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Sample records for excluded ecotox open

  1. The ECOTOX Knowledgebase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPAs ECOTOX database is the largest compilation of ecotoxicity data, providing information on the adverse effects of single chemical stressors to ecologically relevant aquatic and terrestrial species. The database includes 614,090 test records abstracted from over 27,000...

  2. The ECOTOX Knowledgebase

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPAs ECOTOX database is the largest compilation of ecotoxicity data, providing information on the adverse effects of single chemical stressors to ecologically relevant aquatic and terrestrial species. The database includes 614,090 test records abstracted from over 27,000...

  3. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  4. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  5. Linkage analysis of primary open-angle glaucoma excludes the juvenile glaucoma region on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Acott, T.S.; Samples, J.R. |

    1994-09-01

    The gene for one form of juvenile glaucoma has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. This raises the possibility of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) also mapping to this region if the same defective gene causes both diseases. To ask this question linkage analysis was performed on a large POAG kindred. Blood samples or skin biopsies were obtained from 40 members of this family. Individuals were diagnosed as having POAG if they met two or more of the following criteria: (1) Visual field defects compatible with glaucoma on automated perimetry; (2) Optic nerve head and/or nerve fiber layer analysis compatible with glaucomatous damage; (3) high intraocular pressures (> 20 mm Hg). Patients were considered glaucoma suspects if they only met one criterion. These individuals were excluded from the analysis. Of the 40 members, seven were diagnosed with POAG; four were termed suspects. The earliest age of onset was 38 years old, while the average age of onset was 65 years old. We performed two-point and multipoint linkage analysis, using five markers which encompass the region 1q21-q31; specifically, D1S194, D1S210, D1S212, D1S191 and LAMB2. Two-point lod scores excluded tight linkage with all markers except D1S212 (maximum lod score of 1.07 at theta = 0.0). In the multipoint analysis, including D1S210-D1S212-LAMB2 and POAG, the entire 11 cM region spanned by these markers was excluded for linkage with POAG; that is, lod scores were < -2.0. In conclusion, POAG in this family does not map to chromosome 1q21-q31 and, thus, they carry a gene that is distinct from the juvenile glaucoma gene.

  6. Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sachindri; Kalaichelvan, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a science of producing and utilizing nanosized particles that are measured in nanometers. The unique size-dependent properties make the nanoparticles superior and indispensable as they show unusual physical, chemical, and properties such as conductivity, heat transfer, melting temperature, optical properties, and magnetization. Taking the advantages of these singular properties in order to develop new products is the main purpose of nanotechnology, and that is why it is regarded as “the next industrial revolution.” Although nanotechnology is quite a recent discipline, there have already high number of publications which discuss this topic. However, the safety of nanomaterials is of high priority. Whereas toxicity focuses on human beings and aims at protecting individuals, ecotoxicity looks at various trophic organism levels and intend to protect populations and ecosystems. Ecotoxicity includes natural uptake mechanisms and the influence of environmental factors on bioavailability (and thereby on toxicity). The present paper focuses on the ecotoxic effects and mechanisms of nanomaterials on microorganisms, plants, and other organisms including humans. PMID:23724300

  7. ECOTOX knowledgebase: Search features and customized reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology knowledgebase (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. ECOTOX has the capability to refine and filter search...

  8. ECOTOX knowledgebase: Search features and customized reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology knowledgebase (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. ECOTOX has the capability to refine and filter search...

  9. ECOTOX database; new additions and future direction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. Publications are identified for potential applicability af...

  10. ECOTOX database; new additions and future direction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) is a comprehensive, publicly available knowledgebase developed and maintained by ORD/NHEERL. It is used for environmental toxicity data on aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. Publications are identified for potential applicability af...

  11. Ecotoxicity evaluation of selected sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stolte, Stefan; Arning, Jürgen; Uebers, Ute; Böschen, Andrea; Stepnowski, Piotr; Matzke, Marianne

    2011-10-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are a group of antibiotic drugs widely used in veterinary medicine. The contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has raised concern in recent years. However, knowledge of their (eco)toxicity is still very basic and is restricted to just a few of these substances. Even though their toxicological analysis has been thoroughly performed and ecotoxicological data are available in the literature, a systematic analysis of their ecotoxicological potential has yet to be carried out. To fill this gap, 12 different SAs were chosen for detailed analysis with the focus on different bacteria as well as non-target organisms (algae and plants). A flexible (eco)toxicological test battery was used, including enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and glutathione reductase), luminescent marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), limnic unicellular green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor), in order to take into account both the aquatic and terrestrial compartments of the environment, as well as different trophic levels. It was found that SAs are not only toxic towards green algae (EC₅₀=1.54-32.25 mg L⁻¹) but have even stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC₅₀=0.02-4.89 mg L⁻¹) than atrazine - herbicide (EC₅₀=2.59 mg L⁻¹).

  12. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of moxifloxacin in water: chemical transformation and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Xander; Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Janssen, Colin R; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    This work provides new insights on the impact of TiO2/UV catalyzed chemical transformation of moxifloxacin on ecotoxicity effects towards the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The moxifloxacin median effect concentration (EC-50=0.78 [0.56, 1.09] mg L(-1)), determined in accordance to the OECD 72-h growth inhibition test guideline, was 7 times lower than that of the older and widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (EC-50=5.57 [4.86, 6.38] mg L(-1)). Applying heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technique to degrade moxifloxacin in aqueous solution decreased the average growth inhibition from 72% to 14% after 150 min of treatment. No significant carbon mineralization was observed and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of 13 degradation products for which a chemical structure could be proposed based on accurate mass determination. Combined chemical and ecotoxicological analysis showed that as long as moxifloxacin is present in the reaction solution, it is the main compound affecting algal growth inhibition. However, also the contribution of the degradation products to the observed ecotoxicity cannot be neglected. Photocatalytically induced modifications of moxifloxacin mainly occur at the diazobicyclo-substituent as ring opening, oxidation into carbonyl groups, and hydroxylation. This results into the formation of more hydrophilic compounds with a decreased biological activity compared with moxifloxacin. The change in lipophilicity, and possibly a modified acid-base speciation, most probably also affect the cell membrane permeation of the degradation products, which might be another factor explaining the observed lower residual ecotoxicity of the photocatalytically treated reaction solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. U.S. EPA'S ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In formulating hypothesis related to extrapolations across species and/or chemicals, the ECOTOX database provides researchers a means of locating high quality ecological effects data for a wide-range of terrestrial and aquatic receptors. Currently the database includes more than ...

  14. The excluder aortic endograft.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Daniel M; Stevens, Scott L

    2008-06-01

    Since its introduction, more than 59000 patients have been treated with Gore Excluder endoprosthesis (GORE) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the past 11 years. It has become clearer that differences in device delivery and design provide certain advantages that may favor one anatomical milieu over another. Behavior of the aneurysm sac also seems to be graft dependent as more long-term data become available. The currently available low-permeability GORE seems to have addressed the problem of endotension noted with previous designs. Cumulative data are reviewed, and the data demonstrate very low perioperative morbidity and mortality and excellent protection from aneurysm-related complications with the GORE device. Superior ease of use, excellent trackability, and rare failures requiring acute open conversion characterize the GORE device. By addressing clinical demands of aortic endografting, Gore has eclipsed other endografts in the industry to now dominate the US market. The aim of this review is to describe the history, experience, advantages, and future goals with the GORE for the treatment of AAA.

  15. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  16. Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary.

  17. Ecotoxicity of pristine graphene to marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Pretti, Carlo; Oliva, Matteo; Pietro, Roberta Di; Monni, Gianfranca; Cevasco, Giorgio; Chiellini, Federica; Pomelli, Christian; Chiappe, Cinzia

    2014-03-01

    The ecotoxicity of pristine graphene nanoparticles (GNC1, PGMF) in model marine organisms was investigated. PGMF resulted more toxic than GNC1 to the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the unicellular alga Dunaliella tertiolecta on the basis of EC50 values (end-points: inhibition of bioluminescence and growth, respectively). No acute toxicity was demonstrated with respect to the crustacean Artemia salina although light microscope images showed the presence of PGMF and GNC1 aggregates into the gut; a 48-h exposure experiment revealed an altered pattern of oxidative stress biomarkers, resulting in a significant increase of catalase activities in both PGMF and GNC1 1mg/L treated A. salina and a significant increase of glutathione peroxidase activities in PGMF (0.1 and 1mg/L) treated A. salina. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation of membranes was also observed in PGMF 1mg/L exposed A. salina. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tropical ecotoxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia cornuta.

    PubMed

    Do Hong, Lan Chi; Becker-Van Slooten, Kristin; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    The Sai Gon-Dong Nai river system in southern Vietnam is of great social and economic importance yet receives a large amount of industrial, domestic, and agricultural discharges. Toxicity assessment has started to become an issue in Vietnam, and it is important to employ a test system that is appropriate for typical Vietnamese conditions with a species that is representative of the invertebrates living in its aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to develop and to validate an ecotoxicity test with an autochthonous organism. The microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta (Cladocera) was isolated from the Sai Gon River. A protocol was developed for the culturing of the organisms, and satisfactory results were obtained for long-term reproduction of C. cornuta. Quality control criteria were established. The toxicity of two relevant pesticides (diazinon and methyl parathion) and two metals (chromium and mercury) to C. cornuta was evaluated and compared to the standard organisms for ecotoxicological testing: Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. Nonlinear regression models were applied to estimate such parameters as EC(50). The results of acute toxicity tests showed that C. cornuta was less tolerant than D. magna and V. fischeri to salinity and that C. cornuta was more sensitive than D. magna and V. fischeri to potassium dichromate, diazinon, methyl parathion, and mercury.

  19. Ecotoxicity studies of the levulinate ester series.

    PubMed

    Lomba, Laura; Muñiz, Selene; Pino, Ma Rosa; Navarro, Enrique; Giner, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    The increasing interest in the development of novel green solvents has led to the synthesis of benign alternative products with minimized environmental impacts. However, most of published studies on green solvents focus primarily on their physicochemical properties, with limited emphasis on absence of ecotoxicological assessment. In this study, we evaluated the acute ecotoxicity of four levulinates (levulinic acid, methyl levulinate, ethyl levulinate and butyl levulinate) on freshwater algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), daphnids (Daphnia magna) and earthworms (Eisenia foetida) using various dose-response tests. As a general trend, the toxicity of levulinate esters in aquatic exposure (assessed as the EC50) increased as a function of increasing alkyl chain length; accordingly, the most toxic compound for the aquatic organisms was butyl levulinate, followed by ethyl levulinate and methyl levulinate. The most toxic compound for E. foetida (terrestrial exposure) was methyl levulinate, followed by ethyl levulinate, butyl levulinate and levulinic acid; in this case, we observed an inverse relationship between toxicity and alkyl chain length. Based on both the lowest EC50 found in the aquatic media and the ratio between predicted environmental concentration and the predicted no-effect concentration, we have estimated the maximum allowable values in the environment for these chemicals to be 1.093 mg L(-1) for levulinic acid, 2.761 mg L(-1) for methyl levulinate, 0.982 mg L(-1) for ethyl levulinate and 0.151 mg L(-1) for butyl levulinate.

  20. CRED: Criteria for reporting and evaluating ecotoxicity data.

    PubMed

    Moermond, Caroline T A; Kase, Robert; Korkaric, Muris; Ågerstrand, Marlene

    2016-05-01

    Predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs) and environmental quality standards (EQSs) are derived in a large number of legal frameworks worldwide. When deriving these safe concentrations, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicity studies. Such evaluation is often subject to expert judgment, which may introduce bias and decrease consistency when risk assessors evaluate the same study. The Criteria for Reporting and Evaluating Ecotoxicity Data (CRED) project attempts to address this problem. It aims to improve the reproducibility, transparency, and consistency of reliability and relevance evaluations of aquatic ecotoxicity studies among regulatory frameworks, countries, institutes, and individual assessors. In the present study, the CRED evaluation method is presented. It includes a set of 20 reliability and 13 relevance criteria, accompanied by extensive guidance. Risk assessors who participated in the CRED ring test evaluated the CRED evaluation method to be more accurate, applicable, consistent, and transparent than the often-used Klimisch method. The CRED evaluation method is accompanied by reporting recommendations for aquatic ecotoxicity studies, with 50 specific criteria divided into 6 categories: general information, test design, test substance, test organism, exposure conditions, and statistical design and biological response. An ecotoxicity study in which all important information is reported is more likely to be considered for regulatory use, and proper reporting may also help in the peer-review process.

  1. Preliminary Ecotoxicity and Biodegradability Assessment of Metalworking Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerulová, Kristína; Amcha, Peter; Filická, Slávka

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of activated sludge from sewage treatment plant to degrade selected MWFs (ecotoxicity to bacterial consortium) and to evaluate the ecotoxicity by Lemna minor-higher plant. After evaluating the ecotoxicity, biodegradations rate with activated sludge was assessed on the basis of COD measurement. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity according to OECD 221 by Lemna minor shows effective concentration of Emulzin H at the rate of 81.6 mg l-1, for Ecocool 82.9 mg l-1, for BC 25 about 99.3 mg l-1, and for Dasnobor about 97.3 mg l-1. Preliminary study of measuring the ecotoxicity by bacterial consortium according to OECD 209 (STN EN ISO 8192) shows effective concentration of Blasocut BC 25 at the rate 227.4 mg l-1. According to OECD 302B, the biodegradations level of Emulzin H, Ecocool and BC 25 achieved 80% in 10 days. It can be stated that these MWFs have potential to ultimate degradation, but the statement has to be confirmed by a biodegradability test with other parameters than COD, which exhibits some disadvantages in testing O/W emulsions.

  2. Biodegradability and ecotoxicity of commercially available geothermal heat transfer fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Kathrin R.; Körner, Birgit; Sacher, Frank; Conrad, Rachel; Hollert, Henner; Tiehm, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available heat transfer fluids used in borehole heat exchangers were investigated for their composition, their biodegradability as well as their ecotoxicity. The main components of the fluids are organic compounds (often glycols) for freezing protection. Biodegradation of the fluids in laboratory studies caused high oxygen depletion as well as nitrate/iron(III) reduction under anaerobic conditions. Additives such as benzotriazoles for corrosion protection were persistent. Ecotoxicity data show that the commercially available fluids caused much higher ecotoxicity than their main organic constituents. Consequently, with regard to groundwater protection pure water as heat transfer medium is recommended. The second best choice is the usage of glycols without any additives. Effects on groundwater quality should be considered during ecological-economical cost-benefit-analyses of further geothermal energy strategies. The protection of groundwater as the most important drinking water resource must take priority over the energy gain from aquifers.

  3. Aquatic ecotoxicity effect of engineered aminoclay nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Go-Woon; Oh, You-Kwan; Andersen, Henrik R; Lee, Young-Chul; Huh, Yun Suk

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the short term aquatic ecotoxicity of water-solubilized aminoclay nanoparticles (ANPs) of ~51±31 nm average hydrodynamic diameter was characterized. An ecotoxicological evaluation was carried out utilizing standard test organisms of different phyla and trophic levels namely the eukaryotic microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fisheri. The effective inhibitory concentration (EC50) with 95% confidence limits for the microalga was 1.29 mg/L (0.72-1.82) for the average growth rate and 0.26 mg/L (0.23-0.31) for the cell yield. The entrapping of algal cells in aggregates of ANP may play a major role in the growth inhibition of algae P. subcapitata. No inhibition was observed for V. fisheri up to 25,000 mg/L (no observed effect concentration; NOEC). For D. magna no immobilization was observed in a limit test with 100 mg/L in 24 h while in 48 h a single animal was immobilized (5% inhibition). Correspondingly, the NOEC of ANP in 24 h was 100 mg/L and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for 48 h was 100 mg/L. Therefore it can be considered to use ANP as an algal-inhibition agent at concentrations <100 mg/L without affecting or only mildly affecting other organisms including zooplanktons, but further studies on the environmental fate and chronic toxicity of ANP is needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles using algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustov, L. M.; Abramenko, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been prepared and tested for their ecotoxicity using Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. algae as a hydrobiotic test organism and a photometric method of control. The toxicity was supposed to originate from Ag+ ions released into the aqueous solution. Also, the toxicity of the stabilizing agent was found to be comparable to that of silver nanoparticles.

  5. FOCUS AREA 4 BACKGROUND PAPER: AQUATIC ECOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In parallel with a growing literature on the presence of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in effluents and surface waters, recent years have witnessed a steady increase in published studies on the ecotoxicity of APIs to aquatic organisms. Against this background, key issu...

  6. FOCUS AREA 4 BACKGROUND PAPER: AQUATIC ECOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In parallel with a growing literature on the presence of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in effluents and surface waters, recent years have witnessed a steady increase in published studies on the ecotoxicity of APIs to aquatic organisms. Against this background, key issu...

  7. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments (ERA) has even been banned, and in other situations the numbers of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced, or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is not just based on ethical considerations but also to reduce the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases to provide better information aimed at improving ERAs. The present focus paper provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made towards alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades. The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organi

  8. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: a review.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a "substance" approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a "matrix" approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals (replacement of

  9. Ecotoxicity evaluation of a liquid detergent using the automatic biotest ECOTOX.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Ullah, Waheed; Ali, Imran; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2013-08-01

    Synthetic detergents are common pollutants reaching aquatic environments in different ways after usage at homes, institutions and industries. In this study a liquid detergent, used for dish washing, was evaluated for its toxicity during long- and short-term tests using the automatic biotest ECOTOX. Different parameters of Euglena gracilis like motility, swimming velocity, gravitactic orientation, cell compactness and cell growth were used as end points. In short-term experiments, the maximum adverse effects on motility, velocity, cell shape and gravitaxis were observed after 1 h of exposure. With further increase in exposure time to the detergent a slight recovery of these parameters was observed. In long-term experiments, the detergent caused severe disturbances to E. gracilis. Motility, cell growth and cell compactness (shape) with EC50 values of 0.064, 0.18 and 2.05 %, respectively, were found as the most sensitive parameters to detergent stress. There was a slight positive effect on gravitactic orientation at the lowest two concentrations; at higher concentrations of the detergent cells orientation was highly impaired giving EC50 values of 1.75 and 2.52 % for upward swimming and r-value, respectively.

  10. Ecotoxicity testing of microplastics: Considering the heterogeneity of physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Scott; Scherer, Christian; Wagner, Martin

    2017-05-01

    "Microplastic" is an umbrella term that covers many particle shapes, sizes, and polymer types, and as such the physical and chemical properties of environmental microplastics will differ from the primary microbeads commonly used for ecotoxicity testing. In the present article, we discuss the physical and chemical properties of microplastics that are potentially relevant to their ecotoxicity, including particle size, particle shape, crystallinity, surface chemistry, and polymer and additive composition. Overall, there is a need for a structured approach to the testing of different properties to identify which are the most relevant drivers of microplastic toxicity. In addition, the properties discussed will be influenced by and change depending on environmental conditions and degradation pathways. Future challenges include new technologies that will enter the plastic production cycle and the impact of these changes on the composition of environmental microplastics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:470-475. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Ecotoxicity and QSAR studies of glycerol ethers in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Perales, Eduardo; García, Jose Ignacio; Pires, Elisabet; Aldea, Luis; Lomba, Laura; Giner, Beatriz

    2017-09-01

    Glycerol is currently considered a raw, renewable material, which can be used to synthesize new glycerol derivatives that may be used as green solvents. However, these compounds must be environmentally evaluated before their use. The acute ecotoxicity of a series of mono-, di-, and trialkyl ethers synthesized from glycerol for the crustacean Daphnia magna has been studied. The EC50 values of these ethers after 24 h of exposure were determined according to the OECD 202 protocol. Their possible structural-toxicity relationships according to different alkyl substituents have been discussed after applying different QSAR models (with the DARC-PELCO approach and topological parameters). The results of the immobilization test show that most of the glycerol derivatives studied exhibit relatively low ecotoxicity. There is a correlation between the lipophilicity and the increase of the toxic effect in the crustacean biomodel. Furthermore, the length and the number of the alkyl substituents and ecotoxicity are highly related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic Modes of Action for Ecotoxicity: Integrated Testing Strategies for the 21st Century, presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This initiative, though focusing perhaps on individual assays at the beginning, recognizes the need for a tiered strategy for ecotoxicity tests that better integrates new techniques (models, in vitro methods, new technologies) to improve ecotoxicity testing as a whole. The reali...

  13. THE ECOTOX DATABASE AND ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVEL (ECO-SSL) WEB SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's ECOTOX database (http://www.epa.gov/ecotox/) provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic effects information. Data on more than 8100 chemicals and 5700 terrestrial and aquatic species are included in the database. Information is ...

  14. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  15. ARVO-CL: The OpenCL version of the ARVO package — An efficient tool for computing the accessible surface area and the excluded volume of proteins via analytical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buša, Ján; Hayryan, Shura; Wu, Ming-Chya; Buša, Ján; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and computing using GPUs in recent years opened possibilities for simple parallelization of programs. In this update, we present the modernized version of program ARVO [J. Buša, J. Dzurina, E. Hayryan, S. Hayryan, C.-K. Hu, J. Plavka, I. Pokorný, J. Skivánek, M.-C. Wu, Comput. Phys. Comm. 165 (2005) 59]. The whole package has been rewritten in the C language and parallelized using OpenCL. Some new tricks have been added to the algorithm in order to save memory much needed for efficient usage of graphical cards. A new tool called ‘input_structure’ was added for conversion of pdb files into files suitable for work with the C and OpenCL version of ARVO.

  16. Don't exclude students.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Colin

    2016-07-06

    I have just started applying for my first job. I use the website NHS Jobs, but students are oft en excluded by the 'pre-application questions'. These ask if I am registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council, which I'm not yet.

  17. Ecotoxicity of chlorophenolic compounds depending on soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Martí, Esther; Sierra, Jordi; Cáliz, Joan; Montserrat, Genoveva; Vila, Xavier; Garau, María Antonia; Cruañas, Robert

    2011-06-15

    Three chlorophenolic compounds (2-chlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol) were tested to assess their effects on two soils with different properties: a granitic soil (Haplic Arenosol) and a calcareous one (Calcaric Regosol). Different concentrations of the pollutants (ranging from 0.001 to 10,000 mg kg(-1) soil, d.w.) were assayed for their effects on soil microbial activity and composition, using manometric respirometry and PCR-DGGE analysis, respectively. Other ecotoxicity tests such as Lactuca sativa seedling growth in the contaminated soils and algal growth inhibition (Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata) in their water extracts were done. The behaviour of the pollutants in the soils with respect to biodegradability and volatilization was also investigated. In the Haplic Arenosol, volatilization is the main process affecting 2-chlorophenol. Degradation and fixation of this compound in the soil matrix are favored in the Calcaric Regosol. This is the least toxic pollutant assayed. For 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, the soil pH is a critical parameter in the toxicity assays due to the neutral pKa of the compound. It is toxic in the soil microbial activity assay, but some recovery of the biotic processes can be observed, particularly in the Calcaric Regosol. This compound is more toxic in the Haplic Arenosol than in the Calcaric Regosol. Pentachlorophenol is ionized in both soils due to its low pKa, increasing its water solubility. It is highly toxic to the soil microbiota, thus inhibiting respiration, biodegradation and other biotic dissipation processes. Plant and alga tests, were more sensitive than soil microbial tests, except for PCP. The microbial populations tend to show changes at lower concentrations than the microbial activity. Some soil types (abundant in the Mediterranean area), with alkaline pH and fine textures could show higher level of ecotoxicity for ionizable organic pollutants than the soil type recommended by the OECD in ecotoxicity

  18. Key challenges for nanotechnology: Standardization of ecotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Mendoza, Gemma

    2017-04-03

    Nanotechnology is expected to contribute to the protection of the environment, but many uncertainties exist regarding the environmental and human implications of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). Contradictory results have been reported for their ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms, which constitute one of the most important pathways for their entrance and transfer throughout the food web. The present review is focused on the international strategies that are laying the foundations of the ecotoxicological assessment of MNMs. Specific advice is provided on the preparation of MNM dispersions in the culture media of the organisms, which is considered a key factor to overcome the limitations in the standardization of the test methodologies.

  19. Bioventing remediation and ecotoxicity evaluation of phenanthrene-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    García Frutos, F Javier; Escolano, Olga; García, Susana; Babín, Mar; Fernández, M Dolores

    2010-11-15

    The objectives of soil remediation processes are usually based on threshold levels of soil contaminants. However, during remediation processes, changes in bioavailability and metabolite production can occur, making it necessary to incorporate an ecotoxicity assessment to estimate the risk to ecological receptors. The evolution of contaminants and soil ecotoxicity of artificially phenanthrene-contaminated soil (1000 mg/kg soil) during soil treatment through bioventing was studied in this work. Bioventing was performed in glass columns containing 5.5 kg of phenanthrene-contaminated soil and uncontaminated natural soil over a period of 7 months. Optimum conditions of mineralisation (humidity=60% WHC; C/N/P=100:20:1) were determined in a previous work. The evolution of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, phenanthrene concentration and soil toxicity were studied on sacrificed columns at periods of 0, 3 and 7 months. Toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms was determined using a multispecies system in the soil columns (MS-3). In the optimal bioventing treatability test, we obtained a reduction rate in phenanthrene concentration higher that 93% after 7 months of treatment. The residual toxicity obtained at the end of the treatment was not attributed to the low phenanthrene concentration, but to the ammonia used to restore the optimal C/N ratio. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tamoxifen ecotoxicity and resulting risks for aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Durrieu, Claude; Aubrat, Marion; Hombert, Thibault; Wigh, Adriana; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Tamoxifen, a drug used to treat cancer, is regularly found in hydrosystems at concentrations of several hundred ng L(-1). To characterize its ecotoxicity, we implemented a battery of bioassays on organisms belonging to 3 different trophic levels: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for primary producers, Daphnia magna (immobilization, grazing and reproduction) for primary consumers, and Danio rerio for secondary consumers (embryotoxicity test). In view of the results obtained and the ecotoxicity values of tamoxifen available in the literature, we established a PNEC (Predictive No Effect Concentration) equal to 81 ng L(-1) for continental water. This PNEC allowed us to calculate Risk Quotients (RQ) for 4 continental hydrosystems in 4 different countries in which measures of tamoxifen had already been performed on surface waters. In two of the situations studied, RQs were higher than 1, reaching a maximum of 2.6. These results show the need to deepen the characterization of ecotoxicological risks linked to the discharge of tamoxifen in surface waters. In addition, we propose applying this approach to other drug residues detected in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of pollutants with bioluminescent microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; González-Pleiter, Miguel; Angeles Muñoz-Martín, M

    2014-01-01

    This chapter deals with the use of bioluminescent microorganisms in environmental monitoring, particularly in the assessment of the ecotoxicity of pollutants. Toxicity bioassays based on bioluminescent microorganisms are an interesting complement to classical toxicity assays, providing easiness of use, rapid response, mass production, and cost effectiveness. A description of the characteristics and main environmental applications in ecotoxicity testing of naturally bioluminescent microorganisms, covering bacteria and eukaryotes such as fungi and dinoglagellates, is reported in this chapter. The main features and applications of a wide variety of recombinant bioluminescent microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, are also summarized and critically considered. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models and hormesis are two important concepts in ecotoxicology; bioluminescent microorganisms have played a pivotal role in their development. As pollutants usually occur in complex mixtures in the environment, the use of both natural and recombinant bioluminescent microorganisms to assess mixture toxicity has been discussed. The main information has been summarized in tables, allowing quick consultation of the variety of luminescent organisms, bioluminescence gene systems, commercially available bioluminescent tests, environmental applications, and relevant references.

  2. Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris--a useful tool in hazardous effluents management.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aurora; Figueiredo, Sónia A; Sales, M Goreti; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2009-08-15

    The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removed by chemical treatments. A reduction of ecotoxicity was achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high level of ecotoxicity. For chloride determination wastewaters, an efficient reduction of chromium and silver was achieved after treatment. Regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity observed, EC50 increased from 0.059% to 0.5%, only a 0.02% concentration in the aquatic environment would guarantee no effects. Wastewaters containing phenanthroline/iron (II) complex were treated by chemical oxidation. Treatment was satisfactory concerning chemical parameters, although an increase in ecotoxicity was observed (EC50 reduced from 0.31% to 0.21%). The wastes from the kinetic study of persulphate and iodide reaction were treated with sodium bisulphite until colour was removed. Although they did not reveal significant ecotoxicity, only over 1% of the untreated waste produced observable effects over algae. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests could be considered a useful tool not only in laboratory effluents treatment, as shown, but also in hazardous wastewaters management.

  3. New perspectives on nanomaterial aquatic ecotoxicity: production impacts exceed direct exposure impacts for carbon nanotoubes.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Mauter, Meagan S; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-03-06

    Environmental impacts due to engineered nanomaterials arise both from releases of the nanomaterials themselves as well as from their synthesis. In this work, we employ the USEtox model to quantify and compare aquatic ecotoxicity impacts over the life cycle of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). USEtox is an integrated multimedia fate, transport, and toxicity model covering large classes of organic and inorganic substances. This work evaluates the impacts of non-CNT emissions from three methods of synthesis (arc ablation, CVD, and HiPco), and compares these to the modeled ecotoxicity of CNTs released to the environment. Parameters for evaluating CNT ecotoxicity are bounded by a highly conservative "worst case" scenario and a "realistic" scenario that draws from existing literature on CNT fate, transport, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that the ecotoxicity impacts of nanomaterial production processes are roughly equivalent to the ecotoxicity of CNT releases under the unrealistic worst case scenario, while exceeding the results of the realistic scenario by 3 orders of magnitude. Ecotoxicity from production processes is dominated by emissions of metals from electricity generation. Uncertainty exists for both production and release stages, and is modeled using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and scenario analysis. The results of this analysis underscore the contributions of existing work on CNT fate and transport, as well as the importance of life cycle considerations in allocating time and resources toward research on mitigating the impacts of novel materials.

  4. Development of an ecotoxicity QSAR model for the KAshinhou Tool for Ecotoxicity (KATE) system, March 2009 version

    PubMed Central

    Furuhama, A.; Toida, T.; Nishikawa, N.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshioka, Y.; Shiraishi, H.

    2010-01-01

    The KAshinhou Tool for Ecotoxicity (KATE) system, including ecotoxicity quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models, was developed by the Japanese National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) using the database of aquatic toxicity results gathered by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment and the US EPA fathead minnow database. In this system chemicals can be entered according to their one-dimensional structures and classified by substructure. The QSAR equations for predicting the toxicity of a chemical compound assume a linear correlation between its log P value and its aquatic toxicity. KATE uses a structural domain called C-judgement, defined by the substructures of specified functional groups in the QSAR models. Internal validation by the leave-one-out method confirms that the QSAR equations, with r2>0.7, RMSE ≤0.5, and n>5, give acceptable q2 values. Such external validation indicates that a group of chemicals with an in-domain of KATE C-judgements exhibits a lower root mean square error (RMSE). These findings demonstrate that the KATE system has the potential to enable chemicals to be categorised as potential hazards. PMID:20818579

  5. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph (g...

  6. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph (g...

  7. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph (g...

  8. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  9. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  10. Ecotoxicity assessment using ciliate cells in millifluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Rico; Burkart, Corinna; Pfitzner, Daniel; Jungmann, Dirk; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-01-01

    Precise analysis of the aquatic cells and their responses to the toxic chemicals, i.e., water disinfective agents, is of crucial importance due to their role in the ecosystem. We demonstrate the application of the droplets based millifluidic tool for isolating and longtime monitoring of single Paramecium tetraurelia cells using a large number of water-in-oil emulsion droplets. Due to the automated monitoring of the fluorescence signal, the droplets containing cells are distinguished from the empty reservoirs. A viability indicator is used to follow the metabolic dynamic of the cells in every single droplet. Finally, we perform ecotoxicity tests in droplets, exposing the encapsulated paramecia cells to silver nitrate for determination of EC50 levels, and compare the output with the conventional microtiter plate assay. PMID:27051472

  11. Ecotoxicity of biocomposites based on renewable feedstock - preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Rudnik, E; Milanov, N; Matuschek, G; Kettrup, A

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the work was to study the biodegradation process of biocomposites prepared from renewable resources and the ecotoxicological assessment of their biodegradation products. Biocomposites from modified starch reinforced with various cellulose fibers were prepared by the extrusion process. Biodegradation studies were carried out according to the ISO respirometic method. Ecotoxicity of biodegradation products was assessed by the luminescent bacteria test. It was found that biodegradation of biocomposites was above 60% within 24 days according to the results of respirometric test. Increase in the amount of natural fiber reinforcement, as well as smaller fiber size increased the biodegradability of biocomposites. On the basis of the preliminary results of the ecotoxicological test using luminescent bacteria it seems that the biodegradation products of the biocomposites studied are ecologically safe.

  12. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EPA MED-DULUTH'S ECOTOX AND ECO-SSL WEB APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology Database) system developed by the USEPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN (MED-Duluth), provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic...

  14. Excluding interlopers from asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovic, B.; Radovic, V.

    2014-07-01

    from AstDys database. Next, all family members that do not meet adopted criteria (based on physical and spectral characteristics) are excluded from the initial catalogue. Finally, the HCM analysis is performed again using the improved catalogue. Results: We apply this approach to the Themis family. In the first step the HCM links 3061 asteroids to the family. Among them we identify 113 potential interlopers. After removing interlopers, in the second run of the HCM, the total number of members has decreased to 2847. Thus, 101 extra objects have been excluded from the membership list (see Figure).

  15. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12....

  16. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law subject...

  17. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law subject...

  18. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law subject...

  19. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law subject...

  20. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law subject...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ...

  5. Ion-release kinetics and ecotoxicity effects of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Ju; Kim, Jiwon; Oh, Jeehyun; Bae, Sujin; Lee, Sungkyu; Hong, In Seok; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    The environmental toxicity associated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been a major focus in nanotoxicology. The Ag(+) released from AgNPs may affect ecotoxicity, although whether the major toxic effect is governed by Ag(+) ions or by AgNPs themselves is unclear. In the present study, we have examined the ecotoxicity of AgNPs in aquatic organisms, silver ion-release kinetics of AgNPs, and their relationship. The 48-h median effective concentration (EC50) values for Daphnia magna of powder-type AgNP suspensions were 0.75 µg/L (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.71-0.78) total Ag and 0.37 µg/L (95% CI = 0.36-0.38) dissolved Ag. For sol-type AgNP suspension, the 48-h EC50 values for D. magna were 7.98 µg/L (95% CI = 7.04-9.03) total Ag and 0.88 µg/L (95% CI = 0.80-0.97) dissolved Ag. The EC50 values for the dissolved Ag of powder-type and sol-type AgNPs for D. magna showed similar results (0.37 µg/L and 0.88 µg/L) despite their differences of EC50 values in total Ag. We observed that the first-order rate constant (k) of Ag(+) ions released from AgNPs was 0.0734/h at 0.05 mg/L total Ag at 22°C within 6 h. The kinetic experiments and the toxicity test showed that 36% and 11% of sol-type AgNPs were converted to the Ag(+) ion form under oxidation conditions, respectively. Powder-type AgNPs showed 49% conversion rate of Ag(+) ion from AgNPs. We also confirmed that Ag(+) ion concentration in AgNP suspension reaches an equilibrium concentration after 48 h, which is an exposure time of the acute aquatic toxicity test.

  6. Bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenic species in solution culture and soil system: implications to remediation.

    PubMed

    Bolan, Nanthi; Mahimairaja, Santiago; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Seshadri, Balaji; Thangarajan, Ramya

    2015-06-01

    In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture and soil system. Firstly, the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was compared using a number of non-allophanic and allophanic soils. Secondly, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were examined using germination, phytoavailability, earthworm, and soil microbial activity tests. Both As-spiked soils and As-contaminated sheep dip soils were used to test bioavailability and ecotoxicity. The sheep dip soil which contained predominantly As(V) species was subject to flooding to reduce As(V) to As(III) and then used along with the control treatment soil to compare the bioavailability between As species. Adsorption of As(V) was much higher than that of As(III), and the difference in adsorption between these two species was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. In the solution culture, there was no significant difference in bioavailability and ecotoxicity, as measured by germination and phytoavailability tests, between these two As species. Whereas in the As-spiked soils, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were higher for As(III) than As(V), and the difference was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. Bioavailability of As increased with the flooding of the sheep dip soils which may be attributed to the reduction of As(V) to As(III) species. The results in this study have demonstrated that while in solution, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity do not vary between As(III) and As(V), in soils, the latter species is less bioavailable than the former species because As(V) is more strongly retained than As(III). Since the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of As depend on the nature of As species present in the environment, risk-based remediation approach should aim at controlling the dynamics of As transformation.

  7. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquatic concentrations of chemical analytes compared to ecotoxicity estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kostich, Mitchell S.; Flick, Robert W.; Angela L. Batt,; Mash, Heath E.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe screening level estimates of potential aquatic toxicity posed by 227 chemical analytes that were measured in 25 ambient water samples collected as part of a joint USGS/USEPA drinking water plant study. Measured concentrations were compared to biological effect concentration (EC) estimates, including USEPA aquatic life criteria, effective plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals, published toxicity data summarized in the USEPA ECOTOX database, and chemical structure-based predictions. Potential dietary exposures were estimated using a generic 3-tiered food web accumulation scenario. For many analytes, few or no measured effect data were found, and for some analytes, reporting limits exceeded EC estimates, limiting the scope of conclusions. Results suggest occasional occurrence above ECs for copper, aluminum, strontium, lead, uranium, and nitrate. Sparse effect data for manganese, antimony, and vanadium suggest that these analytes may occur above ECs, but additional effect data would be desirable to corroborate EC estimates. These conclusions were not affected by bioaccumulation estimates. No organic analyte concentrations were found to exceed EC estimates, but ten analytes had concentrations in excess of 1/10th of their respective EC: triclocarban, norverapamil, progesterone, atrazine, metolachlor, triclosan, para-nonylphenol, ibuprofen, venlafaxine, and amitriptyline, suggesting more detailed characterization of these analytes.

  9. Ecotoxicity of climbazole, a fungicide contained in antidandruff shampoo.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elisabeth; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A; Coors, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Emerging pollutants such as personal care products can reach the environment via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and digested sludge. Only recently, the antidandruff agent and antimycotic climbazole was detected for the first time in a WWTP effluent with concentrations up to 0.5 µg/L. Climbazole acts as a C14-demethylase inhibitor (DMI) fungicide and thus has a high efficacy against fungi, but knowledge of its potential environmental impact is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize climbazole's ecotoxicity by conducting standard biotests with organisms representing different trophic levels from the aquatic as well as the terrestrial ecosystems. It was found that the toxicity of climbazole is mostly similar to that of other DMI fungicides, whereas it proved to be particularly toxic to primary producers. The lowest median effective concentrations (EC50s) were determined for Lemna minor, at 0.013 mg/L (biomass yield), and Avena sativa, at 18.5 mg/kg soil dry weight (shoot biomass). Reduction of frond size in water lentils and shoot length in higher plants suggested an additional plant growth-retarding mode of action of climbazole. In addition, it was demonstrated here that for an ionizable compound such as climbazole, the soil pH can have a considerable influence on phytotoxicity.

  10. Interest of dynamic tests in acute ecotoxicity assessment in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Jouany, J.M.; Ferard, J.F.; Vasseur, P.; Gea, J.; Truhaut, R.; Rast, C.

    1983-04-01

    Sorption of toxics by algae may be important and occurs very early. Thus, a decrease of the experimental toxic concentrations in the medium results in understating toxicity when tests are conducted under static conditions. In this work, two different methods of exposure of algae (Chlorella vulgaris) are studied, the static test and the pseudodynamic test. Acute effects (biological and analytical effects) of inorganic compounds (Cu/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 6 +/) have been evaluated for 96 hr of exposure; in each case, IC50 is much lower in the dynamic condition than in the static one. The percentage of reduction varies from 55 to 75% after 96 hr. Accumulation of metal by chlorellae is greater when testing by the pseudodynamic way, with Cu/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/. But in the case of Cd/sup 2 +/ and Cr/sup 6 +/, the concentration factors are similar in the two kinds of exposure. These results point out the advantage of the pseudodynamic test, of which the methodology is very easy, for a more realistic assessment of acute ecotoxicity in these organisms.

  11. Aquatic concentrations of chemical analytes compared to ecotoxicity estimates.

    PubMed

    Kostich, Mitchell S; Flick, Robert W; Batt, Angela L; Mash, Heath E; Boone, J Scott; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Glassmeyer, Susan T

    2017-02-01

    We describe screening level estimates of potential aquatic toxicity posed by 227 chemical analytes that were measured in 25 ambient water samples collected as part of a joint USGS/USEPA drinking water plant study. Measured concentrations were compared to biological effect concentration (EC) estimates, including USEPA aquatic life criteria, effective plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals, published toxicity data summarized in the USEPA ECOTOX database, and chemical structure-based predictions. Potential dietary exposures were estimated using a generic 3-tiered food web accumulation scenario. For many analytes, few or no measured effect data were found, and for some analytes, reporting limits exceeded EC estimates, limiting the scope of conclusions. Results suggest occasional occurrence above ECs for copper, aluminum, strontium, lead, uranium, and nitrate. Sparse effect data for manganese, antimony, and vanadium suggest that these analytes may occur above ECs, but additional effect data would be desirable to corroborate EC estimates. These conclusions were not affected by bioaccumulation estimates. No organic analyte concentrations were found to exceed EC estimates, but ten analytes had concentrations in excess of 1/10th of their respective EC: triclocarban, norverapamil, progesterone, atrazine, metolachlor, triclosan, para-nonylphenol, ibuprofen, venlafaxine, and amitriptyline, suggesting more detailed characterization of these analytes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification.

  13. Leaching behaviour and ecotoxicity evaluation of chars from the pyrolysis of forestry biomass and polymeric materials.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, M; Mendes, S; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Lopes, H

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental risk of chars derived from the pyrolysis of mixtures of pine, plastics, and scrap tires, by studying their leaching potential and ecotoxicity. Relationships between chemical composition and ecotoxicity were established to identify contaminants responsible for toxicity. Since metallic contaminants were the focus of the present study, an EDTA washing step was applied to the chars to selectively remove metals that can be responsible for the observed toxicity. The results indicated that the introduction of biomass to the pyrolysis feedstock enhanced the acidity of chars and promote the mobilisation of inorganic compounds. Chars resulting from the pyrolysis of blends of pine and plastics did not produce ecotoxic eluates. A relationship between zinc concentrations in eluates and their ecotoxicity was found for chars obtained from mixtures with tires. A significant reduction in ecotoxicity was found when the chars were treated with EDTA, which was due to a significant reduction in zinc in chars after EDTA washing.

  14. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive.

  15. [Influence of dissolved organic matter on the eco-toxicity of phenanthrene in a soil].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin-hua; Wan, Yin-jing; Zhou, Li-xiang

    2004-05-01

    Biological and physico-chemistry experiments were conducted to study the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on eco-toxicity of phenanthrene in a soil. The results showed that DOM was a kind of surfactant. The sensitive range of phe inhibiting wheat root elongation was from 0 to 200 mg/kg, and median inhibition concentration (IC50) was 200 mg/kg. In the presence of DOM, the eco-toxicity of phe could be alleviated and the inhabited degree was related to the content of hydrophobic components and surface activity. This effect could be strengthened by the high concentration of DOM. As a kind of hydrophobic organic compound, phe could reduce the moisture of topsoil, and DOM would slightly increase the moisture of topsoil polluted by phe. It was concluded that DOM could lighten the eco-toxicity of phe in soil.

  16. Computational ecotoxicology: simultaneous prediction of ecotoxic effects of nanoparticles under different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; González-Díaz, Humberto; Ruso, Juan M; Melo, André; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2014-12-01

    Nanotechnology has brought great advances to many fields of modern science. A manifold of applications of nanoparticles have been found due to their interesting optical, electrical, and biological/chemical properties. However, the potential toxic effects of nanoparticles to different ecosystems are of special concern nowadays. Despite the efforts of the scientific community, the mechanisms of toxicity of nanoparticles are still poorly understood. Quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) models have just started being useful computational tools for the assessment of toxic effects of nanomaterials. But most QSAR/QSTR models have been applied so far to predict ecotoxicity against only one organism/bio-indicator such as Daphnia magna. This prevents having a deeper knowledge about the real ecotoxic effects of nanoparticles, and consequently, there is no possibility to establish an efficient risk assessment of nanomaterials in the environment. In this work, a perturbation model for nano-QSAR problems is introduced with the aim of simultaneously predicting the ecotoxicity of different nanoparticles against several assay organisms (bio-indicators), by considering also multiple measures of ecotoxicity, as well as the chemical compositions, sizes, conditions under which the sizes were measured, shapes, and the time during which the diverse assay organisms were exposed to nanoparticles. The QSAR-perturbation model was derived from a database containing 5520 cases (nanoparticle-nanoparticle pairs), and it was shown to exhibit accuracies of ca. 99% in both training and prediction sets. In order to demonstrate the practical applicability of our model, three different nickel-based nanoparticles (Ni) with experimental values reported in the literature were predicted. The predictions were found to be in very good agreement with the experimental evidences, confirming that Ni-nanoparticles are not ecotoxic when compared with other nanoparticles. The results

  17. Ecotoxicity of cyanide complexes in industrially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Manar, Rachid; Bonnard, Marc; Rast, Claudine; Veber, Anne-Marie; Vasseur, Paule

    2011-12-15

    This study deals with acute and chronic ecotoxicity of leachates from industrially contaminated soils. Analyses focused on cyanides (complex and free forms) to study their possible involvement in leachates toxicity. No acute toxicity on the Microtox and 48 h-Daphnia magna tests was found in leachates collected over 18 months, but a high chronic toxicity was recorded on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50-7d=0.31±0.07%) and on the algal growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (EC50-72 h=0.27±0.09%). Ceriodaphnids were as sensitive to free cyanide as to complex forms (EC50-7d as CN(-)=98 μg/L, 194 μg/L and 216 μg/L for KCN, Fe(CN)(6)K(3) and Fe(CN)(6)K(4), respectively). The EC50-72 h of KCN to P. subcapitata (116 μg/L) as CN(-) was also of the same level as the EC50-72 h of potassium ferricyanide (127 μg/L) and ferrocyanide (267 μg/L). Complex cyanides explained a major part of the toxicity of leachates of the soil. On the other hand, cyanide complexes had no effect on survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida up to 131 mg CN(-)/kg, while potassium cyanide was highly toxic [EC50-14 d as CN(-)=74 μg/kg soil]. Thermodesorption treatment eliminated a majority of cyanides from the soil and generated much less toxic leachates. Complex cyanides must be integrated into environmental studies to assess the impact of multi-contaminated soils.

  18. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ecotoxicity data for developing soil quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Sverdrup, Line E

    2003-01-01

    With the overall perspective of calculating soil quality criteria (SQC) for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the existing ecotoxicity data for the soil compartment have been reviewed. The majority of data useful in the context of deriving SQC are of recent origin. Soil quality criteria are considered valuable tools for assessing the environmental risk of contamination, as they may give guidance on concentration limits for various chemicals to protect the function and structure of ecosystems. Soil quality criteria for soil-dwelling species were calculated using various assumptions and two internationally accepted methods, i.e., application of assessment factors and species sensitivity distributions, respectively. It was suggested to derive ecotoxicological soil quality criteria, which focus on the lower molecular weight PAHs, i.e., those with log Kow values lower than 5.5 or 6; this is the log Kow range where a cutoff in toxicity for terrestrial species is expected for narcotic substances. Predicted values from the two methods were similar. Calculations showed that, for four individual PAHs of three or four rings, SQC fall in the range of 1.0 and 2.5 mg kg(-1). However, as no individual PAH is fond alone it is suggested to use a sum criterion for a group of PAHs instead. The different possibilities to calculate such a sum criterion are discussed. Based on toxicity data presented here and the average abundance of different PAHs in nearly 1000 Danish soil samples, an ecotoxicological soil quality criterion of 25 mg kg(-1) dry weight for the sum of the eight PAHs acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene is suggested.

  20. Ecotoxicity and analysis of nanomaterials in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Farré, Marinella; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Kantiani, Lina; Barceló, Damià

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a major innovative scientific and economic growth area. However nanomaterial residues may have a detrimental effect on human health and the environment. To date there is a lack of quantitative ecotoxicity data, and recently there has been great scientific concern about the possible adverse effects that may be associated with manufactured nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are in the 1- to 100-nm size range and can be composed of many different base materials (carbon, silicon and metals, such as gold, cadmium and selenium) and they have different shapes. Particles in the nanometer size range do occur both in nature and as a result of existing industrial processes. Nevertheless, new engineered nanomaterials and nanostructures are different because they are being fabricated from the "bottom up". Nanomaterial properties differ compared with those of the parent compounds because about 40-50% of the atoms in nanoparticles (NPs) are on the surface, resulting in greater reactivity than bulk materials. Therefore, it is expected that NPs will have different biological effects than parent compounds. In addition, release of manufactured NPs into the aquatic environment is largely an unknown. The surface properties and the very small size of NPs and nanotubes provide surfaces that may bind and transport toxic chemical pollutants, as well as possibly being toxic in their own right by generating reactive radicals. This review addresses hazards associated and ecotoxicological data on nanomaterials in the aquatic environment. Main weaknesses in ecotoxicological approaches, controversies and future needs are discussed. A brief discussion on the scarce number of analytical methods available to determinate nanomaterials in environmental samples is included.

  1. Ecotoxicity of selected nano-materials to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Férard, J F; Eullaffroy, P

    2008-10-01

    Present knowledge concerning the ecotoxic effects of nano-materials is very limited and merits to be documented more fully. For this purpose, we appraised the toxicity of nine metallic nano-powders (copper zinc iron oxide, nickel zinc iron oxide, yttrium iron oxide, titanium dioxide, strontium ferrite, indium tin oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, and holmium oxide) and of two organic nano- powders (fullerene-C60 and single-walled carbon nanotube or SWCNT). After a simple process where nano-powders (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution and filtered, they were then bioassayed across several taxonomic groups including decomposers (bacteria), primary producers (micro-algae), as well as primary and secondary consumers (micro-invertebrates and fish). Toxicity data generated on the 11 NPs reflected a wide spectrum of sensitivity that was biological level-, test-, and endpoint-specific. With all acute and chronic tests confounded for these 11 NPs, toxicity responses spanned over three orders of magnitude: >463 mg/L (24 h LC50 of the invertebrate Thamnoplatyurus platyurus for fullerene-C60) / 0.3 mg/L (96 h EC50 of the invertebrate Hydra attenuata for indium tin oxide), that is a ratio of 1543. On the basis of the MARA (Microbial Array for Risk Assessment) assay toxic fingerprint concept, it is intimated that NPs may have different modes of toxic action. When mixed in a 1:1 ratio with a certified reference material (CRM) sediment, two solid phase assays and an elutriate assay, respectively, showed that five NPs (copper zinc iron oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, holmium oxide, and SWCNT) were able to increase both CRM sediment toxicity and its elutriate toxicity. This initial investigation suggests that chemicals emerging from nanotechnology may pose a risk to aquatic life in water column and sediment compartments and that further studies on their adverse effects are to be encouraged.

  2. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of new brominated flame retardants: a review.

    PubMed

    Ezechiáš, M; Covino, S; Cajthaml, T

    2014-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been routinely used as additives in a number of consumer products for several decades in order to reduce the risk of fire accidents. Concerns about the massive use of these substances have increased due to their possible toxicity, endocrine disrupting properties and occurrence in almost all the environmental compartments, including humans and wildlife organisms. Several conventional BFRs (e.g. polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE)) have been included in the list of Persistent Organic Pollutants and their use has been restricted because of their established toxicity and environmental persistence. Over the past few years, these compounds have been replaced with "new" BFRs (NBFRs). Despite the fact that NBFRs are different chemical molecules than traditional BFRs, most of physical-chemical properties (e.g. aromatic moiety, halogen substitution, lipophilic character) are common to both groups; therefore, their fate in the environment is potentially similar to the banned BFRs. Therefore, this article has been compiled to summarize the published scientific data regarding the biodegradability of the most widely used NBFRs, a key factor in their potential persistency in the environment, and their ecotoxicological effects on humans and test organisms. The data reviewed here document that the mechanisms through NBFRs exibit their ecotoxicity and the processes leading to their biotransformation in the environment are still poorly understood. Thus emphasis is placed on the need for further research in these areas is therefore emphasized, in order to avoid the massive use of further potentially harmful and recalcitrant substances of anthropogenic origin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 32 CFR 716.8 - Payments excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payments excluded. 716.8 Section 716.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.8 Payments excluded. (a) No payment shall be made if...

  4. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... residing in his or her home (for example, cooking, shopping, Meals on Wheels, cleaning, laundry) are... HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.49 Excluded services. (a) Drugs and biologicals. Drugs and biologicals are excluded from payment under the Medicare home...

  5. 24 CFR 242.53 - Excluded contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... construction of the project shall not be made with any person or entity that has been excluded from... construction manager (or any firm, corporation, partnership, or association in which such contractor... excluded parties maintained by HUD. (b) Contracts relating to the construction of the project shall not...

  6. How Many Pupils Are Being Excluded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the problem of British children permanently excluded from school, especially those excluded "unofficially" usually for behavioral difficulties. The article presents evidence of the incidence of unofficial exclusions, schools' options for dealing with exclusions, possible consequences of exclusions, and possible…

  7. 24 CFR 242.53 - Excluded contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded contractors. 242.53... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.53 Excluded contractors. (a) Contracts relating to the... participation in federal programs, including but not limited to: A general contractor, a subcontractor,...

  8. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  9. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  10. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.08 Excluded transactions. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  11. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.08 Excluded transactions. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  12. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.08 Excluded transactions. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  13. 40 CFR 1037.5 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excluded vehicles. 1037.5 Section 1037... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Overview and Applicability § 1037.5 Excluded vehicles. Except for the definitions specified in § 1037.801, this part does not apply to the...

  14. 40 CFR 1037.5 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excluded vehicles. 1037.5 Section 1037... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Overview and Applicability § 1037.5 Excluded vehicles. Except for the definitions specified in § 1037.801, this part does not apply to the...

  15. 40 CFR 1037.5 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excluded vehicles. 1037.5 Section 1037... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Overview and Applicability § 1037.5 Excluded vehicles. Except for the definitions specified in § 1037.801, this part does not apply to the...

  16. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  17. Exploring REACH as a potential data source for characterizing ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nienke; de Zwart, Dick; Hauschild, Michael; Kijko, Gaël; Fantke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Toxicity models in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) currently only characterize a small fraction of marketed substances, mostly because of limitations in the underlying ecotoxicity data. One approach to improve the current data situation in LCIA is to identify new data sources, such as the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) database. The present study explored REACH as a potential data source for LCIA based on matching reported ecotoxicity data for substances that are currently also included in the United Nations Environment Programme/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) scientific consensus model USEtox for characterizing toxicity impacts. Data are evaluated with respect to number of data points, reported reliability, and test duration, and are compared with data listed in USEtox at the level of hazardous concentration for 50% of the covered species per substance. The results emphasize differences between data available via REACH and in USEtox. The comparison of ecotoxicity data from REACH and USEtox shows potential for using REACH ecotoxicity data in LCIA toxicity characterization, but also highlights issues related to compliance of submitted data with REACH requirements as well as different assumptions underlying regulatory risk assessment under REACH versus data needed for LCIA. Thus, further research is required to address data quality, pre-processing, and applicability, before considering data submitted under REACH as a data source for use in LCIA, and also to explore additionally available data sources, published studies, and reports. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:492-500. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Estimation of ecotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in soil based on HPLC-GCXGC analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-12-01

    Detailed HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) analysis of oil-contaminated soils was performed to interpret results of selected acute ecotoxicity assays. For the five ecotoxicity assays tested, plant seed germination and Microtox were selected as most sensitive for evaluating ecotoxicity of the oil in the soil phase and in the leaching water, respectively. The measured toxicity for cress when testing the soil samples did not correspond to TPH concentration in the soil. A detailed chemical composition analysis of the oil contamination using HPLC-GCXGC/FID allows to better predict the ecotoxicological risk and leaching potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Cress biomass production per plant was well correlated to the total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration (R2=0.79, n=6), while cress seed germination was correlated (R2=0.82, n=6) with total concentration of "highly water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons" (HSaromatics). The observed ecotoxicity of the leaching water for Microtox-bacteria related well to calculated (based on the HPLC-GCXGC/FID results) petroleum hydrocarbon equilibrium concentrations in water.

  19. Ecotoxicity and chemical sediment data classification by the use of self-organising maps.

    PubMed

    Tsakovski, Stefan; Kudlak, Blazej; Simeonov, Vasil; Wolska, Lidia; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2009-01-12

    The present paper deals with the presentation in a new interpretation of sediment quality assessment. This original approach studies the relationship between ecotoxicity parameters (acute and chronic toxicity) and chemical components (polluting species like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy metals) of lake sediments samples from Turawa Lake, Poland by an application of self-organising maps (SOMs) to the monitoring dataset (59 samplesx44 parameters) in order to obtain visual images of the components distributed at each sampling site when all components are included in the classification and data projection procedure. From the SOMs obtained, it is possible to select groups of similar ecotoxicity (either acute or chronic) and to analyse within each one of them the relationship of the other chemicals to the toxicity determining parameters (EC(50) and mortality). Studies have shown, convincingly, that different regions from the Turawa Lake bottom indicate different patterns of ecotoxicity related to various chemical pollutants, such as the "heptachlor-B" pattern, "pesticide and PAH" pattern, "structural" pattern or "PCB congeners" pattern. Thus, an easy way of multivariate analysis of small datasets with ecotoxicity parameters involved becomes possible. Additionally, a distinction between the effects of pollution on acute and chronic toxicity seems reasonable.

  20. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Verification of Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring(SEA Ring)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the verification is to test the efficacy and ability of the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring) to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants in the sediment, at the sediment-water interface, and WC to organisms that live in those respective environments.

  1. ECOTOX (ECOTOXICOLOGY DATABASE): AN ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology Database) system developed by the U.S. EPA, National Health and Environmental Effecrs Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN, (MED-Duluth), provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial t...

  2. The excluded player in coalition formation.

    PubMed

    van Beest, Ilja; Wilke, Henk; van Dijk, Eric

    2003-02-01

    Coalition research generally assumes that people strive to maximize their share of the coalition payoff and that they exclude others from joining a coalition if these others are not needed to obtain the coalition payoff. In two experiments, the authors show that this view is too narrow and that willingness to include such others is dependent on the extent to which people feel that exclusion affects the payoff of the excluded player. This finding was moderated by social value orientations. Proselfs were not affected by the consequences for the excluded players. Prosocials were less willing to exclude others the more harmful were the consequences of exclusion. Results are related to research on social exclusion, the do-no-harm principle, and social value orientations.

  3. Chemical and ecotoxicity evaluation of tailings rehabilitated using Technosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arán, Diego; Santos, Erika S.; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe

    2017-04-01

    The Fé mining area was the most important uranium deposit in Spain. In this deposit, the uranium mineralization contains sulfides. Consequently, tailings are a source of polymetallic contamination requiring their rehabilitation in order to decrease the dispersion of potentially hazardous elements (PHEs). The main objective of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of a Technosol application on the rehabilitation of these tailings at chemical and ecotoxicological level. In the field, a layer of 20 cm Technosol with andic and eutrophic characteristic was applied over the tailing (total area: 625 m2). After 20 months, composite samples of Technosol (TEC), recovered tailing (bottom of the Technosol, RT) and tailings without recuperation (T) were collected. These samples were characterized for pH, electric conductivity (EC), PHEs concentration in total fraction and available fraction extracted with rhizosphere-based method. Ecotoxicity bioassays were carried out with two species, Lollium perenne and Trifolium pratense following OECD Guidelines. Three bioassays were carried out: filter paper test and hydroponic test with leachates, and soil test. In leachates (extracted with DIN method) were determined pH, EC and same PHEs than in Technosol/Tailings. Visual aspects, germination, root and shoot elongation and dry biomass were evaluated. The substrate effect on growth of both species was evaluated in pot experiment (500 g Technosol/Tailings per pot, 70% of water-holding capacity) under greenhouse conditions after 69 days by dry shoot biomass. Materials from T had pH 4, EC: 1.2 mS/cm and high total concentrations of several PHEs (g/kg; Al: 46.2; As, Co and Pb: 0.02-0.03; Cu: 0.04; Fe: 63.2 Mn: 1.3; Ni and Zn: 0.1-0.2). However, PHEs concentrations in leachates and available fraction corresponded to <2.5% of total concentrations, except for Co, Mn and Ni where 7-18% of their total concentrations can be available to organisms. Leachates from RT showed a significant

  4. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the following...

  5. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the following...

  6. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the following...

  7. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the following...

  8. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the following...

  9. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an aid in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease or other condition or for the relief of..., serums, vaccines, antigens, and antitoxins. (b) Transportation. The transportation of beneficiaries... excluded from home health coverage. (e) Services covered under the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)...

  10. Parents of Excluded Pupils: Customers, Partners, Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Gale; Pirrie, Anne; McCluskey, Gillean; Cullen, MairiAnn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data drawn from interviews with a range of service providers and with the parents of pupils permanently excluded from alternative provision in England. The findings are considered in the context of recent policy developments in the area of children and families. These include the neo-liberal framing of parents as customers…

  11. 17 CFR 300.305 - Excluded contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded contracts. 300.305 Section 300.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout Or Completion of...

  12. 17 CFR 300.305 - Excluded contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded contracts. 300.305 Section 300.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout Or Completion of...

  13. 17 CFR 300.305 - Excluded contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded contracts. 300.305 Section 300.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout Or Completion of...

  14. 17 CFR 300.305 - Excluded contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded contracts. 300.305 Section 300.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout Or Completion of...

  15. 17 CFR 300.305 - Excluded contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded contracts. 300.305 Section 300.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Closeout Or Completion of...

  16. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  17. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...

  18. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...

  19. 42 CFR 410.102 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... improve the functioning of a malformed body member. An example would be services furnished as part of a... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 410.102 Section 410.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM...

  20. Does the Exclusionary Rule Exclude Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, D. Lowell

    1983-01-01

    The exclusionary rule, which prevents the use of evidence gathered illegally, was developed to deter police misconduct. Its use has expanded so far that it seriously hinders justice. Examples are given of cases where evidence gathered in good faith was excluded. Changes suggested by the Reagan administration should be adopted. (IS)

  1. 21 CFR 1308.22 - Excluded substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded substances. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES... may, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301), be lawfully sold over the counter...

  2. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation of equipment, materials, supplies, or staff may be allowable as administrative costs, but no... residing in his or her home (for example, cooking, shopping, Meals on Wheels, cleaning, laundry) are... under Part B are excluded from home health coverage. Catheters, catheter supplies, ostomy bags,...

  3. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.49 Excluded services. (a... benefit. (1) A drug is any chemical compound that may be used on or administered to humans or animals as..., serums, vaccines, antigens, and antitoxins. (b) Transportation. The transportation of beneficiaries...

  4. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  5. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  6. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  7. Parents of Excluded Pupils: Customers, Partners, Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Gale; Pirrie, Anne; McCluskey, Gillean; Cullen, MairiAnn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data drawn from interviews with a range of service providers and with the parents of pupils permanently excluded from alternative provision in England. The findings are considered in the context of recent policy developments in the area of children and families. These include the neo-liberal framing of parents as customers…

  8. 32 CFR 716.8 - Payments excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.8 Payments excluded. (a) No payment shall be made if the... offense, except when death was so inflicted by any hostile force with which the Armed Forces of the United States have engaged in armed conflict. (b) No payment will be made to a survivor implicated in the...

  9. 32 CFR 716.8 - Payments excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.8 Payments excluded. (a) No payment shall be made if the... offense, except when death was so inflicted by any hostile force with which the Armed Forces of the United States have engaged in armed conflict. (b) No payment will be made to a survivor implicated in the...

  10. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Stabilized Sewage Sludge from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia

    2016-09-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes, taken from selected sewage treatment plant. Using the bioindication analysis overall toxicity was assessed, which allows to know the total toxicity of all the harmful substances contained in sewage sludge, in many cases acting synergistically. To prepare a sample of sludge for the basic test, all analyses were performed with a ratio of liquid to solid of 10:1 (water extract). Daphnia pulex biological screening test was used. A dilution series of an water extract of sludge were prepared to include within its scope the lowest concentration that causes 100% effect and the highest producing less than 10% of the effect within a specified range of the assay. The results of the test were read after 24 and 48 hours. Based on the research and analysis of test results it proved that the sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes exhibit the characteristics of eco-toxic.

  11. Predictive modeling studies for the ecotoxicity of ionic liquids towards the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus.

    PubMed

    Das, Rudra Narayan; Roy, Kunal

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous potential of ionic liquids is becoming an issue of high concern with increasing application of these compounds in various industrial processes. Predictive toxicological modeling on ionic liquids provides a rational assessment strategy and aids in developing suitable guidance for designing novel analogues. The present study attempts to explore the chemical features of ionic liquids responsible for their ecotoxicity towards the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus by developing mathematical models using extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices along with other categories of chemical descriptors. The entire study has been conducted with reference to the OECD guidelines for QSAR model development using predictive classification and regression modeling strategies. The best models from both the analyses showed that ecotoxicity of ionic liquids can be decreased by reducing chain length of cationic substituents and increasing hydrogen bond donor feature in cations, and replacing bulky unsaturated anions with simple saturated moiety having less lipophilic heteroatoms.

  12. Reduction in Acute Ecotoxicity of Paper Mill Effluent by Sequential Application of Xylanase and Laccase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jitender; Kalia, Vipin C.; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV) were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional CDEOPD1D2 (CD, Cl2 with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2) and X/XLCDEOPD1D2 (X, xylanase; L, laccase) sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents. PMID:25058160

  13. Ecotoxicity and fungal deterioration of recycled polypropylene/wood composites: effect of wood content and coupling.

    PubMed

    Sudár, András; López, María J; Keledi, Gergely; Vargas-García, M Carmen; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín; Burgstaller, Christoph; Pukánszky, Béla

    2013-09-01

    Recycled polypropylene (rPP) was recovered from an industrial shredder and composites were prepared with a relatively wide range of wood content and with two coupling agents, a maleated PP (MAPP) and a maleated ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer (MAEPDM). The mechanical properties of the composites showed that the coupling agents change structure only slightly, but interfacial adhesion quite drastically. The durability of the materials was determined by exposing them to a range of fungi and, ecotoxicity was studied on the aquatic organism Vibrio fischeri. The composites generally exhibit low acute toxicity, with values below the levels considered to have direct ecotoxic effect on aquatic ecosystems (<2 toxic units). Their toxicity to V. fischeri depended on the presence of the coupling agents with larger E50 values in 24-h aqueous extracts from composites containing MAPP or MAEPDM in comparison to composites without any coupling agent. Evaluation of resistance against fungal colonization and deterioration proved that wood facilitates fungal colonization. Fungi caused slight mass loss (below 3%) but it was not correlated with substantial deterioration in material properties. MAPP seems to be beneficial in the retention of mechanical properties during fungal attack. rPP/wood composites can be considered non-ecotoxic and quite durable, but the influence of wood content on resistance to fungal attack must be taken into account for materials intended for applications requiring long-term outdoor exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental behaviour and ecotoxicity of quantum dots at various trophic levels: A review.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Mestre, Nélia C; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Bebianno, Maria João

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide application of quantum dots (QDs) in electronics, pharmacy and nanomedicine, limited data is available on their environmental health risk. To advance our current understanding of the environmental impact of these engineered nanomaterials, the aim of this review is to give a detailed insight on the existing information concerning the behaviour, transformation and fate of QDs in the aquatic environment, as well as on its mode of action (MoA), ecotoxicity, trophic transfer and biomagnification at various trophic levels (micro-organisms, aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates). Data show that several types of Cd-based QDs, even at low concentrations (ecotoxicity. QD ecotoxicity at different trophic levels is highly dependent on its physico-chemical properties, environmental conditions, concentration and exposure time, as well as, species, while UV irradiation increases its toxicity. The state of the art regarding the MoA of QDs according to taxonomic groups is summarised and illustrated. Accumulation and trophic transfer of QDs was observed in freshwater and seawater species, while limited biomagnification and detoxification processes were detected. Finally, current knowledge gaps are discussed and recommendations for future research identified. Overall, the knowledge available indicates that in order to develop sustainable nanotechnologies there is an urgent need to develop Cd-free QDs and new "core-shell-conjugate" QD structures.

  15. Ecotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: standardization of the dispersion methods and concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Marcaide, Arrate; Mendoza, Gemma

    2015-08-01

    There are currently a variety of applications for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), but considerable concerns exist regarding their release into the environment. Their potential accumulation by aquatic organisms could lead to transfer throughout food chains. Considering the divergences in experimental data published on the ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes, further research is required. The dispersion of MWCNTs in aqueous culturing media of organisms as well as the determination of concentrations are relevant aspects to obtain accurate ecotoxicity results. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is one of the most reported techniques to analyze concentration quickly and economically, but the methodologies to prepare dispersions and selecting the wavelengths for ultraviolet-visible measurements have not yet been clearly defined. The present study demonstrates that dispersion procedures influence absorbance, and an approach to determine the most appropriate measurement wavelength is proposed. Ecotoxicity tests with MWCNTs were performed on Vibrio fischeri bacteria, and divergences in the results were observed with respect to those previously reported. The present study contributes to the attempt to overcome the lack of standardization in the environmental assessment of MWCNTs.

  16. Reduction in acute ecotoxicity of paper mill effluent by sequential application of xylanase and laccase.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Garg, Gaurav; Sharma, Jitender; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV) were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional C(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (C(D), Cl(2) with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2) and X/XLC(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (X, xylanase; L, laccase) sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents.

  17. Relationship between pollutant content and ecotoxicity of sewage sludges from Spanish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Martí, Esther; Navalón-Madrigal, Pedro; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2012-05-15

    Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of 28 sewage sludge samples from Spanish wastewater treatment plants were studied in order to assess their suitability for agricultural purposes. Sludge samples were classified into five categories according to specific treatment processes in terms of digestion (aerobic/anaerobic) and drying (mechanical/thermal). Composted samples, as indicative of the most refined process, were also considered. Sludges were subjected to physical-chemical characterization, being the sludge stabilization degree respirometrically assessed. The concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg) and organic substances (phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds) were determined. Finally, two ecotoxicological tests were performed: i) Microtox® toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri, and ii) root elongation test with Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus seeds. Significant differences were found in the following parameters: dry matter, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, organic matter and its stability, phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity, depending on the sludge treatment. In turn, no significant differences were found between categories in the concentrations of most metals and organic pollutants, with the exception of free phenolic compounds. Furthermore, no correlation between total heavy metal burden and ecotoxicity was observed. However, a good correlation was found between phenolic compounds and most ecotoxicological tests. These results suggest that sludge stability (conditioned by sludge treatment) might have a greater influence on sludge ecotoxicity than the pollutant load. Composting was identified as the treatment resulting in the lowest toxicity.

  18. Evaluation of acute ecotoxicity removal from industrial wastewater using a battery of rapid bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares conventional wastewater treatment technologies (coagulation-flocculation and activated sludge) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment for the removal of acute ecotoxicity from wastewater generated by tank truck cleaning (TTC) processes. Ecotoxicity was assessed with a battery of four commercially available rapid biological toxicity testing systems, verified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical coagulation-flocculation of raw TTC wastewater had no impact on the inhibition of the bioluminescence by Vibrio fischeri (BioTox assay). Subsequent biological treatment with activated sludge without PAC resulted in BioTox inhibition-free effluent (<10% inhibition). In contrast, activated sludge treatment without PAC produced an effluent that significantly inhibited (>50%) (i) the bioluminescence by Photobacterium leiognathi (ToxScreen³ test kit), (ii) the photosynthesis by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris (LuminoTox SAPS test kit), and (iii) the particle ingestion by the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus (Rapidtoxkit test kit). The lowest inhibition was measured after activated sludge treatment with the highest PAC dose (400 mg/L), demonstrating the effectiveness of PAC treatment for ecotoxicity removal from TTC wastewater. In conclusion, the combination of bioassays applied in the present study represents a promising test battery for rapid ecotoxicty assessment in wastewater treatment.

  19. Can employers exclude women to protect children?

    PubMed

    Becker, M E

    The U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear arguments in International Union, UAW v. Johnson Controls, Inc.. This case seeks to determine whether an employer may require a woman to be sterile to qualify for a production job involving exposure to lead, or whether such a policy violates Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Six cases relating to this issue have reached state or federal appeals courts. Becker analyzes the social policy implications of attempts by employers to exclude fertile women from jobs when there is evidence of fetal risk from maternal exposure to harmful substances. She also discusses case law that has developed under Title VII litigation. Becker concludes that there are no strong policy reasons for allowing employers to exclude fertile women from some kinds of employment.

  20. Improving substance information in USEtox(®) , part 1: Discussion on data and approaches for estimating freshwater ecotoxicity effect factors.

    PubMed

    Saouter, Erwan; Aschberger, Karin; Fantke, Peter; Hauschild, Michael Z; Bopp, Stephanie K; Kienzler, Aude; Paini, Alicia; Pant, Rana; Secchi, Michela; Sala, Serenella

    2017-06-15

    The scientific consensus model USEtox(®) is recommended by the European Commission as the reference model to characterize life cycle chemical emissions in terms of their potential human toxicity and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity impacts in the context of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System Handbook and the Environmental Footprint pilot phase looking at products (PEF) and organizations (OEF). Consequently, this model has been systematically used within the PEF/OEF pilot phase by 25 European Union industry sectors, which manufacture a wide variety of consumer products. This testing phase has raised some questions regarding the derivation of and the data used for the chemical-specific freshwater ecotoxicity effect factor in USEtox. For calculating the potential freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity impacts, USEtox bases the effect factor on the chronic hazard concentration (HC50) value for a chemical calculated as the arithmetic mean of all logarithmized geometric means of species-specific chronic median lethal (or effect) concentrations (L[E]C50). We investigated the dependency of the USEtox effect factor on the selection of ecotoxicological data source and toxicological endpoints, and we found that both influence the ecotoxicity ranking of chemicals and may hence influence the conclusions of a PEF/OEF study. We furthermore compared the average measure (HC50) with other types of ecotoxicity effect indicators, such as the lowest species EC50 or no-observable-effect concentration, frequently used in regulatory risk assessment, and demonstrated how they may also influence the ecotoxicity ranking of chemicals. We acknowledge that these indicators represent different aspects of a chemical's ecotoxicity potential and discuss their pros and cons for a comparative chemical assessment as performed in life cycle assessment and in particular within the PEF/OEF context. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-13. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

  1. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  2. ESES: Software for Eulerian solvent excluded surface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Wang, Bao; Zhao, Rundong; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2017-03-15

    Solvent excluded surface (SES) is one of the most popular surface definitions in biophysics and molecular biology. In addition to its usage in biomolecular visualization, it has been widely used in implicit solvent models, in which SES is usually immersed in a Cartesian mesh. Therefore, it is important to construct SESs in the Eulerian representation for biophysical modeling and computation. This work describes a software package called Eulerian solvent excluded surface (ESES) for the generation of accurate SESs in Cartesian grids. ESES offers the description of the solvent and solute domains by specifying all the intersection points between the SES and the Cartesian grid lines. Additionally, the interface normal at each intersection point is evaluated. Furthermore, for a given biomolecule, the ESES software not only provides the whole surface area, but also partitions the surface area according to atomic types. Homology theory is utilized to detect topological features, such as loops and cavities, on the complex formed by the SES. The sizes of loops and cavities are measured based on persistent homology with an evolutionary partial differential equation-based filtration. ESES is extensively validated by surface visualization, electrostatic solvation free energy computation, surface area and volume calculations, and loop and cavity detection and their size estimation. We used the Amber PBSA test set in our electrostatic solvation energy, area, and volume validations. Our results are either calibrated by analytical values or compared with those from the MSMS software. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Excluding electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Jaiswal, Prerit; Meade, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    In the context of the MSSM the Light Stop Scenario (LSS) is the only region of parameter space that allows for successful Electroweak Baryogenesis (EWBG). This possibility is very phenomenologically attractive, since it allows for the direct production of light stops and could be tested at the LHC. The ATLAS and CMS experiments have recently supplied tantalizing hints for a Higgs boson with a mass of ≈ 125 GeV. This Higgs mass severely restricts the parameter space of the LSS, and we discuss the specific predictions made for EWBG in the MSSM. Combining data from all the available ATLAS and CMS Higgs searches reveals a tension with the predictions of EWBG even at this early stage. This allows us to exclude EWBG in the MSSM at greater than (90) 98% confidence level in the (non-)decoupling limit, by examining correlations between different Higgs decay channels. We also examine the exclusion without the assumption of a ≈ 125 GeV Higgs. The Higgs searches are still highly constraining, excluding the entire EWBG parameter space at greater than 90% CL except for a small window of m h ≈ 117-119 GeV.

  4. Mycosubtilin and surfactin are efficient, low ecotoxicity molecules for the biocontrol of lettuce downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Deravel, Jovana; Lemière, Sébastien; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Van Hese, Nathalie; Béchet, Max; Sourdeau, Nathanaëlle; Höfte, Monica; Leprêtre, Alain; Jacques, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The use of surfactin and mycosubtilin as an eco-friendly alternative to control lettuce downy mildew caused by the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae was investigated. Preliminary ecotoxicity evaluations obtained from three different tests revealed the rather low toxicity of these lipopeptides separately or in combination. The EC50 (concentration estimated to cause a 50 % response by the exposed test organisms) was about 100 mg L(-1) in Microtox assays and 6 mg L(-1) in Daphnia magna immobilization tests for mycosubtilin and 125 mg L(-1) and 25 mg L(-1) for surfactin, respectively. The toxicity of the mixture mycosubtilin/surfactin (1:1, w/w) was close to that obtained with mycosubtilin alone. In addition, the very low phytotoxic effect of these lipopeptides has been observed on germination and root growth of garden cress Lepidium sativum L. While a surfactin treatment did not influence the development of B. lactucae on lettuce plantlets, treatment with 100 mg L(-1) of mycosubtilin produced about seven times more healthy plantlets than the control samples, indicating that mycosubtilin strongly reduced the development of B. lactucae. The mixture mycosubtilin/surfactin (50:50 mg L(-1)) gave the same result on B. lactucae development as 100 mg L(-1) of mycosubtilin. The results of ecotoxicity as well as those obtained in biocontrol experiments indicated that the presence of surfactin enhances the biological activities of mycosubtilin. Mycosubtilin and surfactin were thus found to be efficient compounds against lettuce downy mildew, with low toxicity compared to the toxicity values of chemical pesticides. This is the first time that Bacillus lipopeptides have been tested in vivo against an obligate pathogen and that ecotoxic values have been given for surfactin and mycosubtilin.

  5. Ecotoxicity of bare and coated silver nanoparticles in the aquatic midge, Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Chung, Jiwoong; Colman, Benjamin P; Matson, Cole W; Kim, Younghun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Phil-Je; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Jinhee

    2015-09-01

    Although sediment is generally considered to be the major sink for nanomaterials in aquatic environments, few studies have addressed the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials in the presence of sediment. In the present study, the ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a range of organic coatings was examined in a freshwater sediment-dwelling organism, Chironomus riparius, using acute and chronic ecotoxicity endpoints, including molecular indicators. The toxicity of AgNPs coated with different organic materials, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, gum arabic, and citrate, to C. riparius was compared with that of bare-AgNPs and AgNO3 (ionic silver). Total silver concentration was also measured to monitor the behavior of the AgNPs in water and sediment and to determine how ion dissolution affects the toxicity of all AgNPs. The coated- and bare-AgNPs caused DNA damage and oxidative stress-related gene expression. In addition, the bare-AgNPs and AgNO3 had a significant effect on development and reproduction. The surface coatings generally mitigated the toxicity of AgNPs to C. riparius, which can be explained by the reduced number of ions released from coated-AgNPs. Citrate-AgNPs caused the most significant alteration at the molecular level, but this did not translate to higher-level effects. Finally, comparing previously conducted studies on AgNP-induced gene expression without sediments, the authors show that the presence of sediment appears to mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs.

  6. Statistical uncertainty in hazardous terrestrial concentrations estimated with aquatic ecotoxicity data.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; van Zelm, Rosalie; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-09-01

    Since chemicals' ecotoxic effects depend for most soil species on the dissolved concentration in pore water, the equilibrium partitioning (EP) method is generally used to estimate hazardous concentrations (HC50) in the soil from aquatic toxicity tests. The present study analyzes the statistical uncertainty in terrestrial HC50s derived by the EP-method. For 47 organic chemicals, we compared freshwater HC50s derived from standard aquatic ecotoxicity tests with porewater HC50s derived from terrestrial ecotoxicity tests. Statistical uncertainty in the HC50s due to limited species sample size and in organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients due to predictive error was treated with probability distributions propagated by Monte Carlo simulations. Particularly for specifically acting chemicals, it is very important to base the HC50 on a representative sample of species, composed of both target and non-target species. For most chemical groups, porewater HC50 values were approximately a factor of 3 higher than freshwater HC50 values. The ratio of the porewater HC50/freshwater HC50 was typically 3.0 for narcotic chemicals (2.8 for nonpolar and 3.4 for polar narcotics), 0.8 for reactive chemicals, 2.9 for neurotoxic chemicals (4.3 for AChE agents and 0.1 for the cyclodiene type), and 2.5 for herbicides-fungicides. However, the statistical uncertainty associated with this ratio was large (typically 2.3 orders of magnitude). For 81% of the organic chemicals studied, there was no statistical difference between the hazardous concentration of aquatic and terrestrial species. We conclude that possible systematic deviations between the HC50s of aquatic and terrestrial species appear to be less prominent than the overall statistical uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What can be learnt from an ecotoxicity database in the framework of the REACh regulation?

    PubMed

    Henegar, Adina; Mombelli, Enrico; Pandard, Pascal; Péry, Alexandre R R

    2011-01-01

    Since REACh applies in all of EU, special emphasis has been put on the reduction of systematic ecotoxicity testing. In this context, it is important to extract a maximum of information from existing ecotoxicity databases in order to propose alternative methods aimed at replacing and reducing experimental testing. Consequently, we analyzed a database of new chemicals registered in France and Europe during the last twenty years reporting aquatic ecotoxicity data with respect to three trophic levels (i.e., Algae EC50 72 h, Daphnia EC50 48 h and Fish LC50 96 h). In order to ensure the relevance of the comparison between these three experimental tests, we performed a stringent data selection based on the pertinence and quality of available ecotoxicological information. At the end of this selection, less than 5% of the initial number of chemicals was retained for subsequent analysis. Such an analysis showed that fish was the least sensitive trophic level, whereas Daphnia had the highest sensitivity. Moreover, thanks to an analysis of the relative sensitivity of trophic levels, it was possible to establish that respective correction factors of 50 and 10 would be necessary if only one or two test values were available. From a physicochemical point of view, it was possible to characterize two significant correlations relating the sensitivity of the aforementioned trophic levels with the chemical structure of the retained substances. This analysis showed that algae displayed a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing acid fragments whereas fish presented a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing aromatic ether fragments. Overall, our work suggests that statistical analysis of historical data combined with data yielded by the REACh regulation should permit the derivation of robust safety factors, testing strategies and mathematical models. These alternative methods, in turn, could allow a replacement and reduction of ecotoxicological testing. Copyright © 2010

  8. Ecotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene assessed by soil microbial indicators.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinjin; Song, Jing; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xingxiang

    2014-09-01

    The ecotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to soil microorganisms was evaluated using the following microbial indicators: soil microbial biomass, respiration, nitrification, and Shannon index. Two soil types, udic ferrosols and aquic cambisols, were amended with 0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, or 1000 mg/kg BaP; incubated at 25 °C; and tested on days 28, 60, and 180. The Shannon index was extremely insensitive to BaP. Microbial biomass and respiration could not be classified as sensitive indicators because of their relatively high 10% effect concentration (EC10) values. Nitrification was the most sensitive indicator in both soils and could be the preferred microbial indicator for testing the ecotoxicity of BaP. Higher toxicity of BaP was exhibited in udic ferrosols than in aquic cambisols, and the ecotoxicity of BaP decreased with incubation time. Extending the 28-d incubation time, which is suggested in the International Organization for Standardization and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, to 60 d was recommended for future microbial toxicity tests of BaP. On day 28, the EC10 values for microbial biomass, respiration, and nitrification were 71 mg/kg, 43 mg/kg, and 3.4 mg/kg in aquic cambisols and 51 mg/kg, 22 mg/kg, and 1.3 mg/kg in udic ferrosols, respectively. On day 60, these values were 106 mg/kg, 59 mg/kg, and 19 mg/kg in aquic cambisols and 77 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 6.9 mg/kg in udic ferrosols. These values could be used in combination to derive ecotoxicological soil screening levels of BaP.

  9. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability in soil and aqueous media of lubricants used in forestry applications.

    PubMed

    Cecutti, Christine; Agius, Dominique

    2008-11-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids used in forestry. Migration and biodegradability of three biolubricants and a mineral lubricant were monitored in two forest soils and in a liquid medium. These studies proved that biolubricants were easily degradable products and showed ultimate biodegradability rates significantly higher than those of the fluid of mineral origin, specially in a soil environment. This superiority was even greater when fluid behaviour was observed after 1000h of use. Ecotoxicity test enabled the classification and comparison of biolubricants and showed that toxicity levels of the biolubricants were never high however, even after use, as compared to petroleum-based fluid.

  10. [Intraoperative sonography to exclude thoracic injury].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valéria; Jakab, Ferenc; Szabó, Gyozo János

    2007-08-12

    The authors present the case of a 29-year-old female with stab wound to the abdomen. After the initial fluid resuscitation and preliminary radiographic examinations immediate laparotomy was indicated due to hypovolaemic circulatory collapse. Splenectomy and gastric suture were necessary. Following the urgent interventions a wound of the left diaphragm was noticed during the extended abdominal exploration. According to the prior examinations and the operative situation it was not clear whether the injury is penetrating. In order to avoid explorative thoracotomy intraoperative ultrasonography was performed: the transducer and the acoustic gel were placed into sterile plastic bag and the organs above the diaphragm were examined from the abdominal cavity. With this method intrathoracic injury close to the diaphragm could be clearly excluded.

  11. Ozonation of ofloxacin in water: by-products, degradation pathway and ecotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kheng Soo; Madehi, Norfazrina

    2015-07-01

    Application of ozonation in water treatment involves complex oxidation pathways that could lead to the formation of various by-products, some of which may be harmful to living organisms. In this work, ozonation by-products of ofloxacin (OFX), a frequently detected pharmaceutical pollutant in the environment, were identified and their ecotoxicity was estimated using the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) computer program. In order to examine the role of ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radicals (∙OH) in the degradation of ofloxacin, ozonation was performed at pH2, 7 and 12. In this study, 12 new structures have been proposed for the ozonation by-products detected during the ozonation of ofloxacin. According to the identified ozonation by-products, O3 and ∙OH were found to react with ofloxacin during ozonation. The reaction between ofloxacin and O3 proceeded via hydroxylation and breakdown of heterocyclic ring with unsaturated double-bond. The reaction between ofloxacin and ·OH generated various by-products derived from the breakdown of heterocyclic ring. Ecotoxicity assessment indicated that ozonation of OFX could yield by-products of greater toxicity compared with parent compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated microfluidic technology for sub-lethal and behavioral marine ecotoxicity biotests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Reyes Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Persoone, Guido; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Changes in behavioral traits exhibited by small aquatic invertebrates are increasingly postulated as ethically acceptable and more sensitive endpoints for detection of water-born ecotoxicity than conventional mortality assays. Despite importance of such behavioral biotests, their implementation is profoundly limited by the lack of appropriate biocompatible automation, integrated optoelectronic sensors, and the associated electronics and analysis algorithms. This work outlines development of a proof-of-concept miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for rapid water toxicity tests based on changes in swimming patterns exhibited by Artemia franciscana (Artoxkit M™) nauplii. In contrast to conventionally performed end-point analysis based on counting numbers of dead/immobile specimens we performed a time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of a reference toxicant on swimming pattern of A. franciscana. Our system design combined: (i) innovative microfluidic device keeping free swimming Artemia sp. nauplii under continuous microperfusion as a mean of toxin delivery; (ii) mechatronic interface for user-friendly fluidic actuation of the chip; and (iii) miniaturized video acquisition for movement analysis of test specimens. The system was capable of performing fully programmable time-lapse and video-microscopy of multiple samples for rapid ecotoxicity analysis. It enabled development of a user-friendly and inexpensive test protocol to dynamically detect sub-lethal behavioral end-points such as changes in speed of movement or distance traveled by each animal.

  13. Colloidal stability and ecotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Influence of select organic matters.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Cristina; Barandika, Gotzone; Igartua, Amaya; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Uranga, Nerea; Mendoza, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the release of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into the environment has raised serious concerns regarding their fate and potential impacts. Aquatic organisms constitute an important pathway for their entrance and transfer throughout the food web, and the current demand for standardization of methodologies to analyze the interactions of MWCNTs with them requires aquatic media that represent natural systems. However, the inherent hydrophobicity of MWCNTs and the substances present in natural waters may greatly affect their stability and bioavailability. The present study analyzes the influence of the most referenced synthetic and natural organic matters (Sigma-Aldrich humic acid and Suwannee River natural organic matter) in the agglomeration kinetics and ecotoxicity of MWCNTs, with the aim of determining their suitability to fulfill the current standardization requirements. Natural organic matter provides increased colloidal stability to the MWCNTs' dispersions, which results in higher adverse effects on the key invertebrate organism Daphnia magna. Furthermore, the results obtained with this type of organic matter allow for observation of the important role of the outer diameter and content impurities of MWCNTs in their stability and ecotoxicity on daphnids. Sigma-Aldrich humic acid appeared to alter the response of the organisms to carbon nanotubes compared with that observed in the presence of natural organic matter. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Identification and Avoidance of Potential Artifacts and Misinterpretations in Nanomaterial Ecotoxicity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel physicochemistries of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) offer considerable commercial potential for new products and processes, but also the possibility of unforeseen and negative consequences upon ENM release into the environment. Investigations of ENM ecotoxicity have revealed that the unique properties of ENMs and a lack of appropriate test methods can lead to results that are inaccurate or not reproducible. The occurrence of spurious results or misinterpretations of results from ENM toxicity tests that are unique to investigations of ENMs (as opposed to traditional toxicants) have been reported, but have not yet been systemically reviewed. Our objective in this manuscript is to highlight artifacts and misinterpretations that can occur at each step of ecotoxicity testing: procurement or synthesis of the ENMs and assessment of potential toxic impurities such as metals or endotoxins, ENM storage, dispersion of the ENMs in the test medium, direct interference with assay reagents and unacknowledged indirect effects such as nutrient depletion during the assay, and assessment of the ENM biodistribution in organisms. We recommend thorough characterization of initial ENMs including measurement of impurities, implementation of steps to minimize changes to the ENMs during storage, inclusion of a set of experimental controls (e.g., to assess impacts of nutrient depletion, ENM specific effects, impurities in ENM formulation, desorbed surface coatings, the dispersion process, and direct interference of ENM with toxicity assays), and use of orthogonal measurement methods when available to assess ENMs fate and distribution in organisms. PMID:24617739

  15. A comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected protic and aprotic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2014-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a fairly new and very promising group of compounds with a vast variety of possible structures and uses. They are considered to be potentially "green", but their impact on the environment tends to be neglected or not studied enough, especially when it comes to terrestrial ecotoxicity, where there are very few studies performed to date. This work presents a comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected representatives of two ILs groups: a new family of protic ILs (derived from aliphatic amines and organic acids) and some frequently used aprotic ILs (substituted imidazolium and piridinium chlorides). Toxicity of the ILs towards three terrestrial plant species (Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus) and soil microorganisms involved in carbon and nitrogen transformation was analyzed. Protic ILs have shown no toxic effect in most of the tests performed. The EC50 values for aprotic ILs are various orders of magnitude lower than the ones for protic ILs in all of the tests. The most toxic ILs are the most complex ones in both of the analyzed groups. Protic ILs seem to have a potential for biodegradation in soil, while aprotic ILs exhibit inhibitory effects towards the carbon transforming microbiota. These findings indicate that protic ILs can be considered as less toxic and safer for the terrestrial environment than the aprotic ILs.

  16. Pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater: their ecotoxicity and contribution to the environmental hazard of the effluent.

    PubMed

    Frédéric, Orias; Yves, Perrodin

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays, pharmaceuticals are found in every compartment of the environment. Hospitals are one of the main sources of these pollutant emissions sent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) that are poorly equipped to treat these types of compounds efficiently. In this work, for each pharmaceutical compound found in hospital wastewater (HWW), we have calculated a hazard quotient (HQ) corresponding to the highest concentration measured in HWW divided by its predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). Thus we have assessed the contribution of each compound to the ecotoxicological threat of HWW taken as a whole. Fifteen compounds are identified as particularly hazardous in HWW. In future more attention should be given to their analysis and replacement in hospitals, and to their elimination in WWTPs. This work also highlights the lack of knowledge of the ecotoxicity of certain pharmaceutical compounds found in HWW at high concentrations (mgL(-1)). In order to extend this study, it is now necessary to investigate ecotoxic risks linked to various emission scenarios, focusing in particular on dilution in the aquatic environment and the production of metabolites, especially during transit inside WWTPs.

  17. Ecotoxicity of arsenic contaminated sludge after mixing with soils and addition into composting and vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Maňáková, Blanka; Šudoma, Marek; Hofman, Jakub

    2016-11-05

    Sludge coming from remediation of groundwater contaminated by industry is usually managed as hazardous waste despite it might be considered for further processing as a source of nutrients. The ecotoxicity of phosphorus rich sludge contaminated with arsenic was evaluated after mixing with soil and cultivation with Sinapis alba, and supplementation into composting and vermicomposting processes. The Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida reproduction tests and the Lactuca sativa root growth test were used. Invertebrate bioassays reacted sensitively to arsenic presence in soil-sludge mixtures. The root elongation of L. sativa was not sensitive and showed variable results. In general, the relationship between invertebrate tests results and arsenic mobile concentration was indicated in majority endpoints. Nevertheless, significant portion of the results still cannot be satisfactorily explained by As chemistry data. Composted and vermicomposted sludge mixtures showed surprisingly high toxicity on all three tested organisms despite the decrease in arsenic mobility, probably due to toxic metabolites of bacteria and earthworms produced during these processes. The results from the study indicated the inability of chemical methods to predict the effects of complex mixtures on living organisms with respect to ecotoxicity bioassays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecotoxicity and fate of a silver nanomaterial in an outdoor lysimeter study.

    PubMed

    Schlich, Karsten; Hoppe, Martin; Kraas, Marco; Fries, Elke; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Sewage sludge is repeatedly applied as fertilizer on farmland due to its high nutrient content. This may lead to a significant increase of silver nanomaterials (AgNM) in soil over years. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ecotoxicity and fate of AgNM under environmentally relevant conditions in outdoor lysimeters over 25 months. Two AgNM concentrations (1.7 and 8.0 mg/kg dry matter soil) were applied via sewage sludge into soil. In subsamples of the soil, incubated under laboratory conditions for 180 days, the comparability of outdoor and laboratory results regarding ecotoxicity was determined. The results from our long term lysimeter experiments show no detectable horizontal displacement in combination with very low remobilization to the percolate water. Thus, indicate that the sludge applied AgNM remains nearly immobile in the pathway between soils and leachate. However, Ag uptake to the roots of wheat and canola suggests that the chemical conditions in the rhizosphere induce AgNM remobilization from the incorporated sewage sludge even after two harvesting cycles. At the higher AgNM concentration a steady inhibition of the soil microflora was observed over 25 month in the lysimeter study, while there was no effect at the lower AgNM concentration. The results of the laboratory experiment reflect the findings of the lysimeter study and indicate that a risk assessment for AgNM based on data from laboratory tests is acceptable.

  19. Developing rapid detection of ecotoxicity on river-watershed scales: Integrating assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Waller, W.T.

    1994-12-31

    Early validation of developing toxicity in river-watershed ecological systems is necessary if long-range environmental management plans are to be effective. In meeting this need, near, real-time watershed monitoring networks are being tested as time-lags found in processing complex ecological information become reduced. Rapid detection of ecotoxic response will improve by coupling established ecological assessment methods to reveal past changes with those giving near, real-time responses found in electronic, super highway-linked networks. Integrated ecosystem monitoring networks are being designed to resolve near, real-time biological response to developing toxicity in a river-watershed by: (1) temporal/spacial characterization of physical and biological attributes on sub-watershed scales through GIS, (2) networking automated biosensing devices at existing water quality and remote monitoring stations, providing a ``finger on the river pulse``, (3) timely updating landscape/watershed attributes from remote sensing imagery for GIS presentation, and (4) coordinating/focusing resources of participating agencies. Through GIS presentations a Compliment to existing monitoring programs can be realized by generating multidimensional, dynamic graphics for quantifying developing ecotoxicity of riverine systems.

  20. Utilizing Eisenia andrei to assess the ecotoxicity of platinum mine tailings disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Jubileus, Mandy T; Theron, Pieter D; van Rensburg, Leon; Maboeta, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    South Africa is an important platinum mining country which results in environmental impacts due to the construction of tailing disposal facilities (TDFs). It is unclear what the effects of ageing are on the ecotoxicity of TDFs and whether it increases or decreases over time. The aim of this study was to determine the ecotoxicity of differently aged TDFs by investigating earthworm (Eisenia andrei) responses viz. growth, reproduction, neutral red retention times (NRRT) and tissue metal concentrations. Further, to evaluate the status of these in terms of a geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), pollution index and integrated pollution index. Results indicated that earthworms showed reduced reproductive success (hatchlings per cocoon) and decreased NRRT in all the sites. Juveniles per cocoon between all of the different treatment groups were; control (2.83 ± 0.54) > site 2 (20 years old; 1.83 ± 0.27) > sites 1 and 3 (40 years old; 1.06 ± 0.15 and 6 years old; 0.88 ± 0.39). This might be ascribed to the elevated levels of Cr (±200 to 1,166 μg g(-1)) and Ni (±100 to 316 μg g(-1)) in all of the sites. Earthworms did not bioaccumulate metals with bioconcentration factors for all the different treatments <0.01. Studies like these could be useful when establishing a ranking of TDFs in the future to provide legislative institutions with an indication of the environmental liabilities of platinum mines.

  1. Generalized Haber's law for exponential concentration decline, with application to riparian-aquatic pesticide ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Kenneth T; Reiss, Richard

    2012-02-01

    A simple analytic solution to the dynamic version of Haber's law was derived, conditional on a specified toxic load exponent (n) and on exponential decline in environmental toxicant concentration. Such conditions are particularly relevant to assessing ecotoxicity risk posed (e.g., to juvenile salmonids) by agricultural organophosphate (OP) pesticides that are subject to degradation and/or dissipation. A dynamic Haber's law model was fit to previously published detailed data on lethality for two aquatic species induced by six agricultural OP pesticides, and more crude fits were obtained to less detailed data on five other OP and on two non-OP pesticides, indicating that for lethality, a range of 0.5 ≤ n ≤ 1.5 may be typical for OP pesticides. The AgDRIFT(®) stream deposition model was next used to establish that first-order or exponential loss, with dilution half-times on the order of ≤0.01 days, pertains approximately to pesticide residues in streams that arise after aerial application of agricultural pesticides 100 feet upwind. The analytic model was then applied to demonstrate that pesticide concentrations deposited in downwind streams following an aerial application are effectively diluted by about 50- to 300-fold from their initial concentration. Riparian ecotoxicity risk assessment models that ignore this effective dilution, and base pesticide-specific estimates of reduced survival on the initial concentrations, are therefore unrealistically conservative.

  2. Effect of wheat and Miscanthus straw biochars on soil enzymatic activity, ecotoxicity, and plant yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzwa-Hersztek, Monika; Gondek, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Baran, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    The variety of technological conditions and raw materials from which biochar is produced is the reason why its soil application may have different effects on soil properties and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and Miscanthus giganteus straw (5 t DM ha-1) and biochar obtained from this materials in doses of 2.25 and 5 t DM ha-1 on soil enzymatic activity, soil ecotoxicity, and plant yield (perennial grass mixture with red clover). The research was carried out under field conditions on soil with the granulometric composition of loamy sand. No significant effect of biochar amendment on soil enzymatic activity was observed. The biochar-amended soil was toxic to Vibrio fischeri and exhibited low toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens. Application of wheat straw biochar and M. giganteus straw biochar in a dose of 5 t DM ha-1 contributed to an increase in plant biomass production by 2 and 14%, respectively, compared to the soil with mineral fertilisation. Biochars had a more adverse effect on soil enzymatic activity and soil ecotoxicity to H. incongruens and V. fischeri than non-converted wheat straw and M. giganteus straw, but significantly increased the grass crop yield.

  3. Insights into the Ecotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Transferred from Escherichia coli to Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xun; Xu, Shengmin; Yang, Yaning; Li, Luzhi; Chen, Shaopeng; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that engineered nanomaterials can be transferred through the food chain. However, their potential ecotoxicity to the environment is not fully understood. Here, we systematically evaluated the physiological behavior and toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a food chain model from Escherichia coli (E. coli) to Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results demonstrated that AgNPs accumulated in E. coli could be transferred to the C. elegans, and AgNPs were clearly distributed in the gut lumen, subcutaneous tissue and gonad. After being transferred to C. elegans through the food chain, the accumulated AgNPs caused serious toxicity to the higher trophic level (C. elegans), including effects on germ cell death, reproductive integrity and life span. Relative to larger particles (75 nm), small AgNPs (25 nm) more easily accumulated in the food chain and exhibited a stronger toxicity to the higher trophic level. More importantly, both the AgNPs that had accumulated in C. elegans through the food chain and the resulting impairment of germ cells could be transferred to the next generation, indicating that AgNP can cause genetic damage across generations. Our findings highlight that nanomaterials pose potential ecotoxicity to ecosystems via transport through the food chain.

  4. Ecotoxicity of boric acid in standard laboratory tests with plants and soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Princz, Juliska; Becker, Leonie; Scheffczyk, Adam; Stephenson, Gladys; Scroggins, Rick; Moser, Thomas; Römbke, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    To verify the continuous sensitivity of ecotoxicological tests (mainly the test organisms), reference substances with known toxicity are regularly tested. Ideally, this substance(s) would lack specificity in its mode action, be bioavailable and readily attainable with cost-effective means of chemical characterization. Boric acid has satisfied these criteria, but has most recently been characterized as a substance of very high concern, due to reproductive effects in humans, thus limiting its recommendation as an ideal reference toxicant. However, there is probably no other chemical for which ecotoxicity in soil has been so intensively studied; an extensive literature review yielded lethal (including avoidance) and sublethal data for 38 taxa. The ecotoxicity data were evaluated using species sensitivity distributions, collectively across all taxa, and separately according to species type, endpoints, soil type and duration. The lack of specificity in the mode of action yielded broad toxicity among soil taxa and soil types, and provided a collective approach to assessing species sensitivity, while taking into consideration differences in test methodologies and exposure durations. Toxicity was species-specific with Folsomia candida and enchytraied species demonstrating the most sensitivity; among plants, the following trend occurred: dicotyledonous (more sensitive) ≫ monocotyledonous ≫ gymnosperm species. Sensitivity was also time and endpoint specific, with endpoints such as lethality and avoidance being less sensitive than reproduction effects. Furthermore, given the breadth of data and toxicity demonstrated by boric acid, lessons learned from its evaluation are discussed to recommend the properties required by an ideal reference substance for the soil compartment.

  5. Development of a soil extraction procedure for ecotoxicity characterization of energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sunahara, G I; Dodard, S; Sarrazin, M; Paquet, L; Ampleman, G; Thiboutot, S; Hawari, J; Renoux, A Y

    1998-03-01

    The acetonitrile-sonication extraction method (US EPA Method 8330) associated with aquatic-based toxicity tests was examined to study the ecotoxicity of energetic substances in soil. Three studies were carried out: (1) toxicological characterization of different energetic substances to select a representative toxicant and to validate the choice of bioassays; (2) choice of an appropriate solvent to transfer acetonitrile extracts to the bioassay incubation media; and (3) optimization of Method 8330 using soil samples spiked with the toxicant. Initial studies indicated that pure 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was toxic to Vibrio fischeri [Microtox; IC50 (15 min) of 4.2 microM], whereas RDX was less toxic (IC20 = 181 microM) and HMX was not toxic up to its limit of water solubility (< 22 microM). Selected pure TNT metabolites were less toxic than TNT. Similar results were found using the 96-h Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition test. The toxicity of pure TNT in different solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and DMSO) and that from Method 8330-extracted TNT-spiked soil samples were compared to TNT dissolved in water. Data indicated that DMSO was the most appropriate solvent to transfer the acetonitrile extracts. A modified Method 8330 may be used in conjunction with bioassays and chemical analyses to examine the ecotoxicity of soils contaminated with energetic substances.

  6. Comparison of different life-cycle impact assessment methods for aquatic ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Schulze, C; Jödicke, A; Scheringer, M; Margni, M; Jolliet, O; Hungerbühler, K; Matthies, M

    2001-09-01

    Human and ecotoxicity impact categories are problematic to quantify within life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) because their local scope makes them difficult to aggregate with the traditional global-impact categories used in life-cycle assessment (LCA). For being able to assess local impacts such as toxicity, LCIA developers increasingly include fate modeling into LCA. This article follows this development by comparing different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicology and by investigating the importance of fate within LCIA, the necessity of considering freshwater and seawater compartments separately, and the key degradation and intermedia transfer processes involved. The methods are compared by assessing an example study of domestic clothes washing in former West Germany. Four LCIA methods are selected and applied to four substances emitted during the washing process. The conclusion is that the consideration of environmental fate does matter and that aquatic ecotoxic impacts can differ significantly for the same substance in freshwater and in marine ecosystems. The way (bio)degradation, photolysis, volatilization, and transfer from agricultural soils are considered plays an important role as do the system boundaries chosen. This means that the LCIA methodology should remain flexible so that appropriate methods can be chosen for different applications. Fate models being developed in the environmental risk assessment of chemicals can contribute to the further improvement of LCIA methods.

  7. Spatial variability of sediment ecotoxicity in a large storm water detention basin.

    PubMed

    Merchan, Carolina Gonzalez; Perrodin, Yves; Barraud, Sylvie; Sébastian, Christel; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Bazin, Christine; Kouyi, Gislain Lipeme

    2014-04-01

    Detention basins are valuable facilities for urban storm water management, from both the standpoint of flood control and the trapping of pollutants. Studies performed on storm water have shown that suspended solids often constitute the main vector of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), etc.). In order to characterise the ecotoxicity of urban sediments from storm water detention basins, the sediments accumulated over a 6-year period were sampled at five different points through the surface of a large detention basin localised in the east of Lyon, France. A specific ecotoxicological test battery was implemented on the solid phase (raw sediment) and the liquid phase (interstitial water of sediments). The results of the study validated the method formulated for the ecotoxicological characterization of urban sediments. They show that the ecotoxicological effect of the sediments over the basin is heterogeneous and greater in areas often flooded. They also show the relationship between, on one hand, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments and, on the other hand, their ecotoxicity. Lastly, they contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of the pollution close to the bottom of detention basins, which can be useful for improving their design. The results of this research raise particularly the issue of using oil separators on the surface of detention basins.

  8. Insights into the Ecotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Transferred from Escherichia coli to Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xun; Xu, Shengmin; Yang, Yaning; Li, Luzhi; Chen, Shaopeng; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that engineered nanomaterials can be transferred through the food chain. However, their potential ecotoxicity to the environment is not fully understood. Here, we systematically evaluated the physiological behavior and toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a food chain model from Escherichia coli (E. coli) to Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results demonstrated that AgNPs accumulated in E. coli could be transferred to the C. elegans, and AgNPs were clearly distributed in the gut lumen, subcutaneous tissue and gonad. After being transferred to C. elegans through the food chain, the accumulated AgNPs caused serious toxicity to the higher trophic level (C. elegans), including effects on germ cell death, reproductive integrity and life span. Relative to larger particles (75 nm), small AgNPs (25 nm) more easily accumulated in the food chain and exhibited a stronger toxicity to the higher trophic level. More importantly, both the AgNPs that had accumulated in C. elegans through the food chain and the resulting impairment of germ cells could be transferred to the next generation, indicating that AgNP can cause genetic damage across generations. Our findings highlight that nanomaterials pose potential ecotoxicity to ecosystems via transport through the food chain. PMID:27811981

  9. Identification of weed plants excluding the uptake of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Xin

    2005-08-01

    Using the field pot-culture and sample-analysis method, 54 weed species belonging to 20 families and 31 weed species belonging to 17 families were systematically examined as to whether they can exclude the uptake of heavy metals. After a systematic identification, it was determined that Oenothera biennis and Commelina communis were Cd-excluders and Taraxacum mongolicum was a Zn-excluder. O. biennis is a potential Cd-excluder, but also a potential Cu-excluder. The research raises the possibility of making a major breakthrough in the application of metal excluders for safe agro-production in the future.

  10. Neutron resonance data exclude random matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, P. E.; Bečvář, F.; Krtička, M.; Guber, K. H.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2013-02-01

    Almost since the time it was formulated, the overwhelming consensus has been that random matrix theory (RMT) is in excellent agreement with neutron resonance data. However, over the past few years, we have obtained new neutron-width data at Oak Ridge and Los Alamos National Laboratories that are in stark disagreement with this theory. We also have reanalyzed neutron widths in the most famous data set, the nuclear data ensemble (NDE), and found that it is seriously flawed, and, when analyzed carefully, excludes RMT with high confidence. More recently, we carefully examined energy spacings for these same resonances in the NDE using the $\\Delta_{3}$ statistic. We conclude that the data can be found to either confirm or refute the theory depending on which nuclides and whether known or suspected p-wave resonances are included in the analysis, in essence confirming results of our neutron-width analysis of the NDE. We also have examined radiation widths resulting from our Oak Ridge and Los Alamos measurements, and find that in some cases they do not agree with RMT. Although these disagreements presently are not understood, they could have broad impact on basic and applied nuclear physics, from nuclear astrophysics to nuclear criticality safety.

  11. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions.

    PubMed

    Boeije, G M; Cano, M L; Marshall, S J; Belanger, S E; Van Compernolle, R; Dorn, P B; Gümbel, H; Toy, R; Wind, T

    2006-05-01

    Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures (due to the nonlinear relation of toxicity with structure). Consequently, the ecotoxicity value (expressed as effects concentration) attributed to the average structures that are used to develop the existing QSARs is expected to be too low. A new QSAR technique for complex substances, which interprets the mixture toxicity with regard to the "ethoxymers" distribution (i.e., the individual AE components) rather than the average structure, was developed. This new technique was then applied to develop new AE ecotoxicity QSARs for invertebrates, fish, and mesocosms. Despite the higher complexity, the fit and accuracy of the new QSARs are at least as good as those for the existing QSARs based on the same data set. As expected from typical ethoxymer distributions of commercial AEs, the new QSAR generally predicts less toxicity than the QSARs based on average structure.

  12. Residual organic matter and microbial respiration in bottom ash: Effects on metal leaching and eco-toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Persson, K M; Persson, M

    2015-09-01

    A common assumption regarding the residual organic matter, in bottom ash, is that it does not represent a significant pool of organic carbon and, beyond metal-ion complexation process, it is of little consequence to evolution of ash/leachate chemistry. This article evaluates the effect of residual organic matter and associated microbial respiratory processes on leaching of toxic metals (i.e. arsenic, copper, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc), eco-toxicity of ash leachates. Microbial respiration was quantified with help of a respirometric test equipment OXITOP control system. The effect of microbial respiration on metal/residual organic matter leaching and eco-toxicity was quantified with the help of batch leaching tests and an eco-toxicity assay - Daphnia magna. In general, the microbial respiration process decreased the leachate pH and eco-toxicity, indicating modification of bioavailability of metal species. Furthermore, the leaching of critical metals, such as copper and chromium, decreased after the respiration in both ash types (fresh and weathered). It was concluded that microbial respiration, if harnessed properly, could enhance the stability of fresh bottom ash and may promote its reuse.

  13. 5 CFR 919.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's.... Voluntary exclusion must have governmentwide effect. (b) Voluntarily excluded means the status of a...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.945 Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person...

  16. 21 CFR 1404.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1404.950 Section 1404.950 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) means...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.945 Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1404.950 Section 1404.950 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) means...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock excluded. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563 and the regulations thereunder, the term “stock” does not...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by an... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012...

  4. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded structures-modular homes... Excluded structures—modular homes. (a) The purpose of this section is to provide the certification... structure elects to have them excluded. If a manufacturer wishes to construct a structure that is both a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock excluded. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563 and the regulations thereunder, the term “stock”...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock excluded. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563 and the regulations thereunder, the term “stock”...

  7. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, their metabolites/transformation products and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Česen, Marjeta; Eleršek, Tina; Novak, Matjaž; Žegura, Bojana; Kosjek, Tina; Filipič, Metka; Heath, Ester

    2016-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) are commonly used cytostatic drugs that repress cell division by interaction with DNA. The present study investigates the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of CP, IF, their human metabolites/transformation products (TPs) carboxy-cyclophosphamide (CPCOOH), keto-cyclophosphamide (ketoCP) and N-dechloroethyl-cyclophosphamide (NdCP) as individual compounds and as mixture. The two parent compounds (CP and IF), at concentrations up to 320 mg L(-1), were non-toxic towards the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cyanobacterium Synecococcus leopoliensis. Further ecotoxicity studies of metabolites/TPs and a mixture of parent compounds and metabolites/TPs performed in cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis, showed that only CPCOOH (EC50 = 17.1 mg L(-1)) was toxic. The measured toxicity (EC50 = 11.5 mg L(-1)) of the mixture was lower from the toxicity predicted by concentration addition model (EC50 = 21.1 mg L(-1)) indicating potentiating effects of the CPCOOH toxicity. The SOS/umuC assay with Salmonella typhimurium revealed genotoxic activity of CP, CPCOOH and the mixture in the presence of S9 metabolic activation. Only CPCOOH was genotoxic also in the absence of metabolic activation indicating that this compound is a direct acting genotoxin. This finding is of particular importance as in the environment such compounds can directly affect DNA of non-target organisms and also explains toxicity of CPCOOH against cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis. The degradation study with UV irradiation of samples containing CP and IF showed efficient degradation of both compounds and remained non-toxic towards S. leopoliensis, suggesting that no stable TPs with adverse effects were formed. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of the commonly used cytostatics CP and IF, their known metabolites/TPs and their mixture. The results indicate the importance of toxicological evaluation and monitoring of

  8. Graphene oxide alleviates the ecotoxicity of copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Hu, Naitao; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2016-10-01

    The extensive industrial application of graphene oxide (GO), has increased its exposure risk to various aquatic organisms and its potential to affect the toxicity of other environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the combined toxicity of GO and copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, using the MIXTOX model. The effects of low concentration (1mg/L) exposure to GO were investigated with environmentally relevant concentrations of copper by using a 12-d subacute toxicity test, with pre- and post-GO treatment. Results showed that there were significant antagonistic effects between GO and copper on S. obliquus, and GO was found to reduce ecotoxicity of copper even at low and environmentally relevant concentrations (1mg/L).

  9. Lanthanide ecotoxicity: first attempt to measure environmental risk for aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    González, Verónica; Vignati, Davide A L; Pons, Marie-Noelle; Montarges-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bojic, Clément; Giamberini, Laure

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical cycles of lanthanides are being disrupted by increasing global production and human use, but their ecotoxicity is not fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity of Aliivibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata to lanthanides increased with atomic number, while Daphnia magna, Heterocypris incongruens, Brachionus calyciflorus and Hydra attenuata were equally sensitive to the tested elements. In some cases, a marked decrease in exposure concentrations was observed over test duration and duly considered in calculating effect concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for hazard and risk assessment. Comparison of PNEC with measured environmental concentrations indicate that, for the present, environmental risks deriving from lanthanides should be limited to some hotspots (e.g., downstream of wastewater treatment plants). However, considering the increasing environmental concentrations of lanthanides, the associated risks could become higher in the future. Ecotoxicological and risk assessment studies, along with monitoring, are required for properly managing these emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ionic liquids as lubricants or lubrication additives: an ecotoxicity and biodegradability assessment.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Areitioaurtena, Olatz; Pagano, Francesco; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr; Igartua, Amaya

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports on the (eco)toxicity and biodegradability of ionic liquids considered for application as lubricants or lubrication additives. Ammonium- and pyrrolidinium-based cations combined with methylsulphate, methylsulphonate and/or (CF(3)SO(2))(2)N(-) anions were investigated in tests to determine their aquatic toxicity using water fleas Daphnia magna, green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Additional test systems with an isolated enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) and isolated leukaemia cells from rats (IPC-81) were used to assess the biological activity of the ionic liquids. These compounds generally exhibit low acute toxicity and biological activity. Their biodegradability was screened according to OECD test procedures 301 B and 301 F. For choline and methoxy-choline ionic liquids ready biodegradability was observed within 5 or 10 d, respectively. Some of the compounds selected have a considerable potential to contribute to the development of more sustainable products and processes.

  11. Ecotoxicity of Concretes with Granulated Slag from Gray Iron Pilot Production as Filler.

    PubMed

    Hybská, Helena; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj; Balco, Karol; Mitterpach, Jozef

    2017-05-06

    This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of aluminium oxide. Negative ecotoxicological tests are, therefore, one of the basic prerequisites for the ability to use granulated slag from gray iron pilot production. Granulated slag and concrete composite samples with various ratios of granulated slag have been subject to ecotoxicity tests: determining root growth inhibition in the highly-cultivated plant Sinapisalba, and determining acute toxicity in Daphniamagna. The results of ecotoxicological testing of granulated slag from gray iron standard production and gray iron pilot production with the additive were, according to the standard (STN 83 8303), negative. Additionally, the results of ecotoxicological tests of concrete composites were negative, with the exception of a 50% substitution of fine aggregate with slag from gray iron pilot production.

  12. Ecotoxicity analysis of cholinium-based ionic liquids to Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Sónia P M; e Silva, Francisca A; Gonçalves, Ana M M; Pereira, Joana L; Gonçalves, Fernando; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-04-01

    Cholinium-based ionic liquids are quaternary ammonium salts with a wide range of potential industrial applications. Based on the fact that the cholinium is a complex B vitamin and widely used as food additive, the cholinium-based ionic liquids are generically regarded as environmentally "harmless" and thus, accepted as "non-toxic", although their ecotoxicological profile is poorly known. This work provides new ecotoxicological data for ten cholinium-based salts and ionic liquids, aiming to extend the surprisingly restricted body of knowledge about the ecotoxicity of this particular family and to gain insight on the toxicity mechanism of these compounds. The results reported here show that not all the cholinium tested can be considered harmless towards the test organism adopted. Moreover, the results suggest that the cholinium family exhibits a different mechanism of toxicity as compared to the imidazolium ionic liquids previously described in the literature.

  13. Age-related differential sensitivity to cadmium in Hyalella curvispina (Amphipoda) and implications in ecotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    García, M E; Rodrígues Capítulo, A; Ferrari, L

    2010-07-01

    The standardization of toxicity tests requires the selection of the most suitable test species and their developmental stages, as well as the selection of the appropriate assay matrix and the evaluation of the sensitivity of the test species to the reference toxicants. International protocols recommend the use of the amphipod Hyalella azteca from the Northern Hemisphere for sediment toxicity tests. We selected the widely distributed amphipod Hyalella curvispina, representative of pleustonic, epiphitic and zoobenthic assemblages in austral South America, as test species to be used in regional studies. Our goals were to evaluate the sensitivity of three developmental stages of H. curvispina to cadmium as a reference toxicant and to select the most suitable age and exposure time for aquatic ecotoxicity assessment. The three ages were highly susceptible to cadmium, with sensitivities: neonates > adults > juveniles. Our results validate the use of the native H. curvispina as a standard species for ecotoxicological assessment studies.

  14. Chemical toxicity and ecotoxicity evaluation of tannery sludge stabilized with ladle furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulou, E; Zouboulis, A

    2017-03-31

    In this study, the stabilization of tannery sludge, which produced during the physico-chemical treatment of tannery wastewaters, was examined by the addition of ladle furnace slag. Moreover, the simultaneous addition of organoclay and ladle furnace slag for the stabilization of tannery sludge was also examined. Chromium and dissolved organic carbon in the leachate of raw tannery sludge, using the EN 12457-2 standard leaching test, were found to exceed the limit values for disposal in non-hazardous and even in hazardous waste landfills, according to the EU Decision 2003/33/EC. Tannery waste (air-dried sludge) was mixed with ladle furnace slag and water or ladle furnace slag, organoclay and water at different ratios, in order to study the stabilization of chromium and organic compounds. The mixtures were left for one week aging and then they were subjected to the standard leaching test EN 12457-2. The leachate of tannery waste stabilized with ladle furnace slag showed Cr concentrations below the respective regulation limit value for disposal in non-hazardous waste landfills; however, the dissolved organic carbon cannot meet the respective limit value. On the other hand, the leachate of tannery waste stabilized with a mixture of ladle furnace slag and organoclay, using 30:50:20 mass ratio, presented both Cr and dissolved organic carbon concentrations below the regulation limit values for disposal in non-hazardous waste landfills. Moreover, this leachate was further subjected to ecotoxicity test, using the Vibrio fischeri photo-bacterium. The leachate of stabilized tannery waste showed reduced ecotoxicity, in comparison with the toxicity effect of the leachate of the untreated tannery waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hexavalent chromium release from lignite fly ash and related ecotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Darakas, Efthymios; Tsiridis, Vasilios; Petala, Maria; Kungolos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a pollutant of immense concern due to its high mobility to water sources and highly toxic properties. In most cases, Cr(VI) could be released from lignite fly ash in aquatic environment when fly ash comes into contact with water. In this study, the contribution of the leaching patterns and bioavailability of Cr(VI) from lignite fly ash to the overall ecotoxic properties of fly ash leachates was originally examined and leaching procedures were evaluated in this context. A series of customized leaching tests were conducted and a battery of ecotoxicity tests including the crustacean Daphnia magna and the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri was applied. The leaching of Cr(VI) was pH and liquid to solid (L/S) ratio dependent, exhibiting the highest releases at pH values between 7 and 8. At the liquid to solid ratio (L/S) equal to 100 L/kg, the (CrVI) release reached a plateau, implying the presence of diffusion constrains and/or solubility hindrances. The toxic effect of the leachates obtained under leaching at pH 7 towards D. magna was relatively high (TU = 28.6 (23.8-35.7) at L/S = 10 L/kg). Interestingly, the toxicity of the leachates towards D. magna not only was significantly correlated to Cr(VI) (r = 0.961, P < 0.01), but the toxicity of the leachates (in absolute values) was matching the toxicity of the Cr(VI) revealing its remarkable contribution to the overall effect. In addition, the lower sensitivity of the bacteria V. fischeri when exposed to the leachates, along with the time dependence of the toxicity profiles supported the interpretation of the results obtained in this study.

  16. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  17. Elimination and ecotoxicity evaluation of phthalic acid esters from textile-dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jieying; Ning, Xun-An; Kong, Minyi; Liu, Daohua; Wang, Guangwen; Cai, Haili; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Yaping; Lu, Xingwen; Yuan, Yong

    2017-08-07

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), presented in fabrics, surfactants and detergents, were discharged into the ecosystem during textile-dyeing wastewater treatment and might have adverse effects on water ecosystems. In this study, comprehensive investigations of the content and component distributions of 12 PAEs across different units of four textile-dyeing wastewater plants were carried out in Guangdong Province, China. Ecotoxicity assessments were also conducted based on risk quotients (RQs). On average, 93.54% TOC and 80.14% CODCr were removed following treatment at the four plants. The average concentration of Σ12PAEs in effluent was 11.78 μg/L. PAEs with highest concentrations were dimethylphthalate (6.58 μg/L), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (2.23 μg/L), and dibutylphthalate (1.98 μg/L). The concentrations of the main toxic PAEs were 2.23 μg/L (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 0.19 μg/L (diisononylphthalate) and 0.67 μg/L (dinoctylphthalate); corresponding RQs were 1.4, 0.55, and 0.54 for green algae, respectively. The RQs of Σ12PAEs in effluent of the four plants were >0.1, indicating that Σ12PAEs posed medium or higher ecological risk to fish, Daphnia and green algae. Physicochemical-biochemical system was found to be more effective than biochemical-physicochemical system for TOC and CODCr removal, because pre-physicochemical treatment helped to remove macromolecular organic substances, and reduced the competition with other pollutants during biochemical treatment. However, biochemical-physicochemical system was more effective than physicochemical-biochemical system for elimination of PAEs and for detoxification, since the biochemical treatment might produce the toxic PAEs that could helpfully be settled by post-physicochemical treatment. Moreover, ecotoxicity evaluation was recommended for current textile-dyeing wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Eco-toxicity and metal contamination of paddy soil in an e-wastes recycling area.

    PubMed

    Jun-hui, Zhang; Hang, Min

    2009-06-15

    Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37 mg kg(-1)), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (209.85 mg kg(-1)). Zn appeared to be strongly bound in the residual fraction (72.24-77.86%), no matter the soil was metal contaminated or not. However, more than 9% Cd and 16% Cu was present in the non-residual fraction in the metal contaminated soils than in the uncontaminated soil, especially for site G and site F. Compared with that of the control soil, the micronucleus rates of site G and site F soil treatments increased by 2.7-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively. Low germination rates were observed in site C (50%) and site G (50%) soil extraction treated rice seeds. The shortest root length (0.2377 cm) was observed in site G soil treated groups, which is only 37.57% of that of the control soil treated groups. All of the micronucleus ratio of Vicia faba root cells, rice germination rate and root length after treatment of soil extraction indicate the eco-toxicity in site F and G soils although the three indexes are different in sensitivity to soil metal contamination.

  19. Extractability of metals and ecotoxicity of soils from two old wood impregnation sites in Finland.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Eija; Joutti, Anneli; Räisänen, Marja-Liisa; Lintinen, Petri; Martikainen, Esko; Lehto, Olli

    2004-06-29

    Four metal-contaminated soil samples were classified using physical methods, extracted by selective extraction procedures and analyzed for chemical concentrations. De-ionized water, 0.01 mol/l barium chloride, 1 mol/l ammonium acetate and concentrated nitric acid were used as extraction solutions. Ecotoxicity of water extracts and soil samples was analyzed in order to describe the bioavailability of the contaminants. Samples from old wood impregnation plants contained high amounts of As, Cu, Cr and Zn, which originated from chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper-zinc arsenate, and ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. Total As concentrations of the heavily contaminated samples varied from 752 to 4340 mg/kg, Cu concentrations from 339 to 2330 mg/kg, Cr concentrations from 367 to 2,140 mg/kg and Zn concentrations from 79 to 966 mg/kg. The extractabilities of metals differed according to soil type, extractant and element. Cu and Zn were proposed to cause the highest toxicity in the water extracts of the soils. Ecotoxicity tests displayed rather high differences in sensitivity both for water extracts and for solid soil samples. Reproduction of Enchytraeus sp. was the most sensitive and seed germination of Lactuca sativa the least sensitive and the other tests were in decreasing order of sensitivity: Folsomia candida>reverse electron transport>MetPLATE>Toxichromotest>Allium cepa root growth>Lemna sp. growth. As a conclusion, polluted soils rich in sand retain heavy metals with less firm bindings, particularly in the case of Cu and Zn, than soils rich in clay, indicating that chemical methods for measuring the bioavailability of metals need to be optimized taking into account the soil type, acidity, redox state and the individual contaminants.

  20. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zounkova, Radka; Kovalova, Lubomira; Blaha, Ludek; Dott, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    In spite of growing scientific concern about pharmaceuticals in the environment, there is still a lack of information especially with regard to their metabolites. The present study investigated ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of three widely used cytostatic agents 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cytarabine (CYT) and gemcitabine (GemC) and their major human metabolites, i.e. alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL), uracil-1-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (AraU) and 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU), respectively. Effects were studied in acute immobilization and reproduction assays with crustacean Daphnia magna and growth inhibition tests with alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and bacteria Pseudomonas putida. Genotoxicity was tested with umu-test employing Salmonella choleraesius subsp. chol. Toxicity was relatively high at parent compounds with EC(50) values ranging from 44 microg L(-1) (5-fluorouracil in the P. putida test) to 200 mg L(-1) (cytarabine in D. magna acute test). In general, the most toxic compound was 5-FU. Studied metabolites showed low or no toxicity; only FBAL (metabolite of 5-FU) showed low toxicity to D. subspicatus and P. putida with EC(50) values 80 and 140 mg L(-1), respectively. All parent cytostatics showed genotoxicity with minimum genotoxic concentrations (MGC) ranging from 40 to 330 mg L(-1). From metabolites, only FBAL was genotoxic in high concentrations. To our knowledge, the present study provides some of the first ecotoxicity data for both cytostatics and their metabolites, which might further serve for serious evaluation of ecological risks. The observed EC(50) values within the microg L(-1) range were fairly close to concentrations reported in hospital sewage water, which indicates further research needs, especially studies of chronic toxicity.

  1. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2008-02-03

    Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox

  2. Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of sediments from Yangtze river estuary and contribution of priority PAHs to ah receptor--mediated activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants.

  3. Effects of activated Bt transgene products (Cry1Ab, Cry3Bb) on immature stages of the ladybird Adalia bipunctata in laboratory ecotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jörg E U; Braun, Cora U; Whitehouse, Lisa P; Hilbeck, Angelika

    2009-02-01

    Insect-active Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins are expressed by several transgenic crop plants to control certain pests, but nontarget organisms such as ladybirds also can be exposed to these proteins in the field. We developed an improved ecotoxicity testing protocol and conducted feeding trials in a laboratory setting to test for possible adverse effects of different concentrations of microbially produced trypsin-activated Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb toxins on the coccinellid Adalia bipunctata. Larval/pupal mortality, development time, and overall body mass accumulation were recorded. Even at the lowest concentration (5 microg/ml), A. bipunctata larvae fed with the lepidopteran-active Cry1Ab toxin exhibited significantly higher mortality than the control group. In experiments with the coleopteran-active Cry3Bb, only a concentration of 25 microg/ml resulted in a marginally significantly higher mortality compared to the control. Both experiments revealed a slight decline in mortality at the highest concentration of 50 microg/ml, though this was statistically significant only in the Cry1Ab treatment. No differences were detected for development time and body mass of newly emerged adults. Dilutions of the expression vector pBD10--used as a control to exclude effects of the toxin production method--at concentrations between 10 and 100 microg/ml revealed no significant effects on either of the studied parameters. This suggests that the increased mortality of larvae in the toxin feeding trials was caused directly by the activated Bt toxins and raises questions regarding their commonly postulated specificity and their mode of action in A. bipunctata. Implications of the reported results for ladybird populations and their biological pest control functions in transgenic crop ecosystems are discussed.

  4. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  5. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  6. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  7. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  8. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.25 Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. (a) Basis...

  9. Excluded volumes of clusters in tetrahedral particle packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lufeng; Lu, Peng; Meng, Lingyi; Jin, Weiwei; Li, Shuixiang

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the excluded volumes of clusters in tetrahedral particle packing using an ideal tetrahedron model and Monte Carlo simulation. Both the influences of the size and topology of clusters on the excluded volume are studied. We find that the excluded volumes of the dimer composed of two tetrahedra and the wagon wheel composed of five tetrahedra are relatively lower than other cluster forms. For large clusters, the excluded volume decreases when the topology of a cluster approaches the wagon-wheel geometry. The results give an explanation to the cluster distribution which demonstrates that the dimer and wagon wheel are the dominative cluster forms in the packing structure of tetrahedra.

  10. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Ecotoxicity and antibiotic resistance of a mixture of hospital and urban sewage in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Laquaz, Marine; Dagot, Christophe; Bazin, Christine; Bastide, Thérèse; Gaschet, Margaux; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Perrodin, Yves

    2017-09-05

    Hospital and urban effluents are a source of diverse pollutants such as organic compounds, heavy metals, detergents, disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, and microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. Usually, these two types of effluent are mixed in the sewage network, but a pilot site in France now allows studying them separately or mixed to understand more about their characteristics and the phenomena that occur following their mixing. In this study, their ecotoxicity (Daphnia magna mobility, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth, Brachionus calyciflorus reproduction, and SOS Chromotest) and antibiotic resistance (integron quantification) were assessed during mixing and treatment steps. The main results of this study are (i) the ecotoxicity and antibiotic resistance potentials of hospital wastewater are higher than in urban wastewater and (ii) mixing two different effluents does not lead to global synergistic or antagonistic effects on ecotoxicity and antibiotic resistance potential. The global additivity effect observed in this case must be confirmed by other studies on hospital and urban effluents on other sites to improve knowledge relating to this source of pollution and its management.

  12. Ecotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles: influence of leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Testolin, Renan C; Torres, Mariana M; Cotelle, Sylvie; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-04-01

    Concerns regarding the environmental impact of diesel exhaust particulate matter (DPM) have increased in recent years. Following emission to the atmosphere, these fine materials can sorb many contaminants at their surface, which can subsequently be released, for instance, due to physicochemical environmental changes. The desorption of contaminants from particulate matter will increase the environmental pollution and can promote ecotoxicological effects. In this context, the objective of this study was to assess the aquatic ecotoxicity profile of extracts of DPM obtained at two different pH values. Thus, after collecting particulate matter from the diesel exhaust of heavy engines, extracts were obtained with pure water (at pH 2.00 and 5.00) and with a mixture of three organic solvents (dichloromethane, n-hexane, and acetone). To assess the environmental impact of DPM, the exhaust extracts were used in a battery of aquatic bioassays including key organisms of the food chain: bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri), algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and fishes (Danio rerio). The aqueous leachate at natural pH (2.0) and solvent extracts were extremely ecotoxic, while the aqueous leachate at pH = 5.0 showed the lowest ecotoxicity. The global ranking of sensitivity for the biotests tested was daphnids > algae > bacteria > fishes. Thus, the use of this bioassay battery could improve our understanding of the impact of DPM on aquatic environments, which is dependent on the pH of the leaching process.

  13. Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Yann; Durand, Marie-José; Tack, Karine; Schreck, Eva; Geret, Florence; Leveque, Thibaut; Pradere, Philippe; Goix, Sylvaine; Dumat, Camille

    2013-02-15

    With the rise of sustainable development, rehabilitation of brownfield sites located in urban areas has become a major concern. Management of contaminated soils in relation with environmental and sanitary risk concerns is therefore a strong aim needing the development of both useful tools for risk assessment and sustainable remediation techniques. For soils polluted by metals and metalloids (MTE), the criteria for landfilling are currently not based on ecotoxicological tests but on total MTE concentrations and leaching tests. In this study, the ecotoxicity of leachates from MTE polluted soils sampled from an industrial site recycling lead-acid batteries were evaluated by using both modified Escherichia coli strains with luminescence modulated by metals and normalized Daphnia magna and Alivibrio fischeri bioassays. The results were clearly related to the type of microorganisms (crustacean, different strains of bacteria) whose sensitivity varied. Ecotoxicity was also different according to sample location on the site, total concentrations and physico-chemical properties of each soil. For comparison, standard leaching tests were also performed. Potentially phytoavailable fraction of MTE in soils and physico-chemical measures were finally performed in order to highlight the mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the use of a panel of microorganisms is suitable for hazard classification of polluted soils. In addition, calculated eco-scores permit to rank the polluted soils according to their potentially of dangerousness. Influence of soil and MTE characteristics on MTE mobility and ecotoxicity was also highlighted.

  14. Ecotoxicity and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments and wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla Andrea; Pinto Pinto, Gilberto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta-Mata, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The environmental risk assessment of 26 PPCPs of relevant consumption and occurrence in the aquatic environment in Spain was accomplished in this research. Based on the ecotoxicity values obtained by bioluminescence and respirometry assays and by predictions using the US EPA ecological structure-activity relationship (ECOSAR™), the compounds were classified following the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. According to the criteria of the European Medicines Agency, the real risk of impact of these compounds in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in the aquatic environment was predicted. In at least two ecotoxicity tests, 65.4 % of the PPCPs under study showed high toxicity or were harmful to aquatic organisms. The global order of the species' sensitivity to the PPCPs considered was as follows: Vibrio fischeri (5 min) > Vibrio fischeri (15 min) > algae > crustaceans > fish > biomass of WWTP. Acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clofibrate, ibuprofen, omeprazole, triclosan, parabens and 1,4-benzoquinone showed some type of risk for the aquatic environments and/or for the activated sludge of WWTPs. Development of acute and chronic ecotoxicity data, the determination of predicted and measured environmental concentrations of PPCPs, the inclusion of metabolites and transformation products and the evaluation of mixtures of these compounds will allow further improvements of the results of the ERAs and, finally, to efficiently identify the compounds that could affect the environment.

  15. Predicting the ecotoxicity of ionic liquids towards Vibrio fischeri using genetic function approximation and least squares support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuying; Lv, Min; Deng, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhai, Honglin; Lv, Wenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are widely used in industrial production for their unique physicochemical properties, and they are even regarded as green solvents. However, the recent study showed ILs might pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In the present work, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, including genetic function approximation (GFA) and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) were developed for predicting the ecotoxicity of ILs towards the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri based on the descriptors calculated from cations and anions. Five descriptors were selected by GFA and used to develop the linear model. From the discussion of descriptors, the cation structure was the main factor to the toxicity, which mainly depended on the size, lipophilic, and 3D molecular structure of cations. In order to capture the nonlinear nature, the LSSVM model was also built for more accurately predicting the ecotoxicity. The GFA and LSSVM models were performed the rigorous internal and external validation, further verifying these models with excellent robustness and predictive ability. Therefore, both of models can be used for the prediction of the ecotoxicity of newly synthesized and untested ILs, and can provide reference information and theoretical guidance for designing and synthesizing safer and more eco-friendly ILs.

  16. Changes in the geochemistry and ecotoxicity of a Zn and Cd contaminated dredged sediment over time after land disposal.

    PubMed

    Piou, Stéphanie; Bataillard, Philippe; Laboudigue, Agnès; Férard, Jean-François; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2009-08-01

    The management of dredged sediments is of environmental concern worldwide since they may be overloaded with myriads of pollutants. For inland waters' sediments, disposal on land is a common practice. For the long-term risks assessment of such a management, a better understanding of the fate of pollutants over time and an assessment of possible associated biological consequences are needed. Here, we studied the geochemical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd in sediment dredged from the Scarpe canal (Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region, France). Analyses were carried out immediately after dredging and 12, 18 and 24 months after disposal in field conditions. In parallel, ecotoxicity of sediment leachates was assessed using standardized bioassays. The results reflected an initial oxidation of sulphides (first year) followed by changes explained by a reversible binding of metals to organic matter in winter and to Fe oxihydroxides in summer. The water-leachable fraction represented less than 2% of the total metal and its ecotoxicity was higher for deposited sediments than for the fresh one. After first year of disposal, sediment ecotoxicity remained stable. A long-term natural attenuation of metals within disposed sediment seemed unlikely since their speciation seemed to fluctuate seasonally without any time trend over years.

  17. 5 CFR 919.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 919.945 Section 919.945 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.945 Excluded...

  18. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Basic Rates § 548.305 Excluding certain additions to wages. (a) Section 548.3(e) authorizes as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluding certain additions to wages. 548.305 Section 548.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  19. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public notice...

  20. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public notice...

  1. Early Intervention and Prevention for Children Excluded from Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotopoulos, Christos; Kerfoot, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the problem of school exclusion in England has reached a crisis point. Figures on permanent exclusions from primary, secondary and special schools in England show that for 1996/97, 12 700 children were excluded. Among these, 12% were pupils permanently excluded from primary schools. When the present Labour Government came to…

  2. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public notice...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stock in Y for sale he will first offer the stock to X at a price equal to the fair market value of the... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stock in Y for sale he will first offer the stock to X at a price equal to the fair market value of the... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock...

  5. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens...

  6. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens...

  7. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens...

  8. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded hospitals: Classifications. 412.23 Section 412.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Excluded From the Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient...

  9. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded hospitals: Classifications. 412.23 Section 412.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Excluded From the Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient...

  10. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded hospitals: Classifications. 412.23 Section 412.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Excluded From the Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient...

  11. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded hospitals: Classifications. 412.23 Section 412.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Excluded From the Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient...

  12. 18 CFR 1308.4 - Coverage of certain excluded Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. 1308.4 Section 1308.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.4 Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. (a) A...

  13. 18 CFR 1308.4 - Coverage of certain excluded Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. 1308.4 Section 1308.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.4 Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. (a) A...

  14. 18 CFR 1308.4 - Coverage of certain excluded Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. 1308.4 Section 1308.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.4 Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. (a) A...

  15. 18 CFR 1308.4 - Coverage of certain excluded Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. 1308.4 Section 1308.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.4 Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. (a) A...

  16. 18 CFR 1308.4 - Coverage of certain excluded Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. 1308.4 Section 1308.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.4 Coverage of certain excluded Contractors. (a) A...

  17. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  18. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  19. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  20. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  1. 42 CFR 412.29 - Excluded rehabilitation units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded rehabilitation units: Additional... Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.29 Excluded rehabilitation units: Additional... paid under the prospective payment system specified in § 412.1(a)(3), a rehabilitation unit must...

  2. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public notice... charges against lands in Indian ownership operated under lease, does not apply in so far as payments are...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  4. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded...

  5. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded...

  6. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have been...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1013 Included-excluded rule. (a) If part of your work for an employer during a pay period is...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1013 Included-excluded rule. (a) If part of your work for an employer during a pay period is...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1013 Included-excluded rule. (a) If part of your work for an employer during a pay period is...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1013 Included-excluded rule. (a) If part of your work for an employer during a pay period is...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1013 - Included-excluded rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1013 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1013 Included-excluded rule. (a) If part of your work for an employer during a pay period is...

  12. 41 CFR 105-68.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 105-68.950 Section 105-68.950 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.950 Excluded...

  13. 41 CFR 105-68.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 105-68.945 Section 105-68.945 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.945 Excluded or...

  14. 41 CFR 105-68.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded Parties List System 105-68.950 Section 105-68.950 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.950 Excluded...

  15. 41 CFR 105-68.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 105-68.945 Section 105-68.945 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.945 Excluded or...

  16. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public notice...

  17. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master...

  18. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master...

  19. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master...

  20. 29 CFR 548.304 - Excluding value of lunches furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes as... employees to omit from the computation of overtime the cost of a free daily lunch or other single daily meal...

  1. 29 CFR 548.304 - Excluding value of lunches furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes as... employees to omit from the computation of overtime the cost of a free daily lunch or other single daily meal...

  2. 29 CFR 548.304 - Excluding value of lunches furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes as... employees to omit from the computation of overtime the cost of a free daily lunch or other single daily meal...

  3. Early Intervention and Prevention for Children Excluded from Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotopoulos, Christos; Kerfoot, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the problem of school exclusion in England has reached a crisis point. Figures on permanent exclusions from primary, secondary and special schools in England show that for 1996/97, 12 700 children were excluded. Among these, 12% were pupils permanently excluded from primary schools. When the present Labour Government came to…

  4. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  8. NanoE-Tox: New and in-depth database concerning ecotoxicity of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Juganson, Katre; Ivask, Angela; Blinova, Irina; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inevitably results in their higher concentrations in the environment. This may lead to undesirable environmental effects and thus warrants risk assessment. The ecotoxicity testing of a wide variety of ENMs rapidly evolving in the market is costly but also ethically questionable when bioassays with vertebrates are conducted. Therefore, alternative methods, e.g., models for predicting toxicity mechanisms of ENMs based on their physico-chemical properties (e.g., quantitative (nano)structure-activity relationships, QSARs/QNARs), should be developed. While the development of such models relies on good-quality experimental toxicity data, most of the available data in the literature even for the same test species are highly variable. In order to map and analyse the state of the art of the existing nanoecotoxicological information suitable for QNARs, we created a database NanoE-Tox that is available as Supporting Information File 1. The database is based on existing literature on ecotoxicology of eight ENMs with different chemical composition: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes, silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium dioxide (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and iron oxide (FeO x ; Fe2O3, Fe3O4). Altogether, NanoE-Tox database consolidates data from 224 articles and lists altogether 1,518 toxicity values (EC50/LC50/NOEC) with corresponding test conditions and physico-chemical parameters of the ENMs as well as reported toxicity mechanisms and uptake of ENMs in the organisms. 35% of the data in NanoE-Tox concerns ecotoxicity of Ag NPs, followed by TiO2 (22%), CeO2 (13%), and ZnO (10%). Most of the data originates from studies with crustaceans (26%), bacteria (17%), fish (13%), and algae (11%). Based on the median toxicity values of the most sensitive organism (data derived from three or more articles) the toxicity order was as follows: Ag > ZnO > CuO > CeO2 > CNTs > TiO2 > FeO x . We

  9. NanoE-Tox: New and in-depth database concerning ecotoxicity of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ivask, Angela; Blinova, Irina; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inevitably results in their higher concentrations in the environment. This may lead to undesirable environmental effects and thus warrants risk assessment. The ecotoxicity testing of a wide variety of ENMs rapidly evolving in the market is costly but also ethically questionable when bioassays with vertebrates are conducted. Therefore, alternative methods, e.g., models for predicting toxicity mechanisms of ENMs based on their physico-chemical properties (e.g., quantitative (nano)structure-activity relationships, QSARs/QNARs), should be developed. While the development of such models relies on good-quality experimental toxicity data, most of the available data in the literature even for the same test species are highly variable. In order to map and analyse the state of the art of the existing nanoecotoxicological information suitable for QNARs, we created a database NanoE-Tox that is available as Supporting Information File 1. The database is based on existing literature on ecotoxicology of eight ENMs with different chemical composition: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes, silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium dioxide (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and iron oxide (FeOx; Fe2O3, Fe3O4). Altogether, NanoE-Tox database consolidates data from 224 articles and lists altogether 1,518 toxicity values (EC50/LC50/NOEC) with corresponding test conditions and physico-chemical parameters of the ENMs as well as reported toxicity mechanisms and uptake of ENMs in the organisms. 35% of the data in NanoE-Tox concerns ecotoxicity of Ag NPs, followed by TiO2 (22%), CeO2 (13%), and ZnO (10%). Most of the data originates from studies with crustaceans (26%), bacteria (17%), fish (13%), and algae (11%). Based on the median toxicity values of the most sensitive organism (data derived from three or more articles) the toxicity order was as follows: Ag > ZnO > CuO > CeO2 > CNTs > TiO2 > FeOx. We

  10. Ecotoxicity assessment of lipid regulators in water and biologically treated wastewater using three aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Rosal, Roberto; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Boltes, Karina; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; Leganés, Francisco; Gonzalo, Soledad; Petre, Alice

    2010-01-01

    The high consumption of blood lipid regulators is leading to frequent reports of the occurrence of fibrates in natural streams and wastewater effluents. This paper describes a study undertaken to evaluate the acute toxicity of bezafibrate, clofibric acid, gemfibrozil, and fenofibric acid, a metabolite of fenofibrate whose ecotoxicity has not been previously reported. The bioassays used were based on Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Anabaena CPB4337 tests. Anabaena CPB4337 is a novel bioassay based on Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 strain CPB4337 bearing in the chromosome a Tn5 derivative with luxCDABE from the luminescent terrestrial bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The higher toxicity corresponded to fenofibric acid, with EC(50) as low as 1.72 mg/l for V. fischeri. Gemfibrozil was also toxic for Anabaena sp. with EC(50) of 4.42 mg/l. The study reports the results from toxicity tests using fortified real wastewater samples taken from the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. The wastewater itself was found to be very toxic to Anabaena CPB4337 (84% of bioluminescence inhibition) whereas it did not have any negative effect on D. magna or V. fischeri. On the contrary, V. fischeri luminescence exhibited a stimulatory effect in wastewater. Except for fenofibric acid, the Anabaena bioassay was more sensitive than the D. magna and V. fischeri bioassays to bezafibrate, clofibric acid, and gemfibrozil. For the three toxicity tests, fortification resulted in lower measured toxicity for the four compounds, probably indicating a reduced bioavailability due to the interaction with other chemicals in the wastewater or with particulate matter. The observed decrease in toxicity associated to the use of a wastewater matrix was higher for the more hydrophobic compounds reaching one order of magnitude for bezafibrate and gemfibrozil. The Anabaena CPB4337 bioassay revealed a certain risk associated with the three less toxic compounds tested. Based on V. fischeri and D. magna

  11. Comprehensive review of several surfactants in marine environments: Fate and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mathew; Eadsforth, Charles; Schowanek, Diederik; Delfosse, Thomas; Riddle, Andrew; Budgen, Nigel

    2016-05-01

    Surfactants are a commercially important group of chemicals widely used on a global scale. Despite high removal efficiencies during wastewater treatment, their high consumption volumes mean that a certain fraction will always enter aquatic ecosystems, with marine environments being the ultimate sites of deposition. Consequently, surfactants have been detected within marine waters and sediments. However, aquatic environmental studies have mostly focused on the freshwater environment, and marine studies are considerably underrepresented by comparison. The present review aims to provide a summary of current marine environmental fate (monitoring, biodegradation, and bioconcentration) and effects data of 5 key surfactant groups: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxysulfates, alkyl sulfates, alcohol ethoxylates, and ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride. Monitoring data are currently limited, especially for alcohol ethoxysulfates and alkyl sulfates. Biodegradation was shown to be considerably slower under marine conditions, whereas ecotoxicity studies suggest that marine species are approximately equally as sensitive to these surfactants as freshwater species. Marine bioconcentration studies are almost nonexistent. Current gaps within the literature are presented, thereby highlighting research areas where additional marine studies should focus.

  12. Acute and chronic ecotoxicity of carbaryl with a battery of aquatic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Hela; Burga-Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The ecotoxic effects of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) were investigated with a battery of four aquatic bioassays. The nominal effective concentrations immobilizing 50% of Daphnia magna (EC50) after 24 and 48 h were 12.76 and 7.47 µg L(-1), respectively. After 21 days of exposure of D. magna, LOECs (lowest observed effect concentrations) for cumulative molts and the number of neonates per surviving adult were observed at carbaryl concentration of 0.4 µg L(-1). An increase of embryo deformities (curved or unextended shell spines) was observed at 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1), revealing that carbaryl could act as an endocrine disruptor in D. magna. Other bioassays of the tested battery were less sensitive: the IC50-72h and IC10-72h of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were 5.96 and 2.87 mg L(-1), respectively. The LC50-6d of the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens was 4.84 mg L(-1). A growth inhibition of H. incongruens was registered after carbaryl exposure and the IC20-6d was 1.29 mg L(-1). Our results suggest that the daphnid test sensitivity was better than other used tests. Moreover, carbaryl has harmful and toxic effects on tested species because it acts at low concentrations on diverse life history traits of species and induce embryo deformities in crustaceans.

  13. Ecotoxicity by the biodegradation of alkylphenol polyethoxylates depends on the effect of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yudai; Hosoda, Akifumi; Sano, Fumihiko; Wakayama, Manabu; Niwa, Katsuki; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2010-01-27

    The bacteria Sphingomonas sp. strain BSN22, isolated from bean fields, degraded octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEO(n)) to octylphenol (OP) under aerobic conditions. This biodegradation mechanism proceeded by the following two-step degradation process: (1) degradation of OPEO(n) to octylphenol triethoxylate (OPEO(3)), (2) degradation from OPEO(3) to OP via octylphenoxy acetic acid (OPEC(1)). The chemical structure of OPEC(1) was confirmed by analysis using (18)O-labeled water. Quantitative studies revealed that magnesium (Mg(2+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) ions were essential for the biodegradation of OPEO(n). Furthermore, the rate of biodegradation was especially accelerated by ferric ions (Fe(3+)), and the accumulated amounts of endocrine active chemicals, such as OP, OPEO(1), and OPEC(1), significantly increased to the concentration of 22.8, 221.7, and 961.1 microM in the presence of 37.0 microM Fe(3+), respectively. This suggests that environmental elements significantly influence the resultant ecotoxicity as well as the rate of their biodegradation in the environment. This study on the mechanism of OPEO(n) biodegradation may play an important role in understanding and managing environmental safety, including drinking water safety.

  14. Aquatic Ecotoxicity Testing of Nanoparticles—The Quest To Disclose Nanoparticle Effects

    PubMed Central

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Hartmann, Nanna Bloch; Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of products on the market containing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has increased significantly, and concerns have been raised regarding their ecotoxicological effects. Environmental safety assessments as well as relevant and reliable ecotoxicological data are required for the safe and sustainable use of ENPs. Although the number of publications on the ecotoxicological effects and uptake of ENPs is rapidly expanding, the applicability of the reported data for hazard assessment is questionable. A major knowledge gap is whether nanoparticle effects occur when test organisms are exposed to ENPs in aquatic test systems. Filling this gap is not straightforward, because of the broad range of ENPs and the different behavior of ENPs compared to “ordinary” (dissolved) chemicals in the ecotoxicity test systems. The risk of generating false negatives, and false positives, in the currently used tests is high, and in most cases difficult to assess. This Review outlines some of the pitfalls in the aquatic toxicity testing of ENPs which may lead to misinterpretation of test results. Response types are also proposed to reveal potential nanoparticle effects in the aquatic test organisms. PMID:27564250

  15. Adapting the Vegetative Vigour Terrestrial Plant Test for assessing ecotoxicity of aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Kováts, Nora; Horváth, Eszter; Eck-Varanka, Bettina; Csajbók, Eszter; Hoffer, András

    2017-06-01

    Plants, being recognized to show high sensitivity to air pollution, have been long used to assess the ecological effects of airborne contaminants. However, many changes in vegetation are now generally attributed to atmospheric deposition of aerosol particles; the dose-effect relationships of this process are usually poorly known. In contrast to bioindication studies, ecotoxicological tests (or bioassays) are controlled and reproducible where ecological responses are determined quantitatively. In our study, the No. 227 OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals: Terrestrial Plant Test: Vegetative Vigour Test (hereinafter referred to as 'Guideline') was adapted and its applicability for assessing the ecotoxicity of water-soluble aerosol compounds of aerosol samples was evaluated. In the aqueous extract of the sample, concentration of metals, benzenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs was determined analytically. Cucumis sativus L. plants were sprayed with the aqueous extract of urban aerosol samples collected in a winter sampling campaign in Budapest. After the termination of the test, on day 22, the following endpoints were measured: fresh weight, shoot length and visible symptoms. The higher concentrations applied caused leaf necrosis due to toxic compounds found in the extract. On the other hand, the extract elucidated stimulatory effect at low concentration on both fresh weight and shoot length. The test protocol, based on the Guideline, seems sensitive enough to assess the phytotoxicity of aqueous extract of aerosol and to establish clear cause-effect relationship.

  16. Ecotoxicity of veterinary enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics on anuran amphibian larvae.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Paola M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Attademo, Andres M; Junges, Celina M; Teglia, Carla M; Martinuzzi, Candela; Curi, Lucila; Culzoni, María J; Goicoechea, Hector C

    2017-02-04

    The ecological risks posed by two β-diketone antibiotics (DKAs, enrofloxacin, ENR and ciprofloxacin, CPX), characterized by their long persistence in aqueous environments and known deleterious effect on model organisms such as zebrafish were analysed using Rhinella arenarum larvae. Sublethal tests were conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations of both ENR and CPX (1-1000μgL(-1)) under standard laboratory conditions for 96h. Biological endpoints and biomarkers evaluated were body size, shape, development and growth rates, and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, GST; Catalase, CAT). Risk assessment was analysed based on ration quotients (RQ). The size and shape measurements of the larvae exposed to concentrations greater than 10μgL(-1) of CPX were lower compared to controls (Dunnett post hoc p<0.05) and presented signs of emaciation. Concentrations of 1000μgL(-1)of CPX induced GST activity, in contrast with inhibited GST and CAT of larvae exposed to ENR. Risk assessments indicated that concentrations greater than or equal to10μgL(-1) of CPX and ENR are ecotoxic for development, growth, detoxifying, and oxidative stress enzymes. It is suggested that additional risk assessments may provide evidence of bioaccumulation of CPX and ENR in tissues or organs of amphibian larvae by mesocosm sediment test conditions. Finally, intestinal microbiome studies should be considered to establish the mechanisms of action of both antibiotics.

  17. Violacein/poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/chitosan nanoparticles against bovine mastistis: Antibacterial and ecotoxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, E.; Marcato, P. D.; Nakazato, G.; Kobayashi, R. K. T.; Vacchi, F. I.; Umbuzeiro, G. A.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    The nanocarrier was synthesized by nanoprecipitation, using poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) as polymer, Tween 80 as surfactant and the biopolymer chitosan (CS) as a charge modification agent. Charge, size and morphology were analyzed by zeta potential, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Bactericidal assays were carried out using a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, and the acute ecotoxicity tests were performed with Daphnia similis. The nanoparticle without CS (PCLnp) exhibited an average size of 200 nm and zeta potential of -4.28 mV, while the nanoparticle with 0.04% (w/v) of CS (CS_PCLnp) had 250 nm and +21.3 mV. Both were stables for at least 30 days. 200 μg mL-1 violacein was encapsulated in CS_PCLnp, which was dissolved in the polymer matrix, a shown by DSC analysis. The minimal inhibitory concentration against S. aureus of CS_PCLnp-vio was 25 μmol L-1, while for free violacein it was > 25 μmol L-1. Nanoparticles exhibited an EC50 between 0.3 - 1.1 μmol L-1 with Daphnia, while free violacein was around 3.3 - 5.0 μmol L-1. Thus, it was possible to control the charge of the nanoparticles, without extreme changes in size and that it is possible also to encapsulate a powerful antibactericidal compound such as violacein in nanoparticle.

  18. Ecotoxicity of Concretes with Granulated Slag from Gray Iron Pilot Production as Filler

    PubMed Central

    Hybská, Helena; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj; Balco, Karol; Mitterpach, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of aluminium oxide. Negative ecotoxicological tests are, therefore, one of the basic prerequisites for the ability to use granulated slag from gray iron pilot production. Granulated slag and concrete composite samples with various ratios of granulated slag have been subject to ecotoxicity tests: determining root growth inhibition in the highly-cultivated plant Sinapis alba, and determining acute toxicity in Daphnia magna. The results of ecotoxicological testing of granulated slag from gray iron standard production and gray iron pilot production with the additive were, according to the standard (STN 83 8303), negative. Additionally, the results of ecotoxicological tests of concrete composites were negative, with the exception of a 50% substitution of fine aggregate with slag from gray iron pilot production. PMID:28772864

  19. Ecotoxicity of engineered TiO2 nanoparticles to saltwater organisms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Minetto, D; Libralato, G; Volpi Ghirardini, A

    2014-05-01

    The innovative properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for various applications in many fields. In particular, TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) are widely used in paints, in cosmetics and in sunscreens that are products accessible to the mass market. Despite the great increase in the use of such nanomaterials, there is a paucity of general information about their potential effects to the aquatic species, especially to saltwater ones. Moreover, the difficulties of determining the effective exposure scenario make the acquired information low comparable. In this work, questions about the complexity of the real exposure scenario determination are discussed. The state of the art, concerning the experimental activities with nTiO2 toward the saltwater organisms is firstly illustrated, providing statistical information about the different matrices, organisms and nanoparticles employed. A comparison of the nTiO2 ecotoxicity effects, grouped by taxonomic classes, is provided illustrating their relative experimental conditions. Findings show the need to develop specific protocols for toxicity tests with ENPs to control the variability of experimental conditions. Some advices are finally proposed for the future experimental activities.

  20. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Overholt, Will A; Marks, Kala P; Romero, Isabel C; Hollander, David J; Snell, Terry W; Kostka, Joel E

    2015-11-06

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration.

  1. Chemical footprint method for improved communication of freshwater ecotoxicity impacts in the context of ecological limits.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, Anders; Diamond, Miriam; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-11-18

    The ecological footprint method has been successful in communicating environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities in the context of ecological limits. We introduce a chemical footprint method that expresses ecotoxicity impacts from anthropogenic chemical emissions as the dilution needed to avoid freshwater ecosystem damage. The indicator is based on USEtox characterization factors with a modified toxicity reference point. Chemical footprint results can be compared to the actual dilution capacity within the geographic vicinity receiving the emissions to estimate whether its ecological limit has been exceeded and hence whether emissions can be expected to be environmentally sustainable. The footprint method was illustrated using two case studies. The first was all inventoried emissions from European countries and selected metropolitan areas in 2004, which indicated that the dilution capacity was likely exceeded for most European countries and all landlocked metropolitan areas. The second case study indicated that peak application of pesticides alone was likely to exceed Denmark's freshwater dilution capacity in 1999-2011. The uncertainty assessment showed that better spatially differentiated fate factors would be useful and pointed out other major sources of uncertainty and some opportunities to reduce these.

  2. Monitoring ecotoxicity of disperse red 1 dye during photo-Fenton degradation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Leite, Laís; de Souza Maselli, Bianca; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Pupo Nogueira, Raquel F

    2016-04-01

    The present work assessed the ecotoxicity of the commercially available form of the azo dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) and the main degradation products generated during photo-Fenton degradation. The acute toxicity tests with the microcrustacean Daphnia similis showed that toxicity increased after 10 min of treatment, when 35% of the original concentration of the dye has been degraded but without decrease in total organic carbon concentration (TOC). The increase of toxicity was a consequence of generation of degradation products of higher toxicity than DR1, which achieved maximum concentration after 10 min reaction. The structures identified using LC/MS indicated that most of the intermediates were formed after addition of hydroxyl radical to benzenic ring but the cleavage of azo bond was also observed. The intermediates were further degraded and toxicity was then reduced to non toxic levels after 45 min experiment, when 98% of the initial concentration of DR1 was degraded and mineralization achieved 55%. The results of this study showed that the textile dye DR1 can be degraded by photo-Fenton process with removal of acute toxicity to D. similis even with incomplete mineralization.

  3. Ecotoxicity evaluation and removal of sulfonamides and their acetylated metabolites during conventional wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, María Jesús; González Blanco, Susana; López Roldán, Ramón; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Barceló, Damiá

    2012-10-15

    The present study describes the evaluation of the risk posed by the occurrence of sulfonamides (SAs) in wastewaters. A fully automated analytical method based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of sixteen SAs and, for the first time in wastewaters and sewage sludge, five of their acetylated metabolites. Influent and effluent samples from twenty two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Catalonia (Spain) and sewage sludge from fifteen of them were analyzed; removal rates (RE%) and half-lives (t(1/2)) for each SA were calculated. The estimated correlations between RE% and to the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the different plants indicated no clear influence of HRT on removals. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfapyridine (SPY) and their corresponding acetylated metabolites were detected with the highest frequencies of detection and at the highest concentrations. The ecotoxicity of both SPY and AcSPY was evaluated for the first time through bioluminescent inhibition assays, resulting in a higher toxicity being attributed to the metabolite. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by the levels of SAs detected was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target aquatic organisms in treated wastewaters. SMX was the only SA posing a risk to algae, with an HQ>10. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The ecotoxicity of graphene family materials: current status, knowledge gaps and future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrzębska, Agnieszka Maria; Olszyna, Andrzej Roman

    2015-01-01

    Recently, graphene family materials (GFMs) have been introduced among all fields of science and still get numerous attention. Also, the applicability of these materials in many areas makes them very attractive. GFMs have attracted both academic and industrial interest as they can produce a dramatic improvement in materials properties at very low filler content. The aim of this review is to identify, summarize, and present the first available information on the influence of GFMs on soil and water environment as well as identify the knowledge gaps and indicate the directions for the next generation of the original scientific investigations. The paper also presents our first preliminary impact assessment and potential pathways of GFMs distribution in the environment. We used as an example the reduced graphene oxide/Al2O3 nanocomposite (RGO/Al2O3) that has been previously designed and synthesized by us. Authors believe that further work should focus on improvement of characterization methodology applicable for ecotoxicity analyses and possible interactions between GFMs and different living ecosystems. Consequently, the potential impact of graphene and its derivatives on environmental health is a matter of academic interest. However, potential hazards sufficient for risk assessment and concerned with GFMs usage in consumer products first need to be investigated and identified. Further research should focus on gathering knowledge on GFMs properties for life cycle analyses, which still poses a great challenge for scientists.

  5. Formation and Ecotoxicity of N-Heterocyclic Compounds on Ammoxidation of Mono- and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidation of technical lignins under mild conditions is a suitable approach to artificial humic substances. However, carbohydrates as common minor constituents of technical lignins have been demonstrated to be a potential source of N-heterocyclic ecotoxic compounds. Ethyl acetate extracts of ammoxidation mixtures of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose exhibited considerable growth inhibiting activity in the OECD 201 test, with 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-imidazole, and 3-hydroxypyridine being the most active compounds. The amount of N-heterocyclic compounds formed at moderate ammoxidation conditions (70 °C, 0.2 MPa O2, 3 h) was significantly lower for the polysaccharides cellulose and xylan (16–30 μg/g of educt) compared to glucose (15.4 mg). Ammoxidation at higher temperature is not recommendable for carbohydrate-rich materials as much higher amounts of N-heterocyclic compounds were formed from both monosaccharides (100 °C: 122.4–160.5 mg/g of educt) and polysaccharides (140 °C: 5.52–16.03 mg/g of educt). PMID:23967874

  6. Evaluation of an eventual ecotoxicity induced by textile effluents using a battery of biotests.

    PubMed

    Bedoui, Ahmed; Tigini, Valeria; Ghedira, Kamel; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Chekir Ghedira, Leila

    2015-11-01

    Textile industry is considered as one of the important factors of the economic growth in Tunisia. However, this prominent role has certainly some drawbacks mainly represented by the huge amounts of textile wastewaters generated that become a real menace to nature. Many previous studies showed the purifying potential of some activated sludge and bacteria (Pseudomonas putida) to decolourize textile effluents. However, in many cases, decolourization of wastewaters is not necessary associated with detoxification, generating a real risk for the ecosystem in general. We evaluated in this work the induced toxicity of a textile effluent before and after its treatment with activated sludge followed by P. putida, using a battery of biotests. This study proved the detoxifying power of the activated sludge according to most of ecotoxicity tests. The treatment with P. putida did not improve the quality of the effluent; on the contrary, it could increase its toxicity. Daphnia magna and Raphidocelis subcapitata appear to be the most sensitive organisms in assessing eventual toxicity caused by this kind of wastewaters.

  7. Complex evaluation of ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine used in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Zounková, Radka; Klimešová, Zdeňka; Nepejchalová, Leona; Hilscherová, Klára; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of widely used veterinary antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine was studied with six model organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Lemna minor, Daphnia magna, Escherichia coli). Overall median effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.22 mg/L to 86 mg/L. Pseudomonas putida was the most sensitive organism (EC50 values for 16-h growth inhibition were 0.22 and 0.82 mg/L for oxytetracycline and flumequine, respectively), followed by duckweed Lemna minor (7-d growth inhibition, EC50 2.1 and 3.0 mg/L) and green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (4-d growth inhibition, EC50 3.1 and 2.6 mg/L). The least sensitive organism was Daphnia magna (48-h immobilization, lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC] of oxytetracycline of 400 mg/L). Oxytetracycline showed limited genotoxicity (SOS-chromotest with Escherichia coli, minimal genotoxic concentration of 500 mg/L), and flumequine was genotoxic at 0.25 mg/L. Based on the reported measured concentrations (MECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), oxytetracycline may be concluded to be of ecotoxicological concern (calculated risk quotient = 8), whereas flumequine seems to represent lower risk.

  8. Identification and ecotoxicity of degradation products of chloroacetamide herbicides from UV-treatment of water.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Yasmine; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Bourcier, Sophie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Sablier, Michel; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-08-01

    The widespread occurrence of chlorinated herbicides and their degradation products in the aquatic environment raises health and environmental concerns. As a consequence pesticides, and to a lesser degree their degradation products, are monitored by authorities both in surface waters and drinking waters. In this study the formation of degradation products from ultraviolet (UV) treatment of the three chloroacetamide herbicides acetochlor, alachlor and metolachlor and their biological effects were investigated. UV treatment is mainly used for disinfection in water and wastewater treatments. First, the chemical structures of the main UV-degradation products were identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main transformation reactions were dechlorination, mono- and multi-hydroxylation and cyclizations. The ecotoxicity of the mixed photoproducts formed by UV-treatment until 90% of the original pesticide was converted was compared to the toxicity of chloroacetamides using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri as test organisms. UV-treatment of alachlor and metolachlor increased the toxicity compared to the parent compounds while an equal toxicity was found for photolysis products of acetochlor. This suggests that toxic photodegradation products are generated from chloroacetamides under UV-treatment. An important perspective of this finding is that the photolysis products are at least as toxic as the parent compounds.

  9. Comparative ecotoxicity of imidacloprid and dinotefuran to aquatic insects in rice mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Koji; Harada, Takaaki; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Mori, Miho; Ihara, Makoto; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2017-04-01

    There are growing concerns about the impacts of neonicotinoid insecticides on ecosystems worldwide, and yet ecotoxicity of many of these chemicals at community or ecosystem levels have not been evaluated under realistic conditions. In this study, effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, on aquatic insect assemblages were evaluated in experimental rice mesocosms. During the 5-month period of the rice-growing season, residual concentrations of imidacloprid were 5-10 times higher than those of dinotefuran in both soil and water. Imidacloprid treatment (10kg/ha) reduced significantly the populations of, Crocothemis servilia mariannae and Lyriothemis pachygastra nymphs, whereas those of Orthetrum albistylum speciosum increased slightly throughout the experimental period. However, Notonecta triguttata, which numbers were high from the start, later declined, indicating possible delayed chronic toxicity, while Guignotus japonicus disappeared. In contrast, dinotefuran (10kg/ha) did not decrease the populations of any species, but rather increased the abundance of some insects, particularly Chironominae spp. larvae and C. servilia mariannae nymphs, with the latter being 1.7x higher than those of controls. This was an indirect effect resulting from increased prey (e.g., chironomid larvae) and lack of competition with other dragonfly species. The susceptibilities of dragonfly nymphs to neonicotinoids, particularly imidacloprid, were consistent with those reported elsewhere. In general, imidacloprid had higher impacts on aquatic insects compared to dinotefuran.

  10. Development of QSAR model to predict the ecotoxicity of Vibrio fischeri using COSMO-RS descriptors.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Ouahid Ben; Mutalib, M I Abdul; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; El-Harbawi, Mohanad

    2017-03-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are class of solvent whose properties can be modified and tuned to meet industrial requirements. However, a high number of potentially available cations and anions leads to an even increasing members of newly-synthesized ionic liquids, adding to the complexity of understanding on their impact on aquatic organisms. Quantitative structure activity∖property relationship (QSAR∖QSPR) technique has been proven to be a useful method for toxicity prediction. In this work,σ-profile descriptors were used to build linear and non-linear QSAR models to predict the ecotoxicities of a wide variety of ILs towards bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Linear model was constructed using five descriptors resulting in high accuracy prediction of 0.906. The model performance and stability were ascertained using k-fold cross validation method. The selected descriptors set from the linear model was then used in multilayer perceptron (MLP) technique to develop the non-linear model, the accuracy of the model was further enhanced achieving high correlation coefficient with the lowest value being 0.961 with the highest mean square error of 0.157.

  11. Multiple linear and principal component regressions for modelling ecotoxicity bioassay response.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana I; Pires, José C M; Figueiredo, Sónia A; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2014-01-01

    The ecotoxicological response of the living organisms in an aquatic system depends on the physical, chemical and bacteriological variables, as well as the interactions between them. An important challenge to scientists is to understand the interaction and behaviour of factors involved in a multidimensional process such as the ecotoxicological response. With this aim, multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression were applied to the ecotoxicity bioassay response of Chlorella vulgaris and Vibrio fischeri in water collected at seven sites of Leça river during five monitoring campaigns (February, May, June, August and September of 2006). The river water characterization included the analysis of 22 physicochemical and 3 microbiological parameters. The model that best fitted the data was MLR, which shows: (i) a negative correlation with dissolved organic carbon, zinc and manganese, and a positive one with turbidity and arsenic, regarding C. vulgaris toxic response; (ii) a negative correlation with conductivity and turbidity and a positive one with phosphorus, hardness, iron, mercury, arsenic and faecal coliforms, concerning V. fischeri toxic response. This integrated assessment may allow the evaluation of the effect of future pollution abatement measures over the water quality of Leça River.

  12. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.27 Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. In order to...

  13. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.27 Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. In order to...

  14. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.27 Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. In order to...

  15. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.27 Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. In order to...

  16. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital... Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.27 Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. In order to...

  17. 1 CFR 19.5 - Proclamations of treaties excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... treaties excluded. Consonant with the provisions of chapter 15 of title 44 of the United States Code (44 U..., protocols, or other international agreements, or proclamations thereof by the President....

  18. Ecotoxicity evaluation of an amended soil contaminated with uranium and radium using sensitive plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, M. M.; Lopes, J.; Magalhães, M. C. F.; Santos, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the centre-north granitic regions of Portugal, during the twenty century radium and uranium were exploited from approximately 60 mines. The closure of all uranium mines, in 2001, raised concerns regarding the possible chemical and radiological effects on the inhabitants health around the mine areas. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments and organic hydroxiapatite in the ecotoxicity reduction of agricultural soils contaminated with uranium and radium, by germination and growth tests of two sensitive plants (Lactuca sativa L. and Zea mays L.). Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during two months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Fluvisol from Urgeiriça region containing large concentration of Utotal (635 mg/kg) and 226Ra (2310 Bq/kg) was used. The soil available fraction, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to 90% and 25% of total concentration of Utotal and 226Ra, respectively. Fine ground bone (FB) and sheep manure (OM) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Four treatments, plus control were carried out in triplicate: (A) soil+40 Mg/ha of FB; (B) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM; (C) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+40 Mg/ha of FB; (D) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+20 Mg/ha of FB. After the incubation moist soils were kept at 4-5 °C and subsamples were used for leachates extraction following DIN 38414-S4 method. Maize and lettuce seeds were sown in filter paper moistened with the leachates aqueous solutions and in the moist soil for germination and growth tests. Seedlings after three days of germination were used for growth tests in hydroponic, during seven days, using the leachates. Five seeds per replicate were used. Soil presented: pH(H2O)=5.15, EC=7.3 µS/cm; and Corgnic=12.5 g/kg. After two months of incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.53 in amended samples, and EC showed a dramatic increase when compared to the control (0.398 dS/m), from 1.5 dS/m (treatment-A) to 4.7 d

  19. An ecotoxic risk assessment of residue materials produced by the plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) process.

    PubMed

    Lapa, N; Santos, Oliveira J F; Camacho, S L; Circeo, L J

    2002-01-01

    Plasma is the fourth state of matter, following the three states of solid, liquid and gas. Experience has amply demonstrated that solids exposed to the oxygen-deficient plasma flame are converted to liquid, and liquid exposed to the same flame is converted to gas. A low amount of vitrified solid residue material usually remains at the end of this process. Plasma pyrolysis/vitrification (PP/V) has been demonstrated as a safe, efficient, cost-effective technology for the treatment of wastes, including hazardous wastes. Besides the low amounts of gaseous byproducts that PP/V produces, the solid vitrified residue presents a low leachability of pollutants. Studies have been performed in many countries in order to assess the leachability of chemical substances. But from the results of identified studies, none has reported results on the ecotoxicological properties of the leachates. The aim of this study was to contribute to the assessment of ecotoxic risk of four different vitrified materials. Vitrified samples of contaminated soils, municipal solid wastes, and incinerator bottom ashes were submitted to the European leaching pre-standard test number prEN 12457-2. The leachates were analyzed for 22 chemical parameters. The biological characterization comprised the assessment of bioluminescence inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum bacterium, growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae and the germination inhibition of Lactuca sativa vegetable. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Toxicity (CEMWT) and a Toxicity Classification System (TCS). The chemical and ecotoxicological results indicated a low leachability of pollutants and a low toxicity level of leachates. All samples studied were as below the TCS class 1 level (no significant toxicity observed) and as non-ecotoxic for CEMWT. Therefore, the environmental ecotoxic risk of the analyzed vitrified samples

  20. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    PubMed

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p < 0.05) as conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species.

  1. Ecotoxicity of silica nanoparticles to the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: importance of surface area.

    PubMed

    Van Hoecke, Karen; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Van der Meeren, Paul; Lucas, Stéphane; Janssen, Colin R

    2008-09-01

    To date, (eco)toxicological information on industrial nanoparticles is very limited. In the present study, the hypothesis that the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is related to their surface area and not to their mass was tested using a freshwater green algal species. Particle diameter and morphology were assessed using light scattering and electron microscopy techniques. To assess the toxicity of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles, the growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata when exposed to stable silica suspensions was monitored. Commercial LUDOX suspensions of nanoparticles with 12.5 and 27.0 nm diameter were found to be toxic, with 72-h 20% effect concentrations for growth rate (E(r)C20) values +/- standard deviation (n = 5) of 20.0 +/- 5.0 and 28.8 +/- 3.2 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity was attributable to the solid nanospheres, because no aggregation was observed and dissolution of the nanoparticles was negligible. When expressing the concentration as a surface area, the difference in toxicity was not significant. In the latter case, 72-h E(r)C20 values +/- standard deviation (n = 5) were 4.7 +/- 1.2 and 3.9 +/- 0.4 m2/L. Silica bulk material was found to be nontoxic up to 1 g/L. In an additional experiment with 100 mg/L of 12.5 and 27.0 nm SiO2 NPs, the interaction between the nanoparticles and algal cells was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Although the particles clearly adhered to the outer cell surface, no evidence was found for particle uptake.

  2. Ecotoxicity of fluvial sediments downstream of the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Klebercz, Orsolya; Mayes, William M; Ánton, Aron Dániel; Feigl, Viktória; Jarvis, Adam P; Gruiz, Katalin

    2012-08-01

    An integrated assessment of biological activity and ecotoxicity of fluvial sediments in the Marcal river catchment (3078 km(2)), western Hungary, is presented following the accidental spill of bauxite processing residue (red mud) in Ajka. Red mud contaminated sediments are characterised by elevated pH, elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. As, Co, Cr, V), high exchangeable Na, and induce an adverse effect on test species across a range of trophic levels. While background contamination of the river system is highlighted by adverse effects on some test species at sites unaffected by red mud, the most pronounced toxic effects apparent in Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition, Lemna minor bioassay and Sinapis alba root and shoot growth occur at red mud depositional hotspots in the lower Torna Creek and upper Marcal. Heterocypris incongruens bioassays show no clear patterns, although the most red mud-rich sites do exert an adverse effect. Red mud does however appear to induce an increase in the density of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial communities when compared with unaffected sediments and reference sites. Given the volume of material released in the spill, it is encouraging that the signal of the red mud on aquatic biota is visible at a relatively small number of sites. Gypsum-affected samples appear to induce an adverse effect in some bioassays (Sinapis alba and Heterocypris incongruens), which may be a feature of fine grain size, limited nutrient supply and greater availability of trace contaminants in the channel reaches that are subject to intense gypsum dosing. Implications for monitoring and management of the spill are discussed.

  3. Terrestrial ecotoxicity and effect factors of metals in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Haye, Sébastien; Slaveykova, Vera I; Payet, Jérôme

    2007-07-01

    Life cycle impact assessment aims to translate the amounts of substance emitted during the life cycle of a product into a potential impact on the environment, which includes terrestrial ecosystems. This work suggests some possible improvements in assessing the toxicity of metals on soil ecosystems in life cycle assessment (LCA). The current available data on soil ecotoxicity allow one to calculate the chronic terrestrial HC50(EC50) (hazardous concentration affecting 50% of the species at their EC50 level, i.e. the level where 50% of the individuals of the species are affected) of nine metals and metalloids (As(III) or (V), Be(II), Cr(III) or (VI), Sb(III) or (V), Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II)). Contrarily to what is generally advised in LCIA, the terrestrial HC50 of metals shall not be extrapolated from the aquatic HC50, using the Equilibrium Partitioning method since the partition coefficient (K(d)) of metals is highly variable. The experimental ecotoxicology generally uses metallic salts to contaminate artificial soils but the comparison of the EC50 or NOEC obtained for the same metal with different salts reveals that the kind of salt used insignificantly influences these values. In contrast, depending on the metallic fraction of concern, the EC50 may vary, as for cadmium: the EC50 of Folsomia candida, expressed as free Cd in pore water is almost 2.5 orders of magnitude lower than that expressed as total metal. A similar result is obtained with Eisenia fetida, confirming the importance of metals speciation in assessing their impact on soils. By ranking the metals according to the difference between their terrestrial and aquatic HC50 values, two groups are distinguished, which match the hard soft acids and bases (HSAB) concept. This allows to estimate their affinity for soil components and potential toxicity according to their chemical characteristics.

  4. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Contaminated Dredged Material with the Marine Amphipod Corophium volutator

    PubMed

    Ciarelli; Vonck; van Straalen NM; Stronkhorst

    1998-05-01

    The incorporation of toxicological data from bioassays can improve the present system of sediment quality criteria in the Netherlands. The use of acute lethality toxicity tests alone does not however provide sufficient discrimination and sensitivity for predicting ecological effects of slightly and moderately contaminated dredged material. Sublethal endpoints are needed for the assessment of environmental hazards of such dredged material. In this study, two approaches were used to identify toxicity of marine sediments collected from 16 locations classified as "slightly and moderately contaminated" on the basis of chemical data: (1) a comparison of growth vs. mortality as different endpoints in the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas); (2) an investigation on the use of sediment dilutions to characterize the degree of toxicity. The influence of sediment storage time on toxicity was also evaluated. In four out of 16 locations, mortality over 10 days of exposure ranged 80-100%; in two out of 16 locations mortality ranged 40-60%. In the other 10 locations, mortality was below 15%. Results on growth showed that in all locations final dry weight values were significantly lower (a factor of 1.5 to 3) than in controls. Results of dilution experiments showed that if sediments were diluted with a reference sediment of similar physicochemical characteristics, total concentrations of metals, mineral oil, and PAHs decreased as expected and so did the effects on C. volutator. In the 100% contaminated sediments growth was reduced by 32-60% compared to controls. The dilution rate necessary to reduce toxicity to the EC10 value for growth of C. volutator was considered an appropriate endpoint for the evaluation. When sediments were stored for a period of 3-5 months at 4 degreesC and retested, effects on mortality and growth decreased, although some effects on growth were still measured after 5 months of storage. The experiments illustrate the usefulness of ecotoxicity

  5. Ecotoxicity test methods for engineered nanomaterials: practical experiences and recommendations from the bench.

    PubMed

    Handy, Richard D; Cornelis, Geert; Fernandes, Teresa; Tsyusko, Olga; Decho, Alan; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Metcalfe, Chris; Steevens, Jeffery A; Klaine, Stephen J; Koelmans, Albert A; Horne, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Ecotoxicology research is using many methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the collective experience from researchers has not been documented. This paper reports the practical issues for working with ENMs and suggests nano-specific modifications to protocols. The review considers generic practical issues, as well as specific issues for aquatic tests, marine grazers, soil organisms, and bioaccumulation studies. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are adequate, but electrodes are problematic. The maintenance of exposure concentration is challenging, but can be achieved with some ENMs. The need to characterize the media during experiments is identified, but rapid analytical methods are not available to do this. The use of sonication and natural/synthetic dispersants are discussed. Nano-specific biological endpoints may be developed for a tiered monitoring scheme to diagnose ENM exposure or effect. A case study of the algal growth test highlights many small deviations in current regulatory test protocols that are allowed (shaking, lighting, mixing methods), but these should be standardized for ENMs. Invertebrate (Daphnia) tests should account for mechanical toxicity of ENMs. Fish tests should consider semistatic exposure to minimize wastewater and animal husbandry. The inclusion of a benthic test is recommended for the base set of ecotoxicity tests with ENMs. The sensitivity of soil tests needs to be increased for ENMs and shortened for logistics reasons; improvements include using Caenorhabditis elegans, aquatic media, and metabolism endpoints in the plant growth tests. The existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed and require considerable modification, or a new test, to work for ENMs. Overall, most methodologies need some amendments, and recommendations are made to assist researchers. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Overholt, Will A.; Marks, Kala P.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snell, Terry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  7. How reliable are data for the ecotoxicity of trivalent chromium to Daphnia magna?

    PubMed

    Ponti, Benedetta; Bettinetti, Roberta; Dossi, Carlo; Vignati, Davide Anselmo Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Risk assessments from the European Union and the World Health Organization report values for acute and chronic toxicity of Cr(III) to Daphnia magna in the range of 0.6 mg/L to 111 mg/L and 0.047 mg/L to 3.4 mg/L, respectively. To understand whether factors other than the use of different test media and data reporting contribute to this variability, the authors tested the acute (48-h) and chronic (21-d) toxicities of Cr(III) to D. magna according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) methods. Filterable (0.45-µm) chromium concentrations were measured at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h, the latter value corresponding to the total duration of the acute tests and to the interval between medium renewals in chronic tests. In highly alkaline media (4.9 meq/L), Cr concentrations decreased rapidly below the analytical detection limit, and no toxicity was observed. In less alkaline media (approximately 0.8 meq/L), the decrease in filterable Cr concentrations was inversely proportional to the quantity of added Cr(III). The authors concluded that existing data likely underestimate the ecotoxicity of Cr(III) to D. magna. A reliable assessment of the hazard of Cr(III) to D. magna must consider that exposure concentrations can decrease markedly from the beginning to the end of a test and that medium alkalinity strongly influences the outcome of laboratory toxicity tests.

  8. Assessment of four calculation methods proposed by the EC for waste hazardous property HP 14 'Ecotoxic'.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Humez, Nicolas; Conche, Isabelle; Bishop, Ian; Rebischung, Flore

    2016-02-01

    established as well, that is when the waste is classified "H" in the LoW and "NH" by calculation (i.e. an under-estimation of the hazard). For Data Set #1, Method 2 with extended M-factors matches best with the LoW (80% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 13% discordant for H waste by LoW). This method more correctly classifies wastes containing substances with high ecotoxicity. Methods 1 and 3 have nearly as good matches (76% and 72% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 13% and 6% respectively discordant for H waste by LoW). Method 2 with extended M-factors, but limited to the M-factors published in the CLP has insufficient concordance (64% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 50% discordant for H waste by LoW). As the same method with extended M-factors gives the best performance, the lower performance is due to the limited set of M-factors in the CLP. Method 4 is divergent (60% concordant H and non-H by LoW, and 56% discordant for H waste by LoW). For Data Set #2, Methods 2 and 4 do not correctly classify 24 air pollution control residues from incineration 19 01 07(∗) (3/24 and 2/24 respectively), and should not be used, while Methods 3, 1 and 2 with extended M-factors successfully classify 100% of them as hazardous. From the two sets of data, Method 2 with extended M-factors (corresponding more closely to the CLP methods used for products) matches best with the LoW when the LoW code is safely known, and Method 3 and 1 will deviate from the LoW if the samples contain substances with high ecotoxicity (in particular PAHs). Methods 2 and 4 are not recommended. Formally, this conclusion depends on the waste streams that are used for the comparison of methods and the relevancy of the classification as hazardous for ecotoxicity in the LoW. Since the set is large (120 waste streams) and no selection has been made here in the available data, the conclusion should be robust.

  9. Should genes with missing data be excluded from phylogenetic analyses?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Si-Yun; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Wiens, John J

    2014-11-01

    Phylogeneticists often design their studies to maximize the number of genes included but minimize the overall amount of missing data. However, few studies have addressed the costs and benefits of adding characters with missing data, especially for likelihood analyses of multiple loci. In this paper, we address this topic using two empirical data sets (in yeast and plants) with well-resolved phylogenies. We introduce varying amounts of missing data into varying numbers of genes and test whether the benefits of excluding genes with missing data outweigh the costs of excluding the non-missing data that are associated with them. We also test if there is a proportion of missing data in the incomplete genes at which they cease to be beneficial or harmful, and whether missing data consistently bias branch length estimates. Our results indicate that adding incomplete genes generally increases the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses relative to excluding them, especially when there is a high proportion of incomplete genes in the overall dataset (and thus few complete genes). Detailed analyses suggest that adding incomplete genes is especially helpful for resolving poorly supported nodes. Given that we find that excluding genes with missing data often decreases accuracy relative to including these genes (and that decreases are generally of greater magnitude than increases), there is little basis for assuming that excluding these genes is necessarily the safer or more conservative approach. We also find no evidence that missing data consistently bias branch length estimates.

  10. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  11. Enlargement of the Excluded Left Atrial Appendage With Thrombus.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Tobinaga, Satoru; Saisho, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-07

    We report progressive enlargement of the excluded left atrial appendage (LAA) with a thrombus in a patient who had undergone valve surgery and endocardial suture closure of the LAA previously. Echocardiography and CT detected no communication between the LAA and the left atrium. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the LAA was filled with fresh and old thrombi. Coronary arteriography demonstrated small left coronary artery-LAA fistulae. At surgery, successful exclusion of the LAA was confirmed after removal of the thrombi. Persistent inflow of blood through the coronary artery fistulae to the excluded LAA may be the primary mechanism of this pathology.

  12. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  13. Excluded Volume Approach for Ultrathin Carbon Nanotube Network Stabilization: A Mesoscopic Distinct Element Method Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezhou; Drozdov, Grigorii; Hobbie, Erik K; Dumitrica, Traian

    2017-04-04

    Ultrathin carbon nanotube films have gathered attention for flexible electronics applications. Unfortunately, their network structure changes significantly even under small applied strains. We perform mesoscopic distinct element method simulations and develop an atomic-scale picture of the network stress relaxation. On this basis, we put forward the concept of mesoscale design by the addition of excluded-volume interactions. We integrate silicon nanoparticles into our model and show that the nanoparticle-filled networks present superior stability and mechanical response relative to those of pure films. The approach opens new possibilities for tuning the network microstructure in a manner that is compatible with flexible electronics applications.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) prediction of (eco)toxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as a group of very promising compounds due to their excellent properties (practical non-volatility, high thermal stability and very good and diverse solving capacity). The ILs have a good prospect of replacing traditional organic solvents in vast variety of applications. However, the complete information on their environmental impact is still not available. There is also an enormous number of possible combinations of anions and cations which can form ILs, the fact that requires a method allowing the prediction of toxicity of existing and potential ILs. In this study, a group contribution QSAR model has been used in order to predict the (eco)toxicity of protic and aprotic ILs for five tests (Microtox®, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor growth inhibition test, and Acetylcholinestherase inhibition and Cell viability assay with IPC-81 cells). The predicted and experimental toxicity are well correlated. A prediction of EC50 for these (eco)toxicity tests has also been made for eight representatives of the new family of short aliphatic protic ILs, whose toxicity has not been determined experimentally to date. The QSAR model applied in this study can allow the selection of potentially less toxic ILs amongst the existing ones (e.g. in the case of aprotic ILs), but it can also be very helpful in directing the synthesis efforts toward developing new "greener" ILs respectful with the environment (e.g. short aliphatic protic ILs).

  15. Interspecies quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for eco-toxicity screening of chemicals: the role of physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Hasunuma, K; Aoki, Y

    2015-01-01

    In addition to molecular structure profiles, descriptors based on physicochemical properties are useful for explaining the eco-toxicities of chemicals. In a previous study we reported that a criterion based on the difference between the partition coefficient (log POW) and distribution coefficient (log D) values of chemicals enabled us to identify aromatic amines and phenols for which interspecies relationships with strong correlations could be developed for fish-daphnid and algal-daphnid toxicities. The chemicals that met the log D-based criterion were expected to have similar toxicity mechanisms (related to membrane penetration). Here, we investigated the applicability of log D-based criteria to the eco-toxicity of other kinds of chemicals, including aliphatic compounds. At pH 10, use of a log POW - log D > 0 criterion and omission of outliers resulted in the selection of more than 100 chemicals whose acute fish toxicities or algal growth inhibition toxicities were almost equal to their acute daphnid toxicities. The advantage of log D-based criteria is that they allow for simple, rapid screening and prioritizing of chemicals. However, inorganic molecules and chemicals containing certain structural elements cannot be evaluated, because calculated log D values are unavailable.

  16. Analysis of the ecotoxicity data submitted within the framework of the REACH Regulation. Part 2. Experimental aquatic toxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Jose V; Sobanska, Marta A; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Sobanski, Tomasz; Bonnomet, Vincent; Versonnen, Bram; De Coen, Wim

    2014-02-15

    This paper summarises the aquatic ecotoxicity data submitted in the REACH(1) registration dossiers and disseminated by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA(2)). The analysis describes both the guidelines and the species mostly used by registrants. Non-OECD guidelines have been extensively used, in particular in covering of fish and aquatic invertebrate studies, but the main concern is that in 22-36% of the cases, depending on the endpoint, no information on the methodological approach and potential equivalences to test guidelines has been provided. As expected, most studies were conducted with those species typically used in laboratory ecotoxicity testing; nevertheless, the database provides a broad range of available species, covering the most relevant taxonomic groups for both freshwater and marine systems, although most are just occasionally used. This species diversity is essential for higher tier testing strategies, including the use of Species Sensitivity Distribution approaches. The assessment suggests that collecting available information has been the main approach used by registrants to fulfil their REACH information requirements for this first REACH registration deadline. Many studies are disclosed for the first time, and all are available through searchable web tools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new quality assurance system for the evaluation of ecotoxicity studies submitted under the New Substances Notification Regulations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Breton, Roger L; Gilron, Guy; Thompson, Ryan; Rodney, Sara; Teed, Scott

    2009-01-01

    New substances destined for import into, or manufacture in, Canada must be reported to Environment Canada and Health Canada under the New Substances Notification Regulations (Chemicals and Polymers) (NSNR). With the use of information provided by the notifier, and other complementary information available to the 2 departments, the New Substances Program conducts ecological and human health risk assessments. Over the past 10 y, more than 750 ecotoxicity studies have been submitted to the New Substances Program of Environment Canada under the NSNR. Most of these experimental studies are not publicly available but are useful in the ecological risk assessment of new substances and for the development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). In this paper, we describe the development and validation of a computer-based scoring system and our approach in the development of scoring methods used to assess the quality and usability of ecotoxicity studies with fish, Daphnia spp., and green algae. Results of ranking exercises conducted with these methods are described and discussed, together with the potential use of these results in a regulatory context. In addition, the methods are discussed in comparison with other similar evaluation schemes described in the literature.

  18. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded hospitals: Classifications. 412.23 Section 412.23 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... trauma. (F) Fracture of femur (hip fracture). (G) Brain injury. (H) Neurological disorders,...

  19. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  20. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  1. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  2. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  3. 42 CFR 1001.2001 - Notice of intent to exclude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of intent to exclude. 1001.2001 Section 1001.2001 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Notice and Appeals § 1001.2001 Notice...

  4. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...

  5. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...

  6. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  10. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an excluded position? 894.302 Section 894.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an...

  11. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is an excluded position? 894.302 Section 894.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an...

  12. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is an excluded position? 894.302 Section 894.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an...

  13. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a) A... United States income taxes which would otherwise be imposed on its shareholders. If this is established...

  14. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a) A... United States income taxes which would otherwise be imposed on its shareholders. If this is established...

  15. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a) A... United States income taxes which would otherwise be imposed on its shareholders. If this is established...

  16. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a) A... United States income taxes which would otherwise be imposed on its shareholders. If this is established...

  17. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a) A... United States income taxes which would otherwise be imposed on its shareholders. If this is established...

  18. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201 Solid...

  19. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201 Solid...

  20. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201 Solid...

  1. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    presence of hemoglobin. Bilirubin theoretically shows more promise for differentiating traumatic lumbar puncture from subarachnoid hemorrhage , with...Keywords: CSF, subarachnoid hemorrhage , lumbar puncture, urine test strip Preferred Citation: Marshall RA, Hejamanowski C. Urine Test Strips to Exclude...their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in headache patients. Current

  2. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master of...

  3. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master of...

  4. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  6. 41 CFR 105-56.002 - Excluded debts or claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjustment. (f) Debts or claims arising from the accrual of unpaid Health Benefits Insurance (HBI) premiums as the result of an employee's election to continue health insurance coverage during periods of leave... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded debts or claims...

  7. 32 CFR 220.6 - Certain payers excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain payers excluded. 220.6 Section 220.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.6...

  8. 32 CFR 220.6 - Certain payers excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain payers excluded. 220.6 Section 220.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.6...

  9. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201 Solid...

  10. 48 CFR 9.404 - Excluded Parties List System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... List System. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA)— (1) Operates the web-based Excluded Parties... action; (5) Termination date for each listing; (6) DUNS No.; (7) Social Security Number (SSN), Employer... EPLS, via the support e-mail address or on the technical support phone line available at the EPLS web...

  11. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1986 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self- administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave…

  12. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  13. University Benefits Survey: Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Information on all benefits, excluding pensions, provided by 16 Ontario universities is presented. The following general questions concerning benefits are covered: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefit programs to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave…

  14. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  15. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  16. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  17. 21 CFR 1404.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 1404.1020 Section 1404.1020 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT... between the person and one or more agencies. Voluntary exclusion must have governmentwide effect....

  18. 21 CFR 1404.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 1404.1020 Section 1404.1020 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT... between the person and one or more agencies. Voluntary exclusion must have governmentwide effect....

  19. 21 CFR 1404.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 1404.1020 Section 1404.1020 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT... between the person and one or more agencies. Voluntary exclusion must have governmentwide effect....

  20. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... business. It may also include such things as payment by the employer of the employee's social security tax...-of-living bonus of $260 each calendar quarter, or $20 per week. The employee works overtime in only 2... 2 overtime weeks, this cost-of-living bonus would not be excluded from the overtime computation...

  1. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... business. It may also include such things as payment by the employer of the employee's social security tax...-of-living bonus of $260 each calendar quarter, or $20 per week. The employee works overtime in only 2... 2 overtime weeks, this cost-of-living bonus would not be excluded from the overtime computation...

  2. 29 CFR 548.305 - Excluding certain additions to wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... business. It may also include such things as payment by the employer of the employee's social security tax...-of-living bonus of $260 each calendar quarter, or $20 per week. The employee works overtime in only 2... 2 overtime weeks, this cost-of-living bonus would not be excluded from the overtime computation...

  3. The Education Act and Excluded Children. Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Rachel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the negative assumptions and outcomes of provisions in Britain's Education Act of 1997 dealing with expulsion of students. Presents some statistics on excluded children; discusses likely outcomes such as increased delinquency, parent-school acrimony, and disparity in schools. Describes the role of teachers' unions in drafting the bill…

  4. 32 CFR 220.6 - Certain payers excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain payers excluded. 220.6 Section 220.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.6 Certain...

  5. 32 CFR 220.6 - Certain payers excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certain payers excluded. 220.6 Section 220.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.6 Certain...

  6. 32 CFR 220.6 - Certain payers excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain payers excluded. 220.6 Section 220.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION FROM THIRD PARTY PAYERS OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.6 Certain...

  7. University Benefits Survey: Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Information on all benefits, excluding pensions, provided by 16 Ontario universities is presented. The following general questions concerning benefits are covered: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefit programs to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave…

  8. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1986 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self- administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave…

  9. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  10. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  11. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  12. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  13. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201 Solid...

  14. Children's and Adolescents' Reasons for Socially Excluding Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Holly E.; Brehl, Beverly A.; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate children's descriptions and evaluations of their reasons for leaving others out of a peer group. A total of 84 children (divided into 7-, 11-, and 17-year-old age groups) provided a narrative account of a time they excluded a peer and were subsequently asked to evaluate their reasons for exclusion. With…

  15. Children's and Adolescents' Reasons for Socially Excluding Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Holly E.; Brehl, Beverly A.; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate children's descriptions and evaluations of their reasons for leaving others out of a peer group. A total of 84 children (divided into 7-, 11-, and 17-year-old age groups) provided a narrative account of a time they excluded a peer and were subsequently asked to evaluate their reasons for exclusion. With…

  16. 5 CFR 2634.203 - Persons excluded by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 2634.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH... Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.203 Persons excluded by rule. (a) In general. Any individual or group of... Director of the Office of Government Ethics determines, in his sole discretion, that such exclusion...

  17. 5 CFR 2634.203 - Persons excluded by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 2634.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH... Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.203 Persons excluded by rule. (a) In general. Any individual or group of... Director of the Office of Government Ethics determines, in his sole discretion, that such exclusion...

  18. 5 CFR 2634.203 - Persons excluded by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 2634.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH... Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.203 Persons excluded by rule. (a) In general. Any individual or group of... Director of the Office of Government Ethics determines, in his sole discretion, that such exclusion...

  19. 5 CFR 2634.203 - Persons excluded by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 2634.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH... Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.203 Persons excluded by rule. (a) In general. Any individual or group of... Director of the Office of Government Ethics determines, in his sole discretion, that such exclusion...

  20. 5 CFR 2634.203 - Persons excluded by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 2634.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH... Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.203 Persons excluded by rule. (a) In general. Any individual or group of... Director of the Office of Government Ethics determines, in his sole discretion, that such exclusion...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-7 - Freight Excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Excluded. 52.247-7 Section 52.247-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES..., commodities in bulk, commodities injurious or contaminating to other freight; and shipments that the...

  2. Practical considerations for conducting ecotoxicity test methods with manufactured nanomaterials: what have we learnt so far?

    PubMed

    Handy, Richard D; van den Brink, Nico; Chappell, Mark; Mühling, Martin; Behra, Renata; Dušinská, Maria; Simpson, Peter; Ahtiainen, Jukka; Jha, Awadhesh N; Seiter, Jennifer; Bednar, Anthony; Kennedy, Alan; Fernandes, Teresa F; Riediker, Michael

    2012-05-01

    This review paper reports the consensus of a technical workshop hosted by the European network, NanoImpactNet (NIN). The workshop aimed to review the collective experience of working at the bench with manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs), and to recommend modifications to existing experimental methods and OECD protocols. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are appropriate for most MNMs, although interference with electrodes may occur. Maintaining exposure is more difficult with MNMs compared to conventional chemicals. A metal salt control is recommended for experiments with metallic MNMs that may release free metal ions. Dispersing agents should be avoided, but if they must be used, then natural or synthetic dispersing agents are possible, and dispersion controls essential. Time constraints and technology gaps indicate that full characterisation of test media during ecotoxicity tests is currently not practical. Details of electron microscopy, dark-field microscopy, a range of spectroscopic methods (EDX, XRD, XANES, EXAFS), light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) and chromatography are discussed. The development of user-friendly software to predict particle behaviour in test media according to DLVO theory is in progress, and simple optical methods are available to estimate the settling behaviour of suspensions during experiments. However, for soil matrices such simple approaches may not be applicable. Alternatively, a Critical Body Residue approach may be taken in which body concentrations in organisms are related to effects, and toxicity thresholds derived. For microbial assays, the cell wall is a formidable barrier to MNMs and end points that rely on the test substance penetrating the cell may be insensitive. Instead assays based on the cell envelope should be developed for MNMs. In algal growth tests, the abiotic factors that promote particle aggregation in the media (e.g. ionic strength) are also important in providing nutrients, and manipulation of the media

  3. Comparative ecotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles in natural seawater and reconstituted seawater using the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    PubMed

    Manfra, L; Rotini, A; Bergami, E; Grassi, G; Faleri, C; Corsi, I

    2017-11-01

    The impact of nanoplastics using model polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs), anionic (PS-COOH) and cationic (PS-NH2), has been investigated on the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a major component of marine zooplanktonic species. The role of different surface charges in affecting PS NP behaviour and toxicity has been considered in high ionic strength media. To this aim, the selected media were standardized reconstituted seawater (RSW) and natural sea water (NSW), the latter resembling more natural exposure scenarios. Hatched rotifer larvae were exposed for 24h and 48h to both PS NPs in the range of 0.5-50μg/ml using PS NP suspensions made in RSW and NSW. No effects on lethality upon exposure to anionic NPs were observed despite a clear gut retention was evident in all exposed rotifers. On the contrary, cationic NPs caused lethality to rotifer larvae but LC50 values resulted lower in rotifers exposed in RSW (LC50=2.75±0.67µg/ml) compared to those exposed in NSW (LC50=6.62±0.87µg/ml). PS NPs showed similar pattern of aggregation in both high ionic strength media (RSW and NSW) but while anionic NPs resulted in large microscale aggregates (Z-average 1109 ± 128nm and 998±67nm respectively), cationic NP aggregates were still in nano-size forms (93.99 ± 11.22nm and 108.3 ± 12.79nm). Both PDI and Z-potential of PS NPs slightly differed in the two media suggesting a role of their different surface charges in affecting their behaviour and stability. Our findings confirm the role of surface charges in nanoplastic behaviour in salt water media and provide a first evidence of a different toxicity in rotifers using artificial media (RSW) compared to natural one (NSW). Such evidence poses the question on how to select the best medium in standardized ecotoxicity assays in order to properly assess their hazard to marine life in natural environmental scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate or...

  5. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate or...

  6. Ecotoxicity evaluation of a WWTP effluent treated by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor.

    PubMed

    Freitas, A M; Rivas, G; Campos-Mañas, M C; Casas López, J L; Agüera, A; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-01-01

    Some pollutants can be resistant to wastewater treatment, hence becoming a risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota even at the very low concentrations (ng L(-1)-μg L(-1)) they are commonly found at. Tertiary treatments are used for micropollutant removal but little is known about the ecotoxicity of the treated effluent. In this study, a municipal secondary effluent was treated by a solar photo-Fenton reactor at initial neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor, and ecotoxicity was evaluated before and after micropollutant removal. Thirty-nine micropollutants were identified in the secondary effluent, mainly pharmaceuticals, with a total concentration of ≈80 μg L(-1). After treatment, 99 % microcontaminant degradation was reached. As for ecotoxicity reduction, the assayed organisms showed the following sensitivity levels: Tetrahymena thermophila > Daphnia magna > Lactuca sativa > Spirodela polyrhiza ≈ Vibrio fischeri. The initial effluent showed an inhibitory effect of 40 % for T. thermophila and 20 % for D. magna. After 20 min of photo-Fenton treatment, no toxic effect was observed for T. thermophila and toxicity dropped to 5 % for D. magna. Graphical abstract Ecotoxicity removal by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH. ᅟ.

  7. Computational tool for risk assessment of nanomaterials: novel QSTR-perturbation model for simultaneous prediction of ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity of uncoated and coated nanoparticles under multiple experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; González-Díaz, Humberto; Ruso, Juan M; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2014-12-16

    Nanomaterials have revolutionized modern science and technology due to their multiple applications in engineering, physics, chemistry, and biomedicine. Nevertheless, the use and manipulation of nanoparticles (NPs) can bring serious damages to living organisms and their ecosystems. For this reason, ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays are of special interest in order to determine the potential harmful effects of NPs. Processes based on ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity tests can significantly consume time and financial resources. In this sense, alternative approaches such as quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) modeling have provided important insights for the better understanding of the biological behavior of NPs that may be responsible for causing toxicity. Until now, QSAR/QSTR models have predicted ecotoxicity or cytotoxicity separately against only one organism (bioindicator species or cell line) and have not reported information regarding the quantitative influence of characteristics other than composition or size. In this work, we developed a unified QSTR-perturbation model to simultaneously probe ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity of NPs under different experimental conditions, including diverse measures of toxicities, multiple biological targets, compositions, sizes and conditions to measure those sizes, shapes, times during which the biological targets were exposed to NPs, and coating agents. The model was created from 36488 cases (NP-NP pairs) and exhibited accuracies higher than 98% in both training and prediction sets. The model was used to predict toxicities of several NPs that were not included in the original data set. The results of the predictions suggest that the present QSTR-perturbation model can be employed as a highly promising tool for the fast and efficient assessment of ecotoxicity and cytotoxicity of NPs.

  8. Heterotopic pancreas in excluded stomach diagnosed after gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterotopic pancreas is defined as finding of pancreatic tissue without anatomic and vascular continuity with the normal pancreas. Heterotopic pancreas is a rare condition difficult to diagnose and with controversial clinical management. Case presentation We describe a 43 year old female patient previously submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass for primary treatment of morbid obesity; 5 years later, the patient was discovered to have a mass in the antrum of the excluded stomach that was found to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Before gastric bypass surgery, the presence of the pancreatic mass in the gastric wall was unnoticed in the imagiologic records. Conclusion This is the first reported case of pancreatic heterotopy diagnosed in the excluded stomach after gastric bypass. A putative role of incretin hormones in mediating pancreatic cell hyperplasia of heterotopic pancreatic remnants should be considered an additional hypothesis that requires further research. PMID:24267291

  9. Heterotopic pancreas in excluded stomach diagnosed after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marta; Rodrigues, Pedro; Gonçalves, Gil; Nora, Mário; Monteiro, Mariana P

    2013-11-23

    Heterotopic pancreas is defined as finding of pancreatic tissue without anatomic and vascular continuity with the normal pancreas. Heterotopic pancreas is a rare condition difficult to diagnose and with controversial clinical management. We describe a 43 year old female patient previously submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass for primary treatment of morbid obesity; 5 years later, the patient was discovered to have a mass in the antrum of the excluded stomach that was found to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Before gastric bypass surgery, the presence of the pancreatic mass in the gastric wall was unnoticed in the imagiologic records. This is the first reported case of pancreatic heterotopy diagnosed in the excluded stomach after gastric bypass. A putative role of incretin hormones in mediating pancreatic cell hyperplasia of heterotopic pancreatic remnants should be considered an additional hypothesis that requires further research.

  10. Somatic treatments excluding psychopharmacology in obsessive- compulsive disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad

    2013-06-01

    Somatic treatments other than psychotropic drugs are increasingly used in the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), however there has been little systematic review of them. Therefore, the present review deals with a variety of somatic treatment methods excluding psychotropic drugs. A literature search was performed on the PubMed database from the beginning of 1980, to September 2012, for published English, Turkish and French-language articles of somatic treatment approaches (excluding psychopharmacological agents) in the treatment of OCD. The search was carried out by using some terms in detail. Afterwards, the obtained investigations on electroconvusive therapy (ECT), deep brain stimulation (DBS), neurosurgical methods and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were presented. Although psychopharmacological treatment and psychotherapeutic approaches are primary treatment modalities in the management of OCD, other somatic treatment options seem to be used as alternatives, especially for patients with treatmentresistant OCD.

  11. 21 CFR 1404.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) to determine whether a person is excluded. The General Services...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) to determine whether a person is excluded. The General Services...

  13. 34 CFR 85.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 85.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) to determine whether a person is excluded. The General Services...

  14. 22 CFR 208.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 208.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) to determine whether a person is excluded. The General Services...

  15. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  16. Environmental properties and aquatic hazard assessment of anionic surfactants: physico-chemical, environmental fate and ecotoxicity properties.

    PubMed

    Könnecker, Gustav; Regelmann, Jürgen; Belanger, Scott; Gamon, Konrad; Sedlak, Richard

    2011-09-01

    This paper summarizes the environmental hazard assessment of physicochemical properties, environmental fate and behavior and the ecotoxicity of a category of 61 anionic surfactants (ANS), comprised of alkyl sulfates (AS), primary alkane sulfonates (PAS) and alpha-olefin sulfonates (AOS) under the High Production Volume Chemicals Program of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The most important common structural feature of the category members examined here is the presence of a predominantly linear aliphatic hydrocarbon chain with a polar sulfate or sulfonate group, neutralized with a counter-ion. The hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain (with a length between C(8) and C(18)) and the polar sulfate or sulfonate groups confer surfactant properties and enable the commercial use of these substances as anionic surfactants. The close structural similarities lead to physico-chemical properties and environmental fate characteristics which follow a regular pattern and justify the applied read-across within a category approach. Common physical and/or biological properties result in structurally similar breakdown products and are, together with the surfactant properties, responsible for similar environmental behavior. The structural similarities result in the same mode of ecotoxic action. Within each of the three sub-categories of ANS the most important parameter influencing ecotoxicity is the varying length of the alkyl chain. Although the counter-ion may also influence the physico-chemical properties, there is no indication that it significantly affects chemical reactivity, environmental fate and behavior or ecotoxicity of these chemicals. Deduced from physico-chemical and surfactancy properties, the main target compartment for the substances of the ANS category is the hydrosphere. They are quantitatively removed in waste water treatment plants, mainly by biodegradation. Quantitative removal in biological treatment plants is reflected by low AS

  17. Elicitation of the most important structural properties of ionic liquids affecting ecotoxicity in limnic green algae; a QSAR approach.

    PubMed

    Izadiyan, Parisa; Fatemi, M H; Izadiyan, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Many ionic liquids are soluble in water and their impact on the aquatic environment has to be evaluated. However, due to the large number of ionic liquids and lack of experimental data, it is necessary to develop estimation procedures in order to reduce the materials and time consumption. In this study using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP), ant colony optimization (ACO) and multiple linear regression (MLR) strategies, good predictive quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models were introduced and structural parameters affecting ecotoxicity of ionic liquids in limnic green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) were revealed. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) approaches were also applied to visualize any possible patterns or relationships among ionic liquids data. It was revealed that selected descriptors of the MLR model are also capable of clustering ionic liquids according to their four level of toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated evaluation of pharmaceutically active ionic liquids' (eco)toxicity through the inhibition of human carboxylesterase and Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Costa, Susana P F; Justina, Vanessa D; Bica, Katharina; Vasiloiu, Maria; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2014-01-30

    The toxicity of 16 pharmaceutical active ionic liquids (IL-APIs) was evaluated by automated approaches based on sequential injection analysis (SIA). The implemented bioassays were centered on the inhibition of human carboxylesterase 2 and Vibrio fischeri, in the presence of the tested compounds. The inhibitory effects were quantified by calculating the inhibitor concentration required to cause 50% of inhibition (EC50). The EC50 values demonstrated that the cetylpyridinium group was one of the most toxic cations and that the imidazolium group was the less toxic. The obtained results provide important information about the safety of the studied IL-APIs and their possible use as pharmaceutical drugs. The developed automated SIA methodologies are robust screening bioassays, and can be used as a generic tools to identify the (eco)toxicity of the structural elements of ILs, contributing to a sustainable development of drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutral red cytotoxicity assays for assessing in vivo carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in mussels--Comparing microscope and microplate methods.

    PubMed

    Miller, M A; Bankier, C; Al-Shaeri, M A M; Hartl, M G J

    2015-12-30

    The purpose of the present study was to compare two neutral red retention methods, the more established but very labour-intensive microscope method (NRR) against the more recently developed microplate method (NRU). The intention was to explore whether the sample volume throughput could be increased and potential operator bias avoided. Mussels Mytilus sp. were exposed in vivo to 50, 250 and 500 μg L(-1) single (SWCNTs) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Using the NRR method, SWCNTs and MWCNTs caused concentration dependent decreases in neutral red retention time. However, a concentration dependent decrease in optical density was not observed using the NRU method. We conclude that the NRU method is not sensitive enough to assess carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in vivo in environmentally relevant media, and recommend using the NRR method.

  20. Agro-industrial wastes as effective amendments for ecotoxicity reduction and soil health improvement in aided phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    Galende, María A; Becerril, José M; Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Barrutia, Oihana; Garbisu, Carlos; Hernández, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Aided phytostabilization is a technology that uses metal tolerant plants and organic and/or inorganic amendments to reduce soil metal bioavailability, while improving soil health. Our objective was to determine the effects of the application of amendments [sheep manure (SHEEP), poultry litter (POULTRY), cow slurry (COW), and paper mill sludge mixed with poultry litter (PAPER)], together with the growth of a metallicolous Festuca rubra L. population, on (i) chemical and microbial indicators of soil health and (ii) soil ecotoxicity, during the aided phytostabilization of a Zn/Pb contaminated mine soil. Amendment application led to an increase in soil pH, organic matter content, and inorganic salts, resulting in a decrease in Pb and Zn CaCl2-extractable concentrations in soil, which, in turn, contributed to lower ecotoxicity and a stimulation of plant growth and soil microbial communities. The factor most affecting the metal extractability was probably soil pH. POULTRY was the best amendment in terms of increasing plant growth, chlorophylls content, and soil microbial biomass and activity, but resulted in higher levels of phytoavailable Pb and Zn. SHEEP and PAPER were more effective at reducing metal CaCl2-extractability and, consequently, led to lower values of metal accumulation in plant tissues, thereby reducing the risk of metals entering into the food chain. When combined with the application of organic amendments, the metallicolous F. rubra population studied here appears an excellent candidate for aided phytostabilization. Our results indicate that the application of organic amendments is essential for the short-term recovery of highly contaminated metalliferous soils during aided phytostabilization.

  1. Can initial clinical assessment exclude thoracolumbar vertebral injury?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Dinendra Singh; Mitra, Biswadev; Reeves, Fairleigh; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Liew, Susan; Varma, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that all blunt trauma patients, presenting with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 15, without intoxication or neurological deficit, and no pain or tenderness on log-roll can have any thoracolumbar fracture excluded without imaging. Materials and Methods All patients diagnosed with a thoracolumbar fracture presenting to the emergency department of a major trauma centre and having an initial GCS score of 15 were included in the study. Variables collected included type of fracture, mechanism of injury, the presence of pain or tenderness on log-roll, ethanol levels and prehospital opioid analgesia. Results There were 536 patients with thoracolumbar fractures, of which 508 (94.8%) patients had either pain, tenderness or had received prehospital opioid analgesia. A small subgroup of 28 (5.2%) patients who received no prehospital opioid analgesia, did not complain of pain and had no tenderness to the thoracolumbar spine elicited on log-roll. This subgroup was significantly older (p=0.033) and a high proportion of patients (64.3%) had a concurrent fracture of the cervical spine. Within this subgroup, a clinically significant unstable thoracic fracture was present in three patients, with all three patients exhibiting symptoms and signs of neurological injury or having a concurrent cervical vertebral fracture. Conclusions In this population of blunt trauma patients with a GCS score of 15, not under the influence of alcohol or prehospital morphine administration, the absence of pain or tenderness on log-roll can exclude a clinically significant lumbar vertebral fracture, but does not exclude a thoracic fracture. PMID:22915226

  2. Dispersion and Excluded Volume Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliks, Mark David

    1988-12-01

    The effectiveness of the potential of mean torque in accounting for solute orientation is explored. It is described by repulsive (excluded volume) and attractive forces (dispersion) and is tested using rigid, semi-flexible and flexible solutes dissolved in nematic phases. For rigid molecules (benzenes and anthracene) the attractive short range potential gave the best results. For anthracene the results indicated that the potential can discriminate between solute/solvent interactions. For wholly aliphatic solvents the excluded volume forces gave excellent agreement, as did the attractive forces for the aromatic solvents. For the semi-flexible molecule, biphenyl, quadrupole splittings were simulated using the internal torsion angle as a parameter. The values of this angle were predicted to vary systematically with temperature. Using crystallographic and idealized structural data as the starting points for the calculation, the structure of PAA in the nematic phase was estimated. Both the internal angle and the aromatic proton valence angles were determined. Flexible, "siamese-twin" liquid crystals having an internal per-deuterated spacer consisting of ten methylenes were studied. They differed only in the length of the aliphatic tails (5105, 101010). The quadrupole splittings of both twins dissolved in the nematic phase of BCH-S1131 were identical. Quantitative simulations of the splittings using standard RIS geometry and excluded volume forces were successful. In the bulk nematic phase the order parameter of 5105 was greater than 101010. The difference was interpreted as a dilution effect of the mesogenic cores by aliphatic tails. Simulations indicated the conformation of the spacer is highly extended. As parameterized the required strength of the mean field is a strong function of the molecular dimensions, suggesting that the current description still is incomplete.

  3. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  4. Negative serology: could exclude the diagnosis of brucellosis?

    PubMed

    Çelik, Aygul Dogan; Yulugkural, Zerrin; Kilincer, Cumhur; Hamamcioglu, Mustafa Kemal; Kuloglu, Figen; Akata, Filiz

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of brucellar spondylodiscitis of the lumbar area were presented. Although both cases showed typical radiological changes, serological tests could not detect Brucella agglutinating antibodies. One of the patients was bacteremic and Brucella spp. was identified from blood culture. In the second patient needle biopsy was required for definite diagnosis. Although small, serologic tests have a certain rate of false negative results in brucellosis. Thus, a negative serology should not exclude the diagnosis of brucellosis, as it is demonstrated in the current cases.

  5. RNA Denaturation: Excluded Volume, Pseudoknots, and Transition Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiesi, M.; Orlandini, E.; Stella, A. L.

    2003-11-01

    A lattice model of RNA denaturation which fully accounts for the excluded volume effects among nucleotides is proposed. A numerical study shows that interactions forming pseudoknots must be included in order to get a sharp continuous transition. Otherwise a smooth crossover occurs from the swollen linear polymer behavior to highly ramified, almost compact conformations with secondary structures. In the latter scenario, which is appropriate when these structures are much more stable than pseudoknot links, probability distributions for the lengths of both loops and main branches obey scaling with nonclassical exponents.

  6. A direct renormalization group approach for the excluded volume problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Chaves, C. M.

    1980-03-01

    We propose a position-space renormalization group approach for the excluded volume problem in a square lattice by considering “percolating” self-avoiding paths in a b×b cell, where b=2,3,4: Two ways of counting the paths are presented. The values obtained for the exponent v converge respectively to 0.731 and 0.720, close to the usually accepted value v=0.75. Comments on the relation between percolation and self-avoiding walks are made.

  7. Missouri casino self-excluders: distributions across time and space.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Richard A; Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; Peller, Allyson J; Caro, Gabriel; Shaffer, Howard J

    2007-06-01

    According to public health research, exposure to casinos is a risk factor for disordered gambling. Consequently, casino self-exclusion programs, which provide gamblers with the opportunity to voluntarily seek limits on their access to gambling venues, can serve as a barometer of the concentration of disordered gambling in an area. This study reports on the distribution, both temporally and geographically, of 6,599 people who applied to exclude themselves from Missouri casinos between November, 1996 and February, 2004. Analyses used Microsoft MapPoint to plot the location of casinos and self-excluders (SEs) across Missouri and its constituent counties. These regional exposure analyses showed that the Western region around Kansas City is an epicenter of disordered gambling as, to a lesser extent, is the Eastern region around St. Louis. The annual number of SE enrollments increased during the first few years of the Missouri self-exclusion program and then leveled off during the later years. These findings have important implications for public health and the development of public health interventions for disordered gamblers.

  8. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  9. Can Transabdominal Cervical Length Measurement Exclude Short Cervix?

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Janine S; Park, Jennifer M; Stout, Molly J; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to determine if transabdominal (TA) cervical length may be used to rule out a short cervix on transvaginal (TV) ultrasound. We conducted a prospective cohort study of women undergoing routine anatomic survey at 17 to 23 weeks gestation. TA and TV cervical length measurements were obtained in each patient. A short cervix was defined as TV cervical length < 30 mm. Predictive characteristics were calculated for different cutoff values of TA cervical length. There were 404 patients enrolled, a TA cervical length could not be obtained in 83 women (20.6%) and 318 women had both TA and TV measurements. Of those, 14 (4.4%) had a TV cervical length < 30 mm. TA cervical length measurement ≥ 35 mm excluded the possibility of TV cervical length < 30 mm (negative predictive value, 99.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.4; 100%). In our cohort, 67.6% (95% CI, 62.2; 72.7%) of TV ultrasounds could have been avoided using a TA cervical length cutoff of ≥ 5 mm. ATA cervical length of at least 35 mm excludes a short cervix of < 30 mm. While TA cervical length screening may not be feasible in 1 in 5 women, it may be used to decrease the burden of universal TV cervical length screening. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. 5 CFR 919.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I know if a person is excluded... How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) to determine... available, as detailed in subpart E of this part. When a Federal agency takes an action to exclude a person...

  11. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-11-01

    (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ≥ 90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk analysis of pyrolyzed biochar made from paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge for bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    The risk analysis was performed to study the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in biochar obtained from pyrolysis of sludge of pulp and paper mill effluent treatment plant. The sludge was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (200-700°C) and the resultant biochar were analyzed for fractionation of heavy metals by sequential extraction procedure. It was observed that all the heavy metals get enriched in biochar matrix after pyrolysis, but the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of the heavy metals in biochar were significantly reduced as the mobile and bioavailable heavy metal fractions were transformed into the relatively stable fractions. Moreover, it was observed that the leaching potential of heavy metals decreased after pyrolysis and the best results were obtained for biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E.; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2015-01-13

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugate and the microstructure of its constituent components.

  14. Reduction of CFC usage in US exempted and excluded aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper examines products exempted and excluded from the 1978 U.S. ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants. Consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S. amounts to about 25.5 million lb (11.6 million kg) per year. Alternative formulations which may be used to reduce or eliminate the CFC content of these products are discussed. It is technically feasible to replace about 40% of the CFC usage in these products with alternative propellants available today. However, seven categories of products are identified for which immediate replacement of all of the CFC content is not technically feasible. Complete CFC replacement in these products must await the commercialization of newer substitute chemicals currently being developed by industry. Nevertheless, some reformulation is possible in the interim for some of the seven categories, allowing reduced CFC usage.

  15. Health Concerns (excluding AIDS) for Male Homosexual Patients

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian C.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time and has focused much attention on the male homosexual community. While AIDS is the most serious of gay-related health concerns, it is only one of several infectious diseases that have particular relevance for this group of patients. In addition, the mere acknowledgement of homosexuality by a male patient evokes unique psychosocial concerns that are important considerations for the primary health-care provider. The author of this article describes an approach to gay male patients for those who provide health care to such men and provides a review of specific infectious diseases (excluding AIDS) for which they are at risk. PMID:21253077

  16. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xin; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E.; Smith, Gregory Scott; ...

    2015-01-13

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugatemore » and the microstructure of its constituent components.« less

  17. Alternative approaches to vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status.

    PubMed

    Lillicrap, Adam; Belanger, Scott; Burden, Natalie; Pasquier, David Du; Embry, Michelle R; Halder, Marlies; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Norberg-King, Teresa; Rattner, Barnett A; Schirmer, Kristin; Thomas, Paul

    2016-11-01

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessment of chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimized wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments has been banned; in other situations, the number of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve a complete replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is based not just on ethical considerations but also on reducing the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases on providing better information aimed at improving environmental risk assessments. The present Focus article provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made toward alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2637-2646. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Alternative approaches to vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillicrap, Adam; Belanger, Scott; Burden, Natalie; Du Pasquier, David; Embry, Michelle; Halder, Marlies; Lampi, Mark; Lee, Lucy; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schirmer, Kristin; Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessment of chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimized wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments has been banned; in other situations, the number of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve a complete replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is based not just on ethical considerations but also on reducing the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases on providing better information aimed at improving environmental risk assessments. The present Focus article provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made toward alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades.

  19. Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as a tool for monitoring Lake Geneva long-term in situ ecotoxic restoration from herbicide contamination.

    PubMed

    Larras, Floriane; Rimet, Frédéric; Gregorio, Vincent; Bérard, Annette; Leboulanger, Christophe; Montuelle, Bernard; Bouchez, Agnès

    2016-03-01

    Chemical monitoring revealed a regular decrease in herbicide concentration in Lake Geneva since last decades that may be linked to an ecotoxic restoration of nontarget phytoplanktonic communities. The Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approach was tested as a tool to monitor the ecotoxic restoration of Lake Geneva for herbicides from 1999 to 2011. We conducted monthly assessments in 1999 and in 2011 for the tolerance of the phytoplankton communities to two herbicides (atrazine and copper), using PICT bioassays. The taxonomical composition of the communities was determined on the same collecting dates. The herbicide concentration decrease during the 12 years significantly influenced the composition of communities. The PICT monitoring indicated that a significant tolerance decrease in the community to both herbicides accompanied the herbicide concentration decrease. PICT measurements for atrazine and copper also changed at the intra-annual level. These variations were mainly due to community composition shifts linked to seasonal phosphorus and temperature changes. PICT monitoring on a seasonal basis is required to monitor the mean tolerance of communities. PICT appeared to be a powerful tool that reflected the toxic effects on environmental communities and to monitor ecotoxic ecosystem restoration.

  20. Fenton process on single and mixture components of phenothiazine pharmaceuticals: Assessment of intermediaries, fate, and preliminary ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Marcelo L; Schneider, Mandy; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals do not occur isolated in the environment but in multi-component mixtures and may exhibit antagonist, synergistic or additive behavior. Knowledge on this is still scarce. The situation is even more complicated if effluents or potable water is treated by oxidative processes or such transformations occur in the environment. Thus, determining the fate and effects of parent compounds, metabolites and transformation products (TPs) formed by transformation and degradation processes in the environment is needed. This study investigated the fate and preliminary ecotoxicity of the phenothiazine pharmaceuticals, Promazine (PRO), Promethazine (PRM), Chlorpromazine (CPR), and Thioridazine (THI) as single and as components of the resulting mixtures obtained from their treatment by Fenton process. The Fenton process was carried out at pH7 and by using 0.5-2mgL(-1) of [Fe(2+)]0 and 1-12.5mgL(-1) of [H2O2]0 at the fixed ratio [Fe(2+)]0:[H2O2]0 of 1:10 (w:w). No complete mineralization was achieved. Constitutional isomers and some metabolite-like TPs formed were suggested based on their UHPLC-HRMS(n) data. A degradation pathway was proposed considering interconnected mechanisms such as sulfoxidation, hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, and dechlorination steps. Aerobic biodegradation tests (OECD 301 D and OECD 301 F) were applied to the parent compounds separately, to the mixture of parent compounds, and for the cocktail of TPs present after the treatment by Fenton process. The samples were not readily biodegradable. However, LC-MS analysis revealed that abiotic transformations, such hydrolysis, and autocatalytic transformations occurred. The initial ecotoxicity tested towards Vibrio fischeri as individual compounds featured a reduction in toxicity of PRM and CPR by the treatment process, whereas PRO showed an increase in acute luminescence inhibition and THI a stable luminescence inhibition. Concerning effects of the mixture components, reduction in toxicity by the

  1. Multilaboratory evaluation of 15 bioassays for (eco)toxicity screening and hazard ranking of engineered nanomaterials: FP7 project NANOVALID

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Olesja M.; Heinlaan, Margit; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Ivask, Angela; Kurvet, Imbi; Joonas, Elise; Jemec, Anita; Mannerström, Marika; Heinonen, Tuula; Rekulapelly, Rohit; Singh, Shashi; Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Drobne, Damjana; Kahru, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Within EU FP7 project NANOVALID, the (eco)toxicity of 7 well-characterized engineered nanomaterials (NMs) was evaluated by 15 bioassays in 4 laboratories. The highest tested nominal concentration of NMs was 100 mg/l. The panel of the bioassays yielded the following toxicity order: Ag > ZnO > CuO > TiO2 > MWCNTs > SiO2 > Au. Ag, ZnO and CuO proved very toxic in the majority of assays, assumingly due to dissolution. The latter was supported by the parallel analysis of the toxicity of respective soluble metal salts. The most sensitive tests/species were Daphnia magna (towards Ag NMs, 24-h EC50 = 0.003 mg Ag/l), algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (ZnO and CuO, 72-h EC50 = 0.14 mg Zn/l and 0.7 mg Cu/l, respectively) and murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 (CuO, 48-h EC50 = 0.7 mg Cu/l). MWCNTs showed toxicity only towards rat alveolar macrophages (EC50 = 15.3 mg/l) assumingly due to high aspect ratio and TiO2 towards R. subcapitata (EC50 = 6.8 mg Ti/l) due to agglomeration of TiO2 and entrapment of algal cells. Finally, we constructed a decision tree to select the bioassays for hazard ranking of NMs. For NM testing, we recommend a multitrophic suite of 4 in vitro (eco)toxicity assays: 48-h D. magna immobilization (OECD202), 72-h R. subcapitata growth inhibition (OECD201), 30-min Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition (ISO2010) and 48-h murine fibroblast BALB/3T3 neutral red uptake in vitro (OECD129) representing crustaceans, algae, bacteria and mammalian cells, respectively. Notably, our results showed that these assays, standardized for toxicity evaluation of “regular” chemicals, proved efficient also for shortlisting of hazardous NMs. Additional assays are recommended for immunotoxicity evaluation of high aspect ratio NMs (such as MWCNTs). PMID:27259032

  2. Linkage analysis excludes the glaucoma locus on 1q from involvement in autosomal dominant glaucoma with iris hypoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Heon, E.; Sheth, B.P.; Kalenak, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic factors have been implicated in a variety of types of glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma, infantile glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. We previously mapped the disease-causing gene for one type of juvenile open angle glaucoma to chromosome 1q21-31. Weatherill and Hart (1969) and Pearce (1983) each noted the association of iris hypoplasia and early-onset autosomal dominant glaucoma. We recently had the opportunity to study a large family (12 affected members) with this phenotype. Affected individuals developed glaucoma at an average age of 30 years. These patients also have a strikingly underdeveloped iris stroma which causes a peculiar eye color. Linkage analysis was able to completely exclude the 1q glaucoma locus from involvement in the disorder that affects this family. A complete clinical description of the family and linkage results at additional candidate loci will be presented.

  3. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust. PMID:26779103

  4. The politics of corruption, inequality, and the socially excluded.

    PubMed

    Santos Salas, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In this article, the production of knowledge in the context of socially excluded people exposed to inequality, oppression, and exploitation is problematized. The analysis follows Enrique Dussel's philosophical exegesis of the politics of power and corruption and his vision of a critical transformation of the social political order. The argument is also informed by the work of critical educator Paulo Freire, who elucidates the conditions of oppression and marginalization and highlights the importance of conscientization to develop a critical awareness of these conditions. Hannah Arendt's work on the politics of understanding totalitarianism also assists in the elucidation of the machinery that operates behind oppression to sustain power and inequality. The article emphasizes the need to recognize the inequality of conditions that exists between the producer of knowledge and those who live through inequality and oppression in their lived corporality. A critical transformation of the process of production of knowledge is needed to both acknowledge the conditions that sustain this endeavour in the first place and avoid the corruption of knowledge. A work of conscientization is also necessary among knowledge producers to undertake a critical analysis of inequality that exposes the corruption of power. This analysis needs to examine and unmask the hidden mechanisms that perpetuate inequality and oppression and serve only the interests of a few. The abysmal gaps between the wealthy and the poor within and among countries bespeak a degree of human indifference that reflects a most serious and complex phenomenon that perverts something profoundly human in our societies.

  5. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  6. Excluded, not dismissed: enhancing benefit in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Nardell, Maria; Chhabra, Akansha; Pal, Lubna

    2013-01-01

    Participation in clinical research projects may allow an opportunity for early detection of covert diseases and subclinical disorders in asymptomatic volunteers from study-specific screening process. Exclusion of a potential participant due to failure to meet inclusion criteria eliminates any possibility of potential for research related benefit, as may exist for those that are deemed eligible and allowed to proceed with participation in the specific research study. Although the institutional bodies overseeing conduct of clinical research strive to ensure an ongoing scrutiny and prioritization of participants' wellbeing, we perceive that these mechanisms fall short as regards the interests of those volunteers who are subsequently excluded from participation in clinical research of relevance. While provision of ancillary care to address health concerns that are unmasked during the screening process may be an optimal strategy, the likelihood of successfully implementing this latter concept in current times of fiscal constraints is slim to nonexistent. Through this submission, we hope to initiate a dialogue within the research community regarding whether the current paradigm of conduct of clinical research be modified to include some degree of consideration for the screened out. We herein propose that for those volunteering for disease/disorder specific clinical research, some added degree of benefit can be assured to the screened out population through the provision of targeted health education or counseling.

  7. Transference to the analyst as an excluded observer.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John

    2008-02-01

    In this paper I briefly review some significant points in the development of ideas on transference which owe so much to the discoveries of Freud. I then discuss some of the subsequent developments which were based on Freud 's work and which have personally impressed me. In particular I mention Melanie Klein's elaboration of an internal world peopled by internal object and her description of the mechanisms of splitting and projective identification, both of which profoundly affect our understanding of transference. Using some clinical material I try to illustrate an important transference situation which I do not think has been sufficiently emphasized although it is part of the 'total situation' outlined by Klein. In this kind of transference the analyst finds himself in an observing position and is no longer the primary object to whom love and hate are directed. Instead he is put in a position of an excluded figure who can easily enact rather than understand the role he has been put in. In this situation he may try to regain the position as the patient's primary object in the transference or avoid the transference altogether and make extra-transference interpretations and in this way enact the role of a judgemental and critical super-ego. If he can tolerate the loss of a central role and understand the transference position he has been put in, the analyst can sometimes reduce enactments and release feelings to do with mourning and loss in both himself and his patient.

  8. Reconfigurable multi-scale colloidal assembly on excluded volume patterns

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Tara D.; Yang, Yuguang; Everett, W. Neil; Bevan, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create multi-scale, periodic colloidal assemblies with unique properties is important to emerging applications. Dynamically manipulating colloidal structures via tunable kT-scale attraction can provide the opportunity to create particle-based nano- and microstructured materials that are reconfigurable. Here, we report a novel tactic to obtain reconfigurable, multi-scale, periodic colloidal assemblies by combining thermoresponsive depletant particles and patterned topographical features that, together, reversibly mediate local kT-scale depletion interactions. This method is demonstrated in optical microscopy experiments to produce colloidal microstructures that reconfigure between well-defined ordered structures and disordered fluid states as a function of temperature and pattern feature depth. These results are well described by Monte Carlo simulations using theoretical depletion potentials that include patterned excluded volume. Ultimately, the approach reported here can be extended to control the size, shape, orientation, and microstructure of colloidal assemblies on multiple lengths scales and on arbitrary pre-defined pattern templates. PMID:26330058

  9. Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor.

  10. Connectivity and Excluded Volume Effects in Polymeric Complex Coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles; Radhakrishna, Mithun

    Oppositely-charged polyelectrolytes in salt solutions can undergo phase separation to form complex coacervates. This charge-driven phase behavior is the basis for emerging motifs in self-assembly. Traditional uses for coacervates are in food and personal care products, while applications in technologies for drug delivery and sensory materials are being developed. One of the primary theories driving understanding of complex coacervates is the Voorn-Overbeek (V-O) theory, which is a precursor to more sophisticated field theories. We present both theory and simulation that provides an alternate picture of coacervates, specifically addressing the limitations of V-O. Our theoretical approach is based on PRISM, which is a liquid-state theory that specifically accounts for connectivity. This is compared with Monte Carlo-based simulations, which likewise provide a molecular picture of coacervation. We demonstrate that a combination of connectivity-based correlations and excluded volume has a profound effect on coacervation phase behavior, suggesting that favorable comparison of V-O to experiment benefits from a cancellation of errors. The influence of connectivity on coacervate phase behavior hints at new opportunities for molecular-based design in electrostatically-driven self-assembly.

  11. Counter pumping debris excluder and separator. [gas turbine shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A dirt separator and excluder for removing entrained debris from gas turbine shaft seals is described. A helical groove pattern is constructed on the rotating shaft with the pumping pattern such that it tends to pump seal pressurizing gas toward the gas turbine seal. A second helical groove pattern is provided on the stationary housing or counter rotating member coaxial with the shaft, and this pattern is designed to provide pumping in the direction opposite from that of the groove pattern on the shaft. Gas with entrained debris entering this grooved area will be subjected to high centrifugal forces due to the swirl motion induced by the groove pattern and the rotation of the shaft. This debris is centrifuged outwardly into the outer groove pattern on the housing or counter rotating member. Because the outer groove pattern has a pumping direction opposite from that of the seal, dirt is pumped away from the seal and can be collected in a suitable debris trap remote from the seal location.

  12. Fast profiling ecotoxicity and skin permeability of benzophenone ultraviolet filters using biopartitioning micellar chromatography based on penetrable silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chen-ru; Ma, Li-yun; Huang, Jian-geng; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-guo

    2013-12-04

    Penetrable silica possesses hierarchical pores, mesopores and penetrable macropores, offering fast mass transfer, satisfactory mechanical strength as well as low column pressure. In the present study, penetrable octadecyl-bonded silica (ODS) was for the first time used as biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) stationary phase to profile ecotoxicity and skin permeability of benzophenone UV-filters. Mobile phase (MP) pH and concentration of polyoxyethylene(23)lauryl ether in the MP were systematically studied. Quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRARs) model was established to correlate retention factors (k) on BMC with bioconcentration factor (BCF) and transdermal rate (TR) of UV-filters. Coefficient of determination (r(2)) of the QRARs model between log BCF and log k were 0.9398-0.9753, while r(2) between TR and log k were 0.7569-0.8434, which demonstrated satisfactory predictive ability of the methodology. It was a powerful tool for fast screening by combining penetrable ODS with BMC, and avoiding column blockage often occurring in BMC.

  13. An integrated study on antimicrobial activity and ecotoxicity of quantum dots and quantum dots coated with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Emilia; Siciliano, Antonietta; Maselli, Valeria; Gesuele, Renato; Guida, Marco; Fulgione, Domenico; Galdiero, Stefania; Lombardi, Lucia; Falanga, Annarita

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the ecotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs) alone and coated with indolicidin. To meet this objective, we tested the level of antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and we designed an ecotoxicological battery of test systems and indicators able to detect different effects using a variety of end points. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 1025), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), and the results showed an improved germicidal action of QDs-Ind. Toxicity studies on Daphnia magna indicated a decrease in toxicity for QDs-Ind compared to QDs alone, lack of bioluminescence inhibition on Vibrio fisheri, and no mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. The comet assay and oxidative stress experiments performed on D. magna showed a genotoxic and an oxidative damage with a dose–response trend. Indolicidin retained its activity when bound to QDs. We observed an enhanced activity for QDs-Ind. The presence of indolicidin on the surface of QDs was able to decrease its QDs toxicity. PMID:27616887

  14. Investigation on the eco-toxicity of lake sediments with the addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-08-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) have a potential to realize eutrophication control objectives by reducing the internal phosphorus (P) load of lake sediments. Information regarding the ecological risk of dewatered WTR reuse in aquatic environments is generally lacking, however. In this study, we analyzed the eco-toxicity of leachates from sediments with or without dewatered WTRs toward algae Chlorella vulgaris via algal growth inhibition testing with algal cell density, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activity, and subcellular structure indices. The results suggested that leachates from sediments unanimously inhibited algal growth, with or without the addition of different WTR doses (10% or 50% of the sediment in dry weight) at different pH values (8-9), as well as from sediments treated for different durations (10 or 180days). The inhibition was primarily the result of P deficiency in the leachates owing to WTR P adsorption, however, our results suggest that the dewatered WTRs were considered as a favorable potential material for internal P loading control in lake restoration projects, as it shows acceptably low risk toward aquatic plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Assessment of sediment quality and pore water ecotoxicity in Kebir Rhumel basin (NE-Algeria): a combined approach.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Leila; Afri-Mehennaoui, Fatima-Zohra; El Hadef El Okki, Mohamed; Férard, Jean François; Mehennaoui, Smail

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use different approaches to assess the current pollution status in the wadis of the Kebir Rhumel basin. First, sediment trace metal contents were measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Then, sediment quality was assessed on the basis of contamination assessment indexes such as: Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Contamination factor (C(f)), Contamination degree (C(d)), Sediment Pollution Index (SPI) and SEQ guidelines (Consensus Sediment Quality Guidelines). In addition, several toxicity tests (Daphnia magna mobility inhibition acute test-48 h, Aliivibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition acute test - 15/30 mn and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth inhibition chronic test - 72 h) were conducted to assess sediment pore water ecotoxicity. Trace metal concentrations followed the order: Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Indexes used indicate varying degrees of sediment quality. Igeo, C(f), C(d) and SPI reveal a polymetallic contamination dominated by two or more elements in which Cd, Cu and Pb are of greatest concern. SEQ guidelines showed that biological effects on fauna would likely be observed occasionally and/or frequently for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn contents. Test organisms exposed to sediment pore water showed that the algal P. subcapitata test was more sensitive than the D. magna and A. fischeri tests. Hence, algal growth inhibition proved to be the most sensitive response to contaminants present in sediment extracts but a significant relationship with trace metal contents was not demonstrated.

  16. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction.

  17. Quantifying the adsorption of ionic silver and functionalized nanoparticles during ecotoxicity testing: Test container effects and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Ryo; Khurana, Kanupriya; Vasilev, Krasimir; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in a wide variety of products, prompting concerns regarding their potential environmental impacts. To accurately determine the toxicity of Ag-NPs it is necessary to differentiate between the toxicity of the nanoparticles themselves and the toxicity of ionic silver (Ag) released from them. This is not a trivial task given the reactive nature of Ag in solution, and its propensity for both adsorption and photoreduction. In the experiments reported here, we quantified the loss of silver from test solutions during standard ecotoxicity testing conducted using a variety of different test container materials and geometries. This sensitive (110m)Ag isotope tracing method revealed a substantial underestimation of the toxicity of dissolved Ag to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata when calculated only on the basis of the initial test concentrations. Furthermore, experiments with surface-functionalized Ag-NPs under standard algal growth inhibition test conditions also demonstrated extensive losses of Ag-NPs from the solution due to adsorption to the container walls, and the extent of loss was dependent on Ag-NP surface-functionality. These results hold important messages for researchers engaged in both environmental and human nanotoxicology testing, not only for Ag-NPs but also for other NPs with various tailored surface chemistries, where these phenomena are recognized but are also frequently disregarded in the experimental design and reporting.

  18. An integrated study on antimicrobial activity and ecotoxicity of quantum dots and quantum dots coated with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Emilia; Siciliano, Antonietta; Maselli, Valeria; Gesuele, Renato; Guida, Marco; Fulgione, Domenico; Galdiero, Stefania; Lombardi, Lucia; Falanga, Annarita

    This study attempts to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the ecotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs) alone and coated with indolicidin. To meet this objective, we tested the level of antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and we designed an ecotoxicological battery of test systems and indicators able to detect different effects using a variety of end points. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 1025), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), and the results showed an improved germicidal action of QDs-Ind. Toxicity studies on Daphnia magna indicated a decrease in toxicity for QDs-Ind compared to QDs alone, lack of bioluminescence inhibition on Vibrio fisheri, and no mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. The comet assay and oxidative stress experiments performed on D. magna showed a genotoxic and an oxidative damage with a dose-response trend. Indolicidin retained its activity when bound to QDs. We observed an enhanced activity for QDs-Ind. The presence of indolicidin on the surface of QDs was able to decrease its QDs toxicity.

  19. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition...

  20. Polder maps: improving OMIT maps by excluding bulk solvent

    PubMed Central

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Poon, Billy K.; Sobolev, Oleg V.; Adams, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    The crystallographic maps that are routinely used during the structure-solution workflow are almost always model-biased because model information is used for their calculation. As these maps are also used to validate the atomic models that result from model building and refinement, this constitutes an immediate problem: anything added to the model will manifest itself in the map and thus hinder the validation. OMIT maps are a common tool to verify the presence of atoms in the model. The simplest way to compute an OMIT map is to exclude the atoms in question from the structure, update the corresponding structure factors and compute a residual map. It is then expected that if these atoms are present in the crystal structure, the electron density for the omitted atoms will be seen as positive features in this map. This, however, is complicated by the flat bulk-solvent model which is almost universally used in modern crystallographic refinement programs. This model postulates constant electron density at any voxel of the unit-cell volume that is not occupied by the atomic model. Consequently, if the density arising from the omitted atoms is weak then the bulk-solvent model may obscure it further. A possible solution to this problem is to prevent bulk solvent from entering the selected OMIT regions, which may improve the interpretative power of residual maps. This approach is called a polder (OMIT) map. Polder OMIT maps can be particularly useful for displaying weak densities of ligands, solvent molecules, side chains, alternative conformations and residues both in terminal regions and in loops. The tools described in this manuscript have been implemented and are available in PHENIX. PMID:28177311

  1. Polder maps: improving OMIT maps by excluding bulk solvent.

    PubMed

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V; Moriarty, Nigel W; Poon, Billy K; Sobolev, Oleg V; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Adams, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    The crystallographic maps that are routinely used during the structure-solution workflow are almost always model-biased because model information is used for their calculation. As these maps are also used to validate the atomic models that result from model building and refinement, this constitutes an immediate problem: anything added to the model will manifest itself in the map and thus hinder the validation. OMIT maps are a common tool to verify the presence of atoms in the model. The simplest way to compute an OMIT map is to exclude the atoms in question from the structure, update the corresponding structure factors and compute a residual map. It is then expected that if these atoms are present in the crystal structure, the electron density for the omitted atoms will be seen as positive features in this map. This, however, is complicated by the flat bulk-solvent model which is almost universally used in modern crystallographic refinement programs. This model postulates constant electron density at any voxel of the unit-cell volume that is not occupied by the atomic model. Consequently, if the density arising from the omitted atoms is weak then the bulk-solvent model may obscure it further. A possible solution to this problem is to prevent bulk solvent from entering the selected OMIT regions, which may improve the interpretative power of residual maps. This approach is called a polder (OMIT) map. Polder OMIT maps can be particularly useful for displaying weak densities of ligands, solvent molecules, side chains, alternative conformations and residues both in terminal regions and in loops. The tools described in this manuscript have been implemented and are available in PHENIX.

  2. Polder maps: Improving OMIT maps by excluding bulk solvent

    DOE PAGES

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; ...

    2017-02-01

    The crystallographic maps that are routinely used during the structure-solution workflow are almost always model-biased because model information is used for their calculation. As these maps are also used to validate the atomic models that result from model building and refinement, this constitutes an immediate problem: anything added to the model will manifest itself in the map and thus hinder the validation. OMIT maps are a common tool to verify the presence of atoms in the model. The simplest way to compute an OMIT map is to exclude the atoms in question from the structure, update the corresponding structure factorsmore » and compute a residual map. It is then expected that if these atoms are present in the crystal structure, the electron density for the omitted atoms will be seen as positive features in this map. This, however, is complicated by the flat bulk-solvent model which is almost universally used in modern crystallographic refinement programs. This model postulates constant electron density at any voxel of the unit-cell volume that is not occupied by the atomic model. Consequently, if the density arising from the omitted atoms is weak then the bulk-solvent model may obscure it further. A possible solution to this problem is to prevent bulk solvent from entering the selected OMIT regions, which may improve the interpretative power of residual maps. This approach is called a polder (OMIT) map. Polder OMIT maps can be particularly useful for displaying weak densities of ligands, solvent molecules, side chains, alternative conformations and residues both in terminal regions and in loops. As a result, the tools described in this manuscript have been implemented and are available in PHENIX.« less

  3. Malignant brainstem tumors in children, excluding diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Klimo, Paul; Nesvick, Cody L; Broniscer, Alberto; Orr, Brent A; Choudhri, Asim F

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Malignant tumors of the brainstem, excluding classic diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), are a very rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have been infrequently described in the literature. In this paper, the authors present their experiences with treating these unique cancers. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify eligible cases over a 15-year period. All tumors involving the pons were, by consensus, felt not to be DIPGs based on their neuroimaging features. Demographic information, pathological specimens, neuroimaging characteristics, surgical and nonsurgical management plans, and survival data were gathered for analysis. RESULTS Between January 2000 and December 2014, 29 patients were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.4 years (range 2 months to 25 years), and 17 (59%) patients were male. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were cranial neuropathies (n = 24; 83%), hemiparesis (n = 12; 41%), and ataxia or gait disturbance (n = 10; 34%). There were 18 glial and 11 embryonal tumors. Of the glial tumors, 5 were radiation-induced and 1 was a malignant transformation of a previously known low-grade tumor. Surgical intervention consisted of biopsy alone in 12 patients and some degree of resection in another 15 patients. Two tumors were diagnosed postmortem. The median overall survival for all patients was 196 days (range 15 to 3999 days). There are currently 5 (17%) patients who are still alive: 1 with an anaplastic astrocytoma and the remaining with embryonal tumors. CONCLUSIONS In general, malignant non-DIPG tumors of the brainstem carry a poor prognosis. However, maximal cytoreductive surgery may be an option for select patients with focal tumors. Long-term survival is possible in patients with nonmetastatic embryonal tumors after multimodal treatment, most importantly maximal resection.

  4. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  5. 29 CFR 98.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I know if a person is excluded? 98.140 Section 98.140 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 98.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  7. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  8. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  9. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  10. 20 CFR 418.3425 - What resources do we exclude from counting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What resources do we exclude from counting... Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3425 What resources do we exclude from counting? In determining your resources (and the resources of your spouse, if any) the following items shall be excluded: (a...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How do I know if a person is excluded? 1508.140 Section 1508.140 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1508.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the Excluded Parties List System...

  12. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  13. How "Open" is Open Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisey, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    The roots of the open learning system approach to education are explored and the relationship between its goals and the succeeding models/methodologies are examined in the context of open and closed systems theories. An open systems orientation to learning system development is recommended. (MSE)

  14. [Effects of aging time on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in typical China soils].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Chen, Shi-Bao; Liu, Ji-Fang; Ma, Yi-Bing

    2013-07-01

    Six typical China soils with different properties were selected and added with seven concentrations of ZnCl2 to study the effects of different aging time (14, 90, 180, 360, and 540 days) on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in the soils, with the main affecting factors analyzed. The results indicated that with the increase of aging time, the fraction of 0.01 mol x L(-1) CaCl2-extracted Zn in the soils decreased sharply initially, then slowed down, and reached the dynamic balance after 540 d incubation. The eco-toxicity thresholds (ECx, x = 10, 50) of Zn to bok choy increased significantly with aging time (P < 0.05), which implied the marked decrease of the phyto-toxicity of Zn. The measured aging factors AF10 and AF50 of Zn ranged from 1.077-1.743 and 1.174-1.441, respectively, and increased with aging time. The balanced concentration of Zn in the soils was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, CEC, and organic carbon (Org-C) content, and soil pH was the most important controlling factor, followed by CEC and Org-C. It took shorter time to reach Zn balance in the soils with higher pH. The prediction model of the ECx of Zn was developed based on the aging factors and the main soil properties, and could be well validated by the measured ECx under field condition. This study would provide theoretical basis for the normalization of the eco-toxicity thresholds of added Zn in different soils and the formulation of the environmental criterion of Zn in China soils.

  15. Degradation of Direct Red 81 mediated by Fenton reactions: multivariate optimization, effect of chloride and sulfate, and acute ecotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Marson, Eduardo O; de Paiva, Vinícius A B; Gonçalves, Bárbara R; Gomes Júnior, Oswaldo; Borges Neto, Waldomiro; Machado, Antonio E H; Trovó, Alam G

    2017-03-01

    The role of different operational parameters related to Fenton reactions (pH, concentration of Fe(2+) and H2O2, and reaction time) and of Cl(-) and SO 4(-) was investigated in the degradation of the azo dye Direct Red 81, expressed in terms of its decolorization. The factorial design and Pareto's charts showed that only Fe(2+) concentration and pH influence the decolorization under the conditions evaluated. So, only these parameters were optimized using the response surface model. Under the best experimental conditions (initial pH 2.5, 11 mg L(-1) Fe(2+), 78 mg L(-1) H2O2, and 20 min of reaction), 94 % of decolorization was achieved. However, even under the these conditions, but in the presence of Cl(-) and SO 4(-) , a striking loss of efficiency was observed as the concentration of these ions was increased, due the formation of chloride- and sulfate-iron complexes and less reactive inorganic radicals (Cl2(•-) and SO4(•-)). The results show that the presence of Cl(-) is more deleterious, since sulfate-iron complexes are more reactive towards H2O2, and the SO4(•-) turns out to favor the degradation. On the other hand, the  negative effect of Cl(-) can be compensated by increasing the chloride concentration up to 300 mmol L(-1). In addition, although a high degradation level has been obtained by monitoring the dye absorbance and by HPLC-UV, a low mineralization occurred, being generated degradation products of higher ecotoxicity to Vibrio fischeri, showing the need of subsequent studies to identify these compounds as well as the application of additional treatments aiming the complete mineralization of the dye.

  16. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    PubMed

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.

  17. Ecotoxicological effects of carbofuran and oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the freshwater fish Nile tilapia: nanotubes enhance pesticide ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Campos-Garcia, Janaína; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T; Alves, Oswaldo L; Leonardo, Antônio Fernando Gervásio; Barbieri, Edison

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of carbon nanotubes with pesticides, such as carbofuran, classical contaminants (e.g., pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and dyes) and emerging contaminants, including endocrine disruptors, are critical components of the environmental risks of this important class of carbon-based nanomaterials. In this work, we studied the modulation of acute carbofuran toxicity to the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes, termed HNO3-MWCNT. Nitric acid oxidation is a common chemical method employed for the purification, functionalisation and aqueous dispersion of carbon nanotubes. HNO3-MWCNT were not toxic to Nile tilapia at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L for exposure times of up to 96 h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the LC50 values of carbofuran were 4.0, 3.2, 3.0 and 2.4 mg/mL, respectively. To evaluate the influence of carbofuran-nanotube interactions on ecotoxicity, we exposed the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of carbofuran mixed together with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, the LC50 values of carbofuran plus nanotubes were 3.7, 1.6, 0.7 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. These results demonstrate that HNO3-MWCNT potentiate the acute toxicity of carbofuran, leading to a more than five-fold increase in the LC50 values. Furthermore, the exposure of Nile tilapia to carbofuran plus nanotubes led to decreases in both oxygen consumption and swimming capacity compared to the control. These findings indicate that carbon nanotubes could act as pesticide carriers affecting fish survival, metabolism and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    PubMed

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (P<0.05) within the Hanford Site study areas, relative to upriver. However, this same spatial relationship in sturgeon liver did not attain statistical significance for non-dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs. Non-dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs were significantly higher (P<0.05) in whitefish fillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (P<0.05) in carp fillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (P<0.005) in comparison to fillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of pH on the sonolysis of ciprofloxacin: Biodegradability, ecotoxicity and antibiotic activity of its degradation products.

    PubMed

    De Bel, Evelien; Dewulf, Jo; Witte, Bavo De; Van Langenhove, Herman; Janssen, Colin

    2009-09-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment has raised concerns due to the potential risk for the emergence or persistence of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics are often poorly degraded in conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, sonolysis at 520 kHz and 92 W L(-1) was used for the degradation of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. In a first experiment at pH 7, 57% of the ciprofloxacin (15 mg L(-1)) was degraded after 120 min of ultrasonic irradiation at 25 degrees C. pH proved to be an important parameter determining the degradation rate, since the pseudo first order degradation constant increased almost fourfold when comparing treatment at pH 7 (0.0058 min(-1)) and pH 10 (0.0069 min(-1)) with that at pH 3 (0.021 min(-1)). This effect can be attributed to the degree of protonation of the ciprofloxacin molecule. The BOD/COD ratio of the solutions, which is a measure for their biodegradability, increased from 0.06 to 0.60, 0.17, and 0.18 after 120 min of irradiation depending on the pH (3, 7, and 10, respectively). The solution treated at pH 3 can even be considered readily biodegradable (BOD/COD>0.4). The antibiotic activity against Escherichia coli (G-) and Bacillus coagulans (G+) of the treated solutions also reduced after sonolysis. The highest decrease was again found when irradiated at pH 3. In contrast, ecotoxicity of the solutions to the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata increased 3- to 10-fold after 20 min of treatment, suggesting the formation of toxic degradation products. The toxicity slowly diminished during further treatment.

  20. Ecotoxicity of silver nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: a review of literature and gaps in nano-toxicological research.

    PubMed

    Walters, Chavon R; Pool, Edmund J; Somerset, Vernon S

    2014-01-01

    There has been extensive growth in nanoscale technology in the last few decades to such a degree that nanomaterials (NMs) have become a constituent in a wide range of commercial and domestic products. With NMs already in use in several consumer products, concerns have emerged regarding their potential adverse environmental impacts. Although research has been undertaken in order to minimise the gaps in our understanding of NMs in the environment, little is known about their bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Nano-toxicology is defined as the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nano-toxicology studies remain poorly and unevenly distributed. To date most of the research undertaken has been restricted to a narrow range of test species such as daphnids. Crabs are bio-indicators that can be used for toxicological research on NMs since they occupy a significant position in the aquatic food chain. In addition, they are often used in conventional ecotoxicological studies due to their high sensitivity to environmental stressors and are abundantly available. Because they are benthic organisms they are prone to contaminant uptake and bioaccumulation. To our knowledge the crab has never been used in nano-toxicological studies. In this context, an extensive review on published scientific literature on the ecotoxicity of silver NPs (AgNPs) on aquatic organisms was conducted. Some of the most common biomarkers used in ecotoxicological studies are described. Emphasis is placed on the use of biomarker responses in crabs as monitoring tools, as well as on its limitations. Additionally, the gaps in nano-toxicological research and recommendations for future research initiatives are addressed.

  1. Biotic and abiotic studies on the biological fate, transport and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelghani, A.; Pramar, Y.; Mandal, T.

    1996-05-02

    This project assesses the levels of xenobiotics in Devils Swamp and studies their biological fate, transport, ecotoxicity, and potential toxicity to man. This article reports on the following studies: assessment of the acute toxicity of individual xenobiotics and toxicity of organic compounds hexachlorobutadience (HCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCBD) on juvenile crayfish; determination of the biotic influence of temperature, salinity, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, and sediment composition on the migration of xenobiotics; development of a pharmacokinetics model for xenobiotic absorption and storage, distribution and excretion by fish and crayfish.

  2. Wildlife openings

    Treesearch

    William M. Healy

    1989-01-01

    Openings provide important feeding areas for forest wildlife because herbaceous vegetation grows much more abundantly in the open than beneath a forest canopy. Herbage (grasses and forbs) is generally more nutritious and digestible than woody plant growth. Herbage is important in the diet of deer, especially in late winter and early spring. Voles and rabbits use...

  3. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  4. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  5. A 'simple anterior fish excluder' (SAFE) for mitigating penaeid-trawl bycatch.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Matthew J; Broadhurst, Matt K; Sterling, David J; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    Various plastic strips and sheets (termed 'simple anterior fish excluders'-SAFEs) were positioned across the openings of penaeid trawls in attempts at reducing the unwanted bycatches of small teleosts. Initially, three SAFEs (a single wire without, and with small and large plastic panels) were compared against a control (no SAFE) on paired beam trawls. All SAFEs maintained targeted Metapenaeus macleayi catches, while the largest plastic SAFE significantly reduced total bycatch by 51% and the numbers of Pomatomus saltatrix, Mugil cephalus and Herklotsichthys castelnaui by up to 58%. A redesigned SAFE ('continuous plastic') was subsequently tested (against a control) on paired otter trawls, significantly reducing total bycatch by 28% and P. saltatrix and H. castelnaui by up to 42%. The continuous-plastic SAFE also significantly reduced M. macleayi catches by ~7%, but this was explained by ~5% less wing-end spread, and could be simply negated through otter-board refinement. Further work is required to refine the tested SAFEs, and to quantify species-specific escape mechanisms. Nevertheless, the SAFE concept might represent an effective approach for improving penaeid-trawl selectivity.

  6. Percutaneous endoscopy to diagnose malignancy in gastric outlet obstruction of excluded stomach after gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waseem; Rubin, Joshua; Kwong, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer in the excluded stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a rare finding and most reported diagnoses are made via surgery. Endoscopic access to the excluded stomach is difficult, even with balloon-assisted enteroscopy. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with malignant gastric outlet obstruction of the excluded stomach, 41 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Minimally invasive access to the excluded stomach was obtained by placement of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, followed by insertion of a pediatric gastroscope through the gastrostomy tube tract. This novel approach provides minimally invasive access to the excluded stomach in patients with high suspicion of pathology in the excluded stomach, when balloon-assisted enteroscopy is not technically feasible or available. PMID:28469371

  7. Percutaneous endoscopy to diagnose malignancy in gastric outlet obstruction of excluded stomach after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waseem; Rubin, Joshua; Kwong, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer in the excluded stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a rare finding and most reported diagnoses are made via surgery. Endoscopic access to the excluded stomach is difficult, even with balloon-assisted enteroscopy. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with malignant gastric outlet obstruction of the excluded stomach, 41 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Minimally invasive access to the excluded stomach was obtained by placement of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, followed by insertion of a pediatric gastroscope through the gastrostomy tube tract. This novel approach provides minimally invasive access to the excluded stomach in patients with high suspicion of pathology in the excluded stomach, when balloon-assisted enteroscopy is not technically feasible or available.

  8. Combining HPLC-GCXGC, GCXGC/ToF-MS, and selected ecotoxicity assays for detailed monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in soil and leaching water.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-10-15

    HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) and GCXGC/ToF-MS (comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry) were used to study the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil microcosms during 20 weeks. Two soils were studied: one spiked with fresh diesel and one field sample containing weathered diesel-like oil. Nutrient amended and unamended samples were included. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels in spiked soil decreased from 15,000 to 7,500 mg/kg d.m. and from 12,0O0 to 4,000 mg/kg d.m. in the field soil. Linear alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons were better biodegradable (>60% degraded) than iso-alkanes; cycloalkanes were least degradable (<40%). Aromatic hydrocarbons up to three rings showed better degradability than n-alkanes. GCXGC/ToF-MS analysis of leaching water showed that initially various oxygenated hydrocarbons were produced. Compound peaks seemed to move up and rightward in the GCXGC chromatograms, indicating that more polar and heavier compounds were formed as biodegradation proceeded. Nutrient amendment can increase TPH removal rates, but had adverse effects on ecotoxicity and leaching potential in our experiment This was explained by observed shifts in the soil microbial community. Ecotoxicity assays showed that residual TPH still inhibited cress (Lepidium sativum) seed germination, but the leaching water was no longer toxic toward luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri).

  9. Characterizing dose-responses of catalase to nitrofurazone exposure in model ciliated protozoan Euplotes vannus for ecotoxicity assessment: enzyme activity and mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Zhou, Liang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-02-01

    In environmental studies, some biological responses, known as biomarkers, have been used as a powerful bioassay tool for more than four decades. Disparity between enzyme activity and mRNA abundance leads to correlation equivocality, which makes the application of biomarkers for environmental risk assessment more complicated. This study investigates this disparity in the case of catalase when used as a biomarker for detecting ecotoxicity induced by antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, dose-responses for catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance were investigated in Euplotes vannus which were exposed to graded doses of nitrofurazone for several discrete durations, and dose-response models were developed to characterize the dose-response dynamics. Significant differences were found in both catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance among the E. vannus treated with nitrofurazone. Catalase activity showed a hormetic-like effect in terms of dose-response, characterized by a biphasic relationship which was more clearly evident after a longer exposure period, while mRNA expression abundance increased linearly with the exposure duration. Additionally, the correlation between catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance reversed along with the duration of exposure to nitrofurazone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that catalase mRNA expression offers a more straightforward dose-response model than enzyme activity. Our findings suggest that both catalase enzyme activity and mRNA expression abundance can be used jointly as bioassay tools for detecting ecotoxicity induced by nitrofurazone in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Critical evaluation and further development of methods for testing ecotoxicity at multiple pH using Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Rendal, Cecilie; Trapp, Stefan; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2012-08-01

    To meet the requirements of risk assessment legislature regarding the ecotoxicity of ionizing compounds, the present study attempts to establish easy, robust methods for testing ecotoxicity at various pH levels. An overview is given of the buffering methods found in the literature. This is supplemented by a series of experiments where toxicity and ability to stabilize pH of seven common buffering compounds was tested on Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. We consider a buffer applicable at a given concentration if the pH drift is below 0.2 pH units, and if there are no toxic effects. Twenty-four- and 48-h acute toxicity tests with D. magna were carried on a series of organic buffers with pH monitoring. Based on the experimental results it is possible to give recommendations for buffer concentrations for use in toxicity testing with D. magna at pH levels in the range of pH 6.0-7.8 for 48 h exposure, and pH 6.0-9.5 for 24 h exposure. Forty-eight- and 72-h growth inhibition tests with P. subcapitata were carried out, and recommendations for buffer concentrations at pH 7.5 and 8.0 are made for both 48 and 72 h of exposure.

  11. Analysis of the ecotoxicity data submitted within the framework of the REACH Regulation. Part 1. General overview and data availability for the first registration deadline.

    PubMed

    Sobanska, Marta A; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Sobanski, Tomasz; Versonnen, Bram; Bonnomet, Vincent; Tarazona, Jose V; De Coen, Wim

    2014-02-01

    REACH(1) entered into force in June 2007 and has hence been operational for six years. With the first registration deadline in November 2010, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA(2)) has received a large amount of scientific and administrative information related to chemical substances. In order to understand what type of data on ecotoxicity endpoints was submitted under the REACH framework a detailed analysis of the availability and content of relevant information was performed. To avoid unnecessary testing, the REACH Regulation provides registrants with the possibility to build testing strategies and to adopt the standard information requirements based on the specific conditions listed in the regulation. The types of information submitted by registrants to fulfil data requirements for aquatic, sediment and terrestrial toxicity endpoints were analysed. The REACH database analysis confirms large differences in the availability of experimental aquatic versus sediment and soil ecotoxicity data. Information requirements on aquatic organisms are mainly covered by experimental data, while those for sediment and soil are mostly waived. © 2013.

  12. Assessing and monitoring the ecotoxicity of pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields using the polyurethane foam unit method based on monitoring protozoal communities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cheng; Chen, Tianming; Li, Zhaoxia; Yan, Jinlong

    2015-05-01

    Using the standardized polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, a preliminary investigation was carried out on the bioaccumulation and the ecotoxic effects of the pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields. Static ectoxicity test had shown protozoal communities were very sensitive to variations in toxin time and effective concentration (EC) of the pulp and paper wastewater. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) was a more suitable indicator of the extent of water pollution than Gleason and Margalef diversity index (d), Simpson's diversity index (D), and Pielou's index (J). The regression equation between S eq and EC was S eq  = - 0.118EC + 18.554. The relatively safe concentration and maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) of the wastewater for the protozoal communities were about 20 % and 42 %, respectively. To safely use this wastewater for irrigation, more than 58 % of the toxins must be removed or diluted by further processing. Monitoring of the wastewater in representative irrigated reed fields showed that the regularity of the protozoal colonization process was similar to the static ectoxicity, indicating that the toxicity of the irrigating pulp and paper wastewater was not lethal to protozoal communities in the reed fields. This study demonstrated the applicability of the PFU method in monitoring the ecotoxic effects of pulp and paper wastewater on the level of microbial communities and may guide the supervision and control of pulp and paper wastewater irrigating within the reed fields ecological system (RFES).

  13. The excluded DNA strand is SEW important for hexameric helicase unwinding.

    PubMed

    Carney, Sean M; Trakselis, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Helicases are proposed to unwind dsDNA primarily by translocating on one strand to sterically exclude and separate the two strands. Hexameric helicases in particular have been shown to encircle one strand while physically excluding the other strand. In this article, we will detail experimental methods used to validate specific interactions with the excluded strand on the exterior surface of hexameric helicases. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are described to identify an excluded strand interaction, determine the exterior interacting residues, and measure the dynamics of binding. The implications of exterior interactions with the nontranslocating strand are discussed and include forward unwinding stabilization, regulation of the unwinding rate, and DNA damage sensing.

  14. Ecotoxicity of water-soluble lectin from Moringa oleifera seeds to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    de Santana Silva, Livia Lais; Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; de Paulo, Driele Ventura; da Silva, José Dayvid Ferreira; de Oliveira, Ana Patrícia Silva; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; do Amaral, Ian Porto Gurgel; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of ecotoxicity of mosquito larvicidal agents (such as the water-soluble lectin from Moringa oleifera seeds, WSMoL) is an essential step to establish the guidelines for their use. In this sense, this work evaluated the toxicity of WSMoL to Danio rerio embryos and larvae. Embryos were exposed to waterborne WSMoL (0.0125-0.2 mg mL(-1)) for 96 h and lethal and sub-lethal effects were observed every 24 h. In the bioassays with larvae, the individuals were exposed to the WSMoL (0.025-0.2 mg mL(-1)), mortality was recorded daily, and larval swimming velocities were analyzed after 72 h and 168 h of exposure. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of larvae was determined after 168 h of exposure. WSMoL LC50 values to embryos were 0.190, 0.133 and 0.049 mg mL(-1) after 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. No toxic endpoint was observed after exposure for 24 h. In addition, hatching was delayed and larval length at 96 h was reduced compared to the control. WSMoL LC50 to larvae were 0.21 and 0.135 mg mL(-1), after 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Larvae exposed to 0.1 and 0.2 mg mL(-1) showed a decrease in swimming speed and a significant reduction in AChE activity. In conclusion, WSMoL at waterborne concentrations needed for its use as a larvicide to A. aegypti causes lethal and sublethal effects to zebrafish embryos and larvae. Therefore, its use in waterbodies where there are non-target organisms is not recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  16. Degradation models and ecotoxicity in marine waters of two antifouling compounds: sodium hypochlorite and an alkylamine surfactant.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Garrido, M Carmen; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-03-15

    Industrial wastes have a substantial impact on coastal environments. Therefore, to evaluate the impact of cooling water discharges from coastal power plants, we studied the kinetics of the degradative processes and the ecotoxicity of two antifouling products: (1) a classic antifouling product; sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and (2) an alternative one; aliphatic amines (commercial under the registered trade mark Mexel432). To assess the persistence of both compounds the decay of sodium hypochlorite and the primary biodegradation rate of Mexel432 were determined in natural seawater at 20 degrees C. The results indicated a more rapid decay of NaClO than Mexel432. The degradation behavior of both chemicals was described following a logistic model, which permitted calculating kinetic parameters such as t(50) or t(90). The t(50) was 1h and 2d for NaClO and Mexel432, respectively. To evaluate the potential risks of the aforementioned treatments to marine organisms, the acute toxicity of both antifouling products was studied on the microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Dunaliella salina, and on the invertebrate Brachionus plicatilis, using growth inhibition and death tests as toxic response, respectively. For I. galbana, the 96-h EC(50) values were 2.91+/-0.15mg/L of NaClO and 4.55+/-0.11mg/L of Mexel432. D. salina showed values of 96-h EC(50) of 1.73+/-0.16mg/L of NaClO and 7.21+/-0.1mg/L of Mexel432. Brachionus plicatilis showed a 24-h LC(50) of 1.23+/-0.1mg/L of NaClO and 3.62+/-0.37mg/L of Mexel432. Acute toxicity was highly dependent on the chemical and species tested. NaClO presented more toxic effects than Mexel432, also B. plicatilis was the most sensitive species in both cases. The lowest NOECs obtained, 0.25mg/L for NaClO and 2.12mg/L for Mexel432, were similar to the theoretical residual concentrations of these biocides in cooling water discharges. Therefore, these discharges can cause undesirable negative effects upon the aquatic organisms present.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics, mechanism and ecotoxicity assessment of tramadol metabolites in aqueous TiO2 suspensions.

    PubMed

    Αntonopoulou, Μ; Hela, D; Konstantinou, I

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated for the first time the photocatalytic degradation of three well-known transformation products (TPs) of pharmaceutical Tramadol, N-desmethyl-(N-DES), N,N-bidesmethyl (N,N-Bi-DES) and N-oxide-tramadol (N-OX-TRA) in two different aquatic matrices, ultrapure water and secondary treated wastewater, with high (10 mg L(-1)) and low (50 μg L(-1)) initial concentrations, respectively. Total disappearance of the parent compounds was attained in all experiments. For initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1), the target compounds were degraded within 30-40 min and a mineralization degree of more than 80% was achieved after 240 min of irradiation, while the contained organic nitrogen was released mainly as NH4(+) for N-DES, N,N-Bi-DES and NO3(-) for N-OX-TRA. The degradation rates of all the studied compounds were considerably decreased in the wastewater due to the presence of inorganic and organic constituents typically found in effluents and environmental matrices which may act as scavengers of the HO(•). The effect of pH (4, 6.7, 10) in the degradation rates was studied and for N-DES-TRA and N,N-Bi-DES-TRA, the optimum pH value was 6.7. In contrast, N-OX-TRA showed an increasing trend in the photocatalytic degradation kinetic in alkaline solutions (pH 10). The major transformation products were identified by high resolution accurate mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (HR-LC-MS). Scavenging experiments indicated for all studied compounds the important role of HO(•) in the photocatalytic degradation pathways that included mainly hydroxylation and further oxidation of the parent compounds. In addition, Microtox bioassay (Vibrio fischeri) was employed for evaluating the ecotoxicity of photocatalytically treated solutions. Results clearly demonstrate the progressive decrease of the toxicity and the efficiency of the photocatalytic process in the detoxification of the irradiated solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Opening a Side-Gate: Engaging the Excluded in Chilean Higher Education through Test-Blind Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a test-blind admission initiative in a Chilean research university aimed at expanding the inclusion of talented, albeit educationally and socially disadvantaged, students. The outcomes of the test-blind admission cohort were compared with those of students admitted via the regular admission procedure to the same academic…

  19. Opening a Side-Gate: Engaging the Excluded in Chilean Higher Education through Test-Blind Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a test-blind admission initiative in a Chilean research university aimed at expanding the inclusion of talented, albeit educationally and socially disadvantaged, students. The outcomes of the test-blind admission cohort were compared with those of students admitted via the regular admission procedure to the same academic…

  20. 21 CFR 1404.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How do I know if a person is excluded? 1404.140 Section 1404.140 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I know if a person is excluded? 1404.140 Section 1404.140 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.140 - How do I know if a person is excluded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How do I know if a person is excluded? 1404.140 Section 1404.140 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.140 How do I know if a person is excluded? Check the...

  3. Listening to Excluded Young People's Experiences of e-Safety and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranmer, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on excluded young people's experiences with and management of e-safety and risk. It has importance in exploring these concerns given that excluded young people's voices are very often absent in education and technology research and yet they are potentially more at risk when using Information and Communication Technologies than…

  4. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced...

  5. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  6. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  7. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  8. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced...

  9. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced...

  10. Listening to Excluded Young People's Experiences of e-Safety and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranmer, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on excluded young people's experiences with and management of e-safety and risk. It has importance in exploring these concerns given that excluded young people's voices are very often absent in education and technology research and yet they are potentially more at risk when using Information and Communication Technologies than…

  11. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  12. Principle Learning as a Function of Instruction on Excluding Irrelevant Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Henry; Raven, Ronald

    1969-01-01

    Describes procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to determine if instruction on excluding irrelevant variables enhanced learning the principle of flotation. The subjects were 97 seventh grade, 259 eighth grade, and 38 college students. Results indicate that learning to exclude the false principles before learning the correct…

  13. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active...

  14. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of...

  15. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  16. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  17. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of...

  18. Preventing Inclusion? Inclusive Early Childhood Education and the Option to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    While there is increasing international commitment to inclusive education, as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), many children remain excluded at school. One marginalised and frequently excluded group of people are people who experience disability. In the recently released first report on…

  19. 20 CFR 10.826 - How can an excluded provider be reinstated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can an excluded provider be reinstated...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Exclusion of Providers § 10.826 How can an excluded provider be reinstated? (a) If a physician, hospital, or provider of medical services or...

  20. 20 CFR 30.726 - How can an excluded provider be reinstated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can an excluded provider be reinstated... for Medical Providers Exclusion of Providers § 30.726 How can an excluded provider be reinstated? (a) If a physician, hospital, or provider of medical services or supplies has been automatically...