We have discriminated the timing of the complex surface activity by comparing active seismic source data to the eruptive sequence. We dropped 11 high impact masses from helicopter to generate a range of active seismic sources in the vicinity of the eruption vent, chasm, and debris avalanche areas. We obtained 8 successful drops having an impact energy ranging from 3 to 9x106 joules producing seismic signals to a distance of 5 to 10 km and having good signal to noise characteristics in the 3-12 Hz range. For the 8 drops, we picked first-P arrival times and calculated amplitude spectra for a uniform set of four 3-component stations. From these, we obtained a distribution of amplitudes across the network for each drop position which varied systematically from the eruption vent and avalanche scar to the debris avalanche toe. We then compared these proxy source excitations to the natural eruption and pre-eruption data using a moving window cross-correlation approach. From the correlation processing, we found evidence for the debris avalanche a few minutes prior to the eruption in both the broad spectrum and narrow frequency (5-10 Hz) analysis. The total seismic energy release calculated from the new method is ~8x1011 joules, similar to an independently estimated calculation based on the radiated seismic energy. The inferred seismic energy release for the

  11. Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation in Single Germanium Nanodisks Excited at the Anapole Mode.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Li, Yi; Nielsen, Michael P; Oulton, Rupert F; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-07-13

    We present an all-dielectric germanium nanosystem exhibiting a strong third order nonlinear response and efficient third harmonic generation in the optical regime. A thin germanium nanodisk shows a pronounced valley in its scattering cross section at the dark anapole mode, while the electric field energy inside the disk is maximized due to high confinement within the dielectric. We investigate the dependence of the third harmonic signal on disk size and pump wavelength to reveal the nature of the anapole mode. Each germanium nanodisk generates a high effective third order susceptibility of χ((3)) = 4.3 × 10(-9) esu, corresponding to an associated third harmonic conversion efficiency of 0.0001% at an excitation wavelength of 1650 nm, which is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the case of an unstructured germanium reference film. Furthermore, the nonlinear conversion via the anapole mode outperforms that via the radiative dipolar resonances by about 1 order of magnitude, which is consistent with our numerical simulations. These findings open new possibilities for the optimization of upconversion processes on the nanoscale through the appropriate engineering of suitable dielectric materials.

  12. Toward the Automated Generation of Components from Existing Source Code

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Yi, Q; Kumfert, G; Epperly, T; Dahlgren, T; Schordan, M; White, B

    2004-12-02

    A major challenge to achieving widespread use of software component technology in scientific computing is an effective migration strategy for existing, or legacy, source code. This paper describes initial work and challenges in automating the identification and generation of components using the ROSE compiler infrastructure and the Babel language interoperability tool. Babel enables calling interfaces expressed in the Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL) to be implemented in, and called from, an arbitrary combination of supported languages. ROSE is used to build specialized source-to-source translators that (1) extract a SIDL interface specification from information implicit in existing C++ source code and (2) transform Babel's output to include dispatches to the legacy code.

  13. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  14. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    A prototype RF H{sup -} surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H{sup -} beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  15. Optical pumping experiments on next-generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Stephen J.; Fournier, Kevin B.; Scott, H.; Chung, H.-K.; Lee, R. W.

    2004-11-01

    Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at the redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities for optical lasers end for plasmas with ne > 1022 cm-3 as light propagation is severely altered by the plasma. The construction of the Tesla Test Facility (TTF) at DESY (Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), a short pulse tunable free electron laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime (VUV FEL), based on the SASE (self amplified spontaneous emission) process, will provide a major advance in the capability for dense plasma-related research. This source will provide 1013 photons in a 200 fs duration pulse that is tunable from ~6 nm to 100 nm. Since an VUV FEL will not have the limitation associated with optical lasers the entire field of high density plasmas kinetics in laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source. Thus, one will be able to use this and other FEL x-ray sources to pump individual transitions creating enhanced population in the excited states that can be easily monitored. We show two case studies illuminating different aspects of plasma spectroscopy.

  16. Optical Pumping Experiments on Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S J; Fournier, K B; Scott, H; Chung, H K; Lee, R W

    2004-07-29

    Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at the redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities for optical lasers end for plasmas with n{sub e}>10{sup 22}cm{sup -3} as light propagation is severely altered by the plasma. The construction of the Tesla Test Facility(TTF) at DESY(Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), a short pulse tunable free electron laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime (VUV FEL), based on the SASE(self amplified spontaneous emission) process, will provide a major advance in the capability for dense plasma-related research. This source will provide 10{sup 13} photons in a 200 fs duration pulse that is tunable from {approx} 6nm to 100nm. Since an VUV FEL will not have the limitation associated with optical lasers the entire field of high density plasmas kinetics in laser produced plasma will then be available to study with tunable source. Thus, one will be able to use this and other FEL x-ray sources to pump individual transitions creating enhanced population in the excited states that can easily be monitored. We show two case studies illuminating different aspects of plasma spectroscopy.

  17. Open Source Next Generation Visualization Software for Interplanetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Rinker, George

    2016-01-01

    Mission control is evolving quickly, driven by the requirements of new missions, and enabled by modern computing capabilities. Distributed operations, access to data anywhere, data visualization for spacecraft analysis that spans multiple data sources, flexible reconfiguration to support multiple missions, and operator use cases, are driving the need for new capabilities. NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating to build a new generation of mission operations software for visualization, to enable mission control anywhere, on the desktop, tablet and phone. The software is built on an open source platform that is open for contributions (http://nasa.github.io/openmct).

  18. Directional power absorption in helicon plasma sources excited by a half-helix antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharmanesh, Mohsen; Habibi, Morteza

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the power absorption in helicon plasma excited through a half-helix antenna driven at 13.56 {{MHz}}. The simulations were carried out by means of a code, HELIC. They were carried out by taking into account different inhomogeneous radial density profiles and for a wide range of plasma densities, from {10}11 {{{cm}}}-3 to {10}13 {{{cm}}}-3. The magnetic field was 200, 400, 600 and 1000 {{G}}. A three-parameter function was used for generating various density profiles with different volume gradients, edge gradients and density widths. The density profile had a large effect on the efficient Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) and helicon mode excitation and antenna coupling to the plasma. The fraction of power deposition via the TG mode was extremely dependent on the plasma density near the plasma boundary. Interestingly, the obtained efficient parallel helicon wavelength was close to the anticipated value for Gaussian radial density profile. Power deposition was considerably asymmetric when the \\tfrac{n}{{B}0} ratio was more than a specific value for a determined density width. The longitudinal power absorption was symmetric at approximately {n}0={10}11 {{{cm}}}-3, irrespective of the magnetic field supposed. The asymmetry became more pronounced when the plasma density was {10}12 {{{cm}}}-3. The ratio of density width to the magnetic field was an important parameter in the power coupling. At high magnetic fields, the maximum of the power absorption was reached at higher plasma density widths. There was at least one combination of the plasma density, magnetic field and density width for which the RF power deposition at both side of the tube reached its maximum value.

  19. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2015-06-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  20. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2015-06-01

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  1. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Madeline H; Williams, Holly L; Neumark, Daniel M

    2015-06-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  2. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  3. JLab CW Cryomodules for 4th Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert; Bundy, Richard; Cheng, Guangfeng; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clemens, William; Daly, Edward; Henry, James; Hicks, William; Kneisel, Peter; Manning, Stephen; Manus, Robert; Marhauser, Frank; Preble, Joseph; Reece, Charles; Smith, Karl; Stirbet, Mircea; Turlington, Larry; Wang, Haipeng; Wilson, Katherine

    2008-01-23

    Fourth generation light sources hold the prospect of unprecedented brightness and optical beam quality for a wide range of scientific applications. Many of the proposed new facilities will rely on large superconducting radio frequency (SRF) based linacs to provide high energy, low emittance CW electron beams. For high average power applications there is a growing acceptance of energy recovery linac (ERL) technology as the way to support large recirculating currents with modest RF power requirements. CW SRF and high current ERLs are two core competencies at Jefferson Lab. JLab has designed and built a number of CW cryomodules of several different types starting with the original CEBAF design, with variations for higher current in the two generations of JLab’s free-electron laser (FEL), through two intermediate prototypes to the final high-performance module for the 12 GeV upgrade. Each of these represent fully engineered and tested configurations with a variety of specifications that could be considered for possible use in fourth generation light sources. Furthermore JLab has been actively pursuing advanced concepts for highcurrent high-efficiency cryomodules for next generation ERL based FEL’s. These existing and proposed designs span the range from about 1mA single-pass to over 100 mA energy recovered current capability. Specialized configurations also exist for high-current non-energy recovered sections such as the injector region where very high RF power is required. We discuss the performance parameters of these existing and proposed designs and their suitability to different classes of fourth generation light sources.

  4. Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranzusch, Sebastian; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus

    2003-02-01

    At Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen laser-plasma sources were tested, which are going to be used for characterization of optical components and sensoric devices in the wavelength region from 11 to 13 nm. In all cases extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is generated by focusing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser into a pulsed gas puff target. By the use of xenon or oxygen as target gas, broadband as well as narrowband EUV radiation is obtained, respectively. Different types of valves and nozzles were tested in order to optimize the emitted radiation with respect to maximum EUV intensities, small source diameters, and positional stability. The investigation of these crucial source parameters was performed with specially designed EUV pinhole cameras, utilizing evaluation algorithms developed for standardized laser beam characterization. In addition, a rotatable pinhole camera was developed which allows both spatially and angular resolved monitoring of the soft x-ray emission characteristics. With the help of this camera a strong angular dependence of the EUV intensity was found. The data were compared with fluorescence measurements for visualization of the target gas jet. The experimental observations can be explained by reabsorption of the generated EUV radiation in the surrounding target gas, as supported by semiempirical model calculations based on the attenuation in the three-dimensional gas density according to Lambert-Beer's law. As a consequence of the presented investigations, an optimization of the EUV source with respect to intensity, plasma shape, and angular dependence is achieved, resulting in a spherical plasma of 200 μm diameter and a 50% increase of the EUV pulse energy.

  5. ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-08-02

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

  6. Prospects for Next-Generation Storage Ring Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Storage ring light sources are among the most productive large-scale scientific user facilities in existence, owing to a combination of broad tunability, mature technology, high capacity, remarkable reliability, and high performance. The most commonly-used performance measure is the photon beam brightness, which is proportional to the flux per unit volume in six-dimensional phase space. The brightness is generally maximized by minimizing the transverse phase space area, or emittance, of the electron beam that generates the photons. Since the 1990's, most storage ring light sources have used a variant of the Chasman-Green, or double-bend-achromat (DBA), lattice, which produces transverse emittances of several nanometers. Presently, several light sources are under construction based on more challenging multi-bend-achromat (MBA) concepts, which promise an order of magnitude reduction in the emittance. Somewhat larger reductions are contemplated for upgrades of the largest facilities. This talk briefly surveys the relevant concepts in light source design, then explains both the mechanism and challenge of achieving next-generation emittances. Other factors, such as improved radiation-emitting devices, are also described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  7. Geothermal, an alternate energy source for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, H.A.

    1985-02-01

    The economic development of nations depends on an escalating use of energy sources. With each passing year the dependence increases, reaching a point where the world will require, in the next six years, a volume of energetics equal to that consumed during the last hundred years. Statistics show that in 1982 about 70% of the world's energy requirements were supplied by oil, natural gas and coal. The remaining 30% came from other sources such as nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, and geothermal. In Mexico the situation is more extreme. For the same year (1982) 85% of the total energy consumed was supplied through the use of hydrocarbons, and only 15% through power generated by the other sources of electricity. Of the 15%, 65% used hydrocarbons somewhere in the power generation system. Geothermal is an energy source that can help solve the problem, particularly in Mexico, because the geological and structural characteristics of Mexico make it one of the countries in the world with a tremendous geothermal potential. The potential of geothermal energy for supplying part of Mexico's needs is discussed.

  8. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-11-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  9. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  10. Generation of excited coherent states for a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A. E-mail: alireza.dehghani@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    We introduce excited coherent states, |β,α;nгЂ‰≔a{sup †n}|β,αгЂ‰, where n is an integer and states |β,αгЂ‰ denote the coherent states of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. States |β,αгЂ‰ minimize the Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation while having the nonclassical properties. It has been shown that the resolution of identity condition is realized with respect to an appropriate measure on the complex plane. Some of the nonclassical features such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of these states are investigated. Our results are compared with similar Agarwal’s type photon added coherent states (PACSs) and it is shown that, while photon-counting statistics of |β,α,nгЂ‰ are the same as PACSs, their squeezing properties are different. It is also shown that for large values of |β|, while they are squeezed, they minimize the uncertainty condition. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that by changing the magnitude of the external magnetic field, B{sub ext}, the squeezing effect is transferred from one component to another. Finally, a new scheme is proposed to generate states |β,α;nгЂ‰ in cavities. .

  11. Sources of mesoscale variability of gravity waves. I - Topographic excitation. II - Frontal, convective, and jet stream excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, Gregory D.; Fritts, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of topography as a source of mesoscale variability was investigated using aircraft measurements of winds and temperature collected during the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program, with results showing marked increases in the variance of zonal and meridional wind speeds and of potential temperature over rough terrain. In addition, four cases of mesoscale variance enhancements of horizontal velocity and temperature due to frontal activity, nonfrontal convection, and wind shear were studied. The implications of these episodic enhancements of variances for the vertical transports of energy and momentum are considered in the framework of the gravity wave theory.

  12. Study of the vortex-induced pressure excitation source in a Francis turbine draft tube by particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2015-12-01

    Francis turbines operating at part-load experience the development of a precessing cavitation vortex rope at the runner outlet, which acts as an excitation source for the hydraulic system. In case of resonance, the resulting pressure pulsations seriously compromise the stability of the machine and of the electrical grid to which it is connected. As such off-design conditions are increasingly required for the integration of unsteady renewable energy sources into the existing power system, an accurate assessment of the hydropower plant stability is crucial. However, the physical mechanisms driving this excitation source remain largely unclear. It is for instance essential to establish the link between the draft tube flow characteristics and the intensity of the excitation source. In this study, a two-component particle image velocimetry system is used to investigate the flow field at the runner outlet of a reduced-scale physical model of a Francis turbine. The discharge value is varied from 55 to 81 % of the value at the best efficiency point. A particular set-up is designed to guarantee a proper optical access across the complex geometry of the draft tube elbow. Based on phase-averaged velocity fields, the evolution of the vortex parameters with the discharge, such as the trajectory and the circulation, is determined for the first time. It is shown that the rise in the excitation source intensity is induced by an enlargement of the vortex trajectory and a simultaneous increase in the precession frequency, as well as the vortex circulation. Below a certain value of discharge, the structure of the vortex abruptly changes and loses its coherence, leading to a drastic reduction in the intensity of the induced excitation source.

  13. Excitation of whistler waves from inductive sources: Experiment and computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousculp, Christopher Lee

    1997-09-01

    Low frequency whistler waves are studied in the context of electron-magnetohydro-dynamics (EMHD) with experiments and computer modeling. Experiments show that an oblique whistler wave packet is excited from a single current pulse applied to a magnetic loop antenna. The magnetic field is mapped in three dimensions and time. The angle of dominant radiation is determined by the antenna dimensions, not by the constraints of the resonance cone. Topological properties of the inductive and space charge electric fields and space charge density confirm EMHD physics. Transverse currents are dominated by Hall currents, while no net current flows in the parallel direction. Electron-ion collisions damp both the energy and the helicity of the wave packet. Landau damping is negligible. The radiation resistance of the loop is a few tenths of an Ohm for the observed frequency range. The loop injects zero net helicity. Rather, oppositely traveling wave packets carry equal amounts of opposite signed helicity. Modeling confirms the experimental results for a single turn antenna. Linked or knotted antennas are shown to be directional whistler sources that inject helicity into an EMHD plasma. Electron inertial effects are included in the modeling and an antenna radiating predominantly at Gendrin's constant velocity mode is designed. Experiments currently underway show preliminary results that support the conclusions of the modeling.

  14. Turbulence and heat excited noise sources in single and coaxial jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Seong Ryong; Schröder, Wolfgang; Meinke, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The generation of noise in subsonic high Reynolds number single and coaxial turbulent jets is analyzed by a hybrid method. The computational approach is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) and solutions of the acoustic perturbation equations (APE). The method is used to investigate the acoustic fields of one isothermal single stream jet at a Mach number 0.9 and a Reynolds number 400,000 based on the nozzle diameter and two coaxial jets whose Mach number and Reynolds number based on the secondary jet match the values of the single jet. One coaxial jet configuration possesses a cold primary flow, whereas the other configuration has a hot primary jet. Thus, the configurations allow in a first step the analysis of the relationship of the flow and acoustic fields of a single and a cold coaxial jet and in a second step the investigation of the differences of the fluid mechanics and aeroacoustics of cold and hot coaxial jets. For the isothermal single jet the present hybrid acoustic computation shows convincing agreement with the direct acoustic simulation based on large-eddy simulations. The analysis of the acoustic field of the coaxial jets focuses on two noise sources, the Lamb vector fluctuations and the entropy sources of the APE equations. The power spectral density (PSD) distributions evidence the Lamb vector fluctuations to represent the major acoustic sources of the isothermal jet. Especially the typical downstream and sideline acoustic generations occur on a cone-like surface being wrapped around the end of the potential core. Furthermore, when the coaxial jet possesses a hot primary jet, the acoustic core being characterized by the entropy source terms increases the low frequency acoustics by up to 5 dB, i.e., the sideline acoustics is enhanced by the pronounced temperature gradient.

  15. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  16. Stable droplet generator for a high brightness laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokhodov, A.; Krivokorytov, M.; Sidelnikov, Yu.; Krivtsun, V.; Medvedev, V.; Bushuev, V.; Koshelev, K.; Glushkov, D.; Ellwi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the low-melting liquid metal droplets generation based on excited Rayleigh jet breakup. We discuss on the operation of the industrial and in-house designed and manufactured dispensing devices for the droplets generation. Droplet diameter can be varied in the range of 30-90 μm. The working frequency of the droplets, velocity, and the operating temperature were in the ranges of 20-150 kHz, 4-15 m/s, and up to 250 °C, respectively. The standard deviations for the droplet center of mass position both their diameter σ < 1 μm at the distance of 45 mm from the nozzle. Stable operation in the long-term (over 1.5 h) was demonstrated for a wide range of the droplet parameters: diameters, frequencies, and velocities. Physical factors affecting the stability of the generator operation have been identified. The technique for droplet synchronization, allowing using the droplet as a target for laser produced plasma, has been created; in particular, the generator has been successfully used in a high brightness extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source. The operation with frequency up to 8 kHz was demonstrated as a result of the experimental simulation, which can provide an average brightness of the EUV source up to ˜1.2 kW/mm2 sr.

  17. Use of a duoplasmatron ion source for negative ion generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillatsch, L.; Wirtz, T.; Migeon, H.-N.; Scherrer, H.

    2011-05-01

    The use of electronegative species as primary ions considerably enhances the emission of positive secondary ions in SIMS. Considering furthermore that negative primary ions can be required due to instrumental configurations (e.g. the Cameca NanoSIMS 50 requires an opposite polarity of the primary and secondary ions), O - ion bombardment is employed in SIMS analysis. These O - ions are typically created in a duoplasmatron source, which suffers however from its low brightness and which is thus not suited for high resolution imaging applications. The development of new (electro)negative ion sources is thus necessary to optimize the analysis of electropositive elements in terms of lateral resolution and sensitivity. In this paper, we present the performance of a duoplasmatron ion source generating F -, Cl -, Br - and I - ion beams. In particular, we experimentally determine on a dedicated test bench the brightness of the source in the F -, Cl -, Br - and I - modes as a function of the gas pressure, the magnetic field strength and the arc current in the source. The obtained results are compared to the performances of the duoplasmatron in the standard O - mode. In this context, a five times higher brightness was found for F - (200 A/cm 2 sr) compared to the standard O - (42 A/cm 2 sr).

  18. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.

    2016-03-01

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.

  19. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals

    PubMed Central

    Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an AWG provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5 kHz and the scan frequency was 40 kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2 mM trityl OX63 in water, 15N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5 G partially

  20. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-12-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5 kHz and the scan frequency was 40 kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2 mM trityl OX63 in water, 15N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5 G partially

  1. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-30

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5kHz and the scan frequency was 40kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2mM trityl OX63 in water, (15)N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5G partially-resolved proton

  2. A Proposal for a Next Generation European Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, K. H.; Carlile, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    We argue that it is not too early to begin the planning process for a next generation neutron source for Europe, even as the European Spallation Source is being constructed. We put forward three main arguments. Firstly, nowadays the period between the first scientific concept of a new facility being proposed and its actual realisation is approaching half a century. We show evidence for this. Secondly, there is a straightforward development of the short pulse/long pulse spallation concepts that will deliver gains in neutron brightness of more than a factor 30 over what the ESS will soon deliver and provide the optimum balance between resolution and intensity. We describe our concept, which is a spallation source where the proton pulse length is matched to the moderating time of slow neutrons. Thirdly, when we look at our colleagues in astronomy and high energy physics, we see that they have a totally different, more global and more ambitious approach to the coming generations of large facilities. We argue that it is time for the neutron community not simply to rest upon its laurels and take what is given but to be proactive..

  3. Biogas as a fuel source for SOFC co-generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van herle, Jan; Membrez, Yves; Bucheli, Olivier

    This study reports on the combination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generators fueled with biogas as renewable energy source, recoverable from wastes but at present underexploited. From a mobilisable near-future potential in the European Union (EU-15) of 17 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe), under 15% appears to be converted today into useful heat and power (2 Mtoe). SOFCs could improve and promote the exploitation of biogas on manifold generation sites as small combined heat and power (5-50 kW el), especially for farm and sewage installations, raising the electrical conversion efficiency on such reduced and variable power level. Larger module packs of the high temperature ceramic converter would also be capable of operating on contaminated fuel of low heating value (less than 40% that of natural gas) which can emanate from landfill sites (MW-size). Landfill gas delivers 80% of current world biogas production. This document compiles and estimates biogas data on actual production and future potential and presents the thermodynamics of the biogas reforming and electrochemical conversion processes. A case study is reported of the energy balance of a small SOFC co-generator operated with agricultural biogas, the largest potential source.

  4. Documentation generator application for MatLab source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting MatLab source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary MatLab codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part two which describes the MatLab application. MatLab is used for description of the measured phenomena.

  5. Laser induced white emission generated by infrared excitation from Eu3+:Sr2CeO4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanski, M.; Lukaszewicz, M.; Hreniak, D.; Strek, W.

    2017-03-01

    The laser induced white emission (LIWE) was observed from Eu3+:Sr2CeO4 nanocrystals. The samples were obtained in form of powders by the modified sol-gel route. The structure and morphology of the phosphors were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope techniques. The intense LIWE occurred under reduced pressure and focused beam of near infrared laser excitation. The power and pressure dependencies exhibit evident threshold character typical for the avalanche effect. The photoconductivity of the Eu3+:Sr2CeO4 nanocrystals measured as a function of different powers of excitation source was analyzed.

  6. Multi-modal highlight generation for sports videos using an information-theoretic excitability measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Taufiq; Bořil, Hynek; Sangwan, Abhijeet; L Hansen, John H.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to detect and organize `hot spots' representing areas of excitement within video streams is a challenging research problem when techniques rely exclusively on video content. A generic method for sports video highlight selection is presented in this study which leverages both video/image structure as well as audio/speech properties. Processing begins where the video is partitioned into small segments and several multi-modal features are extracted from each segment. Excitability is computed based on the likelihood of the segmental features residing in certain regions of their joint probability density function space which are considered both exciting and rare. The proposed measure is used to rank order the partitioned segments to compress the overall video sequence and produce a contiguous set of highlights. Experiments are performed on baseball videos based on signal processing advancements for excitement assessment in the commentators' speech, audio energy, slow motion replay, scene cut density, and motion activity as features. Detailed analysis on correlation between user excitability and various speech production parameters is conducted and an effective scheme is designed to estimate the excitement level of commentator's speech from the sports videos. Subjective evaluation of excitability and ranking of video segments demonstrate a higher correlation with the proposed measure compared to well-established techniques indicating the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  7. Excitation beyond the monochromatic laser limit: simultaneous 3-D confocal and multiphoton microscopy with a tapered fiber as white-light laser source.

    PubMed

    Betz, Timo; Teipel, Jörn; Koch, Daniel; Härtig, Wolfgang; Guck, Jochen; Käs, Josef; Giessen, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Confocal and multiphoton microscopy are essential tools in modern life sciences. They allow fast and highly resolved imaging of a steadily growing number of fluorescent markers, ranging from fluorescent proteins to quantum dots and other fluorophores, used for the localization of molecules and the quantitative detection of molecular properties within living cells and organisms. Up to now, only one physical limitation seemed to be unavoidable. Both confocal and multiphoton microscopy rely on lasers as excitation sources, and their monochromatic radiation allows only a limited number of simultaneously usable dyes, which depends on the specific number of laser lines available in the used microscope. We have overcome this limitation by successfully replacing all excitation lasers in a standard confocal microscope with pulsed white light ranging from 430 to 1300 nm generated in a tapered silica fiber. With this easily reproducible method, simultaneous confocal and multiphoton microscopy was demonstrated. By developing a coherent and intense laser source with spectral width comparable to a mercury lamp, we provide the flexibility to excite any desired fluorophore combination.

  8. The Transiently Generated Nonphotochemical Quenching of Excitation Energy in Arabidopsis Leaves Is Modulated by Zeaxanthin1

    PubMed Central

    Kalituho, Ljudmila; Beran, Karl Christian; Jahns, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Upon the transition of dark-adapted plants to low light, the energy-dependent quenching (qE) of excitation energy is only transiently induced due to the only transient generation of the transthylakoid pH gradient. We investigated the transient qE (qETR) in different Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants. In dark-adapted plants, qETR was absent in the npq4 mutant (deficient in the PsbS protein) and the pgr1 mutant (restricted in lumen acidification). In comparison with wild-type plants, qETR was reduced in the zeaxanthin (Zx)-deficient npq1 mutant and increased in the Zx-accumulating npq2 mutant. After preillumination of plants (to allow the synthesis of large amounts of Zx), the formation and relaxation of qETR was accelerated in all plants (except for npq4) in comparison with the respective dark-adapted plants. The extent of qETR, however, was unchanged in npq1 and npq4, decreased in npq2, but increased in wild-type and pgr1 plants. Even in presence of high levels of Zx, qETR in pgr1 mutants was still lower than that in wild-type plants. In the presence of the uncoupler nigericin, qETR was completely abolished in all genotypes. Thus, the transient qETR shows essentially the same characteristics as the steady-state qE; it is strictly dependent on the PsbS protein and a low lumen pH, but the extent of qETR is largely modulated by Zx. These results indicate that qETR does not represent a different quenching mechanism in comparison with the steady-state qE, but simply reflects the response of qE to the dynamics of the lumen pH during light activation of photosynthesis. PMID:17416642

  9. Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

    2007-05-04

    Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

  10. Continuous Source Monitoring: the Hyatt Power Plant Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrhammer, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    We explore using the generators at the Hyatt Hydroelectric Power Plant at Oroville Dam, California as a continuous source. The generators rotate at 200 rpm and they produce a coherent signal which is observed at the Oroville (BK.ORV) broadband seismic station. The observed signal, when averaged over an hour, is typically 20+ dB at 3.33326±0.001235 Hz. The Hyatt Power Plant is constructed in a cavern the size of two football fields dug in solid bedrock in the left abutment near the axis of Oroville Dam and the BK.ORV seismic station is sited on the bedrock surface approximately 1 km northwest of the power plant. The propagation path is granite. Several data processing methodologies are explored to characterize the temporal variation in the signal from the power plant.

  11. Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Quian, Shinan

    1997-11-01

    New third-generation synchrotron radiation sources that are now, or will soon, come on line will need to decide how to handle the testing of optical components delivered for use in their beam lines. In many cases it is desirable to establish an in-house metrology laboratory to do the work. We review the history behind the formation of the Optical Metrology Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the rationale for its continued existence. We offer suggestions to those who may be contemplating setting up similar facilities, based on our experiences over the past two decades.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Based Deuterium Ion Source for Improved Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R. L.; Jiang, N.; Thuesen, L.; Leung, K. N.; Antolak, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Field ionization uses high electric fields to cause the ionization and emission of ions from the surface of a sharp electrode. We are developing a novel field ionization neutron generator using carbon nanotubes (CNT) to produce the deuterium ion current. The generator consists of three major components: a deuterium ion source made of carbon nanotubes, a smooth negatively-biased target electrode, and a secondary electron suppression system. When a negative high voltage is applied on the target electrode, a high gradient electric field is formed at the tips of the carbon nanotubes. This field is sufficiently strong to create deuterium (D) ions at or near the nanotubes which are accelerated to the target causing D-D reactions to occur and the production of neutrons. A cross magnetic field is used to suppress secondary emission electrons generated on the target surface. We have demonstrated field ionization currents of 70 nA (1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) at hydrogen gas pressure of 10 mTorr. We have found that the current scales proportionally with CNT area and also with the gas pressure in the range of 1 mTorr to 10 mTorr. We have demonstrated pulse cut-off times as short as 2 {mu}sec. Finally, we have shown the feasibility of generating neutrons using deuterium gas.

  13. Ambit-Tautomer: An Open Source Tool for Tautomer Generation.

    PubMed

    Kochev, Nikolay T; Paskaleva, Vesselina H; Jeliazkova, Nina

    2013-06-01

    We present a new open source tool for automatic generation of all tautomeric forms of a given organic compound. Ambit-Tautomer is a part of the open source software package Ambit2. It implements three tautomer generation algorithms: combinatorial method, improved combinatorial method and incremental depth-first search algorithm. All algorithms utilize a set of fully customizable rules for tautomeric transformations. The predefined knowledge base covers 1-3, 1-5 and 1-7 proton tautomeric shifts. Some typical supported tautomerism rules are keto-enol, imin-amin, nitroso-oxime, azo-hydrazone, thioketo-thioenol, thionitroso-thiooxime, amidine-imidine, diazoamino-diazoamino, thioamide-iminothiol and nitrosamine-diazohydroxide. Ambit-Tautomer uses a simple energy based system for tautomer ranking implemented by a set of empirically derived rules. A fine-grained output control is achieved by a set of post-generation filters. We performed an exhaustive comparison of the Ambit-Tautomer Incremental algorithm against several other software packages which offer tautomer generation: ChemAxon Marvin, Molecular Networks MN.TAUTOMER, ACDLabs, CACTVS and the CDK implementation of the algorithm, based on the mobile H atoms listed in the InChI. According to the presented test results, Ambit-Tautomer's performance is either comparable to or better than the competing algorithms. Ambit-Tautomer module is available for download as a Java library, a command line application, a demo web page or OpenTox API compatible Web service. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optical system design of a speckle-free ultrafast Red-Green-Blue (RGB) source based on angularly multiplexed second harmonic generation from a TZDW source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuhong; Knox, Wayne H.

    2015-03-01

    We report the optical system design of a novel speckle-free ultrafast Red-Green-Blue (RGB) source based on angularly multiplexed simultaneous second harmonic generation from the efficiently generated Stokes and anti-Stokes pulses from a commercially available photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with two zero dispersion wavelengths (TZDW). We describe the optimized configuration of the TZDW fiber source which supports excitations of dual narrow-band pulses with peak wavelengths at 850 nm, 1260 nm and spectral bandwidths of 23 nm, 26 nm, respectively within 12 cm of commercially available TZDW PCF. The conversion efficiencies are as high as 44% and 33% from the pump source (a custom-built Yb:fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier). As a result of the nonlinear dynamics of propagation, the dual pulses preserve their ultrashort pulse width (with measured autocorrelation traces of 200 fs and 227 fs,) which eliminates the need for dispersion compensation before harmonic generation. With proper optical design of the free-space harmonic generation system, we achieve milli-Watt power level red, green and blue pulses at 630 nm, 517 nm and 425 nm. Having much broader spectral bandwidths compared to picosecond RGB laser sources, the source is inherently speckle-free due to the ultra-short coherence length (<37 μm) while still maintaining an excellent color rendering capability with >99.4% excitation purities of the three primaries, leading to the coverage of 192% NTSC color gamut (CIE 1976). The reported RGB source features a very simple system geometry, its potential for power scaling is discussed with currently available technologies.

  15. Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, John J.; Bailey, Ray T.; Pugh, D.; Sherwood, J. N.; Cruickshank, F. R.; Wynne, Klaas

    2002-12-01

    Organic molecular crystals that are extremely efficient at terahertz-pulse generation are in- vestigated. Terahertz pulses produced by optical rectification at 800 nm in (-)2-(α-methylbenzyl-amino)-5-nitropyridine have an order of magnitude higher power than those generated in the commonly used inorganic crystal ZnTe. The organic molecular crystals were also found to generate terahertz pulses when excited on resonance at 400 nm. This may pave the way for studying ultrafast charge-transport dynamics in three dimensions.

  16. VUV generation by adiabatically expanded and excited by a DC electrical discharge Argon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pipergias, K.; Yasemidis, D.; Reppa, E.; Pentaris, D.; Efthimiopoulos, T.; Merlemis, N.; Giannetas, V.

    2010-11-10

    We investigate the emission of Argon (Ar) gas which is adiabatically expanded through a nozzle and excited using a DC electrical discharge. Because of the expansion and the electronic excitation, Ar dimers and clusters are formed, which give radiation in the second (2nd) and in the third (3rd) continua of Ar, centered at about 126 and 254 nm respectively. We particularly focus our study on the 2nd continuum, in order to develop a laser at this wavelength.

  17. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  18. The Advanced Light Source: A third-generation Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2002-08-14

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the University of California is a ''third-generation'' synchrotron radiation source optimized for highest brightness at ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energies. It also provides world-class performance at hard x-ray photon energies. Berkeley Lab operates the ALS for the United States Department of Energy as a national user facility that is available 24 hours/day around the year for research by scientists from industrial, academic, and government laboratories primarily from the United States but also from abroad.

  19. Next Generation H{sup -} Ion Sources for the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Crisp, D.; Carmichael, J.; Goulding, R. H.; Han, B.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Tarvainen, O.

    2009-03-12

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the leading accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure meeting operational requirements as well as providing for future facility beam power upgrades, a multifaceted H- ion source development program is ongoing. This work discusses several aspects of this program, specifically the design and first beam measurements of an RF-driven, external antenna H- ion source based on an A1N ceramic plasma chamber, elemental and chromate Cs-systems, and plasma ignition gun. Unanalyzed beam currents of up to {approx}100 mA(60 Hz, 1 ms) have been observed and sustained currents >60 mA(60 Hz, 1 ms) have been demonstrated on the test stand. Accelerated beam currents of {approx}40 mA have also been demonstrated into the SNS front end. Data are also presented describing the first H- beam extraction experiments from a helicon plasma generator based on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine design.

  20. Next Generation H- Ion Sources for the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Carmichael, Justin R; Carr, Jr, Jerry; Crisp, Danny W; Goulding, Richard Howell; Han, Baoxi; Pennisi, Terry R; Murray Jr, S N; Stockli, Martin P; Tarvainen, Olli A; Santana, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the leading accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure meeting operational requirements as well as providing for future facility beam power upgrades, a multifaceted H{sup -} ion source development program is ongoing. This work discusses several aspects of this program, specifically the design and first beam measurements of an RF-driven, external antenna H{sup -} ion source based on an AlN ceramic plasma chamber, elemental and chromate Cs-systems, and plasma ignition gun. Unanalyzed beam currents of up to {approx}100 mA (60Hz, 1ms) have been observed and sustained currents >60 mA (60Hz, 1ms) have been demonstrated on the test stand. Accelerated beam currents of {approx}40 mA have also been demonstrated into the SNS front end. Data are also presented describing the first H{sup -} beam extraction experiments from a helicon plasma generator based on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine design.

  1. Next Generation H- Ion Sources for the SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Murray, S. N.; Crisp, D.; Carmichael, J.; Goulding, R. H.; Han, B.; Tarvainen, O.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the leading accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure meeting operational requirements as well as providing for future facility beam power upgrades, a multifaceted H- ion source development program is ongoing. This work discusses several aspects of this program, specifically the design and first beam measurements of an RF-driven, external antenna H- ion source based on an A1N ceramic plasma chamber, elemental and chromate Cs-systems, and plasma ignition gun. Unanalyzed beam currents of up to ˜100 mA (60 Hz, 1 ms) have been observed and sustained currents >60 mA (60 Hz, 1 ms) have been demonstrated on the test stand. Accelerated beam currents of ˜40 mA have also been demonstrated into the SNS front end. Data are also presented describing the first H- beam extraction experiments from a helicon plasma generator based on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine design.

  2. Generation of Intensity Selectivity by Differential Synaptic Tuning: Fast-Saturating Excitation But Slow-Saturating Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mu; Tao, Huizhong W.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity defines one fundamental aspect of sensory information and is specifically represented in each sensory modality. Interestingly, only in the central auditory system are intensity-selective neurons evolved. These neurons are characterized by nonmonotonic response-level functions. The synaptic circuitry mechanisms underlying the generation of intensity selectivity from nonselective auditory nerve inputs remain largely unclear. Here, we performed in vivo whole-cell recordings from pyramidal neurons in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where intensity selectivity first emerges along the auditory neuraxis. Our results revealed that intensity-selective cells received fast-saturating excitation but slow-saturating inhibition with intensity increments, whereas in intensity-nonselective cells excitation and inhibition were similarly slow-saturating. The differential intensity tuning profiles of the monotonic excitation and inhibition qualitatively determined the intensity selectivity of output responses. In addition, the selectivity was further strengthened by significantly lower excitation/inhibition ratios at high-intensity levels compared with intensity-nonselective neurons. Our results demonstrate that intensity selectivity in the DCN is generated by extracting the difference between tuning profiles of nonselective excitatory and inhibitory inputs, which we propose can be achieved through a differential circuit mediated by feedforward inhibition. PMID:23238722

  3. Harmonic Generation from Solid Targets - Optmization of Source Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepf, Matthew; Watts, I. F.; Dangor, A. E.; Norreys, P. A.; Chambers, D. M.; Machacek, A.; Wark, J. S.; Tsakiris, G. D.

    1998-11-01

    High harmonics from solid targets have received renewed interest over the last few years. Theoretical predictions using 1 1/2 D codes suggest that very high orders (>100 ) can be generated at conversion efficiencies in excess of 10-6 [1,2] at Iλ^2 > 10^19 W/cm^2. Experiments have since been performed with pulses varying from 100 fs to 2.5 ps in duration [3-6]. The steep density gradient necessary to generate the harmonics can be generated by either ponderomotive steepening or by using ultraclean pulses which preserve the initial solid vacuum boundary. The two regimes are compared in terms of their dependence on the laser parameters and the emitted harmonic radiation. Particular emphasis will be given to measurements of the holeboring velocity, the polarisation of the harmonics and the intensity scaling in the two regimes. This comparison enables us to find the ideal parameter range for the optimization of harmonic source. [1] R. Lichters et al., Physics of Plasmas 3, 3425, (1996). [2] P. Gibbon, IEEE J. of Q. Elec. 33, 1915 (1997). [3] S. Kohlweyer, et al., Optics Comm. 177, 431 (1995). [4] P. Norreys et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 1832 (1995). [5] D. von der Linde et al., Phys. Rev. A, 52, R25 (1995) [6] M. Zepf, et al., submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.

  4. Four-color alternating-laser excitation single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy for next-generation biodetection assays.

    PubMed

    Yim, Seok W; Kim, Taiho; Laurence, Ted A; Partono, Steve; Kim, Dongsik; Kim, Younggyu; Weiss, Shimon; Reitmair, Armin

    2012-04-01

    Single-molecule detection (SMD) technologies are well suited for clinical diagnostic applications by offering the prospect of minimizing precious patient sample requirements while maximizing clinical information content. Not yet available, however, is a universal SMD-based platform technology that permits multiplexed detection of both nucleic acid and protein targets and that is suitable for automation and integration into the clinical laboratory work flow. We have used a sensitive, specific, quantitative, and cost-effective homogeneous SMD method that has high single-well multiplexing potential and uses alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) fluorescence-aided molecule sorting extended to 4 colors (4c-ALEX). Recognition molecules are tagged with different-color fluorescence dyes, and coincident confocal detection of ≥2 colors constitutes a positive target-detection event. The virtual exclusion of the majority of sources of background noise eliminates washing steps. Sorting molecules with multidimensional probe stoichiometries (S) and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiencies (E) allows differentiation of numerous targets simultaneously. We show detection, differentiation, and quantification-in a single well-of (a) 25 different fluorescently labeled DNAs; (b) 8 bacterial genetic markers, including 3 antibiotic drug-resistance determinants found in 11 septicemia-causing Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains; and (c) 6 tumor markers present in blood. The results demonstrate assay utility for clinical molecular diagnostic applications by means of multiplexed detection of nucleic acids and proteins and suggest potential uses for early diagnosis of cancer and infectious and other diseases, as well as for personalized medicine. Future integration of additional technology components to minimize preanalytical sample manipulation while maximizing throughput should allow development of a user-friendly ("sample in, answer out") point

  5. Minimally invasive imaging method based on second harmonic generation and multiphoton excitation fluorescence in translational respiratory research.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Thomas; Wadsworth, Samuel; Carthy, Jon M; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V; McManus, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    For translational respiratory research including in the development of clinical diagnostic tools, a minimally invasive imaging method, which can provide both cellular and extracellular structural details with sufficient specificity, sensitivity and spatial resolution, is particularly useful. Multiphoton microscopy causes excitation of endogenously fluorescent macromolecular systems and induces highly specific second harmonic generation signals from non-centrosymmetric macromolecules such as fibrillar collagens. Both these signals can be captured simultaneously to provide spatially resolved 3D structural organization of extracellular matrix as well as the cellular morphologies in their native states. Besides briefly discussing the fundamentals of multiphoton excitation fluorescence and harmonic generation signals and the instrumentation details, this review focuses on the specific applications of these imaging modalities in lung structural imaging, particularly morphological features of alveolar structures, visualizing and quantifying extracellular matrix remodelling accompanying emphysematous destructions as well as the IPF, detecting lung cancers and the potential use in the tissue engineering applications.

  6. Modeling Alfven and Whistler Waves Generation by Rotating Magnetic Field Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerov, N.; Shao, X.; Karavaev, A.; Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.; Joyce, G.; Gigliotti, A.; Gekelman, W.

    2008-12-01

    Recent experiments by Gigliotti et all., 2008 and Karavaev et al., 2008 (two posters in this meeting) demonstrated excitation of shear Alfven wave and whistler wave, respectively, by Rotating Magnetic Fields (RMF) created by a phased orthogonal loop antenna. This paper presents a combination of computational results along with experiments that emphasize the RMF properties for generating MHD and whistler waves. For RMF rotating frequencies in the whistler wave frequency range, the electrons quickly come to a co- rotation with the RMF, generating a differential azimuthal current. For rotating frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency wave, the electrons and ion motion decouple within the ion skin-depth near the antenna and co-rotates with the RMF outside the ion skin depth, generating a JxB force. In order to understand the RMF and plasma interaction and the resultant radiation in different frequency regimes, we developed a 3D code that simulate the process. The code solves the linearized Maxwell equations coupled to the two-fluid description of the plasma motion in the frequency-domain. The antenna excitation is modeled as a set ofexternal current sources. The magnetized plasma response to the wave excitation at different frequencies,i.e. in the MHD and whistler frequency regime, are described by elements of the dielectric tensor. An iterative sparse matrix-solver is used to solve for the near field antenna-plasma coupling and the far-field wave propagation. The code is able to determine the radiation from antennas with complex geometry. The experimental configurations used in Gigliotti et all., 2008 and Karavaev et al., 2008 were simulated. The simulation results help us understand the general characteristics of impedance matching, energy coupling and far field radiation pattern from an RMF antenna in plasmas. The scaling of the induced magnetic field as a function of the RMF frequency, the plasma parameters and the spatial decay rate of magnetic field, as well

  7. Generation and detection of squeezed phonons in lattice dynamics by ultrafast optical excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatti, Fabio; Esposito, Martina; Fausti, Daniele; Floreanini, Roberto; Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    We propose a fully quantum treatment for pump and probe experiments applied to the study of phonon excitations in solids. To describe the interaction between photons and phonons, a single effective hamiltonian is used that is able to model both the excitation induced by pump laser pulses and the subsequent measuring process through probe pulses. As the photoexcited phonons interact with their surroundings, mainly electrons and impurities in the target material, they cannot be considered isolated: their dynamics needs to be described by a master equation that takes into account the dissipative and noisy effects due to the presence of the environment. In this formalism, the quantum dynamics of pump excited phonons can be analyzed through suitable probe photon observables; in particular, a clear signature of squeezed phonons can be obtained by looking simultaneously at the behavior of the scattered probe mean photon number and its variance.

  8. The Application of Parameter Space Design Method for Generator Excitation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iki, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Shyuta; Uriu, Yosihisa

    Recently, control engineering changes from classical control theory to modern control theory, and analogue to digital. However, as a matter of fact, the sensitivity adjustment of the parameters using Bode diagram require many time and works. In this paper, the tool of Matlab/Simulink that adjusted the AVR control parameter of the PI control type brushless and Thyristor excitation method by using the technique for based on the parameter space planning method by QE was made. Moreover, the adjustment of the sensitivity parameter of the excitation control method intended for the dynamic stability level area in Single Machine Infinite Bus is examined with the tool.

  9. Laser generated neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, D. P.; Bartal, T.; McNaney, J. M.; Swift, D. C.; Hey, D. S.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A.; Kodama, R.; Tanaka, K. A.; Mariscal, D.; Beg, F. N.; Nakamura, H.; Nakanii, N.

    2010-10-15

    A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy has been developed using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers. This technique will allow robust measurement of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into material equation of state. The neutron generation technique uses laser-accelerated protons to create neutrons in LiF through (p,n) reactions. The incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film. This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neutron prediction code which is validated with experimentally measured neutron yields. The calculation infers a total fluence of 1.8x10{sup 9} neutrons, which are expected to be sufficient for neutron resonance spectroscopy temperature measurements.

  10. Milliwatt generator heat source. Progress report, July-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mershad, E.A.

    1982-04-08

    As part of the Milliwatt Generator (MWG) Program, a second series of pressure burst capsules welded offsite was tested; the resulting data indicate that the welds are very similar to those in the first series of capsules. Sufficient hardware was fabricated to meet all scheduled commitments. To provide a unit for feasibility testing, a heat source clad with Hastelloy C was reclad with Inconel 600. Forming development tests on Inconel 600 were conducted with favorable results. A QAS-3 survey was conducted and a satisfactory rating was received. Lot 11 qualification began on T-111 materials. The production period ended with an overall process yield of 99.6%, and a dollar percent defective rate of 0.60%.

  11. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  12. Steady-State Analysis of Parallel-Operated Self-Excited Induction Generators Supplying an Unbalanced Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radosavljević, Jordan; Klimenta, Dardan; Jevtić, Miroljub

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposed a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) based approach for determining the steady-state performance characteristics of three-phase self-excited induction generators (SEIGs) operating in parallel and supplying an unbalanced load. The symmetrical component theory is used for the transformation of a complex three-phase generators-capacitances-load system to a simple equivalent circuit. The MOGA has been employed for the determination of unknown variables by minimizing the impedance module of the equivalent circuit. Using this approach, effects of various parameters on the terminal voltage control characteristics are examined for two parallel SEIGs with C2C connection under a single phase load.

  13. Fiber-based 1150-nm femtosecond laser source for the minimally invasive harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing-Yu; Guo, Lun-Zhang; Wang, Jing-Zun; Li, Tse-Chung; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Chiu, Po-Kai; Peng, Lung-Han; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) has become one unique tool of optical virtual biopsy for the diagnosis of cancer and the in vivo cytometry of leukocytes. Without labeling, HGM can reveal the submicron features of tissues and cells in vivo. For deep imaging depth and minimal invasiveness, people commonly adopt 1100- to 1300-nm femtosecond laser sources. However, those lasers are typically based on bulky oscillators whose performances are sensitive to environmental conditions. We demonstrate a fiber-based 1150-nm femtosecond laser source, with 6.5-nJ pulse energy, 86-fs pulse width, and 11.25-MHz pulse repetition rate. It was obtained by a bismuth borate or magnesium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) mediated frequency doubling of the 2300-nm solitons, generated from an excitation of 1550-nm femtosecond pulses on a large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Combined with a home-built laser scanned microscope and a tailor-made frame grabber, we achieve a pulse-per-pixel HGM imaging in vivo at a 30-Hz frame rate. This integrated solution has the potential to be developed as a stable HGM system for routine clinical use.

  14. Carbon-14 Source Terms and Generation in Fusion Power Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, V. I.; Kurbatov, D. K.; Subbotin, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    A consecutive study of the source terms of 14C as the major contributor to the external costs of fusion and its production rate was performed by system and neutron activation analysis. It shows that the specific 14C activity induced in the low activation structural materials, coolants and breeders suggested for future fusion power reactor cores is significantly dependent upon the assumption for nitrogen content. The determined range of the specific 14C activity ˜2-20 TBq/GW(e)a induced by the near-term water-cooled, gas-cooled and advanced liquid lithium and lithium-lead self-cooled fusion power reactors is given in the paper regarding the values for natural 14C background and artificial 14C sources as fission power reactors and nuclear tests. It is definitely recommended to minimize the nitrogen content below 0.01 wt.% in the beryllium multipliers and in the structural materials, SiC/SiC composite including. Then due to environmental and waste disposal reasons the 14C generation in fusion power blankets will have negligible impact on the cost.

  15. Plasma Generation in High-Current Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filuk, A. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Pointon, T. D.; Vesey, R. A.; Welch, D.

    1996-10-01

    We are using kA/cm^2 ion sources to generate intense pulsed ion beams for driving Inertial Confinement Fusion targets. These sources are the anode of an ion diode that uses several-Tesla magnetic fields to restrict electron flow across the diode while permitting ion acceleration. Our 2 cm diode anode-cathode gaps have 10 MV applied in order to accelerate Li ions from 100-1000 cm^2 anode areas. During the 50 ns beam pulse, we observe a transition in beam content from Li ions to H,C,O impurity ions. As well, a significant fraction of the total diode current is in electrons leaking across the magnetic insulation to the anode. The several-GW/cm^2 leakage flux of MeV electrons deposits large amounts of energy into the anode surface, releasing physi- and chemi-sorbed impurities in the modest 10-5-10-6 Torr diode vacuum. These desorbed impurity neutrals can expand and rapidly ionize within about 200 μm of the anode during the beam pulse. We are modeling this process in a multi-dimensional hybrid fluid/PIC code and making spectroscopic measurements to quantify these mechanisms.

  16. Plasma-based studies on 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. W.; Baldis, H. A.; Cauble, R. C.; Landen, O. L.; Wark, J. S.; Ng, A.; Rose, S. J.; Lewis, C.; Riley, D.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Audebert, P.

    2001-08-01

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warm dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (Te), the density (ne), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, ne⩾1022cm-3 implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities end for plasmas with ne⩾1022 since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  17. Plasma-Based Studies on 4th Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W; Baldis, H A; Cauble, R C; Landen, O L; Wark, J S; Ng, A; Rose, S J; Lewis, C; Riley, D; Gauthier, J-C; Audebert, P

    2000-11-28

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warn dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (T{sub e}), the density (n{sub e}), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, n{sub e}, {ge} 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3} implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However. the possibilities end for plasmas with n{sub e} {ge} 10{sup 22} since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  18. The ALS — A third-generation light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1990-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in April 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 11 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers). Undulators will generate high-brightness soft-X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation; wigglers will extend the spectrum generated into the hard-X-ray region, but at a lower brightness. Up to 48 bending-magnet ports will also be available. Engineering design has begun on a complement of three undulators with periods of 8.0, 5.0, and 3.9 cm. Among them, the photon-energy range from 5.4 eV to 2.5 keV will be covered when the first, third, and fifth undulator harmonics are used. Also being designed is a wiggler with a critical energy of 3.1 keV. Undulator beam lines will be based on high-resolution spherical-grating monochromators. A Call for Proposals has been issued for those who wish to participate in the design, development, commissioning, and operation of the initial complement of the ALS experimental facilities (insertion devices, beam lines, and experimental stations) as members of a participating research team. The deadline for receipt of proposals was August 15, 1989. Proposals are expected to reflect the Letters of Interest received from potential participating research teams (PRTs) during the previous year.

  19. Unconventional generation of optical vortex beam using axicon pair and a birefringent lens: Validation of plasmonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Jayeta; Ray, Mina

    2017-05-01

    We generate a nondiffracted Bessel beam using an axicon. A simple setup is presented to generate a zero order Bessel beam. Moreover, we introduce certain modifications in this optical setup for unconventional generation of an optical vortex beam using an axicon pair and a birefringent lens. An optical vortex beam with a topological charge of 1 is generated, and the corresponding spiral pattern has been demonstrated, which confirms the presence of orbital angular momentum in the optical vortex beam. Further, plasmonic excitation is validated using both zero order and first order Bessel beams. Our approach to confirm the presence of surface plasmon resonance relies on the use of a Wollaston prism. We are able to separately identify the coupling of surface plasmons with the p-polarized components via the absence of the corresponding annular beam.

  20. Polychromophoric metal complexes for generating the bioregulatory agent nitric oxide by single- and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Ford, Peter C

    2008-02-01

    In order to deliver a bioactive agent to a physiological location, it is important to be able to regulate precisely the location and the dosage. Such exquisite control can easily be envisioned for a photochemical drug that is active toward release of the desired bioactive agent upon irradiation of a specific tissue site. These materials should be thermally stable but reactive under excitation at visible (vis) or near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths where tissue transmission is optimal. Two photon excitation (TPE) is of special interest, since the use of focused laser pulses to activate release could provide 3D spatial control in therapeutic applications. This Account describes the preparation and photochemistry of a series of transition metal complexes designed to release the simple bioregulatory compound nitric oxide upon vis or NIR excitation. In order to enhance the light gathering capability of such compounds, we have attached chromophores with high single- or two-photon absorption cross sections to several photochemical NO precursors. For example, the iron nitrosyl clusters Fe2(mu-SR)2(NO)4 (Roussin's red esters) have been prepared with various chromophores as pendant groups, an example being the protoporphyrin XI derivative illustrated here. Direct excitation into the vis absorbing Q bands of the porphyrin leads to enhanced rates of NO generation from the Fe/S/NO cluster owing to the larger rate of light absorption by that antenna. Furthermore, femtosecond pulsed laser NIR excitation of the same compound at 810 nm (a spectral region where no absorption bands are apparent) leads to weak emission at approximately 630 nm and generation of NO, both effects providing evidence of a TPE mechanism. Roussin's red esters with other chromophores described here are even more effective for TPE-stimulated NO release. Another photochemical NO precursor discussed is the Cr(III) complex trans-Cr(L)(ONO)2(+) where L is a cyclic tetraamine such as cyclam. When L includes a

  1. Time-resolved electronic Raman spectrum of terbium aluminum garnet excited with visible and UV laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myslynski, P.; Koningstein, J. A.

    1987-05-01

    Excitation profiles for the intensities of electronic Raman transitions between crystal field components of the 7F 6 and 7F 5 manifolds of terbium aluminum garnet are recorded for excitation in the spectral region where absorption bands due to levels of the 5D 4 manifold occur. The intensities of the electronic transitions are not enhanced which is thought to be caused by the small values of electric dipole matrix elements of the resonating electronic states in comparison to the values of such elements to other intermediate states which occur in the expression for the scattering tensor. Fluorescence from the 5D 4 levels is induced and resonance fluorescence are time resolved with respect to the Raman transitions. We report electronic Raman transitions excited with the 308.0 nm line of an XeCl excimer laser. As opposed to excitation with visible laser sources, transitions are recorded which terminate on all the crystal field levels of the 7F 5…0 levels. In addition, fluorescence from 5D 3 to the ground state of terbium aluminum garnet is also observed.

  2. Mid-infrared laser-driven broadband water-window supercontinuum generation from pre-excited medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Hong, Weiyi; Zhang, Qingbin; Wang, Shaoyi; Lu, Peixiang

    2011-11-21

    We theoretically investigate the broadband water-window supercontinuum generation from pre-excited medium with a mid-infrared pulse. We find that the wavelength scaling of the harmonic yield from near-visible (0.8 μm) to mid-infrared (1.8 μm) in single-atom level is λ(-2.7). Using an intense phase-stabilized few-cycle 1.6 μm laser pulse, a broadband water window supercontinuum with bandwidth of approximately 140 eV is obtained. We also investigate the macroscopic effects and find that large initial population of the excited state leads to the high-density of free electrons, which shift the carrier-envelop phase of the driving pulse and further diminish the water-window supercontinuum generation. The highly-ionized medium also results in poor temporal and spatial properties of the attosecond pulse. Instead, small initial population of the excited state can produce well phase-matched xuv supercontinuum in water-window region and an 100-as pulse with central wavelength of 2.8 nm and pulse energy of 0.15 nJ can be filtered out.

  3. Spin vortices in cuprates: Magnetic excitations, optical conductivity, enhanced Nernst signal, and a persistent current generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu

    2010-12-01

    When spin vortices are present, loop currents arise around them. These loop currents are germs of a macroscopic current, i.e., a macroscopic current is created as a collection of them, and eventually form a persistent current at temperatures below T. We argue that this is what happening in the underdoped cuprates. The hourglass-shaped magnetic excitation spectrum observed in cuprates is considered as evidence of the presence of spin vortices; the Drude-like peak in the optical conductivity is also explained as arising from spin-wave excitations in the presence of spin vortices. The observed enhanced Nernst signals and magnetization in the psudogap phase is explained due to the flow of the loop currents. If we calculate T in the underdoped sample as the temperature where the coherence establishes among the loop currents, the doping concentration dependence of it is given by T=T0lnxx0, which is shown to agree well with experiments.

  4. Cardiac sodium channel palmitoylation regulates channel availability and myocyte excitability with implications for arrhythmia generation

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zifan; Xiao, Yucheng; Meng, Jingwei; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.5) play an essential role in regulating cardiac electric activity by initiating and propagating action potentials in the heart. Altered Nav1.5 function is associated with multiple cardiac diseases including long-QT3 and Brugada syndrome. Here, we show that Nav1.5 is subject to palmitoylation, a reversible post-translational lipid modification. Palmitoylation increases channel availability and late sodium current activity, leading to enhanced cardiac excitability and prolonged action potential duration. In contrast, blocking palmitoylation increases closed-state channel inactivation and reduces myocyte excitability. We identify four cysteines as possible Nav1.5 palmitoylation substrates. A mutation of one of these is associated with cardiac arrhythmia (C981F), induces a significant enhancement of channel closed-state inactivation and ablates sensitivity to depalmitoylation. Our data indicate that alterations in palmitoylation can substantially control Nav1.5 function and cardiac excitability and this form of post-translational modification is likely an important contributor to acquired and congenital arrhythmias. PMID:27337590

  5. Nonequilibrium vibrational excitation of OH radicals generated during multibubble cavitation in water.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Abdoul Aziz; Pflieger, Rachel; Siboulet, Bertrand; Molina, John; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Nikitenko, Sergey I

    2012-05-24

    The sonoluminescence (SL) spectra of OH(A(2)Σ(+)) excited state produced during the sonolysis of water sparged with argon were measured and analyzed at various ultrasonic frequencies (20, 204, 362, 609, and 1057 kHz) in order to determine the intrabubble conditions created by multibubble cavitation. The relative populations of the OH(A(2)Σ(+)) v' = 1-4 vibrational states as well as the vibronic temperatures (T(v), T(e)) have been calculated after deconvolution of the SL spectra. The results of this study provide evidence for nonequilibrium plasma formation during sonolysis of water in the presence of argon. At low ultrasonic frequency (20 kHz), a weakly excited plasma with Brau vibrational distribution is formed (T(e) ~ 0.7 eV and T(v) ~ 5000 K). By contrast, at high-frequency ultrasound, the plasma inside the collapsing bubbles exhibits Treanor behavior typical for strong vibrational excitation. The T(e) and T(v) values increase with ultrasonic frequency, reaching T(e) ~ 1 eV and T(v) ~ 9800 K at 1057 kHz.

  6. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of adipose tissue based on second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zufang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong; Jiang, Xingshan

    2008-01-01

    The fresh adipose tissue was investigated by the use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG). Microstructure of collagen and adipose cells in the adipose tissue is clearly imaged at a subcellular level with the excitation light wavelengths of 850 and 730 nm, respectively. The emission spectrum of collagen SHG signal and NADH and FAD fluorescence signal can also be obtained, which can be used to quantify the content of collagen and adipose cells and reflect the degree of pathological changes when comparing normal tissue with abnormal adipose tissue in the same condition. The results indicate that MPM has the potential to be applied to investigate the adipose tissue and can be used in the research field of lipid and connective tissues.

  7. Dynamic modification of the fragmentation of CO{sup q+} excited states generated with high-order harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; De, S.; Singh, K. P.; Chen, S.; Laurent, G.; Ray, D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Rescigno, T.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-10-15

    The dynamic process of fragmentation of CO{sup q+} excited states is investigated using a pump-probe approach. EUV radiation (32-48 eV) generated by high-order harmonics was used to ionize and excite CO molecules and a time-delayed infrared (IR) pulse (800 nm) was used to influence the evolution of the dissociating multichannel wave packet. Two groups of states, separable experimentally by their kinetic-energy release (KER), are populated by the EUV and lead to C{sup +}-O{sup +} fragmentation: direct double ionization of the neutral molecule and fragmentation of the cation leading to C{sup +}-O*, followed by autoionization of O*. The IR pulse was found to modify the KER of the latter group in a delay-dependent way which is explained with a model calculation.

  8. An analysis of single-phase self-excited induction generators: Model development and steady-state calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ojo, O.; Bhat, I.

    1995-06-01

    The need for alternative and renewable energy sources for utility and autonomous applications especially in remote places has focused attention on the use of electric generators connected to a source of mechanical power such as wind and minihydro turbines. In particular, induction and reluctance generators have great potential. The modeling and steady-state performance of single-phase induction generators based on the principles harmonic balance is set forth in this paper. Magnetizing flux linkage saturation and flux dependent core loss resistances are included. Experimental results are provided to justify analytical approach and steady-state calculations.

  9. Control of a wind-driven self-excited induction generator water-pumping system for maximum utilization efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Alghuwainem, S.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper analyzes a stand-alone water-pumping system consisting of a motor-pump set supplied by a wind-driven self-excited induction generator. In order to achieve maximum utilization efficiency, the system designer is interested in optimally matching the system components together so that maximum energy available from the wind is absorbed and utilized all the time. Unfortunately, this optimal matching is speed-dependent and hence no single matching is valid for all wind speeds. Therefore the operating point of the system must vary with wind speed. In this paper, a control strategy is formulated which properly adjust the operating point of the system to coincide with the maximum power operating condition. The self-excited induction generator (SEIG) is basically an induction machine which is driven by a prime mover such as a wind turbine while a capacitor is connected across its stator terminals. The SEIG supplies an induction motor which is coupled to a water pump. The system need not operate continuously and water can be used directly for drinking and irrigation or it can be collected in a storage tank for later use. Due to the high cost of the wind turbine and equipment, the system designer is interested in maximizing the amount of pumped water per day. This can be achieved by proper selection and matching of the system components. However, proper matching of the system components together is not sufficient to guarantee maximum utilization since matching is dependent on wind speed. Therefore, certain system components must be controlled according to wind speed, such that matching is achieved all the time. This paper presents a control strategy to control the excitation capacitance of the induction generator such that its generated terminal voltage, which is applied to the induction motor, is kept constant as the rotor speed varies with wind speed.

  10. Low-power radio-frequency excitation as a plasma source in a Penning-Malmberg trap: a systematic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maero, G.; Chen, S.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M.

    2015-10-01

    > A novel method was experimentally demonstrated to produce a low-density electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap, exploiting the static electric and magnetic confinement fields together with a periodic excitation with amplitudes as low as 0.5-5 V and frequencies in the MHz range. This unusual technique proved to be applicable as a replacement for conventional electron sources in Penning devices and presents interesting aspects both in terms of basic science and technological applications. Nevertheless, the experimental observations demonstrate the high sensitivity of plasma features of interest (charge, mean density and density distribution) to the experimental conditions, namely trap configuration and excitation parameters, and as a consequence clear trends have not been identified so far. We present an experimental campaign of measurements where several parameters were systematically changed leading to a better assessment of the plasma production mechanism and to the identification of common trends.

  11. The direct-current response of electrically conducting fractures excited by a grounded current source

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Chester J.; Aldridge, David F.; Knox, Hunter A.; Schramm, Kimberly A.; Bartel, Lewis C.

    2016-05-01

    Hydraulic fracture stimulation of low permeability reservoir rocks is an established and cross–cutting technology for enhancing hydrocarbon production in sedimentary formations and increasing heat exchange in crystalline geothermal systems. Whereas the primary measure of success is the ability to keep the newly generated fractures sufficiently open, long–term reservoir management requires a knowledge of the spatial extent, morphology, and distribution of the fractures — knowledge primarily informed by microseismic and ground deformation monitoring. To minimize the uncertainty associated with interpreting such data, we investigate through numerical simulation the usefulness of direct-current (DC) resistivity data for characterizing subsurface fractures with elevated electrical conductivity by considering a geophysical experiment consisting of a grounded current source deployed in a steel cased borehole. In doing so, the casing efficiently energizes the fractures with steady current. Finite element simulations of this experiment for a horizontal well intersecting a small set of vertical fractures indicate that the fractures manifest electrically in (at least) two ways: (1) a local perturbation in electric potential proximal to the fracture set, with limited farfield expression and (2) an overall reduction in the electric potential along the borehole casing due to enhanced current flow through the fractures into the surrounding formation. The change in casing potential results in a measurable effect that can be observed far from fractures themselves. Under these conditions, our results suggest that farfield, timelapse measurements of DC potentials can be interpreted by simple, linear inversion for a Coulomb charge distribution along the borehole path, including a local charge perturbation due to the fractures. As a result, this approach offers an inexpensive method for detecting and monitoring the time-evolution of electrically conducting fractures while

  12. The direct-current response of electrically conducting fractures excited by a grounded current source

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Chester J.; Aldridge, David F.; Knox, Hunter A.; Schramm, Kimberly A.; Bartel, Lewis C.

    2016-05-01

    Hydraulic fracture stimulation of low permeability reservoir rocks is an established and cross–cutting technology for enhancing hydrocarbon production in sedimentary formations and increasing heat exchange in crystalline geothermal systems. Whereas the primary measure of success is the ability to keep the newly generated fractures sufficiently open, long–term reservoir management requires a knowledge of the spatial extent, morphology, and distribution of the fractures — knowledge primarily informed by microseismic and ground deformation monitoring. To minimize the uncertainty associated with interpreting such data, we investigate through numerical simulation the usefulness of direct-current (DC) resistivity data for characterizing subsurface fractures with elevated electrical conductivity by considering a geophysical experiment consisting of a grounded current source deployed in a steel cased borehole. In doing so, the casing efficiently energizes the fractures with steady current. Finite element simulations of this experiment for a horizontal well intersecting a small set of vertical fractures indicate that the fractures manifest electrically in (at least) two ways: (1) a local perturbation in electric potential proximal to the fracture set, with limited farfield expression and (2) an overall reduction in the electric potential along the borehole casing due to enhanced current flow through the fractures into the surrounding formation. The change in casing potential results in a measurable effect that can be observed far from fractures themselves. Under these conditions, our results suggest that farfield, timelapse measurements of DC potentials can be interpreted by simple, linear inversion for a Coulomb charge distribution along the borehole path, including a local charge perturbation due to the fractures. As a result, this approach offers an inexpensive method for detecting and monitoring the time-evolution of electrically conducting fractures while

  13. The direct-current response of electrically conducting fractures excited by a grounded current source

    DOE PAGES

    Weiss, Chester J.; Aldridge, David F.; Knox, Hunter A.; ...

    2016-05-01

    Hydraulic fracture stimulation of low permeability reservoir rocks is an established and cross–cutting technology for enhancing hydrocarbon production in sedimentary formations and increasing heat exchange in crystalline geothermal systems. Whereas the primary measure of success is the ability to keep the newly generated fractures sufficiently open, long–term reservoir management requires a knowledge of the spatial extent, morphology, and distribution of the fractures — knowledge primarily informed by microseismic and ground deformation monitoring. To minimize the uncertainty associated with interpreting such data, we investigate through numerical simulation the usefulness of direct-current (DC) resistivity data for characterizing subsurface fractures with elevated electricalmore » conductivity by considering a geophysical experiment consisting of a grounded current source deployed in a steel cased borehole. In doing so, the casing efficiently energizes the fractures with steady current. Finite element simulations of this experiment for a horizontal well intersecting a small set of vertical fractures indicate that the fractures manifest electrically in (at least) two ways: (1) a local perturbation in electric potential proximal to the fracture set, with limited farfield expression and (2) an overall reduction in the electric potential along the borehole casing due to enhanced current flow through the fractures into the surrounding formation. The change in casing potential results in a measurable effect that can be observed far from fractures themselves. Under these conditions, our results suggest that farfield, timelapse measurements of DC potentials can be interpreted by simple, linear inversion for a Coulomb charge distribution along the borehole path, including a local charge perturbation due to the fractures. As a result, this approach offers an inexpensive method for detecting and monitoring the time-evolution of electrically conducting fractures while

  14. Investigation of runoff generation from anthropogenic sources with dissolved xenobiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krein, A.; Pailler, J.; Guignard, C.; Iffly, J.; Pfister, L.; Hoffmann, L.

    2009-04-01

    In the experimental Mess basin (35 km2, Luxembourg) dissolved xenobiotics in surface water are used to study the influences of anthropogenic sources like separated sewer systems on runoff generation. Emerging contaminants like pharmaceuticals are of growing interest because of their use in large quantities in human and veterinary medicine. The amounts reaching surface waters depend on rainfall patterns, hydraulic conditions, consumption, metabolism, degradation, and disposal. The behaviour of endocrine disruptors including pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is widely unknown. The twelve molecules analyzed belong to three families: the estrogens, the antibiotics (sulfonamides, tetracyclines), and the painkillers (ibuprofen, diclofenac). Xenobiotics can be used as potential environmental tracers for untreated sewerage. Our results show that the concentrations are highly variable during flood events. The highest concentrations are reached in the first flush period, mainly during the rising limb of the flood hydrographs. As a result of the kinematic wave effect the concentration peak occurs in some cases a few hours after the discharge maximum. In floodwater (eleven floods, 66 samples) the highest concentrations were measured for ibuprofen (g/l range), estrone, and diclofenac (all ng/l range). From the tetracycline group, essentially tetracycline itself is of relevance, while the sulfonamides are mainly represented by sulfamethoxazole (all in ng/l range). In the Mess River the pharmaceuticals fluxes during flood events proved to be influenced by hydrological conditions. Different pharmaceuticals showed their concentration peaks during different times of a flood event. An example is the estrone peak that - during summer flash floods - often occurred one to two hours prior to the largest concentrations of the painkillers. This suggests for more sources than the sole storm drainage through the spillway of the single sewage water treatment plant, different

  15. [Formation of a generator of excitation in the gigantocellular nucleus of the medulla oblongata during disruption of inhibitory processes].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Sheĭkhon, F D; Rekhtman, M B

    1975-01-01

    Neuronal activity in the gigantocellular nucleus after injection of tetanus toxin was studied on decerebrated cats. The toxin was used as a substance producing a deep and continuous suppression of inhibitory processes. The increase in the amplitude and rate of neuronal discharges, in the integral background and evoked activity as well as in the number of active neurons and that of neurons with burst activity was recorded in the "poisoned" nucleus. The enhanced activity in the investigated regions of the poisoned nucleus might be temporarily suppressed by a strong direct electrical shock and by glycin administrations to those regions. The obtained data indicate that a pool of neurons with disturbed inhibitory processes forms a generator of enhanced excitation. The mechanisms and characteristic features of the activity of such generators are discussed. The possibility of modelling neurological syndromes by production of similar generators in various parts of the central nervous system and their relation to the earlier described phenomenon of "dispatch station" are considered.

  16. Imaging of collagen matrix remodeling in three-dimensional space using second harmonic generation and two photon excitation fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Thomas; Carthy, Jon; McManus, Bruce

    2009-02-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG), a nonlinear optical phenomenon, exhibits several in-common characteristics of twophoton excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy. These characteristics include identical equipment requirements from experiment to experiment and the intrinsic capability of generating 3-dimensional (D) high resolution images. Structural protein arrays that are highly ordered, such as collagen, produce strong SHG signals without the need for any exogenous label (stain). SHG and TPEF can be used together to provide information on structural rearrangements in 3D space of the collagen matrix associated with various physiological processes. In this study, we used SHG and TPEF to detect cellmediated structural reorganization of the extracellular collagen matrix in 3D space triggered by dimensional changes of embedded fibroblasts. These fibroblasts were cultured in native type I collagen gels and were stimulated to contract for a period of 24 hours. The gels were stained for cell nuclei with Hoechst and for actin with phalloidin conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488. We used non-de-scanned detectors and spectral scanning mode both in the reflection geometry for generating the 3D images and for SHG spectra, respectively. We used a tunable infrared laser with 100-fs pulses at a repetition rate of 80-MHz tuned to 800-nm for Hoechst and Alexa 488 excitations. We employed a broad range of excitation wavelengths (800 to 880-nm) with a scan interval of 10 nm to detect the SHG signal. We found that spectrally clean SHG signal peaked at 414-nm with excitation wavelength of 830-nm. The SHG spectrum has a full width half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of 6.60-nm, which is consistent with its scaling relation to FWHM bandwidth 100-fs excitation pulses. When stimulated to contract, we found the fibroblasts to be highly elongated as well as interconnected in 2D space, and the collagen matrix, in the form of a visibly clear fibril structure, accumulated around the cells. In the absence of

  17. Proposal for a self-excited electrically driven surface plasmon polariton generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordo, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a generator of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) which, unlike spasers or plasmon lasers, does not require stimulated emission in the system. Its principle of operation is based on a positive feedback which an ensemble of classical oscillating dipoles experiences from a reflective surface located in its near field. The generator design includes a nanocavity between two metal surfaces which contains metal nanoparticles in its interior. The whole structure is placed onto a prism surface that allows one to detect the generated SPPs in the Kretschmann configuration. The generation process is driven by a moderate DC voltage applied between the metal covers of the cavity. Both the generation criterion and the steady-state operation of the generator are investigated.

  18. Experience in Developing a Single-Phase Two Winding 5 kW Self-excited Induction Generator for Off-Grid Renewable Energy Based Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, S. S.; Singh, Bhim; Sandeep, Vuddanti

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a novel single-phase two winding self-excited squirrel cage induction generator (SEIG) for off-grid renewable energy based power generation. The principles underlying the design process and experience with SPEED design tool are described to design a 5 kW, 50 Hz, 230 V, 4 pole single phase AC generator. All possible configurations to reduce harmonic components of induced e.m.f. are attempted for desired performance and to get an optimum design keeping in view the manufacturing constraints. The development of a prototype based on this design has been completed with the help of an industry. Typical test results on the prototype are presented to demonstrate its performance. Computed results are obtained with a design based computational procedure for performance analysis and a critical comparison is made with test results.

  19. Microwave-excited microplasma thruster: a numerical and experimental study of the plasma generation and micronozzle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2008-10-01

    A microplasma thruster of the electrothermal type has been developed using azimuthally symmetric microwave-excited microplasmas. The plasma source was ~2 mm in diameter and ~10 mm long, and operated at around atmospheric pressures; the micronozzle was a converging-diverging type, having a throat ~0.2 mm in diameter and ~1 mm long. Numerical and experimental results with Ar demonstrated that this miniature electrothermal thruster gives a thrust of >1 mN, a specific impulse of ~100 s and a thrust efficiency of ~10% at a microwave power of <10 W.

  20. Generation of a pair of photons through the three-body dissociation of a multiply excited water molecule around the double ionization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagiri, Takeshi; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Tanabe, Takehiko; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Isao H.; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2009-11-01

    The cross sections for the generation of a photon-pair from excited fragments in photoexcitation of H2O have been measured as a function of incident photon energy. The multiply excited states of H2O have been observed even above the adiabatic double ionization potential.

  1. Nonlinear spectral imaging of human hypertrophic scar based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Chen, J; Zhuo, S; Xiong, S; Zeng, H; Jiang, X; Chen, R; Xie, S

    2009-07-01

    A noninvasive method using microscopy and spectroscopy for analysing the morphology of collagen and elastin and their biochemical variations in skin tissue will enable better understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertrophic scars and facilitate improved clinical management and treatment of this disease. To obtain simultaneously microscopic images and spectra of collagen and elastin fibres in ex vivo skin tissues (normal skin and hypertrophic scar) using a nonlinear spectral imaging method, and to compare the morphological structure and spectral characteristics of collagen and elastin fibres in hypertrophic scar tissues with those of normal skin, to determine whether this approach has potential for in vivo assessment of the pathophysiology of human hypertrophic scars and for monitoring treatment responses as well as for tracking the process of development of hypertrophic scars in clinic. Ex vivo human skin specimens obtained from six patients aged from 10 to 50 years old who were undergoing skin plastic surgery were examined. Five patients had hypertrophic scar lesions and one patient had no scar lesion before we obtained his skin specimen. A total of 30 tissue section samples of 30 mum thickness were analysed by the use of a nonlinear spectral imaging system consisting of a femtosecond excitation light source, a high-throughput scanning inverted microscope, and a spectral imaging detection system. The high-contrast and high-resolution second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) images of elastin fibres in hypertrophic scar tissues and normal skin were acquired using the extracting channel tool of the system. The emission spectra were analysed using the image-guided spectral analysis method. The depth-dependent decay constant of the SHG signal and the image texture characteristics of hypertrophic scar tissue and normal skin were used to quantitatively assess the amount, distribution and orientation of their

  2. Subtarget Effect on Laser Plasma Generated by Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser at Atmospheric Gas Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Kiichiro; Lie, Tjung Jie; Hedwig, Rinda; Abdulmajid, Syahrun Nur; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Kurniawan, Hendrik

    2000-05-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the dynamical process taking place in the laser plasma generated by Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 laser (100 mJ, 50 ns) irradiation of a soft sample at surrounding helium pressure of 1 atm. It is shown that the presence of a copper subtarget behind the soft sample is crucial in raising the gushing speed of the atoms to the level adequate for the generation of shock wave laser plasma even at atmospheric pressure. It is also found that the time profiles of spatially integrated emission intensity of the target’s atoms and gas atoms exhibit a characteristic dynamical process that consists of successive excitation and cooling stages even at such a high pressure, which is typical of shock wave laser plasma. It is therefore suggested that the generation of the laser plasma at atmospheric pressure is more likely due to the shock wave mechanism than to the widely known breakdown mechanism. Initial spectrochemical analysis of water from the blow off of a boiler system was also carried out, showing a detection limit of as low as 5 ppm for calcium.

  3. Ultrafast atomic-scale visualization of acoustic phonons generated by optically excited quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Vanacore, Giovanni M; Hu, Jianbo; Liang, Wenxi; Bietti, Sergio; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Carbone, Fabrizio; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics of atomic vibrations confined in quasi-zero dimensional systems is crucial from both a fundamental point-of-view and a technological perspective. Using ultrafast electron diffraction, we monitored the lattice dynamics of GaAs quantum dots-grown by Droplet Epitaxy on AlGaAs-with sub-picosecond and sub-picometer resolutions. An ultrafast laser pulse nearly resonantly excites a confined exciton, which efficiently couples to high-energy acoustic phonons through the deformation potential mechanism. The transient behavior of the measured diffraction pattern reveals the nonequilibrium phonon dynamics both within the dots and in the region surrounding them. The experimental results are interpreted within the theoretical framework of a non-Markovian decoherence, according to which the optical excitation creates a localized polaron within the dot and a travelling phonon wavepacket that leaves the dot at the speed of sound. These findings indicate that integration of a phononic emitter in opto-electronic devices based on quantum dots for controlled communication processes can be fundamentally feasible.

  4. Numerical investigations of single bubble oscillations generated by a dual frequency excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédra, Matthieu; Inserra, Claude; Gilles, Bruno; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    The oscillations of a single bubble excited with a dual frequency acoustic field are numerically investigated. Computations are made for an air bubble in water exposed to an acoustic field with a linearly varying amplitude. The bubble response to an excitation containing two frequencies f1 = 500kHz and f2 = 400kHz at the same amplitude is compared to the monofrequency case where only f1 is present. Time-frequency representations show a sharp transition in the bifrequency case, for which the low frequency component f2 becomes resonant while the high frequency component f1 is strongly attenuated. The temporal evolution of the power spectra reveals that the resonance of the low frequency component is correlated with the time varying mean radius of the bubble. It is also observed that the total power of the bubble response in the bifrequency case can reach almost twice the power obtained in the monofrequency case, which indicates a strong enhancement of the cavitating behavior of the bubble for this specific frequency combination.

  5. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  6. Next Generation Source Measuments: CRADA partner communication sheet

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partnerships to Advance Next Gen. Source MeasurementsA growing number of government, academic, and industry groups are recognizing the revolution in air pollution and greenhouse gas source measurement science enabled by the rapid advances in sensors, communications, data integrat...

  7. Next Generation Source Measuments: CRADA partner communication sheet

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partnerships to Advance Next Gen. Source MeasurementsA growing number of government, academic, and industry groups are recognizing the revolution in air pollution and greenhouse gas source measurement science enabled by the rapid advances in sensors, communications, data integrat...

  8. High-Density Plasma Sources and Technology for the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    These days, rapid progress in semiconductor devices such as LSI, flat panel displays and solar cells requires technical innovation in plasma-aided deposition and etching. Due to the primary importance of plasma sources, a great deal of effort has been made to develop high-density large-diameter sources and to control reactive plasmas for the next generation. Here I briefly review high-density sources developed so far, focusing mainly on current understanding of nonlinear coupling from RF antenna to high density sources, and on chemistry control of highly dissociated plasmas. First of all, I introduce various high density sources such as ECR, helicon, inductively-coupled and surface-wave plasmas; then they are classified into three categories depending on the antenna-induced electromagnetic fields. In general, antenna-plasma coupling is nonlinear, which causes plasma density jump with a discharge power increase in most high-density sources. I describe such examples of helicon,(H. Sugai et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion) 39 (1997) A445. and surface wave discharges along with a model explaining the mechanism. In the case of inductive RF discharge, power transfer efficiency measurements(K. Suzuki, K. Nakamura, H. Ohkubo, H. Sugai, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.) 7 (1998) 13. enable discrimination of electrostatic coupling from inductive coupling, and a few methods to reduce the electrostatic coupling will be presented. The wave excitation and absorption processes in surface wave discharge(H. Sugai, I. Ghanashev, M. Nagatsu, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.) 7 (1998) 192. will then be discussed, but only qualitatively as the physics involved there is not clearly understood yet. Besides the discharge physics described above, plasma chemistry significantly influences the processing performance in high density plasmas. The radical composition is markedly different from the low density case, due to secondary processes accompanied with electron-impact dissociation of radicals

  9. Exciting science being explored using sample environment at Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa; Mills, Rebecca; Elorfi, Saad; Christenson, John; Carmichael, Justin; Armitage, Doug; Stewart, Stephen; Rennich, Mark; Hill, Bruce; Wenzel, John; Santodonato, Louis; Plante, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Sample environments are key to performing new and exciting science at SNS. The sample environment group takes care of everything from sample holders in furnaces to dilution refrigeration systems. Several new pieces of equipment have been added to our growing capabilities including multiple cryocoolers and cryostats along with a stand-alone cryogen free dilution refrigeration system. Our magnetic field capabilities range from 0 to 16 T on some beam lines and up to 30 T on our new pulse magnet system. With our new aerodynamic levitator system, we can reach temperatures of 2000 ^oC. Our increasing arsenal of sample environments provides avenues of new and interesting science for all users.

  10. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Joshua J.; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; ...

    2015-04-11

    This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by soft X-ray diffraction. This consists of a cantilevered, fully motorized mirror system which can provide 600 kV cm⁻¹ electric field strengths across the sample and an X-ray detector that can span the full Ewald sphere with in-vacuum motion. The scientific applications motivated by this development, the details of the instrument, and spectra demonstrating the field strengths achieved using this newly developed system are discussed.

  11. Spin-wave excitations: the main source of the temperature dependence of interlayer exchange coupling in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, S; Kienert, J; Lenz, K; Lindner, J; Baberschke, K; Nolting, W

    2007-02-02

    Quantum mechanical calculations based on an extended Heisenberg model are compared with ferromagnetic resonance experiments on prototype trilayer systems Ni(7)/Cu(n)/Co(2)/Cu(001) in order to determine and separate for the first time quantitatively the sources of the temperature dependence of interlayer exchange coupling. Magnon excitations are responsible for about 75% of the reduction of the coupling strength from zero to room temperature. The remaining 25% are due to temperature effects in the effective quantum well and the spacer-magnet interfaces.

  12. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Turner, Joshua J; Dakovski, Georgi L; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Hwang, Harold Y; Zarem, Alex; Schlotter, William F; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Staub, Urs; Johnson, Steven; Mitra, Ankush; Swiggers, Michele; Noonan, Peter; Curiel, G Ivan; Holmes, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by soft X-ray diffraction. This consists of a cantilevered, fully motorized mirror system which can provide 600 kV cm(-1) electric field strengths across the sample and an X-ray detector that can span the full Ewald sphere with in-vacuum motion. The scientific applications motivated by this development, the details of the instrument, and spectra demonstrating the field strengths achieved using this newly developed system are discussed.

  13. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Joshua J.; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Hwang, Harold Y.; Zarem, Alex; Schlotter, William F.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Staub, Urs; Johnson, Steven; Mitra, Ankush; Swiggers, Michele; Noonan, Peter; Curiel, G. Ivan; Holmes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by soft X-ray diffraction. This consists of a cantilevered, fully motorized mirror system which can provide 600 kV cm−1 electric field strengths across the sample and an X-ray detector that can span the full Ewald sphere with in-vacuum motion. The scientific applications motivated by this development, the details of the instrument, and spectra demonstrating the field strengths achieved using this newly developed system are discussed. PMID:25931077

  14. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  15. Properties and Applications of Laser Generated X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R F; Key, M H

    2002-02-25

    The rapid development of laser technology and related progress in research using lasers is shifting the boundaries where laser based sources are preferred over other light sources particularly in the XUV and x-ray spectral region. Laser based sources have exceptional capability for short pulse and high brightness and with improvements in high repetition rate pulsed operation, such sources are also becoming more interesting for their average power capability. This study presents an evaluation of the current capabilities and near term future potential of laser based light sources and summarizes, for the purpose of comparison, the characteristics and near term prospects of sources based on synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Conclusions are drawn on areas where the development of laser based sources is most promising and competitive in terms of applications potential.

  16. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-29

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  17. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  18. New microwave excitation signal generating circuit for quantum frequency standard on the atoms of caesium Cs133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. A.; Davydov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the study, design, development and experimental results of a new microwave excitation signal generating circuit are presented. New design of this circuit is based on the method of direct digital synthesis. The results of theoretical calculations and experimental researches show that the new design not only has a high precision, but also has an improvement in the spectral characteristics of the output signal. Range of generated output frequencies is expanded, that leads to the possibility of detuning the frequency of the neighboring resonance of spectral line and adjust the C-field in quantum frequency standard. Experimental research of the metrological characteristics of the quantum frequency standard on the atoms of caesium with a new functional unit showed an improvement in the daily frequency stability.

  19. Relative dipolar behavior of the equivalent T wave generator: quantitative comparison with ventricular excitation in the rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Brody, D A; Mirvis, D M; Ideker, R E; Cox, J W; Keller, F W; Larsen, R A; Bandura, J P

    1977-03-01

    We studied the relative dipolar and nondipolar content of signal energy throughout ventricular excitation and recovery in 34 isolated, perfused rabbit hearts, suspended in an electrolyte-filled spherical chamber. Computer-processed signals were derived from 20 evenly spaced tank-surface electrodes, and a single, moving, equivalent cardiac dipole generator was optimally fitted to the recorded potentials for each 1-msec sampling interval. Superimposed, time-based plots of signal energy for the 34 preparations showed ventricular excitation to be strikingly more nondipolar than was recovery. In terms of the summed square ratio of nondipolar residual energies, overall nondipolarity of QRS exceed that of ST-T by 41%. Furthermore, the maximum instantaneous ratio during QRS was considerably greater than during the ST-T. Evaluation of paired differences, comparing nondipolar behavior throughout QRS with all of ST-T, proved highly significant (P less than .005). We also found that in contrast to the considerable mobility exhibited by the equivalent QRS dipole, the ST-T dipole locus remained nearly stationary during most of ventricular recovery. Presumably because repolarization is temporally and spatially a relatively diffuse process, it may generate electrical fields which are notably more dipolar than those caused by depolarization.

  20. Detection of radio continuum emission from Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 2 and from their central exciting source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Curiel, S.; Canto, J.; Torrelles, J. M.; Becker, R. H.; Sellgren, K.

    1985-01-01

    The region in Orion containing HH 1 and HH 2 was observed with the VLA at 20, 6, and 2 cm on several occasions from 1981 to 1984. At lower resolution, four continuum sources were detected. Two of these sources coincide positionally with HH 1 and HH 2. At 6 cm and higher resolution, HH 1 is resolved into at least two components. The emission is probably bremsstrahlung originating in the same region where the visible line emission is produced. This is the first detection of radio continuum from classic Herbig-Haro objects. At a position closely centered between HH 1 and HH 2, an object that can be interpreted as the energy source of the system was detected. The central source spectrum is S(nu) of about nu to the alpha power, where alpha = 0.4 + or - 0.2, suggesting a stellar wind. Finally, the fourth radio continuum source coincides positionally with an H2O maser and is probably excited by an independent star. There is evidence of time variability in its radio flux. No emission was detected from the Cohen-Schwartz (1979) star at the 0.1 mJy level.

  1. Detection of radio continuum emission from Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 2 and from their central exciting source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Curiel, S.; Canto, J.; Torrelles, J. M.; Becker, R. H.; Sellgren, K.

    1985-01-01

    The region in Orion containing HH 1 and HH 2 was observed with the VLA at 20, 6, and 2 cm on several occasions from 1981 to 1984. At lower resolution, four continuum sources were detected. Two of these sources coincide positionally with HH 1 and HH 2. At 6 cm and higher resolution, HH 1 is resolved into at least two components. The emission is probably bremsstrahlung originating in the same region where the visible line emission is produced. This is the first detection of radio continuum from classic Herbig-Haro objects. At a position closely centered between HH 1 and HH 2, an object that can be interpreted as the energy source of the system was detected. The central source spectrum is S(nu) of about nu to the alpha power, where alpha = 0.4 + or - 0.2, suggesting a stellar wind. Finally, the fourth radio continuum source coincides positionally with an H2O maser and is probably excited by an independent star. There is evidence of time variability in its radio flux. No emission was detected from the Cohen-Schwartz (1979) star at the 0.1 mJy level.

  2. Glia as a source of cytokines: implications for neuronal excitability and survival.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Ravizza, Teresa; Balosso, Silvia; Aronica, Eleonora

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, preclinical studies have provided a better characterization of the homeostatic and maladaptive mechanisms occurring either during the process of epileptogenesis or after the permanent epileptic state has emerged. Experimental evidence supported by clinical observations highlighted the possibility that brain inflammation is a common factor contributing, or predisposing, to the occurrence of seizures and cell death, in various forms of epilepsy of different etiologies. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as a hallmark of brain inflammation, has been demonstrated in glia in various experimental models of seizures and in human epilepsies. Experimental studies in rodents with perturbed cytokine systems indicate that these inflammatory mediators can alter neuronal excitability and affect cell survival by activating transcriptional and posttranslational intracellular pathways. This paper will provide an overview on the current knowledge in this field to discuss mechanistic hypotheses into the study of pathogenesis of epilepsy and recognize new potential therapeutic options.

  3. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices.

  4. Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser as excitation source in Raman spectroscopy using free-beam and fibre coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Lebedkin, Sergei; Mappes, Timo; Köber, Sebastian; Koos, Christian; Kappes, Manfred; Lemmer, Uli

    2014-05-01

    Enabled by the broad spectral gain and the efficient energy conversion in the active material, organic semiconductor lasers are promising for spectroscopic applications and have been recently applied for high resolution absorption and transmission spectroscopy. Here, we present the application of organic semiconductor DFB laser (DFB-OSL) as excitation source in Raman spectroscopy. Utilizing an efficient small molecule blend of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with the laser dye 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), our encapsulated DFB-OSL achieved a high slope efficiency of 7.6%. The organic lasers were tested in the inverted and upright Raman microscope setups, using free-beam and fibre coupling, respectively. In the free-beam configuration, the emission beam was guided directly into an inverted microscope. Employing a spectrally tunable DFBOSL as the excitation source, we measured the Raman spectra of sulfur and improved the Raman signals for a given optical filter configuration. In the fibre coupling configuration, the organic laser was coupled into a 50 μm multi-mode optical fibre with an efficiency of 70 %. We utilized a round-to-line fibre-bundle for an efficient collection and transfer of Raman light to a spectrograph, by keeping a sufficient spectral resolution. Raman tests were performed on cadmium sulfide and cyclohexane. Our novel fibre-coupled organic laser provides a modular laboratory Raman system.

  5. Resonant generation of an electron–positron pair by two photons to excited Landau levels

    SciTech Connect

    Diachenko, M. M. Novak, O. P.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2015-11-15

    We consider the resonant generation of an electron–positron pair by two polarized photons to arbitrarily low Landau levels. The resonance occurs when the energy of one photon exceeds the one-photon generation threshold, and the energy of the other photon is multiple to the spacing between the levels. The cross section of the process is determined taking into account the spins of particles. The order of magnitude of the cross section is the highest when the magnetic moments of the particles are oriented along the magnetic field.

  6. Volume Mode Excitation In Submerged Bubbles: Towards Reducing Breakdown Voltage For Plasma Generation In Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groele, Joseph; Foster, John

    2016-09-01

    Plasma ignition of submerged gas bubbles reduces the breakdown voltage required to introduce plasma into a liquid. It is possible to further reduce the breakdown voltage of bubbles in liquid water. Local enhancement of the electric field through bubble shape mode activation combined with volume modulation for decreased internal pressure and neutral density is a potential pathway for minimizing breakdown voltage. Although electrohydraulic control of bubble shape has been investigated, for the purpose of reducing breakdown voltage, the quantitative benefits of accessing bubble volume modes remain unexplored. Submerged bubble volume modulation may be achieved by sonically or electrohydraulically driving a time-varying sinusoidal field at the Minnaert resonance frequency. Volume mode activation as a possible pathway to reduced breakdown voltage is demonstrated using Rayleigh-Plesset modeling of the transient bubble radius under an applied sinusoidal pressure signal. Results from an experimental investigation aimed at exciting volume modes are also presented. Additionally, results from preliminary experiments aimed at breaking down a volume mode oscillating bubble as a function of internal bubble pressure is presented.

  7. Generation of complete source samples from the Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein Slew Survey consists of 819 bright X-ray sources, of which 636 (or 78 percent) are identified with counterparts in standard catalogs. We argue for the importance of bright X-ray surveys, and compare the slew results to the ROSAT all-sky survey. Also, we discuss statistical techniques for minimizing confusion in arcminute error circles in digitized data. We describe the 238 Slew Survey AGN, clusters, and BL Lac objects identified to date and their implications for logN-logS and source evolution studies. Also given is a catalog of 1075 sources detected in the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) Slew Survey of the X-ray sky. Five hundred fifty-four of these sources were not previously known as X-ray sources.

  8. Second-harmonic generation excited by a rotating Laguerre-Gaussian beam

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Dmitri

    2010-09-15

    Experimental data demonstrate that unlike linear optical processes, an optical Laguerre-Gaussian beam of frequency {omega}, with topological charge m, rotating with angular frequency {Omega}<<{omega}, may not be considered as a monochromatic beam with the shifted frequency {omega}+m{Omega} (Doppler angular shift) for the second-harmonic generation nonlinear process.

  9. High-performance next-generation EUV lithography light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Peter; Zakharov, Sergey V.; Aliaga-Rossel, Raul; Benali, Otman; Duffy, Grainne; Sarroukh, Ouassima; Wyndham, Edmund; Zakharov, Vasily S.

    2009-03-01

    EUVL solution for HVM at the 22 nm node requires a high power long-term EUV source operation with hundreds of watts at the intermediate focus output. EUV mask blank and mask defects inspections require at-wavelength tools with high brightness. Theoretical analysis with a 2-D radiation MHD code Z* has been performed to address key issues in EUV plasma sources with radiation transfer. The study shows that self-absorption defines the limiting brightness of a single EUV source, which cannot meet the requirements of the HVM tool with high efficiency and is not sufficient for critical metrology applications, given the limiting etendue of the optics. It is shown that the required irradiance can be achieved by spatial multiplexing, using multiple small sources. We present here details of the study, as well as experimental results from a novel EUV light source with an intrinsic photon collector demonstrating high brightness, the i-SoCoMo concept, where an impulse micro discharge plasma source is integrated to a photon collector based on an active plasma structure. The small physical size and low etendue properties of the i-SoCoMo unit allows a large number of such sources to be put together in one physical package and be operated in a multiplexed fashion to meet necessary power requirements.

  10. The Efficacy of Generator Protection under Sudden Loss of Excitation using Offset-type MHO-relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arabinda; Dhar, Sujit; Royburman, Subimal; Sanyal, Amarnath

    2017-02-01

    A synchronous generator is forced to asynchronous operation under sudden loss of excitation (LOE). Operation under LOE has many undesirable effects, for example, thermal injury of the faulted machine, poor voltage profile in its neighbourhood, pulsations in voltage and power etc. These effects are more pronounced for a salient pole hydrogenerator compared to a cylindrical pole turbo generator. For these reasons, sustained operation under LOE cannot be permitted for a long time and the faulted machine is to be switched off. The general practice is to use an off-set type mho-relay with an appropriate time delay to distinguish LOE from recoverable swings. In this paper, the performance variables under sudden field failure for a non-salient pole generator and its impedance looking from the terminals have been computed by specially constructed programs based on numerical methods. Taking the example of a 210 MW turbo generator set of Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., it has been established that the offset type mho-relay protection is adequate under all possible conditions of asynchronous operation following an LOE. A comparison has been made between the field directly short-circuited and the same closed through a properly chosen value of discharge resistance. It has been found that the use of discharge resistance is beneficial, but the relay operates even in its absence.

  11. Thermal behavior of a high power generator exciter bridge measured by optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Werner K.; Bortolotti, Fernando; de Morais Sousa, Kleiton; Kalinowski, Hypolito José; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents temperature measurements taken at a 3-phase thyristor rectifier bridge in a synchronous generator using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors applied directly on the thyristors upper surface. The results show the thermal behavior of the thyristors during the generator's start-up-phase and the period of time after the synchronization, with regulating operations as reaction to different load conditions. The temperature analysis is supported by current, voltage and power values of the hydroelectric power plant monitoring system. The trend of curves describes the typical behavior of thyristors which is proven with a four term transient thermal model. The different heat effect a thyristor experiences inside the switching-cabinet are also discussed.

  12. Precompensated excitation waveforms to suppress harmonic generation in MEMS electrostatic transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Reynolds, Paul; Hossack, John

    2004-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) electrostatic-based transducers inherently produce harmonics as the electrostatic force generated in the transmit mode is approximately proportional to the square of the applied voltage signal. This characteristic precludes them from being effectively used for harmonic imaging (either with or without the addition of microbubble-based contrast agents). The harmonic signal that is nonlinearly generated by tissue (or contrast agent) cannot be distinguished from the inherent transmitted harmonic signal. We investigated two precompensation methods to cancel this inherent harmonic generation in electrostatic transducers. A combination of finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental results are presented. The first approach relies on a calculation, or measurement, of the transducer's linear transfer function, which is valid for small signal levels. Using this transfer function and a measurement of the undesired harmonic signal, a predistorted transmit signal was calculated to cancel the harmonic inherently generated by the transducer. Due to the lack of perfect linearity, the approach does hot work completely in a single iteration. However, with subsequent iterations, the problem becomes more linear and converges toward a very satisfactory result (a 18.6 dB harmonic reduction was achieved in FEA simulations and a 20.7 dB reduction was measured in a prototype experiment). The second approach tested involves defining a desired function [including a direct current (DC) offset], then taking the square root of this function to determine the shape of the required input function. A 5.5 dB reduction of transmitted harmonic was obtained in both FEA simulation and experimental prototypes test.

  13. Generation and excitation of different orbital angular momentum states in a tunable microstructure optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Yan-ge; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Wanchen; Luo, Mingming; Liu, Xiaoqi; Guo, Junqi; Liu, Bo; Lin, Lie

    2015-12-28

    A tunable microstructure optical fiber for different orbital angular momentum states generation is proposed and investigated by simulation. The microstructure optical fiber is composed of a high refractive index ring and a hollow core surrounded by four small air holes. The background material of the microstructure fiber is pure silica. The hollow core and the surrounded four small air holes are infiltrated by optical functional material whose refractive index can be modulated via physical parameters, leading to the conversion between circular polarized fundamental mode and different orbital angular momentum states at tunable operating wavelengths. A theoretical model is established and the coupling mechanism is systematically analyzed and investigated based on coupled mode theory. The fiber length can be designed specifically to reach the maximum coupling efficiency for every OAM mode respectively, and can also be fixed at a certain value for several OAM modes generation under tunable refractive index conditions. The proposed fiber coupler is flexible and compact, making it a good candidate for tunable OAM generation and sensing systems.

  14. Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, S.V.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Pershin, V.I.; Masunov, E.S.; Polozov, S.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.; Poole, H.J.

    2006-03-15

    A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane.

  15. Neutron generators with size scalability, ease of fabrication and multiple ion source functionalities

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-11-18

    A neutron generator is provided with a flat, rectilinear geometry and surface mounted metallizations. This construction provides scalability and ease of fabrication, and permits multiple ion source functionalities.

  16. Fluorescent Heterogeneities in Turbid Media: Limits for Detection With Dual-Interfering Sources Excitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    J.Opt.Soc.Am.A 11, 2727-2741 (1994). [19] T.Desmettre, J.Devoiselle & S.Mordon, “Fluorescent properties and metabolic features of Indocyanine Green (ICG...and phase. The set-up configurations and the optical values used matched the typical case of breast optical mammography with the use of Indocyanine ... Green (ICG). An extensive comparison between single and dual source configurations was carried out. More precisely we compared single and dual

  17. Plasma x-ray sources powered by megajoule magnetocumulative generators.

    PubMed

    Popkov, N F; Ya Averchenkov, V; Pikar', A S; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Lazarev, S A; Borovkov, V V

    1995-01-01

    We have performed experiments using magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) to power three different types of high-energy-density plasma discharges suitable for intense x-ray generation. They include the H-pressed discharge, the capillary z-pinch, and the θ-pinch. The MCGs were operated with, and without, plasma opening switches. The characteristic currents were approximately 10 MA and characteristic time scales approximately 1 μs. In this paper we describe the characteristics of these experiments.

  18. Analysis of variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC Links in stressing turbine-generator-exciter shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Bremner, J.J.

    1995-03-01

    Ripple currents on the DC side of both HVDC asynchronous and synchronous Links can excite in some circumstances onerous torsional vibrations in large steam generator shafts. The problem has assumed importance in recent months on account of the HVDC Link between Scotland and Northern Ireland going ahead, on account of the proposed Eire/Wales Link, because AC/DC/AC couplers are to be installed to interconnect the East and West European Grid Systems, and because resonances have been observed on machines in close proximity to AC/DCIAC couplers and HVDC Links. This paper discusses and analyses excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous Links. It presents technical knowledge not arranged for convenient reference heretofore in studying possible excitation of turbine-generator-v/ exciter shaft torsional vibrations by non-characteristic HVDC converter harmonic currents if a machine should be considered to be at risk. Shaft torques in multi-machine networks are evaluated by proportioning HVDC Link disturbance currents to each machine at risk using system network data, generator data and fault analysis data considering frequency dependence of the system parameters. This scaling factor is calculated for different scenarios of system operation and load. Equivalent circuits for the synchronous generator are employed appropriately to correlate HVDC Link disturbance current impressed on the generator stator with s state torque excitation from which magnitude of turbine-generator-exciter shaft torque is deduced.

  19. Measurements of farfield sound generation from a flow-excited cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.; Heller, H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of 1/3-octave-band spectral measurements of internal pressures and the external acoustic field of a tangentially blown rectangular cavity are compared. Proposed mechanisms for sound generation are reviewed, and spectra and directivity plots of cavity noise are presented. Directivity plots show a slightly modified monopole pattern. Frequencies of cavity response are calculated using existing predictions and are compared with those obtained experimentally. The effect of modifying the upstream boundary layer on the noise was investigated, and its effectiveness was found to be a function of cavity geometry and flow velocity.

  20. Dopamine-Signaled Reward Predictions Generated by Competitive Excitation and Inhibition in a Spiking Neural Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Chorley, Paul; Seth, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the mammalian substantia nigra display characteristic phasic responses to stimuli which reliably predict the receipt of primary rewards. These responses have been suggested to encode reward prediction-errors similar to those used in reinforcement learning. Here, we propose a model of dopaminergic activity in which prediction-error signals are generated by the joint action of short-latency excitation and long-latency inhibition, in a network undergoing dopaminergic neuromodulation of both spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. In contrast to previous models, sensitivity to recent events is maintained by the selective modification of specific striatal synapses, efferent to cortical neurons exhibiting stimulus-specific, temporally extended activity patterns. Our model shows, in the presence of significant background activity, (i) a shift in dopaminergic response from reward to reward-predicting stimuli, (ii) preservation of a response to unexpected rewards, and (iii) a precisely timed below-baseline dip in activity observed when expected rewards are omitted. PMID:21629770

  1. A new analytical approach for heat generation in tissue due to laser excitation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkol, Hakan; Nouizi, Farouk; Luk, Alex T.; Unlu, Mehmet B.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a fast analytical approach for laser induced temperature increase in biological tissue. The whole problem consists of two main steps. These steps are the light propagation and heat transfer in tissue. We first obtain a detailed analytical solution for the diffusion equation based on an integral approach for specific boundary conditions. Secondly, we also solve the Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation analytically using the separation of variables technique and obtain the temperature induced by optical absorption of tissue. Here, heat source term consists of the local absorption and photon density, which will be determined from the diffusion equation. We find a very comprehensive solution for the diffusion equation by using an integral method for the Robin boundary condition. In other words, we obtain a particular Green's function in a different way. Next, we use this solution as a source term in the Pennes' bio-heat equation by utilizing the heat convection boundary condition. It is important to note that these boundary conditions are good approximations for imaging of biological tissue. As a result, we obtain spatio-temporal temperature distribution inside the medium. First, our approach is validated by a numerical approach using a Finite Element Method (FEM). Next, we also validate our method by performing phantom and tissue experiments. Experimental data corresponding to spatio-temporal temperature distribution are recorded using magnetic resonance thermometry. The analytical results obtained by our method are in a very good agreement with ones obtained by the FEM and experiment.

  2. Radiating electron source generation in ultraintense laser-foil interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Capdessus, R. King, M.; McKenna, P.

    2016-08-15

    A radiating electron source is shown to be created by a laser pulse (with intensity of 10{sup 23 }W/cm{sup 2} and duration equal to 30 fs) interacting with a near-critical density plasma. It is shown that the back radiation reaction resulting from high energy synchrotron radiation tends to counteract the action of the ponderomotive force. This enhances the collective dynamics of the radiating electrons in the highest field areas, resulting in the production of a compact radiation source (containing 80% of the synchrotron radiation emission), with an energy on the order of tens of MeV over the laser pulse duration. These phenomena are investigated using a QED-particle-in-cell code, and compared with a kinetic model accounting for the radiation reaction force in the electron distribution function. The results shed new light on electron-photon sources at ultra-high laser intensities and could be tested on future laser facilities.

  3. Highly vibrationally excited CO generated in a low-temperature chemical reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jans, E.; Frederickson, K.; Yurkovich, M.; Musci, B.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    A chemical flow reactor is used to study the vibrational population distribution of CO produced by a reaction between carbon vapor generated in an arc discharge and molecular oxygen. The results demonstrate formation of highly vibrationally excited CO, up to vibrational level v = 14, at low temperatures, T = 400-450 K, with population inversion at v = 4-7, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of reaction enthalpy. The results show feasibility of development of a new CO chemical laser using carbon vapor and oxygen as reactants.

  4. Performance analysis of a PV powered dc motor driving a 3-phase self-excited induction generator

    SciTech Connect

    Alghuwainem, S.M.

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) powered dc motors driving dedicated loads (e.g. water pumps) are increasingly used in the remote rural areas of many developing countries. The key to their success is simplicity (direct coupling, no dc-ac inversion, no storage batteries, etc.). In this paper a PV powered dc motor is used to drive an isolated three-phase self-excited induction generator (SEIG). It is found that due to the unique torque-speed characteristics of the SEIG, utilization efficiency is close to maximum at all insolation levels with no peak-power tracking. The proposed arrangement is useful as part of an integrated renewable energy system (IRES), which takes advantage of the inherent diversity of wind and insolation in most developing countries to improve power quality. The SEIG is driven by wind turbine, dc motor, or both. Performance of the system under different insolation conditions is analyzed.

  5. Selective excitation of high-order laser modes and its application to vortex array laser beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Otsuka, Kenju

    2010-02-01

    This study reports a method of creating vortex array laser beams by superposing high-order laser modes on their rotated replicas. An interferometer configuration was used to convert these high-order laser modes to vortex array laser beams containing multi vortexes aligned in an almost square manner. To generate this kind vortex array laser beams, this study reports systematic approaches to the selective excitation of high-order laser modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers with laser resonators and asymmetric pumping. The resulting vortex array laser beams can be used as optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).

  6. Monolithic LED arrays, next generation smart lighting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, Alexandre; Bono, Hubert; Templier, François

    2016-03-01

    LED have become the main light sources of the future as they open the path for intelligent use of light in time, intensity and color. In many usages, strong energy economy is done by adjusting these properties. The smart lighting has three dimensions, energy efficiency brought by GaN blue emitting LEDs, integration of electronics, sensors, microprocessors in the lighting system and development of new functionalities and services provided by the light. Monolithic LED arrays allow two major innovations, the spatial control of light emission and the adjustment of the electrical properties of the source.

  7. Electric Field Distribution Excited by Indoor Radio Source for Exposure Compliance Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Junji; Tarusawa, Yoshiaki

    Correction factors are presented for estimating the RF electromagnetic field strength in the compliance assessment of human exposure from an indoor RF radio source in the frequency range from 800MHz to 3.5GHz. The correction factors are derived from the increase in the spatial average electric field strength distribution, which is dependent on the building materials. The spatial average electric field strength is calculated using relative complex dielectric constants of building materials. The relative complex dielectric constant is obtained through measurement of the transmission and reflection losses for eleven kinds of building materials used in business office buildings and single family dwellings.

  8. Quantitative estimation of minimum offset for multichannel surface-wave survey with actively exciting source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves is a developing method widely used in shallow subsurface investigations. The field procedures and related parameters are very important for successful applications. Among these parameters, the source-receiver offset range is seldom discussed in theory and normally determined by empirical or semi-quantitative methods in current practice. This paper discusses the problem from a theoretical perspective. A formula for quantitatively evaluating a layered homogenous elastic model was developed. The analytical results based on simple models and experimental data demonstrate that the formula is correct for surface wave surveys for near-surface applications. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Next-Generation Photon Sources for Grand Challenges in Science and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    report identifies two aspects of energy science in which next-generation ultraviolet and X-ray light sources will have the deepest and broadest impact: (1) The temporal evolution of electrons, spins, atoms, and chemical reactions, down to the femtosecond time scale. (2) Spectroscopic and structural imaging of nano objects (or nanoscale regions of inhomogeneous materials) with nanometer spatial resolution and ultimate spectral resolution. The dual advances of temporal and spatial resolution promised by fourth-generation light sources ideally match the challenges of control science. Femtosecond time resolution has opened completely new territory where atomic motion can be followed in real time and electronic excitations and decay processes can be followed over time. Coherent imaging with short-wavelength radiation will make it possible to access the nanometer length scale, where intrinsic quantum behavior becomes dominant. Performing spectroscopy on individual nanometer-scale objects rather than on conglomerates will eliminate the blurring of the energy levels induced by particle size and shape distributions and reveal the energetics of single functional units. Energy resolution limited only by the uncertainty relation is enabled by these advances. Current storage-ring-based light sources and their incremental enhancements cannot meet the need for femtosecond time resolution, nanometer spatial resolution, intrinsic energy resolution, full coherence over energy ranges up to hard X-rays, and peak brilliance required to enable the new science outlined in this report. In fact, the new, unexplored territory is so expansive that no single currently imagined light source technology can fulfill the whole potential. Both technological and economic challenges require resolution as we move forward. For example, femtosecond time resolution and high peak brilliance are required for following chemical reactions in real time, but lower peak brilliance and high repetition rate are needed

  10. Excited states, generation of light, and photoprocesses in series of complex N, O, S polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Alexandr E.

    1995-01-01

    The photophysical properties of some new and also some known complex organic molecules emission and generated radiations in the wavelength interval 340 - 560 nm have been studied in a wide range of organic solvent. Specifically, these molecules are based on phenyl, furyl-, thienyl-oxazoles and oxadiazoles to compile a quasihomological series. Using the measured values of the extinction (epsilonabs(nu )), the fluorescence quantum yields ((gamma) ), and the fluorescence lifetime ((tau) ), we calculated rate constants for radiative decay (Kfl), and intercombination conversion (KST), along with the cross sections for absorption ((sigma) 13max), and stimulated emission ((sigma) 31osc). We also found the longest pump-pulse rise time (tlp) for which generate of oscillations active molecules. A broad spectrum of singlet and triplet electronic states using the semiempirical SCF MO LCAO method (Parr-Pariser-Pople, PPP/CI, a model approximation of (pi) - electrons) and the complete and incomplete neglecting of differential overlap (CNDO/S-CI and INDO/S-CI, sp-electronic basis). In this paper, the photophysical parameters (gamma) , (tau) , (sigma) 31osc, (sigma) 3S*, (sigma) 2T*, tlp, Kfl, KST, Elp (the threshold of the pump energy density) in the quasi-gomologicals series of complex active molecules are treated as depending on the structural factors in different ways. The physical mechanism responsible for the improvement in the photophysical properties of the mono-, three- and pentacyclic phenyl-, furyl-, and thienylbisoxazoles and oxadiazoles is established. The improvement is observed in the case when the separation of the bands of emission ((sigma) 31osc) and induced absorption on the S1* yields Sn* ((sigma) 3S*) and T1 yields Tn ((sigma) 2T*) transitions is maximum.

  11. Contribution of wall material to the vibrational excitation and negative ion formation in hydrogen negative ion sources (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Glass-Maujean, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Nishiura, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.

    2004-05-01

    The wall production contribution to the negative hydrogen ion formation in multicusp ion sources has been investigated using the photodetachment diagnostic (for determining the negative ion density and temperature), negative ion and electron extraction, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectroscopy. The wall material was modified either by depositing thin films from filaments made of different material or by depositing fresh material of the same filament. Thus we show that a fresh tantalum film leads to enhanced negative ion density and enhanced temperature of the hot negative ion population. The slow poisoning effect due to argon additive also indicates the presence of the wall contribution to H- formation. The study of the VUV spectra with different wall materials indicates the presence of vibrationally excited states of H2.

  12. Identification of Dominant Excitation Patterns and Sources of Atrial Fibrillation by Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Miguel; Climent, Andreu M.; Liberos, Alejandro; Calvo, David; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Berenfeld, Omer; Atienza, Felipe; Guillem, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    Burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) can be reduced by ablation of sources of electrical impulses driving AF but driver identification is still challenging. This study presents a new methodology based on causality analysis that allows identifying the hierarchically dominant areas driving AF. Identification of dominant propagation patterns was achieved by computing causal relations between intracardiac multi-electrode catheter recordings of 4 paroxysmal AF patients during sinus rhythm, pacing and AF. In addition, realistic mathematical models of the atria during AF were used to validate the methodology both in the presence and absence of dominant frequency (DF) gradients. During electrical pacing, sources of propagation patterns detected by causality analysis were consistent with the location of the stimulating catheter. During AF, propagation patterns presented temporal variability, but a dominant direction accounted for significantly more propagations than other directions (49±15% vs. 14±13% or less, p<0.01). Both in patients with a DF gradient and in mathematical models, causal maps allowed the identification of sites responsible for maintenance of AF. Causal maps allowed the identification of atrial dominant sites. In particular, causality analysis resulted in stable dominant cause-effect propagation directions during AF and could serve as a guide for performing ablation procedures in AF patients. PMID:26850022

  13. Surface-Wave Excitation in High-Density Planar Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanashev, I.; Morita, S.; Nagatsu, M.; Sugai, H.; Toyoda, N.

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic surface waves introduced into a metal chamber through large(K. Komachi J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A) 11 (1993) 164. or slot-type(H. Sugai et al Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.) 7 (1998) 192. apertures of various shapes can sustain overdense plasmas in a wide range of gas pressures. A simple cavity model(I. Ghanashev et al Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 36 (1997) 337. successfully identifies the eigen-modes in the case of single-mode operation and small slot antennas, while neglecting the latter. The stability analysis(I. Ghanashev et al Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.) 36 (1997) 4704. suggests that the source performance is governed by the dependence of the chamber power reflection coefficient R on the plasma density n_e. The values of R depend on the geometry of the coupling aperture(s) and thus cannot be suggested by a simple theory neglecting them. In this communication we present a full-wave electromagnetic analysis taking into account the aperture(s), along with experimental results for the character of the R--ne dependence. The simulation results suggest, in accordance with the experimental observations, that, depending on the operating conditions, both single- and multi-mode regimes can be realised. This work was supported by Toshiba Corp. and Nisshin Electronic MFG Co., Ltd.

  14. High-intensity tone generation by aeroacoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the production of high-intensity tones by axisymmetric ring cavities. Maximum sound production occurs during an acoustic resonance at Strouhal numbers, which depend only on the local flow velocity independent of cavity location. Values of sound pressure of about 115 dB at 1-m distance can be generated by axisymmetric ring cavities on projectiles moving at a relatively low flight speed equal to 70 m/s. Frequencies in the audible range up to several kilohertz can be generated aeroacoustically. A simple analytical model has been developed to explain the experimental observations.

  15. Alfven waves generated by a source moving in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, A. P.

    1989-06-01

    It is shown theoretically that a plasma disturbance generated in the ionosphere from aboard a satellite and traveling across a magnetic field B sub 0 together with the satellite at a velocity of V sub 0 can have the character of an Alfven wing: a structure highly elongated along B sub 0, traveling along B sub 0 with an Alfven velocity much greater than V sub 0. For the Alfven wing to be generated it is necessary that the transverse dimension of the disturbance be sufficiently large, exceeding the ion Larmor radius.

  16. The generation of entangled states from independent particle sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Morton H.; Shih, Yan-Hua

    1994-01-01

    The generation of entangled states of two systems from product states is discussed for the case in which the paths of the two systems do not overlap. A particular method of measuring allows one to project out the nonlocal entangled state. An application to the production of four photon entangled states is outlined.

  17. Air spark-like plasma source for antimicrobial NOx generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, M. J.; Ono, T.; Galleher, C.; Curtis, B.; Clark, D. S.; Machala, Z.; Graves, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate and analyse the generation of nitrogen oxides and their antimicrobial efficacy using atmospheric air spark-like plasmas. Spark-like discharges in air in a 1 L confined volume are shown to generate NOx at an initial rate of about 1.5  ×  1016 NOx molecules/J dissipated in the plasma. Such a discharge operating in this confined volume generates on the order of 6000 ppm NOx in 10 min. Around 90% of the NOx is in the form of NO2 after several minutes of operation in the confined volume, suggesting that NO2 is the dominant antimicrobial component. The strong antimicrobial action of the NOx mixture after several minutes of plasma operation is demonstrated by measuring rates of E. coli disinfection on surfaces and in water exposed to the NOx mixture. Some possible applications of plasma generation of NOx (perhaps followed by dissolution in water) include disinfection of surfaces, skin or wound antisepsis, and sterilization of medical instruments at or near room temperature.

  18. Stressing of turbine-generator-exciter shafts by variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links and following disturbances at converter stations

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Bremner, J.J. )

    1994-09-01

    Ripple currents on the DC side of both HVDC synchronous and asynchronous. Links together with cleared HVDC and AC system disturbances can excite in some circumstances onerous torsional vibrations in large steam generator shafts. The problem has assumed importance in recent months on account of the HVDC Link between Scotland and Northern Ireland going ahead, on account of the proposed Eire/Wales Link, and because AC/DC/AC couplers are to be installed extensively to interconnect the East and West European Grid Systems. This paper discusses and analyses excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by (1) variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links, and (2) disturbances at bi-polar converter stations. The time response and tables show that for the systems studied variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous Links can excite shaft torsional vibrations, the very small noncharacteristic currents could result in onerous shaft torques which might damage the machine, and that DC line faults at converter stations in close proximity of steam turbine-generator units can excite onerous turbine-generator shaft torsional response. Detailed simulation of the HVDC converter and generator is necessary for precise assessments of shaft torsional response following HVDC converter station faults. 500MW, 660MW, 1000MW and 1300MW machines are considered in the analyses that are made.

  19. Driving Force Dependence of Electron Transfer from Electronically Excited [Ir(COD)(μ-Me2pz)]2 to Photo-Acid Generators.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Wesley; Rachford, Aaron A; LaBeaume, Paul J; Coley, Suzanne M; Thackeray, James W; Cameron, James F; Müller, Astrid M; Winkler, Jay R; Gray, Harry B

    2017-09-28

    We report the rates of electron transfer (ET) reactions of electronically excited [Ir(COD)(μ-Me2pz)]2 with onium salt photoacid generators (PAGs). The reduction potentials of the PAGs span a large electrochemical window that allows determination of the driving force dependence of the ET reactions. Rate constants of ET from electronically excited [Ir(COD)(μ-Me2pz)]2 to onium PAGs are determined by the reaction driving force until the diffusion limit in acetonitrile is reached.

  20. Enhanced Plasma Lifetime of Air Plasmas Generated by Electron Beam Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Robert; Stalder, Kenneth

    2002-10-01

    A kinetic model with an improved set of reaction rate coefficients for air constituents will be discussed. The model includes rates that vary with E/N for electron temperature, momentum transfer, three body attachment, singlet-delta formation, electron detachment from O2-, and ionization of O2. The electric field is assumed uniform and sustained either by external electrodes or return currents generated in an electron beam. Calculations show the plasma lifetime increases as E/N increases by reducing attachment, increasing detachment, and increasing ionization. Electric-field-free plasma lifetimes of 10-20 ns for air at sea level (depending on initial electron density) can be increased by a factor of almost 5 with an E/N of about 2 x 10-16 volt cm^2. The plasma lifetime at altitudes of 30,000 feet corresponds to 60-100 ns without electric field and increases by a factor of 5-20 with an E/N of 5 x 10-17 volt cm^2. The power to maintain these E/N values and to sustain a given level of plasma density will be discussed. This research is sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory, under agreement number F49620-01-1-0414.

  1. An upgraded version of the generator BCVEGPY2.0 for hadronic production of B meson and its excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2006-11-01

    An upgraded version of the package BCVEGPY2.0: [C.-H. Chang, J.-X. Wang, X.-G. Wu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 241] is presented, which works under LINUX system and is named as BCVEGPY2.1. With the version and a GNU C compiler additionally, users may simulate the B-events in various experimental environments very conveniently. It has been manipulated in better modularity and code reusability (less cross communication among various modules) than BCVEGPY2.0 has. Furthermore, in the upgraded version a special execution is arranged as that the GNU command make compiles a requested code with the help of a master makefile in main code directory, and then builds an executable file with the default name run. Finally, this paper may also be considered as an erratum, i.e., typo errors in BCVEGPY2.0 and corrections accordingly have been listed. New version program (BCVEGPY2.1) summaryTitle of program: BCVEGPY2.1 Catalogue identifier: ADTJ_v2_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTJ_v2_1 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Reference to original program: BCVEGPY2.0 Reference in CPC: Comput. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 241 Does the new version supersede the old program: No Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating systems: LINUX Programming language used: FORTRAN 77/90 Memory required to execute with typical data: About 2.0 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 521 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 310 179 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Hadronic production of B meson itself and its excited states Method of solution: The code with option can generate weighted and unweighted events. An interface to PYTHIA is provided to meet the needs of jets hadronization in the production. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The hadronic production of (cb

  2. Pulsed thermal neutron source at the fast neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Tracz, Grzegorz; Drozdowicz, Krzysztof; Gabańska, Barbara; Krynicka, Ewa

    2009-06-01

    A small pulsed thermal neutron source has been designed based on results of the MCNP simulations of the thermalization of 14 MeV neutrons in a cluster-moderator which consists of small moderating cells decoupled by an absorber. Optimum dimensions of the single cell and of the whole cluster have been selected, considering the thermal neutron intensity and the short decay time of the thermal neutron flux. The source has been built and the test experiments have been performed. To ensure the response is not due to the choice of target for the experiments, calculations have been done to demonstrate the response is valid regardless of the thermalization properties of the target.

  3. GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and generates primitive oscillations.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc; Tyzio, Roman; Khazipov, Rustem

    2007-10-01

    Developing networks follow common rules to shift from silent cells to coactive networks that operate via thousands of synapses. This review deals with some of these rules and in particular those concerning the crucial role of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric acid (GABA), which operates primarily via chloride-permeable GABA(A) receptor channels. In all developing animal species and brain structures investigated, neurons have a higher intracellular chloride concentration at an early stage leading to an efflux of chloride and excitatory actions of GABA in immature neurons. This triggers sodium spikes, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and acts in synergy with NMDA channels by removing the voltage-dependent magnesium block. GABA signaling is also established before glutamatergic transmission, suggesting that GABA is the principal excitatory transmitter during early development. In fact, even before synapse formation, GABA signaling can modulate the cell cycle and migration. The consequence of these rules is that developing networks generate primitive patterns of network activity, notably the giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs), largely through the excitatory actions of GABA and its synergistic interactions with glutamate signaling. These early types of network activity are likely required for neurons to fire together and thus to "wire together" so that functional units within cortical networks are formed. In addition, depolarizing GABA has a strong impact on synaptic plasticity and pathological insults, notably seizures of the immature brain. In conclusion, it is suggested that an evolutionary preserved role for excitatory GABA in immature cells provides an important mechanism in the formation of synapses and activity in neuronal networks.

  4. Source-Device-Independent Ultrafast Quantum Random Number Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marangon, Davide G.; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Secure random numbers are a fundamental element of many applications in science, statistics, cryptography and more in general in security protocols. We present a method that enables the generation of high-speed unpredictable random numbers from the quadratures of an electromagnetic field without any assumption on the input state. The method allows us to eliminate the numbers that can be predicted due to the presence of classical and quantum side information. In particular, we introduce a procedure to estimate a bound on the conditional min-entropy based on the entropic uncertainty principle for position and momentum observables of infinite dimensional quantum systems. By the above method, we experimentally demonstrated the generation of secure true random bits at a rate greater than 1.7 Gbit /s .

  5. Source-Device-Independent Ultrafast Quantum Random Number Generation.

    PubMed

    Marangon, Davide G; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-02-10

    Secure random numbers are a fundamental element of many applications in science, statistics, cryptography and more in general in security protocols. We present a method that enables the generation of high-speed unpredictable random numbers from the quadratures of an electromagnetic field without any assumption on the input state. The method allows us to eliminate the numbers that can be predicted due to the presence of classical and quantum side information. In particular, we introduce a procedure to estimate a bound on the conditional min-entropy based on the entropic uncertainty principle for position and momentum observables of infinite dimensional quantum systems. By the above method, we experimentally demonstrated the generation of secure true random bits at a rate greater than 1.7 Gbit/s.

  6. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  7. The third generation superconducting 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.; Leitner, D.; Leitner, M.; Taylor, C.; Abbott, S.

    2010-02-15

    VENUS is a third generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which incorporates a high field superconducting NbTi magnet structure, a 28 GHz gryotron microwave source and a state of the art closed cycle cryosystem. During the decade from initial concept to regular operation, it has demonstrated both the feasibility and the performance levels of this new generation of ECR ion sources and required innovation on magnet construction, plasma chamber design, and beam transport. In this paper, the development, performance, and major innovations are described as well as a look to the potential to construct a fourth generation ECR ion source.

  8. A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali; Schenkel, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron sources is pursued. Arrays of carbon nano-fibers promise the high field-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of field emitters with a density up to 10(6) tips∕cm(2) and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. The critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

  9. A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali; Schenkel, Thomas

    2012-02-15

    We study field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron source. Arrays of carbon nano-fibers promise the high field-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of field emitters with a density up to 106 tips/cm2 and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. Lastly, the critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

  10. Field configuration of beam excited modes in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S. O.; Kustom, R. L.; Uslenghi, P. L.E.

    1994-05-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is in the process of building a positron accelerator and storage ring, the Advanced Photo source (APS). The RF system for the APS storage ring uses 16 cylindrical TM010-like, reentrant cavities operating at 351.93 MHz to resupply energy lost by the beam due to synchrotron radiation. The stored beam will have approximately 60 bunches, 5 mA per bunch, for a total beam current of 300 mA. Calculations of the threshold current for coupled-bench instabilities in the storage ring have indicated that several beam-induced higher-order modes (HOMs) will reduce the threshold for beam stability and therefore should be damped. Previous data taken using a pillbox cavity showed that it is likely that some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the electric and magnetic field configuration of each HOM present in the waveguide. A pillbox and a prototype storage ring cavity, together with various WR2300 waveguide components, are used to obtain the measurements needed for the determination of the mode configuration of the HOMs at the frequencies of interest. To avoid the development of beam instabilities due to the existence of these HOMs in the rf cavity, damping of the modes will be required. The HOMs present in the rf cavity coupling into the loop coupler and traveling through the coupler into the waveguide, may allow damping of some of the HOMs by insertion of dampers into the waveguide adjacent to each cavity.

  11. Simple technique for generating the partially coherent and partially polarized electromagnetic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, A. S.; Rodríguez, G.; Meneses, C.; Olvera, M. Á.; Juárez, E.

    2011-01-01

    The technique for generating the partially coherent and partially polarized source starting from the completely coherent and completely polarized laser source is proposed and analyzed. This technique differs from the known ones by the simplicity of its physical realization. An original technique for measuring the cross-spectral density matrix is employed. Experimental results of the characterization the coherence and polarization properties of the generated source are shown.

  12. Power links with Ireland -- Excitation of turbine-generator shaft torsional vibrations by variable frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Tay, B.W.; Kok, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    The paper describes an in-depth analysis of excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam-turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links. It extends earlier work to include an in depth analysis of system scaling factors for harmonic currents impressed on generators in Northern Ireland by an inverter and to investigate the phenomena for possible torsional vibrations in the generators by the Link. Frequencies at which shaft torsional vibrations would be excited by modulation product harmonics in 50Hz/50Hz asynchronous Links as a function of deviation in system frequency is reviewed. Relative noncharacteristic current levels for 50Hz/50Hz connectors are illustrated assuming ripple currents at the inverter which gives realistic harmonic voltages in a twelve-pulse bridge. The paper then shows that torques in machines in multi-machine networks may be estimated by proportioning HVDC link harmonic disturbance current appropriately to each machine at risk. It is concluded that variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous links can excite sympathetic torsional vibrations in turbine-generator-exciter shafts.

  13. Staged Inductive Pulse Generator with Capacitive Current Source.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-24

    depends on the performance of the fuse opening switch and the vacuum flashover output switch. Sections III and IV briefly discuss the development of these...It was assumed that the vacuum flashover switch closed when 20 kV was across it, compared with the measured value of 25 kV. C. Late-Time Voltage ...up to 25 kV/cm when the voltage pulse generated by the second fuse is applied 1-2 us after the first fuse explodes. IV. VACUUM FLASHOVER SWITCH A

  14. Photoacoustic effect generated by moving optical sources: Motion in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Wenyu; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2016-03-28

    Although the photoacoustic effect is typically generated by pulsed or amplitude modulated optical beams, it is clear from examination of the wave equation for pressure that motion of an optical source in space will result in the production of sound as well. Here, the properties of the photoacoustic effect generated by moving sources in one dimension are investigated. The cases of a moving Gaussian beam, an oscillating delta function source, and an accelerating Gaussian optical sources are reported. The salient feature of one-dimensional sources in the linear acoustic limit is that the amplitude of the beam increases in time without bound.

  15. Generation of GHS Scores from TEST and online sources ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternatives assessment frameworks such as DfE (Design for the Environment) evaluate chemical alternatives in terms of human health effects, ecotoxicity, and fate. T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) can be utilized to evaluate human health in terms of acute oral rat toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine activity, and mutagenicity. It can be used to evaluate ecotoxicity (in terms of acute fathead minnow toxicity) and fate (in terms of bioconcentration factor). It also be used to estimate a variety of key physicochemical properties such as melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, water solubility, and bioconcentration factor. A web-based version of T.E.S.T. is currently being developed to allow predictions to be made from other web tools. Online data sources such as from NCCT’s Chemistry Dashboard, REACH dossiers, or from ChemHat.org can also be utilized to obtain GHS (Global Harmonization System) scores for comparing alternatives. The purpose of this talk is to show how GHS (Global Harmonization Score) data can be obtained from literature sources and from T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). This data will be used to compare chemical alternatives in the alternatives assessment dashboard (a 2018 CSS product).

  16. Wire array K-shell sources on the SPHINX generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Grunenwald, Julien; Maury, Patrick; Zucchini, Frédéric; Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The SPHINX machine is a LTD based Z-pinch driver operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying K-shell radiation effects. We present the results of experiments carried out with single and nested large diameter aluminium wire array loads driven by a current of ~5 MA in ~800 ns. The dynamic of the implosion is studied with filtered X-UV time-integrated pin-hole cameras. The plasma electron temperature and the characteristics of the sources are estimated with time and spatially dependent spectrographs and PCDs. It is shown that Al K-shell yields (>1 keV) up to 27 kJ are obtained for a total radiation of ~ 230 kJ. These results are compared with simulations performed using the latest implementation of the non-LTE DCA code Spk in the 3D Eulerian MHD framework Gorgon developed at Imperial College. Filtered synthetic bolometers and PCD signals, time-dependent spatially integrated spectra and X-UV images are produced and show a good agreement with the experimental data. The capabilities of a prospective SPHINX II machine (20 MA ~ 800 ns) are also assessed for a wider variety of sources (Ti, Cu and W).

  17. 8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER No. 2., AND GENERATOR UNITS BEHIND EXCITER No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. EXCITER No. 1 GENERATOR HAS A COVER OVER TOP HALF OF COMMUTATOR ELEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  18. Role of higher excited electronic states on high harmonic generation in H2(+)--a time-independent Hermitian Floquet approach.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chitrakshya; Bhattacharyya, S S; Saha, Samir

    2011-01-14

    We have theoretically studied the role of high-lying molecular electronic states on the high harmonic generation (HHG) in H(2)(+) within the framework of a time-independent Hermitian nonperturbative three-dimensional Floquet technique for continuous wave monochromatic lasers of intensities of 2.59 × 10(13), 4.0 × 10(13), and 5.6 × 10(13) W∕cm(2), and wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. To evaluate the HHG spectra, the resonance Floquet quasienergy and the Fourier components of the Floquet state corresponding to the initial vibrational-rotational level v = 0, J = 0 have been computed by solving the time-independent close-coupled Schrödinger equation following the Floquet method. The calculations include seven molecular electronic states in the basis set expansion of the Floquet state. The electronic states considered, apart from the two lowest 1sσ(g) and 2pσ(u) states, are 2pπ(u), 2sσ(g), 3pσ(u), 3dσ(g), and 4fσ(u). All the concerned higher excited molecular electronic states asymptotically degenerate into the atomic state H(2 l) with l = 0, 1. The computations reveal signature of significant oscillations in the HHG spectra due to the interference effect of the higher molecular electronic states for all the considered laser intensities and wavelengths. We have attempted to explain, without invoking any ionization, the dynamics of HHG in H(2)(+) within the framework of electronic transitions due to the electric dipole moments and the nuclear motions on the field coupled ground, the first and the higher excited electronic states of this one-electron molecular ion.

  19. Wastes are dominant energy source for new steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1987-11-01

    The tabulation given in this article which provides a significant sample of boilers ordered last year, shows just how important wastes are becoming to the production of steam and electricity in smokestack America. Refinery gas, landfill gas, municipal refuse, biomass, and anthracite culm will fire 32 boilers in 21 of the 32 fuel-burning projects listed (one project has two heat-recovery boilers operating on gas-turbine exhaust). Refinery gas will be burned in the largest steam generator listed, an 800,000-lb/hr unit purchased by Gulf States Utilities Co; landfill gas will be fired in four others. Municipal refuse powers eight projects (15 boilers), with mass-burn combustion (six projects, 10 boilers) preferred over refuse-derived fuel by a two-to-one margin in units. Biomass, primarily woodwaste, is burned in 10 boilers serving nine projects. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers, ranging in size from 170,000 to 355,000 lb/hr captured the majority of orders for coal-fired steam generators.

  20. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  1. Comparison in the analytical performance between krypton and argon glow discharge plasmas as the excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2009-04-01

    The emission characteristics of ionic lines of nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were investigated when argon or krypton was employed as the plasma gas in glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. A dc Grimm-style lamp was employed as the excitation source. Detection limits of the ionic lines in each iron-matrix alloy sample were compared between the krypton and the argon plasmas. Particular intense ionic lines were observed in the emission spectra as a function of the discharge gas (krypton or argon), such as the Co II 258.033 nm for krypton and the Co II 231.707 nm for argon. The explanation for this is that collisions with the plasma gases dominantly populate particular excited levels of cobalt ion, which can receive the internal energy from each gas ion selectively, for example, the 3d(7)4p (3)G(5) (6.0201 eV) for krypton and the 3d(7)4p (3)G(4) (8.0779 eV) for argon. In the determination of nickel as well as cobalt in iron-matrix samples, more sensitive ionic lines could be found in the krypton plasma rather than the argon plasma. Detection limits in the krypton plasma were 0.0039 mass% Ni for the Ni II 230.299-nm line and 0.002 mass% Co for the Co II 258.033-nm line. However, in the determination of vanadium, the argon plasma had better analytical performance, giving a detection limit of 0.0023 mass% V for the V II 309.310-nm line.

  2. Source Rock (shales) Pore Space Transformation during Hydrocarbon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.; Sudin, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this investigations is to study the factors controlling changes in rock structure during catagenetic transformation of organic matter. Hydrocarbon generation and primary migration can be controlled by numerous parameters; the most important are temperature, pressure, hydrocarbon composition, and organic matter type and content. Several experimental studies focused on the influence of these main parameters. However few dedicated works investigated how the primary structure characteristic and organic matter content affects the pore space transformation of rocks. For this purpose we simulated the primary migration processes in laboratory conditions (pyrolises and CT scanning) in order to observe the dynamics of pore space transformation. Our experiments demonstrate that after each stage of heating the rocks change their original morphology with the formation of new pores and conduits connecting the primary voids. The samples with relatively low content in organic matter revealed fewer changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks rich in organic content. Our results also highlight that the newly formed pore structures are directly related with the original structure of the unaltered rocks and the primary connectivity of the organics. Most of the structural changes were observed during the sequential heating between 260 - 430 ° C; within this interval also occur the most intense reactions for hydrocarbons formation.

  3. Protostellar jets in the NIR: interaction with the ISM and correlation with the exciting source evolutionary phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratti o Garatti, Alessio

    2006-03-01

    I present an in-depth near-IR (NIR) analysis of a sample of H2 jets from young embedded sources to compare the physical, kinematical properties and cooling mechanisms of the different flows. The sample comprises 23 outflows driven by Class 0 and I sources having low-intermediate solar luminosity (1-600 L(sun)). For such an analysis, I have utilized narrow band images centered on the H2 (2.12 micron) and [FeII] (1.64 micron) spectral lines, low resolution spectra (R~600) in the range 1-2.5 micron and high resolution spectra (R~10000) centered on H2 (2.12 micron) and [FeII] (1.64 micron) lines. At NIR wavelengths these two tracers (H2,[FeII]) are the main coolants of the gas, that is excited by strong radiative shocks. Narrow band images have been used to detect such shocked regions in both ionic and molecular components. [FeII] have been observed in ~74% of the outflows which in some cases indicate the presence of embedded Herbig Haro (HH) like objects. H2 line ratios have been used to estimate the visual extinction and the average temperature of the molecular gas. A(V) values range from ~2 to ~15 mag, while average temperatures range between ~2000 and ~4000 K. In several knots, however, a stratification of temperatures is found with maximum values up to 5000 K. Such a stratification is more commonly observed in those knots which also show [FeII] emission, while a thermalized gas at a single temperature is generally found in knots emitting only in molecular lines. Combining narrow band imaging with the parameters derived from the spectroscopic analysis, it was possible to measure the total luminosity of the H2 and [FeII] shocked regions (L(H2) and L([FeII])) in each flow. H2 is the major NIR coolant with an average L(H2)/L([FeII]) ratio of ~10^2. About 83% of the sources have a L(H2)/L(bol) ratio ~0.04, irrespective of the Class of the driving source, while a smaller group of sources (mostly Class I) have L(H2)/L(bol) an order of magnitude smaller. Such a separation

  4. Hot ortho-biologic topics at AAOS 2011†: platelet-rich plasma and related growth factors generate excitement.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Julie

    2011-06-01

    Several hot topics relating to ortho-biologics were discussed at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery (AAOS) in San Diego this February. Injecting a patient's own platelet-rich plasma (PRP) prior to orthopedic surgery was an important topic, and had its own forum devoted to debating its uses and merit. PRP use has been promoted by equipment companies such as MTF Sports Medicine, Biomet, and Arteriocyte, but others are likely to take advantage of the trend of increasing PRP use by developing a proprietary injectable that mixes PRP with certain growth factors. One possible addition would be a recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB, becaplermin) being developed by BioMimetic Therapeutics for its bone graft product. On the topic of viscosupplementation, the US's only single-injection product, Genzyme's SynviscOne®, was noticeably missing from the exhibit hall at AAOS, but an abstract comparing the single- and multiple-injection viscosupplementation techniques demonstrated that single-injection acts faster and is longer lasting. New bone morphogenetic protein formulations may improve healing of bone fractures. Molecular diagnostics may be used to predict periprosthetic joint infection, allowing orthopedic medicine to be more personalized. A diagnostic that can be used on a large scale has not yet been identified. † Adapted and reproduced from Hoggatt J. Hot Ortho-Biologic Topics at AAOS 2011: Platelet-Rich Plasma and Related Growth Factors Generate Excitement. inThought Research, 2011 Feb 28.

  5. Investigation on the spectral properties of 2D asynchronous fluorescence spectra generated by using variable excitation wavelengths as a perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingdan; He, Anqi; Guo, Ran; Wei, Yongju; Feng, Juan; Xu, Yizhuang; Noda, Isao; Wu, Jinguang

    2016-11-01

    Properties of 2D asynchronous spectra generated from a series of fluorescence emission spectra are investigated. Variable excitation wavelengths are utilized as an external perturbation. Based on the results of mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we find that no cross peak will be produced on the 2D asynchronous spectrum if the fluorescent solute under investigation occurs in a single micro-environment. The observation of cross peaks implies that the fluorescent molecule may occur in different micro-environments in a solution. Based on these results, we use 2D asynchronous spectra to investigate the emission spectra of anthracene dissolved in cyclohexane. When the concentration of anthracene is low, no cross peak is produced in the resultant 2D asynchronous spectrum, confirming that anthracene is dissolved as single molecule in the solution. As the concentration elevated, cross peaks appear in the corresponding 2D asynchronous spectra. A plausible explanation of this phenomenon is that anthracene may undergo aggregation via π-π interaction or π-C-H interaction.

  6. A Study on Effect of VSS Control of Generation Excitation System using Single Machine Infinite Bus System Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Hara, Ryoichi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Oyama, Tsutomu

    It is very effective to enhance the robustness of control over the faults occurred in power system in order to realize stable and reliable power supply. The sliding mode control based on the Variable Structure System (VSS) theory is paid attentions as one of the promising robust control scheme. In the sliding mode control, the structure of the control system is changed across the hyper plane (switching plane) in state space so that the state variables of the system are kept on the hyper plane. This paper proposes a novel control method of generator's excitation system in which the concept of sliding mode control is employed. More specifically, the proposed method switches the reference voltage used in AVR according to the sign of switching function. This paper also discusses the systematic design procedure of the optimal hyper plane. Performance and effectiveness of the proposed control method are investigated through both numerical studies and experimental tests using the single-machine infinite-bus system simulator. Both results show that the proposed control method can damp the transient swing caused by a fault effectively.

  7. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  8. Generation of phase - matched coherent point source in plasma media by propagated X-ray laser seeded beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, T.; Faenov, A.; Magnitskiy, S.; Nagorskiy, N.; Tanaka, M.; Ishino, M.; Nishikino, M.; Kando, M.; Kato, Y.; Kawachi, T.

    2016-03-01

    There is a significant interest in developing the coherent table-top X-ray lasers. Advent of plasma-based transient collisional excitation x-ray laser and particular, injection of coherent seeded beam, especially high-order harmonics, has tremendously improved the spatial coherence of such lasers, what allowed them to be the same widely used as synchrotron sources. Here we report experimental founding of unknown interference structure in a spatial profile of the output beam of the two-stage plasma X-ray laser. That allowed us experimental and theoretical discovering a new phenomenon consisted in a generation of phase-matched coherent point source in a laser plasma media by propagated X-ray laser seeded beam. This phenomenon could extend the applications of such x-ray lasers. For explanation of the observed phenomenon a new method of solving the standard system of Maxwell-Bloch equations has been developed. It was found that the interference pattern in the output laser beam was formed due to an emergence of phase-matched coherent virtual point source in the XRL amplifier and could be treated as the first observation of mirage phenomenon, analogous to the optical mirage, but in X-rays. The obtained results bring new comprehension into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation in laser-induced plasma amplifiers and opening new opportunities for X-ray interferometry, holography and other applications, which requiring multiple rigidly phased sources of coherent radiation.

  9. Yellow-light generation and engineering in zinc-doped cadmium sulfide nanobelts with low-threshold two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jing; Li, Qisong; Chen, Bingkun; Song, Guangli; Zhang, Wensheng; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin

    2014-08-15

    Through a simple doping route with zinc ion as a dopant in cadmium sulfide nanobelts, a bright yellow-colored light was obtained. The detailed chromaticity and brightness of the light can be engineered by the dopant concentration and the pumping power, which are used to control the dominant wavelength to any fine yellow color, and even cover the sodium-yellow-line of 589 nm. The nanobelts were synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition method. The peak shift of the XRD result proves that the zinc ions as a dopant exist in the nanobelts rather than in the ZnCdS alloy formation. Time-resolved photoluminescence of the nanobelt reveals the existence of the defect-related state, which induces a red band to further mix with green band-edge emission to form the yellow light. Moreover, low-threshold two-photon excitation was observed in the proper Zn-doped cadmium sulfide nanobelts. The dopant and pumping power-tuned generation and engineering of the yellow light makes it possible to use this kind of material as yellow light-emitting source.

  10. Modular approach to achieving the next-generation X-ray light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Freund, H. P.

    2001-12-01

    A modular approach to the next-generation light source is described. The "modules" include photocathode, radio-frequency, electron guns and their associated drive-laser systems, linear accelerators, bunch-compression systems, seed laser systems, planar undulators, two-undulator harmonic generation schemes, high-gain harmonic generation systems, nonlinear higher harmonics, and wavelength shifting. These modules will be helpful in distributing the next-generation light source to many more laboratories than the current single-pass, high-gain free-electron laser designs permit, due to both monetary and/or physical space constraints.

  11. Excitation of a nonlinear plasma ion wake by intense energy sources with applications to the crunch-in regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Aakash A.

    2017-08-01

    We show the excitation of a nonlinear ion-wake mode by plasma electron modes in the bubble regime driven by intense energy sources, using analytical theory and simulations. The ion wake is shown to be a driven nonlinear ion-acoustic wave in the form of a long-lived cylindrical ion soliton which limits the repetition rate of a plasma-based particle accelerator in the bubble regime. We present the application of this evacuated and radially outwards propagating ion-wake channel with an electron skin-depth scale radius for the "crunch-in" regime of hollow-channel plasma. It is shown that the time-asymmetric focusing force phases in the bubble couple to ion motion significantly differently than in the linear electron mode. The electron compression in the back of the bubble sucks in the ions whereas the space charge within the bubble cavity expels them, driving a cylindrical ion-soliton structure at the bubble radius. Once formed, the soliton is sustained and driven radially outwards by the thermal pressure of the wake energy in electrons. Particle-in-cell simulations are used to study the ion-wake soliton structure, its driven propagation and its use for positron acceleration in the crunch-in regime.

  12. Multimodal optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging with interleaved excitation sources for simultaneous endogenous and exogenous fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J.; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Park, Jesung; Chen, Xi; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Walton, Brian L.; Jo, Javier A.; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal imaging probes a variety of tissue properties in a single image acquisition by merging complimentary imaging technologies. Exploiting synergies amongst the data, algorithms can be developed that lead to better tissue characterization than could be accomplished by the constituent imaging modalities taken alone. The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides access to detailed tissue morphology and local biochemistry. The optical system described here merges 1310 nm swept-source OCT with time-domain FLIM having excitation at 355 and 532 nm. The pulses from 355 and 532 nm lasers have been interleaved to enable simultaneous acquisition of endogenous and exogenous fluorescence signals, respectively. The multimodal imaging system was validated using tissue phantoms. Nonspecific tagging with Alexa Flour 532 in a Watanbe rabbit aorta and active tagging of the LOX-1 receptor in human coronary artery, demonstrate the capacity of the system for simultaneous acquisition of OCT, endogenous FLIM, and exogenous FLIM in tissues. PMID:27699091

  13. Milliwatt-generator heat source. Progress report, January-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Mershad, E.A.

    1983-09-20

    Progress is reported in the following: heat source shipments, reimbursable orders, hardware shipments, raw material qualification/procurement, DOE audit and milliwatt generator process review, surveillance capsule evaluations, pressure burst testing, and hardware fabrication and quality. (MHR)

  14. Next Generation Emission Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation emissions measurements (NGEM) is an EPA term for the rapidly advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and associated geospatial modeling strategies for source emissions measurements. Ranging from low coat sensors to satelli...

  15. Next Generation Emission Measurements for Fugitive, Area Source, and Fence Line Applications?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next generation emissions measurements (NGEM) is an EPA term for the rapidly advancing field of air pollutant sensor technologies, data integration concepts, and associated geospatial modeling strategies for source emissions measurements. Ranging from low coat sensors to satelli...

  16. Generation of Vector Partially Coherent Optical Sources Using Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Milo W.; Bose-Pillai, Santasri; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng

    2016-12-01

    A simple and flexible optical system for generating electromagnetic or vector partially coherent sources or beams is presented. The alternative design controls field amplitude (beam shape), coherence, and polarization using only spatial light modulators. This improvement makes the apparatus simpler to construct and significantly increases the flexibility of vector partially coherent source generators by allowing many different types of sources to be produced without changing the physical setup. The system's layout and theoretical foundations are thoroughly discussed. The utility and flexibility of the proposed system are demonstrated by producing a vector Schell-model and non-Schell-model source. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions to validate the design. Lastly, design aspects, which must be considered when building a vector partially coherent source generator for a specific application, are discussed.

  17. Miniature, low-power X-ray tube using a microchannel electron generator electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Wm. Timothy (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Hershyn, William (Inventor); DeLong, David P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a novel, low-power X-ray tube and X-ray generating system. Embodiments of the invention use a multichannel electron generator as the electron source, thereby increasing reliability and decreasing power consumption of the X-ray tube. Unlike tubes using a conventional filament that must be heated by a current power source, embodiments of the invention require only a voltage power source, use very little current, and have no cooling requirements. The microchannel electron generator comprises one or more microchannel plates (MCPs), Each MCP comprises a honeycomb assembly of a plurality of annular components, which may be stacked to increase electron intensity. The multichannel electron generator used enables directional control of electron flow. In addition, the multichannel electron generator used is more robust than conventional filaments, making the resulting X-ray tube very shock and vibration resistant.

  18. HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON GUNS FOR NEXT-GENERATION LIGHT SOURCES AND ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.P.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    Next-generation light sources and accelerators are being proposed that set unique requirements for the electron source parameters. No single source is suitable for the diverse applications, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with our various partners, is developing a variety of electron gun concepts for these important applications.

  19. Development of double-pulse lasers ablation system for generating gold ion source under applying an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Double-pulse lasers ablation (DPLA) technique was developed to generate gold (Au) ion source and produce high current under applying an electric potential in an argon ambient gas environment. Two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1064 and 266 nm wavelengths are combined in an unconventional orthogonal (crossed-beam) double-pulse configuration with 45° angle to focus on a gold target along with a spectrometer for spectral analysis of gold plasma. The properties of gold plasma produced under double-pulse lasers excitation were studied. The velocity distribution function (VDF) of the emitted plasma was studied using a dedicated Faraday-cup ion probe (FCIP) under argon gas discharge. The experimental parameters were optimized to attain the best signal to noise (S/N) ratio. The results depicted that the VDF and current signals depend on the discharge applied voltage, laser intensity, laser wavelength and ambient argon gas pressure. A seven-fold increases in the current signal by increasing the discharge applied voltage and ion velocity under applying double-pulse lasers field. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and density) were also studied and their dependence on the delay (times between the excitation laser pulse and the opening of camera shutter) was investigated as well. This study could provide significant reference data for the optimization and design of DPLA systems engaged in laser induced plasma deposition thin films and facing components diagnostics.

  20. Source Term Model for Vortex Generator Vanes in a Navier-Stokes Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.

    2004-01-01

    A source term model for an array of vortex generators was implemented into a non-proprietary Navier-Stokes computer code, OVERFLOW. The source term models the side force created by a vortex generator vane. The model is obtained by introducing a side force to the momentum and energy equations that can adjust its strength automatically based on the local flow. The model was tested and calibrated by comparing data from numerical simulations and experiments of a single low profile vortex generator vane on a flat plate. In addition, the model was compared to experimental data of an S-duct with 22 co-rotating, low profile vortex generators. The source term model allowed a grid reduction of about seventy percent when compared with the numerical simulations performed on a fully gridded vortex generator on a flat plate without adversely affecting the development and capture of the vortex created. The source term model was able to predict the shape and size of the stream-wise vorticity and velocity contours very well when compared with both numerical simulations and experimental data. The peak vorticity and its location were also predicted very well when compared to numerical simulations and experimental data. The circulation predicted by the source term model matches the prediction of the numerical simulation. The source term model predicted the engine fan face distortion and total pressure recovery of the S-duct with 22 co-rotating vortex generators very well. The source term model allows a researcher to quickly investigate different locations of individual or a row of vortex generators. The researcher is able to conduct a preliminary investigation with minimal grid generation and computational time.

  1. Generation of auroral kilometric radiation by a finite-size source in a dipole magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskaya, T. M.; Shevelev, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    Generation, amplification, and propagation of auroral kilometric radiation in a narrow three-dimensional plasma cavity in which a weakly relativistic electron beam propagates is studied in the geometrical optics approximation. It is shown that the waves that start with a group velocity directed earthward and have optimal relation between the wave vector components determining the linear growth rate and the wave residence time inside the amplification region undergo the largest amplification. Taking into account the longitudinal velocity of fast electrons results in the shift of the instability domain toward wave vectors directed to the Earth and leads to a change in the dispersion relation, due to which favorable conditions are created for the generation of waves with frequencies above the cutoff frequency for the cold background plasma at the wave generation altitude. The amplification factor for these waves is lower than for waves that have the same wave vectors but are excited by the electron beams with lower velocities along the magnetic field. For waves excited at frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the background plasma at the generation altitude, the amplification factor increases with increasing longitudinal electron velocity, because these waves reside for a longer time in the amplification region.

  2. Generation of auroral kilometric radiation by a finite-size source in a dipole magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Burinskaya, T. M. Shevelev, M. M.

    2016-10-15

    Generation, amplification, and propagation of auroral kilometric radiation in a narrow three-dimensional plasma cavity in which a weakly relativistic electron beam propagates is studied in the geometrical optics approximation. It is shown that the waves that start with a group velocity directed earthward and have optimal relation between the wave vector components determining the linear growth rate and the wave residence time inside the amplification region undergo the largest amplification. Taking into account the longitudinal velocity of fast electrons results in the shift of the instability domain toward wave vectors directed to the Earth and leads to a change in the dispersion relation, due to which favorable conditions are created for the generation of waves with frequencies above the cutoff frequency for the cold background plasma at the wave generation altitude. The amplification factor for these waves is lower than for waves that have the same wave vectors but are excited by the electron beams with lower velocities along the magnetic field. For waves excited at frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the background plasma at the generation altitude, the amplification factor increases with increasing longitudinal electron velocity, because these waves reside for a longer time in the amplification region.

  3. Shielding Characteristics Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source to Generate Modes - Experimental Measurements and Analytical Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the program was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting an engine on the upper surface of a wing; a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface. Simple analytical simulations were used to preview the radiation patterns - Fresnel knife-edge diffraction was coupled with a dense phased array of point sources to compute shielded and unshielded sound pressure distributions for potential test geometries and excitation modes. Contour plots of sound pressure levels, and integrated power levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations for both the experimental measurements and the analytical predictions are presented in this paper.

  4. Optical visualization of Alzheimer’s pathology via multiphoton-excited intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Alex C.; Duff, Karen; Gouras, Gunnar K.; Webb, Watt W.

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic optical emissions, such as autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG), are potentially useful for functional fluorescence imaging and biomedical disease diagnosis for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, using multiphoton and SHG microscopy, we identified sources of intrinsic emissions in ex vivo, acute brain slices from AD transgenic mouse models. We observed autofluorescence and SHG at senile plaques as well as characterized their emission spectra. The utility of intrinsic emissions was demonstrated by imaging senile plaque autofluorescence in conjunction with SHG from microtubule arrays to assess the polarity of microtubules near pathological lesions. Our results suggest that tissues from AD transgenic models contain distinct intrinsic emissions, which can provide valuable information about the disease mechanisms. PMID:19259208

  5. Nonradiative deactivation of excited hemicyanines studied with submolecular spatial resolution by time-resolved surface second harmonic generation at liquid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gassin, Gaelle; Villamaina, Diego; Vauthey, Eric

    2011-03-02

    The excited-state dynamics of aminostilbazolium dyes is known to be dominated by nonradiative deactivation through large-amplitude motion. In order to identify the coordinate(s) responsible for this process, the excited-state lifetimes of two dialkylaminostyryl-methylpyridinium iodides have been measured at liquid-liquid interfaces using time-resolved surface second harmonic generation. We found that the decay time of the excited-states of both compounds was increasing with the viscosity of the apolar phase, consisting of n-alkanes of varying length, but was unaffected by that of the polar phase, made of water/glycerol mixtures. This indicates that the nonradiative deactivation is associated with the twist of the dialkylaniline group, which is located in the apolar part of the molecule.

  6. Random source generating far field with elliptical flat-topped beam profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-07-01

    Circular and rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) sources which generate far fields with circular and rectangular flat-topped beam profiles were introduced just recently (Sahin and Korotkova 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2970; Korotkova 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 64). In this paper, a random source named an elliptical MGSM source is introduced. An analytical expression for the propagation factor of an elliptical MGSM beam is derived. Furthermore, an analytical propagation formula for an elliptical MGSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and its propagation properties in free space are studied. It is interesting to find that an elliptical MGSM source generates a far field with an elliptical flat-topped beam profile, being qualitatively different from that of circular and rectangular MGSM sources. The ellipticity and the flatness of the elliptical flat-topped beam profile in the far field are determined by the initial coherence widths and the beam index, respectively.

  7. Fast pulsed excitation wiggler or undulator

    DOEpatents

    van Steenbergen, Arie

    1990-01-01

    A fast pulsed excitation, electromagnetic undulator or wiggler, employing geometrically alternating substacks of thin laminations of ferromagnetic material, together with a single turn current loop excitation of the composite assembly, of such shape and configuration that intense, spatially alternating, magnetic fields are generated; for use as a pulsed mode undulator or wiggler radiator, for use in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) type radiation source or, for use in an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) charged particle accelerator.

  8. Near-infrared excited ultraviolet emitting upconverting phosphors as an internal light source in dry chemistry test strips for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Valta, T; Kale, V; Soukka, T; Horn, C

    2015-04-21

    Upconverting phosphors are inorganic crystals with interesting optical properties, including the ability to convert infrared radiation to emission at shorter wavelengths. In this paper we present the utilization of nanosized β-NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+), synthesized in the presence of K(+), emitting at 365 nm under 980 nm excitation as an internal light source in glucose sensing dry chemistry test strips. The feasibility of the nanoparticles as an internal UV light source was compared to the use of an external broadband lamp. The results obtained from glucose measurements using UCNPs were in agreement with the traditional method based on measuring reflectance using an external UV light source. In addition the multiple emission peaks of UCNPs offered the possibility of using them as a control signal to account for various sources of error arising in the assay. The high penetration depth of the NIR-excitation made it also possible to excite the UCNPs through a layer of whole blood, giving more freedom to the design of the optical setup.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet source using a forced recombination process in lithium plasma generated by a pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nagano, Akihisa; Inoue, Takahiro; Nica, Petru-Edward; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-04-09

    An extreme ultraviolet source having a tamper has been studied. This target scheme recombines forcedly lithium ions by low temperature electrons from the tamper, converting Li{sup 3+} rapidly to excited Li{sup 2+} which emit intense 1s-2p Lyman {alpha} emissions at 13.5 nm. A strong 13.5 nm emission appeared at 20-30 ns after the time of laser peak within a small space volume near the tamper. The authors obtained an enhancement of extreme ultraviolet conversion efficiency by a factor of about 2 with the tamper against that of a target without the tamper at the same laser irradiation condition00.

  10. Muscle afferent excitability testing in spinal root-intact rats: dissociating peripheral afferent and efferent volleys generated by intraspinal microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Tomatsu, Saeka; Kim, Geehee; Confais, Joachim; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Presynaptic inhibition of the sensory input from the periphery to the spinal cord can be evaluated directly by intra-axonal recording of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) or indirectly by intraspinal microstimulation (excitability testing). Excitability testing is superior for use in normal behaving animals, because this methodology bypasses the technically challenging intra-axonal recording. However, use of excitability testing on the muscle or joint afferent in intact animals presents its own technical challenges. Because these afferents, in many cases, are mixed with motor axons in the peripheral nervous system, it is crucial to dissociate antidromic volleys in the primary afferents from orthodromic volleys in the motor axon, both of which are evoked by intraspinal microstimulation. We have demonstrated in rats that application of a paired stimulation protocol with a short interstimulus interval (ISI) successfully dissociated the antidromic volley in the nerve innervating the medial gastrocnemius muscle. By using a 2-ms ISI, the amplitude of the volleys evoked by the second stimulation was decreased in dorsal root-sectioned rats, but the amplitude did not change or was slightly increased in ventral root-sectioned rats. Excitability testing in rats with intact spinal roots indicated that the putative antidromic volleys exhibited dominant primary afferent depolarization, which was reasonably induced from the more dorsal side of the spinal cord. We concluded that excitability testing with a paired-pulse protocol can be used for studying presynaptic inhibition of somatosensory afferents in animals with intact spinal roots.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Excitability testing of primary afferents has been used to evaluate presynaptic modulation of synaptic transmission in experiments conducted in vivo. However, to apply this method to muscle afferents of animals with intact spinal roots, it is crucial to dissociate antidromic and orthodromic volleys induced by spinal

  11. The second generation superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron Source at RCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Edgard; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Jeong, Sun Chan; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Matsumiya, Ryohei; Shin, Yun Chang; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu

    2014-09-01

    The project of a second generation superthermal ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source is currently going on at RCNP, Osaka University, Japan. It is aiming to produce the world's highest density of polarized UCNs using down-scattering of spallation-produced and moderated cold neutrons in superfluid helium (He-II) at 0.6 K. This project is developed in collaboration between KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) and RCNP. The first generation UCN source was using a vertical extraction and was optimized from 2002 to 2012 to increase its density of UCN from 0.7 UCN/cc to 26 UCN/cc. We have built a second generation UCN source which use a horizontal extraction system thanks to the energy boost induced by the field of a superconducting polarizer magnet (SCM). The SCM allows only one spin state to pass through, which make our UCN source a source of polarized UCN. Polarization is kept thanks to new UCN guides. The first experimental results, the performances and the future improvements of this second generation source will be presented in this talk.

  12. A multi-source portable light emitting diode spectrofluorometer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A portable luminescence spectrofluorometer weighing only 1.5 kg that uses multiple light emitting diodes (LEDs) as excitation sources was developed and evaluated. Excitation using a sequence of seven individual broad-band LED emission sources enabled the generation of excitation-emission spectra usi...

  13. Analysis and Investigation of Skew Effect on Behavior and Performance of a Small Scale Three-Phase Self-Excited Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawetsakulanond, Budhapon; Kinnares, Vijit

    This paper presents analysis and investigation of the skew effect on behavior and performance of a three-phase, 220/380V, 8.7/5.0A, Δ/Y connected, 4 poles, 2.2kW self-excited induction generator (SEIG) with different angles rotor skewing. A 2D finite element analysis (2D-FEA) is used to consider core loss, flux density and circuit parameters. Analysis of excitation capacitor values for the SEIG based on a steady-state equivalent circuit model including rotor skew effect is given. Skewed rotor slots with angle of 0° (non-skew), 5° and 10° for the SEIGs are employed. Testing and performance comparisons under steady-state operation with a pure resistive load have been conducted. Obtained results can be guidelines and recommendations for development of effective wind induction generators.

  14. Qualitative evaluation of Pb and Cu in fish using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with multipulse excitation by ultracompact laser source.

    PubMed

    Alvira, F C; Flores Reyes, T; Ponce Cabrera, L; Moreira Osorio, L; Perez Baez, Z; Vazquez Bautista, G

    2015-05-10

    We show a new laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) setup based on a small, ultracompact, and low-cost excitation source developed by the authors. The laser is a compact Nd:YAG laser emitting in the multipulse Q-switch regime and is capable of delivering a bunch of pulses with a total energy up to 300 mJ. The developed system is applied to the analysis of Pb and Cu contaminants on fish. LIBS spectra were obtained from scales, muscle, and skin of fresh and frozen samples. The developed excitation source is able to detect 0.25 mg/Kg and 0.20 mg/Kg of Pb and Cu, respectively. In this way, the equipment seems to be adequate to achieve a screening analysis of those contaminants.

  15. ELASTICITY ESTIMATES FROM IMAGES OF CRAWLING WAVES GENERATED BY MINIATURE SURFACE SOURCES

    PubMed Central

    Partin, Alexander; Hah, Zaegyoo; Barry, Christopher T.; Rubens, Deborah J.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a surface-based approach to generate shear wave interference patterns, called crawling waves (CrW), within a medium and derive local estimates of biomechanical properties of tissue. In previous experiments, elongated bars operating as vibration sources were used to generate CrW propagation in samples. In the current study, however, a pair of miniature circular vibration sources is applied to the overlying skin to generate the CrW within the medium. The shape and position of the miniature sources make this configuration more applicable for in vivo implementation. A modified ultrasound imaging system is used to display the CrW propagation. A shear speed mapping algorithm is developed using a detailed analysis of the CrW. The proposed setup is applied to several biomaterials including a homogeneous phantom, an inhomogeneous phantom, and ex vivo human liver. The data are analyzed using the mapping algorithm to reveal the biomechanical properties of the biomaterials. PMID:23972485

  16. Elasticity estimates from images of crawling waves generated by miniature surface sources.

    PubMed

    Partin, Alexander; Hah, Zaegyoo; Barry, Christopher T; Rubens, Deborah J; Parker, Kevin J

    2014-04-01

    We describe a surface-based approach to the generation of shear wave interference patterns, called crawling waves (CrW), within a medium and derive local estimates of biomechanical properties of tissue. In previous experiments, elongated bars operating as vibration sources were used to generate CrW propagation in samples. In the present study, however, a pair of miniature circular vibration sources was applied to the overlying skin to generate the CrW within the medium. The shape and position of the miniature sources make this configuration more applicable for in vivo implementation. A modified ultrasound imaging system is used to display the CrW propagation. A shear speed mapping algorithm is developed using a detailed analysis of the CrW. The proposed setup is applied to several biomaterials including a homogeneous phantom, an inhomogeneous phantom and an ex vivo human liver. The data are analyzed using the mapping algorithm to reveal the biomechanical properties of the biomaterials.

  17. Effects of discharge chamber length on the negative ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bong-Ki; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    In a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region as well as the generation of negative hydrogen ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In this study, geometric effects of the cylindrical discharge chamber on negative ion generation via electron temperature changes are investigated in two discharge chambers with different lengths of 7.5 cm and 11 cm. Measurements with a radio-frequency-compensated Langmuir probe show that the electron temperature in the heating region is significantly increased by reducing the length of the discharge chamber due to the reduced effective plasma size. A particle balance model which is modified to consider the effects of discharge chamber configuration on the plasma parameters explains the variation of the electron temperature with the chamber geometry and gas pressure quite well. Accordingly, H{sup −} ion density measurement with laser photo-detachment in the short chamber shows a few times increase compared to the longer one at the same heating power depending on gas pressure. However, the increase drops significantly as operating gas pressure decreases, indicating increased electron temperatures in the extraction region degrade dissociative attachment significantly especially in the low pressure regime. It is concluded that the increase of electron temperature by adjusting the discharge chamber geometry is efficient to increase H{sup −} ion production as long as low electron temperatures are maintained in the extraction region in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  18. Electron-acceptor-dependent light absorption, excited-state relaxation, and charge generation in triphenylamine dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Renzhi; Zhang, Min; Yan, Cancan; Yao, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    By choosing a simple triphenylamine electron donor, we herein compare the influence of electron acceptors benzothiadiazole benzoic acid (BTBA) and cyanoacrylic acid (CA), on energy levels, light absorption, and dynamics of excited-state evolution and electron injection. DFT and time-dependent DFT calculations disclosed remarkable intramolecular conformational changes for the excited states of these two donor-acceptor dyes. Photoinduced dihedral angle variation occurs to the triphenylamine unit in the CA dye and backbone planarization happens to conjugated aromatic blocks in the BTBA dye. Femtosecond spectroscopic measurements suggested the crucial role of having a long excited-state lifetime in maintaining a high electron-injection yield because a reduced driving force for a low energy-gap dye can result in slower electron-injection dynamics.

  19. Generation of Terahertz Radiation in LED Heterostructures with Multiple InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells at Two-Photon Excitation by Femtosecond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudaev, I. A.; Sarkisov, S. Yu.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Kosobutsky, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    The results of experiments on the generation of terahertz radiation in the nitride LED structures at optical excitation by ultrashort laser pulses are presented. The dependences of the emission spectra on the structural parameters of samples and intensity of laser pulses are studied. An increase in the amplitude and the shift of the frequency spectra of terahertz pulses to higher frequencies with increasing number of quantum wells in the heterostructure is found.

  20. Next-generation materials for future synchrotron and free-electron laser sources

    DOE PAGES

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Graafsma, Heinz

    2017-06-09

    We show that the development of new materials and improvements of existing ones are at the root of the spectacular recent developments of new technologies for synchrotron storage rings and free-electron laser sources. This holds true for all relevant application areas, from electron guns to undulators, x-ray optics, and detectors. As demand grows for more powerful and efficient light sources, efficient optics, and high-speed detectors, an overview of ongoing materials research for these applications is timely. In this article, we focus on the most exciting and demanding areas of materials research and development for synchrotron radiation optics and detectors. Materialsmore » issues of components for synchrotron and free-electron laser accelerators are briefly discussed. Lastly, the articles in this issue expand on these topics.« less

  1. Possible Nuclear Safeguards Applications: Workshop on Next-Generation Laser Compton Gamma Source

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. Matthew

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for the development of a next-generation photon source white paper. The following topics are covered in these slides: Nuclear Safeguards; The Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Precise isotopic determination via NRF; UF6 Enrichment Assay; and Non-Destructive Assay of Spent Nuclear Fuel. In summary: A way to non-destructively measure precise isotopics of ~kg and larger samples has multiple uses in nuclear safeguards; Ideally this is a compact, fieldable device that can be used by international inspectors. Must be rugged and reliable; A next-generation source can be used as a testing ground for these techniques as technology develops.

  2. MEASUREMENT AND SIMULATION OF SOURCE-GENERATED HALOS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND ELECTRON RING (UMER)

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, I.; Haber, I.; Bernal, S.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.G.; Papadopoulos, C.; Reiser, M.; Feldman, R.B.; Stratakis, D.; Walter, M.; Vay, J.-L.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2007-06-18

    One of the areas of fundamental beam physics that have served as the rationale for recent research on UMER is the study of the generation and evolution of beam halos. Recent experiments and simulations have identified imperfections in the source geometry, particularly in the region near the emitter edge, as a significant potential source of halo particles. The edge-generated halo particles, both in the experiments and the simulations are found to pass through the center of the beam a short distance downstream of the anode plane. Understanding the detailed evolution of these particle orbits is therefore important to designing any aperture to remove the beam halo.

  3. Coherence and Polarization Properties of Far Fields Generated by Quasi-Homogeneous Planar Electromagnetic Sources (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-03

    the explicit dependence of all he parameters on the frequency. In order that the elec- romagnetic Gaussian Schell - model source generated by eans of the...the far field gener- ted by a planar electromagnetic Gaussian Schell - model ource are given by the expressions s1 rs, = xx 2 exp− xx 2 k2 2/2...uniformly polarized, quasi- omogeneous Gaussian Schell - model source, which is haracterized by a cross-spectral density matrix J rs ,rs , whose

  4. Diffractive imaging using a polychromatic high-harmonic generation soft-x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Dilanian, Ruben A.; Chen Bo; Williams, Garth J.; Quiney, Harry M.; Nugent, Keith A.; Teichmann, Sven; Hannaford, Peter; Dao, Lap V.; Peele, Andrew G.

    2009-07-15

    A new approach to diffractive imaging using polychromatic diffraction data is described. The method is tested using simulated and experimental data and is shown to yield high-quality reconstructions. Diffraction data produced using a high-harmonic generation source are considered explicitly here. The formalism can be readily adapted, however, to any short-wavelength source producing a discrete spectrum and possessing sufficient spatial coherence.

  5. Automatic Generation of Data Types for Classification of Deep Web Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ngu, A H; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2005-02-14

    A Service Class Description (SCD) is an effective meta-data based approach for discovering Deep Web sources whose data exhibit some regular patterns. However, it is tedious and error prone to create an SCD description manually. Moreover, a manually created SCD is not adaptive to the frequent changes of Web sources. It requires its creator to identify all the possible input and output types of a service a priori. In many domains, it is impossible to exhaustively list all the possible input and output data types of a source in advance. In this paper, we describe machine learning approaches for automatic generation of the data types of an SCD. We propose two different approaches for learning data types of a class of Web sources. The Brute-Force Learner is able to generate data types that can achieve high recall, but with low precision. The Clustering-based Learner generates data types that have a high precision rate, but with a lower recall rate. We demonstrate the feasibility of these two learning-based solutions for automatic generation of data types for citation Web sources and presented a quantitative evaluation of these two solutions.

  6. A reflex electron beam discharge as a plasma source for electron beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.; Szapiro, B. )

    1988-10-01

    A reflex electron beam glow discharge has been used as a plasma source for the generation of broad-area electron beams. An electron current of 120 A (12 A/cm/sup 2/) was extracted from the plasma in 10 ..mu..s pulses and accelerated to energies greater than 1 keV in the gap between two grids. The scaling of the scheme for the generation of multikiloamp high-energy beams is discussed.

  7. The near-source impacts of diesel backup generators in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zheming; Zhang, K. Max

    2015-05-01

    Distributed power generation, located close to consumers, plays an important role in the current and future power systems. However, its near-source impacts in complex urban environments are not well understood. In this paper, we focused on diesel backup generators that participate in demand response (DR) programs. We first improved the micro-environmental air quality simulations by employing a meteorology processor, AERMET, to generate site-specific boundary layer parameters for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling. The modeling structure was then incorporated into the CTAG model to evaluate the environmental impacts of diesel backup generators in near-source microenvironments. We found that the presence of either tall upwind or downwind building can deteriorate the air quality in the near-stack street canyons, largely due to the recirculation zones generated by the tall buildings, reducing the near-stack dispersion. Decreasing exhaust momentum ratio (stack exit velocity/ambient wind velocity) draws more exhaust into the recirculation zone, and reduces the effective stack height, which results in elevated near-ground concentrations inside downwind street canyons. The near-ground PM2.5 concentration for the worst scenarios could well exceed 100 μg m-3, posing potential health risk to people living and working nearby. In general, older diesel backup generators (i.e., Tier 1, 2 or older) without the up-to-date emission control may significantly increase the pollutant concentration in the near-source street canyons if participating in DR programs. Even generators that comply with Tier-4 standards could lead to PM hotspots if their stacks are next to tall buildings. Our study implies that the siting of diesel backup generators stacks should consider not only the interactions of fresh air intake and exhaust outlet for the building housing the backup generators, but also the dispersion of exhaust plumes in the surrounding environment.

  8. Laser-driven electron beamlines generated by coupling laser-plasma sources with conventional transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antici, P.; Bacci, A.; Benedetti, C.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Rossi, A. R.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Serafini, L.

    2012-08-01

    Laser-driven electron beamlines are receiving increasing interest from the particle accelerator community. In particular, the high initial energy, low emittance, and high beam current of the plasma based electron source potentially allow generating much more compact and bright particle accelerators than what conventional accelerator technology can achieve. Using laser-generated particles as injectors for generating beamlines could significantly reduce the size and cost of accelerator facilities. Unfortunately, several features of laser-based particle beams need still to be improved before considering them for particle beamlines and thus enable the use of plasma-driven accelerators for the multiple applications of traditional accelerators. Besides working on the plasma source itself, a promising approach to shape the laser-generated beams is coupling them with conventional accelerator elements in order to benefit from both a versatile electron source and a controllable beam. In this paper, we perform start-to-end simulations to generate laser-driven beamlines using conventional accelerator codes and methodologies. Starting with laser-generated electrons that can be obtained with established multi-hundred TW laser systems, we compare different options to capture and transport the beams. This is performed with the aim of providing beamlines suitable for potential applications, such as free electron lasers. In our approach, we have analyzed which parameters are critical at the source and from there evaluated different ways to overcome these issues using conventional accelerator elements and methods. We show that electron driven beamlines are potentially feasible, but exploiting their full potential requires extensive improvement of the source parameters or innovative technological devices for their transport and capture.

  9. Light sources generating self-splitting beams and their propagation in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhangrong

    2014-06-02

    A class of random sources producing far fields self-splitting intensity profiles with variable spacing between the x and y directions is introduced. The beam conditions for ensuring the sources to generate a beam are derived. Based on the derived analytical expression, the evolution behavior of the beams produced by these families of sources in free space and turbulence atmospheric are explored and comparatively analyzed. By changing the modulation parameters n and m, the degree of coherence of Gaussian Schell-model source in the x and y directions are modulated respectively, and then the number of splitting beams and the spacing between splitting beams can be adjusted. It is illustrated that the self-splitting intensity profile is stable when beams propagate in free space, but they eventually transformed into a Gaussian profiles when it passes at sufficiently large distances from its source through the turbulent atmosphere.

  10. Open-Source Programming for Automated Generation of Graphene Raman Spectral Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendola, P.; Blades, M.; Pierre, W.; Jedlicka, S.; Rotkin, S. V.

    Raman microscopy is a useful tool for studying the structural characteristics of graphene deposited onto substrates. However, extracting useful information from the Raman spectra requires data processing and 2D map generation. An existing home-built confocal Raman microscope was optimized for graphene samples and programmed to automatically generate Raman spectral maps across a specified area. In particular, an open source data collection scheme was generated to allow the efficient collection and analysis of the Raman spectral data for future use. NSF ECCS-1509786.

  11. MHD generators as pulse power sources for arc-driven railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, N.; Raugi, M.; Tellini, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the performances of an electromagnetic launch system constituted by an arc driven railgun powered by a MHD generator are investigated. A small bore plasma driven railgun for fusion fuel pellet injection is examined considering as pulse power source a MHD generator having characteristics taken from operating devices. The analysis of the railgun and generator has been carried out by means of a lumped parameter equivalent network model that takes into account drag force and ablation effects and allowing the evaluation of the main electrical and thermodynamic quantity distributions of the plasma arc.

  12. Source mechanism of long-period events at Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, Japan, inferred from waveform inversion of the effective excitation functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakano, M.; Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the source mechanism of long-period (LP) events observed at Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, Japan, based on waveform inversions of their effective excitation functions. The effective excitation function, which represents the apparent excitation observed at individual receivers, is estimated by applying an autoregressive filter to the LP waveform. Assuming a point source, we apply this method to seven LP events the waveforms of which are characterized by simple decaying and nearly monochromatic oscillations with frequency in the range 1-3 Hz. The results of the waveform inversions show dominant volumetric change components accompanied by single force components, common to all the events analyzed, and suggesting a repeated activation of a sub-horizontal crack located 300 m beneath the summit crater lakes. Based on these results, we propose a model of the source process of LP seismicity, in which a gradual buildup of steam pressure in a hydrothermal crack in response to magmatic heat causes repeated discharges of steam from the crack. The rapid discharge of fluid causes the collapse of the fluid-filled crack and excites acoustic oscillations of the crack, which produce the characteristic waveforms observed in the LP events. The presence of a single force synchronous with the collapse of the crack is interpreted as the release of gravitational energy that occurs as the slug of steam ejected from the crack ascends toward the surface and is replaced by cooler water flowing downward in a fluid-filled conduit linking the crack and the base of the crater lake. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new self-regulated self-excited single-phase induction generator using a squirrel cage three-phase induction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fukami, Tadashi; Imamura, Michinori; Kaburaki, Yuichi; Miyamoto, Toshio

    1995-12-31

    A new single-phase capacitor self-excited induction generator with self-regulating feature is presented. The new generator consists of a squirrel cage three-phase induction machine and three capacitors connected in series and parallel with a single phase load. The voltage regulation of this generator is very small due to the effect of the three capacitors. Moreover, since a Y-connected stator winding is employed, the waveform of the output voltage becomes sinusoidal. In this paper the system configuration and the operating principle of the new generator are explained, and the basic characteristics are also investigated by means of a simple analysis and experiments with a laboratory machine.

  14. A segmented multi-loop antenna for selective excitation of azimuthal mode number in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Motomura, T.

    2014-09-15

    A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density n{sub e} were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n{sub e} up to ∼5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.

  15. A segmented multi-loop antenna for selective excitation of azimuthal mode number in a helicon plasma source.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, S; Tanikawa, T; Motomura, T

    2014-09-01

    A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density ne were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n(e) up to ~5 × 10(12) cm(-3) was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.

  16. A segmented multi-loop antenna for selective excitation of azimuthal mode number in a helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Motomura, T.

    2014-09-01

    A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density ne were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and ne up to ˜5 × 1012 cm-3 was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.

  17. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  18. Systematic comparison of saturation effects and afterglow properties of Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphor excited by alpha and beta ionizing sources and UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havasi, Viktor; Tátrai, Dávid; Szabó, Gábor; Sipos, György; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    This study reports on the radioactive- and photo-charging effects related afterglow properties of the long-afterglow Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphor (SAED). Saturation and oversaturation behavior, trapping and de-trapping sequences, decay profiles and resistivity of SAED to alpha, beta and UV excitations are detailed. Thermoluminescence and afterglow measurements were performed on SAED subjected to different irradiation dose/time. In order to determine the saturation point of SAED, phosphors were charged by 0.5-800 Gy dose using radioactive alpha and beta sources and for 0.02-900 min by near UV light. By radioactive excitations only a saturation tendency was observed, whereas clear indication of oversaturation was found for photo-charging. Different saturation tendencies were also observed as a function of average SAED particle size due to the different penetration depth and efficiency of the excitation radiations. A uniform de-trapping sequence, but an opposite trapping sequence was found for ionizing radiation and for UV charging due to secondary excitation effects of high-energy irradiation. After the saturation point, a slight reduction of charge carrier concentration and PL intensity were observed. This was evidenced by the shifting dominant components of the modeled afterglow and TL curves. Repeated charging by ionizing radiation does not effected the afterglow properties of SAED adversely. On the other hand, thermal exposure up to 350 °C reduced photoluminescence intensity even in inert atmosphere.

  19. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  20. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  1. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  2. Strong Coupling Expansion of the Generating Functional for Gauge Systems on a Lattice with Arbitrary Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, Jaap

    1983-02-01

    A set of programs to calculate algebraically the generating functional (free energy) of a gauge system with arbitrary external sources on a lattice has been developed. It makes use of the strong coupling expansion. For theories with the standard Tr(UUU †U †) action results have been obtained up to fourth order.

  3. Talking Pictures: Exploiting the Potential of Visual Sources to Generate Productive Pupil Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Jane Card has long been fascinated by the power of visual sources to stimulate pupil thought and discussion. In previous articles she has shared insights from her own expert practice, fusing deep subject knowledge with careful planning to generate highly skilful questioning. Here she presents another rich example of classroom practice, carefully…

  4. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  5. Talking Pictures: Exploiting the Potential of Visual Sources to Generate Productive Pupil Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Jane Card has long been fascinated by the power of visual sources to stimulate pupil thought and discussion. In previous articles she has shared insights from her own expert practice, fusing deep subject knowledge with careful planning to generate highly skilful questioning. Here she presents another rich example of classroom practice, carefully…

  6. Characterization of cortical source generators based on electroencephalography during tonic pain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Mark, Esben Bolvig; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the cortical source generators evoked by experimental tonic pain. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded on two separate days during rest and with immersion of the hand in ice water for 2 minutes (cold pressor test). Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography source localization was performed in 31 healthy volunteers to characterize the cortical source generators. Reliability was high in all eight frequency bands during rest and cold pressor conditions (intraclass coefficients =0.47-0.83 in the cingulate and insula). Tonic pain increased cortical activities in the delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), beta1 (12-18 Hz), beta2 (18-24 Hz), beta3 (24-32 Hz), and gamma (32-60 Hz) bands (all P<0.011) in widespread areas mainly in the limbic system, whereas decreased cortical activities were found in cingulate and pre- and postcentral gyri in the alpha2 (10-12 Hz) band (P=0.007). The pain intensity was correlated with cingulate activity in the beta2, beta3, and gamma bands (all P<0.04). Source localization of EEG is a reliable method to estimate cortical source generators. Activities in different brain regions, mainly in the limbic system, showed fluctuations in various frequency bands. Cingulate changes were correlated with pain intensity. This method might add information to the objective assessment of the cortical pain response in future experimental pain studies.

  7. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must meet... generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has the...

  8. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must meet... generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has the...

  9. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must meet... generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has the...

  10. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must meet... generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has the...

  11. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must meet... generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has the...

  12. Influence of heat generated by a Raman excitation laser on the structural analysis of thin amorphous silicon film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, P.; Očenášek, J.; Prušáková, L.; Vavruňková, V.; Savková, J.; Rezek, J.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work we investigate thin amorphous silicon film fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. In particular, we analyze changes in the recorded Raman spectra caused by excitation laser irradiation. Solid phase crystallization, hydrogen diffusive outflow and Raman spectra peak shifts have been observed experimentally and analyzed numerically. The role of film thickness on all these features is pointed out. The study involves laser powers between 0.1 mW and 10 mW focused to a spot diameter of ∼1 μm and film thicknesses between 50 and ∼2000 nm. Additionally, the laser induced temperature fields were analyzed by means of numerical simulation and the Raman spectral shift trough Balkanski model. Results are correlated to structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the hydrogen content and solid phase fraction identified by Raman spectroscopy are highly sensitive to the applied excitation laser power.

  13. Modification to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report discusses work that has been done to upgrade the ORIGEN2 code cross sections to be compatible with the WIMS computer code data. Because of the changes in the ORIGEN2 calculations. Details on changes made to the ORIGEN2 computer code and the Radnuc code will be discussed along with additional work that should be done in the future to upgrade both ORIGEN2 and Radnuc. A detailed historical description of how source terms have been generated for N Reactor fuel stored in the K Basins has been generated. The neutron source discussed in this description was generated by the WIMS computer code (Gubbins et al. 1982) because of known shortcomings in the ORIGEN2 (Croff 1980) cross sections. Another document includes a discussion of the ORIGEN2 cross sections.

  14. The ARC-EN-CIEL French 4th Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bruni, C.; Couprie, M. E.; Chubar, O.; Loulergue, A.; Nahon, L.; Carre, B.; Garzella, D.; Labat, M.; Lambert, G.; Monot, P.; Jablonka, M.; Meot, F.; Ortega, J. M.; Nutarelli, D.

    2007-01-19

    ARC-EN-CIEL (Accelerator-Radiation Complex for Enhanced Coherent Intense Extended Light) proposal is based on a CW 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator delivering high charge, subpicosecond, low emittance electron bunches with a high repetition rate (1 kHz). The FEL uses High Harmonics Generation in gases in a High Gain Harmonic Generation scheme, leading to a rather compact solution. The radiation extends down to 0.8 nm with the non-linear harmonics and reproduces the good longitudinal and transverse coherence of the harmonics generated in gas. Optional beam loops, foreseen to increase the beam current or the energy, will accommodate infrared CSR source, femtosecond undulator sources in the VUV and X-ray ranges, and a FEL oscillator in the 10 nm range. An important synergy is expected between accelerator and laser communities, in particular for electron plasma acceleration tests.

  15. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2) to 30 cm(2), whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  16. MEG Source Localization of Spatially Extended Generators of Epileptic Activity: Comparing Entropic and Hierarchical Bayesian Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm2 to 30 cm2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered. PMID:23418485

  17. Neutron generator for BNCT based on high current ECR ion source with gyrotron plasma heating.

    PubMed

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Maslennikova, A; Volovecky, A; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2015-12-01

    BNCT development nowadays is constrained by a progress in neutron sources design. Creation of a cheap and compact intense neutron source would significantly simplify trial treatments avoiding use of expensive and complicated nuclear reactors and accelerators. D-D or D-T neutron generator is one of alternative types of such sources for. A so-called high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source with plasma heating by millimeter wave gyrotron radiation is suggested to be used in a scheme of D-D neutron generator in the present work. Ion source of that type was developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). It can produce deuteron ion beams with current density up to 700-800 mA/cm(2). Generation of the neutron flux with density at the level of 7-8·10(10) s(-1) cm(-2) at the target surface could be obtained in case of TiD2 target bombardment with deuteron beam accelerated to 100 keV. Estimations show that it is enough for formation of epithermal neutron flux with density higher than 10(9) s(-1) cm(-2) suitable for BNCT. Important advantage of described approach is absence of Tritium in the scheme. First experiments performed in pulsed regime with 300 mA, 45 kV deuteron beam directed to D2O target demonstrated 10(9) s(-1) neutron flux. This value corresponds to theoretical estimations and proofs prospects of neutron generator development based on high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2010-10-11

    We present recent work on the development of a microwave ion source that will be used in a high-yield compact neutron generator for active interrogation applications. The sealed tube generator will be capable of producing high neutron yields, 5x1011 n/s for D-T and ~;;1x1010 n/s for D-D reactions, while remaining transportable. We constructed a microwave ion source (2.45 GHz) with permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT necessary for satisfying the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. Microwave ion sources can produce high extracted beam currents at the low gas pressures required for sealed tube operation and at lower power levels than previously used RF-driven ion sources. A 100 mA deuterium/tritium beam will be extracted through a large slit (60x6 mm2) to spread the beam power over a larger target area. This paper describes the design of the permanent-magnet microwave ion source and discusses the impact of the magnetic field design on the source performance. The required equivalent proton beam current density of 40 mA/cm2 was extracted at a moderate microwave power of 400 W with an optimized magnetic field.

  19. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-15

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H{sup +}/D{sup +} ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H{sup +}/D{sup +} beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and {+-}7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Broadband signal generator for the approximation of a magnetotelluric source for indoor testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shuang-chao; Deng, Ming; Chen, Kai; Shi, Xin-yu

    2016-08-01

    To test the frequency response of a magnetotelluric (MT) receiver, a broadband source, especially white noise is more efficient and intuitive than single frequency signals. In view of the absence of an appropriate source generator for MT receiver indoor testing, we designed a broadband signal generator based on a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS). Firstly, we divided the whole MT band into two segments to avoid data redundancy and simplify calculation in data processing and designed a generator composed of several modules: a clock module, a PRBS logic module, and a voltage level conversion module. We conducted a detailed analysis of the optimal parameter selection methods for each module, and key parameters including clock frequency, order, the primitive polynomial and the original states of the linear registers were determined. The generator provides four-channel PRBS signals with two effective bandwidths of 5  ×  10-4-714 Hz and 0.1 Hz-14 kHz which are broad enough to cover the frequency range for different MT methods. These four-channel signals were used to simulate two modes of sources (xy and yx) with strong auto-correlation and weak cross-correlation. The power spectral density is quite stable in the whole passband. The new generator is characterized by broadband output in low-frequency bands, low power consumption, simple operation and reliable performance. Indoor and field tests indicated that the generator can provide an analog MT source and is a practical tool for MT receiver indoor testing.