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Sample records for exclusive breast feeding

  1. Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework: A New Framework to Improve Breast-feeding Duration and Exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Abbass-Dick, Jennifer; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    Targeting mothers and fathers in breast-feeding promotion programs is recommended as research has found that father's support positively impacts breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Breast-feeding coparenting refers to the manner in which parents work together to achieve their breast-feeding goals. The Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework was developed on the basis of diverse coparenting models and research related to father's involvement with breast-feeding. This framework consists of 5 components: joint breast-feeding goal setting, shared breast-feeding responsibility, proactive breast-feeding support, father's/partner's parental-child interactions, and productive communication and problem solving. This framework may be of value to policy makers and program providers working to improve breast-feeding outcomes.

  2. Usefulness of an assessment score to predict early stopping of exclusive breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Giannì, M L; Vegni, C; Ferraris, G; Mosca, F

    2006-03-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first 6 months of life. Use of simple indicators to predict early stopping of exclusive breast-feeding may be desirable in clinical practice. A breast-feeding assessment evaluated at discharge and including maternal age, previous breast-feeding experience, latching difficulty, and breast-feeding interval could be useful.

  3. Lactation counseling increases exclusive breast-feeding rates in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aidam, Bridget A; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Lartey, Anna

    2005-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) rates remain low despite numerous health benefits associated with this behavior. We conducted a randomized trial on the effect of lactation counseling on EBF, which controlled for the Hawthorne effect while also varying the timing of the intervention. Pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Tema were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intervention groups (IG) or to a control group (C), as follows: 1) EBF support given pre-, peri-, and postnatally (IG1; n = 43); 2) EBF support given only peri- and postnatally (IG2; n = 44); or 3) nonbreast-feeding health educational support (C; n = 49) that had an equal amount of contact with lactation counselors. Two educational sessions were provided prenatally, and 9 home follow-up visits were provided in the 6-mo postpartum period. Infant feeding data were collected monthly at the participant's home. The 3 groups did not differ in sociodemographic characteristics. At 6 mo postpartum, 90.0% in IG1 and 74.4% in IG2 had exclusively breast-fed during the previous month. By contrast, only 47.7% in C were doing so (P = 0.008). Similarly, the percentage of EBF during the 6 mo was significantly higher (P = 0.02) among IG1 and IG2 (39.5%) than among C (19.6%). The 100% increase in EBF rates can be attributed to the lactation counseling provided. Additional prenatal EBF support may not be needed within a context of strong routine prenatal EBF education.

  4. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk.

    PubMed

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L

    2016-10-14

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005-2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  5. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005–2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux. PMID:27754430

  6. Factors associated with the duration of exclusive breast-feeding in asthmatic families.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Barbara; Mesters, Ilse; Knottnerus, J André; van Schayck, Constant P

    2008-02-01

    This study was part of a randomized controlled trial in which verbal and written advice about exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months was provided to Dutch women expecting a child with a high risk of developing asthmatic traits. Eighty-nine women completed a theory-based self-report questionnaire between the third and sixth months of pregnancy, which served as the baseline measurement. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that influence the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Cox multiple regression analysis showed a positive significant association between the duration of exclusive breast-feeding and the mother's breast-feeding knowledge (P < 0.01), her intended hours of work per week after maternity leave (P < 0.01) and her age (P breast-feeding experience of multiparous women appeared to be negatively associated with the duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.001). Furthermore, women who received the educational programme were more likely to succeed in breast-feeding exclusively for 6 months than the control group (48% versus 27%, P < 0.05). This study suggests that extra educational support is beneficial, and especially necessary for multiparous women with an earlier short-term, <5 weeks, or no breast-feeding experience, since they are at risk of discontinuing exclusive breast-feeding before completing the advisable 6-month period.

  7. Does exclusive breast-feeding reduce the risk of coeliac disease in children?

    PubMed

    Nash, Samantha

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this review was to identify if exclusive breast-feeding reduced the risk of coeliac disease (CD) in children. Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases were searched for cohort studies and case control studies that compared exclusive breast-feeding rates with formula or mixed (breast and formula) of the same duration. Three case control studies met the review criteria and were included in the review. The results from these studies show that there is a reduced risk in the onset of CD in those children who were exclusively breast-fed compared to those who were not. However, the design of these studies did not allow a causal relationship to be established. The evidence from these studies suggests a delay in the onset of CD in breast-fed children, however it cannot be ruled out that breast-feeding continues to have a protective factor in adolescence and adulthood. The exact role of breast-feeding in CD prevention needs to be clarified: is it a protective factor against CD, or does it delay the appearance of clinical symptoms? Parents should continue to be encouraged and supported with breast-feeding, as it is the best form of infant nutrition and protective against short and long-term health outcomes.

  8. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede

    2015-05-01

    Despite the overall national success in reducing infant mortality rate in Ethiopia, infant mortality rate is still high in northwest Amhara region. This study is conducted in one of the high mortality areas with the aim of identifying risk factors that are associated with infant mortality in Northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A prospective open cohort study involving 1752 infants (1472.4518 person years of follow-up) was undertaken from November 2009 to August 2011. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was used to estimate infant mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infant mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. The overall infant mortality rate was 88 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 74.3, 104.9). After controlling other important predictors in multivariate Poisson regression, infants not exclusively breastfed [IRR = 7.86, 95% CI: (5.11, 12.10), )], breast milk initiated after 24 hours of birth [IRR = 4.84,95% CI: (2.94,7.99)], mothers not washing hands with soap after visiting toilet and before feeding child [IRR = 4.61, 95% CI: (2.24, 9.48)], being rural residents [IRR = 2.33, 95% CI: (1.12, 4.88)], infants born within 24 months for the previous birth [IRR = 2.79, 95%CI: (1.88, 4.15)], have increased the risk of infant mortality. In conclusion, exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in this predominantly rural setting where hygienic standards are poor. Supporting mothers to exclusively breast feeding which is cost effective, safe and feasible strategy, can help reduce infant mortality in the study setting.

  9. The determinants of exclusive breast feeding in urban slums: a community based study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ranjana; Mahajan, P C; Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2009-02-01

    The actual rate of Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) (up to the age of 6 months) is dismally low in urban slums of India. The reasons and determinants of this are debatable. The study was planned to understand the determinants of EBF in the infants in urban slums. A community-based cross sectional study was done in urban slums of Gwalior, India. The data were collected by interviewing the caregivers of 279 infants aged between 6 and 11 months from November 2005 to July 2006. Only 11 (3.8%) mothers knew that EBF should be done till six months and 22 (7.8%) actually practiced EBF. A total of 178 (63.8%) and 212 (76.0%) newborns were given pre- and post-lacteal feeds with 26.2% discarding colostrum. Only 22 (7.8%) practiced EBF. The early breastfeeding (BF) initiation, Ante Natal Clinic (ANC) visits, mothers' education and immunization visits were significantly associated with higher probability of EBF. There were a number of myths and misconceptions about BF in this urban slum population. The correct information about BF was more common amongst the women who had frequent contacts with health facilities due to any reason or during ANC or immunization visit. Similarly, it is the continuum of good health and feeding practices and the mothers who start early BF or get their child immunized regularly are more likely to EBF their children. Considering the widely prevalent myths and low rate of utilization of health services along with high potential benefits of EBF, every opportunity of mothers' interaction with the health facility should be utilized for promoting correct and EBF practices.

  10. Duration of exclusive breast-feeding and infant iron and zinc status in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Eneroth, Hanna; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Kabir, Iqbal; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2009-08-01

    There is a concern that exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 mo may lead to iron and zinc deficiency in low-birth weight (LBW) infants. We assessed the association between duration of EBF and infant iron and zinc status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial, Bangladesh, stratified for normal birth weigh (NBW) and LBW. Duration of EBF was classified into EBF <4 mo and EBF 4-6 mo based on monthly recalls of foods introduced to the infant. Blood samples collected at 6 mo were analyzed for plasma zinc (n = 1032), plasma ferritin (n = 1040), and hemoglobin (Hb) (n = 791). Infants EBF 4-6 mo had a higher mean plasma zinc concentration (9.9 +/- 2.3 micromol/L) than infants EBF <4mo (9.5 +/- 2.0 micromol/L) (P < 0.01). This association was apparent in only the NBW strata and was not reflected in a lower prevalence of zinc deficiency. Duration of EBF was not associated with concentration of plasma ferritin, Hb concentration, or prevalence of iron deficiency or anemia in any strata. Regardless of EBF duration, the prevalence of zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, and anemia was high in infants in this population and strategies to prevent deficiency are needed.

  11. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  12. The effect of prolonged and exclusive breast-feeding on dental caries in early school-age children. New evidence from a large randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M S; Vanilovich, I; Matush, L; Bogdanovich, N; Zhang, X; Shishko, G; Muller-Bolla, M; Platt, R W

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of prolonged and exclusive breast-feeding on dental caries, we followed up children participating in the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), a cluster-randomized trial of a breast-feeding promotion intervention based on the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. A total of 17,046 healthy, mother-infant breast-feeding pairs were enrolled from 31 Belarussian maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics, of whom 13,889 (81.5%) were followed up at 6.5 years. At follow-up, polyclinic pediatricians transcribed the reports of a standard dental examination performed by public health dentists at age 6 years and recorded in the children's polyclinic charts. Analysis was based on intention to treat, with a statistical model that accounts for clustering within hospitals/clinics to permit inferences at the individual level. The experimental intervention led to a large increase in exclusive breast-feeding at 3 months (43.3 vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence of any breast-feeding at all ages up to and including 12 months. No significant intervention effects were observed on dental caries. Our results, based on the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation, provide no evidence of beneficial or harmful effects of prolonged and exclusive breast-feeding on dental caries at early school age.

  13. Did exclusive breast-feeding and early discharge lead to excessive bilirubin levels in newborns in Antigua and Barbuda?

    PubMed

    Martin, T C; Shea, M; Alexander, D; Bradbury, L; Lovell-Roberts, L; Francis, V

    2002-06-01

    %) and sepsis neonatorum in 21/134 (16%). The hyperbilirubinaemia was idiopathic in 96/134 (71%) infants. Newborns in Antigua and Barbuda were discharged 3.7 days after their mothers' admission, with 50% discharged prior to 48 hours of age. Early discharge in developed countries has led to increased readmissions for hyperbilirubinaemia. Following the appointment of a dietitian to supervise breast-feeding, admissions for hyperbilirubinaemia fell by 50% by 1998. These data suggest that exclusive breast-feeding and early discharge led to an epidemic of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in Antigua and Barbuda.

  14. Exclusive breast-feeding of newborns among married women in the United States: the National Natality Surveys of 1969 and 1980.

    PubMed

    Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G

    1985-11-01

    Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.

  15. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  16. [When is breast feeding contraceptive?].

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Breast-feeding has always been perceived as a contraceptive measure, probably because it is associated with amenorrhea. However, many pregnancies occur during breast-feeding, often quite soon after delivery. A pregnancy occurring 3 months after delivery is considered at risk for both the mother and child. Three conditions are necessary for a 98% contraceptive efficacy of lactation: total amenorrhea; exclusive breast-feeding on demand, both day and night; and occurrence within the first 6 months postpartum. If the three conditions are met, no additional contraceptive method is needed. Beyond 6 months, another method should be used.

  17. [Current views on breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  18. Involvement of males in antenatal care, birth preparedness, exclusive breast feeding and immunizations for children in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Men in patriarchal societies of developing countries are often identified as decision makers in all aspects of day-to-day life. The study explores the factors associated with male involvement in ANC, birth plans, exclusive breastfeeding and immunization of children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2178 married males between May and December 2010 in Kathmandu, Nepal. Twenty one clusters were selected for data collection using structured questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method. Results This study determined the percentage of males who accompanied their partners for ANC (39.3%), arranged SBA (47.9%) and accompanied them for child immunization (10.9%). Factors found associated with respect to different activities were as follows: accompanied their partners on antenatal visits – uneducated or primary level education (AOR, 5.68, 95% CI, 4.44-7.27), income NPR 5001 (1USD = 85 NPR) or above (1.47, 1.20-1.80) and aged above 25 years (2.51, 1.89-3.33); arranged money for delivery – uneducated or primary level education (7.34, 5.84-9.23), income NPR 5001 or above (1.80, 1.48-2.20) and aged above 25 years (1.55, 1.18-2.03); arranged SBA – uneducated or primary level education (17.14, 12.65-23.22) and income NPR 5001 or above (2.89, 2.36-3.54); arranged transportation – uneducated or primary level education (17.65, 11.84-26.32), income NPR 5001 or above (1.69, 1.40-2.04) and aged above 25 years (1.69, 1.27-2.24); encouraged exclusive breast feeding – uneducated or primary level education (5.48, 4.39-6.83) and aged above 25 years (1.35, 1.03-1.77); accompanied their partners for immunization their children – uneducated or primary level education (3.88, 2.53-5.96) and aged above 25 years (1.72, 1.11-2.64). Conclusions Men who were uneducated or had primary level education, aged above 25 years, had higher

  19. Acceptability of exclusive breast-feeding with early cessation to prevent HIV transmission through breast milk, ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Toure, Hassan; Castetbon, Katia; Coulibaly, Nacoumba; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Bequet, Laurence; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2005-01-01

    Objective We assessed the uptake of a nutritional intervention promoting exclusive breastfeeding with early cessation between three and four months of age to reduce postnatal transmission of HIV in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Design Between March 2001 and March 2003, HIV infected pregnant women who had received a perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis were systematically offered prenatally two infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breastfeeding during three months then early cessation of breastfeeding. Mother-infant pairs were closely followed for a period of two years, with continuous nutritional counseling and detailed collection of feeding practices. Results Among the 557 mothers enrolled, 262 (47%) initiated breastfeeding. Of these women, the probability of practicing exclusive breastfeeding from birth was 18% and 10% at one and three months of age, respectively. Complete cessation of breastfeeding was obtained in 45% and 63% by four and six months of age, respectively. Environmental factors such as living with partner’s family were associated with failure to initiate early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding was low in this urban population. However, shortening the duration of breastfeeding appeared to be feasible. Further investigations are ongoing to fully evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this intervention in reducing breastmilk HIV transmission. PMID:16284538

  20. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding.

  1. Breast Feeding Practice among Medical Women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sadoh, A E; Sadoh, W E; Oniyelu, P

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are important in the promotion, protection and support of breast feeding. Their ability to do this may be influenced by their knowledge, personal experiences and work. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The breast feeding experience of 36 female medical doctors who had babies within the preceding two years and had resumed work was evaluated using a semi-structured self administered questionnaire. RESULT: All respondents knew that babies should be exclusively breast fed for the first six months of life but only 60% knew that breast feeding should continue until two years. The exclusive breast feeding rate for the studied doctors was 11.1%. Before their babies were six months old, about 75% of respondents had resumed work whilst over 50% had started taking calls. Most could not breast feed during working or call hours. Alternative feeds during working or call hours included expressed breast milk in 34.4% and infant formula in 21.9%. Feeding bottle was the major method (77.4%) for feeding these alternatives. Work schedule was rearranged to allow breast feeding in only 27.3% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Failure to carry out exclusive breast feeding, the use of infant formula and feeding bottles (rather than cup feeding) are practices that may be inimical to the practice of breast feeding in society in general. The suboptimal breast feeding experience in these doctors and the identified knowledge deficits may limit their effectiveness in promoting and supporting breast feeding among their patients and communities. Female medical personnel should be empowered to carry out optimal feeding of their own infants.

  2. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.

  3. Breast feeding in organic acidaemias.

    PubMed

    Gokcay, G; Baykal, T; Gokdemir, Y; Demirkol, M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has been recommended for the dietary treatment of infants with organic acidaemias, but studies documenting clinical experience are still very few. Nine infants, diagnosed with methylmalonic acidaemia (n = 4), propionic acidaemia (n = 1), isovaleric acidaemia (n = 2) and glutaric acidaemia type I (n = 2) were breast fed after diagnosis. The age of the patients was 28.9+/- 13.4 months (mean +/- SD) (range 10-57 months). Eight patients were diagnosed with clinical symptoms and one because of an affected sibling. After the control of acute metabolic problems, an initial period with a measured volume of expressed breast milk was continued with on-demand breast feeding with the addition of a special essential amino acid mixture and energy supplements. Breast feeding was well tolerated in seven infants with good growth, metabolic control and neurological outcome. The duration of breast feeding was 12.3+/- 7.4 months (mean +/- SD) (range 4-24 months) in these patients. Breast feeding was terminated in the patient with propionic acidaemia because of two acute metabolic episodes requiring hospitalization, and could not be continued in one of the patients with isovaleric acidaemia owing to shortage of breast milk. A decrease in the frequency of infections, acute metabolic episodes and hospital admissions was observed in breast-fed infants. Breast feeding of infants with organic acidaemias is feasible with close monitoring of clinical parameters such as growth, development and biochemistry, including amino acids, organic acids and ammonia.

  4. Breast-feeding and Transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    John-Stewart, Grace; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Ekpini, Rene; Janoff, Edward N; Nkengasong, John; Read, Jennifer S; Van de Perre, Phillippe; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2004-02-01

    Breast-feeding substantially increases the risk of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, and although peripartum antiretroviral therapy prophylaxis significantly decreases the risk of mother-to-child transmission around the time of delivery, this approach does not affect breast-feeding transmission. Increased maternal RNA viral load in plasma and breast milk is strongly associated with increased risk of transmission through breast-feeding, as is breast health, and it has been suggested that exclusive breast-feeding could be associated with lower rates of breast-feeding transmission than mixed feeding of both breast- and other milk or feeds. Transmission through breast-feeding can take place at any point during lactation, and the cumulative probability of acquisition of infection increases with duration of breast-feeding. HIV-1 has been detected in breast milk in cell-free and cellular compartments; infant gut mucosal surfaces are the most likely site at which transmission occurs. Innate and acquired immune factors may act most effectively in combination to prevent primary HIV-1 infection by breast milk.

  5. Breast-feeding. The roots.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nun, L

    2006-12-01

    Although breast milk provides the best nutrition for the infant, breast-feeding has been decreasing with the growth in use of prepared milk formulas. This paper evaluates the available biblical literature dealing with breast-feeding. The research is unique in character, as it combines contemporary medical knowledge with presentation of cases taken from ancient history. We include no commentaries, but refer only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. Biblical texts relating to breast-feeding were examined and the cases of biblical characters who were breast-fed were studied. The great historical figures such as Isaac, Rebecca, Moses, Samuel, and Joash were breast-fed, openly or secretly. If the biological mother was unable to nurse her child, a wet nurse took over the feeding. Breast-feeding was the only way infants could survive at that time. Weaning day was very important and was celebrated. The wet nurse played an important role in family life, in some cases remaining to live with the infant after weaning, through childhood and even into adulthood. In spite of advanced technology that provides artificial infant formulas, contemporary mothers, just like biblical mothers, should be encouraged to breast-feed their infants.

  6. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229077

  7. Fifteen-minute consultation on the healthy child: breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Cleugh, F; Langseth, A

    2017-02-01

    Despite extensive evidence about the benefits of breast feeding for both infants and mothers, breastfeeding rates in the UK remain low. Most infants presenting with feeding issues are otherwise well but are often over diagnosed with clinical conditions such as maternal milk insufficiency, cow's milk intolerance or reflux. With simple advice and troubleshooting common problems, all child health professionals can support mothers to establish and continue breast feeding exclusively for longer.

  8. Breast-feeding after inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, D; Niessen, M; Evans, H B; Hurst, L N

    2000-02-01

    The breast-feeding practices of a series of postpartum women, who had undergone prior reduction mammaplasty by means of an inferior pedicle approach, are reported in this retrospective study. Also identified are the factors that influenced the decision to breast-feed postoperatively. From a patient pool of 544 individuals who elected to have reduction mammaplasty between 1984 and 1994 (age range, 15 to 35 years), 334 could be contacted and interviewed by means of telephone by using a standardized questionnaire. Successful breast-feeding was defined as the ability to feed for a duration equal to or greater than 2 weeks. Seventy-eight patients had children after their breast reduction surgery. Fifteen of the 78 patients (19.2 percent) breast-fed exclusively, 8 (10.3 percent) breast-fed with formula supplementation, 14 (17.9 percent) had an unsuccessful breast-feeding attempt, and 41 (52.6 percent) did not attempt breast-feeding. Of the 41 patients not attempting to breast-feed, 9 patients did so as a direct consequence of discouragement by a health care professional. Further reasons for feeding with supplementation, having an unsuccessful attempt, and not attempting to breast-feed are presented. Of the 78 women who had children postoperatively, a total of 27 were discouraged from breast-feeding by medical professionals with only 8 of the 27 (29.6 percent) subsequently attempting, despite this recommendation. In comparison, 26 patients were encouraged to breast-feed; nineteen (73.1 percent) of them did subsequently attempt breast-feeding. This rate is statistically significant by using a chi2 test with 1 df(p = 0.0016). Postpartum breast engorgement and lactation was experienced by 31 of the 41 patients not attempting to breast-feed. Of these 31 patients, 19 believed that they would have been able to breast-feed due to the extent of breast engorgement and lactation experienced. Given the use of an inferior flap mammaplasty technique and patient encouragement, the

  9. Breast-feeding in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, M J; Martín-Calama, J; Hernandez-Aguilar, M T

    2001-12-01

    Human milk is the best way to nurture the human infant. By breast-feeding their babies, mothers provide them with the best opportunities to wholly develop their potential, while protecting the infants and themselves from a whole range of diseases in the near future and in the years to come. Even though these benefits are widely known and there is ample scientific evidence on the topic, it seems from published data that Spanish women are not breast-feeding their babies as much and for as long as they should. Less than 90% start breast-feeding, at 1 month there is already an attrition of 30%, at 3 months more than half of the infants are taking artificial milk and by 6 months only 10% continue to breast-feed their infants. Low birth weight, Caesarean section and low study level are among the more significant factors that negatively affect breast-feeding. There is still work to do to improve this situation. Promotion of breast-feeding among the general population, mothers and health professionals is needed.

  10. [Encouragement and protection of breast-feeding: conoscitive study].

    PubMed

    Di Labio, Luisa; Pane, Concettina; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in a Naples health district were studied in October 2008 in the period between the first and second vaccinations (neonates aged between 60 and 120 days) . Questions regarded both the mother and the child and the answers were collected in a database and compared with other methods of nutrition or mixed methods. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results showed that only 38.5% of the mothers interviewed practiced breast-feeding alone while 20% did mixed feeding and 41.5% preferred artificial feeding. The variables negatively related to breast-feeding were: breast problems, older-aged mothers, Cesarean section, first experience of breast-feeding, lack of rooming-in and/or prenatal preparative courses. Positively associated variables were: higher level of education of the mother, higher level of information regarding the advantages of breast-feeding. The conclusions of this study confirm those of previous studies regarding the relationship between exclusive breast-feeding and biological and social factors.

  11. Breast feeding and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Golding, J; Emmett, P M; Rogers, I S

    1997-10-29

    The evidence linking bottle feeding to infant and early childhood mortality has been reviewed. Ecological studies of national time trends in infant mortality do not parallel breast feeding trends in those countries, and indicate that falling death rates are more likely to be related to better health care facilities and social conditions. Direct studies of deaths provide some contradictory findings; meta-analyses are not informative because of the many differences in statistical and sample methodology. The methodology exhibited in most studies is more likely to have over- rather than under-estimated a relationship between bottle feeding and infant mortality. Retrospective analyses must take account of changes in feeding pattern due to early signs of illness. Prospective population studies able to account for large numbers of potential confounders provide the best estimates, especially if proportional hazards models are used. Two such studies have been carried out--both showed protective effects of breast feeding.

  12. [A new contraceptive method: breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1993-08-01

    Even though women have known for centuries that breast feeding has a contraceptive effect, family planning agents have only recently promoted it. Family planning specialists at a meeting in Bellagio, Italy, on breast feeding developed directives referred to as the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM). Adherence to these directives assure effective protection against pregnancy until resumption of menstruation, expansion of infant feeding to foods other than breast milk, or until 6 months postpartum. Nipple stimulation during suckling is sufficient to suppress ovulation. Frequent suckling or more intense suckling maintains the contraceptive effect, so the directives insist that mothers exclusively or almost exclusively breast feed their infants. LAM provides 98% effective protection against pregnancy for 6 months if women observe it as directed. After 6 months, they should use another family planning method. Scientists are trying to see whether they can make the directives more simple. They will discuss this possibility at their next international meeting in 1993 or 1994. Research indicates that the most crucial rule is amenorrhea and use of this rule will make LAM more easy to learn and use, thereby increasing its use. It is difficult to motivate hospital and family planning clinic staff to promote LAM. Information and education are needed to support LAM. for example, a project in Honduras is using peer counseling to promote LAM. Family Health International is following 1000 women for 1 year postpartum in Pakistan and the Philippines. This study's 6-month LAM efficacy rate was around 95%. Little research has looked at the cost effectiveness of LAM. Optimally, LAM is a temporary contraceptive method which must be followed immediately by another contraceptive method. Indeed, LAM counseling should often pregnancy. LAM supporters do not intend for LAM to be a substitute for family planning, but want LAM to be another method in the contraceptive method mix.

  13. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  14. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Caglar, M K; Ozer, I; Altugan, F S

    2006-04-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), primiparity (P < 0.005), less than four stools (P < 0.001), pink diaper (P < 0.001), delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01), birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05), extra heater usage (P < 0.005), extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001), mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05), mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001), fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02), and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02) were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  15. Breast-feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the breast-fed infant, health benefits associated with breast-feeding, nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. This article emphasises the important role of paediatricians in the implementation of health policies devised to promote breast-feeding.The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recognises breast-feeding as the natural and advisable way of supporting the healthy growth and development of young children. This article delineates the health benefits of breast-feeding, reduced risk of infectious diarrhoea and acute otitis media being the best documented. Exclusive breast-feeding for around 6 months is a desirable goal, but partial breast-feeding as well as breast-feeding for shorter periods of time are also valuable. Continuation of breast-feeding after the introduction of complementary feeding is encouraged as long as mutually desired by mother and child.The role of health care workers, including paediatricians, is to protect, promote, and support breast-feeding. Health care workers should be trained in breast-feeding issues and counselling, and they should encourage practices that do not undermine breast-feeding. Societal standards and legal regulations that facilitate breast-feeding should be promoted, such as providing maternity leave for at least 6 months and protecting working mothers.

  16. Developing a workplace breast feeding support model for employed lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Yimyam, Susanha; Hanpa, Wasana

    2014-06-01

    Resuming work is often considered an obstacle for continued breast feeding. The objectives of this participatory action research study were to develop a breast feeding support model in the workplace and to compare breast feeding rates before and after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign. Twenty-four women participated before the implementation of the breast feeding support campaign, whereas 31 women participated after the campaign. Data were collected by interviewing employed women about their breast feeding practices within six months post partum. Additional data were collected through interviews with the workplace administrator and head of work sections as well as observation of the breast feeding support campaigns. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) test. The workplace breast feeding support model was developed based on the concept of Mother-Friendly Workplace Initiatives by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and the Thai government׳s promotion of a workplace breast feeding corner. Within this model, a committee for breast feeding support was created for working with the research team to develop breast feeding activities and media for breast feeding education and breast feeding support campaigns in the workplace. Breast feeding rates at six months after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign were significantly higher than rates before, both for exclusive breast feeding and any breast feeding at levels .004 and .033, respectively. These results suggest that breast feeding should be encouraged in every workplace depending on context. Individual advice and help for employed mothers should be provided from pregnancy through weaning in the postpartum period.

  17. Beer, Breast Feeding, and Folklore

    PubMed Central

    MENNELLA, JULIE A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.

    2009-01-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined. PMID:8293892

  18. Beer, breast feeding, and folklore.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1993-12-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined.

  19. Breast-feeding and maternal cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, E S; Kelsey, R M; Myers, M M; Katkin, E S

    2001-11-01

    Two studies examined the effects of breast-feeding on maternal cardiovascular function. In the first experiment, groups of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding women were compared on preejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) recorded for 1-min periods before and during standard laboratory stressors. Compared with bottle-feeders, breast-feeders had higher CO throughout the session, and greater decreases in CO and increases in TPR during cold pressor. In the second experiment, HR and blood pressure (BP) were compared before and after one breast-feeding and one bottle-feeding session in a within-subjects design. Both feeding methods increased BP but decreased HR, and systolic BP was higher for the breast-feeding than the bottle-feeding condition. Both studies support the notion that breast-feeding alters maternal cardiovascular function, possibly through the actions of oxytocin.

  20. Breast feeding: social, economic and medical considerations.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L

    1983-10-01

    A certain attitude and lifestyle is needed if breast feeding is to be successful. It must have priority over all other activities save the very basic ones. The rural environment provides a situation in which breast feeding can flourish . With urbanisation and the accompanying change in lifestyle breast feeding becomes very difficult. Since successful breast feeding needs strong motivation, the change in attitude of urbanised wives makes it even more unlikely. The Singapore experience demonstrates this convincingly; even though awareness of the benefits of breast feeding is widespread, the motivation to breast feed is not. Remedial measures should take into consideration the need to motivate the mother and family, the prevention of commercial infant food companies influencing public opinion, and incentives for the working mothers to breast feed.

  1. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Haider, R.; Islam, A.; Hamadani, J.; Amin, N. J.; Kabir, I.; Malek, M. A.; Mahalanabis, D.; Habte, D.

    1996-01-01

    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by the counsellors a week later, only the mothers in the intervention group were counselled. All the mothers were evaluated for infant feeding practices at home two weeks after discharge. Among the 125 mother-infant pairs in each group, 60% of mothers in the intervention group were breast-feeding exclusively at discharge compared with only 6% in the control group (P < 0.001); two weeks later, these rates rose to 75% and 8% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). However, 49% of mothers in the control group reverted back to bottle-feeding compared with 12% in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Thus, individual counselling had a positive impact on mothers to start exclusive breast-feeding during hospitalization and to continue the practice at home. Maternal and child health facilities should include lactation counselling as an integral part of their programme to improve infant feeding practices. PMID:8706233

  2. Tuberculosis: a breast-feeding challenge.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Suzanne; Winkelman, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    A recent resurgence of tuberculosis in the world community has brought the disease into the forefront of communicable disease control. Acknowledging the proven benefits of breast-feeding infants, the question of compatibility arises regarding the safety of breast-feeding an infant in the event of active tuberculosis disease in the mother. This article will discuss the emerging trends of tuberculosis disease and review the evidence that addresses the issues of safety while breast-feeding during tuberculosis treatment.

  3. Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fängström, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk and infant urine at 3 months of age and compared them with detailed information on breast-feeding practices and maternal arsenic exposure, as measured by concentrations in blood, urine, and saliva. Results Arsenic concentrations in breast-milk samples were low (median, 1 μg/kg; range, 0.25–19 μg/kg), despite high arsenic exposures via drinking water (10–1,100 μg/L in urine and 2–40 μg/L in red blood cells). Accordingly, the arsenic concentrations in urine of infants whose mothers reported exclusive breast-feeding were low (median, 1.1 μg/L; range, 0.3–29 μg/L), whereas concentrations for those whose mothers reported partial breast-feeding ranged from 0.4 to 1,520 μg/L (median 1.9 μg/L). The major part of arsenic in milk was inorganic. Still, the infants had a high fraction (median, 87%) of the dimethylated arsenic metabolite in urine. Arsenic in breast milk was associated with arsenic in maternal blood, urine, and saliva. Conclusion Very little arsenic is excreted in breast milk, even in women with high exposure from drinking water. Thus, exclusive breast-feeding protects the infant from exposure to arsenic. PMID:18629322

  4. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  5. Conquering common breast-feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Meeting mothers' personal breast-feeding goals depends on a number of factors, including the timely resolution of any problems she encounters. Nurses are often the first providers who interact with the mother during the perinatal period and are positioned to guide mothers through the prevention and solving of breast-feeding problems. Although many problems may be "common," failure to remedy conditions that cause pain, frustration, and anxiety can lead to premature weaning and avoidance of breast-feeding subsequent children. This article describes strategies and interventions to alleviate common problems that breast-feeding mothers frequently encounter.

  6. Promoting and supporting breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Moreland, J; Coombs, J

    2000-04-01

    The family physician can significantly influence a mother's decision to breast-feed. Prenatal support, hospital management and subsequent pediatric and maternal visits are all-important components of breast-feeding promotion. Prenatal encouragement increases breast-feeding rates and identifies potential problem areas. Hospital practices should focus on rooming-in, early and frequent breast-feeding, skilled support and avoidance of artificial nipples, pacifiers and formula. Infant follow-up should be two to four days postdischarge, with liberal use of referral and support groups, including lactation consultants and peer counselors.

  7. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied.

  8. Breast-feeding and infant health.

    PubMed

    Oseid, B

    1979-07-01

    A mother who breast-feeds makes a significant contribution to her infant's health. Currently researchers are delineating many of the unique nutritional and antiinfective factors in human milk. The psychological advantages that accrue to both the breast-feeding mother and her infant are harder to quantify. Contraindications to breast-feeding are few and relate primarily to maternal illness and need for medications, or to those rare infants who have inborn errors of metabolism. Physicians and other health personnel should advise the mother knowledgeably on breast-feeding and seek imaginative solutions to any problems so that breast-feeding can be continued well into the first year of the infant's life and into following years if both mother and child desire it.

  9. Knowledge of pregnant women on transmission of HIV infection through breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Kasinga, F; Mogotlane, S M; van Rensburg, G H

    2008-09-01

    Although breast-feeding is nature's way of providing nutrition to the baby, in HIV positive mothers this has been identified as one of the means through which HIV infection is transmitted from the mother to the child. In Africa where children under the age of 5 are killed by preventable diseases like diarrhoea, the issue of HIV transmission through breast feeding poses an added huge problem. Research has, however shown that exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, reduces the risk substantially. It is imperative that mothers be informed about safer methods of infant feeding so that HIV infection is kept to a minimum. The objective of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge that pregnant women had about mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. A non-experimental quantitative exploratory and descriptive research design was used to explore the knowledge women had on mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. From the data collected, it showed that although women were aware of the susceptibility of children to HIV infection if fed on breast and formula feeds simultaneously by HIV positive mothers, exclusive feeding was a problem as people associated the practise with a positive HIV status. Women who had not disclosed their HIV status and were HIV positive, found it difficult to comply with the requirement to exclusively feed their infants. These either continued with complementary feeds or did not collect the free formula milk supply preferring instead to buy the formula feeds privately. In this study it was recommended that information on transmission of HIV infection from mother to child through breast -feeding including the benefits of exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, for the first three to six months be provided to the community so that relatives can support the mother on infant feeding method of choice.

  10. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  11. Chagas disease and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Norman, Francesca F; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered.

  12. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

  13. [Aortic and cerebral trombosis caused by hypernatremic dehydration in an exclusively breast-fed infant].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Fernández, C; Chimenti Camacho, P; Vázquez López, P; Guerrero Soler, M; Blanco Bravo, D

    2006-10-01

    Complete aortic thrombosis is rare in neonates. Because it carries high morbidity and mortality, this entity requires aggressive and early treatment. This report describes an 8-day-old healthy and exclusively breast-fed infant, without specific coagulopathy, who developed complete aortic and cerebral venous thrombosis, which was attributed to inadequate breast-feeding and severe hypernatremic dehydration. Early systemic anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy allowed complete resolution of the problem.

  14. Prediction of initiation and duration of breast-feeding for neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Lessen, Rachelle; Crivelli-Kovach, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Women who desire to breast-feed their sick newborns often encounter obstacles, including insufficient support and education as well as unsupportive hospital practices. The purpose of this study was to describe maternal, neonatal, and outside influences associated with the intention, initiation, and duration of breast-feeding for women whose newborns were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. One hundred mothers were interviewed. Most mothers (67%) intended to breast-feed exclusively and this was significantly related to maternal characteristics such as age, education, parity, smoking and marital status, pre-breast-feeding experience, and the influences of the neonate's father and prenatal education. Seventy-eight mothers initiated pumping. Initiation was significantly related to maternal education, smoking, parity, previous breast-feeding experience, the neonate's physician, the neonate's father, and postpartum breast-feeding education. Fifty-four mothers were followed up by telephone after discharge until weaning. Thirty percent were exclusively breast-feeding at 2 weeks after discharge, and 15% were breast-feeding at 1 year. Duration of breast-feeding was significantly associated with education, marital status, ethnicity, income, assistance from nurses and lactation consultants, and feeding method along with milk type and milk volume at discharge. Increased family support, timely breast-feeding information, and a supportive neonatal intensive care unit environment are needed for women to succeed in breast-feeding their hospitalized newborns.

  15. A Study of Breast Feeding Practices Among Families of Armed Forces Personnel in a Large Cantonment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pmp; Bhalwar, R

    2002-10-01

    A cross sectional epidemiological study design was undertaken on a randomly selected sample of 175 families of Armed Forces personnel staying in a large cantonment and having at least one child in the age group 3 to 24 months. The mean duration of lactational amenorrhoea was found to be 6.24 months (SD ± 3.25 months) and that of breast feeding was found to be 11.14 months (SD ± 6.37 month). The present study observed positive association between the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, as well as between the lack of practice of exclusive breast feeding and number of spells of upper respiratory tract infection and acute gastroenteritis. Based on the findings of the study, certain measures to promote the practice of exclusive breast feeding for the first 4-6 months of life have been suggested.

  16. Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Luke C; Katz, Joanne; Li, Yue M; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Tielsch, James M

    2008-03-01

    Initiation of breast-feeding within 1 h after birth has been associated with reduced neonatal mortality in a rural Ghanaian population. In South Asia, however, breast-feeding patterns and low birth weight rates differ and this relationship has not been quantified. Data were collected during a community-based randomized trial of the impact of topical chlorhexidine antisepsis interventions on neonatal mortality and morbidity in southern Nepal. In-home visits were conducted on d 1-4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 21, and 28 to collect longitudinal information on timing of initiation and pattern of breast-feeding. Multivariable regression modeling was used to estimate the association between death and breast-feeding initiation time. Analysis was based on 22,838 breast-fed newborns surviving to 48 h. Within 1 h of birth, 3.4% of infants were breast-fed and 56.6% were breast-fed within 24 h of birth. Partially breast-fed infants (72.6%) were at higher mortality risk [relative risk (RR) = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.32-2.39] than those exclusively breast-fed. There was a trend (P = 0.03) toward higher mortality with increasing delay in breast-feeding initiation. Mortality was higher among late (> or = 24 h) compared with early (< 24 h) initiators (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.86) after adjustment for low birth weight, preterm birth, and other covariates. Improvements in breast-feeding practices in this setting may reduce neonatal mortality substantially. Approximately 7.7 and 19.1% of all neonatal deaths may be avoided with universal initiation of breast-feeding within the first day or hour of life, respectively. Community-based breast-feeding promotion programs should remain a priority, with renewed emphasis on early initiation in addition to exclusiveness and duration of breast-feeding.

  17. Extended Breast-Feeding: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Curious about extended breast-feeding? Know the benefits, the role breast milk plays ... baby beyond age 1 — also known as extended breast-feeding — you might have questions about the process. Get ...

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis investigating breast feeding and childhood wheezing illness.

    PubMed

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Allen, C Wendy; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B

    2011-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence concerning the relationship between breast feeding and wheezing illness. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between breast feeding and wheezing in children aged over 5 years and to discover possible sources of heterogeneity. An electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted from January 2000 to June 2010. In addition, reference lists from relevant publications were searched. Birth cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies were included if they measured any breast feeding or exclusive breast feeding for 3 or 4 months. Wheezing illness, including asthma, was identified based on symptoms, reported diagnosis or objective criteria. Thirty-one publications were identified for meta-analysis. There was no association found between any or exclusive breast feeding and wheezing illness, although there was a high level of heterogeneity between the studies. Subgroup analysis revealed that any breast feeding slightly lowers the odds of wheeze (pooled odds ratio 0.92 [0.86, 0.98]) but slightly increases the odds of asthma defined by specific criteria (pooled odds ratio 1.10 [1.00, 1.22]). This meta-analysis does not provide evidence that breast feeding is protective against wheezing illness in children aged 5 years and over. The difference in the effects of breast feeding according to the nature of the wheezing illness highlights the importance of the heterogeneity of illness phenotypes.

  19. Breast-feeding among female employees at a major health institution in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamisaiye, A; Oyediran, M A

    1983-01-01

    The importance of breast-feeding to the health of infant and mother is discussed. However the working conditions of employed women in developing countries prevent exclusive breast-feeding once the mother has returned to work after delivery and also present obstacles to partial breast-feeding. The breast-feeding practices of women employed at a major health institution in Lagos, Nigeria are examined. Duration of breast-feeding was in inverse relation to salary level. Women on the lowest salaries had a mean duration of breast-feeding their last child of 8 months, whereas women in senior professional positions had a mean breast-feeding duration of 3.3 months. Conflicts with work responsibilities were the most commonly cited reason for terminating breast-feeding earlier than the mother desired. If a creche was available at place of work, half the women surveyed said they would breast-feed for longer. Anticipated durations, if a creche was available, would lengthen breast-feeding to 12 months for lowest paid women and to nearly 9 months for women at the higher salary levels. Present options available to the employed women who wishes to breast-feed as long as possible, namely the use of wet-nurses and expression of breast-milk, are discussed. It is concluded that the most satisfactory means of promoting breast-feeding among employed women is the provision of paid leave post delivery for at least three months and the provision of a creche at place of work. The costs should be borne by the employer, assisted by government in the form of grants and tax-relief.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  1. The role of breast-feeding in the development of allergies and asthma.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Noah J; Zeiger, Robert S

    2005-06-01

    Breast-feeding is the preferred method of infant nutrition for numerous reasons. However, its role in the prevention of allergic disease remains controversial. Reasons for this controversy include methodological differences and flaws in the studies performed to date, the immunologic complexity of breast milk itself and, possibly, genetic differences among patients that would affect whether breast-feeding is protective against the development of allergies or is in fact sensitizing. The preponderance of evidence does suggest, however, that there would be much to lose by not recommending breast-feeding. In general, studies reveal that infants fed formulas of intact cow's milk or soy protein compared with breast milk have a higher incidence of atopic dermatitis and wheezing illnesses in early childhood. Consistent with these findings, exclusive breast-feeding should be encouraged for at least 4 to 6 months in infants at both high and low risk of atopy and irrespective of a history of maternal asthma.

  2. [Anaesthesia and breast-feeding: should breast-feeding be discouraged?].

    PubMed

    Kranke, Peter; Frambach, Torsten; Schelling, Philip; Wirbelauer, Johannes; Schaefer, Christof; Stamer, Ulrike

    2011-05-01

    Until a few years ago an interruption of breast-feeding for 12 or even 24 hours was recommended for breast-feeding mothers after anaesthesia, this is no longer valid. If it is the mother's wish, if she is sufficiently awake and physically able, there is no reason not to start breast-feeding a mature and healthy baby immediately after recovery from a general or regional anaesthesia. Even breast-feeding after a Caesarean delivery with administration of the common anaesthetics in the usual (single) doses is no longer considered to be a problem since the amount of the substance taken up from colostrum is vanishingly small in comparison to the amount that is transferred by transplacental routes. Neither the pharmacological properties of the drugs used in association with anaesthesia nor clinical experience justify an interruption of breast-feeding.

  3. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    PubMed

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  4. The recent revival of breast-feeding in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, C A; Zũniga, H P; Benicio, M H; Rea, M F; Tudisco, E S; Sigulem, D M

    1987-01-01

    A random sampling of children under age five in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1984/85, disclosed the median duration of breast-feeding to be 3.5 months and the duration of exclusive breast-feeding, 2.0 months. A comparison of these figures with those of a similar survey carried out in the same city in 1973/74 revealed a substantial increase in both the frequency and duration of breast-feeding. The trend was evident in all socioeconomic strata but most marked among women from higher income and educational levels. PMID:3605475

  5. [Family planning during breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Peralta, O; Díaz, S; Croxatto, H

    1989-01-01

    New mothers who do not breastfeed can choose any contraceptive method that would otherwise be suitable. Hormonal and barrier methods may be used in the immediate postpartum but IUDs should not be inserted until the later postpartum. Women who breastfeed require a contraceptive method that will not interfere with lactation or with the infant's growth and development. Although lactation itself provides a period of reduced fertility that is important in spacing births, great individual variability and lack of predictability about its duration means that women desiring maximum protection should begin contraception during lactation. The beginning of supplemental feeding and the return of menstruation are signs of increased fertility. It is difficult for methodological reasons to evaluate the effects of different contraceptive methods on lactation, which depends on many other variables as well. Many studies have failed to control other variables adequately, have used very small samples, or have failed to establish at what moment contraception is begun. There has been little uniformity in defining the duration or intensity of lactation. Available work however indicates that IUDs have no effect on lactation or infant growth. IUDs inserted in the early postpartum may be expelled or cause perforation. Barrier methods have never been carefully evaluated but theoretically they should not affect lactation. Methods based on periodic abstinence have no negative effects on lactation. The majority of studies on combined oral contraceptives (OCs) demonstrate negative influences on lactation, infant growth, and the composition of the milk, with effects apparently related to the dose and timing of the beginning of treatment. Combined OCs are contraindicated during lactation. If the woman wishes to use hormonal methods, the choice should be limited to those without estrogen and with minimal progestin doses so that the smallest possible steroid dose is passed to the infant. Low

  6. Early initiation of breast-feeding in Ghana: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Kirkwood, B R; Edmond, K; Bazzano, A; Hill, Z

    2008-12-01

    To explore why women in Ghana initiate breast-feeding early or late, who gives advice about initiation and what foods or fluids are given to babies when breast-feeding initiation is late. Qualitative data were collected through 52 semistructured interviews with recent mothers, 8 focus group discussions with women of child-bearing age and 13 semistructured interviews with health workers, policy makers and implementers. The major reasons for delaying initiation of breast-feeding were the perception of a lack of breast milk, performing postbirth activities such as bathing, perception that the mother and the baby need rest after birth and the baby not crying for milk. Facilitating factors for early initiation included delivery in a health facility, where the staff encouraged early breast-feeding, and the belief in some ethnic groups that putting the baby to the breast encourages the milk. Policy makers tended to focus on exclusive breast-feeding rather than early initiation. Most activities for the promotion of early initiation of breast-feeding were focused on health facilities with very few community activities. It is important to raise awareness about early initiation of breast-feeding in communities and in the policy arena. Interventions should focus on addressing barriers to early initiation and should include a community component.

  7. [Breast feeding during methadon- and buprenorphin therapy].

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2011-12-01

    The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine.

  8. Breast feeding and childhood hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, A K; Mishra, L; Bakhshi, Sameer; Arya, L S

    2004-05-01

    Breast milk is known to have anti-infective and immunomodulating effects on infants, but its association with childhood cancer has not been well studied. Artificial feeding may affect the immune response in carcinogenesis. In this communication the authors have reviewed different articles describing the association between breast feeding (BF) and subsequent development of childhood hematological malignancy. It appears that BF may have a protective effect on childhood cancer, both the duration of BF as well as the quantity of milk ingested is probably critical to the beneficial immunological effects of BF against childhood cancer if any.

  9. Breast-Feeding Success Hinges on Support for Mom, Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164574.html Breast-Feeding Success Hinges on Support for Mom, Baby Limiting ... Information and support can help new mothers overcome breast-feeding difficulties, a lactation expert says. A pregnant woman ...

  10. Encouraging and supporting women through breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Health and the World Health Organization recommend that mothers should exclusively breast-feed their infants for the first six months of their lives. Very few mothers in the UK achieve this, but with good support and encouragement from health professionals this could be attained. Health professionals, however, need to have knowledge of the process of breastfeeding and be able to adopt a problem-solving approach to the difficulties mothers encounter, in order to give appropriate evidence-based care.

  11. A preliminary study of breast-feeding and maternal symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, E S; Guethlein, W; Vaz, N; Bagiella, E

    2000-01-01

    The association between breast-feeding status and maternal health is examined. A survey questionnaire was presented via the World Wide Web. Self-reports of 168 breast-feeding and 65 weaned mothers between 4 and 208 weeks postpartum were compared for physician visits, symptomatology, and Perceived Stress Scale scores in the last month. Breast-feeding was associated with fewer physician visits and symptoms and less perceived stress. Moreover, the longer a woman breast-fed before she weaned, the fewer the symptoms and less stress she reported. Breast-feeding is associated with better maternal health both during the breast-feeding period and after weaning. Further research on the effects on maternal health of breast-feeding is indicated. Future prospective longitudinal investigations should address the possible inhibition of lactation by stress and physiological mechanisms that may link breast-feeding and weaning with maternal health.

  12. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  13. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and…

  14. Pattern and determinants of breast feeding and contraceptive practices among mothers within six months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Shipra; Faridi, Mohammad M A; Singh, Shivani; Zahra, Fatima; Alizaidi, Zeashan

    2010-08-01

    The present study aims to determine the patterns of breast feeding, return of menstruation, and contraceptive practices in the first six months postpartum in women visiting the outpatient department at a teaching hospital in Lucknow, Northern India. Mothers of infants between six to eight months of age visiting the outpatient department of Era's Lucknow Medical College were interviewed regarding breast feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity, and contraceptive practices within the first six months postpartum using a structured questionnaire. Of all women interviewed only 75.8% practiced exclusive breast feeding with the mean duration of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) being 3.5 months with only 41% practicing EBF for six months, 28% were sexually active within six weeks postpartum, 64.5% women had a return of menstruation within six months. Contraception was practiced by only 54.4% women with a barrier method such as a condom, being the most common. Better education was the only factor significantly affecting EBF (p < 0.004) and use of contraception (p < 0.027). There were a total of 10 pregnancies within six months postpartum. In conclusion, optimal breast feeding practices are poor in this part of the country and lactational amenorrhoea cannot be effectively and reliably used as a method of contraception. Therefore, optimal breast feeding practices, timely introduction of contraception and institutional delivery need to be encouraged.

  15. Breast-feeding: encourage mothers to "give it a go"!

    PubMed

    Carson, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a part of the Government health agenda with a particular emphasis on encouraging those mothers who are least likely to breast-feed. Current and recent breast-feeding support materials from the Department of Health outline good practice for Primary Care Trusts, in line with targets for the increase in breast-feeding initiation. Breast-feeding reduces health inequalities, in the short and long term. The 2005 National Breastfeeding Awareness Week has the key message "Give it a go!" and materials including a Local Action booklet are available.

  16. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  17. Breast-feeding and maternal health in online mothers.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, Elizabeth Sibolboro; Guethlein, William; Katkin, Edward S

    2002-01-01

    Self-reports of mothers currently breast-feeding (n = 561) and mothers who had breast-fed in the past (n = 452) were compared for perceived stress, self-reports of upper respiratory infection symptoms, and physician visits for psychological illnesses. Possible demographic confounds were controlled statistically. In analyses examining breast-feeding status as a dichotomous variable (current vs. past), breast-feeding was negatively associated with perceived stress and upper respiratory symptoms (the latter association dissolved when controlling for perceived stress), but not with physician visits for psychological illnesses. However, analyses of the continuous variables of frequency of breast-feeding and cumulative amount of breast-feeding revealed negative associations, and analyses of times since last nursing revealed positive associations with likelihood for physician visits for psychological illnesses. Frequency of bottle-feeding was positively associated with perceived stress. The results support the interrelatedness of breast-feeding and maternal health in online mothers.

  18. The breast-feeding conversation: a philosophic exploration of support.

    PubMed

    Grassley, Jane S; Nelms, Tommie P

    2008-01-01

    Nurses play a vital role in mothers' early experiences with breast-feeding. Literature enumerates both supportive and nonsupportive behaviors, as well as the "interpersonal" aspect of breast-feeding support, although little direction is given to nurses about how to facilitate the relationship. This article conceptualizes breast-feeding support within Gadamerian hermeneutics as a conversation among nurses, mothers, and their newborns. Hermeneutically, breast-feeding conversation encompasses a text (a particular feeding at the breast), conversational partners (a mother, her newborn, and a nurse), and a dialogue that facilitates effective breast-feeding and maternal breast-feeding confidence through interpretation or understanding of the text. History and language are essential as a partnership is formed.

  19. Hypernatraemic dehydration and breast feeding: a population study

    PubMed Central

    Oddie, S; Richmond, S; Coulthard, M

    2001-01-01

    As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 readmissions met the case definition, giving an incidence of at least 2.5 per 10 000 live births. Serum sodium at readmission varied from 150to 175 mmol/l. One infant had convulsions. The sole explanation for hypernatraemia was unsuccessful breast feeding in all cases. The eight cases are compared with the 65 cases published in the literature since 1979. Presentation, incidence, risk factors, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention are discussed.

 PMID:11567942

  20. Breast-feeding in Bangladesh: patterns and impact on fertility.

    PubMed

    Mannan, H R; Islam, M N

    1995-12-01

    Data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey and actuarial life table methods are used to estimate breast feeding differences by other socioeconomic, health, and demographic characteristics. Findings indicate that the average breast feeding duration for surviving children was 28.2 months (27.1 months for urban women and 28.6 months for rural women). Breast feeding duration was longer among mothers with no schooling compared to mothers or fathers with a higher education. Older mothers had different breast feeding patterns than younger mothers. Muslim women breast fed for 28.1 months; non-Muslim women did so for 18.8 months. Working women breast fed for 19.0 months compared to 28.1 months among non-working women. Duration of breast feeding increased with increased parity. Breast feeding duration averaged 17.5 months among wives of service workers and business men, 28.3 months among wives of production workers, and 29.0 and 27.9, respectively, for wives of farmers and land-owners. Contraceptive use was unrelated to breast feeding duration. Women who possessed specific household items had a shorter breast feeding period. Women who were visited by health workers had a longer breast feeding duration. There were only marginal differences between durations by whether husbands controlled health decision making or whether there was joint decision making. Gender was unrelated to duration. Differences in the significance between variables and survival are reported. Multivariate findings among women who ceased breast feeding indicate that breast feeding had a positive significant effect on amenorrhea and directly determined both closed and open birth intervals. The effect of breast feeding on amenorrhea was stronger in the closed interval. Breast feeding explained 18.9% of variation in postpartum amenorrhea (9.8% in the current open interval). 86.9% of the variance was explained by place of residence, maternal education and age, parity, maternal work status, and every use of

  1. Eating for pregnancy and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Hannah E

    2007-01-01

    Good nutrition is essential to help support a successful pregnancy and breast-feeding. Women planning a pregnancy should follow a balanced nutrient-rich diet and consume a daily folic acid supplement up until the end of the first trimester. Many pregnancies, especially amongst teenagers, are unplanned, and educating women of childbearing age about the need to take folic acid to prevent neural tube defects is important. Maintaining a healthy body weight and weight gain is also important: if the mother is underweight, overweight or obese this can harm the health of both mother and fetus. Care should be taken to monitor the nutritional status of vulnerable groups (e.g. teenagers, vegans, women who are underweight, and those at risk of too little vitamin D) to ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. During breast-feeding the mother needs to eat a sufficient and nutrient-rich diet to provide enough energy and nutrients to support milk production.

  2. Impact of a feeding log on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Deborah L

    2011-04-01

    Even with the gradual upward trends in breastfeeding initiation and duration, breastfeeding rates at 6 months continue to lag well behind the 50% target set for any breastfeeding and the 25% target set for exclusive breastfeeding by the Healthy People 2010 initiatives. Overall evidence is limited in identifying effective interventions that promote breastfeeding duration and more research needs to be focused on specific nursing strategies and their effect on breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a daily feeding log, guided by Bandura's social cognitive learning theory, on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in primiparous mothers. The study used a randomized, controlled, two-group experimental design with a sample of 86 primiparous mothers. The experimental group completed a daily breastfeeding log for a minimum of 3 weeks and breastfeeding outcomes were examined over 6 months. The breastfeeding outcome variable was analyzed using survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression procedures. Subjects in the experimental group did not breastfeed significantly longer than the control group, however, a larger proportion of subjects in the experimental group reported full breastfeeding at 6 months as compared with subjects in the control group. Additional predictor variables were WIC enrollment, planned duration of breastfeeding, feeding frequency and feeding length at 1 week. The findings from the study suggest that the breastfeeding log may be a valuable tool in self-regulating breastfeeding and promoting a longer duration of full breastfeeding, but its acceptability may be impacted by socio-demographic variables.

  3. Breast-feeding duration: influence on taste acceptance over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Laval, Caroline; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-03-28

    Early feeding experiences, e.g. related to milk feeding, can affect later food and taste preferences. However, consequences of breast-feeding on taste acceptance are under-investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of exclusive breast-feeding duration (DEB) on taste acceptance at 6 and 12 months in the same infants (n 122). Mothers recorded the DEB. Acceptance of solutions of each of the five basic tastes relative to water was evaluated in the laboratory at 6 and 12 months by the ingestion ratio (IR). Kendall correlations were calculated between the DEB and the IR. Only 16 % completed at least 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding; 79 % had begun complementary feeding by 6 months. At 6 months, infants preferred sweet, salty and umami solutions over water and were indifferent to sour and bitter solutions. The longer an infant was breast-fed, the more s/he accepted the umami solution at 6 months. At 12 months, infants preferred sweet and salty solutions over water and were indifferent to sour, bitter and umami solutions. The relationship between the DEB and acceptance of the umami solution was not observed at 12 months. No relationship was observed between the DEB and sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste acceptance at 6 or 12 months. The association between the DEB and umami taste acceptance at 6 months may relate to the higher glutamate content of human milk compared with formula milk. Beyond the acknowledged metabolic benefits of breast-feeding, this suggests that prolonged breast-feeding could also be associated with an impact on sensory preference at the beginning of complementary feeding.

  4. [Breast feeding in the etiology of diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Hurtado, E

    1989-09-01

    Information derived from different anthropological studies carried out in Guatemala as part of the activities of the maternal and child health and nutrition project reveal that, according to popular beliefs, maternal milk plays a definite role in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in the lactating child. This paper presents information on popular classification of diarrheal diseases that differ from biomedical definitions of same. Different factors that may alter the quality of mothers' breast milk and that may cause gastrointestinal diseases in the lactating child are given in detail. The possibilities and limitations of the popular concept frame of "hot-cold", so common in the popular medical beliefs in Latin American populations, are also pointed out as an explanatory model. Lastly, implications of findings in this study are suggested for public health programs, especially for the communication and education programs on breast feeding, and for the application of the high-risk focus.

  5. Student nurses' attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs of students newly enrolled in an urban university baccalaureate nursing program. A qualitative approach was used to conduct in-depth semistructured interviews with 12 students prior to their formal course work in maternal-child nursing. Four themes emerged from the data analysis: 1. Personal experiences are important in the development of breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs. 2. The students generally believed that breast-feeding offered benefits for babies and mothers, but the beliefs were stronger for those who grew up with breast-feeding as the norm. 3. All the students believed that there were barriers to breast-feeding in the United States that they identified as the societal view of the breast, dependence/independence conflicts, and concerns about intimacy. 4. The students identified an educational rather than promotional role for nurses in breast-feeding because of conflicts about personal choice. This study suggests that students need help identifying their attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding and reflecting how their personal experiences influence breast-feeding promotion.

  6. The first weeks of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    King, F S

    1984-10-01

    The 2 main causes of the contemporary epidemic of breastfeeding failure appear to be urban life and hospital delivery. In rural areas, the majority of mothers breastfeed successfully. They have much emotional support from experienced women around them, and although some women experience problems, traditional birth attendants are skilled at both preventing and overcoming them. In town, a woman may be surrounded only by young friends as inexperienced as herself and a husband who is impatient of a crying infant. The most obvious solution to any difficulty is a feeding bottle which she can see many modern people using, including some health workers. Hospital delivery contributes to lactation failure by separating the mother and baby to allow them both to "rest," yet mothers who are separated from their babies for even 12 hours stop breastfeeding sooner than mothers who put their baby to the breast immediately after delivery. Possibly the emotional bonding that occurs during the 1st few hours gives a mother the motivation that she needs to persist with breastfeeding when it becomes difficult. In most societies it is customary to let the baby breastfeed immediately, and many traditional birth attendants are aware of how this helps both to stop uterine bleeding and to promote a better flow of milk. In hospitals a baby may be given feeds of formula milk or glucose water, while he/she "waits" for mother's milk to come in. Prelacteal feeds fill a baby's stomach, reduce his/her appetite, and make the baby less willing to suck at the breast. This delays the onset of lactation and increases the dangers of engorgement. If a baby is given his/her prelacteal feeds (or later feeds) from a bottle with a rubber teat, he/she is likely to develop "nipple confusion" and to fail to suck effectively from his/her mother. If hospitals are to be places in which babies may start to feed safely, the staff should let a mother suckle her baby immediately after delivery, and they should let her

  7. Mercury and lead during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Dorea, José G

    2004-07-01

    Hg and Pb are of public health concern due to their toxic effects on vulnerable fetuses, persistence in pregnant and breast-feeding mothers, and widespread occurrence in the environment. To diminish maternal and infant exposure to Hg and Pb, it is necessary to establish guidelines based on an understanding of the environmental occurrence of these metals and the manner in which they reach the developing human organism. In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and storage of these metals via maternal-infant interaction are systematically presented. Though Hg and Pb are dispersed throughout the environment, the risk of exposure to infants is primarily influenced by maternal dietary habits, metal speciation and interaction with nutritional status. Hg and Pb possess similar adverse effects on the central nervous system, but they have environmental and metabolic differences that modulate their toxicity and neurobehavioural outcome in infant exposure during fetal development. Hg is mainly found in protein matrices of animal flesh (especially fish and shellfish), whereas Pb is mainly found in osseous structures. The potential of maternal acquisition is higher and lasts longer for Pb than for Hg. Pb stored in bone has a longer half-life than monomethyl-mercury acquired from fish. Both metals appear in breast milk as a fraction of the levels found in maternal blood supplied to the fetus during gestation. Habitual diets consumed by lactating mothers pose no health hazard to breast-fed infants. Instead, cows' milk-based formulas pose a greater risk of infant exposure to neurotoxic substances.

  8. The Impact of a Self-Efficacy Intervention on Short-Term Breast-Feeding Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Jeni; Schutte, Nicola S.; Brown, Rhonda F.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Price, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy for breast-feeding may contribute to success in breast-feeding. This study aimed to increase breast-feeding self-efficacy and actual breast-feeding through an intervention based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A total of 90 pregnant women participated in the study. The women who were assigned to a breast-feeding…

  9. [Breast feeding: health benefits for child and mother].

    PubMed

    Turck, D

    2005-12-01

    Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, cells, etc., and offers many advantages over cow's milk or soy protein infant formulae. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age. Prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: in 2003, only 58% of infants were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward, for a median duration of 10 weeks. Breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower incidence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in adulthood. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the premenopausal period, and of hip fractures and osteoporosis in the postmenopausal period.

  10. [Risk of inffective breast-feeding: a nursing diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Viera, Cláudia Silveira

    2004-01-01

    This study is aimed at presenting the 'risk of ineffective breast-feeding' nursing diagnosis regarding mothers of premature infants who are hospitalized in a neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The case study outlined the methodology of the study, and the sample is composed of 35 mothers. Such a diagnosis was detected in 100% of the sample and the risk factors are prematureness; insufficient opportunity to breast-feed due to the newborn's hospitalization; lack of knowledge regarding the maintenance of lactation; maternal fear; inconstancy of breast suction due to separation; and artificial feeding of the newborn. It is believed that the identification of the risks of ineffective breast-feeding during the newborn's hospitalization period makes possible a nursing care focused on the prevention of an 'ineffective breast-feeding' diagnosis.

  11. Breast feeding, nutritional state, and child survival in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Briend, André; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rowland, Michael G M

    1988-01-01

    The effect of breast feeding on nutritional state, morbidity, and child survival was examined prospectively in a community in rural Bangladesh. Every month for six months health workers inquired about breast feeding and illness and measured arm circumference in an average of 4612 children aged 12-36 months. Data from children who died within one month of a visit were compared with those from children who survived. Roughly one third of the deaths in the age range 18-36 months were attributable to absence of breast feeding. Within this age range protection conferred by breast feeding was independent of age but was evident only in severely malnourished children. In communities with a high prevalence of malnutrition breast feeding may substantially enhance child survival up to 3 years of age. PMID:3129058

  12. Duration of breast feeding and language ability in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Robinson, Monique; Li, Jianghong; Oddy, Wendy H

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy over whether increased breast-feeding duration has long-term benefits for language development. The current study examined whether the positive associations of breast feeding on language ability at age 5 years in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort, were still present at age 10 years. The Raine Study is a longitudinal study of 2868 liveborn children recruited at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Breast-feeding data were based upon information prospectively collected during infancy, and were summarised according to four categories of breast-feeding duration: (1) never breast-fed, (2) breast-fed predominantly for <4 months, (3) breast-fed predominantly for 4-6 months, and (4) breast-fed predominantly for >6 months. Language ability was assessed in 1195 children at the 10 year follow-up (mean age = 10.58 years; standard deviation = 0.19) using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R), which is based around a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Associations between breast-feeding duration and PPVT-R scores were assessed before and after adjustment for a range of sociodemographic, obstetric and psychosocial covariates. Analysis of variance revealed a strong positive association between the duration of predominant breast feeding and PPVT-R at age 10 years. A multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for covariates and found that children who were predominantly breast-fed for >6 months had a mean PPVT-R score that was 4.04 points higher than children who were never breast-fed. This compared with an increase of 3.56 points at age 5 years. Breast feeding for longer periods in early life has a positive and statistically-independent effect on language development in middle childhood.

  13. The Behavioral Determinants of Breast-Feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the Initiation of Breast-Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kools, Els J.; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started…

  14. [Main sociocultural aspects related to breast feeding in Malinalco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil Romo, S E; Rueda Arroniz, F; Ysunza Ogazón, A; Andrade Contreras, M D

    1991-06-01

    The present paper discusses data related to some sociocultural aspects on breast-feeding behavior among a group of women from a rural community in Mexico called Malinalco. A sample of 225 mothers with children aged less than 60 months, was selected. Several home visits were done in order to fill up a questionnaire, as well as to follow direct interviews according to some selected variables to the deepened, such as: schooling, occupation, place of children deliveries, breast-feeding behavior beliefs on breast-feeding abandonment, weaning practices, etc. The results showed that there is no relation between breast-feeding practices, income and school years; nevertheless, there is a certain tendency on early abandonment of breast-feeding in women with higher level of schooling. Some local beliefs about breast-milk production were detected, as well as some remedies to stimulate milk production and to cure certain breast-feeding problems. Data on weaning age and the commonest weaning food products are presented. The importance that cultural dimension has on breast-feeding studies is discussed, as well as the relevance of recognizing "the changes of concepts" within the process of cultural development itself, in order to understand them better and to propose solutions to the generated problems.

  15. Breast-feeding and childhood cancer: A systematic review with metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Richard M; Gunnell, David; Owen, Christopher G; Smith, George Davey

    2005-12-20

    It has been suggested that breast milk may play a role in the prevention of certain childhood cancers. We undertook a systematic review of published studies investigating the association between breast-feeding and childhood cancers using Medline (1966 to June 2004), supplemented with auto alerts and manual searches. Analyses are based on odds ratios for specific cancers among those ever breast-fed compared with those never breast-fed, pooled using random-effects models. Forty-nine publications were potentially relevant; of these, 26 provided odds ratio estimates for at least one childhood cancer outcome and were included in metaanalyses. Overall, 92% of the studies were case-control studies, 85% relied on long-term recall of feeding history, only 8% examined breast-feeding exclusivity and control response rates were under 80% in over half. Metaanalyses suggested lower risks associated with having been breast-fed of 9% (95% CI = 2-16%) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 24% (3-40%) for Hodgkin's disease and 41% (22-56%) for neuroblastoma, with little between-study heterogeneity. The estimates for Hodgkin's disease and neuroblastoma, however, were driven by single studies. There was little evidence that breast-feeding was associated with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, central nervous system cancers, malignant germ cell tumors, juvenile bone tumors, or other solid cancers. In conclusion, ever having been breast-fed is inversely associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease and neuroblastoma in childhood, but noncausal explanations are possible. Even if causal, the public health importance of these associations may be small. Our estimates suggest that increasing breast-feeding from 50% to 100% would prevent at most 5% of cases of childhood acute leukemia or lymphoma. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  17. Two nursing mothers treated with zonisamide: Should breast-feeding be avoided?

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Oi, Asako; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Fujimura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, is excreted into breast milk, but information regarding the safety of breast-feeding while using this drug is limited. We present the cases of two nursing mothers, taking 300 and 100 mg/day zonisamide. At 5 days after delivery, the milk concentrations and relative infant doses of the drug were 18.0 and 5.1 μg/mL, and 44 and 36%, respectively. In the first case, the mother fed colostrum and continued partial breast-feeding thus reducing the relative infant dose to 8%. The neonatal serum concentration of zonisamide declined to below the limit of detection at day 34 after birth. In the second case, the mother breast-fed partially until 2 weeks postpartum. No adverse effect was observed in the infants. These findings suggest that mothers taking zonisamide should not breast-feed exclusively, but may not have to avoid partial breast-feeding, with significant caution regarding adverse effects in infants.

  18. Breast-feeding and failure to thrive.

    PubMed

    Magnus, P D; Frantz, K D

    1979-05-19

    In his paper of March 10 (p.541), Dr. Davies, not for the 1st time, misrepresents our ideas on assisting the mother and her infant to preserve lactation as an exclusive form of nurturing. Citing us, Davies states that: "A view has been expressed that drawing attention to the failure of breastfeeding will not help to encourage breastfeeding." All we say is that healthcare workers should be loath to label an infant who fails to thrive as a product of inadequate lactation without observing the breastfeeding process. Davies does not mention that some poor gainers have sucking defects; we have noted problems such as tongue sucking, flutter sucking (rapid and weak motions), and a lack of drawing the nipple far enough into the mouth (baby falls off breast easily). However we do agree with most of Davies' comments for diagnosis and treatment and commend him for his preventive approach to the impediments of lactation based on the community healthworker. We doubt if we could give the naturally nervous baby who is a difficult feeder 30-60 mg of chloral hydrate as he suggests. While we do not have the answers for all of the psychosocial problems which may interfere with lactation, there is another measure which can be instituted if all of Davies' approaches fail. By introducing complementary total bottlefeeding to make the baby thrive, you introduce the mechanical problem of nipple confusion and may make exclusive breastfeeding even less likely. For infants who are small for gestational age, premature, have sucking defects, or fail to thrive (without organic disease) and whose mothers wish to continue with human milk, we use a device called the Lact-Aid Supplementer (J.J. Avery, Inc., Denver). This gives additional milk (and calories) and corrects most abnormalities in sucking patterns without the use of a bottle. The availability of early well-baby or lactation clinics at 10-14 days postpartum would provide reassurance and counseling to the mother. When there is true failure

  19. The influence of acculturation on breast-feeding initiation and duration in low-income women in the US.

    PubMed

    Sussner, Katarina M; Lindsay, Ana C; Peterson, Karen E

    2008-09-01

    While the 'immigrant health paradox' posits better health behaviours and outcomes for immigrants upon arrival to the US, research suggests that this advantage may deteriorate over time. This study analysed the relationship of acculturation and breast-feeding initiation and duration among a sample of predominantly Latina, low-income women in the US. The four measures of acculturation included: mother's nativity (foreign born vs US born), mother's parents' nativity (foreign born vs US born), years of US residence (<8 years vs > or =8 years) and a dichotomous measure of language acculturation adapted from three items on Marin's acculturation scale (preferred language spoken at home, reading language and writing language) as exclusive use of native language versus non-exclusive use (mixed or English only) (Marin et al., 1987; Marin & Gamba, 1996). Final multivariable models showed that mothers who exclusively used their native language were more likely to initiate breast-feeding as well as breast-feed for longer duration compared with mothers with non-exclusive use, whereas years of US residence and mother's nativity were not significantly associated with breast-feeding initiation or duration. Mother's parents' nativity also emerged as a significant predictor of breast-feeding duration, both within final models for immigrants and across study participants. Programmes providing nutrition education to low-income women may wish to consider the role of language as an important determinant of breast-feeding. The role of mother's parents' nativity on breast-feeding practices deserves exploration in future studies, as the cultural practices taught by family members born outside the US may exert strong pressure within immigrant families now living in the US.

  20. Breast feeding best for the babies.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, S K

    Recent information on breastfeeding has confirmed almost all the facts and beliefs known for centuries about mother's milk, i.e., it protects an infant and helps him/her grow optimally both physically and emotionally. Yet, no other child health promotional effort has been threatened in recent times as the practice of breastfeeding. It is not uncommon to find both rural and urban mothers who believe that infants fed on formula grow to be bonnier and healthier. Coupled with this belief is often their feeling that is is difficult to introduce semisolids, solids and top milk to an infant if the infant is unaccustomed to a bottle or a commercially available infant food in earlier weeks of life. 1 reason for this situation is the publicity blitz aimed at promotion of commercially available infant foods and the feeding bottle. In contrast to the aggressive promotion of formula feeding, there is a lack of information on breastfeeding and its promotion through the mass media. There is no food which has been invented to replace the mother's love or its suitability in terms of a child's physiological, nutritional, and emotional needs. The mammary gland allows mammals to nurture their offspring with their own milk, milk that is constituted in such a way that it optimally meets the needs of the offspring. This is evident from the comparison of milk from human and various animal sources. Each animal produces milk which is best suited for its survival and growth and which vastly differs from human milk. Breast milk is richer in carbohydrates, qualitatively superior in proteins and minerals, and is low in solute load. It is thus easily digestible by infants whether of low or normal birth weight or premature. Milk from animal sources is unsuitable for infants in the 1st few weeks. At least in terms of composition, breast milk is the most suitable milk among all the available milk for infants. It does not need money for purchase, fuel for warming, water for dilution, and

  1. Breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Hadia; Mussaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hachem, Fatima

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relation of breast-feeding and weaning practices with the duration of lactational amenorrhea among breast-feeding mothers in the United Arab Emirates. A total of 593 mothers were interviewed in the Maternal and Child Health Centers in three areas: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Al Ain. The total mean duration of lactational amenorrhea in this study was 6.1 months, and there was a direct relation with the length of exclusive breast-feeding. The duration of postpartum amenorrhea was the longest in Al Ain (7.2 months), as compared with Dubai (6.9 months) and Abu Dhabi (4.3 months). The age of the infant when formula milk and solid supplements were introduced was significantly related to the duration of lactational amenorrhea. This study confirms the results of other studies concerning the effectiveness of the lactational amenorrhea method as a natural method of contraception for the first 6 months postpartum, especially for mothers who breast-feed exclusively and more frequently and who delay the introduction of food supplements.

  2. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  3. Is breast-feeding in infancy associated with adult longevity?

    PubMed Central

    Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H; Edelstein, S L; Tucker, J; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Schwartz, J E; Friedman, H S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine whether breast-feeding is associated with increased longevity or cause-specific survival. METHODS. Teachers throughout California identified intellectually gifted children as part of a prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman. Information on breast-feeding was available on 1170 subjects, who have been followed for more than 65 years. RESULTS. Survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model) indicated that breast-feeding was associated with increased longevity, even after adjustment for age at baseline, birthweight, infant health, and childhood socioeconomic status, but only among men, and the association was not significant (P = .15). Neither cardiovascular disease nor cancer survival was significantly associated with duration of breast-feeding for either sex. Survival from deaths due to injuries was positively associated with breast-feeding after adjustment (P = .03) and demonstrated a clear gradient with duration, but only among men. CONCLUSIONS. Overall, the present study does not provide strong evidence that breast-feeding is associated with adult longevity. The reduced risk of death from injury may reflect chance, in that the association was significant only for men, or it may reflect psychosocial correlates of breast-feeding practices. PMID:8092371

  4. Relationship between obstetric analgesia and time of effective breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Crowell, M K; Hill, P D; Humenick, S S

    1994-01-01

    The Infant Breast-feeding Assessment Tool (IBFAT) was used to assess the time of effective breast feeding in 48 healthy term infants born to mothers having their first or second baby. Infants of mothers who received an analgesia (butorphanol or nalbuphine) in labor (n = 26) were compared with infants whose mothers did not receive any labor analgesia (n = 22). Timing of the administration of labor analgesia was also examined with infants whose mothers received no analgesia or analgesia within an hour of birth compared with infants whose mothers received analgesia more than one hour before birth. Infants of first-time breast-feeding mothers took longer to establish effective feeding compared with infants of second-time breast-feeding mothers. Male infants also took longer. Labor analgesia significantly affected mother-rated IBFAT scores when initiation time was considered. Infants who received analgesia within an hour of birth, or no analgesia, and who initiated breast feeding early, established effective feeding significantly earlier than infants with longer duration of analgesia and later initiation of breast feeding.

  5. [Breast-feeding as a source of prevention in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Antunes, Leonardo Dos Santos; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Corvino, Marcos Paulo Fonseca; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2008-01-01

    The importance of breast-feeding has been addressed through multi-professional approaches. As healthcare practitioners, dentists are included in this context and - due to the close links between breast-feeding and the development of the stomatognathic system - should be able to advise pregnant women and new mothers on this practice, with countless benefits for mothers and their babies. This paper thus presents up-to-date and enlightened information through a review of the literature that supports the benefits of breast-feeding, urging heightened awareness of its importance and the preparation of policies and actions implemented through Brazil's National Health System (SUS) that rank breast-feeding as a high-priority goal.

  6. Breast-Feeding May Not Lead to Smarter Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... not the final word on breast-feeding and child development, however. Researchers are still trying to understand the " ... other factors that influence something as complex as child development. It's clear, Girard said, that at least in ...

  7. Efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation on iron status in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Kadriye; Temiz, Fatih; Yalçin, S Songül; Gümrük, Fatma

    2004-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in infants worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation for 3 months to improve the iron status in 4-month-old, exclusively breast-fed healthy infants. Infants 4 months of age were eligible for the open, randomized controlled trial if their mothers intended to continue exclusive breast-feeding until the infants were 6 months of age. Infants or mothers with iron deficiency (ID) or IDA on admission were excluded. The infants (n = 79) were randomly assigned to three groups, the first group receiving daily (1 mg/kg daily), the second group weekly (7 mg/kg weekly), and the third group no iron supplementation. Anthropometric measurements were taken on admission and at 6 and 7 months of age. Iron status was analyzed on admission and monthly for 3 months. Both hematologic parameters and anthropometric measurements were found to be similar among the three groups during the study period. Seven infants (31.8%) in the control group, six (26.0%) in the daily group, and three (13.6%) in the weekly group developed ID or IDA (P > 0.05). Infants whose mothers had ID or IDA during the study period were more likely to develop ID or IDA independently from iron supplementation. Serum ferritin levels decreased between 4 and 6 months of age in the control and daily groups; the weekly group showed no such decrease. In all groups, the mean levels of serum ferritin were significantly increased from 6 months to 7 months of age during the weaning period. In this study, which had a limited number of cases, weekly or daily iron supplementation was not found to decrease the likelihood of IDA. In conclusion, exclusively breast-fed infants with maternal IDA appeared to be at increased risk of developing IDA.

  8. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-08

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing.

  9. The importance of choosing the right feeding aids to maintain breast-feeding after interruption.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Antonio; Silvestri, Raffaele; Montinaro, Carlo

    2006-11-01

    Publications throughout the world attribute to the artificial teat and the pacifier (dummy) the reason why some mothers, who suspend breast-feeding for a while, are unable to resume it afterwards. The authors wanted to evaluate the specific characteristics of the various commercially made teats and pacifiers. This evaluation examined the physical characteristics of such commercially available teats. It has been possible to affirm that the specific features of the various teats tested are important in the resumption of breast-feeding after such an interruption. It's easier to resume breast-feeding after interruption if artificial teats are prescribed with an understanding of the muscular movements during swallowing.

  10. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  11. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  12. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  13. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  14. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  15. Maternal defense: breast feeding increases aggression by reducing stress.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M; Lawson, E Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress.

  16. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  17. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Borrego, L

    2010-05-01

    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women.

  18. Breast-feeding success among infants with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Shelton, Kathleen C; Lowe, Nancy D; Knafl, Kathleen A; Houck, Gail M

    2012-08-01

    Breast milk is the nutrition of choice for human infants (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005; American Association of Family Physicians, 2008; Association of Women's Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, 2005; Canadian Paediatric Society, 2005; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2008; World Health Organization, 2009). In comparison to standard commercial formula, human breast milk has a lower concentration of protein and a lower content of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). For infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), these attributes of human breast milk make it ideal as a base source of nutrition. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and duration of breast-feeding and corresponding Phe levels of breast-fed and formula-fed infants with PKU in the caseload of a pediatric metabolic clinic at an urban tertiary-care medical center. Charts were reviewed for infants diagnosed with PKU beginning with 2005 and ending with 1980, the year no further breast-feeding cases were identified in the PKU population. During the first year of life, most of the infants, whether breast-fed or formula-fed, had similar mean Phe levels. However, the frequency distributions revealed that more breast-fed infants with PKU had Phe levels within the normal range (120-360 μmol/L) and were less likely to have low Phe levels (<120 μmol/L) than formula-fed infants with PKU. Further research is needed to understand how mothers manage breast-feeding in the context of PKU.

  19. Traditional oral remedies and perceived breast milk insufficiency are major barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-07-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2-6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, "protection feedings" using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, "nutrition feedings," mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions.

  20. Hypothesis: smoking decreases breast feeding duration by suppressing prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Babak; Riediger, Natalie D; Farrell, Sharla M; Uitz, Elisabeth; Moghadasian, Mohammed F

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies, including new data summarized here, conclude that breast feeding duration is lower in smoking mothers. Although some have suggested that this merely reflects poor health motivation in those prone to smoke, several lines of evidence support the view that chronic smoking does indeed compromise breast feeding by suppressing prolactin secretion and thereby lowering breast milk volume. Moreover, a recent clinical trial shows that an effective smoking cessation program can boost breast feeding duration in smokers. An analysis of pertinent rodents studies suggests that chronic nicotine administration boosts dopaminergic activity in the tuberoinfundibular tract which functions to inhibit prolactin release; this increase in dopaminergic activity, in turn, may reflect a nicotine-mediated suppression of hypothalamic opioid activity.

  1. Safety of the breast-feeding infant after maternal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Priti G; Bosak, Jodi; Berlin, Cheston

    2014-04-01

    There has been an increase in breast-feeding supported by the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization. An anesthesiologist may be presented with a well-motivated breast-feeding mother who wishes to breast-feed her infant in the perioperative period. Administration of anesthesia entails acute administration of drugs with potential for sedation and respiratory effects on the nursing infant. The short-term use of these drugs minimizes the possibility of these effects. The aim should be to minimize the use of narcotics and benzodiazepines, use shorter acting agents, use regional anesthesia where possible and avoid agents with active metabolites. Frequent clinical assessments of the nursing infant are important. Available literature does suggest that although the currently available anesthetic and analgesic drugs are transferred in the breast milk, the amounts transferred are almost always clinically insignificant and pose little or no risk to the nursing infant.

  2. [How is breast-feeding valued in the urban and semi-urban Central African milieu?].

    PubMed

    Sépou, A; Yanza, M C; Nguémbi, E; Tekpa, G; Ngbalè, R

    2001-01-01

    Efforts have been made for several years to promote the use of breast milk by mothers. This is important for mothers in developing countries faced with economic problems, especially for those tempted by milk substitutes. Fortunately, BF (breast feeding) is used by a majority of women in these developing countries, its practice is often influenced by an early introduction of supplements. Why this early supplementation? In order to answer this question we performed this study, a transversal survey of mothers in neonatal period in a regional town and the capital of Central Africa. The compilation of data of this seven month study, carried out in four maternities and nine SMI centers, was carried out from a pre-established questionnaire. This allowed us to obtain the following results. We interrogated 734 mothers of newborn babies aged between 14 and 45 years, including 534 in Bangui and 200 in Bossangoa. Breast feeding was chosen by 96.5% of mothers, however exclusive breast feeding was only carried out by 17% of mothers. Feeding on demand was widely spread both in Bangui (92.7%) and in Bossangoa (92%). Breast milk was the first food received at birth by 84.5% of newborn babies. At the neonatal period, water supplementation was more frequent (78.1%, including 23% at birth) than that of solid or semi-liquid food (6.2%). The value given to breast milk was just nutritional, its other virtues were not well known. Conclusion, In breast mil remains the food of choice in our country. However, its practice suffers from much ignorance. An effort should be made to heighten awareness and give milk its due worth.

  3. Health factors which may interfere with breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the feeding method of choice for all normal infants because of its many advantages for the health of infants and mothers alike. There are, however, a number of situations—fortunately relatively infrequent—where infants cannot, or should not, be breast-fed. Such circumstances can be related to the health of infants or mothers; in either case, breast-milk substitutes may be needed for extended periods. In this context, it is useful to distinguish between infants who should not receive breast milk at all and infants who cannot be fed at the breast, but for whom breast milk is still the food of choice. There is also a tiny minority of infants who should not be fed either on breast milk or any milk-based substitute; special preparations are required in such cases. Finally, there are also a number of situations which are frequently thought to be an impediment to breast-feeding but which in fact generally are not; these, too, are discussed. PMID:20604469

  4. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction <4 months was associated with higher BMD and aBMC, whereas introduction between 5 and 6 months was associated with lower aBMC and higher BA. Additional adjustment for infant vitamin D supplementation did not change the results. In conclusion, results from the present study suggest that ever breast-feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  5. AZT trials pose difficult breast-feeding dilemma.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    International AIDS experts and HIV infected women in Africa may soon face an impossible dilemma if short-term AZT treatment prevents perinatal transmission. HIV-infected mothers may not be able to afford infant formula or may not have access to safe water to mix with the formula, and may expose the child to HIV again through breast feeding. Few studies have addressed the breast feeding issue, although a controversial placebo-controlled study is underway in Nairobi. Pediatricians have promoted breast feeding as the preferred means to feed infants, and in many cases, mothers do not have other viable choices. Women who cannot afford formula may be forced to expose their children to HIV.

  6. Postpartum amenorrhoea and breast-feeding in a Danish sample.

    PubMed

    Vestermark, V; Høgdall, C K; Plenov, G; Birch, M

    1994-01-01

    The duration of postpartum amenorrhoea was studied in a Danish sample of 361 women. The median duration of amenorrhoea was 17 weeks. The 25th and 75th percentiles were 10 and 30 weeks, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea and of breast-feeding. However, lactation for more than 9 months did not extend the duration of amenorrhoea. Menstruation before weaning occurred in 57% of the women, and 43% terminated breast-feeding before the first menstruation. Four weeks after weaning menstruation had returned in 79% and by 8 weeks after in 93% of the mothers. At 6 months postpartum, frequency of breast-feeding, and of night-time feeding were determinants of amenorrhoea.

  7. Traditional Oral Remedies and Perceived Breast Milk Insufficiency Are Major Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding in Rural Zimbabwe123

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N.N.; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2–6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, “protection feedings” using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, “nutrition feedings,” mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  8. Does breast-feeding affect severity of familial Mediterranean fever?

    PubMed

    Makay, Balahan; Unsal, Erbil

    2009-12-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease, which is caused by an inborn error in innate immune system. It was shown that disease severity of patients of the same ethnic origin differed according to different country of residence, suggesting an influence of environment on phenotype of FMF. Different microbial milieus of the countries were accused. Breast-feeding has an important role on innate immunity and protects the infant from infections. The aim of this study is to investigate whether being breast-fed and duration of breast-feeding has an impact on disease severity of FMF. The mothers of patients were asked to fill a questionnaire about the feeding type in infancy. Mode of delivery, gestational age, and age at onset of FMF symptoms were also asked. The disease severity score of each patient was calculated according to the scoring system suggested by Pras et al. (Am J Med Genet 75:216-219, 1998). MEFV mutations were noted. The mothers of 81 FMF patients completed the questionnaire. Fifteen patients (18.5%) had mild, 49 (60.5%) had moderate, and 17 (21%) had severe disease. All the patients except four were breast-fed for some period. The duration of breast-feeding was similar between three severity groups. Time to introduce cow's milk and complementary foods also did not differ between groups. Longer duration of breast-feeding did not delay the onset of FMF symptoms. Mode of delivery and gestational age had no effect on disease severity. Patients homozygous for M694V had higher severity scores. This preliminary study suggests that breast-feeding is not an exogenous factor having an influence on phenotype of FMF. M694V genotype seems to cause more severe disease.

  9. [IPPF declaration on breast feeding, fertility and postpartum contraception].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Mother's milk protects the newborn against various infections, especially against gastrointestinal infections, as well as strengthening the mother-child bond. Breast-feeding is also associated with birth spacing and plays an important role in the regulation of fertility in countries where the rate of use of contraceptives is low. In breast-feeding women amenorrhea may last several months or even a year, while in women who do not breast-feed menstruation returns 35-40 days postpartum. The risk of getting pregnant in women who rely on amenorrhea for contraception increases with the appearance of the first postpartum menstruation (spotting), with the introduction of food supplement into the diet of the infant, and approximately 6 months after childbirth. Family planning programs have to collaborate with maternal health programs with respect to the need for contraception, including postpartum contraception, which involves the training of nurse-midwives or traditional birth attendants. The choice of contraceptives includes the IUD, with a high degree of efficacy, which is particularly advantageous during breast-feeding. Tubal ligation has no negative effect on breast-feeding, but it also requires proper counseling. Other methods are vasectomy, implants and injectables containing progestational hormones, and estrogen-progesterone containing pills, which should not be used for 6 weeks after childbirth.

  10. Duration of breast-feeding and the risk of childhood allergic diseases in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Ehlayel, Mohammad S; Bener, Abdulbari

    2008-01-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) seems to reduce risk of allergies in the western countries, but there are few reports from developing countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of EBF on the development of allergic diseases and eczema in a developing country. This is a cross-sectional survey done at the well-baby clinics of 11 primary health centers, Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1500 children (0-5 years old) and mothers (18-47 years old) were surveyed between October 2006 and September 2007. Of them, 1278 mothers (85.2%) participated in the study. A confidential, anonymous questionnaire assessing breast-feeding and allergic diseases was completed by mothers bringing children for immunization. Questionnaire included allergic rhinitis, wheezing, eczema, type and duration of breast-feeding, parental smoking habits, number of siblings, family income, maternal education, and parental allergies. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were performed for statistical analysis. More than one-half of the infants (59.3%) were on EBF. Length of breast-feeding was associated with maternal age. Prevalence of eczema (19.4%), allergic rhinitis (22.6%), and wheezing (12.7%) were significantly less frequent in those with prolonged (>6 months) compared with short-term fed infants. The association between EBF and eczema tended to be similar in children with a positive family history of atopy (p < 0.001) and eczema (p < 0.001) compared with those without. In children of developing countries, prolonged breast-feeding reduces the risk of developing allergic diseases and eczema even in the presence of maternal allergy, where it might be a practical, effective preventive measure.

  11. Effect on rates of breast feeding of training for the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Adriano; Buzzetti, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    Problem Breastfeeding rates and related hospital practices need improvement in Italy and elsewhere. Training of staff is necessary, but its effectiveness needs assessment. Context Eight hospitals in different regions of Italy. Design Controlled, non-randomised study. Data collected in three phases. Training after the first phase in group 1 hospitals and after the second phase in group 2. Strategies for change Training of trainers and subsequent training of health workers with a slightly adapted version of the 18 hour Unicef course on breastfeeding management and promotion. Key measures for improvement Hospital practices, knowledge of 571 health workers, and breastfeeding rates at discharge, three, and six months in 2669 mother and baby pairs. Effects of change After training hospitals improved their compliance with the “ten steps to successful breast feeding,” from an average of 2.4 steps at phase one to 7.7 at phase three. Knowledge scores of health professionals increased from 0.41 to 0.72 in group 1 (training after phase one) and from 0.53 to 0.75 in group 2 (after phase two). The rate of exclusive breast feeding at discharge increased significantly after training: 41% to 77% in group 1 and 23% to 73% in group 2, as did the rates of full (exclusive plus predominant) breast feeding at three months (37% to 50% in group 1 v 40% to 59% in group 2) and any breast feeding at six months (43% to 62% in group 1 v 41% to 64% in group 2). Lessons learnt Training for at least three days with a course including practical sessions and counselling skills is effective in changing hospital practices, knowledge of health workers, and breastfeeding rates. PMID:11739226

  12. [Treatment of asthma and rhinitis during pregnancy and breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Leimgruber, A

    2007-04-25

    Inhaled therapies are preferred to systemic ones during pregnancy and breast feeding. A real paradox exists however between the necessity to ensure an optimal treatment for pregnant women with asthma, in order to prevent fetal hypoxia, and the precaution linked to any drug prescription during pregnancy. Thus, the use of topical corticosteroids remains the first choice for asthma as well as rhinitis. Inhaled beta2-agonists are also recommended. Systemic corticosteroids may however be prescribed without hesitation when their use is required for asthma treatment. It is also interesting to note that oral second-generation antihistamines are currently allowed during pregnancy and breast feeding. This type of antihistamines is indeed to be preferred to first-generation ones that generate more side-effects and generally are thus not to be prescribed during breast feeding.

  13. Breast-feeding is associated with reduced perceived stress and negative mood in mothers.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, Elizabeth S; Katlin, Edward S

    2002-03-01

    Two studies examined the effects of breast-feeding on maternal stress and mood. In Experiment 1, perceived stress in the past month was compared between 28 breast-feeding and 27 bottle-feeding mothers. Breast-feeding mothers reported less perceived stress, after controlling for demographic confounds. In Experiment 2, mood ratings were assessed in the same 24 mothers both before and then after 1 breast-feeding and 1 bottle-feeding session. Breast-feeding was associated with a decrease in negative mood, and bottle-feeding was associated with a decrease in positive mood from pre- to postfeeding. Results indicated that breast-feeding buffers negative mood. These effects appeared to be attributable to the effects of breast-feeding itself and not solely to individual-differences factors.

  14. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Background The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. Objective This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Methods Women 36–40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. Results We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. Conclusions This is the first study assessing the

  15. [Human milk--some recent aspects of breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Plenert, W

    1979-01-01

    New data on the quality and quantity of protein and nor-protein nitrogen in human milk are discussed in the first part of this review. The second part presents a short review of current knowledge on immunologically important components of human milk (secretory IgA, Lactoferrin, ligands for folic acid and vitamine B-12. Lysozyme, cells, induction of breast milk flora in the intestine). There are very good reasons to enhance breast feeding also in developed countries.

  16. Breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E

    1989-01-01

    The association between breast-feeding patterns and resumption of menses post-partum was examined in a prospective study in Indonesia. In order to examine these relationships directly in a longitudinal study, it was first necessary to distinguish among women who experienced infant mortality before menses resumed, women who weaned before menses resumed, and women who had return to menses while breast-feeding. Information on suckling patterns and menstrual status was collected by recall for 444 women at monthly visits for 2 years. Three main breast-feeding variables, minutes per episode, number of episodes per day, number of episodes per night, and other breast-feeding variables were derived for each woman, to give the average nursing pattern up to menses or the end of the study, which-ever came first. While high levels of nursing for each of these three main variables were found to be significantly related to delay in return of menses post-partum, the interactions between more minutes per episode, and more frequent day- and night-time feeds, were found to be the most important factors in the delay in onset of post-partum menstruation in those women whose menses resumed while still nursing or who remained amenorrhoeic and nursing at the end of the study.

  17. Understanding adolescent mothers' feelings about breast-feeding. A study of perceived benefits and barriers.

    PubMed

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A

    1988-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the benefits and barriers accruing to breast-feeding as perceived by pregnant adolescents, and to establish whether these perceptions distinguished between adolescent mothers who chose to breast versus bottle feed. Surveys were completed by 254 young women attending prenatal clinics. Overall, 19.3% indicated their intent to breast-feed. When categorized by intended method of infant feeding (breast versus bottle), breast-feeding mothers cited more benefits and fewer barriers associated with that method of infant feeding. Overall, perceived benefits were more successful than perceived barriers in distinguishing between the groups of respondents. For those interested in promoting breast-feeding among adolescent mothers, our data support an emphasis on the diverse benefits of this method of infant feeding. Our results also suggest the usefulness of peer role models in correcting misinformation and encouraging breast-feeding among adolescent mothers.

  18. Baby-feeding support: a view from the coalface.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The author gives her views on some of the problems of baby-feeding support in the community. There appear to be inconsistencies in the way "breast-feeding" is defined, which can lead to confusing data and may inflate the figures for hospital breast-feeding rates. Early discharge of mothers after a birth and shortage of community midwives make it more difficult for mothers to establish breast-feeding. Support for both breast-feeding and bottle-feeding mothers is often lacking. The author describes an inclusive support group that welcomes mothers whether they are exclusively breast-feeding, partially breast-feeding, or bottle feeding.

  19. Breast-, complementary and bottle-feeding practices in Kenya: stagnant trends were experienced from 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Matanda, Dennis J; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Kigaru, Dorcus Mbithe D

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of infant and young child feeding that provides the most benefit includes being put to the breast within an hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, continued breastfeeding along with complementary foods up to 2 years of age or beyond, and avoidance of any bottle-feeding. However, since there are no published data from Kenya regarding trends in these feeding practices, this research undertook time trend estimation of these feeding practices using the 1998, 2003, and 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey and also examined the multivariate relationships between sociodemographic factors and feeding practices with data from 2008 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to test the significance of trends and to analyze sociodemographic characteristics associated with feeding practices. There was a significant decline in early initiation of breastfeeding among children in Central and Western provinces and those residing in urban areas. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding showed significant improvement in most sociodemographic segments, whereas trends in complementary feeding and breastfeeding remained stable. Bottle-feeding significantly decreased among children aged 12 to 23 months, as well as those living in Coast, Eastern, and Rift Valley provinces. In the multivariate analysis, the province was significantly associated with feeding practices, after controlling for child's size, birth order, and parity. The stagnant (and in some cases worsening) trends in early initiation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding with breastfeeding paint a worrisome picture of breastfeeding practices in Kenya; therefore, efforts to promote the most beneficial feeding practices should be intensified.

  20. Provision of supplementary fluids to breast fed infants and later breast feeding success.

    PubMed

    Kind, C; Schubiger, G; Schwarz, U; Tönz, O

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that altering hospital policies in a way to avoid interference of routine prescriptions with initiation of breast feeding and to provide active encouragement to mothers and personnel can result in significant benefit for later breast feeding success. It is less clear, however, which of the elements of a promotional programme such as UNICEF/WHO's "ten steps to successful breast feeding" are absolutely essential and which can be adapted to local cultural habits. We performed an open randomized multicenter study in Switzerland to evaluate, whether restriction of supplementary fluids for breast fed infants in the first week of life and strict avoidance of artificial teats and pacifiers affects later breast feeding success. Follow up to 6 months was ensured by mailed questionnaires. 602 mother infant pairs were enrolled. Of 294 infants in the intervention group 39% were excluded from the final analysis because of protocol violations, mainly maternal request for the use of pacifiers or bottles. Though the number of dextrin maltose supplements during the first two days (1.7 vs. 2.2 on day 1, 2.2 vs. 2.6 on day 2) and the percentage of infants receiving any supplement (85% vs. 96.6%) was significantly smaller in the intervention group, the difference was disappointingly small. The prevalence of breast feeding was 100% vs. 99% at day 5, 88% vs. 88% at 2 months, 75% vs. 71% at 4 months and 57% vs. 55% at 6 months, none of the differences being significant. We conclude that rigorous adherence to all of the ten steps may encounter obstinate resistance from cultural habits even in a population highly favourable to breast feeding. An improvement in adherence does not necessarily lead to better breast feeding success. The results of the few comparable studies in the literature show also that cultural practices during the first months of life may influence profoundly the long term effects of interventions during the first days of life.

  1. Changes in the prevalence of breast feeding in preterm infants discharged from neonatal units: a register study over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Flacking, Renée; Hellström-Westas, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are indications that the prevalence of exclusively breastfed preterm infants is decreasing in Sweden. The objective was to investigate trends in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from Swedish neonatal units and associated factors in preterm infants. Design, setting and participants This is a register study with data from the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. Data from 29 445 preterm infants (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) who were born during the period 2004–2013 were retrieved. Data included maternal, perinatal and neonatal characteristics. Data were analysed for the whole population as well as for 3 GA groups. Results From 2004 to 2013, the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding decreased, in extremely preterm (GA 22–27 weeks) from 55% to 16%, in very preterm (GA 28–31 weeks) from 41% to 34% and in moderately preterm infants (GA 32–36 weeks) from 64% to 49%. The decline was statistically significant (p<0.001) in all 3 GA groups. This decline remained significant when adjustments were made for factors negatively associated with exclusive breast feeding and which became more prevalent during the study period, that is, small for GA (all groups) and maternal mental illness (very preterm and moderately preterm infants). Conclusions In the past 10 years, Sweden has experienced a lower rate of exclusive breast feeding in preterm infants, especially in extremely preterm infants. The factors analysed in this study explain only a small proportion of this decline. The decline in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from neonatal units raises concern and present challenges to the units to support and promote breast feeding. PMID:27965252

  2. Exposure to maternal smoking in the first year of life interferes in breast-feeding protective effect against the onset of respiratory allergy from birth to 5 yr.

    PubMed

    Guedes, H T V; Souza, L S F

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between the exclusive breast-feeding protective effect and the exposure to tobacco smoke at domicile in the first year of life, on the onset of respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) in children until 5 yr of age. This is prospective cohort study, observational, institutional based. Three hundred children born in a public hospital of Salvador-Bahia (Brazil) were followed from birth to 5 yr of age. Data from 268 children at 60 months of life were analyzed. Occurrence of allergic symptoms were studied and correlated with gender, allergic relatives in first degree, exclusive breast-feeding duration, smoking mother, and presence of other smoker at home, considering the first year of life. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 6 months showed a protection effect against the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth to 5 yr (p < 0.05); odds ratio (OR): 0.33 (95% CI: 0.18-0.59). Breast-fed children for less then 6 months compared with those breast-fed for 6 months or more, presented a higher risk (OR: 2.34-95% CI: 1.4-3.74) for developing allergic respiratory symptoms just to 5 yr. The protective effect of exclusive prolonged breast-feeding on the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth until 5 yr was lost when their mothers were smokers (OR: 2.50-95% CI 1.19-5.19). Therefore, the protective effect of breast-feeding in the first year of life on the onset of allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr was confirmed. This study proposes a confounding effect of maternal smoking on this protection, exposed by a higher risk for present allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr, in children exclusively breast-fed for 6 months or more, when their mothers smoked.

  3. Perceptions of the role of maternal nutrition in HIV-positive breast-feeding women in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Corneli, Amy L; Piwoz, Ellen; Moses, Agnes; Nkhoma, Jacqueline; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Ahmed, Yusuf; Adair, Linda; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles

    2005-04-01

    A neglected issue in the literature on maternal nutrition and HIV is how HIV-positive women perceive their own bodies, health, and well-being, particularly in light of their infection, and whether these perceptions influence their infant feeding practices and their perceived ability to breast-feed exclusively through 6 mo. We conducted formative research to better understand breast-feeding practices and perceptions, and to inform the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a clinical trial to evaluate antiretroviral and nutrition interventions to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breast-feeding in Lilongwe, Malawi. Twenty-two HIV-positive women living in semi-rural areas on the periphery of Lilongwe participated in in-depth interviews. In an adaptation of the body-silhouette methodology, nine culturally appropriate body silhouettes, representing a continuum of very thin to very large shapes, were used to elicit women's views on their present, previous-year, and preferred body shapes, and on the shape they perceived as healthy. The narrative scenario method was also used to explore women's views on 2 fictional women infected with HIV and their ability to exclusively breast-feed. Women perceived larger body shapes as healthy, because fatness is considered a sign of good health and absence of disease, and many recognized the role of nutrition in achieving a preferred or healthy body shape. Several women believed their nutritional status (body size) was declining because of their illness. Women were concerned that breast-feeding may increase the progression of HIV, suggesting that international guidelines to promote appropriate infant feeding practices for infants whose mothers are infected with HIV should focus on the mother's health and well-being, as well as the infant's.

  4. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  5. Cosmetic saline breast implants: a survey of satisfaction, breast-feeding experience, cancer screening, and health.

    PubMed

    Strom, S S; Baldwin, B J; Sigurdson, A J; Schusterman, M A

    1997-11-01

    Saline breast implants have been used for the past 30 years for cosmetic and reconstructive purposes. Data based on a large number of patients are needed to evaluate patient satisfaction, cancer screening practices, problems associated with breast-feeding, and health effects. We conducted a follow-up study of 292 cosmetic saline breast implant patients from Texas and Louisiana who consented to a telephone interview. Using a Likert scale, we measured the patients' degree of satisfaction with the implants. The results indicated that 80.5 percent were satisfied, 73.3 percent would recommend saline breast implants to others, and 65.1 percent felt that implants improved their quality of life. The extent of satisfaction was independent of the number of additional surgeries, age at implant, and follow-up time. Mammography use and breast self-examination were reported with high frequency in this survey. Ninety-one percent of study participants who were between 40 and 49 years of age at time of interview and 94 percent of those 50 or older reported having had at least one mammogram. Breast self-examination was practiced by 75 percent of the women, and 61 percent reported checking their breasts at least once a month. Of the 46 women who had children after augmentation, 28 reported breast-feeding and 8 (28.6 percent) reported having implant-related problems. The patients were asked to provide information regarding a series of conditions for which they sought medical attention. They reported: atypical rheumatoid syndrome (n = 1), Sjögren syndrome (n = 1), atypical autoimmune disorder (n = 1), and chronic fatigue syndrome (n = 2). Overall, women who elected to have saline breast implants were satisfied with their augmentations, had mammograms and performed breast self-examinations more often than nonaugmented women. A few had problems when breast-feeding that could be related to their implants. There were no reports of breast cancer, but five women reported autoimmune

  6. Understanding the social and cultural influences on breast-feeding today.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a key public health target but social and cultural factors are often overlooked when encouraging mothers to choose breast-feeding as their method of infant feeding. Historically, there have always been some mothers who have sought alternatives to breast-feeding. Age, level of education and occupation impact upon a mother's choice, and the sexualization of the female breast can lead to embarrassment when mothers breast-feed outside the home. Fear of damaging their body shape can prevent some mothers from breast-feeding, while others see breast-feeding as desirable as it can lead to weight loss. The attitudes of partners, relatives and friends can influence mothers to varying degrees in their choice of infant feeding. Knowledge of various influences can assist health professionals in their public health role and help them to give mothers advice relevant to their circumstances.

  7. Effect of early skin-to-skin contact on breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    2013-10-01

    We examined the effect of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on breast-feeding at 1 month after delivery, in Japanese women. We reviewed the obstetric records of healthy nulliparous women with vaginal singleton delivery at 37-41 weeks' gestation, at the Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital and between 1 February and 30 November 2011, there was a total of 403 women who planned to breast-feed their babies at birth. Of these, 272 women (67.5%) initiated early SSC in the delivery room and 131 women (32.5%) did not initiate early SSC. There were no significant differences in the obstetric characteristics and birth outcomes between the two groups of women with and without initiating early SSC. However, the rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month after delivery in the group of women following early SSC (59.6%, 162/272) was significantly higher than that in the group of women without early SSC (45.8%, 60/131; crude OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.1-2.7, p = 0.009). The current results may support the benefit of early SSC in Japanese women after vaginal delivery.

  8. Breast milk sodium concentration, sodium intake and weight loss in breast-feeding newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, Rosa; Marseglia, Lucia; Mamì, Carmelo; Palmara, Antonella; Paolata, Antonina; Loddo, Saverio; Gargano, Romana; Mondello, Maurizio; Gemelli, Marina

    2007-02-01

    Elevated breast milk (BM) Na concentration is regarded as responsible for elevated Na intake. To verify the clinical significance of milk Na concentration, we studied the relationship between BM Na+ concentration and infants' daily Na+ intake, infants' daily BM intake (DBMI) and percentage weight loss (%WL) in healthy newborn infants. All mothers who gave birth to a single healthy infant, between February and March 2004 at the Obstetric Clinic of University of Messina (Italy), were invited to participate if they were willing to attempt to breastfeed exclusively. BM Na+ concentration, DBMI, Na+ intake and %WL were determined on the third day after delivery. Statistical analysis was performed by Spearman's correlation test, classification and regression trees and the generalised linear model. Of the 270 eligible mothers, 208 participated in the study. The results showed that on the third day postpartum BM Na+ concentration was 23.05 (SD 1.10) mmol/l, mean DBMI was 202 (SD 68.9) g/d, and mean Na+ intake was 4.36 (SD 0.22) mmol/d and 1.36 (SD 0.07) mmol/kg per d. BM Na+ concentration was inversely related to infant DBMI, and Na+ intake was directly related to infant DBMI and not to BM Na+ concentration. %WL was significantly correlated only to DBMI. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate, for the first time, that when lactogenesis is suboptimal, BM Na+ concentration is higher, but infants' Na+ intake is lower. Finally, the present data probably suggest that for the clinical assessment of breast-feeding, evaluation of milk intake remains the best method.

  9. Influences of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to media on breast-feeding patterns: experience of Nigeria and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ukwuani, F A; Suchindran, C M; Cornwell, G T

    2001-01-01

    This study uses data from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1990 and the Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1995 to examine the implications of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to the media for breast-feeding patterns (exclusivity and intensity) in Nigeria and Uganda. Nigeria and Uganda present an interesting contrast because Nigeria is more modernized and economically developed than Uganda, thus providing a good indication of the influence of modernization on breast-feeding patterns. Mother's work status is defined by considering whether mothers earned cash from work and took their children to work, hence emphasizing the compatibility of work with child care. Work least compatible with child care had a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Nigeria. The negative effect of mother's work on exclusive breast-feeding (that is, if the mothers used formula or milk instead) observed for some working mothers in Nigeria and Uganda was partly confounded by urban residence, exposure to media, and other socioeconomic factors. Mother's work did not have a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Uganda. The relationship between mother's work, urban residence, media exposure, and breast-feeding practice seems to be stronger in Nigeria than Uganda.

  10. Breast-feeding problems after epidural analgesia for labour: a retrospective cohort study of pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Volmanen, P; Valanne, J; Alahuhta, S

    2004-01-01

    Various clinical practices have been found to be associated with breast-feeding problems. However, little is known about the effect of pain, obstetrical procedures and analgesia on breast-feeding behaviour. We designed a retrospective study with a questionnaire concerning pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices mailed to 164 primiparae in Lapland. Altogether 99 mothers (60%) returned completed questionnaires that could be included in the analysis, which was carried out in two steps. Firstly, all accepted questionnaires were grouped according to the success or failure to breast-feed fully during the first 12 weeks of life. Secondly, an ad hoc cohort study was performed on the sub-sample of 64 mothers delivered vaginally. As many as 44% of the 99 mothers reported partial breast feeding or formula feeding during the first 12 weeks. Older age of the mother, use of epidural analgesia and the problem of "not having enough milk" were associated with the failure to breast-feed fully. Caesarean section, other methods of labour analgesia and other breast-feeding problems were not associated with partial breast feeding or formula feeding. In the sub-sample, 67% of the mothers who had laboured with epidural analgesia and 29% of the mothers who laboured without epidural analgesia reported partial breast feeding or formula feeding (P = 0.003). The problem of "not having enough milk" was more often reported by those who had had epidural analgesia. Further studies conducted prospectively are needed to establish whether a causal relationship exists between epidural analgesia and breast-feeding problems.

  11. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk.

  12. A practical guide to successful breast-feeding management.

    PubMed

    Freed, G L; Landers, S; Schanler, R J

    1991-08-01

    It is often difficult for new mothers to know whom to approach for the necessary guidance and practical problem solving required for successful long-term lactation. Although obstetricians are familiar with the care of the breast, they may not maintain the degree of postpartum follow-up necessary to ensure its proper function nor is it their responsibility to ensure that the infant receives proper nourishment. Pediatricians are expected to offer advice and information regarding not only the advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding but also practical management of this art. We provide a guide for practitioners who wish to assist breast-feeding mothers and their infants.

  13. Antipsychotic drugs and safety concerns for breast-feeding infants.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Tapan; Goyal, Dharmendra; Scarff, Jonathan R; Lippmann, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Antipsychotic drugs prescribed to treat psychiatric symptoms during the postpartum period are secreted into breast milk. Because breast-feeding is crucial to infant development, it is important to select a medication that poses the fewest adverse consequences. Aripiprazole, haloperidol, perphenazine, and trifluoperazine demonstrate no known developmental dangers. Olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone are cited as safe, although monitoring is recommended. Chlorpromazine and clozapine may induce developmental concerns. There are limited safety data for asenapine, fluphenazine, iloperidone, loxapine, lurasidone, paliperidone, pimozide, thioridazine, thiothixene, and ziprasidone. Clinicians should choose medications considered to be the safest and prescribe them at the lowest effective doses.

  14. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events.

    PubMed

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-12-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from questionnaires, pathology reports, and patients' charts from 592 patients without preoperative treatment. Breast-feeding duration ≤12 months of the first child was associated with higher frequency of ER+/PgR+ tumors (P=0.02). Median follow-up time was 4.9 years. Higher risk for early events was observed for breast-feeding duration of first child >12 months (LogRank P=0.001), total breast-feeding duration >12 months (LogRank P=0.008), as well as 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding of the first child (LogRank P=0.001). Patients with 'almost no milk production' had no events. In a multivariable model including both 'excessive milk production' and breast-feeding duration of the first child >12 months, both were associated with a two-fold risk for early events, adjusted HRs 2.33 (95% CI: 1.25-4.36) and 2.39 (0.97-5.85), respectively, while total breast-feeding duration was not. 'Excessive milk production' was associated with a two-fold risk of early distant metastases, adjusted HR 2.59 (1.13-5.94), but not duration. In conclusion, 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding was associated with higher risk for early events independent of tumor characteristics, stressing the need to consider host factors in the evaluation of prognostic markers.

  15. Breast-feeding initiation in low-income women: Role of attitudes, support, and perceived control.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Amal J; Moazzem, S Wakerul; Jarjoura, Chad M; Carothers, Cathy; Hinton, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    Despite the documented health and emotional benefits of breast-feeding to women and children, breast-feeding rates are low among subgroups of women. In this study, we examine factors associated with breast-feeding initiation in low-income women, including Theory of Planned Behavior measures of attitude, support, and perceived control, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. A mail survey, with telephone follow-up, of 733 postpartum Medicaid beneficiaries in Mississippi was conducted in 2000. The breast-feeding initiation rate in this population was 38%. Women who were older, white, non-Hispanic, college-educated, married, not certified for the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and not working full-time were more likely to breast-feed than formula-feed at hospital discharge. Attitudes regarding benefits and barriers to breast-feeding, as well as health care system and social support, were associated with breast-feeding initiation at the multivariate level. Adding the health care system support variables to the regression model, and specifically support from lactation specialists and hospital nurses, explained the association between breast-feeding initiation and women's perceived control over the time and social constraints barriers to breast-feeding. The findings support the need for health care system interventions, family interventions, and public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding in low-income women.

  16. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, D; Fasano, D; Monaco, G; Strohmenger, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of the type of feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity on occlusion in deciduous dentition. Methods: Retrospective study of 1130 preschool children (3–5 years of age) who had detailed infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity history collected by a structured questionnaire. They all had an oral examination by a dentist, blinded to different variables evaluated. Results: Non-nutritive sucking activity has a substantial effect on altered occlusion, while the effect of bottle feeding is less marked. The type of feeding did not have an effect on open bite, which was associated (89% of children with open bite) with non-nutritive sucking. Posterior cross-bite was more frequent in bottle fed children and in those with non-nutritive sucking activity. The percentage of cross-bite was lower in breast fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (5%) than in bottle fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (13%). Conclusions: Data show that non-nutritive sucking activity rather than the type of feeding in the first months of life is the main risk factor for development of altered occlusion and open bite in deciduous dentition. Children with non-nutritive sucking activity and being bottle fed had more than double the risk of posterior cross-bite. Breast feeding seems to have a protective effect on development of posterior cross-bite in deciduous dentition. PMID:15557045

  17. Neuroendocrine changes and fertility in breast-feeding women.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, A S

    2001-01-01

    Breast-feeding through the suckling stimulus suppresses fertility for a variable time after birth. Initially there is a period of pituitary gonadotroph recovery from the suppressive effects of the high steroid levels of pregnancy, followed by a period of suppressed ovarian activity associated with limited follicle growth. During this period of breast-feeding-induced amenorrhea, the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), which reflects hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, is erratic and much slower than the one pulse per hour required in the normal follicular phase of the menstrual cycle to drive follicle growth. At some time the suckling stimulus drops below a threshold resulting in a resumption of reasonably organized pulsatile LH secretion, which is associated with development of follicles and some steroid secretion. However, positive feedback of estradiol which triggers the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation appears to be blocked by continued suckling, until suckling is reduced further and positive feedback and ovulation resumes. Often while women continue to breast-feed the first few ovulations and menses are associated with inadequate corpus luteum function, which would probably not support a pregnancy. Eventually normal menstrual cycles resume when suckling declines further. The duration of amenorrhea and subsequent period of inadequate luteal function varies greatly between mother-baby combinations, and in different societies. Exactly how the suckling stimulus reduces pulsatile secretion of GnRH/LH is not clear, although clinical studies do not support a role for opioids or dopamine. The role of prolactin remains uncertain since suckling releases both prolactin and suppresses GnRH release. Regardless of the precise mechanism, it is clear that breast-feeding in women can suppress fertility for prolonged periods, and women may proceed from pregnancy through lactation to another pregnancy and lactation with no menstrual period

  18. Belief systems and breast feeding among Filipino urban poor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, E L; Guthrie, G M

    1984-01-01

    Mothers living in squatter areas of a Philippine city were interviewed each month for a year beginning from 3 months prior to 3 months after delivery. Special attention was paid to beliefs and practices that influenced the continuation of lactation. During pregnancy women severely restricted their gain in weight, thereby limiting fat reserves for later milk production. Rituals were observed after delivery to assure adequate milk of good quality. Once established, lactation might be interrupted if the mother felt that her temperature was different from the baby's. These differences in temperature might come from warm or cold food or drinks, being caught in the rain or working in the sun. Breast feeding was often terminated if the baby developed diarrhea or if mother or child became ill. A program designed to support and encourage breast feeding must take indigenous belief systems into account. Mothers want to nurse their babies and they want to have an adequate supply of what they consider good milk. Their belief systems, beginning with weight gain during pregnancy, and including the need for rituals after delivery may curtail and/or delay early lactation. Subsequently, they may terminate breast feeding if the baby or mother have certain folk-defined illnesses. Women hold these beliefs and at the same time accept many of the beliefs and practices of modern medicine. Family and neighborhood pressures may prompt them to curtail or eliminate breast feeding when indigenous beliefs are invoked even though these beliefs are contrary to currently accepted medical opinions. We do not have satisfactory education and persuasion programs to deal with traditional beliefs and practices that we believe to be harmful.

  19. Maternal employment and breast-feeding: findings from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Visness, C M; Kennedy, K I

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This analysis uses nationally representative data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey to explore the factors, including employment, associated with breast-feeding initiation and duration. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression was used to model the determinants of breast-feeding initiation among 9087 US women. Multiple linear regression was used to model the duration of breast-feeding among women who breast-fed. RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of mothers initiated breast-feeding in 1988, and the decision to breast-feed was not associated with maternal employment. However, among breast-feeders, returning to work within a year of delivery was associated with a shorter duration of breast-feeding when other factors were controlled. Among employed mothers, the duration of maternity leave was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding. CONCLUSIONS: The low rates of breast-feeding initiation in the United States are not attributable to maternal participation in the labor force. However, returning to work is associated with earlier weaning among women who breast-feed. PMID:9224174

  20. [The use of psychotropic drugs during breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Filip, Maria; Kuśmierek, Maciej; Orzechowska, Agata; Błaszczyk, Justyna; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Breast milk is the best source of nutrients and provides much better protection than immune modified milk. In the United States around 500 000 cases of mental disorders affecting pregnant women are diagnosed each year. It is estimated that approximately 1/3 of these women need psychotropic drugs in a period of breast-feeding. Despite the serious consequences of depression and its well-known effect on a newborn, the women are still reluctant to begin pharmacological treatment. The fear of side effects unfortunately still plays an important role in making such a decision. It has been proved that all psychiatric drugs can transfer into breast milk, but their levels are very low or even negligible for the newborn. Most laboratory tests do not reveal an adequate sensitivity to detect these low concentrations. One have to remember that in case of any disturbing symptoms which may result from the use of these drugs, the only procedure is to discontinue breastfeeding immediately. The knowledge of these effects of particular groups of psychotropic drugs in breast-feeding mothers is essential for every practitioner. This knowledge should also be available not only to psychiatrists, but gynecologists and pediatricians as well. For this reason, it seems to be reasonable to summarize the results of previously published studies dealing with the topic.

  1. Olanzapine treatment during breast feeding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Ulrich C; Wiatr, Gerlinde; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Gaertner, Hans-Jörg; Bartels, Mathias

    2008-06-01

    Postpartum psychosis constitutes a severe complication that entails risk for both mother and child. Little is known about the use of olanzapine in the treatment of postpartum psychosis. In previous studies, it has been reported on mothers receiving relatively low doses of olanzapine. We report a 38-year-old patient who was admitted to the hospital for an acute psychotic exacerbation. She was breast feeding her 5-month-old child, and she wished to continue breast feeding. Olanzapine treatment was started with a daily dosage of 15 mg. The weight-corrected maternal dose was 270 mug/kg. The olanzapine concentration in the mother's plasma was 24 ng/mL. The analysis of olanzapine in breast milk applying two different high-performance liquid chromatography procedures revealed similar results: 12.2 ng/g without and 11.5 ng/g with additional hydrochloric acid extraction, respectively. In addition, breast milk of an unmedicated mother was used for establishing the analytical procedure so that the validity of the results was better confirmed. The milk-plasma ratio arising from our data was 0.5, and the relative infant dose was 0.3%. The olanzapine concentration was below the limit of detection (<5 ng/mL) in the infant's plasma sample. No adverse effects were noticed, and the mother experienced a rapid improvement in her psychopathology during her hospital stay. In future studies, long-term follow-up of both mother and child would be useful.

  2. [On the groups of maternal support of breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Abol'ian, L V; Loranskiĭ, D N; Kazakova, L V; Koniaeva, N A; Barabash, N A; Zubkova, N Z

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the data related to the establishment in Russia of public associations of maternal support of breast feeding initiated by the WHO/UNISEF international initiative "Baby friendly hospital". The breast feeding is mostly a concern of medicine and medical institutions of obstetrics and pediatrics and corresponding specialists such as obstetrician-gynecologist, neonatologist and pediatrician. Hence the issue of appropriateness of existence of such groups, their competence and relationship with medical personnel and forms of activity has to be considered From historical point of view, in Soviet health care accumulated very rich experience of effective cooperation of public activists of Russian Red Cross with public health bodies in implementation of preventive and health improving activities, including health education of population groups. The conclusion is made that to provide effective activities of voluntary mothers? Associations to support breast feeding their interaction is needed with medical personnel, the development of scientific-grounded programs of training of mothers-consultants and informational methodical and health education materials.

  3. Breast versus bottle: correlates of adolescent mothers' infant-feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1987-05-01

    Since the 1970s, breast-feeding as the preferred method of infant feeding has increased in overall popularity. However, certain populations, particularly poor, young, black, and less-educated women, have been slow to adopt this method. This prospective study was undertaken to identify factors relating to the choice of infant-feeding method among inner-city adolescents. Two hundred fifty-four pregnant adolescents completed a questionnaire supplying information regarding attitudes toward and knowledge about breast-feeding, social support, personal experience, and other variables hypothesized to correlate with their choice of infant-feeding method. Of the total sample, 17% said they were "probably" or "definitely" going to breast-feed their babies. Analyses revealed adolescents most likely to intend to breast-feed were those who perceived more benefits to breast-feeding, who desired more knowledge about it, who were themselves breast-fed, who reported supportive social environments, and who perceived relatively fewer barriers to breast-feeding their infants. Specific interventions based upon these findings are proposed. We conclude that adolescent mothers are interested in breast-feeding their babies and that interventions are feasible to increase breast-feeding within this population.

  4. The breast-feeding dilemma and its impact on HIV-infected women and their children.

    PubMed

    Heymann, S J; Vo, P

    1999-07-01

    The rate of HIV transmission via breast-feeding ranges from 14% to 26%, depending on the timing of maternal infection. In settings where infant mortality rates from infectious diseases and malnutrition are low and relatively safe alternatives to breast-feeding are available, HIV-infected mothers should be advised not to breast-feed. Where breast-feeding by HIV-infected mothers and bottle-feeding both present serious risks of mortality, changing the conditions in which families live so that safe feeding alternatives become available must be a top priority. At the same time, these mothers need information about the relative risks and benefits of breast-feeding, early weaning, wet-nursing, and formula feeding. This article reviews the available research data and discusses critical gaps in current knowledge.

  5. Experience and Personality Differences among Breast- and Bottle-Feeding Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg-Cross, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Studies the relationship between different feeding modes and the mother's enjoyment of feeding and her attitude toward and style of weaning the child. Results indicate breast-feeding mothers are higher sensation seekers, more satisfied with the feeding experience, and more ambivalent about weaning than the artifically feeding mothers. (Author)

  6. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  7. [Duration of breast-feeding in the Dominican Republic].

    PubMed

    Bautista, L E

    1996-05-01

    The present study reanalyzed data from the Dominican Republic National Health Survey, conducted in 1991, in order to identify the socioeconomic characteristics and the factors related to medical care, the pregnancy, and the child which influenced the total duration of breast-feeding (TDBF). A representative sample of 1984 mother-infant pairs was studied. Of the children of each mother, only the last one who was breast-fed and was less than three years old at the time of the survey was included. Data on TDBF and the factors studied were collected by interviewing the mothers. The risk of having been weaned at various ages was calculated by means of a life table, and the independent effect of each variable of interest was estimated using Cox's regression model. The median TDBF was 7 months and the relative weaning rate (RWR) was higher among weaned children (RWR = 8.56; 95%CI: 4.25-17.20), those whose mothers had a university education (RWR = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.24-1.77), those who began to suckle late (RWR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.11-1.40), those who were born in public institutions (RWR = 1.62; 95%CI: 1.24-2.11) and private institutions (RWR = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.65-2.91), and those born to first-time mothers of a low socioeconomic level (RWR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.45-2.24). Among the strategies of programs to promote breast-feeding, the importance of delayed weaning should be underscored, since this factor has the greatest influence on duration of breast-feeding.

  8. [The influence of the "Friend of Children Hospital" campaign on breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Bulhosa, Michele Salum

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the awareness of women who gave birth in a 'Friend of Children' Hospital (FCH) of the influence of this campaign on their decision to breast-feed. We conducted semi-structured interviews, focusing the maternal breast-feeding process, expectations, experiences, and the importance of the health staff. The data analysis was based on the "Ten Steps to Successful Maternal Breast-Feeding." We found out that in situations regarded by women as problematic and lacking in answers that could attenuate their discomfort and suffering in the face of their desire to breast-feed, they stopped breast-feeding. We believe that by maintaining the FCH support to women (so that they can face those difficulties), its influence can be decisive to the continuation of breast-feeding.

  9. Breast-feeding and the return to ovulation in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rivera, R; Kennedy, K I; Ortiz, E; Barrera, M; Bhiwandiwala, P P

    1988-05-01

    Twenty-nine breast-feeding mothers and 10 non-breast-feeding postpartum comparison mothers from a rural area of Mexico were followed longitudinally until ovulation resumed. A simple set of guidelines is described involving three obvious milestones for the breast-feeding mother to safely use the natural contraceptive benefit of breast-feeding. Those milestones are: the first vaginal bleeding episode, the initiation of supplementation, and the child's monthly birthday. In the absence of bleeding and supplementation, 100% of breast-feeding mothers remained anovular for 3 months postpartum, 96% for 4 months, 96% for 5 months, and 96% for 6 months. This suggests that, if a mother understands these three conditions, she can use breast-feeding alone as effectively as modern family planning methods for the prevention of pregnancy.

  10. The effects of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention group partook in a 60-minute classroom activity on infant feeding. Findings indicated that students in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater breast-feeding knowledge at Posttest 1 and at 10 weeks postintervention. Students in the intervention group reported a significantly greater intention toward breast-feeding their own future children; an increase was sustained at 10 weeks. These findings suggest that adolescents' knowledge of and intention toward breast-feeding may be positively influenced during their teen years. School nurses are well positioned to support and encourage the inclusion of breast-feeding content in school curricula to enhance adolescents' knowledge and intentions toward breast-feeding.

  11. Is breast-feeding a substitute for contraception in family planning?

    PubMed

    Rous, J J

    2001-11-01

    Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, I disentangle the complex interrelationship between breast-feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and choice of contraceptive method. I find evidence that women substitute breast-feeding for contraception. Further, endogeneity bias, if not controlled, would cause the relationship to be slightly overstated. In addition, the results suggest that although increased education and income result in decreased breast-feeding, any effect on fertility will be offset by changes in contraceptive use.

  12. Dose-dependent protective effect of breast-feeding against breast cancer among ever-lactated women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonju; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Park, Sue Kyung; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2007-04-01

    Lactation might have a crucial role in an extraordinary increase in breast cancer incidence in Korea, as the proportion of mothers who practised breast-feeding fell dramatically. This hospital-based case-control analysis has been carried out since 1997 to evaluate whether lactation is associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women. Among the eligible study participants, a total of 753 histologically confirmed incident cases and an equal number of controls were included in the analysis. The risk was estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. Family history, older at menopause, more full-term pregnancies increased the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer risk decreased according to the total months of breast-feeding (P for trend=0.03). Average duration of breast-feeding of 11-12 months reduced risk of breast cancer by 54% compared with the duration of 1-4 months (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.70). The decreasing risk trend according to average months of breast-feeding was also statistically significant (P for trend=0.02). Moreover, a reduced risk of breast cancer was apparent when analysis was restricted to the first breast-fed child (P for trend=0.006). This study confirms that lactation has an apparent dose-dependent protective effect against breast cancer in Korean women.

  13. Association between home birth and breast feeding outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 28 125 mother–infant pairs from Ireland and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Clare; Taut, Cristina; Zigman, Tamara; Gallagher, Louise; Campbell, Harry; Zgaga, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between breast feeding outcomes and place of birth (home vs hospital birth). Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ireland and UK. Participants 10 604 mother–infant pairs from the Growing Up in Ireland study (GUI, 2008–2009) and 17 521 pairs from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (UKMCS, 2001–2002) at low risk of delivery complications were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Breast feeding initiation, exclusivity and duration. Results Home birth was found to be significantly associated with breast feeding at all examined time points, including at birth, 8 weeks, 6 months and breast feeding exclusively at 6 months. In GUI, adjusted OR was 1.90 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.02), 1.78 (1.18 to 2.69), 1.85 (1.23 to 2.77) and 2.77 (1.78 to 4.33), respectively, and in UKMCS it was 2.49 (1.84 to 3.44), 2.49 (1.92 to 3.26), 2.90 (2.25 to 3.73) and 2.24 (1.14 to 4.03). Conclusions Home birth was strongly associated with improved breast feeding outcomes in low-risk deliveries. While the association between home birth and breast feeding is unlikely to be directly causal, further research is needed to determine which factor(s) drive the observed differences, to facilitate development of perinatal care that supports breast feeding. PMID:27503858

  14. Using quality improvement to promote breast-feeding in a local health department.

    PubMed

    Wright, Sarah S; Lea, C Suzanne; Holloman, Roxanne; Cornett, Amanda; Harrison, Lisa Macon; Randolph, Greg D

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, breast-feeding initiation and continuation rates in Beaufort County, North Carolina, were lower than statewide rates. A quality improvement (QI) project was initiated to increase breast-feeding rates by enhancing the overall environment that supports breast-feeding at the Beaufort County Health Department. This case study describes one of the first QI initiatives implemented through the North Carolina Center for Public Health Quality QI training program, conducted in 2009. The aim of this project was to improve the health and wellness of mothers and infants in Beaufort County by promoting breast-feeding among Beaufort County Health Department Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clients. Using QI tools, 4 new approaches to breast-feeding promotion were tested and implemented: creating a nurturing location to breast-feed while at the health department, actively telephoning new mothers to provide breast-feeding support, incentivizing adoption of educational messages by providing a breast-feeding tote bag, and promoting new WIC food packages. These enhancements involved staff in QI planning and implementation and correlated with improved breast-feeding initiation for WIC clients during the year following project completion.

  15. Determinants of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K; Pathak, K B; Pandey, A

    1989-07-01

    A life table analysis is made of the duration of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa, India, taking one variable at a time using data from a baseline survey of fertility and mortality (BSFM) conducted on the lines of the World Fertility Survey. Then a multivariate (proportional hazard) analysis showed that socioeconomic factors including residence, caste status and education influence the breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea periods. There was no effect of maternal age on the length of breast-feeding, but mean length of post-partum amenorrhoea varied with age. The durations of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea are strongly related.

  16. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  17. Postnatal weight loss in substitute methadone-exposed infants: implications for the management of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Carol; Young, David; Campbell, Nicole; Mactier, Helen

    2012-05-01

    It is widely accepted that maternal drug-exposed infants demonstrate excessive early weight loss, but this has not previously been quantified. Among 354 term, substitute methadone-exposed infants, median maximal weight losses were 10.2% and 8.5% for breast- and formula-fed infants, respectively (p=0.003). Weight loss was less in small for gestational age compared to appropriately grown infants (p<0.001). There was no association between maximal weight loss and plasma sodium concentration (p=0.807). Relative to non-drug exposed infants, weight loss was more marked in formula-fed infants, 48% of whom demonstrated weight loss in excess of the 95th centile (compared to 23% of exclusively breastfed infants; p<0.001). Median weight loss nadir was on day 5, excepting those infants exclusively breastfed (day 4). These data suggest that excessive neonatal weight loss among breastfed infants of drug-misusing mothers does not necessarily reflect poorly established lactation and may help to guide management of breast feeding in this population.

  18. HIV-1 reservoirs in breast milk and challenges to elimination of breast-feeding transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Van de Perre, Philippe; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Viljoen, Johannes; Nagot, Nicolas; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lepage, Philippe; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2012-07-18

    By compensating for the relative immaturity of the neonatal immune system, breast milk and breast-feeding prevent deaths in children. Nevertheless, transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding is responsible for more than half of new pediatric HIV infections. Recent studies of possible HIV-1 reservoirs in breast milk shed new light on features that influence HIV-1 transmission through breast-feeding. The particular characteristics of breast milk CD4(+) T cells that distinguish them from circulating blood lymphocytes (high frequency of cell activation and expression of memory and mucosal homing markers) facilitate the establishment of HIV-1 replication. Breast milk also contains a plethora of factors with anti-infectious, immunomodulatory, or anti-inflammatory properties that can regulate both viral replication and infant susceptibility. In addition, CD8(+) T lymphocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells in breast milk can alter the dynamics of HIV-1 transmission. Even during efficient antiretroviral therapy, a residual stable, CD4(+) T cell-associated reservoir of HIV-1 is persistently present in breast milk, a likely source of infection. Only prophylactic treatment in infants--ideally with a long-acting drug, administered for the entire duration of breast-feeding--is likely to protect HIV-exposed babies against all forms of HIV transmission from breast milk, including cell-to-cell viral transfer.

  19. Obstetric and infant feeding practices in Punjab: effect of educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Gupta, R

    1992-03-01

    A survey of obstetric and infant feeding practices in 100 mothers showed that only 17% infants were exclusively breast fed. Antenatal advice regarding breast feeding was given to only 13%. Sixty eight per cent infants were put to breast 24 hours after delivery. Campaign against bottle feeding was then launched. Fifteen months later, a survey on another 100 mothers showed that 44% infants were exclusively breast-fed, antenatal advice was given to 11% mothers and 60% mothers got active postnatal advice regarding disadvantages of bottle feeds. Incidence of exclusive breast feeding was more in infants who were roomed-in with the mother early, started on breast feeding earlier and whose mothers received antenatal advice. It was concluded that even if the percentage of antenatal advice did not improve, active postnatal campaign directed towards dangers of bottle feeding could increase the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding.

  20. [Contraception and breast feeding. Spacing of pregnancies. Present concepts].

    PubMed

    Buitrón-García-Figueroa, Rafael; Malanco-Hernández, Luz María; Lara-Ricalde, Roger; García-Hernández, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The risk of pregnancy in breastfeeding should be a concern of women. Family planning programs in the postnatal period contraceptive choices offer high efficiency. Breastfeeding is a natural contraception method (LAM) as a contraceptive shield has 98 % efficiency. Women should consider using an alternate contraceptive method when feeding requirements for this method to be effective are not met. Some of contraceptive alternatives in lactation include hormonal methods. According to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use WHO combined hormonal methods are contraindicated during breast feeding, hormonal progestogen only method are considered only in Group 3 and Group 1 immediate postpartum after 6 weeks postpartum. There are modifications to these criteria by the CDC and the UK for the use of these hormones in early in lactation.

  1. Drinking-water quality, sanitation, and breast-feeding: their interactive effects on infant health.

    PubMed

    VanDerslice, J; Popkin, B; Briscoe, J

    1994-01-01

    The promotion of proper infant feeding practices and the improvement of environmental sanitation have been two important strategies in the effort to reduce diarrhoeal morbidity among infants. Breast-feeding protects infants by decreasing their exposure to water- and foodborne pathogens and by improving their resistance to infection; good sanitation isolates faecal material from the human environment, reducing exposures to enteric pathogens. Taken together, breast-feeding and good sanitation form a set of sequential barriers that protect infants from diarrhoeal pathogens. As a result, breast-feeding may be most important if the sanitation barrier is not in place. This issue is explored using data from a prospective study of 2355 urban Filipino infants during the first 6 months of life. Longitudinal multivariate analyses are used to estimate the effects of full breast-feeding and mixed feeding on diarrhoeal disease at different levels of sanitation. Breast-feeding provides significant protection against diarrhoeal disease for infants in all environments. Administration of even small portions of contaminated water supplements to fully breast-fed infants nearly doubles their risk of diarrhoea. Mixed-fed and weaned infants consume much greater quantities of supplemental liquids, and as a result, the protective effect of full breast-feeding is greatest when drinking-water is contaminated. Similarly, full breast-feeding has stronger protective effects among infants living in crowded, highly contaminated settings.

  2. Drinking-water quality, sanitation, and breast-feeding: their interactive effects on infant health.

    PubMed Central

    VanDerslice, J.; Popkin, B.; Briscoe, J.

    1994-01-01

    The promotion of proper infant feeding practices and the improvement of environmental sanitation have been two important strategies in the effort to reduce diarrhoeal morbidity among infants. Breast-feeding protects infants by decreasing their exposure to water- and foodborne pathogens and by improving their resistance to infection; good sanitation isolates faecal material from the human environment, reducing exposures to enteric pathogens. Taken together, breast-feeding and good sanitation form a set of sequential barriers that protect infants from diarrhoeal pathogens. As a result, breast-feeding may be most important if the sanitation barrier is not in place. This issue is explored using data from a prospective study of 2355 urban Filipino infants during the first 6 months of life. Longitudinal multivariate analyses are used to estimate the effects of full breast-feeding and mixed feeding on diarrhoeal disease at different levels of sanitation. Breast-feeding provides significant protection against diarrhoeal disease for infants in all environments. Administration of even small portions of contaminated water supplements to fully breast-fed infants nearly doubles their risk of diarrhoea. Mixed-fed and weaned infants consume much greater quantities of supplemental liquids, and as a result, the protective effect of full breast-feeding is greatest when drinking-water is contaminated. Similarly, full breast-feeding has stronger protective effects among infants living in crowded, highly contaminated settings. PMID:7923538

  3. Breast-feeding, return of menses, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among mothers in the first six months of lactation in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egbuonu, I; Ezechukwu, C C; Chukwuka, J O; Ikechebelu, J I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the exclusive breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among breast-feeding mothers in the first six months of lactation. The study was based in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from breast-feeding mothers on their age, educational attainment, breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices within the first six months of lactation at intervals of 6 weeks, 10 weeks 14 weeks and 6 months post delivery. Analysis of the information obtained showed that out of the 178 mothers who participated in the study 81% of the mothers were within the ages of 20 - 34 years. While all the mothers had formal education, the majority (59%) had secondary education. Seventy-three percent initiated breast-feeding within one hour of delivery. On discharge from hospital, all of them had already established breast-feeding which continued up to six weeks and dropped to 97.8% at six months. Exclusive breast-feeding which was practised by 100% on discharge dropped to 3.9% at six months. The feeding regimen was on demand as practised by 98.9% of the mothers. Menstrual flow had returned in 33.8% of the mothers by 6 weeks of lactation, and had risen to 70.2% at six months. There was more prolonged lactational amenorrheoa in exclusively breast-feeding mothers than in those who were not. By 6 weeks post delivery 31.6% of the mothers had resumed sexual activity and this rose to 93.6% at six months. With the resumption of sexual activity only 5% of the mothers resorted to contraceptive practices other than lactational amenorrhea and this increased to 54% at six months. There was no pregnancy in any of these women during the six months period. While appreciating the role of lactational amenorrhea in child spacing and considering the early return of sexual activity among the mothers the practice of introducing

  4. Pregnancy, breast-feeding, and marijuana: a review article.

    PubMed

    Hill, Meg; Reed, Kathryn

    2013-10-01

    Marijuana is a commonly used drug. At present, it remains an illegal substance in most areas of the United States. Recent controversy regarding the perceived harms of this drug has resulted in debate in both legal and medical circles. This review examines evidence regarding the effects of marijuana exposure during pregnancy and breast-feeding. We examined studies pertaining to fetal growth, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal findings, and continued development of fetuses and neonates exposed to marijuana through adolescence. In addition, the legal implications for women using marijuana in pregnancy are discussed with recommendations for the care of these patients. The current evidence suggests subtle effects of heavy marijuana use on developmental outcomes of children. However, these effects are not sufficient to warrant concerns above those associated with tobacco use. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. It is predominantly used for its pleasurable physical and psychotropic effects. With the recent changes to legislature in Colorado and Washington State making the recreational use of marijuana legal, marijuana has gained national attention. This raises the question: If it is legal for a woman to consume marijuana, what is the safety of this activity in pregnancy and breast-feeding? Moreover, do the harms of marijuana use on the fetus or infant justify the mandatory reporting laws in some states?

  5. [Sources of women's education about the puerperium and breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Cwiek, Dorota; Luczyńska, Violetta; Augustyniuk, Katarzyna; Jurczak, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Future parents have a wide range of possibilities in gaining theoretical knowledge from books, magazines, relatives' advice, doctor or midwife' consultations in outpatient clinics. The most professional ways of getting skills in that matter are birth schools. The aim of this study was to analyze the sources of knowledge about puerperium and breast feeding at birth schools in comparison to mothers who did not attend such training. The study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetric and Perinatology in Szczecin. Group I (investigated) consisted of 129 women who finished birth school training course and group II (control) consisted of 165 women with no formalized prenatal education. A questionnaire and medical histories were used in our analysis. The results showed that the birth school attendants were more likely to use a lot of education sources in the field of breast feeding and that some law aspects in puerperium and puerperium pathology need more attention because books and magazines are the main source of knowledge in that matter instead of birth schools classes.

  6. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  7. A study of breast feeding rates at a large Australian obstetric hospital.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, W; Yuen, H P

    1995-11-01

    A prospective breast feeding survey in a large obstetric hospital was carried out from 1988 to 1991. For each year, a sample of women were interviewed following delivery and data was collected which included the method of feeding, patient status (public or private patients), age, parity, (including previous breast feeding experience), marital status, country of birth and the number of babies. The mother's feeding method after delivery and on discharge from hospital were recorded. Women who were breast feeding on discharge were interviewed at 3 months. When putting the figures for the 4 years together, the breast feeding commencement rate was 88%, the breast feeding rate on discharge was 80% and the breast feeding rate at 3 months was between 51% and 57%. Factors found to be affecting the breast feeding rate at 3 months included patient status, age and parity. Problems experienced by the mothers after discharge from hospital included nipple pain, nipple trauma and mastitis. Private patients reported a significantly higher rate of mastitis than public patients.

  8. Successful breast-feeding as a result of a health education programme for mothers.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, S; Horvat, L

    2000-11-01

    The present study aims to prove an improvement in breast-feeding practices in mothers who received written instructions for successful breast-feeding and had individual counselling at the time of taking this questionnaire. The instructions were based on the results of a study carried out in Slovenia in 1993 and published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing (1998), 27, 1250-1256 (Hoyer & Pokorn 1998). The variables that were then found statistically significant in the initial and continued breast-feeding became the basis of written instructions for breast-feeding. The results obtained in the new current study were compared with that basic study which included 881 mothers. This was possible because the conditions of breast-feeding between 1993 and 1995 (when the new study was launched) had not changed. The idea of baby-friendly hospital initiative (BFHI) had not yet come into force in Slovenia. The current study comprised 203 pregnant women who were first visited during their 8th month of pregnancy. In order to collect data on breast-feeding and deliver instructions, a field nurse visited each mother eight times until the completion of first year and continued to visit them every third month and for all those who were still breast-feeding after that time, until the end of the lactation period. Statistical analysis was carried out by means of SPSS statistical package and survival analysis. All mothers in the study started breast-feeding. By the end of the first month 84.7% of them were still breast-feeding, while by the end of the third month it dropped to 74.9%, and by the end of the sixth month to 45.8%. Among these, breast-feeding alone was practised in the first week by 25.7%, by the end of the first month by 16.4%, and by the end of the third month by 9.5%. All the observed parameters were better than in the basic study. The mean duration of breast-feeding was 217 days, while the longest duration was 852 days. The survival analysis showed a statistically

  9. The Effects of an Infant-Feeding Classroom Activity on the Breast-Feeding Knowledge and Intentions of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention…

  10. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  11. Sociocultural influences on the determinants of breast-feeding by Latina mothers in the Cincinnati area.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Ireton, Candace; Geraghty, Sheela R; Diers, Tiffiny; Niño, Vanessa; Falciglia, Grace A; Valenzuela, Jessica; Mosbaugh, Christine

    2010-01-01

    While breast-feeding initiation and duration among US Latina women appear to decrease with acculturation, health care providers in the Greater Cincinnati area have noted lower rates of breast-feeding among even first-generation Latina immigrants. This study's purpose was to identify determinants of breast-feeding for Latina mothers in Cincinnati through qualitative interviews and Spanish Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale ratings. Our findings suggest that, along with similar levels of breast-feeding self-confidence, foreign-born Latina women in the Greater Cincinnati area share similar breast-feeding determinants with the general population. However, characteristics of these determinants and their impact vary because of unique pressures experienced by this community.

  12. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for <1 week or never while 32% were breastfed for at least 6 months. In the fully adjusted model, children who were only formula fed or who were combination fed for <6 months were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to children who were only breastfed (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60 and OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.69, respectively). When examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term.

  13. Breast feeding a sick child; can social media influence practice?

    PubMed

    Mylod, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Breast milk represents optimum infant nutrition. The World Health Organization's recommendation that babies should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 6 months (Kramer & Kakuma, 2001) remains unchanged in its second decade (Kramer & Kakuma, 2014), which is acknowledged in industrialized countries by successive policies and guidelines for the promotion and care of breastfeeding in children's wards and departments. The known protective influence of breast milk in preventing the onset of disease in later life is of particular import for any sick infant, but the user voice as represented by Helen Calvert's Twitter campaign @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding has united service user and professional voices to call for improved breastfeeding support in pediatric care. Although breastfeeding rates in industrialized countries drop markedly in the first 6 weeks, breastfed babies with cardiac conditions benefit from better oxygen saturations, faster weight gain, and shorter hospital stays. Unwell babies are most in need of the benefits of breast milk. However, families and staff overcome physical barriers to the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, including lack of space, privacy, and separation of the maternal-infant dyad. Many women are motivated to breastfeed or express milk but are reluctant to approach health professionals for help and advice. Despite robust evidence and sound guidelines and policies, breastfeeding knowledge and experience amongst Child Health professionals is often inadequate and leaves them unable to support families. While @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding highlights the issue, Child Health strategy needs investment in young people's long term health by increasing staff skills and focusing on breastfeeding as a core therapeutic intervention. Lactation Consultants could offer training, disseminate good practice, and address the needs of breastfeeding families.

  14. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  15. Infant feeding policies in maternity wards and their effect on breast-feeding success: an analytical overview.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Pollitt, E; Lönnerdal, B; Dewey, K G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this review is to examine the plausibility of a causal relationship between maternity ward practices and lactation success. METHODS. Studies were located with MEDLINE, from our personal files, and by contacting researchers working in this field. Of the 65 studies originally reviewed, 18 met our inclusion criteria (i.e., hospital-based intervention, experimental design with randomization procedures, or quasi-experimental design with adequate documentation). RESULTS. Meta-analysis indicated that commercial discharge packs had an adverse effect on lactation performance. The impact of early mother-infant contact on lactation success was unclear. Rooming-in and breast-feeding guidance in a rooming-in context had a beneficial impact on breast-feeding among primiparae. Breast-feeding on demand was positively associated with lactation success. In-hospital formula supplementation of 48 mL per day was not associated with poor breast-feeding performance. CONCLUSIONS. Hospital-based breast-feeding interventions can have a beneficial effect on lactation success, particularly among primiparous women. PMID:8279619

  16. [A case report of monitoring on carbamazepine in breast feeding woman].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Yang, Li; Wei, Yuan; Xiong, Xin; Zhou, Yong; Zhai, Suo-di

    2010-10-18

    To evaluate the safety of oral cabamazepine during breast milk feeding. The carbamazepine concentration in breast milk of one epilepsy maternal patient was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography, and the literature was reviewed to find the nursing evidence in the use of cabamazepine. The carbamazepine concentration in breast milk ranged from 0.34-0.86 mg/L. The neonate daily dose intake was estimated ranging from 0.34 mg to 0.86 mg through breast-feeding in theory. The literature showed that carbamazepine was generally considered safe for use during breast feeding; however, adverse effects should be monitored as recommended. It is better to avoid feeding at high concentration level to minimize the harm of carbamazepine to the baby.

  17. The professionalising of breast feeding--where are we a decade on?

    PubMed

    Barclay, Lesley; Longman, Jo; Schmied, Virginia; Sheehan, Athena; Rolfe, Margaret; Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    This paper is an empirically informed opinion piece revisiting an argument published in Midwifery 10 years ago, that the increasing professionalisation of breast feeding was not supporting women in Australia in sustaining breast feeding. We present the last 10 years of primary research on the topic, explore major policy initiatives and the establishment and growth of lactation consultants in Australia to see if this has made a difference to sustained rates of breast feeding. We present an analysis of the only consistently collected national statistics on breast feeding and compare this with national and state level government data collections from the last decade. We have found that the considerable effort invested in trying to improve duration of breast feeding amongst women in Australia appears to have failed to improve sustained breast-feeding rates. We argue that this situation might be related to losing sight of the embodied nature of breast feeding and the relationships that must exist between the mother and baby, the knowledge and skills women quickly develop, and a loss of woman to woman support. We conclude that midwives have a major role in avoiding us reproducing similar, unintended, negative consequences to those resulting from increasing obstetrician managed normal birth. These include midwifery scrutiny and involvement in policy development and institutional practices and the design of services.

  18. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    PubMed

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies.

  19. Effect of prolonged breast-feeding on risk of atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soyoung; Choi, Won-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yum, Hye Yung; Son, Dong Koog

    2014-01-01

    The effect of breast-feeding on the risk of developing atopic disease remains controversial. This study is an investigation of the effect of breast-feeding on current atopic dermatitis (AD) among Korean children. This cross-sectional study of children's histories of current AD and environmental factors was completed by the subjects' parents. The subjects included 10,383 children aged 0-13 years in Seoul, Korea, in 2008. The diagnostic criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were applied in this study. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, maternal education, smoking in the household, relocation to a new house within 1 year of birth, and parental history of atopic disease. After adjustment for confounders, age and duration of maternal education were found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of AD. Among subjects aged ≤5 years, the prevalence of AD was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant association between AD and breast-feeding among children >5 years of age. Regardless of parental history of atopic diseases, breast-feeding >12 months was a significant risk factor for AD. The effect of breast-feeding differed by age group. Prolonged breast-feeding increased the risk of AD in children <5 years of age, regardless of parental history of atopic diseases.

  20. Breast-feeding, self-exam, and exercise practices before and after reduction mammoplasty.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Holton, Luther H; Chung, Thomas L; Slezak, Sheri

    2008-10-01

    The current indications for reduction mammoplasty include the relief of painful physical symptoms of macromastia. Numerous studies have demonstrated not only improvement in physical symptoms following reduction mammoplasty, but postoperative psychological benefits as well, including increased ability to participate in physical activity as a result of pain relief and decreased breast mass. Reduction mammoplasty may have additional effects on the patient's ability to breast-feed and perform breast self-exam. The present study is a retrospective study of the effects of reduction mammoplasty on breast-feeding, breast self-exam, physical symptoms, and physical activity. One-hundred and forty-one patients who underwent reduction mammoplasty at our institution between the years 1996-2005 agreed to participate in the study. Each was asked a series of questions in order to assess changes in symptoms and behaviors including breast-feeding and breast self-exam practices before and after the surgery. Patients were also asked questions regarding their pain symptoms and physical activity profiles. Ninety-seven percent of the participants claimed to have back, neck, and/or shoulder pain that was either significantly improved or completely resolved. Moreover, 100% of patients report that physical activity such as exercise was easier following reduction mammoplasty. Ninety-three percent of participants reported that performing breast self-exam following surgery was either the same (68%) or easier (25%) as a result of having less breast tissue. Eighty-nine percent of participants had no children following surgery, therefore effects on breast-feeding practices following reduction mammoplasty were not statistically significant. However, we suggest that when patients are seen in consultation or in the perioperative period, there is an opportunity to teach patients about the benefits of breast-feeding, and to assure patients that a pedicle flap reduction will likely allow breastfeeding

  1. [A dilemma of using psychotropic drugs in pregnancy and breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Szajer, Katarzyna; Karakuła, Hanna; Grzywa, Anna

    2003-09-01

    The treatment of psychiatric disturbance during pregnancy and breast feeding presents for psychiatrics a big challenge and very difficult dilemma. The psychopharmacotherapy during these periods should always involve a careful analysis of the risks and benefits of treatment which needs co-operation between obstetricians and psychiatrists. The purpose of this article is to review present scientific reports on the use of psychotropic drugs in pregnancy, puerperium and during breast feeding. The article brings forward psychopharmacotherapy in aspect of eventual risks for occurrence of teratogenecity, perinatal and postnatal toxicity in the neonate and in the breast feeding. The guidelines described concern the treatment of the psychiatric illnesses and disorders.

  2. Twenty-five years of breast-feeding research in Midwifery.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Fiona

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores some of the significant changes that have taken place with regard to the protection, promotion and support of breast feeding during the past three decades. The period covered since the first issue of Midwifery in 1985, has been marked by some dramatic reversals of harmful discourses and detrimental practices with regard to infant and young child feeding and more specifically breast feeding. Midwifery has spanned this period with the publication of 80 papers on breast feeding. This collection of papers has both influenced and reflected upon changes in international and national breast-feeding strategies and practices. Six papers have been selected for a special virtual edition of Midwifery to reflect the diversity of breast-feeding research in terms of issues explored, methodology and country of origin (www.midwiferyjournal.com). Considerable progress is reflected in these papers. However, there are still enormous challenges ahead in working towards the optimisation of infant and young child feeding. In addition to continuing to conduct and collate robust scientific and epidemiological research we need further studies that explore the political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological factors influencing women's infant feeding practices. Our professional practice needs to continue to improve in order to provide women and families with appropriate support, encouragement and resources to enable them to breastfeed effectively. Finally, we need to continue to challenge the systems and approaches at organisational and community levels that impede women in their endeavours to feed their infants in optimum ways.

  3. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    PubMed

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  4. Effect of breast-feeding status on prolactin secretion and resumption of menstruation.

    PubMed

    Gross, B A; Eastman, C J

    1983-04-02

    This study investigated prospectively the effect of supplementary breast feeding on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea and serum prolactin levels during prolonged breast feeding in a group of 34 Australian mothers. Although supplementary feeding correlated statistically with the decline in mean serum prolactin levels and the subsequent resumption of menstruation, critical analysis of the data revealed that serum prolactin levels were declining with time before the introduction of supplementary feeding. It was concluded that the resumption of menstruation during prolonged lactational amenorrhoea is associated with the introduction of supplementary infant feeding, but other factors may be more important in this process. The good correlation between the decline in serum prolactin levels and the return of cyclic ovarian activity in individual mothers suggests that measurement of serum prolactin level may be a useful predictive index for returning fertility during breast feeding.

  5. The effect of predominant breast-feeding on the risk of obesity in Korean preschool children.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hee Soon; Chu, Sang-Hui; Jekal, Yoon-Suk; Lee, Ja-Yin

    2015-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of predominant breast-feeding practices based on the criteria given by the World Health Organization and to identify the association between predominant breast-feeding during infancy and the development of obesity during preschool in South Korean children. This study employed a nonexperimental, retrospective study design. Five hundred and twenty-eight preschool children aged three to six years and their mothers were recruited. Twenty-seven percent of the participants engaged in predominant breast-feeding; on average they fed predominantly breast milk for the first 6.7 months. After adjusting for child and maternal characteristics, children who had mixed feeding were 1.68 times more likely to become obese than those who were predominantly breast-fed. In this study, it was identified that predominant breast-feeding has a positive effect on maintaining healthy body weight in Korean preschoolers. While encouraging predominant breast-feeding is only a part of the solution, it is an effective and important first step toward preventing preschool obesity.

  6. Breast-feeding trends and the breast-feeding promotion programme in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Williamson, N E

    1990-03-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) duration and incidence have declined in the Philippines since 1973, particularly among urban, better-educated and higher income groups. As more and more women move into these modern groups, BF may continue to decline, making attempts to decrease fertility more difficult. The National Movement for the Promotion of Breastfeeding (NMPB) seeks to overcome the declines by encouraging a wide range of BF promotion activities including improving hospital practices and implementing a 5-year plan. In 1988, the 2nd 5 years of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund support for BF promotion started as part of a program to strengthen health services for child survival. Also in 1988, the Ministry of Health directed private hospitals to have rooming-in. In 1984, BF promotion messages began in the mass media. In 1983, NMPB was set up. The NMPB is housed in the Department of Public Health and has 30 member agencies: 14 governmental organizations and 25 nongovernmental agencies/institutions. From 1982-84 a longitudinal study on decision making regrading infant feeding practices was started. A hospital-based BF promotion program was started in the city of Baguio in the 70s. "Rooming-in" is required in government facilities, but there is a need for education programs for women so that they will continue their healthy practices at home. Challenges of the Philippines BF promotion program corner 4 areas: 1) health facilities; 2) information, education, and communication; 3) training; and 4) outreach. Research activities for the future include: 1) continued monitoring of patterns and trends of BF, including evaluation of the 1988 national survey; 2) analysis of the impact of "rooming-in" programs; 3) studies on the cost effectiveness of different strategies for increasing BF incidence and length and modifying BF practices and beliefs; 4) testing of strategies for helping working women to breastfeed; 5) research on obstacles to BF in private hospitals

  7. A Review of Herbal and Pharmaceutical Galactagogues for Breast-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Hofer, Rebecca; Thibeau, Shelley; Gillispie, Veronica; Jacobs, Marni; Theall, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    exclusive breast-feeding worldwide and the availability and demand for medical and herbal lactation therapies, controlled trials and analyses investigating these medicines are urgently warranted. PMID:27999511

  8. Initiation and duration of breast-feeding in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, M B; Costello, C; Nasution, Y

    1990-03-01

    In Indonesia, nearly all women begin breastfeeding (BF); less than 4% of children are not breast fed. The median duration of BF is 17.3 months in urban areas, and 23.1 months in rural areas. An analysis of factors influencing the start and length of BF, based on data from the National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, reveals the importance of practices surrounding a traditional delivery on the continuation of BF. In Java, Bali, and Outer Islands I, women who deliver attended by a traditional birth attendant or who deliver at home are more likely to continue BF than women having a more "modern" delivery. Children born to a woman of higher age or parity are more likely to continue to be breast fed into the 2nd year. Factors measuring economic status and educational levels of parents are also inversely related to duration, but effects are less consistent across areas. Even though BF is widespread, and lasts a long time, the benefits of reduced morbidity and mortality, and delayed fertility that could be gained from BF, are probably diminished owing to practices of early feeding of children. The 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey is a 5-year follow-up to the 1976 World Fertility Survey and the 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Study. The survey covered 20 provinces out of the 27 in Indonesia, excluding less than 7% of the total population. 2 questionnaires were used; household, and individual questionnaires. The impact of 12 independent variables on the start and length of BF is analyzed. 1) household economic level; 2) language; 3) place of delivery; 4) type of birth attendant; 5) mother's education; 6) mother's occupational experience; 7) spouse's education; 8) spouse's occupation; 9) mother's age at the time of birth; 10) parity; 11) child's sex; and 12) "wantedness" of pregnancy. Over 85% of urban children are born into high socioeconomic level households compared to 50% in rural areas. 35 to 40% of urban mothers and nearly 50% or more of

  9. Association between breast-feeding and severity of acute viral respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Vereen, Shanda; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Hartert, Tina V; Minton, Patricia; Woodward, Kimberly; Liu, Zhouwen; Carroll, Kecia N

    2014-09-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis of 629 mother-infants dyads, breast-feeding (ever vs. never) was associated with decreased relative odds of a lower versus upper respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.99). There was not a significant association between breast-feeding and bronchiolitis severity score or length of hospital stay.

  10. New research on breast-feeding as a method of fertility regulation.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction's Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility promotes research on lactation to develop a better understanding of how breast feeding inhibits fertility. The knowledge gained will allow health workers and pregnant women to receive reliable advice on breast feeding as a birth spacing method. A multicenter study, begun in 1989, examined how different breast feeding practices influence the length of time lactating women go without menstruation. The 4100 mothers maintained detailed records of all feeding episodes and of supplementary foods as well as of vaginal bleeding. The not-yet-published findings should further development of guidelines on lactational amenorrhea. They should show how lactating mothers can use certain breast feedings to influence the length of infertility. Some findings already revealed are feeding patterns vary greatly worldwide. For example, the breast feeding episodes of Australian and Swedish infants are, on average, 3 times longer than those of Chinese infants (24 vs. 6 minutes/episode). The study's findings will contribute greatly to the second Bellagio Conference in December 1995 entitled The Lactational Amenorrhoea Method (LAM) of Family Planning: Efficacy and Modification of the Bellagio Guidelines. A study in Sri Lanka shows that a 50 g powdered skimmed milk supplement given to lactating mothers did not affect the duration of lactational amenorrhea, but these mothers did breast feed longer than those who did not receive the supplement. Demographic and Health Survey data from Indonesia and Peru suggest that postpartum abstinence is not associated with breast feeding status and that lactating women were more likely to use contraception than non-lactating women. Another multicenter study is examining the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of LAM as an interim method of birth spacing and as a way to

  11. An innovative model for achieving breast-feeding success in infants with complex surgical anomalies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Taryn M; Spatz, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes an innovative nurse-driven continuous quality improvement project. Infants born with congenital surgical anomalies face significant challenges within the newborn period and human milk/breast-feeding may not be viewed as a priority. In many hospitals, nurses refer families to lactation consultants for all breast-feeding assistance and support. The Transition to Breast Pathway was developed on the basis of the evidence-based standards and protocols at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The pathway consists of (1) initiation of pumping and maintenance of milk supply, (2) mouth care with human milk, (3) skin-to-skin care, (4) nonnutritive sucking at the breast, (5) transitioning to at breast feeds. A sample of 80 infants were enrolled in this project. Major results of the project are as follows: (1) mother's average milk supply was approximately 603 mL/d, (2) 71% (57/80) of the infants received mouth care with human milk, (3) 48% (38/80) mother/infant dyads performed skin-to-skin care, (4) 60% (35/58) of mother/infant dyads performed nonnutritive sucking at the breast, (5) 100% (58/58) of mother-infant dyads transitioned to breast prior to discharge. This continuous quality improvement project demonstrates that nurses can and should lead the process of transitioning infants to at breast feeds.

  12. Does breast feeding have any impact on non-infectious, non-allergic disorders?

    PubMed

    Golding, J; Emmett, P M; Rogers, I S

    1997-10-29

    Feeding of breast milk in the first weeks of life appears to have a strong protective effect against necrotising enterocolitis. Nevertheless breast milk also seems to be positively linked to the development of jaundice and to late haemorrhagic disease in infants who have not received vitamin K supplements. There is no consistent evidence that other childhood conditions such as insulin dependent diabetes or cancer are less prevalent among children who have been breast fed. Among adult conditions suggested to be less prevalent in the breast fed, only single reports of significant findings for multiple sclerosis and breast cancer exist and convincing corroboration is not available. There are a number of studies that indicate a relationship between breast feeding and later cholesterol levels--and one that has considered the mortality of ischaemic heart disease among adult males. There is some suggestion that breast feeding (during the first year of life) is the optimal protection against future raised lipid levels and mortality from coronary heart disease, but the evidence is far from conclusive. The major health advantage of breast feeding that has been clearly demonstrated remains in the protection of the infant from certain infections in early life. If there are other long-term health advantages they have yet to be fully elucidated and confirmed.

  13. Maternal factors associated with the duration of breast feeding in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shawky, Sherine; Abalkhail, Bahaa A

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing concern about the decline in breast-feeding pattern in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to document the recent breast-feeding trends in Jeddah during the first year of an infant's life and identify the probable maternal risk factors implicated in breast-feeding cessation. Data were collected from six randomly selected primary health care centres in Jeddah City. All married women with an infant breast feeding and contraceptive use were collected. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios for the various maternal risk factors related to breast-feeding cessation. A total of 400 women were enrolled in the study. Their mean age at delivery was 28.0 years (SD = 4.1 years). Approximately 40.0% had never attended school, 43.0% had at least five children and 13.8% were smokers. Deliveries by caesarean section were reported by 13.0% of women and contraceptive use by 44.7%, among whom oral contraceptives were the commonest method. Around 94.0% of women ever initially breast fed their infants, and this proportion dropped to 40.0% by the infant's 12th month. Women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.3, 2.8]P = 0.001) and those who used oral contraceptives (OR = 1.5 [95% CI 1.1, 2.2]P = 0.031) were at higher risk of stopping breast feeding and lower probability of maintaining breast feeding to the 12th month post partum than those who delivered vaginally and did not use oral contraceptives. Breast-feeding practice seems to decline rapidly during the first year of the infant's life. Health care professionals should promote breast-feeding practice as early as the antenatal period. They should also take into consideration the impact of caesarean section deliveries and early oral contraceptive use to avoid their negative impact on breast-feeding practice.

  14. Short duration of breast-feeding as a risk-factor for beta-cell autoantibodies in 5-year-old children from the general population.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Hanna; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Vaarala, Outi; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Breast-feeding has been suggested to have a protective effect against the development of type 1 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the relation between duration of breast-feeding and beta-cell autoantibodies in 5-year-old non-diabetic children who participated in a prospective population-based follow-up study (the All Babies in Southeast Sweden study). Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and the protein tryosine phosphatase-like IA-2 (IA-2A) were measured by radiobinding assays. A short duration of total breast-feeding was associated with an increased risk of GADA and/or IAA above the ninety-fifth percentile at 5 years of age (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45, 3.02; P<0.000) as well as with an increased risk of IAA above the ninety-fifth percentile at this age (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.81, 4.62, P<0.000). A short duration of exclusive breast-feeding was associated with an increased risk of GADA, IAA and/or IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.08, 3.73; P=0.028) as well as with an increased risk of IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.38, 8.92, P=0.009) at 5 years of age. An early introduction of formula was associated with an increased risk of GADA, IAA and/or IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.01, 3.37; P=0.047) at 5 years of age. The positive association between a short duration of both total and exclusive breast-feeding, as well as an early introduction of formula, and positivity for beta-cell autoantibodies in children from the general population suggest that breast-feeding modifies the risk of beta-cell autoimmunity, even years after finishing breast-feeding.

  15. Breast-feeding and responses to infant vaccines: constitutional and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G

    2012-11-01

    Neonates and nursing infants are special with regard to immune development and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Although breast-feeding is essential to modulate and prime immune defenses, vaccines (an interventional prophylaxis) are crucial to prevent and control infectious diseases. During nursing, the type of feeding influences infants' natural defenses (including gut colonization) and their response to vaccines, both through cell-mediated immunity and specific antibody production. Given the variety and combination of vaccine components (antigens and excipients, preservative thimerosal, and aluminum adjuvants) and route of administration, there is a need to examine the role of infant feeding practices in intended and nonintended outcomes of vaccination. Maternal factors related to milk constituents (nutrients and pollutants) and feeding practices can affect response to vaccines. Collectively, studies that compared type of feeding (or used breast-feeding-adjusted statistical models) showed significant influence on some vaccines taken during infancy. Nurslings deprived of the full benefit of breast-feeding could have altered immune responses affecting vaccine outcome. In the absence of studies elucidating neurodevelopment (including excitoxicity) and immunotoxicity issues, vaccination practices should promote and support breast-feeding.

  16. [Menstrual blood and human milk. Reflections and new proposals on breast-feeding in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Pedrucci, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Within a larger study on breast-feeding in ancient Greece, we dwelt on four subjects (the superstitions concerning menstrual blood, milk and dairy products consumption by the Athenians, different kinds of milk and beliefs related to the transmission of hereditary characteristics through human milk, the connection between milk, breast and madness) on which we have identified a certain number of neglected sources. Starting from these, we can gain not only some mosaic tiles of the overall fragmentary view on habits and beliefs about breast-feeding, but also, more generally, helpful hints on some aspects of the Greek world and mentality that we barely know. In attempting to reach some general conclusions, we have also considered the iconographic sources, trying to explain, in part at least, the reason for the almost complete absence of scenes of breast-feeding in the archaic and classical art.

  17. Does frenotomy improve breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia?

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the existing literature regarding the effectiveness of tongue-tie division in infants with ankyloglossia, using the new grades of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) rating system. A clinical question was structured according to patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome, as follows: in infants with poor breast-feeding and ankyloglossia (patient), does frenotomy (intervention), compared to lactation support alone (comparison), improve feeding (outcome)? An electronic literature search was systematically conducted from databases including PubMed, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Igaku Chuo Zasshi), CINAHL, and Cochrane Library using the key words "ankyloglossia," "tongue-tie," "frenotomy," and/or "breast-feeding" in English and equivalent terms in Japanese. The literature search yielded four randomized clinical trials, and 12 observational studies for analysis. The quality of the literature was rated in regard to the two most important outcomes (sucking/latching, and nipple pain) and five less important outcomes (milk supply/milk production, continuation of breast-feeding, weight gain, adverse events, and dyad distress) in accordance with the GRADE system. Evidence levels of the most important outcomes were rated either A (strong evidence) or B (moderate evidence), and less important outcomes were rated C (weak evidence); every outcome consistently showed a favorable effect of frenotomy on breast-feeding. The literature review supported an overall moderate quality of evidence for the effectiveness of frenotomy for the treatment of breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia. No major complications from frenotomy were reported.

  18. Breast feeding and the risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases in the child.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, Andreas; Harder, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Breast feeding is the best way to nurture healthy newborns of healthy mothers. A number of studies have shown that breast feeding may protect against the later development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Using data from our own meta-analysis as well as studies by other groups, in this review we systematically examine the current state of evidence regarding this topic. Breast feeding, in general, is shown to be associated later in a child's life with decreased risk of overweight, decreased blood cholesterol and blood pressure, and a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we review data of our Kaulsdorf Cohort Study (KCS) showing, however, that these effects might be reversed when the mother is affected by a non-communicable disease such as diabetes mellitus, which alters the composition of breast milk. In particular, exposure to breast milk from diabetic mothers during the first days of life (first week; early neonatal period) seems to increase rather than decrease risk of overweight and, consecutively, impaired glucose tolerance in childhood. Taken together, current findings show clearly that breast feeding is effective in lowering the risk of developing key features of the metabolic syndrome in later life, and should therefore be promoted. With increasing prevalence of overweight and diabetes in women, however, more research is urgently needed to clarify whether breast feeding might even have negative consequences for risk of overweight and diabetogenic disturbances when the mother suffers from a metabolic disorder. From a more general perspective, breast feeding and its long-term consequences are an important paradigm for "perinatal programming" of health and disease.

  19. Heat treatment of expressed breast milk is a feasible option for feeding HIV-exposed, uninfected children after 6 months of age in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H; Madzima, Rufaro C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2010-08-01

    In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at approximately 6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted over an 8-wk period and collected quantitative and qualitative data on the mothers' EHT experiences, children's diets, and anthropometric measurements. Mothers kept daily logs of EHT volumes and direct breast-feeding episodes. Mothers successfully initiated and sustained EHT for 4.5 mo (range, 1-11 mo), feeding 426 +/- 227 mL/d (mean +/- SD). By wk 2 of follow-up, children were receiving EHT and Nutributter-enriched complementary foods that satisfied 100% of their energy requirements. During the 8-wk follow-up period, no growth faltering was experienced [changes in weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age Z scores = +0.03 +/- 0.50; +0.77 +/- 1.59; and +0.02 +/- 0.85 (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Stigma was not a major deterrent, likely due to a social marketing campaign for EBF that promoted EHT as a practice to sustain breast-feeding for all women. This study provides evidence that resource-poor rural women can initiate and sustain EHT given family and health systems support. EHT provides a strategy for improving the diets of HIV-exposed but uninfected children after direct breast-feeding has ceased.

  20. Atopic manifestations, breast-feeding protection and the adverse effect of DDE.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Davis, Susan; Chen, Qin; Kuehr, Joachim; Kruse, Hermann

    2003-04-01

    Despite the numerous studies on the possible protective effect of breast feeding against the onset of atopic manifestations during childhood, this issue remains controversial. As part of an environmental epidemiological study, we investigated whether different blood concentrations of dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) modified the protective effect of breast feeding against atopic manifestations in 338 children. DDE concentration, duration of breast feeding and manifestation of atopic disorders were measured in 1994-95 at age 7-8 years. Information gathered on asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever was based on questionnaire data. We measured the total serum concentration of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels against inhalant allergens. In 1997, we also determined bronchial hyper-reactivity with a hypertonic saline challenge test. To estimate odds ratios from our cross-sectional analysis, we applied logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Breast feeding had a protective effect on the two asthma variables (e.g.> 12 weeks breast feeding for doctor-diagnosed asthma, OR = 0.32 [95% CI 0.11, 0.87]; for 'ever' asthma, OR = 0.13 [95% CI 0.02, 0.68]), but not on bronchial hyper-reactivity, hay fever, atopic eczema or the two IgE variables. The protective effect became stronger in children with DDE blood levels below the median of 0.29 micro g/L (e.g. doctor-diagnosed asthma,> 12 weeks breast feeding, OR = 0.24 [95% CI 0.06, 0.95]). Also, for specific IgE against inhalant allergens, the association gained statistical significance. For children with a DDE concentration of 0.29 micro g/L and higher, breast feeding did not show a significant protective effect. Our results suggest that contaminants such as DDE may modify the protective effect and may have contributed to inconsistent findings on the protective effect of breast feeding in previous studies. We recommend determining levels of breast milk contaminants in children when assessing the impact of

  1. Attitudes and knowledge regarding breast-feeding: a survey of obstetric residents in metropolitan areas of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S

    1996-07-01

    A 15-minute, 6-page questionnaire on breast-feeding was administered to the obstetric residents in four metropolitan academic training programs in Korea to assess their attitudes toward and knowledge about breast-feeding and their confidence in managing breast-feeding problems. The questionnaires were self-administered and confidential, and the participation rate was 84% (n=76). Overall, the study participants indicated a neutral attitude toward breast-feeding (2.9 on a 6-point scale, where 1 equals the most positive attitude and 6 equals the most negative attitude). Their self-confidence was inappropriately high, with 49% of the total sample describing themselves as "confident" or "very confident" to manage common breast-feeding problems. Female residents had a higher confidence level than male residents. Although high in self-confidence about breast-feeding, the residents in this study were not knowledgeable about breast-feeding management, answering only 38% of the questions correctly. To be truly supportive of breast-feeding, obstetricians should receive didactic and clinical training in breast-feeding management.

  2. Breast-Feeding Protects Infantile Diarrhea Caused by Intestinal Protozoan Infections

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Usama Salah; Abdellatif, Manal Zaki Mohamed; Naoi, Koji; Norose, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of breast-feeding in protection against protozoan infection in infants with persistent diarrhea. Infants were classified into 2 groups; 161 breast-fed infants and the same number of non-breast-fed infants. Microscopic examinations of stool were done for detection of parasites and measuring the intensity of infection. Moreover, serum levels of IgE and TNF-α were measured by ELISA. Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis sp. were demonstrated in infants with persistent diarrhea. The percentage of protozoan infections was significantly lower in breast-fed infants than that in the non-breast-fed infants. The levels of IgE and TNF-α were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in the non-breast-fed group. There were significant positive associations between the serum levels of IgE and TNF-α and the intensity of parasite infection in the breast-fed group. It is suggested that breast-feeding has an attenuating effect on the rate and intensity of parasite infection. PMID:24327776

  3. Breast-feeding protects infantile diarrhea caused by intestinal protozoan infections.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Belal, Usama Salah; Abdellatif, Manal Zaki Mohamed; Naoi, Koji; Norose, Kazumi

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of breast-feeding in protection against protozoan infection in infants with persistent diarrhea. Infants were classified into 2 groups; 161 breast-fed infants and the same number of non-breast-fed infants. Microscopic examinations of stool were done for detection of parasites and measuring the intensity of infection. Moreover, serum levels of IgE and TNF-α were measured by ELISA. Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis sp. were demonstrated in infants with persistent diarrhea. The percentage of protozoan infections was significantly lower in breast-fed infants than that in the non-breast-fed infants. The levels of IgE and TNF-α were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in the non-breast-fed group. There were significant positive associations between the serum levels of IgE and TNF-α and the intensity of parasite infection in the breast-fed group. It is suggested that breast-feeding has an attenuating effect on the rate and intensity of parasite infection.

  4. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  5. Lactation and stress: protective effects of breast-feeding in humans.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Markus; Neumann, Inga; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2002-09-01

    Whilst most research on breast-feeding has been designed to assess its importance for infant health or to find a human nutrient replacement for infant formula, the effects of breast-feeding on maternal health have received little scientific attention. In several animal studies lactation has been shown to be associated with a marked blunting of physiological and behavioral responses to physical and psychological stress. However, the literature on the effects of lactation on stress in humans remains limited. This review focuses primarily on recent findings on the effects of breast-feeding on neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to acute stress exposure in lactating women. The available data suggest that breast-feeding suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to physical and psychosocial stress. However, lactation in women, in contrast to lactating rats, does not seem to result in a general restraint of the endocrine stress response during the whole period of lactation. Recent data strongly suggest that the blunted HPA axis response to stress in women seems to be counterbalanced if the acute stressor, at least when of a psychosocial nature, occurs later than 1 h after suckling. Further elucidation of the underlying psychobiological mechanisms involved in suppressed stress responses during lactation will no doubt lead to new insights into improved health sequelae of breast-feeding in women and to a better understanding of the psychobiology of human stress protection in general.

  6. [Trace and anxiety of nursing mothers with insufficient and normal breast feeding indicators].

    PubMed

    Aragaki, Ilva Marico Mizumoto; Silva, Isília Aparecida; dos Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and compare the trace and the anxiety state on the 10th day postpartum and the anxiety state on the 30th day postpartum of primiparous and multiparous nursing mothers who present insufficient breast feeding indicators and nursing mothers with normal breast feeding, in order to verify the possible relationships between the anxiety state of the nursing mothers in those two moments with the insufficient breast feeding indicators presented. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, whose data has been gotten from 168 nursing mothers and their children by means of interviews in nursing consultations in the 10th and 30th day postpartum. The results obtained showed that primiparous and multiparous with insufficient breast feeding and primiparous with normal lactation presented higher anxiety state trace than the anxiety state on the 10th and 30th day postpartum. There was remission of the maternal signals of anxiety with the passing of time, which may be caused by the correction of the breast feeding technique and support to the nursing mothers.

  7. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had received prenatal counselling and the 93 women who had not were compared. Although the rates were substantially increased for both groups over the 1977-79 rate (54% and 34% in 1980 and 65% and 55% in 1981 respectively), the 2-year rate was significantly higher for the counselled group compared with the uncounselled group in the later study (59% v. 43%). The greatest effect of counselling was seen in young, primiparous women of higher socioeconomic status who spoke French or English in addition to Chinese. However, 33% of the counselled women who had started breast-feeding had stopped by 1 month, compared with only 15% of the uncounselled women. Thus, although the rates of breast-feeding in ethnic groups can be increased with the use of a language- and culture-specific approach, more support and encouragement must be given to women who start breast-feeding so that they will continue longer. PMID:6671183

  8. Dental caries and prolonged breast-feeding in 18-month-old Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Hallonsten, A L; Wendt, L K; Mejàre, I; Birkhed, D; Håkansson, C; Lindvall, A M; Edwardsson, S; Koch, G

    1995-09-01

    Three thousand children aged 18 months were screened for dental caries and ongoing breast-feeding at 46 child welfare centres in different parts of Sweden. Of these, 200 children were selected for a more comprehensive examination, involving investigation of dietary, toothbrushing and sucking habits, use of fluoride, and determination of salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The children were divided into four groups: group 1: children with caries not being breast-fed; group 2: children with caries being breast-fed; group 3: caries-free children being breast-fed; group 4: caries-free gender- and age-matched reference children not being breast-fed. The results showed that 63 of the children (2.1%) had caries and 61 (2.0%) were still being breast-fed. Twelve (19.7%) of the 61 children still being breast-fed had caries compared with 51 (1.7%) of the 2939 children not being breast-fed; the difference was statistically significant. Children with caries and still being breast-fed had a mean defs of 5.3, and those with caries not being breast-fed 4.9; the difference was not statistically significant. Children with caries, irrespective of whether they were being breast-fed or not, had significantly higher numbers of cariogenic food intakes per day than caries-free children. Mutans streptococci were detected in 67% of the children and lactobacilli in 13%. Children with detectable mutans streptococci and lactobacilli had significantly more caries than those without. The results indicate that Swedish children with prolonged breast-feeding have a tendency to establish unsuitable dietary habits which constitutes a risk situation for developing caries at an early age.

  9. Breast Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: Semi-Automatic Detection of Vascular Map and Predominant Feeding Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Vallone, Paolo; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Sansone, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To obtain breast vascular map and to assess correlation between predominant feeding vessel and tumor location with a semi-automatic method compared to conventional radiologic reading. Methods 148 malignant and 75 benign breast lesions were included. All patients underwent bilateral MR imaging. Written informed consent was obtained from the patients before MRI. The local ethics committee granted approval for this study. Semi-automatic breast vascular map and predominant vessel detection was performed on MRI, for each patient. Semi-automatic detection (depending on grey levels threshold manually chosen by radiologist) was compared with results of two expert radiologists; inter-observer variability and reliability of semi-automatic approach were assessed. Results Anatomic analysis of breast lesions revealed that 20% of patients had masses in internal half, 50% in external half and the 30% in subareolar/central area. As regards the 44 tumors in internal half, based on radiologic consensus, 40 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (61% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 14% by lateral thoracic vessels, 16% by both thoracic vessels and 9% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01), based on semi-automatic detection, 38 tumors demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (66% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 11% by lateral thoracic vessels, 9% by both thoracic vessels and 14% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01). As regards the 111 tumors in external half, based on radiologic consensus, 91 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (25% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 39% by lateral thoracic vessels, 18% by both thoracic vessels and 18% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01), based on semi-automatic detection, 94 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (27% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 45% by lateral thoracic vessels, 4% by both thoracic vessels and 24% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01). An

  10. Maternal bodies, breast-feeding, and consumer desire in urban China.

    PubMed

    Gottschang, Suzanne Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Urban Chinese women in the 1990s formulated their infant-feeding decisions in the context of a society undergoing radical transformation as the nation moved from a centrally planned socialist economy to a global, market-oriented one. Narratives of new mothers in Beijing in the 1990s provide insights into the multiple forces that shaped their infant-feeding practices. These personal histories also illustrate the limitations of multilateral breast-feeding programs that emphasize breast-feeding as a natural interaction between mother and infant. The cases I present here demonstrate instead that the material, bodily manifestations of breast-feeding require nursing mothers to continually renegotiate relations with husbands, coworkers, and family. Chinese women's accounts also add insight to theoretical deliberations on gender and the body, for they demonstrate that cultural expectations and the demands of the lactating body must be considered to understand fully the process of women's decisions in a social and not strictly reproductive context. On a larger scale, the data also illustrate how global intervention, in the form of the WHO-UNICEF-sponsored Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, promotes breast-feeding as a woman's primary duty at the same time that market forces counter this message as women redefine their individual expectations and social relationships.

  11. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother’s statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. Results: The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant’s illness (only up to six months), mother’s consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother’s educational level, child’s gender, place of birth, pregnancies’ interval, mother’s ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother’s breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child’s crying and discomfort. Conclusions: It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child’s gender as far as cultural

  12. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements during breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gorzel, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of supplements intake during breast-feeding was aim of the work. Seventy three women were examined in age 19-42 years coming from the Lublin province. The information about applying supplements during breast-feeding was obtained using questionnaire method. Achieved results served for calculations of taking vitamins and minerals coming from supplements. During breast-feeding 48% women accepted supplements. Average intakes of vitamin B2 (113%), B6 (120%), folic acid (144%) and vitamin D (166%) from supplements were above 100% recommended values. The highest average consumption was noted for iron (229% of recommended value), however the lowest on level 10-35% recommendations for vitamin A (33%), calcium (11%), selenium (12%) and magnesium (20%). Nearly 100% of the norm realization was obtained in case of the vitamin C (93%), E (102%), PP (105%), B1 (107%) and zinc (99%).

  13. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BREAST-FEEDING, CO-SLEEPING, AND SOMATIC COMPLAINTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    PubMed

    Peters, Elisabeth Maria; Lusher, Joanne Marie; Banbury, Samantha; Chandler, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The central aim of this study was to expand a limited body of knowledge on the complex relationship between breast-feeding, co-sleeping, and somatic complaints in early childhood. An opportunity sample of 98 parents from the general population with children aged 18 to 60 months consented to participate in the study. Each parent completed a series of questionnaires measuring somatic complaints, sleep problems, co-sleeping, breast-feeding, and demographic factors. Findings indicated that co-sleeping was associated with increased somatic complaints and that breast-feeding associated with decreased somatic complaints. Co-sleeping also was found to be associated with an increase in sleep problems. Boys demonstrated significantly higher levels of sleep problems than did girls. These findings highlight the relationship between co-sleeping during early childhood, which could have implications for prevention, treatment, and intervention regarding somatic complaints and sleep problems in early childhood.

  14. Cognitive Function in Adolescence: Testing for Interactions Between Breast-Feeding and "FADS2" Polymorphisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicolas W.; Benyamin, Beben; Hansell, Narelle K.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Breast-fed C-allele carriers of the rs single nucleotide polymorphism in the fatty acyl desaturase 2 ("FADS2") gene have been reported to show a 6.4 to 7 IQ point advantage over formula-fed C-allele carriers, with no effect of breast-feeding in GG carriers. An Australian sample was examined to determine if an interaction between…

  15. Social and economic factors related to breast-feeding durations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hinde, P R; Mturi, A J

    1996-07-01

    Some social and economic factors related to breast-feeding durations in Tanzania are analysed using current status data taken from the 1991-92 Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey. Proportional hazards and proportional odds models are estimated. The results show that breast-feeding durations vary according to the region of residence of the mother and child (and whether they are living in a rural or an urban area), the age of the mother at the time of the birth, the order of the birth, and the mother's religion.

  16. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  17. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Validation of the Italian Version and Correlation With Breast-feeding at 3 Months.

    PubMed

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition.

  18. Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Michael J; Henry, Campa Iii; LeDoux, Kyle; Ryan, Patrick J; Fischer, Justin W; Pepin, Kim M; Blass, Chad R; Glow, Michael P; Hygnstrom, Scott E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-09-01

    Disease and damage from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) continually threaten the livelihood of agricultural producers and the economy in the United States, as well as challenge state and federal wildlife managers. Threats can be partially addressed by excluding free-ranging deer from livestock-related resources. Throughout the year, use of stored livestock feed by deer in northern Lower Michigan (MI), USA fluctuates, though their presence is relatively consistent. Since 2008, use of livestock areas and resources by deer has been reduced through intensive efforts by livestock producers in cooperation with state and federal agencies. These efforts focused on excluding deer from stored cattle feed in areas where deer were abundant. We monitored deer activity from Jan 2012 to June 2013 on 6 cattle farms in northern MI using GPS collars to evaluate behavioral effects of excluding deer from stored feed. We characterized areas deer occupied before and after installing 2361 m of fences and gates to exclude deer from stored cattle feed. Following fence installation, 9 deer previously accessing stored feed shifted to patterns of habitat use similar to 5 deer that did not use stored feed. However, continued attempts to regain access to stored feed were made at low frequencies, emphasizing the need to maintain the integrity of fences and keep gates closed for damage prevention and biosecurity.

  19. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Two-Year Morbidity–Mortality and Alternatives to Prolonged Breast-Feeding among Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Bequet, Laurence; Ekouevi, Didier K; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Fassinou, Patricia; Bedikou, Gédéon; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the long-term safety of infant feeding interventions aimed at reducing breast milk HIV transmission in Africa. Methods and Findings In 2001–2005, HIV-infected pregnant women having received in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a peripartum antiretroviral prophylaxis were presented antenatally with infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breast-feeding and then early cessation from 4 mo of age. Nutritional counseling and clinical management were provided for 2 y. Breast-milk substitutes were provided for free. The primary outcome was the occurrence of adverse health outcomes in children, defined as validated morbid events (diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, or malnutrition) or severe events (hospitalization or death). Hazards ratios to compare formula-fed versus short-term breast-fed (reference) children were adjusted for confounders (baseline covariates and pediatric HIV status as a time-dependant covariate). The 18-mo mortality rates were also compared to those observed in the Ditrame historical trial, which was conducted at the same sites in 1995–1998, and in which long-term breast-feeding was practiced in the absence of any specific infant feeding intervention. Of the 557 live-born children, 262 (47%) were breast-fed for a median of 4 mo, whereas 295 were formula-fed. Over the 2-y follow-up period, 37% of the formula-fed and 34% of the short-term breast-fed children remained free from any adverse health outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87–1.38; p = 0.43). The 2-y probability of presenting with a severe event was the same among formula-fed (14%) and short-term breast-fed children (15%) (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.75–1.91; p = 0.44). An overall 18-mo probability of survival of 96% was observed among both HIV-uninfected short-term and formula-fed children, which was similar to the 95% probability observed in the long-term breast-fed ones of the Ditrame

  1. Breast-feeding, day-care attendance and the frequency of antibiotic treatments from 1.5 to 5 years: a population-based longitudinal study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2005-05-01

    This paper aims to study, at the population level, the protective role of breast-feeding on child health and its relation to day-care attendance during the first 5 years of life. The analysis, done on a national sample of children, uses antibiotic treatments as a general measure of health. It takes into account mother's education level, family poverty level, mother's smoking status during pregnancy and after birth, mother's age, sex, gestation duration, and birth rank. The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (LSCDQ), conducted by Santé Québec, a division of the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The study was based on face-to-face interviews and included a set of questionnaires addressed to the children's mothers and fathers. A total of 1841 were included in the sample analyzed. Detailed information on breast-feeding and complementary feeding was collected at 5 and 17 months through face-to-face interviews with the most knowledgeable person, generally the mother. From this information, it has been possible to estimate breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Our results indicate that the positive effects of breast-feeding on health persist up to the second year of life, even in the presence of day-care attendance. The analyses indicate that breast-feeding reduced the number of antibiotic treatments given to children entering day care before 2.5 years of age. The study also indicates that the more-at-risk children could be protected by breast-feeding and by being taken care of in a familial setting, especially before 2.5 years of age. Mother's education, family poverty level, and other social inequality indicators did not play a role in the frequency of antibiotic treatments. Over the long term, it will be important to continue to monitor the health of children and to implement public health interventions aimed at reducing health problems among children of preschool age.

  2. Effect of breast-feeding on pain relief during infant immunization injections.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Aida; Az El-Dein, Nagwa

    2009-04-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, this study was conducted in two maternal & child health centres in Jordan to examine the effects of breast-feeding on pain relief during neonatal immunization injections. Inclusion criteria were first year of age, breast-fed and no concurrent illness. Infants were divided into two groups (of 60 infants for each). One is intervention group: mothers were taken to a private room, seated and reclined on a comfortable chair with their infants awake in their arms, without cloth and with clean diapers. The mothers cradled their infants during breast-feeding to maintain full-body skin-to-skin contact during immunization injections. The other is control group: infants were observed during routine immunization in maternal & child health centres. Pain responses of infants during and after immunization were assessed by using Facial Pain Rating Scale and Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), before, during and after the procedure. Infants' heart rates and duration of crying for both groups were calculated. Findings revealed that the crying time was shorter in intervention (breast-fed) group than in the control group with a statistically significant difference in the duration of crying during and after immunization. We concluded that, breast-feeding and skin-to-skin contact significantly reduced crying in infants receiving immunization.

  3. Growth and Development in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants After the Introduction of Exclusive Human Milk Feedings.

    PubMed

    Colacci, Michael; Murthy, Karna; DeRegnier, Raye-Ann O; Khan, Janine Y; Robinson, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate associations of exclusive human milk (EHM) feedings with growth and neurodevelopment through 18 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study Design ELBW infants admitted from July 2011 to June 2013 who survived were reviewed. Infants managed from July 2011 to June 2012 were fed with bovine milk-based fortifiers and formula (BOV). Beginning in July 2012, initial feedings used a human milk-based fortifier to provide EHM feedings. Infants were grouped on the basis of feeding regimen. Primary outcomes were the Bayley-III cognitive scores at 6, 12, and 18 months and growth. Results Infants (n = 85; 46% received EHM) were born at 26 ± 1.9 weeks (p = 0.92 between groups) weighing 776 ± 139 g (p = 0.67 between groups). Cognitive domain scores were similar at 6 months (BOV: 96 ± 7; EHM: 95 ± 14; p = 0.70), 12 months (BOV: 97 ± 10; EHM: 98 ± 9; p = 0.86), and 18 months (BOV: 97 ± 16; EHM: 98 ± 14; p = 0.71) CA. Growth velocity prior to discharge (BOV: 12.1 ± 5.2 g/kg/day; EHM: 13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg/day; p = 0.33) and subsequent growth was similar between groups. Conclusion EHM feedings appear to support similar growth and neurodevelopment in ELBW infants as compared with feedings containing primarily bovine milk-based products.

  4. Effect of a lactation nurse on the success of breast-feeding: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D A; West, R R

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of a lactation nurse by means of a randomised controlled trial is described. The lactation nurse was employed to assist, support, and encourage mothers during the early weeks after parturition in hospital and at home. All mothers who breast-fed at least once were entered into the trial. Altogether 649 mothers were interviewed 12 months later to establish the duration of breast-feeding and to enquire after practices of and attitudes towards infant feeding. The lactation nurse significantly extended the duration of breast-feeding, particularly during the first four weeks and among women of lower social class. Although she did not reduce problems or change practices significantly, all the trends were consistently in the right direction. Mothers in the experimental group were more satisfied with the help they received than were mothers in the control group. It seems likely that the lactation nurse by consistent advice, assistance, support, and encouragement enabled mothers to cope more successfully with difficulties and that this led to significantly fewer ending breast-feeding prematurely. PMID:3519825

  5. Breast-feeding guidelines: an implementation puzzle. Experts say there is no easy solution.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    The WHO is attempting to provide guidance in the thorny dilemma faced by many HIV-positive women: should they breast-feed and risk transmission to their infant, or should they use substitute nutrition which may place their infant at greater risk of dying within the first year?

  6. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  7. Promoting breast-feeding in a deprived area: the influence of a peer support initiative.

    PubMed

    Raine, Pamela

    2003-11-01

    The present article describes a qualitative study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-support intervention to promote breast-feeding in a deprived area. The aims of the study were to: explore stakeholders' experiences of the intervention; explore the development of a 'culture' of breast-feeding; and consider the potential of the initiative for building community capacity. The methods used in the research were in-depth interviews, diaries and direct observation. The findings describe the social and cultural barriers to breast-feeding experienced by women, and the ways in which professional and lay participants in the peer-support project attempt to reduce them. The advantages of partnership working between health professionals and lay volunteers are then explored. These include: sharing the workload; providing an informal tier of support to mothers; and importantly, offering support and advice stemming from personal experience. For lay supporters, the benefits of taking part in the project range from personal satisfaction at being recognised as skilled, to gains in confidence which potentially open up further educational and training opportunities. In conclusion, it is suggested that the 'success' of such interventions is unlikely to be captured solely by monitoring breast-feeding rates, but needs to take into account the wider context of community development.

  8. Analysis of postpartum lactational amenorrhoea in relation to breast-feeding: some methodological and practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Strat, Y; Thalabard, J C

    2001-10-01

    A large multicentre epidemiological study was carried out by WHO between 1991 and 1995 to analyse the duration of lactational amenorrhoea in relation to breast-feeding. The main results of this analysis, which used classical statistical modelling, have been already published. However, some specific aspects of the postpartum fertility amenorrhoea and breast-feeding covariates, and more specifically the observed progressive exhaustion of the breast-feeding inhibitory effect on the reproductive axis, may justify a closer look at the validity of the statistical tools. Indeed, as has already been emphasized, analysis of large longitudinal data sets in reproduction often faces three difficulties: (i) the precise determination of the event of interest, (ii) the way to handle the time evolution of both the studied variables and their effect on the event of interest and (iii) the often discrete nature of the data and the associated problem of tied events. The first objective of the present work was to give additional insights into the estimation and quantification of the dynamics of the effect of breast-feeding over time, considering this covariate either as fixed or time-dependent. The second objective was to show how to perform the analyses using corresponding adapted procedures in widely available statistical packages, without the need for acquiring particular programming skills.

  9. Breast-feeding among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls in Michigan.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A R; Marcus, M; Zhang, R H; Blanck, H M; Tolbert, P E; Hertzberg, V; Henderson, A K; Rubin, C

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the largest industrial accident in the United States resulted in widespread contamination of the food supply in Michigan with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). The chemical similarity of PBBs to compounds implicated as endocrine disruptors has raised the question of whether PBBs could affect the reproductive system. In the present analysis we examine the relation between serum measurements of PBBs and the frequency and duration of lactation. Persons who lived on or received food from farms exposed to PBBs were enrolled in a registry by the Michigan Department of Public Health. Female members of the cohort were invited to participate in a telephone survey of reproductive outcomes. The three outcomes of interest in the present analysis were a) the decision to breast-feed (yes/no); b) the duration, in months, of breast-feeding as the main source of nutrition; and c) the total duration, in months, of breast-feeding. None of the three outcomes was significantly associated with serum PBB levels, even after controlling for maternal age, previous history of breast-feeding, body mass index, maternal education, household income, history of smoking in the year before pregnancy, consumption of alcohol during the first trimester of pregnancy, history of thyroid disorder, gestational age of the infant in weeks, time to pregnancy, and year of birth. PMID:11712998

  10. Relationship between Breast Feeding and Obesity in Children with Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Zarrati, Mitra; Shidfar, Farzad; Moradof, Maryam; Nasiri Nejad, Farinaz; Keyvani, Hossein; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Razmpoosh, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast feeding appears to play a role in determining obesity and abdominal obesity during childhood, specifically in children with a history of low birth weight. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation of breast-feeding with either of abdominal obesity and obesity among Iranian school children. Materials and Methods A total of 1184 students (625 girls and 559 boys), aged 10 to 13 years old, were selected from 112 governmental elementary schools in Iran. Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured using standard instruments and a pretested standardized questionnaire was performed for compiling information about family economics and educational level, first–degree family history of obesity, history of breast feeding, food pattern and birth weight, as well. Results 13.68% (n = 160) of students had a history of low birth weight, and 26.41% of them had abdominal obesity. Of all participants, 22.04% were overweight and 5.32% were obese which was more prevalent in girls than in boys (P = 0.03). First-degree family history of obesity (P = 0.001), excessive gestational weight gain (P = 0.001) and birth weight (P = 0.01) were significantly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity during childhood. Moreover the prevalence of abdominal obesity in children with low birth weight was significantly correlated with breast feeding (P = 0.04); But this relation was not significantly about obesity in our participants (P = 0.9). Furthermore duration of breast feeding was significantly and inversely correlated with obesity and abdominal obesity in schoolchildren with low birth weight (P = 0.01). Conclusions The results suggest that Breast feeding and its long-term consequences were important factors for preventing metabolic syndrome criteria in childhood and later years of life span. With regard to the increasing prevalence of obesity in children, more research is urgently needed to clarify whether

  11. Birthright Denied: The Risks and Benefits of Breast-feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephanie G.; Highland, Joseph H.

    This document compares the benefits and risks of breastfeeding in light of recent evidence that mothers' milk contains high levels of chemical contaminants. Information is presented on the occurrence and toxicity of agricultural and industrial chemicals found in breast milk and on the lead, industrial chemicals, nitrates, and bacterial…

  12. Is breast-feeding of infants advisable for epileptic mothers taking antiepileptic drugs?

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Fang; Yoshida, Shuichi; Kaneko, Sunao

    2010-10-01

    Epilepsy is a relatively common maternal complication affecting 0.3-0.5% of pregnant women. For most mothers with epilepsy, the use of antiepileptic drugs (AED) is unavoidable, even during pregnancy and lactation. Therefore, the fetus is indirectly exposed to AED via the placenta and breast milk. AED are also prescribed for female patients with other diseases, such as bipolar disorders. In clinical settings, physicians are frequently questioned whether or not women patients taking AED should breast-feed their offspring. Thus, it is necessary to establish an optimum AED regimen for women taking AED, in particular for those with epilepsy during pregnancy and lactation. In this article, we critically review the effects of AED on infants via breast milk and attempt to provide suggestions for clinicians regarding these effects during breast-feeding, based on the data of transplacental passage of AED, breast milk concentration/maternal serum concentration ratios, AED metabolism in infants and the effects of AED in breast milk on infants.

  13. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  14. Evaluation of paladai cup feeding in breast-fed preterm infants compared with bottle feeding.

    PubMed

    Aloysius, A; Hickson, M

    2007-09-01

    This pilot study developed an appropriate procedure to evaluate the paladai cup compared to bottle feeding in preterm infants, using weighed napkins and video analysis to assess amount of spillage, volume consumed, time taken and physiological stability. Paladai results demonstrated increased spillage, increased feed times with more stress cues.

  15. Infantile diarrhoea due to water complementation of breast and bottle feeding.

    PubMed

    Portoian-Shuhaiber, S

    1986-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of unusual infant feeding practices among 204 mothers of infants aged 1-12 months, who were admitted with acute diarrhoea to the only two national hospitals in Kuwait. Ninety per cent of the mothers boiled water to prepare a powdered milk formula, but only 15% boiled water for drinking. Thirty nine infants (19%) were admitted more than once. Better family state in terms of socioeconomic class, maternal education, and breast feeding gave some protection against re-admission, though this was not significant. It seems that the condition of drinking water is an important cause of diarrhoea and hence of re-admission. The number of re-admissions was twice as high among infants drinking unboiled (unfiltered or mineral) water than among those drinking boiled or unboiled but filtered water. Breast feeding is protective if no extra water is given.

  16. Methods appropriate for studying the relationship of breast-feeding to obesity.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2009-02-01

    A vast literature examines the association of breast-feeding with body composition and risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood. Several recent systematic reviews, including one by the World Health Organization, concluded that there is a small protective effect of breast-feeding against overweight in later life. Nearly all studies covered by these reviews used observational study designs that limit causal inferences. Methodological strengths, weaknesses, and main results of the epidemiologic studies that have drawn conclusions about the relation between infant feeding and overweight in childhood and adulthood are briefly reviewed to provide a methodological perspective for the subsequent presentations in this symposium. The focus is on the role of recall and selection bias, appropriate representation of exposures, inadequate control for confounding, and the utility of alternative study designs that may circumvent some of the problems.

  17. Use of Common Migraine Treatments in Breast-Feeding Women: A Summary of Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J.; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. Methods A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication “The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) – a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Results Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Conclusions Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians

  18. Prolactin cycling and the management of breast-feeding failure.

    PubMed

    Weichert, C E

    1980-01-01

    Various studies (Tyson et.al.; Frantz; Aono et.al.) show that cycling of prolactin is critical to the establishment of successful lactation in the first 60 to 80 days postpartum, and that a 2-hour nursing interval is associated with a statistically significant earlier onset of milk production (Salarija et.al.). However, in the patient with a lactational insufficiency, efforts to increase the frequency of nursing more often than every 2 hours may be counterproductive, as experimental evidence shows that prolactin exerts a negative feedback upon itself, and the patient with a breastfeeding problems may experience increased episodes of anxiety and fatigue. The patient with breast milk insufficiency can be managed by ensuring that a sucking stimulus of 30 minutes (15 minutes bilaterally) be present and repeated every 2-3 hours to provide adequate stimulation for prolactin release. Maternal anxiety about milk supply can be relieved by using the Lact-Aid nursing supplementer, a device which provides an additional source of milk to the infant at the breast. Nursing should be carried out in a sheltered situation to provide an uninterrupted sucking stimulus devoid of distraction. The mother should be directed to focus on pleasant associations while nursing to keep her from worrying about whether she will have enough milk. Symptoms of lactational insufficiency can be corrected with proper hormonal regulation. Evaluation of a breastfeeding disorder depends upon a careful physical examination of the breast, preferably to be done prior to and during infant nursing. Observation of infant nursing has not been a standard part of physical examination, although it is critical to making a diagnosis of the problem. The principles of breastfeeding management are illustrated in 3 cases in this chapter. In cases where there is no response to treatment, additional evaluation of the patient's developmental (e.g., adolescent attitude towards the breast) attitude and sexual function history

  19. Migration of breast cancer cells: Understanding the roles of volume exclusion and cell-to-cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew J.; Towne, Chris; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Upton, Zee

    2010-10-01

    We study MCF-7 breast cancer cell movement in a transwell apparatus. Various experimental conditions lead to a variety of monotone and nonmonotone responses which are difficult to interpret. We anticipate that the experimental results could be caused by cell-to-cell adhesion or volume exclusion. Without any modeling, it is impossible to understand the relative roles played by these two mechanisms. A lattice-based exclusion process random-walk model incorporating agent-to-agent adhesion is applied to the experimental system. Our combined experimental and modeling approach shows that a low value of cell-to-cell adhesion strength provides the best explanation of the experimental data suggesting that volume exclusion plays a more important role than cell-to-cell adhesion. This combined experimental and modeling study gives insight into the cell-level details and design of transwell assays.

  20. Electromyographic analysis of masseter muscle in newborns during suction in breast, bottle or cup feeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When breastfeeding is difficult or impossible during the neonatal period, an analysis of muscle activity can help determine the best method for substituting it to promote the child’s development. The aim of this study was to analyze the electrical activity of the masseter muscle using surface electromyography during suction in term newborns by comparing breastfeeding, bottle and cup feeding. Methods An observational, cross-sectional analytical study was carried out on healthy, clinically stable term infants, assigned to receive either breast, or bottle or cup feeding. Setting was a Baby Friendly accredited hospital. Muscle activity was analyzed when each infant showed interest in sucking using surface electromyography. Root mean square averages (RMS) recorded in microvolts were transformed into percentages (normalization) of the reference value. The three groups were compared by ANOVA; the “stepwise” method of the multiple linear regression analysis tested the model which best defined the activity of the masseter muscle in the sample at a significance level of 5%. Results Participants were 81 full term newborns (27 per group), from 2 to 28 days of life. RMS values were lower for bottle (mean 44.2%, SD 14.1) than breast feeding (mean 58.3%, SD 12.7) (P = 0.003, ANOVA); cup feeding (52.5%, SD 18.2%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). For every gram of weight increase, RMS increased by 0.010 units. Conclusions Masseter activity was significantly higher in breastfed newborns than in bottle-fed newborns, who presented the lowest RMS values. Levels of masseter activity during cup-feeding were between those of breast and bottle feeding, and did not significantly differ from either group. This study in healthy full term neonates endorses cup rather than bottle feeding as a temporary substitute for breastfeeding. PMID:24885762

  1. Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: the breast-feeding dilemma.

    PubMed

    Van de Perre, P

    1995-08-01

    Human milk has been considered only recently as a source of transmission for the human immunodeficiency virus. The estimated postnatal transmission rate from mothers who acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection while lactating is 26% (95% confidence interval 13% to 39%) and may be in the range of 8% to 18% from mothers who were infected before becoming pregnant. Risk factors for postnatal transmission include maternal immune deficiency and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in milk. Some milk factors may be protective against postnatal transmission such as specific immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M and a molecule able to inhibit the binding of human immunodeficiency virus to CD4. In addition to its safety and its birth-spacing properties, breast-feeding provides immunologic protection and an ideal nutritional content to the infant. In a poor hygienic environment artificial feeding dramatically increases morbidity and mortality from diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. Consequently, according to our current knowledge the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund reasonably recommend continuing breast-feeding promotion in women living in settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the primary causes of infant deaths such as in many developing countries. In settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are not the primary causes of infant deaths, such as in most of the settings in the developed world, the advisory group recommends against breast-feeding for mothers with proved human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

  2. Constructing compatibility: managing breast-feeding and weaning from the mother's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Irurita, Vera F

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to analyze the maternal process of managing the later stages of established breast-feeding and, ultimately, weaning the child from the breast within a Western Australian context. Data were analyzed from 33 participants' interview transcripts, field notes, 9 postal questionnaires from fathers, and individual and discussion group interviews with child health nurses. A common social problem of incompatible expectations was revealed. All participants faced a dilemma in the management of their experience when personal expectations were in opposition to others' expectations. A process of Constructing Compatibility by Adapting Focus was adopted to compensate for this incompatibility.

  3. Postnatal Support Strategies for Improving Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Case of Caesarean Baby.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, E; Chowdhury, R B; Begum, S; Shapla, N R; Shahida, S M

    2015-10-01

    Despite awarness of the many advantages of breast feeding exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate is still lower than recommended practice and the rate is less in case of caesarean baby. In an effort towards achieving better breast feeding practices, UNICEF and WHO launched the baby friendly hospital initiative in 1991 to ensure that all maternity facilities support mothers in making the best choice about feeding. The implementation of effective programs improves rates of short and long term exclusive breast feeding even in case of caesarean baby. The objective of present study was to investigate whether postnatal support improves the rate of exclusive breast feeding in case of caesarean baby compared with usual hospital care. This was a longitudinal study over one and half year period, from April 2009 to October 2011 done in Combined Military Hospital in Mymensingh. A total of 565 pregnant women were included this study. Primary outcome was early establishment of breast feeding after caesarean section. Secondary outcome was exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital, two weeks and six weeks after caesarean section delivery. Early establishment of breast feeding within one hour after caesarean section was higher in postnatal support group than usual care group (70.29% vs. 57.14%). Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the postnatal support strategies group were significantly higher when compared with those who received usual hospital care at discharge (89.13% vs. 75.94%, p=0.004), at 2 weeks (85.51% vs. 53.38%, p<0.001) and at 6 weeks (74.64% vs. 38.35%, p<0.001). Postnatal lactation support, as single intervention based in hospital significantly improves rates of exclusive breast feeding.

  4. [A comparative study of breast feeding and artificial infant feeding by ultrasonic scanning].

    PubMed

    Finadeeva, E V; Dvoriakovskiĭ, I V; Sudarova, O A; Kulagin, M S

    1990-01-01

    Sucking process was examined in 22 breast- and formula-fed infants by ultrasonic scanning. Analysis of the obtained echographic images of the oral cavity along the middle sagittal line has led the authors to a conclusion that employment of traditional milk soothers with both large and small holes is harmful for articulation and forms an erroneous pattern of sucking and swallowing function, this possibly resulting in abnormal development of the jaws and oral cavity organs.

  5. The effect of neutral oligosaccharides on fecal microbiota in premature infants fed exclusively with breast milk: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Sadeghnia, Alireza; Hoseinzadeh, Maryam; Mirlohi, Maryam; Feizi, Awat; Salehimehr, Nima; Torkan, Moloud; Shirani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of enteral supplementation of a prebiotic mixture (SCGOS/LCFOS) on faecal microbiota in very premature infants who fed exclusively with human-milk. Methods: This double-center randomized control trial was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Units of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Fifty preterm infants (birth weight ≤1500 g who were not fed with formula) were randomly allocated to have enteral (tube feeding) supplementation with a prebiotic mixture (SCGOS/LCFOS; 9:1) or receive no prebiotics. Findings: The primary outcome (e.g., the effect of the prebiotic mixture on fecal microbiota pattern) was clearly different between the two groups. Despite greater coliforms colony counts in first stool cultures in the prebiotic group (Group P) (P = 0.67), coliforms were significantly lower in the third stool cultures in the Group P (P < 0.001). Furthermore, despite the much higher Lactobacillus colony counts, in the first stool cultures, in the control group (Group C) (P = 0.005); there was a trend toward significantly increased Lactobacillus colony counts in the Group P during the study, but the difference between Lactobacillus colony counts, in the third stool cultures, between two groups was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.11). Interestingly, the median length of hospital stay was significantly less in the Group P (16 [12.50–23.50] vs. 25 [19.50–33.00] days; P = 0.003). Conclusion: This suggests that it might have been “the complete removal of formula” which manifests a synergistic effect between nonhuman neutral oligosaccharides (prebiotics) and human oligosaccharides, which in turn, led to the rapid growth of beneficial Lactobacillus colonies in the gut of breast milk-fed preterm infants, while decreasing the number of pathogenic coliforms microorganisms. Therefore, further studies with larger sample sizes are

  6. [Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university].

    PubMed

    Silva, Isilia Aparecida

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women demonstrated to be conditioned and highlighted by the conditions the women encounter in their domestic, professional, and study settings. The physical setting and the relations among their relatives, superiors and peers exerts a strong influence on their determination to keep on breastfeeding.

  7. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  8. Economic impact of breast-feeding-associated improvements of childhood cognitive development, based on data from the ALSPAC.

    PubMed

    Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2016-01-22

    The aim of this study was to assess the economic benefits of improved cognitive development related to being breast-fed. Breast-feeding rates were assessed in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Educational attainment was assessed at age 16 years with higher attainment defined as gaining five General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) passes at a high grade. The economic benefit of being breast-fed was calculated in a decision model using a child's educational attainment and the corresponding expected value of average income in later life. There was a positive association between being breast-fed and achieving higher educational attainment, which remained significant, after adjustment for possible confounders: being breast-fed £33·6 million over the working life of the cohort. Therefore, breast-feeding promotion is likely to be highly cost-effective and policymakers should take this into consideration.

  9. Is breast feeding a risk factor for eczema during the first year of life?

    PubMed

    Sariachvili, Manana; Droste, Jos; Dom, Sandra; Wieringa, Marjan; Vellinga, Akke; Hagendorens, Margo; Bridts, Chris; Stevens, Wim; Sprundel, Marc Van; Desager, Kristine; Weyler, Joost

    2007-08-01

    Breast feeding (BF) provides many advantages to the offspring; however, at present there is an ongoing debate as to whether or not it prevents allergic diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of duration of BF on eczema in the first year of life. A birth cohort of 1128 infants was followed prospectively from 5 months of pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires, a medical examination and blood tests for allergy at the age of 1 yr. Breast feeding was not statistically significant associated with eczema in the first year of life [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.8 (0.4-1.3), 0.8 (0.5-1.3) and 1.0 (0.6-1.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively]. Eczema was positively associated with atopy and educational level of the mother, use of antibiotics in pregnancy and passive smoking by the child during the first 12 months. Regular postnatal contact of the infants with dogs was inversely associated with eczema. Breast feeding was positively associated with eczema among children with non-atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 2.1 (0.4-10.6), 2.2 (0.4-11.3) and 1.9 (0.4-8.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively], whereas an inverse association was found among children with atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.6 (0.3-1.3), 0.7 (0.3-1.4) and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) for the same BF durations]. However, these associations were not statistically significant. Breast feeding has no significant effect on the prevalence of eczema in the first year of life. The effect of BF on eczema in children depends on parental atopy.

  10. Evidence-based interventions for breast and bottle feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Justine Joan; Fletcher, Kara R

    2007-08-01

    Breast and bottle-feeding are areas of concern in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The clinical issues encompass the typically developing preterm infant, who requires special supports to develop the skills needed for successful oral feeding, and the preterm and term infants with dysphagia, who, when able, require specialized assessment and treatment strategies to facilitate the maturation of sucking behaviors and transition to oral feeding. Research is increasingly addressing the development from non-nutritive to nutritive sucking, maturation of typical and atypical nutritive sucking in young infants, as well as assessment strategies and treatment supports for emerging sucking and remediation of feeding or swallowing problems. There continue to be gaps in the available information. These gaps are filled by expert opinion and clinical experience. However, an increase of clinically relevant, databased information is promising. The primary goals of treatment in this population are to facilitate transition from tube to oral feeding and advance sucking skills sufficiently to support needs for nutrition and hydration as the infant grows. The purpose of this article is to review the recent research that has provided an evidence base for clinical practice. The discussion includes research and practice for the use of clinical and instrumental assessments, and for therapeutic interventions selected to prepare the infant for nipple feeding and to support the infant and improve sucking competencies during oral feeding.

  11. Randomised trial comparing hand expression with breast pumping for mothers of term newborns feeding poorly

    PubMed Central

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Gay, Barbara; Scott, Cheryl; Avins, Andrew; Lee, Kathryn A; Newman, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Objective Breast pumping or hand expression may be recommended when newborns latch or suck poorly. A recent trial found worse outcomes among mothers who used a breast pump in the early postpartum period. The objective of this study was to compare bilateral electric breast pumping to hand expression among mothers of healthy term infants feeding poorly at 12–36 h after birth. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Well-baby nursery and postpartum unit. Patients 68 mothers of newborns 12–36 h old who were latching or sucking poorly were randomly assigned to either 15 min of bilateral electric pumping or 15 min of hand expression. Mainoutcome measures Milk transfer, maternal pain, breastfeeding confidence and breast milk expression experience (BMEE) immediately after the intervention, and breastfeeding rates at 2 months after birth. Results The median volume of expressed milk (range) was 0.5 (0–5) ml for hand expressing mothers and 1 (0–40) ml for pumping mothers (p=0.07). Maternal pain, breastfeeding confidence and BMEE did not differ by intervention. At 2 months, mothers assigned to hand expression were more likely to be breastfeeding (96.1%) than mothers assigned to breast pumping (72.7%) (p=0.02). Conclusions Hand expression in the early postpartum period appears to improve eventual breastfeeding rates at 2 months after birth compared with breast pumping, but further research is needed to confirm this. However, in circumstances where either pumping or hand expression would be appropriate for healthy term infants 12–36 h old feeding poorly, providers should consider recommending hand expression. PMID:21747129

  12. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer), 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93) were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696), the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically significant. In

  13. [Health assistance model and nursing care given to women planning to breast feed].

    PubMed

    Pereira, M J; Assis, M M; dos Reis, M C

    1999-01-01

    The present study shows that the nursing practices used on women's assistance, looking forward breast-feeding, transcend an individual technical action. It is known that the kind of assistance practiced will depend on the guidelines set by each institutional organization. These guidelines are based on a prevailed health model which is determined by social and organizational relations that are part of different societies and institutions. The objective of this study is to analyse the relation between the model of breast-feeding assistance established by SUS (Unique Health System) and the actual nursing practice within the Basic Health Units (UBS) of SMS-RP (Municipal Health Office of Ribeirão Preto). Semi-structured interviews with nursing workers were adopted in order to have a report of their practices concerning breast-feeding assistance. The data was examined on the basis of the analyses of content of Bardin (1977). Results showed that there is a considerable difference between the theoretical postulate, and the assistance that is actually practiced. This happens because the nursing practices are submitted to a biomedical model, centered on patients' complaints, which favors medical assistance actions and reinforces prompt assistance. For this reason the study couldn't detect any significant changes regarding the uniqueness of health actions. It was observed that some nursing workers were closer to a better understanding of women care assistance, however the daily determinations have hindered more concrete actions that could transform this practice.

  14. Breast-feeding Duration, Age of Starting Solids, and High BMI Risk and Adiposity in Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of solid feeding was associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breast-feeding (6 categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (4 categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant feeding practices, socioeconomic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis which accounted for potential confounders, demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breast-feeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breast-feeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) (adjusted β= −0.12 SD 95% CI: −0.19 to −0.05 per category change in breast-feeding duration, p=0.001) and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95 % CI: 2.53 to 5.56, p<0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breast-feeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population-level. PMID:21978208

  15. Parent Reports of Exclusive Breastfeeding After Attending a Combined Midwifery and Chiropractic Feeding Clinic in the United Kingdom: A Cross-Sectional Service Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joyce; Beharie, Monica Christine; Taylor, Alison M; Simmenes, Elisabeth Berg; Way, Susan

    2016-04-01

    This service evaluation investigated an interdisciplinary allied professional health care strategy to address the problem of suboptimal breastfeeding. A clinic of midwives and chiropractors was developed in a university-affiliated clinic in the United Kingdom to care for suboptimal feeding through a multidisciplinary approach. No studies have previously investigated the effect of such an approach. The aim was to assess any impact to the breastfeeding dyad and maternal satisfaction after attending the multidisciplinary clinic through a service evaluation. Eighty-five initial questionnaires were completed and 72 (85%) follow-up questionnaires were returned. On follow-up, 93% of mothers reported an improvement in feeding as well as satisfaction with the care provided. Prior to treatment, 26% of the infants were exclusively breastfed. At the follow-up survey, 86% of mothers reported exclusive breastfeeding. The relative risk ratio for exclusive breastfeeding after attending the multidisciplinary clinic was 3.6 (95% confidence interval = 2.4-5.4).

  16. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    PubMed

    Vega-Franco, L

    1985-07-01

    members of the mother's society. Breastfeeding must be considered a cultural trait. Although infant feeding practices have deep cultural roots, the interaction of technologically advanced societies in the western world with underdeveloped societies has produced a process of transculturation in the latter whereby breastfeeding is gradually being displaced. It is probable that only a process of education can combat the decline in breastfeeding.

  17. The role of breast-feeding beyond postpartum amenorrhoea on the return of fertility in India: a life table and hazards model analysis.

    PubMed

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Singh, K K

    1994-04-01

    This paper investigates the effects of continued breast-feeding after resumption of menses on fertility, using data from two retrospective surveys in India and single decrement life table and multivariate time-dependent hazards analyses. Breast-feeding even after the return of menses is found to be associated with longer birth intervals. The interaction of breast-feeding duration after resumption of menses and postpartum amenorrhoea has a significant effect on the risk of conception after return of menses.

  18. EEG signs of "relaxation behavior" during breast-feeding in a nursing woman.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, M; Ruelas, R; Alcalá, V

    1992-01-01

    The presence of electroencephalographic signs of "relaxation behavior"; i.e., groups of synchronic, 6-10 Hz, 100-150 microV EEG waves mainly appearing in parieto-occipital regions, have been investigated in a nursing woman during breast-feeding. EEG was recorded once a week from right and left frontal-central, central-parietal, parietal-temporal and parietal-occipital derivations of the mother during breast-feeding of her own child throughout 16 weeks of nursing (from the 4th to the 20th week after delivery). Groups of synchronic 6-10 Hz, 100-150 microV EEG waves were recorded in central-parietal and parietal-temporal derivations, 15-80 sec after starting of suckling of either breast. Proportions of this synchronic EEG activity ranged between 5 to 28% in the central-parietal and 6 to 22% in the parietal-temporal derivations, and significantly higher proportions were found in the right hemisphere. Similarities between EEG signs of "relaxation behavior" elicited by suckling in nursing cats and those elicited by suckling in a nursing woman lead to the possibility that the above described EEG phenomena are an expression of a functional state of the central nervous system which is a part of the integral response involved in the consummatory activity of nursing behavior in women.

  19. Women's views of counselling received in connection with breast-feeding after reduction mammoplasty.

    PubMed

    Engström, B L; Fridlund, B

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model of the experiences of women, who had undergone reduction mammoplasty, of counselling received in connection with breast-feeding. Data were collected through interviews with 12 breast-reduced women who had given birth to a child, and the material was analysed by means of the grounded theory method. Written permission to post notices at the child welfare centres had been obtained from the primary care managers. The women themselves applied for participation in the study. The results showed that their need for counselling from somebody who listened attentively to them and gave advice in connection with breast-feeding, was considerable. The women could have a feeling of self-reliance, ambivalence, acceptance or guilt, depending on the extent to which they perceived to have received counselling from their family members. At the same time, their experiences of the encounter with the nursing staff were of crucial importance. Lack of active listening and counselling from the nursing staff can be counterbalanced by support from relatives. However, when such support is not forthcoming, the nursing staff must be able to support the women in their role of a mother, which requires that education and supervision are given to the staff. The findings of the study can be used as a basis for further research into the need for support of the families concerned.

  20. Exclusion of a major role for the PTEN tumour-suppressor gene in breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Freihoff, D; Kempe, A; Beste, B; Wappenschmidt, B; Kreyer, E; Hayashi, Y; Meindl, A; Krebs, D; Wiestler, O D; Deimling, A von; Schmutzler, R K

    1999-01-01

    PTEN is a novel tumour-suppressor gene located on chromosomal band 10q23.3. This region displays frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a variety of human neoplasms including breast carcinomas. The detection of PTEN mutations in Cowden disease and in breast carcinoma cell lines suggests that PTEN may be involved in mammary carcinogenesis. We here report a mutational analysis of tumour specimens from 103 primary breast carcinomas and constitutive DNA from 25 breast cancer families. The entire coding region of PTEN was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing using intron-based primers. No germline mutations could be identified in the breast cancer families and only one sporadic carcinoma carried a PTEN mutation at one allele. In addition, all sporadic tumours were analysed for homozygous deletions by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for allelic loss using the microsatellite markers D10S215, D10S564 and D10S573. No homozygous deletions were detected and only 10 out of 94 informative tumours showed allelic loss in the PTEN region. These results suggest that PTEN does not play a major role in breast cancer formation. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070865

  1. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding.

  2. Initiation of food supplements and stopping of breast-feeding as determinants of weanling shigellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, F.; Clemens, J. D.; Rao, M. R.; Khan, M. R.; Haque, E.

    1993-01-01

    The association between the period elapsed since weaning and the risk of shigellosis was assessed between 1 November 1987 and 30 November 1989 for a cohort of 1085 Bangladeshi children aged < 3 years. The children were followed for 1 month after exposure to Shigella spp. in their residential neighbourhoods, and the 268 who developed microbiologically confirmed (n = 118) or clinically presumptive (n = 150) shigellosis were compared with the 817 control children who did not develop either syndrome. No increase in risk was noted among breast-fed infants who received food supplements within the previous 3 months compared with those who had received supplements for longer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4-3.0). However, compared with breast-fed children, non-breast-fed children had an increased risk (adjusted OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.3-2.9; P < 0.001), which was largely attributable to a substantially increased risk in the 3 months after stopping breast-feeding (adjusted OR = 6.6; 95% CI = 2.9-14.6; P < 0.001). The early post-cessation risk was equivalent for confirmed and presumptive shigellosis, but was particularly pronounced among the severely malnourished (adjusted OR = 10.2; 95% CI = 3.1-33.3; P < 0.001). This complex temporal pattern of risk highlights the need for precise definitions of weaning to facilitate identification of children at high risk for invasive diarrhoeal syndromes. PMID:8261560

  3. Nurturing and breast-feeding: exposure to chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Somogyi, A; Beck, H

    1993-01-01

    All chemicals that are not normal constituents of human milk should be considered undesirable contaminants. In the present review, the following substances detected in human milk are considered: persistent organochlorine pesticides; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF); polybrominated compounds; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); trace elements; mycotoxins; nitrate, nitrite, nitrosamines; nicotine, caffeine, ethanol; and drugs. The levels of most of these substances found in human milk were within a range that would not constitute health hazards for breast-fed infants. For many of these, there is a comfortable safety margin. This applies also to organochlorine pesticides and PCB, particularly since, as a result of their discontinued use, the levels of these compounds have clearly declined in recent years. On the other hand, the aflatoxin burden mediated through breast milk, at least in certain tropical countries, appears to pose a definite health hazard. Detailed reference are given on the contamination of human milk with PCDD/PCDF which has to be considered as a matter of concern from the viewpoint of preventive public health. Although the low PCDD/PCDF levels found in the adipose tissue of infants indicate that there is no appreciable health risk emanating from these substances for breast-fed infants, appropriate measures to reduce the current rate of their emission into the environment have to be taken. PMID:8243405

  4. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, years 1999–2006. Participants 53 934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. Main outcome measure ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Results Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Conclusions Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. PMID

  5. Violent delinquency in a Brazilian birth cohort: the roles of breast feeding, early poverty and demographic factors

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo, Beatriz; Gonçalves, Helen; González, David A; Victora, Cesar G

    2010-01-01

    Caicedo B, Gonçalves H, González DA, Victora CG. Violent delinquency in a Brazilian birth cohort: the roles of breast feeding, early poverty and demographic factors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 12–23. We investigated the association between breast feeding, economic factors and conviction for violent delinquency by age 25 years among subjects of the 1982 Birth Cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on breast-feeding pattern and duration was collected in childhood, during the 1983, 1984 and 1986 follow-ups. Information on socio-economic and family characteristics was also obtained between 1982 and 1996. Of the 5914 livebirths enrolled in the cohort, 5228 had obtained an identification document within the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and could thus be identified in judiciary databases. The outcome studied was conviction due to a violent act between ages 12 and 25 years. A total of 106 young people had been convicted at least once (3.0% of men and 1.0% of women). Subjects born to black or mixed mothers and coming from low-income families were at higher risk of having been convicted. Neither crude nor adjusted analyses showed any association between breast feeding and conviction for violent delinquency. Violent delinquency apparently depends more on social factors than on individual factors such as breast feeding. PMID:20078825

  6. AANA journal course: update for nurse anesthetists--"is it okay to breast feed my baby after anesthesia?" A scientific basis for an informed response.

    PubMed

    Biddle, C

    1994-12-01

    Many breast-feeding women are exposed to anesthetic drugs. The question of breast feeding following an anesthetic is a highly relevant issue in part because it is desirable to allow breast feeding to resume quickly while minimizing the potential for drug-related infant morbidity. The physiology of breast milk production and the factors influencing the transfer of drugs into breast milk is reviewed. Generally there is incomplete or sparse information on the potential effects upon the suckling infant. Despite this, certain reasonable conclusions and recommendations can be developed. Among these include a substantive risk with high-dose and long-standing therapies, particular vulnerability in the premature neonate or when a mother is receiving multidose therapy, and consideration of temporarily interrupting the feeding schedule where sufficient doubt exists. Overall, the importance of breast feeding must be carefully considered in light of the potential for side effects in each maternal/child scenario.

  7. A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Taghipour, Sharare; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants' growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents.

  8. [Maternal breast-feeding: changes occurred in the father's conjugal life].

    PubMed

    de Brito, Rosineide Santana; de Oliveira, Eteniger Marcela Fernandes

    2006-06-01

    It is a qualitative study with the objective of identifying the man's perception regarding the changes that took place in his marital relationship during the child's breast-feeding. The data were collected through interview with 13 fathers. The results indicate that men develop attitudes and feelings relative to the son and the wife; they recognize that the alterations in their marital relationship are more evident during the first three months of the child's life and they try to understand or to demonstrate indifference towards the changes. Although breastfeeding results in modifications in the spouses' relationship, the fathers do not consider them as something negative in their lives.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Hakkak, Reza; Bell, Andrea; Korourian, Soheila

    2017-03-20

    Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either a control diet or a control diet with DHEA supplementation for 155 days. Livers were collected for histological examination. Serum was collected to measure DHEA, DHEA-S, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Our results show that DHEA-fed rats had significantly less liver steatosis (p < 0.001) than control-fed rats and gained less weight (p < 0.001). DHEA feeding caused significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and significantly increased (p < 0.001) serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S. Our results suggest that DHEA feeding can protect against liver steatosis by reducing body weight gain and modulating serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an obese breast cancer rat model.

  10. Knowledge and attitude regarding breast-feeding, in mothers attending antenatal clinics.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P; Banait, N

    2000-04-01

    A hospital based study included 600 mothers who delivered at Kasturba Hospital Sevagram during 1996-97, to assess their knowledge and attitude regarding breastfeeding. The mothers were attending antenatal clinics of a Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH). The obstetric staff was trained regarding the practices following which mothers admitted to the hospital were interviewed within 24 hours of the delivery. Mothers were interrogated by a single interviewer regarding knowledge and attitude of breastfeeding within 24 hours of delivery by using a pretested semistructured open and close ended questionnaire. Three hundred and three mothers (50.5%) had attended antenatal clinics of KHS (booked), whereas 276 (46%) had antenatal check-ups at other health centres and 21 (3.5%) did not have any check-ups. Only 54.5% booked mothers and 30.3% unbooked mothers were informed regarding benefits of breastfeeding during antenatal visits. This difference was statistically significant. The booked mothers wanted to initiate breastfeeding early and did not want to give water supplementation, and were also significantly more knowledgeable as compared to unbooked mothers regarding benefits of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum, avoiding prelacteal feeds, additional nutritional requirements during lactation and continuation of breastfeeding during maternal illnesses, child illness, pregnancy and maternal drug intake. Breast examination during antenatal check-ups was lacking in both the groups. Only 21 (6.9%) booked and 9 (3%) unbooked mothers had breast examination done during antenatal visits. The data shows that subjects receiving antenatal care at KHS had varied ideas in regard to knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding, thereby suggesting that BFHI activities are useful, at least, to some extent. However, it was disheartening that despite including the obstetricians in the training of BFHI approach, nearly half the booked cases did not get information regarding benefits of

  11. Levels and trends in post-partum amenorrhoea, breast-feeding and birth intervals in Matlab, Bangladesh: 1978-1989.

    PubMed

    Salway, S; Roy, N C; Koenig, M A; Cleland, J

    1993-06-01

    This study examines the trends in and determinants of length of postpartum amenorrhea during 1978-90 in Bangladesh. Data are obtained from the Matlab project. The sample comprises 6000 women per cohort for cohorts born in two year periods during 1978-80 and 1988-89. Reproductive and lactation records are available for up to 36 months following the birth of the index child. Findings indicate that the duration of postpartum amenorrhea is around 13 months for births during 1978-83. The median duration is 13.5 months for the birth cohort for 1982-83 and 9.4 months for the birth cohort for 1988-89. For 1989 alone the median duration is a further decline to 8.6 months. The seven year decline amounts to a 36% reduction. Findings indicate that age and duration of postpartum amenorrhea are positively related. All age groups show a decline in median duration. The shorter median durations occur among women with fewer than two living children and higher levels of education. Duration of breast feeding peaks in 1984-85 at 34.3 months and then declines to 30.7 months in 1986-87. Full breast feeding duration declines from around 6 months for cohorts 1978-79 to cohorts 1982-88 to 5.2 months in 1986-87 and lags behind durations of postpartum amenorrhea. Full breast feeding declines occur after the 1982-83 cohort among mothers with higher education and after the 1984-85 cohort for uneducated and less educated women. Age patterns of breast feeding women are inconsistent. The oldest mothers have the shortest breast feeding durations. The youngest cohorts show a decreasing trend. Breast feeding durations increase with an increase in the number of living children. However another trend shows initial increases in duration and then declines regardless of the number of living children. The suggestion is that full breast feeding may be important in determining the length of postpartum amenorrhea duration. Contraceptive use increases from 24% in 1977 to 39% in 1984. Median birth intervals

  12. Breast-feeding decreases the risk of sporadic salmonellosis among infants in FoodNet sites.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Samantha Y; Rocourt, Jocelyne R; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Kassenborg, Heidi D; Segler, Suzanne D; Marcus, Ruthanne; Daily, Pamala J; Hardnett, Felicia P; Slutsker, Laurence

    2004-04-15

    Among the population of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas ("FoodNet sites") in 1996, children under 12 months of age had the highest incidence of sporadic salmonellosis. We conducted a case-control study in 5 FoodNet sites to identify risk factors for sporadic infant salmonellosis. A case patient was a child under 12 months of age with a laboratory-confirmed, nontyphoidal serogroup B or D Salmonella infection. Twenty-two case patients were matched with 39 control subjects by age and either telephone exchange or vital record birth list. In a multivariate analysis, case patients were more likely to have a liquid diet containing no breast milk than a liquid diet containing only breast milk (matched odds ratio, 44.5; P=.04). Case-patients were more likely to reside in a household where a member had diarrhea (matched odds ratio, 13.2; P=.01). To decrease their infants' risk of salmonellosis, mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed their infants. Caretakers of infants should learn about salmonellosis, hand washing, and safe preparation of formula and solid food.

  13. Teaching Chilean mothers to massage their full-term infants: effects on maternal breast-feeding and infant weight gain at age 2 and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Maria Sylvia Campos; Doren, Francisca Márquez; Wilson, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage on infant weight gain and exclusive maternal breast-feeding of an intervention that involved teaching mothers to massage their full-term infants. The sample included 100 healthy newborn infants who were receiving primary healthcare at 3 health centers in a low-income neighborhood of Santiago, Chile. The control group included 65 infants and the massage group included 35 infants. During their second well-child clinic visit, clinic nurses provided instruction to massage-group mothers about how to massage their infants, based on the methods of the Baby's First Massage program (http://www.babysfirstmassage.com/Scripts/default.asp). Mothers were encouraged to massage their infants for 10 to 15 minutes at least once a day, starting when their infants were 15 days old. There was no difference in the mean weights of the infants between the massage and control groups at baseline, but at age 2 months, massage group infants weighed significantly more than control-group infants. There were no weight differences between the 2 groups at age 4 months. There were no differences between the 2 groups on the incidence of exclusive maternal breast-feeding at age 2 or 4 months. The findings suggest that teaching mothers to massage their newborn infants may have a beneficial effect on the infant's early weight gain. There is a need for additional studies to evaluate the effect of maternal massage on other health and welfare outcomes for both mothers and infants.

  14. Mixed messages about the meanings of breast-feeding representations in the Australian press and popular magazines.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A M

    1999-03-01

    The popular press is an influential medium for the communication of messages and meanings about health and lifestyle issues (Lupton 1993). Through language and images, the print media present selected phenomena, events and issues to readers. The choice and connections between works used can impress upon the reader specific images of the world and the attitudes toward the presented issues and ideas (Nunan 1993). Discourse analysis is used in this study to examine representations of breast feeding in articles published in the Australian press and popular magazines over a six-month period. Discourse analysis is a method of inquiry that focuses on sociocultural and political contexts in which communication occurs (Lupton 1992). Discourses revealed mixed messages and meanings. Breast feeding was seen as natural and the best way of feeding but also as problematic in practice. Dominant ideologies of power and persuasion were also evident. The media portrayed predominantly negative views about breast feeding. Such discourses may influence decisions to breast feed and have wider implications for midwives in their roles as supporters and educators of women and their families.

  15. Gene expression in breast muscle and duodenum from low and high feed efficient broilers.

    PubMed

    Ojano-Dirain, C; Toyomizu, M; Wing, T; Cooper, M; Bottje, W G

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes that are involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis: avian adenine nucleotide translocator (avANT), cytochrome oxidase III (COX III), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), avian PPAR-gamma coactivator-1alpha (avPGC-1alpha), and avian uncoupling protein in breast muscle and duodenum of broilers with low and high feed efficiency (FE). Total RNA was extracted from snap-frozen tissues from male broilers with low (0.55 +/- 0.01) and high (0.72 +/- 0.01) FE (n = 8 per group). Total RNA was reverse-transcribed using oligo(dT), random primers, or both followed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Protein oxidation, measured as protein carbonyls, was also evaluated in duodenal mucosa. Protein carbonyls were higher in low FE mucosa in tissue homogenate and mitochondrial fraction. The mRNA expression of iNOS and PPAR-gamma in the duodenum was lower in the low FE broilers, with no differences in avANT, COX III, and avPGC-1alpha. In contrast, expression of avANT and COX III mRNA in breast muscle was lower in low FE broilers with no differences in iNOS, PPAR-gamma, and avPGC-1alpha. The avian uncoupling protein in breast muscle was higher in low FE birds (P = 0.068). These results indicate that there are differences in the expression of mRNA encoding for mitochondrial transcription factors and proteins in breast muscle and duodenal tissue between low and high FE birds. The differences that were observed may also reflect inherent metabolic and gene regulation differences between tissues.

  16. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  17. HIV-positive poor women may stop breast-feeding early to protect their infants from HIV infection although available replacement diets are grossly inadequate.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Kevin M; Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Majo, Florence; Chidhanguro, Dzivaidzo; Iliff, Peter; Strickland, G Thomas; Piwoz, Ellen; Iannotti, Lora; Humphrey, Jean H

    2008-02-01

    Little is known about mothers' perspectives and experiences of early breast-feeding cessation as a strategy to reduce postnatal HIV transmission in rural, resource-constrained settings. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDI) with 15 HIV-positive breast-feeding mothers of infants aged 3-5 mo about their plans for feeding their infants after age 6 mo. We also conducted IDI with 12 HIV-positive mothers who intended to stop breast-feeding after receiving their infant's HIV-PCR negative test result at age 6 mo. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were conducted with the same 12 mothers and 16 HIV-negative or status unknown mothers who were breast-feeding their 6- to 9-mo-old infants. Of the 12 mothers who intended to stop breast-feeding, 11 did so by 9 mo. Median energy intake (percent requirement) was 1382 kJ (54%) among weaned infants compared with 2234 kJ (87%) among breast-feeding infants. Median intakes were <67% of the recommended levels for 9 and 7 of the 12 micronutrients assessed for weaned and breast-feeding infants, respectively. Factors facilitating early breast-feeding cessation were mothers' knowledge about HIV transmission, family support, and disclosure of their HIV status; food unavailability was the primary barrier. HIV-positive mothers in resource-constrained settings may be so motivated to protect their child from HIV that they stop breast-feeding early even when they cannot provide an adequate replacement diet. As reflected in the new World Health Organization guidance, HIV-positive mothers should continue breastfeeding their infants beyond 6 mo if replacement feeding is still not acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe.

  18. Violent delinquency in a Brazilian birth cohort: the roles of breast feeding, early poverty and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Beatriz; Gonçalves, Helen; González, David A; Victora, Cesar G

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between breast feeding, economic factors and conviction for violent delinquency by age 25 years among subjects of the 1982 Birth Cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on breast-feeding pattern and duration was collected in childhood, during the 1983, 1984 and 1986 follow-ups. Information on socio-economic and family characteristics was also obtained between 1982 and 1996. Of the 5914 livebirths enrolled in the cohort, 5228 had obtained an identification document within the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and could thus be identified in judiciary databases. The outcome studied was conviction due to a violent act between ages 12 and 25 years. A total of 106 young people had been convicted at least once (3.0% of men and 1.0% of women). Subjects born to black or mixed mothers and coming from low-income families were at higher risk of having been convicted. Neither crude nor adjusted analyses showed any association between breast feeding and conviction for violent delinquency. Violent delinquency apparently depends more on social factors than on individual factors such as breast feeding.

  19. Correlation between subsequent lengths of postpartum amenorrhoea in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ford, K

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between subsequent lengths of lactational amenorrhoea for individual women in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in Bangladesh was studied. The data indicate that previous length of amenorrhoea has significant predictive value for the subsequent length of amenorrhoea. Information on previous experience with lactational amenorrhoea should be therefore incorporated into guidelines for the introduction of family planning during lactation.

  20. Breast Feeding Pattern and the Health of Children in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Dotun, Owoeye Olajumoke

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the different patterns of feeding infants and their corresponding effects on children's health. There are anti-effective properties present in human milk which help children to fight against many childhood diseases. The long-term effect of breast milk like intelligence, socialization and personality development of children…

  1. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.

    PubMed

    Telles, Fernanda Barros de Arruda; Ferreira, Rívea Inês; Magalhães, Luiza do Nascimento Cezar; Scavone-Junior, Helio

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9%) and G4 (19.4%). Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively). Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p < 0.01). When comparing bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2), 3-4 years (OR = 7.6) and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0), p < 0.01. It may be suggested that breastfeeding duration has an inversely proportional effect on the age of pacifier use persistence. Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  2. The uniqueness of human milk. Psychological differences between breast and bottle feeding.

    PubMed

    Newton, N

    1971-08-01

    This paper examines the theory that breastfed and bottlefed infants are psychological equivalents. There are 2 patterns of breastfeeding most often encountered, unrestricted and token breastfeedings. There are maternal differences between those who breastfeed and those who do not. The initial experience of breastfeeding is culturally dependent. A mother who practices unretricted breastfeeding is receiving sustained stimulation to her nipples and experiences a generalized body response. Likewise such a breastfeeding mother experiences other long-term psychophysiologic reactions such as lactation amenorrhea and changes in hormonal balance. Breastfeeding women are often interested in a quick return to sexual intercourse and display a more general attitude towards men. A mother's personality and her ability to adjust to life situations often varies with the choice of feeding. 1 study found that mothers who breastfed displayed significantly less neuroticism than those who did not. Breastfeeding behavior appears to be sensitive to even minor variations in the social milieu. The type of breastfeeding practiced is likewise a significant variable for the infant. The initial feeding of an unrestricted breastfed infant is usually smooth unlike the situation for the token breastfed. Both feeding patterns involve assuagement of hunger needs but are dependent on social setting. For the breastfed infant, comfort as well as nourishment are presented with the mother as part of the package. These 2 experiences are often split in bottlefed and token breastfed infants. The 2 sucking patterns resemble each other superficially and the breastfed infant seems to develop more interest in sucking. Different activity levels manifest themselves by the 3rd day postpartum with the breastfed showing a greater propensity toward activity. Intelligence scores are also related to feeding patterns, with those exclusively breastfed for 4-9 months displaying the highest scores in relation to their age.

  3. State of the science: use of human milk and breast-feeding for vulnerable infants.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Diane L

    2006-01-01

    Human milk is the preferred form of nutrition for all infants including those born preterm or otherwise ill. However, without the commitment of knowledgeable healthcare providers to ensure success during mother-infant separation, many infants fail to receive their mother's own milk. Care of the mother-infant dyad during infant illness requires vigilant monitoring of the lactation experience and the commitment of healthcare providers to take a family through the step-by-step process needed to ensure positive outcomes related to the use of human milk and breast-feeding for vulnerable infants. The science tells us that human milk is the best form of nutrition for all infants. As practitioners we must be doing everything in our power to make sure the infants we care for are able to receive their mother's own milk.

  4. Breast-feeding initiation among post-Caesarean women of the Negev, Israel.

    PubMed

    Chertok, Ilana R

    The objectives of the study were to increase post-Caesarean breastfeeding rates and decrease timing of post-Caesarean breastfeeding initiation in multicultural populations following a post-Caesarean breastfeeding intervention. The study was a prospective population-based evaluation of a breastfeeding intervention for post-Caesarean women of different cultures at a southern Israeli hospital. The study population consisted of 570 Jewish and Muslim post-Caesarean women who had delivered healthy, term infants. The control group (n=264) received standard hospital care and the intervention group (n=306) received early, culturally sensitive, post-Caesarean breast-feeding guidance and education by trained professionals. Timing of post-Caesarean maternal-infant contact and breastfeeding initiation outcomes for the Jewish and Muslim women significantly improved following the intervention.

  5. Human milk galectin-3 binding protein and breast-feeding-associated HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christina S; Kim, Hae-Young; Autran, Chloe; Kim, Jae H; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of milk from 247 HIV-infected Zambian mothers showed that galectin-3 binding protein concentrations were significantly higher among HIV-infected mothers who transmitted HIV through breast-feeding (6.51 ± 2.12 μg/mL) than among nontransmitters but were also correlated with higher milk and plasma HIV RNA copies/mL and lower CD4+ cell counts. The association between galectin-3 binding protein and postnatal transmission was attenuated after adjustment for milk and plasma HIV load and CD4+ cell counts. This suggests that although milk galectin-3 binding protein is a marker of advanced maternal disease, it does not independently modify transmission risk.

  6. Associations between breast milk feeding, introduction of solid foods, and weight gain in the first 12 months of life

    PubMed Central

    Klag, Elizabeth A.; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Breast milk feeding and solid food introduction can influence infant growth, but are rarely examined together. The objectives were: describe relationships between feeding practices, feeding practices and weight gain, and how the relationship of breast milk feeding and growth may change when breastfed infants start solid foods before 6 months. Methods Data was analyzed on 438 infants from the Moms2Moms Study (2011–2012, Ohio), using multivariable linear and logistic regression models to explore each of the relationships. Results For each additional month of breast milk feeding, solid food introduction was delayed by 1.32 days (95% CI: 0.11 to 2.53) and average weight gain per month decreased by 5.05 grams (95% CI: 7.39 to 2.17). There was no association between solid food introduction and growth. Conclusions Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with slower growth regardless of solid food introduction. Age at solid food introduction was not associated with growth. PMID:25644649

  7. Safety of immunomodulators and biologics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review available data regarding the safety of immunomodulators and biological therapies during pregnancy and breast-feeding in women with inflammatory bowel disease. Methotrexate and thalidomide can cause congenital anomalies and are contraindicated during pregnancy (and breast-feeding). Although thiopurines have a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rating D, available data suggest that these drugs are safe and well tolerated during pregnancy. Although traditionally women receiving azathioprine or mercaptopurine have been discouraged from breast-feeding because of theoretical potential risks, it seems that these drugs may be safe in this scenario. Treatment with cyclosporine for steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) during pregnancy can be considered safe and effective, and the use of this drug should be considered in cases of severe UC as a means of avoiding urgent surgery. Breast-feeding is contraindicated for patients receiving cyclosporine. Biological therapies appear to be safe in pregnancy, as no increased risk of malformations has been demonstrated. Therefore, the limited clinical results available suggest that the benefits of infliximab and adalimumab in attaining response and maintaining remission in pregnant patients might outweigh the theoretical risks of drug exposure to the fetus. Stopping therapy in the third trimester may be considered, as it seems that transplacental transfer of infliximab is low prior to this. Certolizumab differs from infliximab and adalimumab in that it is a Fab fragment of an antitumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody, and therefore it may not be necessary to stop certolizumab in the third trimester. The use of infliximab is probably compatible with breast-feeding.

  8. Comparison of effects of breast-feeding practices on birth-spacing in three societies: nomadic Turkana, Gainj, and Quechua.

    PubMed

    Gray, S J

    1994-01-01

    Variation in the duration and pattern of breast-feeding contributes significantly to inter-population differences in fertility. In this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective studies undertaken during the 1980s, among Quechua Indians of Peru, Turkana nomads of Kenya, and Gainj of Papua New Guinea. In all three societies, lactation is prolonged well into the second year postpartum, and frequent, on-demand breast-feeding is the norm. However, the duration of lactational amenorrhoea and the length of birth intervals vary considerably. Breast-feeding patterns among Gainj and Turkana are similar, but Turkana women resume menses some 3 months earlier than do the Gainj. The average birth interval among the Gainj exceeds that of nomadic Turkana by over 15 months. Suckling activity decreases significantly with increasing age of nurslings among both Gainj and Quechua, but not among Turkana. Earlier resumption of menses among Turkana women may be linked to the unpredictable demands of the pastoral system, which increase day-to-day variation in the number of periods of on-demand breast-feeding, although not in suckling patterns. This effect is independent of the age of infants. The short birth intervals of Turkana women, relative to those of the Gainj, may be related to early supplementation of Turkana nurslings with butterfat and animals' milk, which reduces energetic demands on lactating women at risk of negative energy balance.

  9. Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Embleton, Nicholas; Fidler Mis, Nataša; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie M; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Molgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This position paper considers different aspects of complementary feeding (CF), focussing on healthy term infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these recommendations: Timing: Exclusive or full breast-feeding should be promoted for at least 4 months (17 weeks, beginning of the 5th month of life) and exclusive or predominant breast-feeding for approximately 6 months (26 weeks, beginning of the 7th month) is a desirable goal. Complementary foods (solids and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula) should not be introduced before 4 months but should not be delayed beyond 6 months.

  10. Angular roughshark Oxynotus centrina (Squaliformes: Oxynotidae) in captivity feeding exclusively on elasmobranch eggs: an overlooked feeding niche or a matter of individual taste?

    PubMed

    Guallart, J; García-Salinas, P; Ahuir-Baraja, A E; Guimerans, M; Ellis, J R; Roche, M

    2015-10-01

    A specimen of angular roughshark Oxynotus centrina has been kept successfully in captivity for the first time. Over a period of 24 months, the specimen preyed exclusively on the contents of elasmobranch egg cases, suggesting a specialized trophic niche.

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly and identification of genes associated with feed conversion ratio and breast muscle yield in domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Zhen-He; Hao, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yu-Ze; Hu, Shen-Qiang; Yang, Fang-Xi; Qu, Lu-Jiang; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Breast muscle yield and feed conversion efficiency are the major breeding aims in duck breeding. Understanding the role of specific transcripts in the muscle and small intestine might lead to the elucidation of interrelated biological processes. In this study, we obtained jejunum and breast muscle samples from two strains of Peking ducks that were sorted by feed conversion ratio (FCR) and breast muscle percentage into two-tailed populations. Ten RNA-Seq libraries were developed from the pooled samples and sequenced using the Hiseq2000 platform. We created a reference duck transcript database using de novo assembly methods, which included 16 663 irredundant contigs with an N50 length of 1530 bp. This new duck reference cDNA dataset significantly improved the mapping rate for RNA-Seq data, from 50% to 70%. Mapping and annotation were followed by Gene Ontology analysis, which showed that numerous genes were differentially expressed between the low and high FCR groups. The differentially expressed genes in the jejunum were enriched in biological processes related to immune response and immune response activation, whereas those in the breast muscle were significantly enriched in biological processes related to muscle cell differentiation and organ development. We identified new candidate genes, that is, PCK1, for improving the FCR and breast muscle yield of ducks and obtained much better reference duck transcripts. This study suggested that de novo assembly is essential when applying transcriptome analysis to a species with an incomplete genome.

  12. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Pessoa, Eduardo Lima; Dunant, Ariane; Heymann, Steve; Spielmann, Marc; Uzan, Catherine; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Marsiglia, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  13. Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defu; Ning, Yibing; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Junkuan; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.

  14. "Who wants to eat in a toilet?" A social marketing approach to breast-feeding in public places and at work.

    PubMed

    Blair-Stevens, Terry; Cork, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    A public health project is described which used social marketing philosophy and techniques to find out how to help facilitate breast-feeding in public places and for mothers returning to work. As part of a strategy to increase local breast-feeding rates, Brighton and Hove Healthy City Partnership, representing the local Primary Care Trust, City Council and the business, academic and voluntary sectors, worked with a social marketing consultancy. The consultancy carried out a literature review and qualitative research that used creative engagement methods to consult with local people. The consultations were with key stakeholders, mothers, and groups traditionally less interested in the subject of breast-feeding, such as employers, elderly people, teenage boys, and fathers. The qualitative research generated in-depth insight and soundly-based, practical recommendations for facilitating breast-feeding. The social marketing approach helped to establish that any ensuing policies and practices would be acceptable to a wide range of the local population.

  15. Maternal, infant, and household factors are associated with breast-feeding trajectories during infants' first 6 months of life in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Frongillo, Edward A; Devine, Carol M; Alam, Dewan S; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2009-08-01

    Women's breast-feeding patterns are complex, and existing definitions of breast-feeding behavior do not capture this complexity adequately. We used results from a prior qualitative study to define trajectories for feeding during the first half of infancy, and then examined household-, maternal-, and infant-level determinants of these trajectories using logistic regression analysis. The 1472 women in the study cohort lived in rural Bangladesh and were participants in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab trial. The 3 infant feeding trajectories included women who fed only breast milk and water [full breast-feeding trajectory (FBT)]; offered mixed feeding continuously when their babies were 0-4 mo old [continuous mixed feeding trajectory (CMFT)]; and practiced any other type of breast-feeding [intermittent feeding trajectory (IFT)], which was the normative feeding behavior in this community. In adjusted regression models, women who lived in rural areas [odds ratio (OR), 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2, 3.4], came from the poorest households (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5, 7.7), and offered prelacteal (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7) were more likely to be in the FBT. Women from the richest households (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), employed mothers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), and older mothers (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.0, 1.1) were more likely to be in the CMFT, and women with higher birth-weight infants (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) were less likely to be in the CMFT. Thus, these trajectories were associated with distinct groups of women and these results provide information useful for developing interventions to improve breast-feeding practices.

  16. Pregnant women's knowledge about mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection through breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Maputle, M S; Jali, M N

    2008-03-01

    The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004: 10). Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000: 2), breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000: 13; Department of Health, 2000:3). Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HIV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to determine pregnant women's knowledge about MTCT of HIV/AIDS infection through breastfeeding. Findings of the study will be used to update the existing health education programmes in the field of Maternal and Child Health. The design was a descriptive research survey. The population consisted of 100 pregnant women. Convenience sampling was used to select mothers during antenatal visits at a particular clinic at Polokwane municipality. Self-constructed questionnaires were translated into Northern Sotho and distributed to the women. Data analysis used descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed a high level of awareness of HIV and AIDS and a low level of knowledge about MTCT of HIV and AIDS infection through breastfeeding. Based on the conclusions, a revised health education programme was proposed for the Maternal and

  17. Maternal asthma, infant feeding, and the risk of asthma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H; Peat, Jennifer K; de Klerk, Nicholas H

    2002-07-01

    Controversy surrounds the issue of whether children with asthmatic mothers should be breast-fed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal asthma status alters the association between asthma and breast-feeding. In a cohort study of 2602 West Australian children enrolled before birth and followed prospectively, we collected data on method of infant feeding, maternal asthma (as reported by parental questionnaire), atopy (as measured by skin prick test), and current asthma (defined as a physician's diagnosis of asthma and wheeze in the last year) at 6 years of age. The risk of childhood asthma increased if exclusive breast-feeding was stopped (other milk was introduced) before 4 months (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.62; P =.038), and this risk was not altered by atopy or maternal asthma status. After adjusting for covariates, exclusive breast-feeding for less than 4 months was a significant risk factor for current asthma (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00-1.82; P =.049). There was no formal statistical interaction between breast-feeding and maternal asthma status (P =.970). In this study maternal asthma status did not modify the association between asthma and breast-feeding duration. We recommend that infants with or without a maternal history of asthma be exclusively breast-fed for 4 months and beyond.

  18. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  19. Estimated radiation dose to breast feeding infant following maternal administration of 57Co labelled to vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Kay M; Sawyer, Laura J; Evans, Martyn J

    2005-09-01

    Administration of a radiopharmaceutical may result in a radiation dose to an infant due to ingestion of the radiopharmaceutical secreted in the breast milk. Following a maternal administration of Co labelled to vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) as part of a Schilling test an estimate of the absorbed dose to a breast feeding infant was calculated. Milk samples were collected from every feed in the first 24 h, and at approximately 48 and 72 h post-administration. The absorbed dose to the infant's liver (the organ receiving the highest dose) was calculated to be 0.23 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was calculated to be 0.025 mSv, which is considerably lower than the current regulatory limit of 1 mSv. The Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee advise that the first feed, at approximately 4 h after administration, be discarded. The data show that this was unwarranted, and that the peak concentration of Co in the breast milk occurred at around 24 h.

  20. From folklore to scientific evidence: breast-feeding and wet-nursing in islam and the case of non-puerperal lactation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-12-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the "power structures" that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore associated with breast-feeding. The paper deals with historical, religious, and folkloristic aspects of breast-feeding, especially wet-nursing, in Islam and focuses on an intriguing Islamic tale on breast-feeding - lactation by non-pregnant women (or non-puerperal lactation). Apparently, accounts of non-puerperal lactation are not restricted to Islam but have been documented in various societies and religions throughout centuries. Two medical situations - hyperprolactinemia and induced lactation, appear as possible explanations for this phenomenon. This serves as an excellent example for the value of utilizing contemporary scientific knowledge in order to elucidate the origin, anthropology and evolvement of ancient myth and superstition.

  1. From Folklore to Scientific Evidence: Breast-Feeding and Wet-Nursing in Islam and the Case of Non-Puerperal Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the “power structures” that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore associated with breast-feeding. The paper deals with historical, religious, and folkloristic aspects of breast-feeding, especially wet-nursing, in Islam and focuses on an intriguing Islamic tale on breast-feeding - lactation by non-pregnant women (or non-puerperal lactation). Apparently, accounts of non-puerperal lactation are not restricted to Islam but have been documented in various societies and religions throughout centuries. Two medical situations - hyperprolactinemia and induced lactation, appear as possible explanations for this phenomenon. This serves as an excellent example for the value of utilizing contemporary scientific knowledge in order to elucidate the origin, anthropology and evolvement of ancient myth and superstition. PMID:23675050

  2. Development of hydrogen excretion between feeds in breast and artificially fed full-term normal neonates.

    PubMed

    Davies, A G; Fitzgerald, A; Robb, T A; Davidson, G P

    1989-04-01

    The breath hydrogen test for carbohydrate malabsorption has been proved to be sensitive, specific and noninvasive. This study was performed to determine its applicability in the newborn period. Postprandial hydrogen excretion in the first 5 days of life was measured in 105 full-term normal newborns, who were either artificially or breast fed. Samples of expired air were collected via a nasopharyngeal catheter at 30 min intervals between feeds. Some babies showed no hydrogen production after 5 days, while others produced high (200 parts/10(6] levels. The incidence of hydrogen production increased postnatally--more than 80% of babies produced hydrogen by 5 days of age. None of the babies was unwell or developed frequent or loose stools suggestive of clinical carbohydrate malabsorption. It is therefore postulated that these high hydrogen levels reflect biochemical evidence of clinically insignificant carbohydrate malabsorption in this age group. This study shows clearly that an interfeed interval of 4 h in these babies is insufficient to cause breath hydrogen levels to fall in a predictable way. The ethical and practical difficulties in fasting these infants for longer periods suggest that conventional carbohydrate challenges with breath hydrogen estimations will be difficult in the neonate.

  3. Prescribing in pregnancy and during breast feeding: using principles in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Emma; Mackillop, Lucy

    2011-05-01

    Prescribing in pregnancy often causes uncertainty and anxiety for the clinician and may lead to the omission of necessary treatment. Many drugs have inadequate data to assure safety, and therefore the clinician is left with a dilemma as to where the balance of risks and benefits lie with respect to the mother and her fetus. Understanding under what circumstances women can be prescribed medication and using principles of prescribing in pregnancy to further clarify the potential risks will aid good clinical decision-making. An appreciation of the available resources and the conviction to find the best available evidence will best serve the patient and her fetus. Teratogenicity refers to the potential for a drug to cause fetal malformations and affects the embryo 3-8 weeks after conception. Teratogenic drugs are associated with an increased risk of malformations, but the majority of babies are born with no abnormalities. In addition, approximately 2-3% of infants are born with major malformations with no association with maternal medication, and this and other confounding factors need to be addressed during counselling of a woman. Fetotoxicity refers to the functional changes that can occur to the fetus as a result of medication in the second and third trimesters. These effects are more subtle and more difficult to assess and therefore there are fewer data to support or refute these types of associations. For the majority of drugs, the neonatal dose from breast feeding is a fraction of the dose exposure in utero.

  4. Faecal chymotrypsin in small for gestational age infants: effects of nucleotides and breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, M; Losty, H; Jenkins, H R; Davies, D P

    1997-05-01

    The effect of diet on pancreatic exocrine function, measured by faecal chymotrypsin activity (FCA), was studied longitudinally in three groups of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in the first six months of life. The three groups comprised breastfed infants (group B), those randomly allocated to receive a standard infant formula (group S), or the same formula supplemented with nucleotides (group N). The three groups did not differ in their birthweight or gestational age. Nucleotide supplementation of infant formula improves catchup growth in SGA infants but whether this is due to effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa or the exocrine pancreas is not known. There were no differences in FCA at study entry but by one month group B had significantly lower values than the other groups, and this was maintained at 2, 4, and 6 months. Groups N and S did not differ significantly at any time point. Nucleotide supplementation of infant formula does not influence pancreatic exocrine function and its effect on growth is unlikely, therefore, to be mediated through the pancreas. This study shows that breast feeding is associated with lower FCA which may be related to the lower protein content of human milk. Reliable interpretation of FCA in young infants requires information about their diet.

  5. Characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2009-09-01

    Lactobacillus spp., referred to as IJ-1 and IJ-2, were isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets and analyzed for probiotic properties. According to the analyses of 16S rDNA sequence, Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 showed greater than 99% homology with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016(T), and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 had greater than 99% homology with the L. gasseri ATCC 33323(T) and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200(T). The pH changes in the culture media of Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 were from 6.5 to 4.2 and 4.6, respectively. Their respective resistance against artificial gastric acid and artificial bile acid led to survival rates of nearly 186+/-44% and 13+/-5%. Neither strain produced the carcinogenic enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Both strains inhibited the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Salmonella enterica KCTC 12401, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 3881, and Bacillus cereus 3711, within 24 h of growth.

  6. Examining the relationship between a childhood history of sexual abuse and later dissociation, breast-feeding practices, and parenting anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from the southwestern United States. Nearly one third of the sample ( n = 24, 30.77%) reports CSA histories. There is no correlation between CSA history and intimate parenting anxiety, no difference between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers in CSA severity, and intimate parenting anxiety does not predict dissociation. These findings are inconsistent with previous research. Supportive resources may explain the inconsistency and play a role in adolescent mothers' responses to CSA. Further research is necessary to explore these possibilities.

  7. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P < 0.001). Family members and friends also encouraged the drinking of mate to increase milk production. Conclusions As in other cultures, in Argentina the belief exists that alcohol enhances lactation. However, the majority of women whom we interviewed had not been counseled by their health professional about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during

  8. Minimum Acceptable Diet at 9 Months but Not Exclusive Breastfeeding at 3 Months or Timely Complementary Feeding Initiation Is Predictive of Infant Growth in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Aatekah; Schwartz, Benjamin; Kleinbaum, David G.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Faruque, A. S. G.; Das, Sumon K.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2016-01-01

    The association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering is well-established. However, most of this evidence comes from cross-sectional studies. To prospectively assess the association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering, we interviewed pregnant women at 28–32 weeks’ gestation and followed-up their offspring at postnatal months 3, 9, 16 and 24 months in rural Bangladesh. Using maternal recall over the past 24 hours, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 3 months, age at complementary feeding (CF) initiation, and receipt of minimum acceptable diet (MAD; as defined by WHO) at 9 months were assessed. Infant length and weight measurements were used to produce length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-length (WLZ) z-scores at each follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations of LAZ and WLZ with infant feeding practices. All models were adjusted for baseline SES, infant sex, maternal height, age, literacy and parity. Follow-up was completed by 2189, 2074, 1969 and 1885 mother-child dyads at 3, 9, 16 and 24 months, respectively. Stunting prevalence increased from 28% to 57% between infant age 3 and 24 months. EBF at 3 months and age at CF initiation were not associated with linear infant growth, but receipt of MAD at 9 months was. By age 24 months, infants receiving MAD had attained a higher LAZ compared to infants who did not receive MAD (adjusted β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.13–0.37). Although prevalence of stunting was already high at age 3 months, ensuring infants receive a diverse, high quality diet from 6 months onwards may reduce rates of stunting in the second year of life. PMID:27776161

  9. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  10. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  11. Growth trajectories are influenced by breast-feeding and infant health in an afro-colombian community.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Delisle, Hélène; Osorno, Jairo

    2005-09-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study among an Afro-Colombian population to investigate the influence of feeding practices and child morbidity on linear and ponderal growth during infancy. We enrolled 133 children at 5-7 mo and followed them until 18 mo. Repeated anthropometric measures were taken every 2-3 mo, with monthly interviews on feeding practices and daily self-reports on morbid conditions by the mothers of the infants. Mothers' social conditions and infants' fixed variables (gender and gestational age at birth) were measured at baseline. Growth starting points and trajectories were modeled via Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM). Children started with a mean length of 64.8 cm (95% CI: 59.8-69.7) and a mean weight of 7.68 kg (95% CI: 5.37-9.9), and gained length at a rate of 1.13-1.70 cm/mo, and weight at 66.5-319 g/mo. Breast-feeding, defined as receiving breast milk at any time within a 2-3-mo interval, was positively related to length gain (regression coefficient = 0.27 cm/mo; P = 0.04), after adjusting for social conditions and food consumption. Among mothers with low levels of education, breast-feeding had a positive effect on weight gain (regression coefficient = 0.30 kg/mo; P = 0.04); among nonbreast-fed infants, complementary food diversity generated a positive effect on weight (regression coefficient = 0.14 kg/mo; P = 0.03). Mean differences in length were related to the total proportion of healthy time (regression coefficient = 3.1; P = 0.02), whereas weight-gain rates were negatively associated with changes during illness (regression coefficient = -0.70; P = 0.04 for fever). No association was found between diarrhea episodes and infant growth. Our study confirms that breast-feeding after 6 mo of life is important for nutrition and health, likely by mitigating the negative effects of poor social conditions and diarrhea on infant growth.

  12. Exclusion of the retinoblastoma gene and chromosome 13q as the site of a primary lesion for human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bowcock, A M; Hall, J M; Hebert, J M; King, M C

    1990-01-01

    Chromosome 13q has been suggested as the site of a gene predisposing to human breast cancer, because loss of heterozygosity of alleles on this chromosome has been observed in some ductal breast tumors and because two breast cancer lines are altered at the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) at 13q14. To test this possibility, linkage of breast cancer susceptibility to 14 loci on chromosome 13q loci was assessed in extended families in which breast cancer is apparently inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. RB1 was excluded as the site of a breast cancer gene by a lod score of Z = -7.60 at close linkage for 13 families. Multipoint analysis yielded negative lod scores throughout the region between 13q12 and 13q34; over most of this distance, Z less than -2.0. Therefore, chromosome 13q appears to be excluded as the site of primary lesion for breast cancer in these families. In addition, comparison of tumor versus normal tissues of nonfamilial breast cancer patients revealed an alteration at the 5' end of RB1 in a mucoid carcinoma but no alterations of RB1 in five informative ductal adenocarcinomas. Linkage data and comparisons of tumor and normal tissues suggest that changes in the RBI locus either are secondary alterations associated with progression of some tumors or occur by chance. Images Figure 2 PMID:2294744

  13. Effect of Breast-Feeding and Maternal Holding in Relieving Painful Responses in Full-Term Neonates: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Hala M; Shuriquie, Mona A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of breast-feeding with maternal holding as compared with maternal holding without breast-feeding in relieving painful responses during heel lance blood drawing in full-term neonates. A convenience sample of 128 full-term newborn infants, in their fourth to sixth days of life, undergoing heel lance blood drawing for screening of hypothyroidism were included in the study. The neonates were randomly assigned into 2 equivalent groups. During heel lance blood drawing for infants, they either breast-fed with maternal holding (group I) or were held in their mother's lap without breast-feeding (group II). The painful responses were assessed simultaneously by 2 neonatal nurses blinded to the purpose of the study. Outcome measures for painful responses of the full-term neonates were evaluated with the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale. Independent t test showed significant differences in Premature Infant Pain Profile scale scores among the 2 groups (t = -8.447, P = .000). Pain scores were significantly lower among infants who were breast-fed in addition to maternal holding. Evidence from this study indicates that the combination of breast-feeding with maternal holding reduces painful responses of full-term infants during heel lance blood drawing.

  14. A call for clarity in infant breast and bottle-feeding definitions for research.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Unclear and inconsistent infant-feeding definitions have plagued much of breastfeeding research. To determine accurate health outcomes associated with infant feeding, it is imperative that different types of feedings be explicitly described. Definitions must be based on content, not mode of milk delivery. Five new definitions for infant feeding are provided. These definitions are operationally useful for breastfeeding researchers, allowing for the inclusion of almost every infant into an appropriate sample group.

  15. Drug use during pregnancy and breast-feeding. A classification system for drug information.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F; Flodh, H; Lundborg, P; Prame, B; Sannerstedt, R

    1984-01-01

    Since 1978 the Swedish catalogue of registered pharmaceutical specialties (FASS) has carried a special section entitled "Pregnancy and breast-feeding" in each product presentation, intended to form an aid for the prescription of drugs to women during childbearing and lactation. After a brief review of transplacental transport and milk secretion, reproduction-toxicology studies in animals, and methods for clinical evaluation of drugs for use during pregnancy, the classification system is presented. On the basis of available data with regard to effects on early and late stages of pregnancy and labour, all the pharmaceutical specialties concerned are assigned to one of the following pregnancy categories: A, B 1, B 2, B 3, C or D. The letters refer to information based on findings in man, and the figures to information based on animal data. For drugs in categories B 3, C or D any harmful effects observed or likely to occur in man or animals are to be specified. The pregnancy categories are defined as follows: Category A. Drugs which may be assumed to have been used by a large number of pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, without any form of definite disturbance in the reproductive process having been noted so far, e.g. an increased incidence of malformations or other direct or indirect harmful effects on the fetus. Category B. Drugs which may be assumed to have been used by only a limited number of pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, without any form of definite disturbance in the reproduction process having been noted so far, e.g. an increased incidence of malformations or other direct or indirect harmful effects on the fetus. Category C. Drugs which by their pharmacological effects have caused, or must be suspected of causing disturbances in the reproduction process that may involve risk to the fetus without being directly teratogenic. Category D. Drugs which have caused an increased incidence of fetal malformations or other permanent damage in

  16. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants.

    PubMed

    Grewen, Karen M; Davenport, Russell E; Light, Kathleen C

    2010-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT in 5 saliva and 7 plasma samples in a protocol designed to elicit changes in OT (Rest, Infant Interaction, Stress, Feeding). Breast-feeders had higher OT levels than formula-feeders across all conditions in plasma (+36%) and saliva (+23%). OT levels and ranges were similar in saliva and plasma, with slightly greater variance in saliva. Concurrently sampled plasma and salivary OT were correlated at end of Baseline Rest (r=+.59, p=.022) and Post-Stress Recovery (r=+.59, p=.025). These data suggest that salivary OT assay is feasible, and will be of value where plasma samples are not possible. Validation with larger samples is needed.

  17. Two independent pathways of maternal cell transmission to offspring: through placenta during pregnancy and by breast-feeding after birth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L; Yoshimura, Y; Huang, Y-Y; Suzuki, R; Yokoyama, M; Okabe, M; Shimamura, M

    2000-01-01

    Cell transmission from mother to offspring was demonstrated using mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic markers. GFP transgene heterozygous (+/−) females were mated with GFP (−/−) males, and GFP+ cells in the GFP (−/−) fetuses generated between them were analysed to assess maternal blood cell transmission to conceptuses in utero. The GFP+ maternal cells were observed throughout the body of the fetuses, as shown by fluorescence stereomicroscopy. Cell entrance into the fetal immune system was shown by histochemical and flow cytometric analyses of fetal organs such as thymus, spleen and liver. The GFP+ maternal cells persisted in the offspring until postpartum. Next, GFP (−/−) neonates fed by GFP+ foster mothers were examined to study the transfer of maternal milk leucocytes to offspring through breast-feeding. GFP+ leucocytes that had infiltrated through the wall of the digestive tract were mainly localized in the livers of neonates. Their accumulation in the livers reached a maximum on days 5 or 6, and these cells became undetectable, as assessed by either histochemistry or flow cytometry, after day 9 of starting foster nursing. Collectively, the present results demonstrate two independent pathways of maternal cell transmission to offspring: transplacental passage during pregnancy and breast-feeding after birth. PMID:11122462

  18. Continuous Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric Nerve Block for Groin Pain in a Breast-feeding Patient after Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Soo; Baik, Ji Seok; Ji, Young Tae

    2016-01-01

    Ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric (II/IH) nerve injury is one of the most common nerve injuries following pelvic surgery, especially with the Pfannenstiel incision. We present a case of intractable groin pain, successfully treated with a continuous II/IH nerve block. A 33-year-old woman, following emergency cesarean section due to cephalopelvic disproportion, presented numbness in left inguinal area and severe pain on the labia on the second postoperative day. The pain was burning, lancinating, and exacerbated by standing or movement. However, she didn't want to take additional medicine because of breast-feeding. A diagnostic II/IH nerve block produced a substantial decrease in pain. She underwent a continuous II/IH nerve block with a complete resolution of pain within 3 days. A continuous II/IH nerve block might be a goodoption for II/IH neuropathy with intractable groin pain in breast-feeding mothers without adverse drug reactions in their infants. PMID:27413486

  19. Can hormones contained in mothers' milk account for the beneficial effect of breast-feeding on obesity in children?

    PubMed

    Savino, Francesco; Fissore, Maria F; Liguori, Stefania A; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), ghrelin, resistin and obestatin, which are involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. These compounds are either not found in commercial milk formulas or their presence is still controversial. Diet-related differences during infancy in serum levels of factors involved in energy metabolism might explain anthropometric differences and also differences in dietary habits between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants later in life, and may thus have long-term health consequences. In this context, the recent finding of higher leptin levels and lower ghrelin levels in BF than in FF infants suggests that differences in hormonal values together with different protein intake could account for the differences in growth between BF and FF infants both during infancy and later in life. In this review, we examine the data related to hormones contained in mothers' milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity and metabolic-related disorders.

  20. Antiretroviral concentrations in breast-feeding infants of mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirochnick, Mark; Thomas, Timothy; Capparelli, Edmund; Zeh, Clement; Holland, Diane; Masaba, Rose; Odhiambo, Prisca; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Weidle, Paul J; Thigpen, Michael C

    2009-03-01

    There are limited data describing the concentrations of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine in nursing infants as a result of transfer via breast milk. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study is a phase IIb open-label trial of prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum maternal treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine from 34 weeks of gestation to 6 months postpartum. In a pharmacokinetic substudy, maternal plasma, breast milk, and infant dried blood spots were collected for drug assay on the day of delivery and at 2, 6, 14, and 24 weeks after delivery. Sixty-seven mother-infant pairs were enrolled. The median concentrations in breast milk of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine during the study period were 14 ng/ml, 1,214 ng/ml, and 4,546 ng/ml, respectively. Zidovudine was not detectable in any infant plasma samples obtained after the day of delivery, while the median concentrations in infant plasma samples from postpartum weeks 2, 6, and 14 were 67 ng/ml, 32 ng/ml, and 24 ng/ml for lamivudine and 987 ng/ml, 1,032 ng/ml, and 734 ng/ml for nevirapine, respectively. Therefore, lamivudine and nevirapine, but not zidovudine, are transferred to infants via breast milk in biologically significant concentrations. The extent and effect of infant drug exposure via breast milk must be well understood in order to evaluate the benefits and risks of maternal antiretroviral use during lactation.

  1. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required. PMID:27187450

  2. Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Roger L; Smeaton, Laura; Lockman, Shahin; Thior, Ibou; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Wester, Carolyn; Stevens, Lisa; Moffat, Claire; Arimi, Peter; Ndase, Patrick; Asmelash, Aida; Leidner, Jean; Novitsky, Vladimir; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max

    2009-02-01

    Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month (P=.99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P=.45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197691 and NCT00197652.

  3. Assessment of exposure to PCB 153 from breast feeding and normal food intake in individual children using a system approach model

    PubMed Central

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Dedík, Ladislav; Jusko, Todd A.; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, Ľubica; Kočan, Anton; Šovčíková, Eva; Wimmerová, Soňa; Tihányi, Juraj; Patayová, Henrieta; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-01-01

    Investigators have typically relied on a single or few discrete time points as measures of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden, however health effects are more likely to be the result of integrative exposure in time, optionally expressed as an area under the time curve (AUC) of PCB serum concentration. Using data from a subgroup of 93 infants from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia—a region highly polluted by PCBs—we fit a system type model, customized to our longitudinal measures of serum PCB concentrations in cord, 6, 16, and, 45 month blood specimens. The most abundant congener, PCB 153, was chosen for modeling purposes. In addition to currently used methods of exposure assessment, our approach estimates a concentration time profile for each subject, taking into account mean residence time of PCB 153 molecules in the body, duration of breast feeding, hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without breast feeding and alternately without normal food intake. Hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without normal food intake correlates with AUC (r=0.84, p<0.001) as well as with duration of breast feeding (r=0.64, p<0.001). It makes possible to determine each subject’s exposure profile expressed as AUC of PCBs serum concentration with a minimum model parameters. PCB body burden in most infants was strongly associated with duration of breast feeding in most, but not all children, was apparent from model output. PMID:22051344

  4. Breast-Feeding in the Developing World: Current Patterns and Implications for Future Trends. Reports on the World Fertility Survey 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Mary Mederios

    This report uses World Fertility Survey data obtained between 1974 and 1978 to investigate the initiation and duration of breast-feeding in 19 developing countries, ten of which are in Asia, eight in Latin America and the Caribbean, and one in sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya). Respondents were asked whether they had fed either their most recently born…

  5. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz; White, Roberta F; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pál

    2005-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with an advantage to infant neurobehavioral development, possibly in part due to essential nutrients in breast milk. However, breast milk may be contaminated by environmental neurotoxicants, such as methylmercury. In the Faroe Islands, where maternal consumption of pilot whale may cause transfer of marine toxicants into breast milk, a cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1986-87. Methylmercury exposure was assessed from mercury concentrations in cord blood and in the hair of the child at age 12 months, and the duration of breastfeeding was recorded. At approximately 7 years of age, 917 (90%) of the children underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. After adjustment for confounders, breastfeeding was associated with only marginally better neuropsychological performance on most tests. These associations were robust even after adjustment for cord-blood and hair mercury concentration at age 1 year. Thus, in this cohort of children with a relatively high prenatal toxicant exposure and potential exposure to neurotoxicants through breast milk, breastfeeding was associated with less benefits on neurobehavioral development than previously published studies though not associated with a deficit in neuropsychological performance at age 7. Although the advantage may be less, Faroese women can still safely breastfeed their children.

  6. Speciation of zinc in low molecular weight proteins of breast milk and infant formulas by size exclusion chromatography/flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, P; Peña, E M; Fompedriña, D; Domínguez, R; Bermejo, A; Cocho, J A; Fernández, J R; Fraga, J M

    2001-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) were used for the separation of metal-containing species in milk whey. After milk ultracentrifugation, the sample was injected into a TSK-Gel G2000 glass column and eluted with 0.2M NH4NO3-NH3, pH 6.7. Low molecular weight proteins were fractionated, and the fractions were characterized by molecular weight. Zinc distributions were obtained by FAAS using a high performance nebulizer. The method was very sensitive (limit of detection = 2.6 x 10(-3) microg/mL; limit of quantitation = 8.9 x 10(-3) microg/mL) and precise (RSDs < or =10%). This method was applied to the determination of Zn in binding compounds in breast milk whey and in commercial cow's milk-based formulas. Distribution patterns were different. The presence of Zn in most fractions in breast milk was most significant, whereas in infant formulas Zn was detected only in fractions of molecular weight <5 kDa and in the highest molecular weight peak.

  7. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    PubMed

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding.

  8. Absence of breast-feeding is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes: a case-control study in a population with rapidly increasing incidence.

    PubMed

    Malcova, Hana; Sumnik, Zdenek; Drevinek, Pavel; Venhacova, Jitrenka; Lebl, Jan; Cinek, Ondrej

    2006-02-01

    There are indications that the effect of environmental factors on the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing over time. This can be documented by the rapid increase of T1DM incidence in genetically stable populations. Our aim was to study an association of T1DM with the variable factors of the perinatal period and of early infancy, using data from children born over a period of changing exposure to some of the studied factors. A case-control dataset was analysed, consisting of 868 diabetic children and 1,466 anonymous controls, mostly schoolmates of the children with T1DM. The data were collected using structured questionnaires completed by parents. After performing univariate analyses, the associations were analysed using multiple logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders, including the year of birth. The risk of T1DM decreased with increasing duration of breast-feeding, while no breast-feeding was associated with an increased T1DM risk, OR=1.93 [95% CI: 1.33-2.80], breast-feeding for more than 12 months was protective, OR=0.42 [95% CI: 0.22-0.81], both being relative to the reference category of breast-feeding for 1-3 months. A short duration of day-care attendance (none or less than 1 year) was weakly associated with the risk of T1DM, OR=1.65 [95% CI: 1.05-2.62]. No association was detected between T1DM and signs of prenatal infections, perinatal stress factors, birth size and weight, indicators of crowding or the presence of a domestic pet in the household. Short breast-feeding period and short attendance to day care is associated with the risk of T1DM in Czech children.

  9. [Abnormalities in behavior in the oral and cervical area: reassurance breast-feeding. Considerations on sudden infant death].

    PubMed

    Gudin, R G; Khalef, M

    1993-01-01

    The oral zone reflects the relational modalities of the child: the sensorimotor physiological and psychological behaviour is established according to the development of the facial sphere and its aero-digestive crossroads. In the baby, the mandibular equilibrium and position and the dimensions of the lower part of the face essentially depend upon praxic activities, which drive the mandibular and hyoid displacements. During the period of immaturity, the lingual area is brought into movement with each "sucking-swallowing" action that characterises breast-feeding: the mandibulo-hyoid swing is subordinate to the pharyngo-lingual complex. The analysis of this psycho-motor behaviour reveals imperfect and upsetting "mimics" that modify the balance of the jaw and of the hyo-lingual area during swallowing, which is the second phase of the reassurance breast-feed. The lingual ptosis causes congestion of the airways. These lax children, with a receding chin, are deformed by their oral habits. The clinical picture evidences the constitutional hyperlaxity by examining the parental group -the same facial dystrophies, the same habits resulting in various disorders of general or cervical statics. At the level of the temporomandibular joint, the dysfunction is also accompanied by claudication by mandibulo-hyo-lingual tipping. The general and cervical statics of the baby are thus affected in the course of sleep. It is during paradoxical sleep that the baby's head tips on to the thorax, due to the resultant atonia of the neck muscles. The head, insufficiently supported on its cervical pillar accentuates the asphyxial mechanism provoked by the tipping of the lingual area on the epiglottis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A simplified methodology for the community-based assessment of breast-feeding and amenorrhoea in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Danko, R. A.; Selwyn, B. J.; Zamora-Romero, R.; Chavez-Ordoñez, X. P.

    1990-01-01

    Reported is the use of a simplified methodology for carrying out a community-based epidemiological assessment that is compatible with the goals of primary health care research. For this purpose, a current-status life table analysis of data from 1131 women who were served by community health workers in the State of México was used to determine the distributions of the duration of postpartum breast-feeding, amenorrhoea, and contraceptive use. The field methods used incorporated quality assurance procedures. At 1 month postpartum, 78% of the infants were still being breast-fed, at 5 months 50%, and at 12 months 25%. The level of amenorrhoea at 1 month postpartum was 85%, at 3 months 50%, and at 5 months 25%. Use of contraceptives was initiated at an early stage, with 42% of all users beginning during the first month postpartum. The simplified method described permitted the area's primary health care administrators to carry out research projects for programme development rapidly and was compatible with the locally available resources. PMID:2364480

  11. A simplified methodology for the community-based assessment of breast-feeding and amenorrhoea in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Danko, R A; Selwyn, B J; Zamora-Romero, R; Chavez-Ordoñez, X P

    1990-01-01

    Reported is the use of a simplified methodology for carrying out a community-based epidemiological assessment that is compatible with the goals of primary health care research. For this purpose, a current-status life table analysis of data from 1131 women who were served by community health workers in the State of México was used to determine the distributions of the duration of postpartum breast-feeding, amenorrhoea, and contraceptive use. The field methods used incorporated quality assurance procedures. At 1 month postpartum, 78% of the infants were still being breast-fed, at 5 months 50%, and at 12 months 25%. The level of amenorrhoea at 1 month postpartum was 85%, at 3 months 50%, and at 5 months 25%. Use of contraceptives was initiated at an early stage, with 42% of all users beginning during the first month postpartum. The simplified method described permitted the area's primary health care administrators to carry out research projects for programme development rapidly and was compatible with the locally available resources.

  12. Factors determining the suspension of breast-feeding in an urban population group.

    PubMed

    Avila, H; Arroyo, P; García, D; Huerta, F; Díaz, R; Casanueva, E

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study of breastfeeding patterns in a socioeconomically homogeneous sample of 2520 mothers visiting Mexican outpatient clinics was conducted. During May and June 1975, mothers attending the outpatient departments of 4 clinics of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) were interviewed. The mothers ranged in age from 15 to 48 years. In 56.1% of the cases, the child's father was a laborer; in 19.5% he performed domestic services activities; and in 15.9% he held a commercial or administrative position. 22.5% of the mothers did renumerative work. To analyze factors relating to the suspension of breastfeeding, the mothers who had practiced breastfeeding (i.e., had practiced it for a month or more) were divided into 2 groups: those who had fed their infants from the breast for 1-3 months, and those who had continued to do so for 4 months or more. In 1061 cases (42.7% of the total), the mothers cited a lack or insufficiency of milk; 1/2 the mothers citing this cause breastfed their infants but did so for only 1-3 months. Other common reasons given for early suspension of breastfeeding were that the child failed to accept the breast or hurt it, breast infection or maternal illness, sickness of the child, and job problems. Mothers who did not practice breastfeeding often cited absent or insufficient milk, growth of the child, rejection of the breast, or another pregnancy as their reasons. Powdered milk was used in 1868 cases and was particularly favored when breastfeeding was not practiced or was practiced for 3 months or less. In 662 cases some kind of substitute milk was introduced before breastfeeding ended.

  13. [The relation between maternal breast feeding and non-nutritive sucking habits].

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Rocha, Najara Barbosa; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Saliba, Orlando

    2011-05-01

    This study sought to identify the type and duration of breastfeeding received by children and establish the association with non-nutritive suction habits. A retrospective, transversal study was conducted using a questionnaire given to 330 mothers or persons responsible for 3 to 6-year-old children registered in kindergartens in Araçatuba, State of São Paulo, after obtaining their free and informed consent. It was revealed that 86.4% of mothers breastfed their children. With respect to duration, only 33.4% of these mothers breastfed exclusively after 6 months. The average time of exclusive breastfeeding received by children was 3.84 months and complementary breastfeeding was 11.68 months. Of this total, 53.3% reported that their infants manifested non-nutritive suction habits and of these children, 70.45% were not exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, there being a significant association between both (p<=0.05). Pacifier use was the most frequent habit (44.4%), showing a statistically significant association with breastfeeding time (p<0.0001). It was concluded that breastfeeding was practiced, albeit for a lesser duration than considered indispensable for the baby's development, there being an association between duration and type of breastfeeding and non-nutritive suction habits.

  14. Predominant breast-feeding from birth to six months is associated with fewer gastrointestinal infections and increased risk for iron deficiency among infants.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Frongillo, Edward A; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Casey, Linda M; Willows, Noreen D

    2008-08-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is prevalent among infants world-wide and may be more likely among infants born to women living in disadvantaged environments. A strategy to address ID in this context is to feed iron-fortified formula, but this may create risk for gastrointestinal (GI) infection. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between infant feeding practices, iron status, and likelihood of a GI infection in the first 6 mo of life. We conducted a prospective study at a public hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico. Healthy women who gave birth to a healthy term infant were eligible to participate. Each month, mothers (n = 154) provided information on infant feeding methods and symptoms of GI infection. At 6 mo of age, infants' iron status was assessed [hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin concentration]. When compared with nonpredominantly breast-fed [partially breast-feeding (PBF) and formula feeding (FF) combined], predominantly breast-fed (PRBF) infants to 6 mo had a lower incidence of GI infection from 0-6 mo [18 vs. 33%; P = 0.04; adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2, 1.0] but a higher risk for ID (serum ferritin < 12 microg/L) at 6 mo (22 vs. 4%; P = 0.001; adjusted OR = 9.2; 95% CI = 2.3, 37.0). Anemia (Hb < 110 g/L) prevalence did not differ among feeding groups (13% for PRBF, 19% for PBF, and 4% for FF; P = 0.09). In this low-income population, our results suggest that PRBF should be promoted and the risk for ID managed using public health and nutrition strategies.

  15. Early neonatal feeding is common and associated with subsequent breastfeeding behavior in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Maria E; Labrique, Alain B; Mehra, Sucheta; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu A; Klemm, Rolf D W; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2013-07-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding of newborns, a practice recommended by WHO, is hindered in many countries by practices such as prelacteal feeding (feeding other foods before breast milk is fed to infants). This paper describes maternal and infant characteristics and trends over time associated with early neonatal feeding (ENF) in Bangladesh. The analysis used data from 24,992 participants in a randomized controlled trial supplementing vitamin A and β-carotene to women in northwestern rural Bangladesh. A majority of newborns (89.2%) were fed substances other than breast milk in the first 3 d of life. Early neonatal feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with lower maternal education, higher gravidity, lower socioeconomic status, and younger maternal age. A perceived inability to suckle normally after birth was closely related to the risk of an infant being fed a food other than breast milk in the first 3 d of life [OR = 0.09 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.11)]. Only 18.8% of newborns fed an early neonatal food were exclusively breastfed between 3 d and 3 mo postpartum compared with 70.6% of those not fed an early neonatal food during this period (P < 0.05). Early neonatal feeding practices should be addressed when scaling-up exclusive breastfeeding in South Asia. Maternal education, antenatal care, and support during labor and delivery may help reduce ENF and promote exclusive breastfeeding.

  16. Effect of genotype, gender and feed restriction on growth, meat quality and the occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trocino, A; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Radaelli, G; Bertotto, D; Filiou, E; Petracci, M; Xiccato, G

    2015-12-01

    Due to their importance for the control of meat quality in broiler chickens, the present study aimed at identifying the factors associated with the occurrence of myopathies and characterizing the meat properties when affected by myopathies. To this aim, a total of 768 broiler chickens were reared until slaughter (46 d) to evaluate the effect of genotype, gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate, 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) on performance and meat quality. Standard broilers were heavier (3,270 vs. 3,139 g; P<0.001) and showed lower feed conversion (1.56 vs. 1.61; P<0.001) than the high-yield broilers. Males showed higher final live weight (3,492 vs. 2,845 g) and lower feed conversion (1.54 vs. 1.63) than females (P<0.001). Feed restriction decreased final live weight (3,194 vs. 3,142 g; P<0.01) and feed conversion (1.60 vs. 1.57; P<0.01) compared to ad libitum feeding. At gross examination, feed restriction tended to increase white-striped breasts (69.5 vs. 79.5%; P<0.10), whereas females showed less wooden breasts than males (8.0 vs. 16.3%; P<0.05). White-striped fillets had higher pHu (5.87 vs. 5.83), and lower a* (-0.81 vs. -0.59) and b* color indexes (13.7 vs. 14.5) (P<0.05), whereas wooden breast fillets exhibited higher cooking losses (25.6 vs. 22.1%) and AK-shear force (4.23 vs. 2.84 kg/g) compared with normal fillets (P<0.001). At histological examination, 3.1% of pectoralis major were normal, 26.6% mildly degenerated, 45.3% moderately degenerated, and 25.0% severely degenerated. In conclusion, genotype had a moderate effect on growth without modifying myopathy occurrence. In contrast, gender and feed restriction affected performance, meat quality, and breast abnormalities.

  17. A case series of 104 women infected with HIV-1 via blood transfusion postnatally: high rate of HIV-1 transmission to infants through breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ke; Gui, Xien; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Zhuang, Ke; Meyers, Kathrine; Ho, David D

    2009-09-01

    We investigated transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) via breast-feeding by 104 Chinese mothers who acquired the infection through blood transfusion postnatally. Of 106 children, 38 (35.8%) were infected. All children survived to age 5 years, and their survival curve was similar to that of their mothers. These findings suggest a high rate of HIV-1 transmission via breast-feeding when mothers were infected postnatally via blood transfusion, perhaps because of the higher viremia expected during the acute phase of infection. The course of disease among infected children was significantly less rapid than that among newborns infected perinatally, suggesting that a brief window of HIV-1-free life often enables the immune system of an infant to stave off rapid disease progression.

  18. [Anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases during pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Persić, Mladen

    2013-04-01

    Since the early occurrence of inflammatory bowel diseases in young people, the role of pregnancy on disease course, and the influence of different therapies on pregnancy, fetal development and the safety of breastfeeding have been one of the important questions. Biological therapy has been increasingly used and all the above mentioned questions seem to be of a great interest. The majority of research indicate that the possibility of conception in patients with IBD are the same as in a healthy population, although there is an increased risk for the child in terms of prematurity or low birth weight. Pregnancy in IBD patient should be considered as a high risk. Most medications used to achieve or maintain remission are safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding. Exceptions are thalidomide and methotrexate that are absolutely contraindicated. Anti-TNF drugs are safe but it is advised to stop the treatment after 30-32 weeks of pregnancy due to the possibility of placental transfer of medications. Infliximab is excreted into breast milk in small quantities and breastfeeding is assumed to be safe. Pregnancy in IBD patients should be planned in advance so that the medications that are contraindicated could be excluded on time and further possible complication could be prevented by constant monitoring of pregnancy. Prospective studies of monitoring throughout pregnancy and short-term and long-term forecasts of development of children whose mothers were pregnant when suffered from inflammatory bowel disease are necessary.

  19. Selenium concentration in the milk of breast-feeding mothers and its geographic distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, B A; Pilecki, A

    2000-01-01

    A total of 905 human milk samples collected in all provinces of Poland, between 12 and 75 days of lactation, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The distribution of Se levels in milk between the provinces was narrow and varied from 8.81 to 11.58 ng/mL, with the mean value (+/- SD) of 10.24 +/- 2.82 ng/mL. The regions with lower levels of Se were in the central and eastern part of Poland; the areas with higher values were in the northern, western, and southern parts of Poland. No significant correlations were found between Se levels in milk and the age of lactating mothers or between Se levels and the postpartum period. The calculated daily Se intakes by breast-fed infants varied from 6.46 to 8.50 microg/day, with the mean value of 7.52 microg/day. This amount does not meet the recommended dietary allowances for infants between 0 and 6 months of age. Based on Se levels in human milk, we present a selenium map of Poland. PMID:11102294

  20. [Breast feeding in Puerto Rico: traditional patterns, national trends and future strategies].

    PubMed

    Parrilla Rodríguez, A M; Gorrín Peralta, J J

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rican society has gone through profound transformations during the past 50 years. Industrialization and the incorporation of women into the labor force have been accompanied by medicalization of the reproductive process and a progressive reduction in the prevalence of breastfeeding as the cultural norm for nutrition of infants. The data base for 1990 places Puerto Rico significantly below Latin America and the United States in the percentage of breastfed infants. The authors report their experience in the promotion of breastfeeding during the last 5 years. The principal negative factors which hinder the beginning and maintenance of successful breastfeeding are of a social nature. The orientation of physicians towards technology underrates the benefits of breastfeeding. The marketing strategies of the corporations which manufacture artificial milk continuously violate the International Code for Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and disfigure the community's perception on the benefits of breastfeeding. The lack of social and legal support for the breastfeeding working mother frequently prevents her from carrying out successful breastfeeding for the recommended period of time. Strategies are presented for the overturn of the existent barriers which have reduced breastfeeding in Puerto Rico to the present precarious levels.

  1. Hypernatremia in the Neonate: Neonatal Hypernatremia and Hypernatremic Dehydration in Neonates Receiving Exclusive Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Mujawar, Nilofer Salim; Jaiswal, Archana Nirmal

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of neonatal hypernatremia and hypernatremic dehydration in neonates receiving exclusive breastfeeding. Introduction: Neonatal hypernatremia is a serious condition in the newborn period. We present infants with hypernatremic dehydration due to breast milk (BM) hypernatremia. Hypernatremic dehydration in breast-fed newborns is usually secondary to insufficient lactation. We present the neonatal hypernatremia and hypernatremic dehydration encountered between January and December, 2012, its causes and treatment. Methodology: This was a retrospective study. We analyzed records of babies admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit who were investigated and found to have hypernatremia and whose mother's BM sodium (BM Na) was done. Inclusion Criteria: (1) Babies with serum Na >145 meq/l, (2) euglycemia, (3) normocalcemic, (4) no clinical and lab evidence of sepsis, (5) exclusive breast feeds. Exclusion Criteria: Neonates not satisfying any mentioned criterion. Results: BM Na correlated strongly with neonatal hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed babies who did not otherwise have any risk factor. Conclusion: Elevated BM Na is an important etiological factor in neonatal hypernatremia. PMID:28197048

  2. Biophysiologic and Social Stress Relationships with Breast Milk Feeding Pre and Post Discharge from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Isabell B.; Singh, Namrata; Le, Cindy; Bell, Cynthia; Whiteside, Christy; Collins, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine influences on incidence of breast milk feeding (BMF) at time of discharge and 6 months later among infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Design A 2-year prospective descriptive NICU hospital-based cohort design. Setting Academic Center Level III–IV NICU. Participants Five hundred and thirty-five infants cared for in NICU and a subgroup of one hundred twenty-nine participant mothers who answered questionnaires. Methods Pre-discharge data were collected using maternal and infant medical records. Post discharge data were collected from maternal questionnaires. Results At NICU discharge, biophysiologic stressors predictive of not receiving BMF included birth weight < 1500 grams (p<0.035), heart surgery (p= 0.014), and inhaled nitric oxide treatment (p=.002). Teenage mothers were less likely to BMF (p= 0.022). After discharge, BMF duration correlated with BMF duration of a prior infant (p<0.009). Most mothers reported BMF > 4 months, 91% continued pumping, and 89% indicated an interest in a hospital support group. Logistic regression analysis (R2 0.45) identified factors that significantly increased the likelihood of BMF > 4 months: BMF plan (p<0.001), convenience (p=0.018), and family as resource (p=0.025). Negative associations were: awareness of immune benefits (p=0.025), return to work (p=0.002), and infants requiring surgical ligation of the patent ductus arterious (p=0.019). Conclusions Social and medical stressors contribute to BMF duration pre and post NICU discharge. We speculate that active NICU BMF support targeting vulnerable infants and their families and assisting with plans for BMF pre and post discharge will help overcome barriers. PMID:22834882

  3. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA) on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%), T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%)/kg feed). After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14%) and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04%) accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat) and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat). Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products. PMID:22640892

  4. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=<0.00). Foremilk insulin correlated with maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  5. The FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised, controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; Maclennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of implementing a dedicated feeding support team on a postnatal ward and pilot the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of team (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after discharge. Design Randomised controlled trial embedded within a before-and-after study. Participatory approach and mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women living in disadvantaged areas initiating breast feeding. Methods Eligible women were recruited to a before-and-after intervention study, a proportion of whom were independently randomised after hospital discharge to intervention: daily proactive and reactive telephone calls for ≤14 days or control: reactive telephone calls ≤ day 14. Intention-to-treat analysis compared the randomised groups on cases with complete outcomes at follow-up. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: any breast feeding at 6–8 weeks assessed by a telephone call from a researcher blind to group allocation. Secondary outcomes: exclusive breast feeding, satisfaction with care, NHS costs and cost per additional woman breast feeding. Results There was no difference in feeding outcomes for women initiating breast feeding before the intervention (n=413) and after (n=388). 69 women were randomised to telephone support: 35 intervention (32 complete cases) and 34 control (26 complete cases). 22 intervention women compared with 12 control women were giving their baby some breast milk (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.40) and 17 intervention women compared with eight control women were exclusively breast feeding (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.37) at 6–8 weeks after birth. The incremental cost of providing proactive calls was £87 per additional woman breast feeding and £91 per additional woman exclusively breast feeding at 6–8 weeks; costs were sensitive to service organisation. Conclusions Proactive telephone care delivered by a dedicated feeding team shows

  6. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Crystal L; Turab, Ali; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bose, Anuradha; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-05-01

    We report the infant feeding experiences in the first month of life for 2,053 infants participating in "Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development" (MAL-ED). Eight sites (in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania), each followed a cohort of children from birth (by day 17), collecting detailed information on infant feeding practices, diet and illness episodes. Mothers were queried twice weekly regarding health status, breastfeeding and the introduction (or no) of non-breast milk liquids and foods. Here, our goal is to describe the early infant feeding practices in the cohort and evaluate factors associated with termination of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. With data from enrollment to a visit at 28-33 days of life, we characterized exclusive, predominant or partial breastfeeding (using a median of 6-9 visits per child across the sites). Only 6 of 2,053 infants were never breastfed. By one month, the prevalences of exclusive breastfeeding were < 60% in 6 of 8 sites, and of partial breastfeeding (or no) were > 20% in 6 of 8 sites. Logistic regression revealed that prelacteal feeding (given to 4-63% of infants) increased the likelihood of partial breastfeeding (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.10), as did the withholding of colostrum (2-16% of infants) (OR: 1.63:1.01, 2.62), and being a first-time mother (OR: 1.38:1.10, 1.75). Our results reveal diversity across these sites, but an overall trend of early transition away from exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. Interventions which introduce or reinforce the WHO/UNICEF Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding are needed in these sites to improve breastfeeding initiation, to reinforce exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of non-breast milk foods and/or liquids.

  7. Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.

    PubMed

    García, G R; Dogi, C A; Ashworth, G E; Berardo, D; Godoy, G; Cavaglieri, L R; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so

  8. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    PubMed

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  9. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  10. Enhanced immunogenicity of an oral inactivated cholera vaccine in infants in Bangladesh obtained by zinc supplementation and by temporary withholding breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Al Tarique, Abdullah; Sultana, Gazi N N; Qadri, Firdausi

    2009-02-25

    The killed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral is recommended for adults and only children over 2 years of age, although cholera is seen frequently in younger children and there is an urgent need for a vaccine for them. Since decreased immunogenicity of oral vaccines in children in developing countries is a critical problem, we tested interventions to enhance responses to Dukoral. We evaluated the effect on the immune responses by temporarily withholding breast-feeding or by giving zinc supplementation. Two doses of Dukoral consisting of killed cholera vibrios and cholera B subunit were given to 6-18 months old Bangladeshi children (n=340) and safety and immunogenicity studied. Our results showed that two doses of the vaccine were safe and induced antibacterial (vibriocidal) antibody responses in 57% and antitoxin responses in 85% of the children. Immune responses were comparable after intake of one and two doses. Temporary withholding breast-feeding for 3 h before immunization or supplementation with 20 mg of zinc per day for 42 days resulted in increased magnitude of vibriocidal antibodies (77% and 79% responders, respectively). Administration of vaccines without buffer or in water did not result in reduction of vibriocidal responses. This study demonstrates that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic in children under 2 years of age and that simple interventions can enhance immune responses in young children.

  11. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay

    2016-01-01

    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P < 0.001). Over 1800 proteins were identified, of which 152 were different (P < 0.05) by at least 1.3 fold and ≤ 15 fold between the high and low FE phenotypes. Data were analyzed for a modified differential expression (DE) metric (Phenotypic Impact Factors or PIF) and interpretation of protein expression data facilitated using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P < 0.00001). Within the top up and down 5% PIF molecules in the dataset, there were 15 mitoproteome proteins up-regulated and only 5 down-regulated in the high FE phenotype. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation as the number 1 and 5 differentially expressed canonical pathways (up-regulated in high FE) in the proteomic dataset. Upstream analysis (based on DE of downstream molecules) predicted that insulin receptor, insulin like growth receptor 1, nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2, AMP activated protein kinase (α subunit), progesterone and triiodothyronine would be activated in the high FE phenotype whereas rapamycin independent companion of target of rapamycin, mitogen activated

  12. In which regions is breast-feeding safer from the impact of toxic elements from the environment?

    PubMed

    Cinar, Nursan; Ozdemir, Sami; Yucel, Oya; Ucar, Fatma

    2011-11-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, breast milk is the most important food source for infants. But, children are at greater risk for exposure to environmental toxicants from breast milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental pollution on essential and toxic element contents of breast milk and determine the risky locations in our population. This study was conducted on women who were breastfeeding (n=90). Milk samples were collected at three locations in Marmara region, Turkey: highly industrialized region highly affected by pollution, urbanized region moderately and rural area that is affected little. Breast milk samples (5 mL) were collected at approximately one month postpartum (mature milk). The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in milk samples were compared to the milk samples coming from different locations.Lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, iron and manganese levels in the breast milk are highest and engrossing especially in rural areas compared to the other regions but cobalt, copper, zinc levels are highest in highly industrial areas. The levels of essential and toxic elements in breast milk can vary in different regions. The levels presented in our study are above some countries' data albeit not at toxic levels. Because of global effects, environmental pollution is not the problem for industrializing regions only. Rural area also may not be safe for breastfeed babies.

  13. Establishing cross-discipline consensus on contraception, pregnancy and breast feeding-related educational messages and clinical practices to support women with rheumatoid arthritis: an Australian Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne E; Ackerman, Ilana N; Van Doornum, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recognising the need for a best-practice and consistent approach in providing care to women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to (1) general health, (2) contraception, (3) conception and pregnancy, (4) breast feeding and (5) early parenting, we sought to achieve cross-discipline, clinical consensus on key messages and clinical practice behaviours in these 5 areas. Design 3-round eDelphi study. In round 1, panellists provided free-text responses to open-ended questions about care for women with RA across the 5 areas. Subsequently, panellists refined and scored the synthesised responses, presented as metathemes, themes and detailed elements. Where ≥5% of panellists did not support a theme in a given round, it was removed. Setting Panel of practicing Australian rheumatologists (n=22), obstetricians/obstetric medicine physicians (n=9) and pharmacists (n=5). Results 34 (94.4%) panellists participated in all 3 rounds. The panel supported 18 themes across the 5 areas (support/strongly support: 88.2–100%) underpinned by 5 metathemes. Metathemes focused on coordination in information delivery, the mode and timing of information delivery, evidence underpinning information, engagement of the right health professionals at the right time and a non-judgemental approach to infant feeding. Themes included practices for primary prevention of chronic disease and their sequelae, the importance of contraception and planning pregnancy and breast feeding, close monitoring of medications, supporting mental well-being, managing disease activity and providing practical support for early parenting. Conclusions A cross-disciplinary clinical panel highly supported key information and clinical practices in the care for women with RA across the continuum of contraception to early parenting within a whole-person, chronic disease management approach. PMID:27633637

  14. Feeding practices and nutritional status of infants in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Kimambo, Stella C; Lwelamira, James E

    2013-07-01

    Breast feeding practice especially exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is a major determinant of child growth and development. In Tanzania, most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternative feeding too early in life. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting EBF and the relationship between feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants. This cross-sectional survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The study involved lactating women recruited from five randomly selected health facilities. Demographic, clinical, knowledge and practices related to infant feeding as well as infant anthropometric information were collected. Infant nutritional status was assessed based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight- for- height. There were wide variations in knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among women. Majority (92%) of the respondents gave colostrums to infants although more than 50% did not know its benefits. Eight percent of the respondents discarded colostrums on the account that it is not good for their neonates. Only 23.1% of the respondents thought that infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first six months of infancy. Ninety-eight percent of infants < 1 month of age received breast milk only, compared with 28.5% of infants aged 2-3 months and 22.3% among those who were above 3 months of age. No child in the ≥ 4 months old was exclusively breastfed. Over 80% of the infants had normal weights, 13% were stunted and 8% wasted. EBF was associated with higher scores for height- for- age Z (P < 0.05) and weight- for- height Z (P < 0.01). Age, education level and occupation of respondents were important predictors of EBF. Overall, breast feeding practices in the study population were largely suboptimal. As a result, considerable proportions of children had poor health indicators. Thus, correct breastfeeding practices should be

  15. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  16. Use of an intensity ratio to describe breastfeeding exclusivity in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Piper, S; Parks, P L

    2001-08-01

    Breastfeeding behavior in a sample of 1863 mother-infant pairs was examined using data from the 1988 National Maternal-Infant Health Survey. Breastfeeding behavior was operationalized as an intensity ratio, calculated as the number of breast milk feeds (on average in 24 hours) divided by the total number of all liquid feeds (on average in 24 hours), with a range from 0 to 1.0. During the first month postpartum, 61% of the sample reported exclusive breastfeeding, declining to 31% during months 2-3 postpartum and to 13% during months 4-6 postpartum. This decline was consistent with the linear decline in the mean intensity ratio, .82, .55, and .31, respectively, during the same three time periods. A higher breastfeeding intensity ratio was significantly associated with longer duration of breastfeeding, up to 1 year of life. Intensity ratio, as a measure of exclusivity, is a useful outcome measure for monitoring breastfeeding behavior.

  17. Universal antiretroviral therapy for pregnant and breast-feeding HIV-1-infected women: towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier K; Arrive, Elise; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Meda, Nicolas; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Valériane; Rouzioux, Christine; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François

    2009-12-15

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a challenge in most resource-limited settings, particularly in Africa. Single-dose and short-course antiretroviral (ARV) regimens are only partially effective and have failed to achieve wide coverage despite their apparent simplicity. More potent ARV combinations are restricted to pregnant women who need treatment for themselves and are also infrequently used. Furthermore, postnatal transmission via breast-feeding is a serious additional threat. Modifications of infant feeding practices aim to reduce HIV-1 transmission through breast milk; replacement feeding is neither affordable nor safe for the majority of African women, and early breast-feeding cessation (eg, prior to 6 months of life) requires substantial care and nutritional counseling to be practiced safely. The recent roll out of ARV treatment has changed the paradigm of prevention of MTCT. To date, postnatal ARV interventions that have been evaluated target either maternal ARV treatment to selected breast-feeding women, with good efficacy, or single-drug postexposure prophylaxis for short periods of time to their neonates, with a partial efficacy and at the expense of acquisition of drug-related viral resistance. We hypothesize that a viable solution to eliminate pediatric AIDS lies in the universal provision of fully suppressive ARV regimens to all HIV-1-infected women through pregnancy, delivery, and the entire breast-feeding period. On the basis of available evidence, we suggest translating into practice the recently available evidence on this matter without any further delay.

  18. Bottle feeding and ideology in colonial Malaya: the production of change.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L

    1982-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the correlation between high infant morbidity and mortality rates and the increased incidence of bottle feeding. The shift from prolonged breast feeding to a mixed regime or the exclusive use of sweetened condensed milk or infant formula has been related to the promotional activities of milk companies, and typically has been presented as a relatively recent development in Third World countries. However, the marketing of tinned and powdered milk only partially explains the increased use of these products. In colonial Malaya, condensed milk was marketed from the late 19th century. Infant formula was available from the turn of the century and was widely advertised, first in the English-language press and later also in the vernacular presses. At the same time, other social and cultural factors served to discourage breast feeding. There were changes in ideas regarding ideal body weight for both women and infants, and regarding infant care and diet; these ideas were presented in the mass media. In addition, maternal and child health clinics, established in the 1920s to reduce the high infant mortality rate, both propagated popular beliefs about infant weight and supplied milk and educated women to artificially feed their infants. Industry, the media, and health services all promoted, if not always intentionally, bottle feeding rather than breast feeding. Bottle feeding as an ideal, if not a reality, was thus well established before the intensive promotion of milk products by multinational corporations that followed the political independence of the colony.

  19. Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Deborah L; Graff, Kristina M

    2008-07-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant's life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants' nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (approximately 85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (approximately 25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

  20. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbilirubinemia - breastfeeding; Breast-non-feeding jaundice; Breastfeeding failure jaundice ... of jaundice that is caused by too little breastfeeding by making sure your baby is getting enough ...

  1. Obesity related programming statements in materials on infant feeding aimed at parents in five European countries.

    PubMed

    von Rosen-von Hoewel, Julia; Laitinen, Kirsi; Martin-Bautista, Elena; Campoy, Cristina; Jakobik, Viktoria; Decsi, Tamás; Schmid, Martina A; Morgan, Jane; Gage, Heather; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Early nutrition programming as an origin of obesity is well acknowledged, but to what extent is this concept communicated to parents? In five European countries, UK, Finland (FI), Germany (DE), Hungary (HU) and Spain (ES), a total of 130 stand alone leaflets and 161 articles from parenting magazines providing information on feeding of healthy infants aged 0-12 months were identified and screened for nutrition programming statements. Obesity was mentioned in 8.5% (54/638) of the statements, and was the fourth most frequent outcome after allergy (20.7%), risk of infections (15.5%) and growth and development (11.4%). A temporal prognosis was given in 39% of obesity related statements, 6% referring to short- (< 5 years), 13% to medium- (5-15 years) and 20% to long-term (>15 years) duration of effects. So advice on obesity focuses on the intrinsic long-term perspective of programming in contrary to other surveyed health-outcomes where only 8- considered a lifelong approach. The major programming related behaviour concerned breast-feeding compared to formula and complementary feeding with meaningful differences concerning the recommended duration: for ES and HU the predominant advice was for exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months, for DE exclusive breast-feeding for 4-6 months and for UK and FI breast-feeding without further specification. In summary, statements relating to the programming of later obesity have been partially integrated into feeding information in five European countries. These countries have slightly different breastfeeding recommendations, but consistently refer to the preventive potential of breastfeeding in general. This is important as obesity and its resulting morbidity are of increasing public health concern in developed countries.

  2. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes.

  3. Body composition of infants fed breast-milk, milk-based formula or soy-based formula during the first 6 months of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Literature on the impact of infant feeding on body composition is sparse and inconclusive. We assessed body composition in infants exclusively fed breast-milk (BF), milk-based formula (MF) or soy-based formula (SF) for at least the first 4 months of life. Participants are part of the on-going prosp...

  4. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a method to predict chemical composition of breast meat and discriminate between different n-3 feeding sources.

    PubMed

    Berzaghi, P; Dalle Zotte, A; Jansson, L M; Andrighetto, I

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool to predict the physicochemical composition of breast meat samples of laying hens fed 4 different diets, a control and 3 diets enriched with different sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: marine origin, extruded linseed, and ground linseed. Furthermore, NIRS was used as a tool to classify meat samples according to feeding regimen. Samples were analyzed chemically for DM, ash, protein, lipids, and fatty acid profile. Absorption spectra were collected in diffuse reflectance mode between 1,100 and 2,498 nm every 2 nm. The calibration results for the 72 meat samples were accurate in predicting DM, protein, lipids, and major fatty acids. Poor results were obtained for the calibration equations for ash, pH, color, and lipid oxidation parameters. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was developed to differentiate the breast meat samples that originated from hens fed the different diets. The performance of the discriminant models showed 100% correct classification between the control and the enriched diets. It was concluded that NIRS could be used for quality control predicting chemical composition of poultry meat and possibly some dietary treatments applied to the chickens.

  5. Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longitudinal birth cohort study and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken K L; Preece, Michael A; Emmett, Pauline M; Ahmed, Marion L; Dunger, David B

    2002-12-01

    There is remarkably wide variation in rates of infancy growth, however, its regulation is not well understood. We examined the relationship between maternal smoking, parity, and breast- or bottle-feeding to size at birth and childhood growth between 0 and 5 y in a large representative birth cohort. A total of 1,335 normal infants had weight, length/height, and head circumference measured at birth and on up to 10 occasions to 5 y old. Multilevel modeling (MLwiN) was used to analyze longitudinal growth data. Infants of maternal smokers were symmetrically small at birth (p < 0.0005) compared with infants of nonsmokers, however, showed complete catch-up growth over the first 12 mo. In contrast, infants of primiparous pregnancies were thin at birth (p < 0.0005), showed dramatic catch-up growth, and were heavier and taller than infants of nonprimiparous pregnancies from 12 mo onwards. Breast-fed infants were similar in size at birth than bottle-fed infants, but grew more slowly during infancy. Among infants who showed catch-up growth, males caught up more rapidly than females (p = 0.002). In conclusion, early postnatal growth rates are strongly influenced by a drive to compensate for antenatal restraint or enhancement of fetal growth by maternal-uterine factors. The mechanisms that signal catch-up or catch-down growth are unknown but may involve programming of appetite. The importance of nutrition on early childhood growth is emphasized by the marked difference in growth rates between breast- and bottle-fed infants. The sequence of fetal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may predispose to obesity risk in this contemporary population.

  6. Life-threatening hypernatremic dehydration in a 7-week-old exclusively breastfed infant as a cause of a decline in breastmilk volume and parental language barriers in a North African family.

    PubMed

    Boensch, M; Oberthuer, A; Eifinger, F; Roth, B

    2011-01-01

    Breast-feeding is regarded as the most appropriate source of nutrition for healthy, full-term newborns and infants. Here, we present the case of a full-term, seven week old male infant who was exclusively breast-fed but who developed severe hypernatremic dehydration as a result of declined breast milk volume that was not recognized by the parents. In order to prevent serious therapy-associated side effects due to rapid rehydration, we performed a rehydration regime providing a slow decrease of serum sodium levels by carefully infusing hypertonic saline solution. Following this approach, the patient could be discharged without any noticeable disorder. As the incidence of breast-feeding associated hypernatremic dehydration in the developed countries is increasing, strategies of prevention are discussed.

  7. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  8. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  9. Impact of coccidiosis control program and feeding plan on white striping prevalence and severity degree on broiler breast fillets evaluated at three growing ages.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, A; Tasoniero, G; Russo, E; Longoni, C; Cecchinato, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of 2 coccidiosis control systems (vaccine vs anticoccidial) and 2 feeding plans (standard energy vs low energy content, the latter supplemented with threonine and enzymes in the second half of the production cycle) on white striping (WS) prevalence and severity in chicken broiler breasts at commercial slaughter age (51 d). The age of lesion onset was also investigated with the sacrifice of 80 chicks at 12, and 80 chicks at 25 d of age. Seven hundred and twenty ROSS 708 strain male chicks were divided into 4 groups: a non-vaccinated group fed with standard diet (CONTROL); two groups vaccinated against coccidiosis but fed either a standard diet (VACC) or a low-energy diet supplemented with threonine and enzymes (VACC-LE plus); and a fourth group fed a standard diet containing anticoccidial additive except during the finishing period (COX). After live performance, yields, and fillet pH were measured, the breasts were weighed and scored as level 0 (no WS), level 1 (moderate WS), and level 2 (severe WS) at each of the 3 ages; data were covariate for slaughter weight. The results suggest an ameliorative effect of coccidiosis control systems when compared to the control group in terms of live weight, breast yield, and whole breast weight, with heavier fillets characterized by higher pH values. WS appeared at 25 d of age with an average prevalence of 11.5% and with lesions of moderate severity. There were no statistically significant differences due to the experimental treatment at this age. At commercial slaughter age, total average prevalence was 96%, with COX birds showing higher level 2 prevalence (77.6%). This could be related to the higher slaughter weight reached by the COX group (P<0.001) and the treatment effect (P<0.01) that probably adds to the effect of live weight. Diet had no effect on overall live performance of VACC-LE plus chickens, which were similar to those of the VACC group.

  10. Development and evaluation of a Chinese-language newborn feeding hotline: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Patricia A; Livingstone, Verity H; Chang, Bruce; Klein, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Background Preference for formula versus breast feeding among women of Chinese descent remains a concern in North America. The goal of this study was to develop an intervention targeting Chinese immigrant mothers to increase their rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods We convened a focus group of immigrant women of Chinese descent in Vancouver, British Columbia to explore preferences for method of infant feeding. We subsequently surveyed 250 women of Chinese descent to validate focus group findings. Using a participatory approach, our focus group participants reviewed survey findings and developed a priority list for attributes of a community-based intervention to support exclusive breastfeeding in the Chinese community. The authors and focus group participants worked as a team to plan, implement and evaluate a Chinese language newborn feeding information telephone service staffed by registered nurses fluent in Chinese languages. Results Participants in the focus group reported a strong preference for formula feeding. Telephone survey results revealed that while pregnant Chinese women understood the benefits of breastfeeding, only 20.8% planned to breastfeed exclusively. Only 15.6% were breastfeeding exclusively at two months postpartum. After implementation of the feeding hotline, 20% of new Chinese mothers in Vancouver indicated that they had used the hotline. Among these women, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 44.1%; OR 3.02, (95% CI 1.78–5.09) compared to women in our survey. Conclusion Initiation of a language-specific newborn feeding telephone hotline reached a previously underserved population and may have contributed to improved rates of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:19178746

  11. Attenuated growth of breast-fed children exposed to increased concentrations of methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Heinzow, Birger; Needham, Larry L; Jørgensen, Poul J; Weihe, Pál

    2003-04-01

    Breast-feeding has been linked to slowed postnatal growth. Although the basis for this "weanling's dilemma" is unclear, environmental contaminants in human milk may be of relevance. We studied a Faroese birth cohort of 182 singleton children, born at term in 1994-95. Concentrations of mercury in cord blood and of polychlorinated biphenyls in maternal milk were measured, and duration of breast-feeding was recorded. At 18 months, children who had been exclusively breast-fed for at least 6 months weighed 0.59 kg less [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03, 1.16 kg] and were 1.50 cm [95% CI = 0.52, 2.47 cm] shorter than those not breast-fed. However, calculated transfer of contaminants from human milk fully explained the attenuated growth. Irrespective of duration of breast-feeding, a doubling of the mercury concentration in cord blood was associated with a decrease in weight at 18 months by 0.19 kg (95% CI = 0.03, 0.35 kg) and in height by 0.26 cm (95% CI = -0.02, 0.55 cm). Weight and height at 42 months showed the same tendencies, but the main effect occurred before 18 months of age. Thus, in communities with increased contaminant exposures, risks associated with lactational transfer of toxicants to the infant must be considered when judging the benefits of prolonged breast-feeding.

  12. Breast or bottle? HIV-positive women's responses to global health policy on infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    Van Hollen, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    This article describes how local responses to global health initiatives on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers reflect and transform sociocultural values in Tamil Nadu, India. Drawing from ethnographic research conducted from 2002 to 2008, the article compares guidelines for counseling HIV-positive mothers established by UNICEF and WHO with decision-making processes and perceptions of HIV-positive mothers. In addition to the financial considerations, three factors are identified as impinging on this decision: (1) a strong sociocultural value in favor of breastfeeding linked to historical traditions and contemporary state and international development discourses, (2) constructions of class identity, (3) the influence of a rights-based discourse in HIV/AIDS advocacy. This wide range of factors points to the difficulty of implementing the international protocols. This is the first study of its kind to closely examine the complex determinants in HIV-positive women's decisions and evaluations of infant feeding methods in India.

  13. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used.

  14. Effects of age at introduction of complementary foods to breast-fed infants on duration of lactational amenorrhea in Honduran women.

    PubMed

    Dewey, K G; Cohen, R J; Rivera, L L; Canahuati, J; Brown, K H

    1997-05-01

    Lactational amenorrhea (LA) is associated with postpartum infertility and is known to be related to breast-feeding frequency and duration, but the exact role of complementary feeding of the infant has not been clearly defined. Data on LA were collected during and after a 2-mo intervention trial in which low-income Honduran women who had breast-fed fully for 4 mo were randomly assigned to one of three groups: continued full breast-feeding until 6 mo (FBF, n = 50), introduction of complementary foods at 4 mo with ad libitum breast-feeding from 4 to 6 mo (SF, n = 47), or introduction of complementary foods at 4 mo with maintenance of baseline breast-feeding frequency from 4 to 6 mo (SF-M, n = 44). Women were followed up until the infant was 12 mo of age, or later if menses had not occurred by then. All but six of the women continued to breast-feed for > or = 12 mo. With the exclusion of those whose menses returned before 18 wk postpartum (which could not have been due to the intervention), the proportion of women who were amenorrheic at 6 mo was 64.5% in the SF group, 80.0% in the FBF group, and 85.7% in the SF-M group (chi-square test = 4.13, P = 0.02; one-tailed test with the latter two groups combined). The total duration of LA did not differ significantly among groups. The most significant determinant of LA was time spent breast-feeding (min/d), which was in turn negatively associated (P = 0.06) with the infant's energy intake from complementary foods in regression analyses. These results indicate that there is a significant effect of introducing foods at 4 mo on the likelihood of amenorrhea at 6 mo postpartum, but not thereafter, and that this effect is not seen in mothers who maintain breast-feeding frequency.

  15. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  16. Infant feeding practices in a poor district of Santo Domingo.

    PubMed

    Mclennan, J D; Spady, D W

    1994-01-01

    During August-December 1989, in the Dominican Republic, local health promoters interviewed 103 primary caretakers and took anthropometric measurements from 103 children aged 3 years and under during home visits in three poor neighborhoods of Los Alcarrizos (Alto de Chavon, Barrio Landia, and Pueblo Nuevo) to examine infant feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had started breast feeding. The median duration of breast feeding was 7.5 months. Almost 33% had quit breast feeding by 3 months. Perception of insufficient milk was the leading reason for early discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. The local pharmacies in all three communities offered powdered milk. About 25% of mothers began using breast milk substitutes within the first week. A non-infant formula milk powder was the most commonly used breast milk substitute. 30% of mothers stored prepared milk for later feeds, as long as half a day. Only 13% of households had a refrigerator. The most frequently used first weaning foods were orange juice, lime juice, and beans. 76% of mothers had used or were currently using baby bottles. 95% of them reported washing the bottle in boiling water. The median age of introducing the baby bottle was 3 days. Only 44% of mother covered prepared food during storage. The most commonly eaten foods among children aged at least 1 year were milk, beans, rice, and citrus fruits. Yet the children did not eat all these foods daily. 18% of 1-2 year olds and 13% of 2-3 year olds did not eat meats and alternatives regularly. 7% of 1-2 year olds and 10% of 2-3 year olds did not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. 4% of 1-2 year olds and 3% of 2-3 year olds did not eat breads and cereals regularly. About 14% of all children were not consuming any milk at the time of the survey. These findings will be used to refine nutrition education programs in the district to make them more effective.

  17. Infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital East Gojam zone, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wakwoya, Elias Bekele; Zewudie, Tatek Abate; Gebresilasie, Kahsay Zenebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dilemma posed between lifesaving benefit and risk of transmission through breast feeding complicates infant feedings among communities grossly affected by HIV/AIDS. According to the world health organization’s guideline which was revised in 2010, exclusive breast feeding and exclusive replacement feeding are the recommended infant feeding practices for HIV positive mothers. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May to September 2013. A Randomly selected 260 HIV positive mothers were included. The data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed to check association and to control confounders. Results From a total of 260 HIV positive mothers, 85.8% of them were feeding their children based on the recommended feeding way of infant feeding practice with the remaining percentage 14.2% were practicing mixed feeding. In multivariate analysis mothers attending high school and above AOR = 5.3 [95% CI = 1.25-22.1], having antenatal care follow up AOR = 5.5 [95% CI = 1.5-20.16], being on anti-retro viral therapy AOR = 6.5 [95% CI = 1.88-22.51] and disclosure of HIV status AOR = 7.1 [95% CI = 1.26-39.76] were found to be independently associated with infant feeding practice. Conclusion This study revealed that large proportion of HIV positive mothers had followed the recommended infant feeding practice and significantly high number of mothers had practiced mixed feeding. Educating mothers, increasing ANC utilization, counseling mothers to start ART, encouraging and supporting mothers to disclose their HIV status were recommended. PMID:28154655

  18. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons Among First-Time African American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Objective The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions for Practice Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation.

  19. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... on genetic information, A has a predisposition towards breast cancer. A was not diagnosed with breast... plan, A is diagnosed with breast cancer. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example, the plan may not impose a preexisting condition exclusion with respect to A's breast cancer because, prior to A's enrollment date, A...

  20. Toward understanding the connections between infant jaundice and infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Alex, Marion; Gallant, Donna Pierrynowski

    2008-12-01

    Parents face a paradox when they are told: Breast is best; bottle-feeding is hazardous to health. But breast-fed babies are more likely to become severely jaundiced than bottle-fed babies, and severe jaundice can lead to brain damage. This article will explore the natural physiology of jaundice with a focus on breast-feeding-associated jaundice, primary prevention of hyperbilirubinemia, and current evidence-based recommendations about feeding jaundice breast-fed infants.

  1. The impact of cosmetic breast implants on breastfeeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cosmetic breast augmentation (breast implants) is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures worldwide and uptake in high income countries has increased in the last two decades. Women need information about all associated outcomes in order to make an informed decision regarding whether to undergo cosmetic breast surgery. We conducted a systematic review to assess breastfeeding outcomes among women with breast implants compared to women without. Methods A systematic literature search of Medline, Pubmed, CINAHL and Embase databases was conducted using the earliest inclusive dates through December 2013. Eligible studies included comparative studies that reported breastfeeding outcomes (any breastfeeding, and among women who breastfed, exclusive breastfeeding) for women with and without breast implants. Pairs of reviewers extracted descriptive data, study quality, and outcomes. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled across studies using the random-effects model. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to critically appraise study quality, and the National Health and Medical Research Council Level of Evidence Scale to rank the level of the evidence. This systematic review has been registered with the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42014009074. Results Three small, observational studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was fair (NOS 4-6) and the level of evidence was low (III-2 - III-3). There was no significant difference in attempted breastfeeding (one study, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.76, 1.17). However, among women who breastfed, all three studies reported a reduced likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding amongst women with breast implants with a pooled rate ratio of 0.60 (95% CI 0.40, 0.90). Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that women with breast implants who breastfeed were less likely to exclusively feed their infants with breast milk

  2. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Avila, Walesca M; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

  3. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Walesca M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Paiva, Saul M.; Martins, Carolina C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23–0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence. PMID:26579710

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months of life in Tehran: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Noughabi, Z S; Tehrani, S Golian; Foroushani, A R; Nayeri, F; Baheiraei, A

    2014-02-11

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants in the first 6 months of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran in the first 6 months of life, and the factors that influence it. In a population-based, cross-sectional study 538 mothers with children aged 6-24 months completed an interview questionnaire. Only 46.5% of mothers exclusively breastfed their infant in the first 6 months of life. In multivariate analysis formula supplementation in the hospital (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95) and mother receiving conflicting infant feeding advice (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.78) had a negative effect on exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's intention to exclusively breastfeed (OR = 5.85, 95% CI: 2.88-11.9) and infant having first breast contact 6-30 minutes after delivery (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.17-4.72) had positive effects on exclusive breastfeeding.

  5. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2015-03-16

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  6. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Auad, Sheyla M.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence. PMID:25785498

  7. Infant survival, HIV infection, and feeding alternatives in less-developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, L; Stein, Z

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examines, in the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, the effects of optimal breast-feeding, complete avoidance of breast-feeding, and early cessation of breast-feeding. METHODS: The three categories of breast-feeding were weighed in terms of HIV transmission and infant mortality. Estimates of the frequency of adverse outcomes were obtained by simulation. RESULTS: Avoidance of all breast-feeding by the whole population always produces the worst outcome. The lowest frequency of adverse outcomes occurs if no HIV-seropositive women breast-feed and all seronegative women breast-feed optimally, given infant mortality rates below 100 per 1000 and relative risks of dying set at 2.5 for non-breast-fed compared with optimally breast-fed infants. For known HIV-seropositive mothers, fewer adverse outcomes result from early cessation than from prolonged breast-feeding if the hazard of HIV transmission through breast-feeding after 3 months is 7% or more, even at high mortality rates, given relative risks of dying set at 1.5 for early cessation compared with optimal duration of breast-feeding. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of HIV transmission through breast-feeding at various ages needs to be more precisely quantified. The grave issues that may accompany a possible decline in breast-feeding in the less developed world demand evaluation. PMID:9224171

  8. Gene expression in breast muscle associated with feed efficiency in a single male broiler line using a chicken 44K oligo microarray. I. Top differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Kong, B-W; Song, J J; Lee, J Y; Hargis, B M; Wing, T; Lassiter, K; Bottje, W

    2011-11-01

    Global RNA expression in breast muscle obtained from a male broiler line phenotyped for high or low feed efficiency (FE) was investigated. Pooled RNA samples (n = 6/phenotype) labeled with cyanine 3 or cyanine 5 fluorescent dyes to generate cRNA probes were hybridized on a 4 × 44K chicken oligo microarray. Local polynomial regression normalization was applied to background-corrected red and green intensities with a moderated t-statistic. Corresponding P-values were computed and adjusted for multiple testing by false discovery rate to identify differentially expressed genes. Microarray validation was carried out by comparing findings with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. A 1.3-fold difference in gene expression was set as a cutoff value, which encompassed 20% (782 of 4,011) of the total number of genes that were differentially expressed between FE phenotypes. Using an online software program (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis), the top 10 upregulated genes identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis in the high-FE group were generally associated with anabolic processes. In contrast, 7 of the top 10 downregulated genes in the high-FE phenotype (upregulated in the low-FE phenotype) were associated with muscle fiber development, muscle function, and cytoskeletal organization, with the remaining 3 genes associated with self-recognition or stress-responding genes. The results from this study focusing on only the top differentially expressed genes suggest that the high-FE broiler phenotype is derived from the upregulation of genes associated with anabolic processes as well as a downregulation of genes associated with muscle fiber development, muscle function, cytoskeletal organization, and stress response.

  9. [The influence of feeding methods in the development of nonnutritive sucking habits in childhood].

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Sabrina Sales Lins; Duarte, Ricardo Cavalcanti; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Beltrão, Erika de Morais

    2010-03-01

    This study verified the relationship between nonnutritive sucking habits and feeding methods in children from 12 to 36 months of age, attending public nursery schools in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba State. The sample consisted of 292 children of both gender and the data were collected by interviewing the children's mothers or minders. The information of the forms consisted on the description of the frequency and duration of the nonnutritive sucking habits, as well as on the feeding methods. The data were analyzed through the statistical program SPSS, taking place distributions of frequencies and qui-square test and Fisher Exact. In relation to the presence of nonnutritive sucking habits, 69.2% of the children had some type of habit, being 61.6% the pacifier sucking and 8.2% the digital sucking. From the entire sample, 10.2% presented exclusive breastfeeding, 4.9% were just bottle-fed and 84.9% were breast-fed and bottle-fed. Considering the methods of feeding, 83.8% of the children presented exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. The feeding methods presented significant association with the presence of nonnutritive sucking habits. As larger the duration of the exclusive breastfeeding, smaller the prevalence of sucking habits.

  10. Feeding practices and nutritional status of children under two years of age.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Hoque, M A; Mollah, A H; Islam, M N; Latif, S A; Hossain, M A

    2011-10-01

    A descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Pediatrics Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess breast feeding pattern, complementary feeding pattern, types of complementary foods and also to assess the nutritional status and to detect any relationship with the nutritional status and the feeding practices. Mothers with their children aged less than 2 years were included and very sick children, mother less children, handicapped children were excluded. Four hundred (400) consecutive children were enrolled from eight upazillas of Mymensingh district who were selected randomly. Out of 400 children, 214 children (53.5%) were male and 186 children (47.5%) were female and M:F was 1.2:1. Exclusive breastfeeding rate was 41.5%. Pre-lacteal feeding rate were 30.7% and most common pre-lacteal foods were honey and sugar water. Colostrum was given in 69.3% children. Breast feeding continued at the time of interview was 58.1%. Complementary feeding started in time in 35.8%, early weaning in 44.5% children. Type of complementary food was mainly luta (rice powder mixed with boiled water and sugar only) in 38.8% and khichuri (rice, pulses, soybean oil) in 19.5%. Bottle feeding rate was 31.30%. Around 43% children were underweight and 10.25% children were severely underweight and common in between 12 to 23 months of age group. Around 29% children were stunted among 11.25% were severely stunted. About 13.5% children were wasted and among them 2.5% were severely wasted. Stunting prevalent over the age of 9 months and wasting started after 6 months of age. Malnutrition was common in partially breast fed and early weaning with carbohydrate rich food.

  11. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Design Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Setting Scotland and North West England. Participants Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Methods Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Results Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; p<0.001). Net agreement for provider incentives for breastfeeding targets was 44.1% (219/497) and net disagreement was 38.6% (192/497). Agreement was more likely for women (compared with men): OR 1.81 (1.09 to 3.00; p=0.023) and health visitors/maternity staff (compared with doctors): OR 2.54 (95% CI 1.65 to 3.91; p<0.001). Key emergent themes were ‘moral tensions around acceptability’, ‘need for incentives’, ‘goals’, ‘collective or divisive action’ and ‘monitoring and proof’. While provider incentives can focus action and resources, tensions around the impact on relationships raised concerns. Pressure, burden of proof, gaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were

  12. Mother's perceptions and experiences of infant feeding within a community-based peer counselling intervention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nor, Barni; Ahlberg, Beth Maina; Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Yanga; Jackson, Debra; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has the potential to significantly reduce infant mortality, but is frequently not practiced in low-income settings where infants are vulnerable to malnutrition and infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study explores mothers' experiences of infant feeding after receiving peer counselling promoting exclusive breast or formula feeding. This qualitative study was embedded in a cluster randomized peer counselling intervention trial in South Africa that aimed to evaluate the effect of peer counselling on EBF. Participants were selected from the three districts that were part of the trial reflecting different socio-economic conditions, rural-urban locations and HIV prevalence rates. Seventeen HIV-positive and -negative mothers allocated to intervention clusters were recruited. Despite perceived health and economic benefits of breastfeeding, several barriers to EBF remained, which contributed to a preference for mixed feeding. The understanding of the promotional message of 'exclusive' feeding was limited to 'not mixing two milks': breast or formula and did not address early introduction of foods and other liquids. Further, a crying infant or an infant who did not sleep at night were given as strong reasons for introducing semi-solid foods as early as 1 month. In addition, the need to adhere to the cultural practice of 'cleansing' and the knowledge that this practice is not compatible with EBF appeared to promote the decision to formula feed in HIV-positive mothers. Efforts to reduce barriers to EBF need to be intensified and further take into account the strong cultural beliefs that promote mixed feeding.

  13. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  14. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and... Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  15. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and..., co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially exclusive... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  16. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and... Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  17. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and... Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  18. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and..., co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially exclusive... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  19. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics.

  20. 26 CFR 54.9801-3 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cancer. A was not diagnosed with breast cancer at any time prior to A's enrollment date in the plan. Nine months after A's enrollment date in the plan, A is diagnosed with breast cancer. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example, the plan may not impose a preexisting condition exclusion with respect to A's breast...

  1. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on feeding methods and newborn growth at 1 month postpartum: results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Kawamura, Makoto; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effects of three disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, followed by a tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident) on feeding methods and growth in infants born after the disasters. Using results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Soso District (the affected area where the damaged nuclear power plant is located) and Aizu District (a less-affected area located farthest from the plant) were compared. In this study, newborn and maternal background characteristics were examined, as well as feeding methods, and other factors for newborn growth at the first postpartum examination for 1706 newborns born after the disaster in the affected (n = 836) and less-affected (n = 870) areas. Postpartum examinations took place 1 month after birth. Feeding method trends were examined, and multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate effects on newborn mass gain. There were no significant differences in background characteristics among newborns in these areas. When birth dates were divided into four periods to assess trends, no significant change in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was found, while the exclusive formula-feeding rate was significantly different across time periods in the affected area (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses revealed no significant independent associations of maternal depression and change in medical facilities (possible disaster effects) with other newborn growth factors in either area. No area differences in newborn growth at the first postpartum examination or in exclusive breastfeeding rates were found during any period. Exclusive formula-feeding rates varied across time periods in the affected, but not in the less-affected area. It is concluded that effective guidance to promote breast-feeding and prevent exclusive use of formula is important for women in post-disaster circumstances.

  2. Infant feeding patterns are associated with cardiovascular structures and function in childhood.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Layla L; Langhout, Marianne A; Taal, H Rob; Franco, Oscar H; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; van Osch-Gevers, Lennie; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-12-01

    Nutrition in infancy seems to be associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. These associations may be explained by cardiovascular developmental adaptations in childhood in response to specific infant feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to assess whether duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding and timing of introduction of solid foods affect cardiovascular development in childhood. In a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward, information about duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding and timing of introduction of solid foods was obtained from delivery reports and questionnaires. Blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), left atrial diameter (LAD), aortic root diameter (AOD), left ventricular (LV) mass, and fractional shortening (FS) were measured at a median age of 6.0 y (95% range: 5.6-7.4 y). Analyses were based on 5003 children. Age at introduction of solid foods was negatively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the age of 6 y. Compared with children who had ever been breast-fed, never-breast-fed children had a higher carotid-femoral PWV (β: 0.13 m/s; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.24 m/s), a smaller LAD (β: -0.29 mm; 95% CI: -0.55, -0.03 mm), and less LV mass (β:-1.46 g; 95% CI: -2.41, -0.52 g) at the age of 6 y. Among breast-fed children, duration and exclusivity were not associated with cardiovascular structures or function. Breastfeeding pattern and age at introduction of solid foods were not associated with AOD or FS. Feeding patterns in infancy may influence cardiovascular development in childhood. Further research is required to replicate these findings and to investigate whether these changes contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life.

  3. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Design Qualitative serial interview study. Setting Two health boards in Scotland. Participants 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. Results The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3–4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Conclusions Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality. PMID:22422915

  4. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O.; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides employees' perceptions about these subjects. Kruskal-Wallis with multiple comparison and chi-square tests were used to compare variables by professional category. RESULTS: 304 employees participated in the study. The highest percentages of correct answers were noted for questions about exclusive breastfeeding: definition - 97% (n=296) and duration - 65% (n=199). Regarding complementary feeding, 61% (n=187) correctly answered about the appropriate age to introduce it, with a lower percentage for meat (56%; n=170) and sugar (16%; n=50). Concerning employees' perceptions, 9% (n=29) believed that there is weak breast milk, 79% (n=241) and 51% (n=157) reported the negative influence of bottle feeding and pacifier use on breastfeeding. Among the interviewed subjects, 77% (n=234) answered that they had a positive influence on the quality of the food given to the children. There were no differences in the answers according to professional category, except for the negative influence of pacifiers on breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Employees of public day care centers knew more about breastfeeding than about complementary feeding. Educational activities about breastfeeding and complementary feeding are necessary for day care centers employees. PMID:24473953

  5. DISE: directed sphere exclusion.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Sphere Exclusion algorithm is a well-known algorithm used to select diverse subsets from chemical-compound libraries or collections. It can be applied with any given distance measure between two structures. It is popular because of the intuitive geometrical interpretation of the method and its good performance on large data sets. This paper describes Directed Sphere Exclusion (DISE), a modification of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm, which retains all positive properties of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm but generates a more even distribution of the selected compounds in the chemical space. In addition, the computational requirement is significantly reduced, thus it can be applied to very large data sets.

  6. Creating exclusive breastfeeding knowledge translation tools with First Nations mothers in Northwest Territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Pertice; Dickinson, Raissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is an ideal method of infant feeding affecting lifelong health, and yet the uptake of breastfeeding in some Indigenous communities in Canada's north is low. Objective The aims of this project were to determine the rate and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a remote community in the Northwest Territories and to create knowledge translation tools to enhance breastfeeding locally. Methods The study methodology followed three steps. Firstly, a series of retrospective chart audits were conducted from hospital birth records of Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ women (n=198) who gave birth during the period of 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. A second follow-up chart audit determined the rate of exclusive breastfeeding and was conducted in the local Community Health Centre. Chart audit data included the following factors related to breastfeeding: age of mother, parity, birthweight and Apgar scores. Secondly, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ mothers (n=8) and one Elder were conducted to identify breastfeeding practices, beliefs and the most appropriate medium to use to deliver health messages in Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ. Third, based on the information obtained in Step 2, two knowledge translation tools were developed in collaboration with a local community Advisory Committee. Results The rate of exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ region is less than 30%. Physiological and demographic factors related to breastfeeding were identified. Thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes from the data, namely, "the pull to formula" (lifestyle preferences, drug and alcohol use, supplementation practices and limited role models) and "the pull to breast feeding" (traditional feeding method, spiritual practice and increased bonding with infant). Conclusion There are a myriad of influences on breastfeeding for women living in remote locations. Ultimately, society

  7. Use of a panel of novel genes for differentiating breast cancer from non-breast tissues.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Neil; O'Donovan, Norma; Foley, Deirdre; Hill, Arnold D K; McDermott, Enda; O'Higgins, Niall; Duffy, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Existing serum markers for breast cancer such as CA 15-3, BR 27.29 and CEA lack sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of new putative breast-specific markers for differentiating breast cancer from non-breast tissues. Expression of mammaglobin A (MGA), B726P, small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) and MUC1 was measured by RT-PCR. MGA mRNA was detected in 86/162 (60%) breast cancers but in only 1/32 (3%) non-breast tissues; B726P was detected in 44/108 (41%) breast cancers but in none of 20 non-breast tissues, while SBEM was present in 52/103 (51%) breast cancers but in only 1/26 non-breast cancer tissues. In contrast to these novel markers, the established breast cancer marker MUC1 was detected in 72/99 (73%) breast cancers and in 22/32 (59%) of non-breast tissues. Combining MGA with B726P separated breast cancer from non-breast tissue with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 95% while combining MGA with SBEM differentiated breast cancer from non-breast tissues with a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 89%. Genes such as MGA, B726P and SBEM that are expressed relatively exclusively in breast tissue are potential new markers for breast cancer.

  8. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Is a Feed-Forward Translational Coactivator of Transforming Growth Factor β Early Protransforming Events in Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Decarlo, Lindsey; Mestel, Celine; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is overexpressed early in breast cancers in association with disease progression and reduced survival. Much remains to be understood regarding the role of eIF4E in human cancer. We determined, using immortalized human breast epithelial cells, that elevated expression of eIF4E translationally activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway, promoting cell invasion, a loss of cell polarity, increased cell survival, and other hallmarks of early neoplasia. Overexpression of eIF4E is shown to facilitate the selective translation of integrin β1 mRNA, which drives the translationally controlled assembly of a TGF-β receptor signaling complex containing α3β1 integrins, β-catenin, TGF-β receptor I, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smad2/3. This receptor complex acutely sensitizes nonmalignant breast epithelial cells to activation by typically substimulatory levels of activated TGF-β. TGF-β can promote cellular differentiation or invasion and transformation. As a translational coactivator of TGF-β, eIF4E confers selective mRNA translation, reprogramming nonmalignant cells to an invasive phenotype by reducing the set point for stimulation by activated TGF-β. Overexpression of eIF4E may be a proinvasive facilitator of TGF-β activity. PMID:25986608

  9. Universal antiretroviral therapy for pregnant and breast-feeding HIV-1-infected women: towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Arrivé, Elise; Stringer, Jeffrey Sa; Meda, Nicolas; Chaix, Marie Laure; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Valériane; Rouzioux, Christine; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT) remains a challenge in most resource-limited settings, particularly in Africa. Single-dose and short-course antiretroviral (ARV) regimens are only partially effective and have failed to achieve wide coverage despite their apparent simplicity. More potent ARV combinations are restricted to pregnant women who need treatment for themselves but are also infrequently used. Furthermore, postnatal transmission via breastfeeding is a serious additional threat. Modifications of infant feeding practices aim to reduce breast-milk HIV transmission: replacement feeding is neither affordable nor safe for the majority of African women, and early breastfeeding cessation (e.g. prior to 6 months of life) requires substantial care and nutritional counselling to be practised safely. The recent roll out of ARV treatment has changed the paradigm of prevention of MTCT. To date, postnatal ARV interventions that have been evaluated target either maternal ARV treatment to selected breastfeeding women, with good efficacy, or single-drug post-exposure prophylaxis for short periods of time to their neonates, with a partial efficacy and at the expense of acquisition of drug-related viral resistance. We hypothesize that a viable solution to eliminate paediatric AIDS lies in the universal provision of fully suppressive ARV regimens to all HIV-infected women through pregnancy, delivery, and covering the entire breastfeeding period. Based on the available evidence, we suggest translating into practice the recently available evidence on this matter without any further delay. PMID:19916796

  10. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  11. Expression and Activity of CYP3A Enzymes in the Liver of Piglets Fed Dairy- or Soy-Based Formula in Comparison to Breast Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have published previous data showing that feeding soy protein isolate, the major protein source in soy-infant formula, to rats during early development results in increased expression and activity of the major liver enzyme involved in breakdown and removal of pediatric medications, CYP3A. This s...

  12. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  13. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  14. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  15. Mutually Exclusive Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan

    2016-11-01

    The uncertainty principle is one of the characteristic properties of quantum theory based on incompatibility. Apart from the incompatible relation of quantum states, mutually exclusiveness is another remarkable phenomenon in the information- theoretic foundation of quantum theory. We investigate the role of mutual exclusive physical states in the recent work of stronger uncertainty relations for all incompatible observables by Mccone and Pati and generalize the weighted uncertainty relation to the product form as well as their multi-observable analogues. The new bounds capture both incompatibility and mutually exclusiveness, and are tighter compared with the existing bounds.

  16. Mutually Exclusive Uncertainty Relations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan

    2016-11-08

    The uncertainty principle is one of the characteristic properties of quantum theory based on incompatibility. Apart from the incompatible relation of quantum states, mutually exclusiveness is another remarkable phenomenon in the information- theoretic foundation of quantum theory. We investigate the role of mutual exclusive physical states in the recent work of stronger uncertainty relations for all incompatible observables by Mccone and Pati and generalize the weighted uncertainty relation to the product form as well as their multi-observable analogues. The new bounds capture both incompatibility and mutually exclusiveness, and are tighter compared with the existing bounds.

  17. Mutually Exclusive Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainty principle is one of the characteristic properties of quantum theory based on incompatibility. Apart from the incompatible relation of quantum states, mutually exclusiveness is another remarkable phenomenon in the information- theoretic foundation of quantum theory. We investigate the role of mutual exclusive physical states in the recent work of stronger uncertainty relations for all incompatible observables by Mccone and Pati and generalize the weighted uncertainty relation to the product form as well as their multi-observable analogues. The new bounds capture both incompatibility and mutually exclusiveness, and are tighter compared with the existing bounds. PMID:27824161

  18. The Stimulation of HSD17B7 Expression by Estradiol Provides a Powerful Feed-Forward Mechanism for Estradiol Biosynthesis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shehu, Aurora; Albarracin, Constance; Devi, Y. Sangeeta; Luther, Kristin; Halperin, Julia; Le, Jamie; Mao, Jifang; Duan, Rachel W.; Frasor, Jonna

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously cloned and purified an ovarian protein found to be a novel 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 enzyme (HSD17B7) (formerly prolactin receptor-associated protein) that converts the weak estrogen, estrone, to the highly potent estradiol. The regulation of this enzyme has not yet been explored. In this report, we show high expression of HSD17B7 in human ductal carcinoma and breast cancer cell lines and present evidence for a strong up-regulation of this enzyme by estradiol at the level of mRNA, protein expression, and promoter activity in MCF-7 cells. The effect of estradiol is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER)α, whereas ERβ prevents this stimulation. ER antagonists, ICI 182,780 and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, prevent estradiol-induced stimulation of the endogenously expressed HSD17B7, suggesting that these inhibitors not only block estradiol action but also its production. We have identified a −185-bp region of the hsd17b7 promoter that is highly conserved among rat, mouse, and human and confers regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells. This region is devoid of a classical estradiol-response element but contains a nuclear factor 1 (NF1) site that is essential for estradiol action. We found that estradiol stimulates the recruitment and DNA binding of NF1 to this region of the hsd17b7 promoter. Furthermore, knockdown of NF1 family members, NF1B, NF1A, and NF1X, completely prevents induction of this gene by estradiol. In summary, our findings demonstrate that estradiol stimulates HSD17B7 transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells through a novel mechanism requiring NF1 and strongly suggest a positive feedback mechanism to increase local estradiol synthesis causing growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancers. PMID:21372145

  19. WHO's proposed global strategy for infant and young child feeding: a viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Sobti, Jagdish; Mathur, G P; Gupta, Arun

    2002-08-01

    The Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding is being developed by the WHO and is likely to be adopted as World Health Assembly Resolution in the month of May, 2002. The global strategy is built on Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding. It emphasises the need for comprehensive national policies on infant and child health feeding including guidelines on ensuring appropriate feeding of infants and young children in exceptionally difficult circumstances and to ensure that all health services protect, promote and support breastfeeding exclusively for first 6 months and then timely and adequate complementary feeding with continued breastfeeding for two years or beyond. Thus the strategy is to improve nutritional status, growth and development, health and survival of infants and young children. It recognises that mothers should have adequate information and support within their families and communities should be free and should be free from commercial influence. The strategy mentions an effective feeding policy with some critical interventions as elaborated in this article.

  20. Creating exclusive breastfeeding knowledge translation tools with First Nations mothers in Northwest Territories, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Pertice; Dickinson, Raissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is an ideal method of infant feeding affecting lifelong health, and yet the uptake of breastfeeding in some Indigenous communities in Canada's north is low. Objective The aims of this project were to determine the rate and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a remote community in the Northwest Territories and to create knowledge translation tools to enhance breastfeeding locally. Methods The study methodology followed three steps. Firstly, a series of retrospective chart audits were conducted from hospital birth records of Tłı̨chǫ women (n=198) who gave birth during the period of 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. A second follow-up chart audit determined the rate of exclusive breastfeeding and was conducted in the local Community Health Centre. Chart audit data included the following factors related to breastfeeding: age of mother, parity, birthweight and Apgar scores. Secondly, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of Tłı̨chǫ mothers (n=8) and one Elder were conducted to identify breastfeeding practices, beliefs and the most appropriate medium to use to deliver health messages in Tłı̨chǫ. Third, based on the information obtained in Step 2, two knowledge translation tools were developed in collaboration with a local community Advisory Committee. Results The rate of exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the Tłı̨chǫ region is less than 30%. Physiological and demographic factors related to breastfeeding were identified. Thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes from the data, namely, “the pull to formula” (lifestyle preferences, drug and alcohol use, supplementation practices and limited role models) and “the pull to breast feeding” (traditional feeding method, spiritual practice and increased bonding with infant). Conclusion There are a myriad of influences on breastfeeding for women living in remote locations. Ultimately, society informs the choice of infant feeding for the new mother

  1. HIV-1 concentrations in human breast milk before and after weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Walter, Jan; Thea, Donald M.; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kankasa, Chipepo; Decker, Don; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in mucosal compartments influence the risk of sexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Breast milk production is physiologically regulated such that supply is a function of infant demand but whether demand also influences HIV-1 dynamics in breast milk is unknown. We tested whether minor and major changes in feeding frequency influence breast milk viral concentrations in 958 HIV-1-infected women, who were followed with their infants for 24 months as part of a trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women were randomized to wean abruptly at 4 months or to continue breastfeeding for a duration of their own choosing. Two weeks after breastfeeding cessation i.e. weaning (4.5 months) HIV-1 concentrations in breast milk were substantially higher (median RNA 2,708 copies/ml and DNA 14 copies/ml) than if breastfeeding continued (median RNA <50 copies/ml and DNA <1 copy/ml, p<0.0001). Among those continuing breastfeeding, HIV-1 concentrations in milk were higher if breastfeeding was non-exclusive (median RNA 293 copies/ml and DNA 2 copies/ml, p=0.0006). Elevated milk viral concentrations after stopping breastfeeding explained higher than expected rates of late postnatal HIV transmission in those who weaned early. Changes in the frequency of breastfeeding peri-weaning and with non-exclusive breastfeeding influenced milk viral concentrations. This may explain the reduced risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with exclusive breastfeeding and may explain why early weaning does not achieve the magnitude of HIV prevention predicted by models. Our results support continuation of maternal antiretroviral drug interventions over the full duration of time when any breast milk exposures are likely to occur after planned weaning. PMID:23596203

  2. Exclusive Breastfeeding, Prevalence and Maternal Concerns: Saudi and Egyptian Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafee Elsayed, Hoda Mohamed; Al-Dossary, Latifa Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is rich in nutrients and anti-bodies and contains the right quantities of sugar, water, fat and protein that promotes not only growth and development of infants but also important for their survive. Exclusive breastfeeding is enough to the needs of infants less than six months without any addition. Several studies mentioned that the…

  3. Goals for Human Milk Feeding in Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: How Do Goals Change and Are They Achieved During the NICU Hospitalization?

    PubMed Central

    Bigger, Harold; Patel, Aloka L.; Rossman, Beverly; Fogg, Louis F.; Meier, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about human milk (HM) feeding goals for mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g birth weight) infants, especially for black mothers, for whom rates of VLBW birth are higher and lactation rates lower. This study examined the establishment, modification, and achievement of HM feeding goals during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization for mothers of VLBW infants and the influence of maternal race and income. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study measured maternal HM feeding goals (exclusive [EHM], partial, none) predelivery and during three time intervals: day of life (DOL) 1–14, 15–28, and 29–72. Goal achievement compared the goal for the time interval with the proportion of HM feedings received by the infant. Goal establishment, modification, and achievement were examined using chi-squared and contingency tables. Results: Three hundred fifty-two mother–infant dyads (53% black; 70% low-income; mean birth weight, 1,048 g) were studied. Predelivery, 55% of mothers planned to provide EHM; fewer black and low-income mothers chose EHM. During DOL 1–14, 63% of mothers chose EHM, and predelivery racial differences disappeared. Only 10% of mothers chose exclusive at-breast EHM feedings. EHM feeding goals decreased during NICU hospitalization, especially for black mothers. Whereas most mothers met their HM feeding goals initially, achievement rates declined during hospitalization. Mothers' EHM goal achievement was not influenced by race or income. Conclusions: Mothers changed their predelivery HM feeding goals after birth of a VLBW infant. Longitudinally, HM feeding goals and achievement reflected less HM use, highlighting the need to target lactation maintenance in this population. PMID:26110439

  4. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic.

  5. Islam and infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Ahmed, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Few physicians in the United States receive formal education related to principles of infant care in Islamic families. Breastfeeding has a religious basis in Islam and it is recommended that the mother suckle her offspring for 2 years if possible. Weaning from the breast before that period is allowed if mutually decided on by both parents. The infant's father has an obligation to support his wife through any circumstances that may affect breastfeeding and, in case of divorce, provide shelter and financial support to the mother-infant dyad for as long as breastfeeding continues. By showing understanding and respect of Islamic beliefs related to infant feeding, clinicians can help support healthy early feeding of Muslim infants.

  6. Exclusive production at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2017-03-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive γγ → W+W- production, pp → p(∗)W+W-p(∗) → p(∗)μ±e∓p(∗), at √{s }=8 TeV (7 TeV) is reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 (5.5fb-1), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for π+π- pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  7. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Nadia Salem Abdel; Bueno, Ana Beatriz Miguel; Silva, Patrícia Elaine da; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Inês Ferreira, Rívea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls) aged 3 (13.9%), 4 (40.8%), 5 (34%) and 6 (11.3%) years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit) sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90) performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05). The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1), 38.8% (G2), 39.2% (G3) and 47.8% (G4). The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1), 48.8% (G2), 43.4% (G3) and 43% (G4). No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p < 0.001) and Class 2 canine relationship (O.R. = 4.02, p < 0.001) were greater for children with pacifier and/or digit-sucking habits, compared to those without a history of nonnutritive sucking behavior. It may be suggested that bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  8. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  9. Breast infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... female breast anatomy Breast infection Female breast References Hunt KK, Mittendorf EA. Diseases of the breast. In: ... Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for ...

  10. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a direct link between breast cancer and pesticides. Symptoms Early breast cancer often does not cause ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...

  11. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  12. The risks and benefits of infant feeding practices for women and their children.

    PubMed

    Stuebe, A M; Schwarz, E B

    2010-03-01

    Infant feeding decisions affect maternal and child health outcomes, worldwide. Even in settings with clean water and good sanitation, infants who are not breast-fed face an increased risk of infectious, as well as non-infectious morbidity and mortality. The decision not to breast-feed can also adversely affect mothers' health by increasing the risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer, ovarian cancer, type II diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Clinicians who counsel mothers about the health impact of infant feeding and provide evidence-based care to maximize successful breast-feeding, can improve the short and long-term health of both mothers and infants.

  13. Deep sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA of the neonatal oral microbiome: a comparison of breast-fed and formula-fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, S. S.; Sweeney, E. L.; Cowley, D. M.; Liley, H. G.; Ranasinghe, P. D.; Charles, B. G.; Shaw, P. N.; Vagenas, D.; Duley, J. A.; Knox, C. L.

    2016-01-01

    In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child’s health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. We demonstrated that the oral bacterial communities were dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, in both groups. There was a higher prevalence of the phylum Bacteroidetes in the mouths of formula-fed infants than in breast-fed infants (p = 0.01), but in contrast Actinobacteria were more prevalent in breast-fed babies; Proteobacteria was more prevalent in saliva of breast-fed babies than in formula-fed neonates (p = 0.04). We also found evidence suggesting that the oral microbiota composition changed over time, particularly Streptococcus species, which had an increasing trend between 4–8 weeks in both groups. This study findings confirmed that the mode of feeding influences the development of oral microbiota, and this may have implications for long-term human health. PMID:27922070

  14. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding: a study of two sub-districts in the Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ayawine, Alice; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimal breastfeeding rates have not been encouraging globally with sub-optimal feeding being customized in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, in the Atwima Nwabiagya district of Ghana, the message of Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) has caught up well with many nursing mothers. we examined the determinants of EBF vis-à-vis performance of a community based growth promotion strategy in the Atwima Nwabiagya district of the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional comparative study design to analyze the impact of a community based growth promotion strategy on exclusive breast feeding in Abuakwa and Barekese, both in the Atwima Nwabiagya district of Ghana. Simple random sampling was used to select three communities each from the two sub-districts. Data collection tool employed was a standard questionnaire consisting of closed-ended questions. The variables were EBF knowledge level of mothers, cultural practices affecting EBF practice, occupational hindrances and the level of community participation in EBF activities. Results In all three hundred (300) nursing mothers of babies (0-12 months) were purposively interviewed. Results showed that mother's level of knowledge about EBF was good as such the practice was high. In addition, cultural practices in the area did not deter mothers from practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Two factors were associated with EBF in the univariate logistic model. Unmarried mothers were less likely to practice EB compared with mothers who were married (OR = 0.46, 95% 0.28, 0.77). Also the duration of breast feeding was associated wit EBF. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.41(95% CI: 0.32, 0.54) in favor of three months compared with six months. Conclusion The Community Based Growth Promotion strategy has had a positive impact on the practice of EBF in the district. It is recommended that the collapsed initiative be reawaken if the stakes are to be maintained. There is also the need to address mothers

  15. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  16. Epidemiological research drives a paradigm shift in complementary feeding - the celiac disease story and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Nordyke, Katrina; Olsson, Cecilia; Hernell, Olle; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Breast milk is the initial natural food for infants, but already during the second half year complementary feeding is essential. Epidemiological research, first on celiac disease and later on atopic diseases, has driven a paradigm shift with respect to most favorable age to introduce complementary feeding. Simplified, this implies a shift from later to earlier introduction, which is now taken into account in recommendations on infant feeding. Complementary feeding, including all foods, should not be initiated for any infant before 4 months of age, and not later than around 6 months, including infants with elevated disease risk (e.g. for celiac disease or atopic diseases). Motivating reasons could be that ongoing breastfeeding provides an 'immunological umbrella' and/ or a different age interval gives a 'window of opportunity' for developing oral tolerance towards gluten and other food antigens. This will for some infants be in conflict with recent WHO recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Epidemiology has evolved over time and could, if increasingly used, contribute even more to innovations in pediatric nutrition and other phenomena related to population health.

  17. Potential transfer of neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) from mother to infant during breast-feeding: Predictions from human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Marie; Ersson, Lisa; Brandt, Ingvar; Bergström, Ulrika

    2017-04-01

    β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [(14)C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [(14)C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans. Here, we used four cell lines of human origin to examine and compare the transport of the two BMAA enantiomers in vitro. The uptake patterns of [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA in the human mammary MCF7 cell line were in agreement with the results in murine HC11 cells, suggesting a potential secretion of BMAA into human breast milk. The permeability coefficients for both [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA over monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells supported an efficient absorption from the human intestine. As a final step, transport experiments confirmed that [(14)C]l-and [(14)C]d-BMAA can be taken up by human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells and even more efficiently by human U343 glioblastoma cells. In competition experiments with various amino acids, the ASCT2 specific inhibitor benzylserine was the most effective inhibitor of [(14)C]l-BMAA uptake tested here. Altogether, our results suggest that BMAA can be transferred from an exposed mother, via the milk, to the brain of the nursed infant.

  18. Infant feeding choices: experience, self-identity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Naomi; Harvey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In England, 78% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and, in the UK, less than 1% exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to do so. This study investigated women's infant feeding choices using in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of infants aged 7-18 weeks. Using content analysis, four themes emerged: (1) information, knowledge and decision making, (2) physical capability, (3) family and social influences, (4) lifestyle, independence and self-identity. While women were aware of the 'Breast is Best' message, some expressed distrust in this information if they had not been breastfed themselves. Women felt their own infant feeding choice was influenced by the perceived norm among family and friends. Women described how breastfeeding hindered their ability to retain their self-identities beyond motherhood as it limited their independence. Several second-time mothers felt they lacked support from health professionals when breastfeeding their second baby, even if they had previously encountered breastfeeding difficulties. The study indicates that experience of breastfeeding and belief in the health benefits associated with it are important factors for initiation of breastfeeding, while decreased independence and self-identity may influence duration of breastfeeding. Intervention and support schemes should tackle all mothers, not just first-time mothers.

  19. Infant feeding dilemmas created by HIV: South African experiences.

    PubMed

    Coutsoudis, Anna

    2005-04-01

    Breast-feeding is a route of HIV transmission from an HIV infected mother to her infant. However, breast-feeding is an important pillar of child survival and part of a mother's womanhood. This paper highlights the dilemma created by the risks and the benefits of breast-feeding and will discuss the implementation in South Africa, of the Safer Breastfeeding Programme, to reduce some of the known risk factors associated with HIV transmission. Operations research was carried out, including infant HIV testing at 6 wk, and 9, 12, and 15 mo. Among 188 breast-fed infants enrolled in the program who were HIV negative at 6 wk, 4 became infected by 9 mo of age (2.6%). Infants enrolled in the Safer Breastfeeding Programme had less breast pathology than is usually reported for HIV infected women. Limited success was attained in promoting heat treatment of expressed breast milk; however, it does appear to be a feasible option after 6 mo of age, and it is believed that mothers would practice it more widely if sufficient promotion and support was given to it. Mothers found it difficult to stop breast-feeding earlier than the norm, and it therefore is important that mothers considering early cessation of breast-feeding be given sufficient preparation and support.

  20. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  1. [Historical journey to infant feeding].

    PubMed

    Skidan, I N; Guliaev, A E; Zelenkin, I V; Skidan, T N

    2014-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the available literature on problems of infant nutrition, and shows the historical development of the principles of infant feeding. It discusses in greater detail the use of goat milk as a basis for infant nutrition. It notes the need for a comparative analysis of breast milk substitutes, and for clinical studies evaluating the value of goat milk in infant nutrition.

  2. How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sonya L.; Heath, Anne-Louise M.; Taylor, Rachael W.

    2012-01-01

    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk) on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons), and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines); the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed. PMID:23201835

  3. Time to Consider Moving Beyond Exclusive Breastfeeding in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART), there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection. Additional studies are warranted to assess detailed feeding practices in HIV exposed infants in relation to clinical outcomes. PMID:28125026

  4. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children up to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kenneth H

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are fundamental to children's nutrition, health, and survival during the first 2 years of life. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years, along with the timely introduction of adequate amounts of complementary foods of suitable nutritional and microbiological quality. The amounts of energy and micronutrients required from complementary foods have been estimated as the difference between the total physiological requirements of these food components and the amounts transferred to the child in breast milk. Recommendations for the energy density of complementary foods and their frequency of feeding have also been proposed. Intakes of several micronutrients, including iron, zinc, calcium, selected B vitamins and (in some settings) vitamin A, remain problematic because commonly available, low-cost foods contain inadequate amounts of these nutrients to provide the shortfall in breast milk. Alternative strategies to provide these nutrients include adding animal source foods to the diet, providing fortified, processed complementary foods, administering micronutrient supplements, or offering some combination of these approaches. Advantages, disadvantages, and possible risks of these different strategies are discussed.

  5. Association between feeding methods and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of infants in their first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Arano-Kojima, Taiko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Shintani, Seikou

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate infant feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding methods on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Japanese infants. A random sample of 353 mothers of infants of 18 months of age was interviewed at a public health facility in "K" city. The prevalence and duration of infant feeding patterns categorized as breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding, were determined. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier use and finger sucking). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons to assess possible association between feeding method and non-nutritive sucking behavior. The infants were categorized into the following groups depending on feeding method: breast-feeding (27.2%), partial breast-feeding (32.0%), or bottle-feeding (40.8%). Among all infants, 13.9% used a pacifier, 18.4% sucked their fingers, and 0.3% had both habits at 18 months of age. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and finger sucking. In contrast, bottle-feeding was strongly associated with pacifier use and finger sucking. These results suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to infants, and that non-nutritive sucking habits may be avoided by promoting correct breast-feeding practices.

  6. Effect of Peer Counselling by Mother Support Groups on Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices: The Lalitpur Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Komal P.; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M. Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J. P.; Gupta, Y. P.; Bhatt, Girish C.; Ansari, Dilshad A.; Sharma, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. Methods We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points–2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). Results The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p = <0.0001)and T2 (62% vs. 11%); 13.3 (9.4, 18.9, p = <0.0001); use of prelacteal feeds at both T1 (67% vs. 15%); 12.6 (CI: 9.0, 17.6, p<0.0001) and T2 (67% vs. 5%); 44.4 (28.8, 68.4, p = <0.0001); rates of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months at both T1 (50% vs. 7%); 13.6 (7.6, 25.0, p = <0.0001) and T2 (60% vs. 7%); 20.5 (11.3, 37.2, p = <0.0001); initiation of complementary feeding at T1 (85% vs. 54%); 5.6 (3.6, 8.7, p = <0.0001) and T2 (96% vs. 54%); 22.9 (11.8, 44.1, p = <0.0001) and complementary feeding along with continued breast feeding at both T1 (36% vs. 4.5%); 6 (1.15, 31.4, p = 0.033) and T2 (42% vs. 4.5%); 8.06 (1.96, 49.1, p = 0.005) as compared to pre-intervention period (T0) after adjusting for important social and demographic variables. Conclusions Peer counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained. PMID:25369452

  7. Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David; Peterson, Karen; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-10-01

    Nursing infants may be exposed to lead from breast milk, but relatively few data exist with which to evaluate and quantify this relationship. This route of exposure constitutes a potential infant hazard from mothers with current ongoing exposure to lead as well as from mothers who have been exposed previously due to the redistribution of cumulative maternal bone lead stores. We studied the relationship between maternal breast milk lead and infant blood lead levels among 255 mother-infant pairs exclusively or partially breast-feeding through 1 month of age in Mexico City. A rigorous, well-validated technique was used to collect, prepare, and analyze the samples of breast milk to minimize the potential for environmental contamination and maximize the percent recovery of lead. Umbilical cord and maternal blood lead were measured at delivery; 1 month after delivery (+/- 5 days) maternal blood, bone, and breast milk and infant blood lead levels were obtained. Levels of lead at 1 month postpartum were, for breast milk, 0.3-8.0 microg/L (mean +/- SD, 1.5 +/- 1.2); maternal blood lead, 2.9-29.9 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 9.4 +/- 4.5); and infant blood lead, 1.0-23.1 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 5.5 +/- 3.0). Infant blood lead at 1 month postpartum was significantly correlated with umbilical cord (Spearman correlation coefficient rS = 0.40, p < 0.0001) and maternal (rS= 0.42, p < 0.0001) blood lead at delivery and with maternal blood (rS= 0.67, p < 0.0001), patella rS = 0.19, p = 0.004), and breast milk (rS = 0.32, p < 0.0001) lead at 1 month postpartum. Adjusting for cord blood lead, infant weight change, and reported breast-feeding status, a difference of approximately 2 microg/L (ppb; from the midpoint of the lowest quartile to the midpoint of the highest quartile) breast milk lead was associated with a 0.82 microg/dL increase in blood lead for breast-feeding infants at 1 month of age. Breast milk lead accounted for 12% of the variance of infant blood lead levels, whereas

  8. The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Vida; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the important reasons behind termination of breast-feeding in the first six months after childbirth is insufficient production of breast milk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of herbal tea containing fenugreek seed on the signs of breast milk sufficiency in Iranian girl infants aged 0 - 4 months, at the medical health centers of Tehran university of medical sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a control group. Seventy-eight girl infants, 0 - 4 months old that were exclusively breastfed by their mothers, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (received herbal tea containing 7.5 g fenugreek seed powder in addition to 3 g of black tea, three times a day) and the control group (received herbal tea containing 3 g of black tea powder, three times a day). Before and during the four weeks of study, the signs of breast milk sufficiency were evaluated through measurement of growth parameters and use of follow-up forms for measuring the number of wet diapers in one day, frequency of defecation and infant breast-feeding times in a day. Results: Before the intervention there was no significant difference between weight, height, head circumference, the number of wet diapers and frequency of defecation between the two groups (P > 0.05), yet the number of breast feeding times of the control group was more than the Fenugreek group. At the end of the fourth week in proportion to the pre-intervention conditions, the weight of the infants in the fenugreek group increased significantly from 5282.0513 ± 1021.51121 to 6383.0769 ± 952.06190, while head circumference increased from 38.3103 ± 1.62736 to 39.9256 ± 1.50660, number of wet diapers from 5.2821 ± 0.93044 to 8.1648 ± 1.20620, frequency of defecation from 1.8846 ± 1.08495 to 2.7326 ± 0.94771 and the number of breast feeding times from 9.1795 ± 1.39778 to 15.9597 ± 1.45056 (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant effect on

  9. The role of infant feeding practices in the explanation for ethnic differences in infant growth: the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Marieke L A; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2011-11-01

    Rapid early growth in infants may influence overweight and CVD in later life. Both rapid growth and these disease outcomes disproportionately affect some ethnic minorities. We determined ethnic differences in growth rate (Δ standard deviation scores, ΔSDS) during the first 6 months of life and assessed the explanatory role of infant feeding. Data were derived from a multiethnic cohort for the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study (The Netherlands). Growth data (weight and length) of 2998 term-born singleton infants with no fetal growth restriction were available for five ethnic populations: Dutch (n 1619), African descent (n 174), Turkish (n 167), Moroccan (n 232) and other non-Dutch (n 806). ΔSDS for weight, length and weight-for-length between 4 weeks and 6 months were defined using internal references. Infant feeding pattern (breast-feeding duration, introduction of formula feeding and complementary feeding) in relation to ethnic differences in growth rate was examined by multivariate linear regression. Results showed that the growth rate was higher in almost all ethnic minorities, with β between 0·07 and 0·41 for ΔSDS weight and between 0·12 and 0·42 for ΔSDS length, compared with ethnic Dutch infants. ΔSDS weight-for-length was similar across groups, except for Moroccan infants (β 0·25, P < 0·05) after correction for confounders. In general, exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months was associated with slower growth for all three growth measures. Feeding factors explained, to a small degree, the higher weight and length gain in African descent infants, but not the higher ΔSDS weight-for-length in the Moroccan population. More research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the high infant growth rate in Turkish and Moroccan infants.

  10. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  11. The dangers of "follow-up" feeds.

    PubMed

    Greiner, T

    1991-09-01

    Artificial feeds constituted with contaminated water and unclean bottles are the leading cause of diarrhea in infants. Companies market artificial feeds globally as infant formula (a substitute for breast milk) and follow-up formula (a complement to breast milk). Breast milk is best for all 0-12 month old infants. Breast-fed infants do not need any formula even follow-up formula. Indeed 6-month old infants require solid healthful foods and breast milk. Like infant formulas, follow-up formula made with contaminated water or bottles can cause the infant to become ill with an infection, and offering follow-up formulas to infants impedes weaning and is costly. Follow-up formulas do not complement breast milk, but instead tend to replace it. The 1986 WHO World Health Assembly has even declared that, in some countries, provision of follow-up formula is not necessary. WHO fears mothers could use follow-up formula instead of infant formula because it has a higher protein and mineral content thus increasing the risk of dehydration during diarrhea. Follow-up formula can result in an unbalanced diet. Since the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes does not address formulas marketed as a complement to breast milk, formula companies market follow-up formulas in both developed and developing countries. Most mothers do not know the risks of using follow-up formulas, however. Governments have several alternatives to stop the marketing of these formulas. They can design and implement a code that defines breast-milk substitutes as any formula perceived and used as a breast milk option even if promoted as a breast-milk complement. They can also amend an existing code. WHO offers technical assistance to any member government who wishes to design, implement, and monitor such a code.

  12. Social exclusion in finite populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  13. Drugs in breast milk.

    PubMed

    1974-03-15

    Data on the pharmacology of drugs in breast milk are incomplete. The concentration in milk of drugs present in maternal blood depends on the lipid solubility of the drug and its degree of ionization. The immature renal and hepatic functions in the nursing infant can delay excretion of drugs. There has been no documented harm to nursing infants due to maternal use of oral contraceptives although long-term studies are unavailalbe. Breast feeding is contraindicated if the mother uses therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine, is a severe chronic alcoholic, or takes corticosteroids, phenobarbitone, and anticancer drugs. During lactation, drugs should be avoided as much as possible.

  14. Maternal recall of infant feeding events is accurate.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, L J; Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Sarov, B; Chang, D; Berendes, H W; Naggan, L

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Retrospective infant feeding data are important to the study of child and adult health patterns. The accuracy of maternal recall of past infant feeding events was examined and specifically the infant's age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were introduced. DESIGN AND SETTING--The sample consisted of Bedouin Arab women (n = 318) living in the Negev in Israel who were a part of a larger cohort participating in a prospective study of infant health and who were delivered of their infants between July 1 and December 15, 1981. Data from interviews conducted 12 and 18 months postpartum were compared to the standard data collected six months postpartum. MAIN RESULTS--As length of recall increased there was a small increase in the mean difference, and its standard deviation, between the standard and recalled age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were started. Recall on formula feeding was less accurate than recall on solid foods and breast feeding. In particular, among those 61% reporting formula use at the six month interview, 51% did not recall introducing formula when interviewed at 18 months. The odds ratio (95% CI) of stunting versus normal length for age for formula fed versus breast fed infants based on recall data (OR = 2.07; 95% CI 0.82-5.22) differed only slightly from those based on the standard data (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 0.77-6.37). The accuracy of a mother's recall varied with her child's nutritional status at the time of the interview, but not with other sociodemographic, infant, or interviewer characteristics. CONCLUSIONS--Retrospective infant feeding data based on maternal recall of events up to 18 months in the past can be used with confidence in epidemiological studies. However, data on formula feeding may not be as accurate as data on breast feeding and solid food feeding, and accuracy may decrease as length of recall increases. PMID:1645071

  15. Breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ueno, E

    1996-03-01

    to the diagnosis of <