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Sample records for exercise induces biphasic

  1. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-04-04

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1{alpha} and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1{alpha} protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1{alpha} expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1{alpha} and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions.

  2. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  3. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...

  4. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  5. Biphasic cardiovascular and respiratory effects induced by β-citronellol.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; de Souza Silva, Camila Meirelles; de Siqueira, Rodrigo JoséBezerra; Lahlou, Saad; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2016-03-15

    β-Citronellol is a monoterpene found in the essential oil of various plants with antihypertensive properties. In fact, β-citronellol possesses hypotensive actions due to its vasodilator abilities. Here we aimed to show that β-citronellol recruits airway sensory neural circuitry to evoke cardiorespiratory effects. In anesthetized rats, intravenous injection of β-citronellol caused biphasic hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. Bilateral vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin treatment or injection into the left ventricle abolished first rapid phase (named P1) but not delayed phase P2 of the β-citronellol effects. P1 persisted after pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron, HC-030031 or suramin. Suramin abolished P2 of apnea. In awake rats, β-citronellol induced biphasic hypotension and bradycardia being P1 abolished by methylatropine. In vitro, β-citronellol inhibited spontaneous or electrically-evoked contractions of rat isolated right or left atrium, respectively, and fully relaxed sustained contractions of phenylephrine in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, chemosensitive pulmonary vagal afferent fibers appear to mediate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-citronellol. The transduction mechanism in P1 seems not to involve the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1), purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on airways sensory nerves. P2 of hypotension and bradycardia seems resulting from a cardioinhibitory and vasodilatory effect of β-citronellol and the apnea from a purinergic signaling.

  6. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Gani, Federica; Selvaggi, Lucia; Roagna, Davide

    2008-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) was defined for the first time in 1980. EIA is associated with different kind of exercise, although jogging is the most frequently reported. The clinical manifestations progress from itching, erythema and urticaria to some combination of cutaneous angioedema, gastrointestinal and laryngeal symptoms and signs of angioedema and vascular collapse. Mast cell participation in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been proved by the finding of an elevated serum histamine level during experimentally-induced attacks and by cutaneous degranulation of mast cells with elevated serum tryptase after attacks. As predisposing factors of EIA, a specific or even aspecific sensitivity to food has been reported and such cases are called "food-dependent EIA". Many foods are implicated but particularly wheat, vegetables, crustacean. Another precipitating factor includes drugs intake (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), climate variations and menstrual cycle factors. Treatment of an attack should include all the manoeuvres efficacious in the management of conventional anaphylactic syndrome, including the administration of epinephrine and antihistamines. Prevention of the attacks may be achieved with the interruption of the exercise at the appearance of the first premonitory symptoms. To prevent the onset of EIA it is also suitable to delay the exercise practice after at least 4-6 hours from the swallowing of food.

  7. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... underlying chronic asthma as the cause of symptoms. Exercise challenge tests An additional test that enables your ... to take daily for long-term control. Pre-exercise medications Your doctor may prescribe a drug that ...

  9. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  10. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L

    2012-01-01

    Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous physical exercise results in significant changes in myocardial structure and function. This process, termed exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), is characterized by structural cardiac changes including left ventricular hypertrophy with sport-specific geometry (eccentric vs concentric). Associated alterations in both systolic and diastolic functions are emerging as recognized components of EICR. The increasing popularity of recreational exercise and competitive athletics has led to a growing number of individuals exhibiting these findings in routine clinical practice. This review will provide an overview of EICR in athletes.

  11. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Mechanism of conduction block in amphibian myelinated axon induced by biphasic electrical current at ultra-high frequency.

    PubMed

    Tai, Changfeng; Guo, Dong; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2011-11-01

    The mechanism of axonal conduction block induced by ultra-high frequency (≥ 20 kHz) biphasic electrical current was investigated using a lumped circuit model of the amphibian myelinated axon based on Frankenhaeuser-Huxley (FH) equations. The ultra-high frequency stimulation produces constant activation of both sodium and potassium channels at the axonal node under the block electrode causing the axonal conduction block. This blocking mechanism is different from the mechanism when the stimulation frequency is between 4 kHz and 10 kHz, where only the potassium channel is constantly activated. The minimal stimulation intensity required to induce a conduction block increases as the stimulation frequency increases. The results from this simulation study are useful to guide future animal experiments to reveal the different mechanisms underlying nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current.

  13. FK506 induces biphasic Ca2+ release from microsomal vesicles of rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Terutaka

    2006-07-01

    The effect of the immunosuppressant drug FK506 on microsomal Ca2+ release was investigated in rat pancreatic acinar cells. When FK506 (0.1-200 microM) was added to the microsomal vesicles at a steady state of ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake, FK506 caused a dose-dependent and a biphasic release of 45Ca2+. Almost 10% of total 45Ca2+ uptake was released at FK506 concentrations up to 10 microM (Km=0.47 microM), and 60% of total 45Ca2+ uptake was released at FK506 concentrations over 10 microM (Km=55 microM). Preincubation of the vesicles with cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR, 0.5 microM) increased the FK506 (< or =10 microM)-induced 45Ca2+ release (Ozawa T, Biochim Biophys Acta 1693: 159-166, 2004). Preincubation with heparin (200 microg/ml) resulted in significant inhibition of the FK506 (30 microM)-induced 45Ca2+ release. Subsequent addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3, 5 microM) after FK506 (100 microM)-induced 45Ca2+ release did not cause any release of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that two types of FK506-induced Ca2+ release mechanism operate in the endoplasmic reticulum of rat pancreatic acinar cells: a high-affinity mechanism of Ca2+ release, which involves activation of the ryanodine receptor, and a low-affinity mechanism of Ca2+ release, which involves activation of the IP3 receptor.

  14. The biphasic nature of hypoxia-induced directional migration of activated human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Novo, Erica; Povero, Davide; Busletta, Chiara; Paternostro, Claudia; di Bonzo, Lorenzo Valfrè; Cannito, Stefania; Compagnone, Alessandra; Bandino, Andrea; Marra, Fabio; Colombatto, Sebastiano; David, Ezio; Pinzani, Massimo; Parola, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Liver fibrogenesis is sustained by pro-fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells (MFs), mainly originating from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC/MFs) or portal (myo)fibroblasts, and is favoured by hypoxia-dependent angiogenesis. Human HSC/MFs were reported to express vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-receptor type 2 and to migrate under hypoxic conditions. This study was designed to investigate early and delayed signalling mechanisms involved in hypoxia-induced migration of human HSC/MFs. Signal transduction pathways and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by integrating morphological, cell, and molecular biology techniques. Non-oriented and oriented migration were evaluated by using wound healing assay and the modified Boyden's chamber assay, respectively. The data indicate that hypoxia-induced migration of HSC/MFs is a biphasic process characterized by the following sequence of events: (a) an early (15 min) and mitochondria-related increased generation of intracellular ROS which (b) was sufficient to switch on activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 that were responsible for the early phase of oriented migration; (c) a delayed and HIF-1α-dependent increase in VEGF expression (facilitated by ROS) and its progressive, time-dependent release in the extracellular medium that (d) was mainly responsible for sustained migration of HSC/MFs. Finally, immunohistochemistry performed on HCV-related fibrotic/cirrhotic livers revealed HIF-2α and haem-oxygenase-1 positivity in hepatocytes and α-SMA-positive MFs, indicating that MFs were likely to be exposed in vivo to both hypoxia and oxidative stress. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced migration of HSC/MFs involves an early, mitochondrial-dependent ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK, followed by a delayed- and HIF-1α-dependent up-regulation and release of VEGF.

  15. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bragard, Jean; Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one–dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 106 simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation. PMID:24387558

  16. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragard, Jean; Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one-dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 106 simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation.

  17. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Bragard, Jean Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Fenton, Flavio H.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one–dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 10{sup 6} simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation.

  18. Ryanodine receptor 2 contributes to hemorrhagic shock-induced bi-phasic vascular reactivity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Ding, Xiao-li; Liu, Liang-ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) is a critical component of intracellular Ca2+ signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RyR2 in abnormal vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats. Methods: SD rats were hemorrhaged and maintained mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 40 mmHg for 30 min or 2 h, and then superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) rings were prepared to measure the vascular reactivity. In other experiments, SMA rings of normal rats and rat VSMCs were exposed to a hypoxic medium for 10 min or 3 h. SMA rings of normal rats and VSMCs were transfected with siRNA against RyR2. Intracellular Ca2+ release in VSMCs was assessed using Fura-2/AM. Results: The vascular reactivity of the SMA rings from hemorrhagic rats was significantly increased in the early stage (30 min), but decreased in the late stage (2 h) of hemorrhagic shock. Similar results were observed in the SMA rings exposed to hypoxia for 10 min or 3 h. The enhanced vascular reactivity of the SMA rings exposed to hypoxia for 10 min was partly attenuated by transfection with RyR2 siRNA, whereas the blunted vascular reactivity of the SMA rings exposed to hypoxia for 3 h was partly restored by transfection with RyR2 siRNA. Treatment with the RyR agonist caffeine (1 mmol/L) significantly increased Ca2+ release in VSMCs exposed to hypoxia for 10 min or 3 h, which was partially antagonized by transfection with RyR2 siRNA. Conclusion: RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to the development of bi-phasic vascular reactivity induced by hemorrhagic shock or hypoxia. PMID:25263335

  19. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism.

  20. Conduction block in myelinated axons induced by high-frequency (kHz) non-symmetric biphasic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shouguo; Yang, Guangning; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study used the Frankenhaeuser–Huxley axonal model to analyze the effects of non-symmetric waveforms on conduction block of myelinated axons induced by high-frequency (10–300 kHz) biphasic electrical stimulation. The results predict a monotonic relationship between block threshold and stimulation frequency for symmetric waveform and a non-monotonic relationship for non-symmetric waveforms. The symmetric waveform causes conduction block by constantly activating both sodium and potassium channels at frequencies of 20–300 kHz, while the non-symmetric waveforms share the same blocking mechanism from 20 kHz up to the peak threshold frequency. At the frequencies above the peak threshold frequency the non-symmetric waveforms block axonal conduction by either hyperpolarizing the membrane (if the positive pulse is longer) or depolarizing the membrane (if the negative pulse is longer). This simulation study further increases our understanding of conduction block in myelinated axons induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical stimulation, and can guide future animal experiments as well as optimize stimulation parameters that might be used for electrically induced nerve block in clinical applications. PMID:26217217

  1. Biphasic Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. Extract on NSAID-Induced Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ananya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

    2011-01-01

    Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.), apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE) was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60 mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120 mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE(2) synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level.

  2. AIC649 Induces a Bi-Phasic Treatment Response in the Woodchuck Model of Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Daniela; Weber, Olaf; Ruebsamen-Schaeff, Helga; Tennant, Bud C.; Menne, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    AIC649 has been shown to directly address the antigen presenting cell arm of the host immune defense leading to a regulated cytokine release and activation of T cell responses. In the present study we analyzed the antiviral efficacy of AIC649 as well as its potential to induce functional cure in animal models for chronic hepatitis B. Hepatitis B virus transgenic mice and chronically woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infected woodchucks were treated with AIC649, respectively. In the mouse system AIC649 decreased the hepatitis B virus titer as effective as the “gold standard”, Tenofovir. Interestingly, AIC649-treated chronically WHV infected woodchucks displayed a bi-phasic pattern of response: The marker for functional cure—hepatitis surface antigen—first increased but subsequently decreased even after cessation of treatment to significantly reduced levels. We hypothesize that the observed bi-phasic response pattern to AIC649 treatment reflects a physiologically “concerted”, reconstituted immune response against WHV and therefore may indicate a potential for inducing functional cure in HBV-infected patients. PMID:26656974

  3. Cholinergic urticaria and exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stefan L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will present the physical manifestations of two similar conditions. The first is cholinergic urticaria. This is chronic urticaria precipitated by an elevated body temperature. The second is exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be idiopathic, a result of a specific allergenic trigger (food, medication, or insect sting), or exercise induced. We will focus on the third subtype. We describe the causes, symptoms, pathophysiology, testing, treatment, and prognosis of these two conditions.

  4. Exercise-induced pulmonary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kyle, J M

    1994-03-01

    When respiratory distress occurs in the exercise arena, the clinician must differentiate between a potential serious bout of EIA or the commoner EIB. The physician's game day medical kit should include epinephrine for initial treatment in suspected EIA. Sports medicine personnel need to maintain a high index of suspicion for EIB in athletes at risk and confirm the diagnosis with a treadmill exercise challenge test. Initial pharmacologic management should consist of a trial of albuterol inhaler use 15 minutes before exercise. Early identification and treatment of EIB may enhance sports performance as well as enjoyment.

  5. Acetylcholine sensitivity of biphasic Ca2+ mobilization induced by nicotinic receptor activation at the mouse skeletal muscle endplate

    PubMed Central

    Dezaki, Katsuya; Kimura, Ikuko

    1998-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) was locally applied onto the endplate region in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparation to measure intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) entry through nicotinic ACh receptors (AChRs) by use of Ca2+-aequorin luminescence.ACh (0.1–3 mM, 20 μl) elicited biphasic elevation of [Ca2+]i (fast and slow Ca2+ mobilization) in muscle cells. The peak amplitude of the slow Ca2+ mobilization (not accompanied by twitch tension) was concentration-dependently increased by ACh, whereas that of the fast component (accompanied by twitch tension) reached a maximum response at a lower concentration (0.1 mM) of applied ACh.A pulse of nicotinic agonists, (−)-nicotine (10 mM) and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (10 mM), but not a muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (10 mM), also elicited a biphasic Ca2+ signal.Even though ACh release from motor nerve endings was blocked by botulinum toxin (5 μg, bolus i.p. before isolation of the tissue), the generation of both a fast and slow Ca2+ component caused by ACh application was observed.These results strongly suggest that ACh locally applied onto the endplate region of skeletal muscle induces a slow Ca2+ signal reflecting Ca2+ entry through a postsynaptic nicotinic AChR, which has a low sensitivity to transmitter ACh. PMID:9579738

  6. Investigation of biphasic tumor oxygen dynamics induced by hyperoxic gas intervention: the dynamic phantom approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae G.; Liu, Hanli

    2008-01-01

    We have developed dynamic tumor vascular phantoms and utilized them to investigate the biphasic behavior of increases in light absorption, which is directly associated with oxygenated hemoglobin concentration that was observed in vivo from rat breast tumor experiments during carbogen/oxygen inhalation. The experimental setup for the phantom study included a continuous-wave, multichannel, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system and syringe pumps to drive the simulated blood through the dynamic vascular phantoms. The results from such phantom experiments clearly show that the two time constants observed in tumor oxygenation dynamics in vivo can result from two different perfusion rates or two different blood flow velocities. We provide experimental support for our previous hypothesis: the biphasic tumor hemodynamic feature stems from a well-perfused and poorly perfused region that could be detected with the two time constants of the NIRS signals. With a multichannel approach, noninvasive NIRS measurements may have useful and prognostic values to quantify the therapeutic effects of cancer treatments.

  7. Bioabsorbable zinc ion induced biphasic cellular responses in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Bioabsorbable metal zinc (Zn) is a promising new generation of implantable scaffold for cardiovascular and orthopedic applications. In cardiovascular stent applications, zinc ion (Zn2+) will be gradually released into the surrounding vascular tissues from such Zn-containing scaffolds after implantation. However, the interactions between vascular cells and Zn2+ are still largely unknown. We explored the short-term effects of extracellular Zn2+ on human smooth muscle cells (SMCs) up to 24 h, and an interesting biphasic effect of Zn2+ was observed. Lower concentrations (<80 μM) of Zn2+ had no adverse effects on cell viability but promoted cell adhesion, cell spreading, cell proliferation, cell migration, and enhanced the expression of F-actin and vinculin. Cells treated with such lower concentrations of Zn2+ displayed an elongated shape compared to controls without any treatment. In contrast, cells treated with higher Zn2+ concentrations (80–120 μM) had opposite cellular responses and behaviors. Gene expression profiles revealed that the most affected functional genes were related to angiogenesis, inflammation, cell adhesion, vessel tone, and platelet aggregation. Results indicated that Zn has interesting concentration-dependent biphasic effects on SMCs with low concentrations being beneficial to cellular functions. PMID:27248371

  8. Cancer: brain-regulated biphasic stress response induces cell growth or cell death to adapt to psychological stressors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Charles; Bhatia, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    According to Indian Vedic philosophy, a human being contains 3 major bodies: (1) the matter body--brain, organs, and senses; (2) the mental body--mind, individual consciousness, intellect, and ego; and (3) the soul or causal body--universal consciousness. The third, which is located in the heart according to all spiritual traditions and recent scientific literature, can be seen as the information body that contains all memories. The mental body, which can interface with the matter and information bodies, can be seen as a field of immaterial energy that can carry, regulate, and strengthen all information (eg, thoughts or emotions) both positively and negatively. This body of information may store ancestral and/or autobiographical memories: unconscious memories from inner traumas--inner information (Ii) or samskaras in Vedic philosophy--and conscious memories from outer traumas--outer information (Io). These conscious and unconscious memories can be seen as potential psychological stressors. Resonance between Ii and Io may induce active conflicts if resistance occurs in the mental body; this conflict may cause specific metabolic activity in the brain and a stress response in the physical body, which permits adjustment to psychological stressors. The brainregulated stress response may be biphasic: cell death or growth induced by adrenergic molecular pathways during the conflict's unresolved phase and reversion to cell growth or death induced by cholinergic molecular pathways during the conflict's resolved phase. Case studies and data mining from PubMed suggest that this concept complies with the principles of holistic medicine and the scientific literature supporting its benefits. We suggest that the evolution of cancer can be seen as a biphasic stress response regulated by the brain to adapt to psychological stressors, which produce imbalance among the physical, mental, and information bodies.

  9. Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Koltyn, Kelli F.; Brellenthin, Angelique G.; Cook, Dane B.; Sehgal, Nalini; Hillard, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine opioid and endocannabinoid mechanisms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Fifty-eight men and women (mean age = 21 yrs) completed three sessions. During the first session, participants were familiarized with the temporal summation of heat pain and pressure pain protocols. In the exercise sessions, following double-blind administration of either an opioid antagonist (50 mg naltrexone) or placebo, participants rated the intensity of heat pulses and indicated their pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and ratings (PPR) before and after 3 minutes of submaximal isometric exercise. Blood was drawn before and after exercise. Results indicated circulating concentrations of two endocannabinoids, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as well as related lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), N-docsahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA), and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) increased significantly (p < 0.05) following exercise. PPT increased significantly (p < 0.05) while PPR decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following exercise. Also, temporal summation ratings were significantly lower (p < 0.05) following exercise. These changes in pain responses did not differ between placebo or naltrexone conditions (p > 0.05). A significant association was found between EIH and DHEA. These results suggest involvement of a non-opioid mechanism in EIH following isometric exercise. PMID:25261342

  10. Biphasic effects of histamine on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions: Studies with betahistine, dimaprit, (R). alpha. -methylhistamine and nizatidine

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, R.E.; Palitzsch, K.D.; Szabo, S. )

    1991-03-15

    In elucidating further the role that histamine (H) may play in gastroprotection against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) induced by ethanol (E), fasted S-D rats were treated with subcutaneous (s.c.) H 10, 15, 20 and 30 min before intragastric (i.g.) 100% E or H-agonists betahistine (H1) or dimaprit (H2) i.g. 30 min. before 75% E. All animals were killed 1 hr after E, HML were measured with stereomicrosopic planimetry and expressed as % of glandular stomach. The H2 antagonist nizatidine did not influence the extent of HML. As a follow up to previously reported nizatidine blockade of H2-induced gastroprotection against 75% E, nizatidine + H1 or nizatidine + H3 agonist (R){alpha}-methylhistamine was also tested. The H2 antagonist nizatidine abolished the gastroprotection by H3 but did not influence the H1-induced reduction of HML. H injected s.c. showed a dose- and time-dependent biphasic effect on E-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Both H1- and H2-agonists injected s.c. reduced the E-induced damage. Nizatidine alone failed to influence mucosal lesions, blocked gastroprotection induced by H2 or H3, but not by H1 agonists.

  11. Facile preparation of biphasic-induced magnetic icariin-loaded composite microcapsules by automated in situ click technology.

    PubMed

    Pan, Panpan; Chen, Jingdi; Fan, Tiantang; Hu, Yimin; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-04-01

    This research aims to prepare the biphasic-induced magnetic composite microcapsules (BIMCM) as a promising environmental stimuli-responsive delivery vehicle to dispose the problem of drug burst effect. The paper presented a novel automated in situ click technology of magnetic chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite (CS/nHA) microcapsules. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and nHA were simultaneously in situ crystallized by one-step process. Icariin (ICA), a plant-derived flavonol glycoside, was combined to study drug release properties of BIMCM. BIMCM were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Thermal gravimetric analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry(TGA/DSC) in order to reveal their component and surface morphology as well as the role of the in situ generated Fe3O4 MNP and nHA. The magnetic test showed the BIMCM were super-paramagnetic. Both in situ generated Fe3O4 MNP and nHA serve as stable inorganic crosslinkers in BIMCM to form many intermolecular crosslinkages for the movability of the CS chains. This makes ICA loaded microcapsules take on a sustained release behavior and results in the self-adjusting of surface morphology, decreasing of swelling and degradation rates. In addition, in vitro tests were systematically carried out to examine the biocompatibility of the microcapsules by MTT test, Wright-Giemsa dying assay and AO/EB fluorescent staining method. These results demonstrated that successful introduction of the in situ click Fe3O4 MNP provided an alternative strategy because of magnetic sensitivity and sustained release. As such, the novel ICA loaded biphasic-induced magnetic CS/nHA/MNP microcapsules are expected to find potential applications in drug delivery system for bone repair.

  12. Muscle stiffness, strength loss, swelling and soreness following exercise-induced injury in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, J N; Chleboun, G; Conatser, R

    1993-01-01

    1. In order to study injury-related changes in muscle stiffness, injury to the elbow flexors of thirteen human subjects was induced by a regimen of eccentric exercise. 2. Passive stiffness over an intermediate range of elbow angles was measured with a device which held the relaxed arm of the subject in the horizontal plane and stepped it through the range of elbow angles from 90 deg to near full extension at 180 deg. The relation between static torque and elbow angle was quite linear over the first 50 deg and was taken as stiffness. 3. Stiffness over this range of angles more than doubled immediately after exercise and remained elevated for about 4 days, and may result from low level myofibrillar activation induced by muscle stretch. 4. Arm swelling was biphasic; arm circumference increased by about 3% immediately after exercise, fell back toward normal, then increased by as much as 9% and remained elevated for as long as 9 days. 5. Ultrasound imaging showed most of the swelling immediately following the exercise to be localized to the flexor muscle compartment; subsequent swelling involved other tissue compartments as well. 6. Muscle strength declined by almost 40% after the exercise and recovery was only slight 10 days later; the half-time of recovery appeared to be as long as 5-6 weeks. PMID:8229798

  13. L-cysteine reversibly inhibits glucose-induced biphasic insulin secretion and ATP production by inactivating PKM2.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Daiki; Horiuchi, Yuta; Kano, Fumi; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Taichi; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-03-10

    Increase in the concentration of plasma L-cysteine is closely associated with defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged L-cysteine treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells and from mouse pancreatic islets, and found that the treatment reversibly inhibited glucose-induced ATP production and resulting GSIS without affecting proinsulin and insulin synthesis. Comprehensive metabolic analyses using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that prolonged L-cysteine treatment decreased the levels of pyruvate and its downstream metabolites. In addition, methyl pyruvate, a membrane-permeable form of pyruvate, rescued L-cysteine-induced inhibition of GSIS. Based on these results, we found that both in vitro and in MIN6 cells, L-cysteine specifically inhibited the activity of pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), an isoform of pyruvate kinases that catalyze the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. L-cysteine also induced PKM2 subunit dissociation (tetramers to dimers/monomers) in cells, which resulted in impaired glucose-induced ATP production for GSIS. DASA-10 (NCGC00181061, a substituted N,N'-diarylsulfonamide), a specific activator for PKM2, restored the tetramer formation and the activity of PKM2, glucose-induced ATP production, and biphasic insulin secretion in L-cysteine-treated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion due to exposure to L-cysteine resulted from its direct binding and inactivation of PKM2 and suggest that PKM2 is a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

  14. Acetylcholine and tachykinins involvement in the caffeine-induced biphasic change in intracellular Ca2+ in bovine airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Montaño, Luis M; Carbajal, Verónica; Arreola, José L; Barajas-López, Carlos; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Vargas, Mario H

    2003-01-01

    Caffeine has been widely used as a pharmacological tool to evaluate Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in isolated smooth muscle cells. However, in nervous tissue this drug also causes neurotransmitters release, which might cause additional effects when smooth muscle strips are evaluated. To assess this last possibility, simultaneous measurements of contraction and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (using Fura–2/AM) were carried out in bovine airway smooth muscle strips during caffeine stimulation. A first stimulation (S1, n=11) with caffeine (10 mM) induced a biphasic change in cytosolic Ca2+, which consisted of a transient Ca2+ peak (254±40 nM, X±SEM) followed by a plateau (92±13 nM), and a transient contraction (204.72±31.56 mg tension mg tissue−1). A second caffeine stimulation (S2) produced a similar response but these parameters had a different magnitude. The S2/S1 ratios for these parameters were 0.69±0.02, 0.83±0.06 and 1.01±0.03, respectively. Addition of ω-conotoxin GVIA (1 μM) and tetrodotoxin (3.1 μM) before S2 significantly diminished these S2/S1 ratios (0.26±0.05, 0.26±0.09 and 0.64±0.11, respectively, n=5, P<0.05), implicating the neurotransmitters release involvement in the response to caffeine. A similar effect (P<0.01) was observed with atropine (1 μM, n=4), the fragment 4–11 of substance P (SP) (an SP receptor antagonist, 10 μM, n=5), and with both substances (n=4). We discarded a direct effect of ω-conotoxin GVIA (1 μM) plus tetrodotoxin (3.1 μM) or of atropine (1 μM) plus SP fragment 4–11 on smooth muscle cells because they did not modify caffeine responses in isolated tracheal myocytes. We confirmed by HPLC that caffeine increased the release of acetylcholine (from 0.43±0.19 to 2.07±0.56 nM mg tissue−1, P<0.02) in bovine airway smooth muscle strips. Detection of substance P by ELISA was not statistically different after caffeine stimulation (geometric means before and after caffeine, 0.69 vs. 1.97 pg ml−1

  15. Temperature jump induced force generation in rabbit muscle fibres gets faster with shortening and shows a biphasic dependence on velocity.

    PubMed

    Ranatunga, K W; Roots, H; Offer, G W

    2010-02-01

    We examined the tension responses to ramp shortening and rapid temperature jump (<0.2 ms, 3-4 degrees C T-jump) in maximally Ca(2+)-activated rabbit psoas muscle fibres at 8-9 degrees C (the fibre length (L(0)) was approximately 1.5 mm and sarcomere length 2.5 microm). The aim was to investigate the strain sensitivity of crossbridge force generation in muscle. The T-jump induced tension rise was examined during steady shortening over a wide range of velocities (V) approaching the V(max) (V range approximately 0.01 to approximately 1.5 L(0) s(1)). In the isometric state, a T-jump induced a biphasic tension rise consisting of a fast (approximately 50 s(1), phase 2b) and a slow (approximately 10 s(1), phase 3) component, but if treated as monophasic the rate was approximately 20 s(1). During steady shortening the T-jump tension rise was monophasic; the rate of tension rise increased linearly with shortening velocity, and near V(max) it was approximately 200 s(1), approximately 10x faster than in the isometric state. Relative to the tension reached after the T-jump, the amplitude increased with shortening velocity, and near V(max) it was 4x larger than in the isometric state. Thus, the temperature sensitivity of muscle force is markedly increased with velocity during steady shortening, as found in steady state experiments. The rate of tension decline during ramp shortening also increased markedly with increase of velocity. The absolute amplitude of T-jump tension rise was larger than that in the isometric state at the low velocities (<0.5 L(0) s(1)) but decreased to below that of the isometric state at the higher velocities. Such a biphasic velocity dependence of the absolute amplitude of T-jump tension rise implies interplay between, at least, two processes that have opposing effects on the tension output as the shortening velocity is increased, probably enhancement of crossbridge force generation and faster (post-stroke) crossbridge detachment by negative strain

  16. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction update-2016.

    PubMed

    Weiler, John M; Brannan, John D; Randolph, Christopher C; Hallstrand, Teal S; Parsons, Jonathan; Silvers, William; Storms, William; Zeiger, Joanna; Bernstein, David I; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Greenhawt, Matthew; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard A; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay M; Schuller, Diane E; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana

    2016-11-01

    The first practice parameter on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) was published in 2010. This updated practice parameter was prepared 5 years later. In the ensuing years, there has been increased understanding of the pathogenesis of EIB and improved diagnosis of this disorder by using objective testing. At the time of this publication, observations included the following: dry powder mannitol for inhalation as a bronchial provocation test is FDA approved however not currently available in the United States; if baseline pulmonary function test results are normal to near normal (before and after bronchodilator) in a person with suspected EIB, then further testing should be performed by using standardized exercise challenge or eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH); and the efficacy of nonpharmaceutical interventions (omega-3 fatty acids) has been challenged. The workgroup preparing this practice parameter updated contemporary practice guidelines based on a current systematic literature review. The group obtained supplementary literature and consensus expert opinions when the published literature was insufficient. A search of the medical literature on PubMed was conducted, and search terms included pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and therapy (both pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical) of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction or exercise-induced asthma (which is no longer a preferred term); asthma; and exercise and asthma. References assessed as relevant to the topic were evaluated to search for additional relevant references. Published clinical studies were appraised by category of evidence and used to document the strength of the recommendation. The parameter was then evaluated by Joint Task Force reviewers and then by reviewers assigned by the parent organizations, as well as the general membership. Based on this process, the parameter can be characterized as an evidence- and consensus-based document.

  17. Mycobacterium terrae isolated from indoor air of a moisture-damaged building induces sustained biphasic inflammatory response in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Juha; Komulainen, Hannu; Huttunen, Kati; Roponen, Marjut; Iivanainen, Eila; Torkko, Pirjo; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Pelkonen, Jukka; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2002-11-01

    Occupants in moisture-damaged buildings suffer frequently from respiratory symptoms. This may be partly due to the presence of abnormal microbial growth or the altered microbial flora in the damaged buildings. However, the specific effects of the microbes on respiratory health and the way they provoke clinical manifestations are poorly understood. In the present study, we exposed mice via intratracheal instillation to a single dose of Mycobacterium terrae isolated from the indoor air of a moisture-damaged building (1 X 10(7), 5 X 10(7), or 1 X 10(8) microbes). Inflammation and toxicity in lungs were evaluated 2 hr later. The time course of the effects was assessed with the dose of 1 X 10(8) bacterial cells for up to 28 days. M. terrae caused a sustained biphasic inflammation in mouse lungs. The characteristic features for the first phase, which lasted from 6 hr to 3 days, were elevated proinflammatory cytokine [i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). TNF-alpha was produced in the lungs more intensively than was IL-6. Neutrophils were the most abundant cells in the airways during the first phase, although their numbers in BALF remained elevated up to 21 days. The characteristics of the second phase, which lasted from 7 to 28 days, were elevated TNF-alpha levels in BALF, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in BAL cells, and recruitment of mononuclear cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages into the airways. Moreover, total protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were elevated in both phases in BALF. The bacteria were detected in lungs up to 28 days. In summary, these observations indicate that M. terrae is capable of provoking a sustained, biphasic inflammation in mouse lungs and can cause a moderate degree of cytotoxicity. Thus, M. terrae can be considered a species with potential to adversely affect the health of the occupants of moisture

  18. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pierson, W E

    1988-01-01

    The early recognition and appropriate management of EIB can allow children and adolescents to fully participate in physical activities and sports. The diagnosis by history of chest congestion, coughing, and decreasing performance with exercise is helpful but is aided by a more systematic questionnaire that can detect otherwise "normal" people with EIB. The diagnosis is documented by performance of an exercise challenge test such as a treadmill or cycloergometer to verify bronchospasm induced by exercise. The management can be accomplished by nonpharmacologic means such as an early vigorous warmup, the use of a mask for rebreathing warmed air, and participation in a physical training program to increase anaerobic fitness. Pharmacologic management includes the appropriate use of cromolyn sodium, beta adrenergic agonists, theophylline, ipratroprium bromide, and calcium channel blocking agents. In addition the antihistamine, terfenadine, can also be utilized to effectively block exercise-induced bronchospasm. These pharmacologic agents can be utilized in both national and international competition when approved by the appropriate national governing body and/or the US Olympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee.

  19. Dissection of the biphasic nature of hypoxia-induced motogenic action in bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Busletta, Chiara; Novo, Erica; Valfrè Di Bonzo, Lorenzo; Povero, Davide; Paternostro, Claudia; Ievolella, Monica; Mareschi, Katia; Ferrero, Ivana; Cannito, Stefania; Compagnone, Alessandra; Bandino, Andrea; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Fagioli, Franca; Parola, Maurizio

    2011-06-01

    Hypoxic conditions have been reported to facilitate preservation of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype and positively affect their colony-forming potential, proliferation, and migration/mobilization. In this study, designed to dissect mechanisms underlying hypoxia-dependent migration of bone marrow-derived human MSC (hMSC), signal transduction, and molecular mechanisms were evaluated by integrating morphological, molecular, and cell biology techniques, including the wound healing assay (WHA) and modified Boyden's chamber assay (BCA) to monitor migration. Exposure of hMSCs to moderate hypoxia resulted in a significant increase of migration of hMSCs in both WHA (from 6 to 20 hours) and BCA (within 6 hours). Mechanistic experiments outlined the following sequence of hypoxia-dependent events: (a) very early (15 minutes) increased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which (b) was sufficient to switch on activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2, found to be relevant for the early phase of hMSC migration; (c) hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (facilitated by ROS) and its progressive release that was responsible for (d) a delayed and sustained migration of hMSCs. These results suggest that hypoxia-dependent migration relies on a previously unrecognized biphasic scenario involving an early phase, requiring generation of ROS, and a delayed phase sustained by HIF-1-dependent expression and release of VEGF.

  20. Biphasic Functional Regulation in Hippocampus of Rat with Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Induced by Permanent Occlusion of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Sun; Han, Jung-Soo; Kim, Bu-Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO) in rats has been commonly used for the study of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Despite the apparent cognitive dysfunction in rats with BCCAO, the molecular markers or pathways involved in the pathological alternation have not been clearly identified. Methods Temporal changes (sham, 21, 35, 45, 55 and 70 days) in gene expression in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO were measured using time-course microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed to identify the functional involvement of temporally regulated genes in BCCAO. Results Two major gene expression patterns were observed in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO. One pattern, which was composed of 341 early up-regulated genes after the surgical procedure, was dominantly involved in immune-related biological functions (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.01). Another pattern composed of 182 temporally delayed down-regulated genes was involved in sensory perception such as olfactory and cognition functions (FDR<0.01). In addition to the two gene expression patterns, the temporal change of GO and the pathway activities using all differentially expressed genes also confirmed that an immune response was the main early change, whereas sensory functions were delayed responses. Moreover, we identified FADD and SOCS3 as possible core genes in the sensory function loss process using text-based mining and interaction network analysis. Conclusions The biphasic regulatory mechanism first reported here could provide molecular evidence of BCCAO-induced impaired memory in rats as well as mechanism of the development of vascular dementia. PMID:23936146

  1. [Cereal-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Seoane-Rodríguez, Marta; Caralli, María Elisa; Morales-Cabeza, Cristina; Micozzi, Sarah; De Barrio-Fernández, Manuel; Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is increasing. In vitro test such as omega-5-gliadin levels are useful in the diagnosis, while oral single blind challenge tests (OCT) with wheat plus exercise continuous being the gold standard diagnostic method. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old woman, with several episodes of anaphylaxis after eating different foods and doing exercise after ingestion. An allergy study was performed with positive skin prick tests for wheat, barley and rye. Total IgE 238.0KU/L, positive specific IgE (>100KU/L) to wheat, barley and rye, and negative to rTri-a-19 omega-5 gliadin. OCT with bread and exercise was positive. In this case of wheat-dependent exerciseinduced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with negative serum specific IgE to omega-5-gliadin, negative results with gamma, alpha, bheta y omega-gliadin doesn't exclude the diagnosis of WDEIA.

  2. Biphasic function of focal adhesion kinase in endothelial tube formation induced by fibril-forming collagens.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Junko; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Keishi; Takeda, Teiji; Yamazaki, Masanori; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Hashizume, Kiyoshi

    2008-10-03

    Migration and tube formation of endothelial cells are important in angiogenesis and require a coordinated response to the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and growth factor. Since focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signals from both ECM and growth factor, we investigated its role in angiogenesis. Type I and II collagens are fibril-forming collagens and stimulate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form tube structure. Although knockdown of FAK restrained cell motility and resulted in inhibition of tube formation, FAK degradation and tube formation occurred simultaneously after incubation with fibril-forming collagens. The compensation for the FAK degradation by a calpain inhibitor or transient over-expression of FAK resulted in disturbance of tube formation. These phenomena are specific to fibril-forming collagens and mediated via alpha2beta1 integrin. In conclusion, our data indicate that FAK is functioning in cell migration, but fibril-forming collagen-induced FAK degradation is necessary for endothelial tube formation.

  3. Transcriptional Changes in Canine Distemper Virus-Induced Demyelinating Leukoencephalitis Favor a Biphasic Mode of Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Reiner; Puff, Christina; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris) is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms “viral replication” and “humoral immune response” as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to “metabolite and energy

  4. Transcriptional changes in canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis favor a biphasic mode of demyelination.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Reiner; Puff, Christina; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris) is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms "viral replication" and "humoral immune response" as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to "metabolite and energy generation".

  5. Exercise induces autophagy in peripheral tissues and in the brain.

    PubMed

    He, Congcong; Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth

    2012-10-01

    We recently identified physical exercise as a newly defined inducer of autophagy in vivo. Exercise induced autophagy in multiple organs involved in metabolic regulation, such as muscle, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. To study the physiological role of exercise-induced autophagy, we generated mice with a knock-in nonphosphorylatable mutation in BCL2 (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) (BCL2 AAA) that are defective in exercise- and starvation-induced autophagy but not in basal autophagy. We found that BCL2 AAA mice could not run on a treadmill as long as wild-type mice, and did not undergo exercise-mediated increases in skeletal glucose muscle uptake. Unlike wild-type mice, the BCL2 AAA mice failed to reverse high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance after 8 weeks of exercise training, possibly due to defects in signaling pathways that regulate muscle glucose uptake and metabolism during exercise. Together, these findings suggested a hitherto unknown important role of autophagy in mediating exercise-induced metabolic benefits. In the present addendum, we show that treadmill exercise also induces autophagy in the cerebral cortex of adult mice. This observation raises the intriguing question of whether autophagy may in part mediate the beneficial effects of exercise in neurodegeneration, adult neurogenesis and improved cognitive function.

  6. Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms not due to asthma.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Chetan A; Batterby, Eugenie; Van Asperen, Peter; Cooper, Peter; Selvadurai, Hiran; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2014-10-01

    This manuscript describes two interesting patients who had exercise-induced symptoms that unmasked an alternative underlying diagnosis. The first is an 8-year-old boy who was treated for asthma all his life but really had exercise-induced stridor (labelled as wheeze) causing significant exercise limitation, which was due to a double aortic arch with the right arch compressing the trachea. The second case describes the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction in a 13-year-old anxious high achiever. He also initially had exercise-induced symptoms treated as exercise-induced wheeze but again had a stridor due to vocal cord dysfunction. Both these cases demonstrate the importance of detailed history including during exercise, which can unmask alternative diagnosis. Another important message is that if there is no response to bronchodilator treatment with absence of typical signs and symptoms of asthma, alternative diagnosis should be considered.

  7. Molecular Aspects of Exercise-induced Cardiac Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Bianca C; McMullen, Julie R

    2016-11-01

    Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is typically an adaptive response associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and renewal, increased cardiac myocyte contractility, sarcomeric remodeling, cell survival, metabolic and mitochondrial adaptations, electrical remodeling, and angiogenesis. Initiating stimuli/triggers of cardiac remodeling include increased hemodynamic load, increased sympathetic activity, and the release of hormones and growth factors. Prolonged and strenuous exercise may lead to maladaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling including cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmia. In addition, this article describes novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of heart failure that target mechanisms responsible for adaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, which are being developed and tested in preclinical models.

  8. Surgical management of a patient with exercise-induced esotropia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    Exercise-induced esotropia is a rare form of strabismus characterized by paroxysms of esotropia and diplopia only during exercise. This report describes a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 1-year history of exercise-induced esotropia. He has been asymptomatic after recession of a single medial rectus muscle. It is hypothesized that the esotropia was attributable to a malfunction in the muscle tension-control circuit and that altering the small signal gain with surgery resulted in improvement.

  9. Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-03-03

    Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  10. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Mina; Hayden, Nicholas; Garcia, Brandon; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases.

  11. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction update: therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Spector, Sheldon; Tan, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) should include both prevention and treatment directed toward the underlying asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches should be followed. Preexercise warm-up, to take advantage of the refractory period that follows EIB, is an important preventive technique. Dietary interventions such as fish oil, vitamin D, and ascorbic acid have shown promising results. Beta 2-agonists are considered the most effective agents for EIB at this time but intermittent use is recommended to avoid tolerance or decreased effectiveness with daily regular use. Leukotriene inhibitors and mast cell stabilizing agents can be useful in EIB but are less effective than beta 2-agonists. Tolerance to beta 2-agonists is not prevented by concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroid but it is not known whether use of leukotriene inhibitors can affect tolerance. EIB in elite athletes with no underlying asthma may have a different pathogenesis.

  12. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mina; Hayden, Nicholas; Garcia, Brandon; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases. PMID:26693360

  13. Exercise excess pressure and exercise-induced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Climie, Rachel E D; Srikanth, Velandai; Keith, Laura J; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced albuminuria is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in response to maximal exercise, but the response to light-moderate exercise is unclear. Patients with T2DM have abnormal central hemodynamics and greater propensity for exercise hypertension. This study sought to determine the relationship between light-moderate exercise central hemodynamics (including aortic reservoir and excess pressure) and exercise-induced albuminuria. Thirty-nine T2DM (62 ± 9 yr; 49% male) and 39 nondiabetic controls (53 ± 9 yr; 51% male) were examined at rest and during 20 min of light-moderate cycle exercise (30 W; 50 revolutions/min). Albuminuria was assessed by the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and 30 min postexercise. Hemodynamics recorded included brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness, augmented pressure (AP), aortic reservoir pressure, and excess pressure integral (Pexcess). There was no difference in ACR between groups before exercise (P > 0.05). Exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM but not controls (1.73 ± 1.43 vs. 0.53 ± 1.0 mg/mol, P = 0.002). All central hemodynamic variables were significantly higher during exercise in T2DM (i.e., Pexcess, systolic BP and AP; P < 0.01 all). In T2DM (but not controls), exercise Pexcess was associated with postexercise ACR (r = 0.51, P = 0.002), and this relationship was independent of age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, aortic stiffness, antihypertensive medication, and ambulatory daytime systolic BP (β = 0.003, P = 0.003). Light-moderate exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM, and this was independently associated with Pexcess, a potential marker of vascular dysfunction. These novel findings suggest that Pexcess could be important for appropriate renal function in T2DM.

  14. Exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling is modulated by intensity.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Foster, Adam D; Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea; Gerdeman, Gregory L

    2013-04-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCB) are endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors that are densely expressed in brain networks responsible for reward. Recent work shows that exercise activates the eCB system in humans and other mammals, suggesting eCBs are partly responsible for the reported improvements in mood and affect following aerobic exercise in humans. However, exercise-induced psychological changes reported by runners are known to be dependent on exercise intensity, suggesting that any underlying molecular mechanism should also change with varying levels of exercise intensity. Here, we examine circulating levels of eCBs following aerobic exercise (treadmill running) in recreationally fit human runners at four different intensities. We show that eCB signaling is indeed intensity dependent, with significant changes in circulating eCBs observed following moderate intensities only (very high and very low intensity exercises do not significantly alter circulating eCB levels). Our results are consistent with intensity-dependent psychological state changes with exercise and therefore support the hypothesis that eCB activity is related to neurobiological effects of exercise. Thus, future studies examining the role of exercise-induced eCB signaling on neurobiology or physiology must take exercise intensity into account.

  15. Update on Exercise-Induced Asthma. A Report of the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, William W.; Joyner, David M.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes results from the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference, offering the latest on identifying and managing exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Concludes that effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment is available, but EIA is underrecognized and underdiagnosed. Physicians should look for it in all patients, including school…

  16. Exercise Challenge for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm. Confirming Presence, Evaluating Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Ted A.

    1995-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm commonly strikes young people, keeping many away from activity. The exercise challenge test (a powerful tool in diagnosing the condition, fine-tuning treatment, and improving patient compliance) can help get patients back in action. Knowing how to interpret and use test results helps physicians expedite effective…

  17. Memory of pain induced by physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the memory of pain induced by running a marathon and the factors that influence it. Sixty-two marathon runners participated in the study, which comprised two phases. Immediately after a participant had reached the finishing line of the marathon, they were asked to rate the intensity and the unpleasantness of their pain and the emotions they felt at that time. Either three or six months later they were asked again to rate the intensity and the unpleasantness of the same pain experience. Regardless of the length of recall delay, participants underestimated both recalled pain intensity and unpleasantness. The pain and negative affect reported at the time of the pain experience accounted for 24% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain intensity and 22% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain unpleasantness. Positive affect at the time of pain experience was not a significant predictor of both the recalled pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. It is concluded that pain induced by physical exercise is not remembered accurately and the pain and negative affect experienced influence recall. Further research is needed on the influence of positive affect on the memory of pain.

  18. Clinical application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation induced cardiovascular exercise.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Crowe, Louis; Coughlan, Garrett; Minogue, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We need to find novel ways of increasing exercise participation, particularly in those populations who find it difficult to participate in voluntary exercise. In recent years researchers have started to investigate the potential for using electrical stimulation to artificially stimulate a pattern of muscle activity that would induce a physiological response consistent with cardiovascular exercise. Work to date has indicated that this is best achieved by using a stimulation protocol that results in rapid rhythmical isometric contractions of the large leg muscle groups at sub tetanic frequencies. Studies completed by our group indicate that this technique can serve as a viable alternative to voluntary cardiovascular exercise. Apart from being able to induce a cardiovascular exercise effect in patient populations (e.g. heart failure, COPD, spinal cord injury, obesity), this approach may also have value in promotion of exercise activity in a microgravity environment.

  19. Trypsin induces biphasic muscle contraction and relaxation via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurokinin receptors 1/2 in porcine esophageal body.

    PubMed

    Xiaopeng, Bai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Ihara, Eikichi; Hirano, Katsuya; Nakano, Kayoko; Hirano, Mayumi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-15

    Duodenal reflux of fluids containing trypsin relates to refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophageal peristalsis and clearance are important factors in GERD pathogenesis. However, the function of trypsin in esophageal body contractility is not fully understood. In this study, effects of trypsin on circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) of the porcine esophageal body were examined. Trypsin elicited a concentration dependent biphasic response, a major contraction and a subsequent relaxation only in CSM. In CSM, contraction occurred at trypsin concentrations of 100nM and relaxation at 1μM. A proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)2 activating peptide, SLIGKV-NH2 (1mM), induced a monophasic contraction. Those responses were unaffected by tetrodotoxin though abolished by the gap junction uncouplers carbenoxolone and octanol. They were also partially inhibited by a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist and abolished by combination of neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1) and NK2 antagonists, but not by an NK3 antagonist, suggesting a PAR2-TRPV1-substance P pathway in sensory neurons. Substance P (100nM), an agonist for various NK receptors (NK1, NK2 and NK3) with differing affinities, induced significant contraction in CSM, but not in LSM. The contraction was also blocked by the combination of NK1 and NK2 antagonists, but not by the NK3 antagonist. Moreover, substance P-induced contractions were unaffected by the TRPV1 antagonist, but inhibited by a gap junction uncoupler. In conclusion, trypsin induced a biphasic response only in CSM and this was mediated by PAR2, TRPV1 and NK1/2. Gap junctions were indispensable in this tachykinin-induced response.

  20. Exercise-induced asthma. What family physicians should do.

    PubMed Central

    D'Urzo, A.

    1995-01-01

    Exercise-induced asthma is described as a transitory increase in airway resistance during or after vigorous exercise. Nearly 90% of patients with chronic asthma and 40% of allergic nonasthmatic patients have the condition. Family physicians should try to educate patients about their asthma and, barring contraindications, encourage them to participate in regular physical activity. PMID:8563507

  1. Wheezing or Breezing through Exercise-Induced Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Several physicians discuss the tests they use to diagnose exercise-induced asthma (EIA), the medications they typically prescribe and why, and the importance of properly educating athletes about EIA. (JD)

  2. Polyphenols in exercise performance and prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Although moderate physical exercise is considered an essential component of a healthy lifestyle that leads the organism to adapt itself to different stresses, exercise, especially when exhaustive, is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage. Many efforts have been carried out to identify dietary strategies or micronutrients able to prevent or at least attenuate the exercise-induced muscle damage and stress. Unfortunately most studies have failed to show protection, and at the present time data supporting the protective effect of micronutrients, as antioxidant vitamins, are weak and trivial. This review focuses on those polyphenols, present in the plant kingdom, that have been recently suggested to exert some positive effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress. In the last decade flavonoids as quercetin, catechins, and other polyphenols as resveratrol have caught the scientists attention. However, at the present time drawing a clear and definitive conclusion seems to be untimely.

  3. Polyphenols in Exercise Performance and Prevention of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Although moderate physical exercise is considered an essential component of a healthy lifestyle that leads the organism to adapt itself to different stresses, exercise, especially when exhaustive, is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage. Many efforts have been carried out to identify dietary strategies or micronutrients able to prevent or at least attenuate the exercise-induced muscle damage and stress. Unfortunately most studies have failed to show protection, and at the present time data supporting the protective effect of micronutrients, as antioxidant vitamins, are weak and trivial. This review focuses on those polyphenols, present in the plant kingdom, that have been recently suggested to exert some positive effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress. In the last decade flavonoids as quercetin, catechins, and other polyphenols as resveratrol have caught the scientists attention. However, at the present time drawing a clear and definitive conclusion seems to be untimely. PMID:23983900

  4. Leg Immersion in Warm Water, Stretch-Shortening Exercise, and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Streckis, Vytautas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Drazdauskas, Adomas

    2008-01-01

    Context: Whether muscle warming protects against exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise on the time course of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. Design: Crossover trial. Setting: Human kinetics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven healthy, untrained men (age  =  21.5 ± 1.7 years). Intervention(s): Participants' legs were immersed in a water bath at 44 ± 1°C for 45 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase changes in the blood, muscle soreness, prolonged (within 72 hours) impairment in maximal voluntary contraction force and height of drop jump, and electrically evoked muscle force at low and high stimulation frequencies at short and long muscle lengths. Results: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, including creatine kinase activity in the blood, muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction force, and jump height. The values for maximal voluntary contraction force and jump height, however, were higher during prewarming than for the control condition at 48 hours after stretch-shortening exercise, but this difference was only minor at other time points. Muscle prewarming did not bring about any changes in the dynamics of low-frequency fatigue, registered at either short or long muscle length, within 72 hours of stretch-shortening exercise. Conclusions: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the clinical application of muscle prewarming may be limited, because decreasing muscle damage did not necessarily lead to improved voluntary performance. PMID:19030137

  5. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Eccentric exercise, in which the muscles exert force by lengthening, is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness. How soreness occurs, how recovery proceeds, and what precautions athletes should take are described. (Author/MT)

  6. Exercise induces BDNF and synapsin I to specific hippocampal subfields.

    PubMed

    Vaynman, Shoshanna; Ying, Zhe; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    To assess the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synapsin I in the hippocampus during exercise, we employed a novel microsphere injection method to block the action of BDNF through its tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptor and subsequently measure the mRNA levels of synapsin I, using real-time TaqMan RT-PCR for RNA quantification. After establishing a causal link between BDNF and exercise-induced synapsin I mRNA levels, we studied the exercise-induced distribution of BDNF and synapsin I in the rodent hippocampus. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis revealed increases of BDNF and synapsin I in CA3 stratum lucidum and dentate gyrus, and synapsin I alone in CA1 stratum radiatum and stratum laconosum moleculare. These results indicate that exercise induces plasticity of select hippocampal transsynaptic circuitry, possibly comprising a spatial restriction on synapsin I regulation by BDNF.

  7. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2017-01-01

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty. PMID:28106721

  8. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2017-01-17

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  9. Treadmill Exercise Induces Hippocampal Astroglial Alterations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Caren; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Nardin, Patrícia; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Vizueti, Adriana Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Bobermin, Larissa; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Jaqueline; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise (20 min/day) for 4 weeks on some parameters of astrocytic activity in rat hippocampal slices, namely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, glutathione content, and S100B protein content and secretion, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and glucose uptake activity in this tissue. Results show that moderate treadmill exercise was able to induce a decrease in GFAP content (evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry) and an increase in GS activity. These changes could be mediated by corticosterone, whose levels were elevated in serum. BDNF, another putative mediator, was not altered in hippocampal tissue. Moreover, treadmill exercise caused a decrease in NO content. Our data indicate specific changes in astrocyte markers induced by physical exercise, the importance of studying astrocytes for understanding brain plasticity, as well as reinforce the relevance of physical exercise as a neuroprotective strategy. PMID:23401802

  10. Increased releasability of skin mast cells after exercise in patients with exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseon S; Koh, Youngil I; Chung, Se-Woong; Lim, Ho

    2004-10-01

    The role of lung mast cells in exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is controversial. To investigate whether the skin mast cell releasability is increased after exercise in EIA, 49 young atopic men with or without asthma took part in a free-running test for 6 min and were given skin prick tests using morphine, a mast cell secretagogue, before and after the exercise. The mean diameters of the wheal induced by morphine in patients with EIA were not significantly different from those in patients without EIA before exercise, although the baseline lung function was significantly lower and the airway hyperresponsiveness, the peripheral blood eosinophil count, and the size of the wheal in response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were significantly higher in patients with EIA. However, the differences of the morphine-induced wheal diameter between patients with EIA and those without EIA became significant at 120 min after exercise (p<0.05), while the responses to histamine were not significantly different. These results suggest that exercise increases the releasability of skin mast cells in EIA patients whose asthma/allergy are relatively severe.

  11. mRNA Noise Reveals that Activators Induce a Biphasic Response in the Promoter Kinetics of Highly Regulated Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Katie; To, Tsz-Leung; Maheshri, Narendra

    2012-02-01

    A dominant source of fluctuations in gene expression is thought to be the process of transcription. The statistics of these fluctuations arise from the kinetics of transcription. Multiple studies suggest the bulk of fluctuations can be understood by a simple process where genes are inactive for exponentially distributed times punctuated by geometric bursts of mRNA. Yet it's largely unknown how cis and trans factors affect the two lumped kinetic parameters, burst size and burst frequency, that describe this process. Importantly, how these parameters are regulated in a single gene can qualitatively affect the dynamical behavior of the network it is embedded within. Here, we ask whether transcriptional activators increase gene expression by increasing the burst size or burst frequency. We do so by deducing these parameters from steady-state mRNA distributions measured in individual yeast cells using single molecule mRNA FISH. We find that for both a synthetic and natural promoter, activators appear to first increase burst size, then burst frequency. We suggest this biphasic response may be common to all highly regulated genes and was previously unappreciated because of measurement techniques. Furthermore, its origins appear to relate to cis events at the promoter, and may arise from combinations of basal and activator-dependent bursts. Our measurements shed new light on transcriptional mechanisms and should assist in building synthetic promoters with tunable statistics.

  12. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-09-28

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus.

  13. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus. PMID:27677455

  14. Biphasic water splitting by osmocene

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Peiyu; Todorova, Tanya K.; Patir, Imren Hatay; Olaya, Astrid J.; Vrubel, Heron; Mendez, Manuel; Hu, Xile; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Girault, Hubert H.

    2012-01-01

    The photochemical reactivity of osmocene in a biphasic water-organic solvent system has been investigated to probe its water splitting properties. The photoreduction of aqueous protons to hydrogen under anaerobic conditions induced by osmocene dissolved in 1,2-dichloroethane and the subsequent water splitting by the osmocenium metal-metal dimer formed during H2 production were studied by electrochemical methods, UV-visible spectrometry, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Density functional theory computations were used to validate the reaction pathways. PMID:22665787

  15. Can Exercise Make You Smarter, Happier, and Have More Neurons? A Hormetic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gradari, Simona; Pallé, Anna; McGreevy, Kerry R.; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Trejo, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise can make you smarter, happier and have more neurons depending on the dose (intensity) of the training program. It is well recognized that exercise protocols induce both positive and negative effects depending on the intensity of the exercise, among other key factors, a process described as a hormetic-like biphasic dose-response. However, no evidences have been reported till very recently about the biphasic response of some of the potential mediators of the exercise-induced actions. This hypothesis and theory will focus on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a putative physical substrate for hormesis responses to exercise in the context of exercise-induced actions on cognition and mood, and on the molecular pathways which might potentially be mediating these actions. PMID:27013955

  16. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  17. Overloaded training increases exercise-induced oxidative stress and damage.

    PubMed

    Palazzetti, Stephane; Richard, Marie-Jeanne; Favier, Alain; Margaritis, Irene

    2003-08-01

    We hypothesized that overloaded training (OT) in triathlon would induce oxidative stress and damage on muscle and DNA. Nine male triathletes and 6 male sedentary subjects participated in this study. Before and after a 4-week OT, triathletes exercised for a duathlon. Blood ratio of reduced vs. oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), leukocyte DNA damage, creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB mass in plasma, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured before and after OT in pre- and postexercise situations. Triathletes were overloaded in response to OT. In rest conditions, OT induced plasma GSH-Px activity increase and plasma TAS decrease (both p < 0.05). In exercise conditions, OT resulted in higher exercise-induced variations of blood GSH/GSSG ratio, TBARS level (both p < 0.05), and CK-MB mass (p < 0.01) in plasma; and decreased TAS response (p < 0.05). OT could compromise the antioxidant defense mechanism with respect to exercise-induced response. The resulting increased exercise-induced oxidative stress and further cellular susceptibility to damage needs more study.

  18. The role of muscle mass in exercise-induced hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Garten, Ryan S; Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-05-01

    Exercise-induced hyperemia is often normalized for muscle mass, and this value is sometimes evaluated at relative exercise intensities to take muscle recruitment into account. Therefore, this study sought to better understand the impact of muscle mass on leg blood flow (LBF) during exercise. LBF was assessed by Doppler ultrasound in 27 young healthy male subjects performing knee-extensor (KE) exercise at three absolute (5, 15, and 25 W) and three relative [20, 40, and 60% of maximum KE (KEmax)] workloads. Thigh muscle mass (5.2-8.1 kg) and LBF were significantly correlated at rest (r = 0.54; P = 0.004). Exercise-induced hyperemia was linearly related to absolute workload, but revealed substantial between-subject variability, documented by the coefficient of variation (5 W: 17%; 15 W: 16%; 25 W: 16%). Quadriceps muscle mass (1.5-2.7 kg) and LBF were not correlated at 5, 15, or 25 W (r = 0.09-0.01; P = 0.7-0.9). Normalizing blood flow for quadriceps muscle mass did not improve the coefficient of variation at each absolute workload (5 W: 21%; 15 W: 21%; 25 W: 22%), while the additional evaluation at relative exercise intensities resulted in even greater variance (20% KEmax: 29%; 40% KEmax: 29%; 60% KEmax: 27%). Similar findings were documented when subjects were parsed into high and low aerobic capacity. Thus, in contrast to rest, blood flow during exercise is unrelated to muscle mass, and simply normalizing for muscle mass or comparing normalized blood flow at a given relative exercise intensity has no effect on the inherent blood flow variability. Therefore, during exercise, muscle mass does not appear to be a determinant of the hyperemic response.

  19. Dose-dependent biphasic leptin-induced proliferation is caused by non-specific IL-6/NF-κB pathway activation in human myometrial cells

    PubMed Central

    Barrichon, Marina; Hadi, Tarik; Wendremaire, Maeva; Ptasinski, Clémentine; Seigneuric, Renaud; Marcion, Guillaume; Delignette, Marc; Marchet, Jacques; Dumas, Monique; Sagot, Paul; Bardou, Marc; Garrido, Carmen; Lirussi, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Leptin, an adipokine synthesized by the placenta during pregnancy, has been proposed for the management of preterm labour (PTL), as it is able to prevent in vitro uterine contractility and remodelling associated with labour onset. Another common feature of labour onset is the phenotypic switch of myometrial smooth muscle cells from a proliferative to a hypertrophic state. As proliferative effects have been demonstrated for leptin in other tissues, we aimed to investigate its ability to induce myometrial proliferation and thus to maintain uterine quiescence. Experimental Approach We stimulated human primary myometrial smooth muscle cells with leptin in the presence or absence of receptor antagonists or signalling pathway inhibitors. Key Results Leptin induced myometrial cell proliferation in a biphasic manner. At 6.25 ng·mL−1, leptin-induced proliferation was mediated by the leptin receptor and required the early activation of ERK1/2. At a concentration above 25 ng·mL−1, leptin induced direct non-specific stimulation of the IL-6 receptor, leading to NF-κB activation, and exerted anti-proliferative effects. However, at 50 ng·mL−1, leptin re-induces proliferation via IL-6 receptor stimulation that requires STAT3 and delayed ERK1/2 activation. Conclusions and Implications These data bring new insights into leptin signalling-induced myometrial proliferation and its interrelationship with the IL-6/IL-6 receptor axis. In the light of our previous work, the present study emphasizes the potential value of leptin in the pharmacological management of PTL and it also strengthens the hypothesis that leptin might be a contributory factor in the parturition-related disorders observed in obese women. PMID:25653112

  20. The influence of exercise-induced fatigue on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert D; Romine, Mathew W; O'connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2012-05-01

    Although anecdotal reports suggest that information processing and decision making is impaired immediately following prolonged periods of physical activity, results obtained from laboratory studies of exercise-induced fatigue have been inconsistent. Fatigue effects may be task specific and related to the time of post-exercise testing. The present study examined the effects on adults' performance of two cognitive tasks that differed in processing demands over an 80-min period of fatigue. Thirty young adult men and women were randomly assigned to either an exercise group and completed a 60-min bout of cycle ergometry at 90% ventilatory threshold or a control group and rested for 60 min. Following interventions, each participant completed a simple and complex version of a visual perceptual discrimination test, a 40-min memory-based vigilance test and a repetition of the visual perceptual discrimination tests. Those who exercised evidenced significant decrements in performance on complex perceptual-discrimination tasks compared to participants who rested. The response time of exercisers during a memory-demanding vigilance test were significantly slower than those of participants who rested; however, detection performance did not differ between groups neither was there a decrease in target detection across the vigil. The effects of exercise-induced fatigue may be task specific, with greater effects on perceptual tasks, which involve relatively automatic processing, compared to effortful memory-based tasks.

  1. Suspected exercise-induced seizures in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Motta, L; Dutton, E

    2013-04-01

    A 12-month-old female neutered crossbreed was referred for investigation of seizure-like episodes occurring only at intense exercise. Thorough medical, neurological and cardiac investigations were performed and excluded the most commonly known causes of seizure-like activity. The dog was fitted with an ambulatory electrocardiography device and underwent another exercise-induced seizure. The electrocardiogram during the episode revealed a sinus tachycardia at approximately 300 beats/minute. A video recording of the episode revealed generalised tonic clonic limb activity with jaw chomping and frothing at the mouth typical of seizure activity. Antiepileptic medications were not prescribed and the owner was advised not to exercise the dog intensely. The dog responded well and did not seizure after 12 months of mild-moderate off-lead exercise. As all the seizures in this case were triggered by intense physical activity, it is suggested that this may be a new form of reflex seizure activity.

  2. Effect of Submaximal Warm-up Exercise on Exercise-induced Asthma in African School Children

    PubMed Central

    Mtshali, BF; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, OO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Regular physical activity has long been regarded as an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major problems interfering with the performance of exercise. A warm-up exercise programme has been cited as a non-pharmacologic means of reducing EIA, but its effect has not been fully elucidated. Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of unrecognized EIA in Pretoria primary school children, determine the effect of a warm-up exercise programme on EIA and to establish the relationship between history of allergy, family history of asthma and EIA. Methods: A random sample of 640 school children was selected. The study was divided into three phases. In phase one, a descriptive cross-sectional study was done using the standardized European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire. In phase two, non-asthmatic participants that returned a completed questionnaire were included in the field study. Pre-test and post-test experimental designs were used, where peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured at baseline and within ten minutes after exercise. A total of 340 subjects completed the Free Running Asthma Screening Test (FRAST); EIA was defined as a decrease in baseline PEFR ≥ 10% after exercise and 75 children (22%) had EIA. In phase three, 29 of the 75 subjects participated in the warm-up programme which was performed in the laboratory and subjects acted as their own controls. Predefined protocols for the study were followed. Results: Seventy-five (22%) of the 340 participants had EIA. The mean age, height and weight were 10.51 years, 139.26 cm and 33.45 kg, respectively. Exercise-induced asthma symptoms were cough (25%), chest pain (16%), wheeze (12%) and chest tightness (12%). The history of allergy was 75%, family history of allergy 40% and positive history of allergy when near animals, feathers or in dusty areas 38%. Wheezing during or after exercise

  3. Exercise-induced pain intensity predicted by pre-exercise fear of pain and pain sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D; Horn, Maggie E; George, Steven Z

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our primary goals were to determine whether pre-existing fear of pain and pain sensitivity contributed to post-exercise pain intensity. Methods Delayed onset muscle pain was induced in the trunk extensors of 60 healthy volunteers using an exercise paradigm. Levels of fear of pain and experimental pain sensitivity were measured before exercise. Pain intensity in the low back was collected at 24 and 48 hours post-exercise. Participants were grouped based on pain intensity. Group membership was used as the dependent variable in separate regression models for 24 and 48 hours. Predictor variables included fear, pain sensitivity, torque lost during the exercise protocol, and demographic variables. Results The final models predicting whether a participant reported clinically meaningful pain intensity at 24 hours only included baseline fear of pain at each level of pain intensity tested. The final model at 48 hours included average baseline pain sensitivity and the loss of muscle performance during the exercise protocol for one level of pain intensity tested (greater than 35mm out of 100). Discussion Combined, these findings suggest that the initial reports of pain after injury maybe more strongly influenced by fear while the inflammatory process and pain sensitivity may play a larger role for later pain intensity reports. PMID:21415719

  4. Modulating exercise-induced hormesis: Does less equal more?

    PubMed

    Peake, Jonathan M; Markworth, James F; Nosaka, Kazunori; Raastad, Truls; Wadley, Glenn D; Coffey, Vernon G

    2015-08-01

    Hormesis encompasses the notion that low levels of stress stimulate or upregulate existing cellular and molecular pathways that improve the capacity of cells and organisms to withstand greater stress. This notion underlies much of what we know about how exercise conditions the body and induces long-term adaptations. During exercise, the body is exposed to various forms of stress, including thermal, metabolic, hypoxic, oxidative, and mechanical stress. These stressors activate biochemical messengers, which in turn activate various signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and adaptive responses. Historically, antioxidant supplements, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cryotherapy have been favored to attenuate or counteract exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. However, reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators are key signaling molecules in muscle, and such strategies may mitigate adaptations to exercise. Conversely, withholding dietary carbohydrate and restricting muscle blood flow during exercise may augment adaptations to exercise. In this review article, we combine, integrate, and apply knowledge about the fundamental mechanisms of exercise adaptation. We also critically evaluate the rationale for using interventions that target these mechanisms under the overarching concept of hormesis. There is currently insufficient evidence to establish whether these treatments exert dose-dependent effects on muscle adaptation. However, there appears to be some dissociation between the biochemical/molecular effects and functional/performance outcomes of some of these treatments. Although several of these treatments influence common kinases, transcription factors, and proteins, it remains to be determined if these interventions complement or negate each other, and whether such effects are strong enough to influence adaptations to exercise.

  5. Effect of non-symmetric waveform on conduction block induced by high-frequency (kHz) biphasic stimulation in unmyelinated axon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shouguo; Yang, Guangning; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a non-symmetric waveform on nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic stimulation is investigated using a lumped circuit model of the unmyelinated axon based on Hodgkin-Huxley equations. The simulation results reveal that the block threshold monotonically increases with the stimulation frequency for the symmetric stimulation waveform. However, a non-monotonic relationship between block threshold and stimulation frequency is observed when the stimulation waveform is non-symmetric. Constant activation of potassium channels by the high-frequency stimulation results in the increase of block threshold with increasing frequency. The non-symmetric waveform with a positive pulse 0.4-0.8 μs longer than the negative pulse blocks axonal conduction by hyperpolarizing the membrane and causes a decrease in block threshold as the frequency increases above 12-16 kHz. On the other hand, the non-symmetric waveform with a negative pulse 0.4-0.8 μs longer than the positive pulse blocks axonal conduction by depolarizing the membrane and causes a decrease in block threshold as the frequency increases above 40-53 kHz. This simulation study is important for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying the nerve block observed in animal studies, and may also help to design new animal experiments to further improve the nerve block method for clinical applications.

  6. Knee proprioception after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Vasques, J; Duarte, J A; Cabri, J M H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exercise-induced quadriceps muscle damage affects knee proprioception such as joint position sense (JPS), force sense and the threshold to detect passive movement (TTDPM). Fourteen young men performed sets of eccentric quadriceps contractions at a target of 60% of the maximal concentric peak torque until exhaustion; the exercise was interrupted whenever the subject could not complete two sets. Muscle soreness, JPS, the TTDPM and force sense were examined before the exercise as well as one, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exercise. The results were compared using one-way repeated-measure ANOVA. Plasma CK activity, collected at the same times, was analyzed by the Friedman's test to discriminate differences between baseline values and each of the other assessment moments (p<0.05). Relative to the proprioception assessment, JPS at 30 and 70 degrees of knee flexion and force sense were significantly decreased up to 48 h, whereas TTDPM decreased significantly at only one hour and 24 h after exercise, at 30 and 70 degrees of the knee flexion, respectively. The results allow the conclusion that eccentric exercise leading to muscle damage alters joint proprioception, suggesting that there might be impairment in the intrafusal fibres of spindle muscles and in the tendon organs.

  7. Coping with Exercise-Induced Asthma in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Roger M.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the history of research on exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and the pathophysiology of the condition, including its development and influencing factors. Four groups of drugs that are effective against EIA--theopyhlline, beta-adrenergic agents, cromolyn sodium, and anticholinergics--are discussed. (Author/CB)

  8. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  9. Exercise-induced histone modifications in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McGee, Sean L; Fairlie, Erin; Garnham, Andrew P; Hargreaves, Mark

    2009-12-15

    Skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise confer many of the health benefits of physical activity and occur partly through alterations in skeletal muscle gene expression. The exact mechanisms mediating altered skeletal muscle gene expression in response to exercise are unknown. However, in recent years, chromatin remodelling through epigenetic histone modifications has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism controlling gene expression in general. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise on global histone modifications that mediate chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activation in human skeletal muscle in response to exercise. In addition, we sought to examine the signalling mechanisms regulating these processes. Following 60 min of cycling, global histone 3 acetylation at lysine 9 and 14, a modification associated with transcriptional initiation, was unchanged from basal levels, but was increased at lysine 36, a site associated with transcriptional elongation. We examined the regulation of the class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are enzymes that suppress histone acetylation and have been implicated in the adaptations to exercise. While we found no evidence of proteasomal degradation of the class IIa HDACs, we found that HDAC4 and 5 were exported from the nucleus during exercise, thereby removing their transcriptional repressive function. We also observed activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in response to exercise, which are two kinases that induce phosphorylation-dependent class IIa HDAC nuclear export. These data delineate a signalling pathway that might mediate skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise.

  10. The effects of pre-exercise vibration stimulation on the exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Da-Haeng; Lee, Joon-Hee; O, Se-Min; Jeon, Jae-Keun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation on the pressure-pain threshold and muscle-fatigue-related metabolites of exercise-induced muscle damage. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy, adult male subjects were randomly assigned to the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, or control group (n=10 per group). To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation, changes in the pressure-pain threshold (lb), creatine kinase level (U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase level (U/L) were measured and analyzed at baseline and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] The pressure-pain thresholds and concentrations of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase varied significantly in each group and during each measurement period. There were interactions between the measurement periods and groups, and results of the post-hoc test showed that the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group had the highest efficacy among the groups. [Conclusion] Pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation is more effective than post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation for preventing muscle damage. PMID:28210056

  11. Treadmill exercise ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced depression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Joo Hwan; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe type of stroke causing neurological dysfunction with high mortality rate. Depression is one of the most common complications of ICH. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on ICH-induced depressive symptoms in relation with apoptosis were investigated using rats. ICH rat model was induced by injection of collagenase into the hippocampus using stereotaxic instrument. Open field test for activity and forced swimming test for depressive symptoms were conducted. Apoptosis in the hippocampus was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, and western blot for Bcl-2 and Bax. Western blot analysis for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was also conducted for biomarkers of depression. In the present results, immobility time was increased and climbing time was decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited immobility time and increased climbing time in ICH rats. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were enhanced by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise suppressed ICH-induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression. Bax expression in the hippocampus was increased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise inhibited Bax expression in the ICH rats. Expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe were decreased by induction of ICH and treadmill exercise increased expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the ICH rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated depressive symptoms through inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27656626

  12. [Exercise-induced urticaria and angioedema - case report].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Sztafińska, Anna; Lechańka, Joanna; Balcerak, Joanna; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Urticaria is a heterogeneous group of disorders, with various clinical manifestations and intensity of symptoms. Urticaria can be induced with a wide variety of environmental stimuli, such as cold, pressure, vibration, sunlight, exercise, temperature changes, heat, and water. In a select group of patients, exercise can induce a spectrum of urticaria symptoms, ranging from cutaneous pruritus and warmth, generalised urticaria, angioedema, and the appearance of such additional manifestations as collapse, upper respiratory distress, and anaphylaxis. Specific provocation tests should be carried out on an individual basis to investigate the suspected cause and proper diagnosis. Modification of activities and behaviour is the mainstay of treatment in patients with physical urticaria. The aim of this study was to emphasise that primary care paediatricians should be able to recognise physical urticaria, supply a patient with rescue medications, and refer him/her to a specialist. In the article, the authors present a 13-year-old girl with typical urticaria lesions and angioedema after exercise. According to the history, physical examination, and provocation test, exercise-induced urticaria and angioedema were diagnosed.

  13. Nitric oxide-induced biphasic mechanism of vascular relaxation via dephosphorylation of CPI-17 and MYPT1.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Semba, Shingo; Huh, Yang Hoon; Kitazawa, Kazuyo; Eto, Masumi

    2009-07-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) from endothelium is a major mediator of vasodilatation through cGMP/PKG signals that lead to a decrease in Ca(2+) concentration. In addition, NO-mediated signals trigger an increase in myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity. To evaluate the mechanism of NO-induced relaxation through MLCP deinhibition, we compared time-dependent changes in Ca(2+), myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and contraction to changes in phosphorylation levels of CPI-17 at Thr38, RhoA at Ser188, and MYPT1 at Ser695, Thr696 and Thr853 in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation in denuded rabbit femoral artery. During phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction, SNP reduced CPI-17 phosphorylation to a minimal value within 15 s, in parallel with decreases in Ca(2+) and MLC phosphorylation, followed by a reduction of contractile force having a latency period of about 15 s. MYPT1 phosphorylation at Ser695, the PKG-target site, increased concurrently with relaxation. Phosphorylation of RhoA, MYPT1 Thr696 and Thr853 differed significantly at 5 min but not within 1 min of SNP exposure. Inhibition of Ca(2+) release delayed SNP-induced relaxation while inhibition of Ca(2+) channel, BK(Ca) channel or phosphodiesterase-5 did not. Pretreatment of resting artery with SNP suppressed an increase in Ca(2+), contractile force and phosphorylation of MLC, CPI-17, MYPT1 Thr696 and Thr853 at 10 s after PE stimulation, but had no effect on phorbol ester-induced CPI-17 phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that NO production suppresses Ca(2+) release, which causes an inactivation of PKC and rapid CPI-17 dephosphorylation as well as MLCK inactivation, resulting in rapid MLC dephosphorylation and relaxation.

  14. Eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea and exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, Julie; Gagnon, Simon; Bernier, Mélanie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common condition in endurance athletes. Exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (EIVCD) is a frequent confounder of EIB. The diagnosis of EIVCD may be challenging and can be missed as the problem is often intermittent and may only occur during intense exercise. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) is the best test to detect EIB. This pilot study aimed to assess if EVH could be helpful in the diagnosis of EIVCD associated or not to EIB in athletes. Methods A nasolaryngoscopy was performed during a 6 min EVH test, in 13 female athletes suspected to have VCD, aged 21±7 years. Image analysis was conducted by two Ear Nose and Throat surgeons in random order. Results During the EVH, three athletes showed incomplete paradoxical vocal cords movement, without inspiratory stridor. However, 12 athletes showed marked supraglottic movement without inspiratory stridor. In two athletes, this supraglottic movement was severe, one showing a marked collapse of the epiglottis with an almost complete obstruction of the larynx by the arytenoid cartilage mucosa. In 3 of the 12 athletes with supraglottic movement, severe vibration of the mucosa covering the arytenoid cartilages was also observed. Conclusions EVH challenge in athletes can provide information on various types of glottic and supraglottic obstruction in reproducing laryngeal movements during hyperventilation. Our findings make us suggest that exercise induced upper airway obstructions should be named: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Then, EILO should be divided in three categories: supraglottic, glottic (EIVCD) and mixed (glottic and supraglottic) obstruction. PMID:27900141

  15. Dietary strategies to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Teixeira, Vítor H; Soares, José

    2014-03-01

    Exhaustive or unaccustomed intense exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and its undesirable consequences may decrease the ability to exercise and to adhere to a training programme. This review briefly summarises the muscle damage process, focusing predominantly on oxidative stress and inflammation as contributing factors, and describes how nutrition may be positively used to recover from EIMD. The combined intake of carbohydrates and proteins and the use of antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients within physiological ranges are interventions that may assist the recovery process. Although the works studying food instead of nutritional supplements are very scarce, their results seem to indicate that food might be a favourable option as a recovery strategy. To date, the only tested foods were milk, cherries, blueberries and pomegranate with promising results. Other potential solutions are foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients.

  16. Oral biomarkers in exercise-induced neuroplasticity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, J-Lc; Hirsch, M A; Stevens, C B; Mougeot, Fkb

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we review candidate biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) in oral cavity, potential of oral biomarkers as markers of neuroplasticity, and literature on the effects of exercise on oral cavity biomarkers in PD. We first describe how pathophysiological pathways of PD may be transduced from brain stem and ganglia to oral cavity through the autonomic nervous system or transduced by a reverse path. Next we describe the effects of exercise in PD and potential impact on oral cavity. We propose that biomarkers in oral cavity may be useful targets for describing exercise-induced brain neuroplasticity in PD. Nevertheless, much research remains to be carried out before applying these biomarkers for the determination of disease state and therapeutic response to develop strategies to mitigate motor or non-motor symptoms in PD.

  17. Diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Pravettoni, Valerio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood. One of the best-characterized types of FDEIAn is that due to ω5-gliadin of wheat, though cases of FDEIAn after wheat ingestion by sensitization to wheat lipid transfer protien (LTP) are described. Some pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EIAn have been hypothesized, such as increase/alteration in gastrointestinal permeability, alteration of tissue transglutaminase promoting IgE cross-linking, enhanced expression of cytokines, redistribution of blood during physical exercise leading to altered mast-cell degranulation, and also changes in the acid–base balance. Nevertheless, until now, none of these hypotheses has been validated. The diagnosis of EIAn and FDEIAn is achieved by means of a challenge, with physical exercise alone for EIAn, and with the assumption of the suspected food followed by physical exercise for FDEIAn; in cases of doubtful results, a double-blind placebo-controlled combined food–exercise challenge should be performed. The prevention of this particular kind of anaphylaxis is the avoidance of the specific trigger, ie, physical exercise for EIAn, the assumption of the culprit food before exercise for FDEIAn, and in general the avoidance of the recognized cofactors. Patients must be supplied with an epinephrine autoinjector, as epinephrine has been clearly recognized as the first-line intervention for anaphylaxis. PMID:27822074

  18. The inflammatory basis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Brannan, John D; Turton, James A

    2010-12-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is common in individuals with asthma, and may be observed even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be diagnosed via standardized exercise protocols, and anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is often warranted. Exercise-related symptoms are commonly reported in primary care; however, access to standardized exercise protocols to assess EIB are often restricted because of the need for specialized equipment, as well as time constraints. Symptoms and lung function remain the most accessible indicators of EIB, yet these are poor predictors of its presence and severity. Evidence suggests that exercise causes the airways to narrow as a result of the osmotic and thermal consequences of respiratory water loss. The increase in airway osmolarity leads to the release of bronchoconstricting mediators (eg, histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes) from inflammatory cells (eg, mast cells and eosinophils). The objective assessment of EIB suggests the presence of airway inflammation, which is sensitive to ICS in association with a responsive airway smooth muscle. Surrogate tests for EIB, such as eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea or the osmotic challenge tests, cause airway narrowing via a similar mechanism, and a response indicates likely benefit from ICS therapy. The complete inhibition of EIB with ICS therapy in individuals with asthma may be a useful marker of control of airway pathology. Furthermore, inhibition of EIB provides additional, useful information regarding the identification of clinical control based on symptoms and lung function. This article explores the inflammatory basis of EIB in asthma as well as the effect of ICS on the pathophysiology of EIB.

  19. Exercise-induced muscle cramp. Proposed mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Bentley, S

    1996-06-01

    Muscle cramp is a common, painful, physiological disturbance of skeletal muscle. Many athletes are regularly frustrated by exercise-induced muscle cramp yet the pathogenesis remains speculative with little scientific research on the subject. This has resulted in a perpetuation of myths as to the cause and treatment of it. There is a need for scientifically based protocols for the management of athletes who suffer exercise-related muscle cramp. This article reviews the literature and neurophysiology of muscle cramp occurring during exercise. Disturbances at various levels of the central and peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle are likely to be involved in the mechanism of cramp and may explain the diverse range of conditions in which cramp occurs. The activity of the motor neuron is subject to a multitude of influences including peripheral receptor sensory input, spinal reflexes, inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord, synaptic and neurotransmitter modulation and descending CNS input. The muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ proprioceptors are fundamental to the control of muscle length and tone and the maintenance of posture. Disturbance in the activity of these receptors may occur through faulty posture, shortened muscle length, intense exercise and exercise to fatigue, resulting in increased motor neuron activity and motor unit recruitment. The relaxation phase of muscle contraction is prolonged in a fatigued muscle, raising the likelihood of fused summation of action potentials if motor neuron activity delivers a sustained high firing frequency. Treatment of cramp is directed at reducing muscle spindle and motor neuron activity by reflex inhibition and afferent stimulation. There are no proven strategies for the prevention of exercise-induced muscle cramp but regular muscle stretching using post-isometric relaxation techniques, correction of muscle balance and posture, adequate conditioning for the activity, mental preparation for competition and

  20. Transitory endolymph leakage induced hearing loss and tinnitus: depolarization, biphasic shortening and loss of electromotility of outer hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zenner, H. P.; Reuter, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Gitter, A. H.; Fermin, C.; LePage, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    There are types of deafness and tinnitus in which ruptures or massive changes in the ionic permeability of the membranes lining the endolymphatic space [e.g., of the reticular lamina (RL)] are believed to allow potassium-rich endolymph to deluge the low [K+] perilymphatic fluid (e.g., in the small spaces of Nuel). This would result in a K+ intoxication of sensory and neural structures. Acute attacks of Meniere's disease have been suggested to be an important example for this event. The present study investigated the effects of transiently elevated [K+] due to the addition of artificial endolymph to the basolateral cell surface of outer hair cells (OHC) in replicating endolymph-induced K+ intoxication of the perilymph in the small spaces of Nuel. The influence of K+ intoxication of the basolateral OHC cell surface on the transduction was then examined. Intoxication resulted in an inhibition of the physiological repolarizing K+ efflux from hair cells. This induced unwanted depolarizations of the hair cells, interfering with mechanoelectrical transduction. A pathological longitudinal OHC shortening was also found, with subsequent compression of the organ of Corti possibly influencing the micromechanics of the mechanically active OHC. Both micromechanical and electrophysiological alterations are proposed to contribute to endolymph leakage induced attacks of deafness and possibly also to tinnitus. Moreover, repeated or long-lasting K+ intoxications of OHC resulted in a chronic and complete loss of OHC motility. This is suggested to be a pathophysiological basis in some patients with chronic hearing loss resulting from Meniere's syndrome.

  1. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. PMID:26229538

  2. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  3. Biphasic contractions induced by milrinone at low temperature in ferret ventricular muscle: role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and transmembrane calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Malecot, C O; Bers, D M; Katzung, B G

    1986-08-01

    The effects of milrinone were studied in ferret papillary muscle stimulated at various rates and temperatures from 23 degrees to 36 degrees C. In voltage-clamp experiments, 50 micrograms/ml (0.237 mM) milrinone induced a 2.1-fold increase in calcium current at 28 degrees or 36 degrees C. At 50 micrograms/ml, milrinone transiently increased contractility in all muscles at 28 degrees C, but its steady-state effect was either increased (+50%) or decreased (-24.7%) steady-state twitch amplitude. A negative inotropic effect always occurred below 27 degrees C. Milrinone decreased the total twitch duration and split the twitch into two components (P1 and P2) in the absence of any evidence of aberrant conduction. Increasing milrinone concentration from 50 to 300 micrograms/ml decreased P1 and increased P2. Ryanodine (100 mM) or caffeine (10 mM) suppressed P1. Contractions elicited after 30 seconds of rest were also biphasic in the presence of milrinone, but not in its absence. P2 of post-rest contraction was increased by caffeine or calcium (10 mM) and decreased by cobalt (2 mM) when drugs were applied at the beginning of the rest. Ryanodine and caffeine also suppressed P1 of post-rest contraction. The evidence suggests that P1 may be caused by Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and P2 by increased Ca influx during the action potential via the calcium channel. It is also suggested that P2 may be present under control conditions, but to a lesser extent, and masked by a large P1.

  4. Reported Exercise-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Demet; Guggenheim, Refoel; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Wildhaber, Johannes H.; Moeller, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Unlimited physical activity is one of the key issues of asthma control and management. We investigated how reliable reported exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) are in predicting exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatic children. Methods In this prospective study, 179 asthmatic children aged 7 - 15 years were asked for specific questions on respiratory symptoms related to exercise and allocated into two groups according to whether they complained about symptoms. Group I (n = 134) consisted of children answering “yes” to one or more of the questions and group II (n = 45) consisted of children answering “no” to all of the questions. Results Sixty-four of 179 children showed a positive exercise challenge test (ECT). There was no difference in the frequency of a positive test between children in group I (n = 48) and group II (n = 12) (P = 0.47). The sensitivity of a positive report for ERRS to predict a positive ECT was only 37%, with a specificity of 0.72. Conclusion According to current guidelines, the report or lack of ERRS has direct consequences on treatment decisions. However, the history of ERRS did not predict EIB and one-third of asthmatic children without complaints of ERRS developed EIB during the ECT. This raises the question of the need for objective measures of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in pediatric asthma management. PMID:28392861

  5. Heat-killed BCG induces biphasic cyclooxygenase 2+ splenic macrophage formation--role of IL-10 and bone marrow precursors.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoshimi; Gabbard, Jon; Yamashita, Makiko; Tsuji, Shoutaro; Smith, Mike; Nishiyama, Akihito; Henriksen, Ruth Ann; Myrvik, Quentin N

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release by splenic F4/80(+) cyclooxygenase (COX)-2(+) macrophages (MØ) isolated from mice, treated with mycobacterial components, plays a major role in the regulation of immune responses. However, splenic MØ, isolated from untreated mice and treated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, express COX-1 and COX-2 within 1 day but release only minimal amounts of PGE(2) following elicitation with calcium ionophore A23187. For further characterization of in vivo requirements for development of PGE(2)-releasing MØ (PGE(2)-MØ), C57Bl/6 [wild-type (WT)], and interleukin (IL)-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice were treated intraperitoneally with heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (HK-BCG). One day following injection, COX-2 was induced in splenic MØ of both mouse strains. However, PGE(2) biosynthesis by these MØ was not increased. Thus, expression of COX-2 is not sufficient to induce PGE(2) production in vivo or in vitro. In sharp contrast, 14 days after HK-BCG treatment, PGE(2) release by COX-2(+) splenic MØ increased as much as sevenfold, and a greater increase was seen in IL-10(-/-) cells than in WT cells. To further determine whether the 14-day splenic PGE(2)-MØ could be derived from bone marrow precursors, we established a chimera in which bone marrow cells were transfused from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic donors to WT mice. Donors and recipients were treated with HK-BCG simultaneously, and marrow transfusion was performed on Days 1 and 2. On Day 14 after BCG treatment, a significant number of spleen cells coexpressed COX-2 and GFP, indicating that bone marrow-derived COX-2(+) MØ may be responsible for the increased PGE(2) production.

  6. Extreme sports: extreme physiology. Exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Ma, Joyce Lok Gee; Dutch, Martin John

    2013-08-01

    We report five patients who presented to an on-site medical team with concurrent haemoptysis and shortness of breath at a recent triathlon event. After initial management in the field, three of the five patients were transported to hospital via ambulance for further management, resulting in patients with haemoptysis and dyspnoea being 17 times more likely to require hospital transport. It is important to consider the differential diagnoses for this presentation, particularly exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

  7. Airway smooth muscle in exercise-induced bronchospasm: some speculations.

    PubMed

    Middleton, E

    1975-11-01

    Some possible neurophysiological, biochemical, and pharmacological pathways affecting the state of contractility if airway smooth muscle in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) are described. No unifying hypothesis can be set forth at this time. Indeed, it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of EIB is a reflection of the numerous biochemical loci in smooth muscle cells that could be affected by the various metabolic changes accompanying heavy exertion.

  8. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    PubMed Central

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  9. Biphasic effect of alpha-linolenic acid on glucose-induced dysmorphogenesis and lipoperoxidation in whole rat embryo in culture.

    PubMed

    Chirino-Galindo, Gladys; Barrera-Argüelles, Jorge-Israel; Trejo-González, Ninna-Leslie; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Palomar-Morales, Martín

    2017-03-18

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with pregnancy, know as diabetic embryopathy, is the cause of neonatal malformations and low for gestational age neonates. With the use of the whole-embryo culture system, it has been demonstrated that high glucose causes embryo dysmorphogenesis, and that oxidative stress appears to be the main mechanism. In recent years, beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids has been demonstrated in various diabetic models, and in diabetic complications. Since diabetic embryopathy is mediated probably through membrane lipoperoxidation, This study was designed to find if omega-3 fatty acids could ameliorate the effect of high glucose over the dysmorphogenesis of whole rat embryo in culture. Postimplantational rat embryos were cultured in hyperglycemic media, with addition of alpha-linolenic acid, and morphologic and morphometric parameters were registered. Also, lipoperoxidation and fatty acids composition were measured in cultured embryos. Growth of embryos cultured in presence of glucose was very affected, whereas lipoperoxidation was increased, and it was found that Triton X-100 causes similar results than glucose. Addition of low micromolar doses of alpha-linolenic acid overcome the effect of high glucose or Triton X-100, but higher doses does not ameliorates the effects of the carbohydrate or the detergent. Paradoxically, there are not significant changes in fatty acids composition, although the U/S fatty acids ratio shows an increasing tendency by high glucose and a normalizing tendency by omega-3 fatty acids. In conclusion, glucose and Triton X-100 induces in vitro dysmorphogenesis in post-implantational rat embryos associated with increased lipoperoxidation; and this nocive effect could be ameliorated by low micromolar doses of ALA.

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  11. Effects of nedocromil sodium, cromolyn sodium, and a placebo in exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Morton, A R; Ogle, S L; Fitch, K D

    1992-02-01

    The incidence and severity of exercise-induced asthma were determined in nineteen asthmatic patients who performed eight minutes of exercise following four treatments administered in a random order. The treatments were nedocromil sodium, cromolyn sodium, placebo, and no treatment. It was concluded that nedocromil sodium (8 mg) and cromolyn sodium (4 mg) provide equal protection against exercise-induced asthma.

  12. Human Invasive Muscular Sarcocystosis Induces Th2 Cytokine Polarization and Biphasic Cytokine Changes, Based on an Investigation among Travelers Returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Slesak, Günther; Pérez-Girón, José Vicente; Schäfer, Johannes; Langeheinecke, Andreas; Just-Nübling, Gudrun; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Püllmann, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti is a parasite responsible for a biphasic eosinophilic febrile myositis syndrome in two recent outbreaks in Malaysia. We demonstrate Th2 cytokine polarization in infected travelers, an overall cytokine production decrease in the early phase of the disease suggestive of initial immunosuppression, and elevated levels of proinflammatory and chemotactic cytokines in the later myositic phase.

  13. Regulation of exercise-induced lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kiens, Bente

    2014-12-01

    Exercise increases the utilization of lipids in muscle. The sources of lipids are long-chain fatty acids taken up from the plasma and fatty acids released from stores of intramuscular triacylglycerol by the action of intramuscular lipases. In the present review, we focus on the role of fatty acid binding proteins, particularly fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), in the exercise- and contraction-induced increase in uptake of long-chain fatty acids in muscle. The FAT/CD36 translocates from intracellular depots to the surface membrane upon initiation of exercise/muscle contractions. This occurs independently of AMP-activated protein kinase, and data suggest that Ca(2+)-related signalling is responsible. The FAT/CD36 has an important role; long-chain fatty acid uptake is markedly decreased in FAT/CD36 knockout mice during contractions/exercise compared with wild-type control mice. In skeletal muscle, 98% of the lipase activity is accounted for by adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. Give that inhibition or knockout of hormone-sensitive lipase does not impair lipolysis in muscle during contraction, the data point to an important role of adipose triglyceride lipase in regulation of muscle lipolysis. Although the molecular regulation of the lipases in muscle is not understood, it is speculated that intramuscular lipolysis may be regulated in part by the availability of the plasma concentration of long-chain fatty acids.

  14. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Junlai; Ma, Tao; Chai, Qiongxia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, i.e., one control group and three LBP treated groups. The animals received an oral administration of physiological saline or LBP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. On the day of the exercise test, rats were required to run to exhaustion on the treadmill. Body weight, endurance time, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level of rats were measured. The results showed that the body weight of rats in LBP treated groups were not significantly different from that in the normal control group before and after the experiment (P > 0.05). After exhaustive exercise, the mean endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly prolonged compared with that in the normal control group. MDA levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). SOD and GPX levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicate that LBP was effective in preventing oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. PMID:21541044

  15. Abolition of exercise induced ST depression after exercise training and its recurrence after beta blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I C; McGuinness, J B; Ballantyne, D

    1988-01-01

    Exercise training can improve angina. A patient whose exercise tolerance test became normal after a year on an exercise programme nevertheless had a positive exercise test when he was taking a beta blocker. These results suggest that it may be undesirable to use beta blockers in patients with angina who are on exercise programmes. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3342165

  16. Exercise-Induced Vasculitis: A Review with Illustrated Cases.

    PubMed

    Espitia, Olivier; Dréno, Brigitte; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Didier, Quentin; Quillard, Thibaut; Nicol, Christelle; Le Bouch, Yann; Planchon, Bernard; Pistorius, Marc-Antoine

    2016-12-01

    Although exercise-induced vasculitis (EIV) is usually misdiagnosed, it is not uncommon. Occurring mostly after prolonged exercise, especially in hot weather, EIV is an isolated cutaneous vasculitis with stereotypical presentation. This article reviews the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of EIV based on the published literature. We report 99 patients who developed EIV after walking, dancing, swimming, or hiking especially during hot weather, including the records of 16 patients with EIV treated at our hospital from 2007 to 2015. Erythematous or purpuric plaques arise on the lower legs, without the involvement of compression socks or stockings. Symptoms include itch, pain, and a burning sensation. EIV is an isolated cutaneous vasculitis. Lesions resolve spontaneously after 10 days. When triggering conditions persist, relapses are frequent (77.5 %). Histopathology demonstrates leukocytoclastic vasculitis in 95 % of cases with C3 or immunoglobulin M deposits in 88 and 46 % of cases, respectively. Blood investigations are negative. EIV appears to be a consequence of venous stasis induced by an acute failure of the muscle pump of the calf and thermoregulation decompensation. Both appear after prolonged and unusual exercise in hot weather. Treatment is not codified; topical corticosteroids may reduce symptoms and wearing light clothes might limit lesion occurrence.

  17. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and atopy in Tunisian athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sallaoui, Ridha; Chamari, Karim; Mossa, Abbas; Tabka, Zouhair; Chtara, Moktar; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Background This study is a cross sectional analysis, aiming to evaluate if atopy is as a risk factor for exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) among Tunisian athletes. Methods Atopy was defined by a skin prick test result and EIB was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 8-min running at 80–85% HRmaxTheo. The study population was composed of 326 athletes (age: 20.8 ± 2.7 yrs – mean ± SD; 138 women and 188 men) of whom 107 were elite athletes. Results Atopy was found in 26.9% (88/326) of the athletes. Post exercise spirometry revealed the presence of EIB in 9.8% of the athletes including 13% of the elite athletes. Frequency of atopy in athletes with EIB was significantly higher than in athletes without EIB [62.5% vs 23.1%, respectively]. Conclusion This study showed that atopic Tunisian athletes presented a higher risk of developing exercise induced bronchoconstriction than non-atopic athletes. PMID:19196480

  18. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  19. Exercise-induced bronchospasm, asthma control, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Nancy K; Parsons, Jonathan P; Eid, Nemr S; Craig, Timothy J; Stoloff, Stuart; Hayden, Mary Lou; Colice, Gene L

    2013-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) commonly affects patients with asthma. However, the relationship between EIB and asthma control remains unclear. Exercise limitation due to asthma might lead to reduced physical activity, but little information is available regarding obesity and EIB in asthma. A recent survey evaluated the frequency of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms in a large number of patients with asthma. The survey results were reanalyzed to address any relationship between EIB and asthma control and obesity. A nationwide random sample of children aged 4-12 years (n = 250), adolescents aged 13-17 years (n = 266), and adults aged ≥18 years (n = 1001) with asthma were interviewed by telephone. Questions in the survey addressed asthma symptoms in general, medication use, and height and weight. Asthma control was categorized using established methods in the Expert Panel Report 3. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using standard nomograms and obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Most children (77.6%), adolescents (71.1%), and adults (83.1%) had either "not well" or "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children with "not well" controlled asthma reported a history of EIB significantly more often than those with "well" controlled" asthma. Asthma patients of all ages who had "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma described multiple (four or more) exercise-related respiratory symptoms significantly more often than those with "well-controlled" asthma. Obesity was significantly more common in adolescents with "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma and adults with "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children, adolescents, and adults with asthma infrequently have well-controlled disease. A history of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms occur more commonly in patients with not well and very poorly controlled asthma. Obesity was found more often in adolescents and adults, but not children, with asthma, which was not well and

  20. Exercise-Induced growth hormone during acute sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ritsche, Kevin; Nindl, Bradly C; Wideman, Laurie

    2014-10-01

    The effect of acute (24-h) sleep deprivation on exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was examined. Ten men (20.6 ± 1.4 years) completed two randomized 24-h sessions including a brief, high-intensity exercise bout following either a night of sleep (SLEEP) or (24-h) sleep deprivation (SLD). Anaerobic performance (mean power [MP], peak power [PP], minimum power [MinP], time to peak power [TTPP], fatigue index, [FI]) and total work per sprint [TWPS]) was determined from four maximal 30-sec Wingate sprints on a cycle ergometer. Self-reported sleep 7 days prior to each session was similar between SLEEP and SLD sessions (7.92 ± 0.33 vs. 7.98 ± 0.39 h, P = 0.656, respectively) and during the actual SLEEP session in the lab, the total amount of sleep was similar to the 7 days leading up to the lab session (7.72 ± 0.14 h vs. 7.92 ± 0.33 h, respectively) (P = 0.166). No differences existed in MP, PP, MinP, TTPP, FI, TWPS, resting GH concentrations, time to reach exercise-induced peak GH concentration (TTP), or free IGF-1 between sessions. GH area under the curve (AUC) (825.0 ± 199.8 vs. 2212.9 ± 441.9 μg/L*min, P < 0.01), exercise-induced peak GH concentration (17.8 ± 3.7 vs. 39.6 ± 7.1 μg/L, P < 0.01) and ΔGH (peak GH - resting GH) (17.2 ± 3.7 vs. 38.2 ± 7.3 μg/L, P < 0.01) were significantly lower during the SLEEP versus SLD session. Our results indicate that the exercise-induced GH response was significantly augmented in sleep-deprived individuals.

  1. A 45-Year-Old Man With Recurrent Dyspnea and Hemoptysis during Exercise: Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage/Edema

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Sung; Lee, Minhyeok; Kwon, Oh Jung; Jeong, Inbeom; Son, Ji Woong; Na, Moon Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with dyspnea and hemoptysis during exercise. A chest computed tomography (CT) revealed multifocal diffuse patchy ground glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening in both the lungs. Permeability pulmonary edema or pulmonary hemorrhage was suspected. Serologic studies for autoimmune disorders and vasculitis were negative. There was no laboratory evidence of coagulopathy, other hematopoietic disease or infectious disease. Considering correlation with exercise, we diagnosed exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) or exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE). The patient was managed with antifibrinolytics, antibiotics, and antitussive agent. After a week, follow-up chest CT revealed completely resolved pulmonary hemorrhage. About 2 months after the first event, he visited again with dyspnea and hemoptysis during running. In the present study, we report a case of recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage after exercise. PMID:26508928

  2. Pre-Exercise Hyperpnea Attenuates Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Without Affecting Performance

    PubMed Central

    Eichenberger, Philipp A.; Scherer, Thomas A.; Spengler, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body warm-up exercises were shown to attenuate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Whether intense pre-exercise hyperpnea offers similar protection and whether this might negatively affect exercise performance is unknown. Nine subjects with EIB (25±5 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1s [FEV1], 104±15% predicted) performed an exercise challenge (ECh) followed—after 30min—by a constant-load cycling test to exhaustion. The ECh was preceded by one of four conditions: by i) control warm-up (CON) or by 10min of normocapnic hyperpnea with partial rebreathing at either ii) 50% (WU50) or iii) variable intensity (8x 30s-80%/45s-30%; WU80/30), or at iv) 70% (WU70) of maximal voluntary ventilation. FEV1 was measured at baseline and in 5-min intervals until 15min after CON/warm-up and 30min after ECh. None of the warm-up conditions induced EIB. The maximal post-ECh decrease in FEV1 was -13.8±3.1% after CON, −9.3±5.0% after WU50 (p = 0.081 vs. CON), −8.6±7.5% after WU80/30 (p = 0.081 vs. CON) and −7.2±5.0% after WU70 (p = 0.006 vs. CON), and perception of respiratory exertion was significantly attenuated (all p≤0.048), with no difference between warm-up conditions. Only after CON, FEV1 remained significantly reduced up to the start of the cycling endurance test (−8.0±4.3%, p = 0.004). Cycling performance did not differ significantly between test days (CON: 13±7min; WU50: 14±9min; WU80/30: 13±9min; WU70: 14±7min; p = 0.582). These data indicate that intense hyperpnea warm-up is effective in attenuating EIB severity and accelerating lung function recovery while none of the warm-up condition do compromise cycling performance. PMID:27898744

  3. Exercise-Induced Hypoxaemia Developed at Sea-Level Influences Responses to Exercise at Moderate Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Anne-Fleur; Durand, Fabienne; Roca, Emma; Doucende, Grégory; Hapkova, Ilona; Subirats, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) developed at sea-level on exercise responses at moderate acute altitude. Methods Twenty three subjects divided in three groups of individuals: highly trained with EIH (n = 7); highly trained without EIH (n = 8) and untrained participants (n = 8) performed two maximal incremental tests at sea-level and at 2,150 m. Haemoglobin O2 saturation (SpO2), heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO2) and several ventilatory parameters were measured continuously during the tests. Results EIH athletes had a drop in SpO2 from 99 ± 0.8% to 91 ± 1.2% from rest to maximal exercise at sea-level, while the other groups did not exhibit a similar decrease. EIH athletes had a greater decrease in VO2max at altitude compared to non-EIH and untrained groups (-22 ± 7.9%, -16 ± 5.3% and -13 ± 9.4%, respectively). At altitude, non-EIH athletes had a similar drop in SpO2 as EIH athletes (13 ± 0.8%) but greater than untrained participants (6 ± 1.0%). EIH athletes showed greater decrease in maximal heart rate than non-EIH athletes at altitude (8 ± 3.3 bpm and 5 ± 2.9 bpm, respectively). Conclusion EIH athletes demonstrated specific cardiorespiratory response to exercise at moderate altitude compared to non-EIH athletes with a higher decrease in VO2max certainly due to the lower ventilator and HRmax responses. Thus EIH phenomenon developed at sea-level negatively impact performance and cardiorespiratory responses at acute moderate altitude despite no potentiated O2 desaturation. PMID:27583364

  4. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  5. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  6. [Exercise-induced shear stress: Physiological basis and clinical impact].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Romero, Fernando; Saavedra, María Javiera

    2016-01-01

    The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms. These mechanisms allow providing the physiological basis for the effects of exercise on vascular health. In this review it is discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular response induced by shear stress and its impact in reversing vascular injury associated with the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in our population.

  7. Effect of simulated weightlessness on exercise-induced anaerobic threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Karst, G. M.; Kirby, C. R.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness, induced by ten days of continuous bedrest (BR) in the -6 deg head-down position, on the exercise-induced anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by comparing specific ventilatory and gas-exchange measurements during an incremental ergometer test performed before and after BR. The primary index for determining the exercise-induced AT values of each subject was visual identification of the workrate or oxygen uptake (VO2) at which the ratio of the expired minute ventilation volume (VE) to VO2 exhibited a systematic increase without a concomitant increase in the VE/VCO2 value. Following BR, the mean VO2max of the subjects decreased by 7.0 percent, and the AT decreased from a mean of 1.26 L/min VO2 before BR to 0.95 L/min VO2 after BR. The decrease in AT was manifested by a decrease in both absolute and relative workrates. The change in AT correlated significantly with the change in plasma volume but not with the change in VO2max. The results suggest that the reduction in AT cannot be completely explained by the reduction in VO2, and that the AT decrease is associated with the reduction in intravascular fluid volume.

  8. Provocation by eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea to identify exercise induced bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S; Argyros, G; Magnussen, H; Holzer, K

    2001-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission (IOC-MC) requires notification for use of a ß2 agonist at the Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City. This notification will be required seven days before the event and must be accompanied by objective evidence that justifies the need to use one. The IOC-MC has expressed the viewpoint that, at present, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) is the optimal laboratory challenge to confirm that an athlete has exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The EVH test recommended was specifically designed to identify EIB. EVH has been performed in thousands of subjects in both the laboratory and the field. The test requires the subject to hyperventilate dry air containing 5% carbon dioxide at room temperature for six minutes at a target ventilation of 30 times the subject's forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The test conditions can be modified to simulate the conditions that give the athlete their symptoms with exercise. A reduction in FEV1 of 10% or more of the value before the test is considered positive. Key Words: hyperpnoea; bronchial provocation; exercise PMID:11579071

  9. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Jenkinson, David M

    2002-01-01

    The term exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) describes the acute transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise in 10 to 50% of elite athletes, depending upon the sport examined. Although multiple factors are unquestionably involved in the EIB response, airway drying caused by a high exercise-ventilation rate is primary in most cases. The severity of this reaction reflects the allergic predisposition of the athlete, the water content of the inspired air, the type and concentration of air pollutants inspired, and the intensity (or ventilation rate) of the exercise. The highest prevalence of EIB is seen in winter-sport populations, where athletes are chronically exposed to cold dry air and/or environmental pollutants found in indoor ice arenas. When airway surface liquid lost during the natural warming and humidification process of respiration is not replenished at a rate equal to the loss, the ensuing osmolarity change stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators and results in bronchospasm; this cascade of events is exacerbated by airway inflammation and airway remodelling. The acute EIB response is characterised by airway smooth muscle contraction, membrane swelling, and/or mucus plug formation. Evidence suggests that histamine, leukotrienes and prostanoids are likely mediators for this response. Although the presence of symptoms and a basic physical examination are marginally effective, objective measures of lung function should be used for accurate and reliable diagnosis of EIB. Diagnosis should include baseline spirometry, followed by an appropriate bronchial provocation test. To date, the best test to confirm EIB may simply be standard pulmonary function testing before and after high-intensity dry air exercise. A 10% post-challenge fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second is used as diagnostic criteria. The goal of medical intervention is to limit EIB exacerbation and allow the athlete to train and compete symptom free

  10. Sinusitis and chronic progressive exercise-induced cough and dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Williams, Adam N; Simon, Ronald A; Woessner, Katharine M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man with exercise-induced dyspnea, cough, chest tightness, and recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis. Evaluation revealed IgE sensitization to grass, tree, and weed pollen, no evidence of obstruction on spirometry, and a negative methacholine challenge. Diagnostic considerations included allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, asthma, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, vocal cord dysfunction, extra-esophageal manifestations of acid reflux, and vasculitits. Further evaluation with sinus imaging, laryngoscopy, ambulatory pharyngeal pH testing, upper endoscopy, and bronchoscopy led to a diagnosis. Key issues surrounding the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this patient's condition are reviewed.

  11. [Attenuation of chronic stress-induced hippocampal damages following physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hong-Tao; Chao, Fu-Huan

    2002-10-25

    The long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the plasma glucocorticoids level were observed in rats to study the effects of physical exercise on chronic stress-induced hippocampal damages. Eight-week spontaneous wheel running exercise could attenuate the suppression of LTP induced by 21-day restraint stress, and maintain the normal plasma glucocorticoids levels. It is suggested that long-term physical exercise may protect the hippocampus from stress-induced damages.

  12. Beta2-agonists and exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sandra D; Caillaud, Corinne; Brannan, John D

    2006-01-01

    Beta2-agonists taken immediately before exercise provide significant protection against exercise- induced asthma (EIA) in most patients. However, when they are taken daily, there are some negative aspects regarding severity, control, and recovery from EIA. First, there is a significant minority (15-20%) of asthmatics whose EIA is not prevented by beta2-agonists, even when inhaled corticosteroids are used concomitantly. Second, with daily use, there is a decline in duration of the protective effect of long-acting beta2-agonists. Third, if breakthrough EIA occurs, recovery of lung function is slower in response to a beta2-agonist, and additional doses are often required to achieve pre-exercise values. If a person who takes a beta2-agonist daily experiences problems with exercise, then the physician should consider changing the treatment regimen to achieve better control of EIA. These problems likely result from desensitization of the beta2-receptor on the mast cell, which enhances mediator release, and on the bronchial smooth muscle, which enhances the bronchoconstrictor response and delays recovery from EIA. These effects are reversed within 72 h after cessation of a beta2-agonists. The important clinical question is: Are we actually compromising the beneficial effects of beta2-agonists on the prevention and recovery from EIA by prescribing them daily? Patients with EIA need to ensure that their doses of inhaled corticosteroid or other anti-inflammatory therapy are optimized so that, if necessary, a beta2-agonist can be used intermittently as prophylactic medication with greater confidence in the outcome.

  13. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Eric S.; Gunn, Bridget; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in men randomly administered Cr or placebo. Results indicated that 5 days of Cr supplementation did not reduce indirect makers of muscle damage or enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise.…

  14. Effects of grape seed extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Başaralı, Kemal

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on exercise performance and oxidative stress in acutely and chronically exercised rats. A total of sixty-four male rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into six groups: control, chronic exercise control, acute exercise control (AEC), GSE-supplemented control, GSE-supplemented chronic exercise and GSE-supplemented acute exercise groups. Chronic exercise consisted of treadmill running at 25 m/min, 45 min/d, 5 d a week for 6 weeks. Rats in the acute exercise groups were run on the treadmill at 30 m/min until exhaustion. GSE were given at 100 mg/kg of body weight with drinking water for 6 weeks. Plasma was separated from blood samples for the analysis of oxidative stress markers. There was no significant difference in time of exhaustion between the acute exercise groups. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the acute exercise groups and lower in the chronic exercise groups. GSE supplementation decreased MDA levels. Xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase activities were higher in the AEC group compared to all the other groups. NO levels were increased with both chronic exercise and GSE supplementation. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in the acute exercised groups and higher in the chronic exercised groups. GSE supplementation caused an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, GSE supplementation prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress by preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.

  15. Residual effects of prior exercise and recovery on subsequent exercise-induced metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Ronsen, Ola; Haugen, Oystein; Hallén, Jostein; Bahr, Roald

    2004-08-01

    Data on the metabolic responses to repeated endurance exercise sessions are limited. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine (1) the impact of prior exercise on metabolic responses to a subsequent exercise session and (2) the effect of different recovery periods between two daily exercise sessions on metabolic responses to the second bout of exercise. Nine male elite athletes participated in four 25-h trials: one bout of exercise (ONE), two bouts of exercise separated by 3 h of rest and one meal (SHORT), two bouts of exercise separated by 6 h of rest and two meals (LONG), and a trial with no exercise (REST). All exercise bouts consisted of 10 min cycling at 50% followed by 65 min at 75% of maximal O2 uptake. Compared to no prior exercise (ONE), a previous bout of exercise (SHORT) was followed by higher mean O2 uptake, heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (TR), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and lower respiratory exchange ratio (R) during and after a similar exercise session 3 h later. A longer rest interval between the two exercise bouts (6 h versus 3 h) and an additional meal resulted in a decrease in O2 uptake, HR, TR and an increase in R during the second bout of exercise, but no effects on post-exercise metabolism were found. Thus, augmented metabolic stress was observed when strenuous exercise was repeated after only 3 h of recovery, but this was attenuated when a longer recovery period including an additional meal was provided between the exercise sessions.

  16. Exercise-induced stem cell activation and its implication for cardiovascular and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Brixius, Klara; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization, and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem cell-induced regeneration in the cardiovascular and the skeletal muscle system. In addition, it discusses whether exercise may improve and support stem cell transplantation in situations of cardiovascular disease or muscular dystrophy.

  17. Social isolation prevents exercise-induced proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in female rats.

    PubMed

    Leasure, J Leigh; Decker, Linda

    2009-10-01

    Social isolation negatively affects the behavior and health of laboratory rats. Recently, it has been found that social isolation retards exercise-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of male rats (Stranahan et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:526-533). Since male and female rats react differently to housing changes and exercise opportunities, we investigated whether social isolation would also suppress the exercise-dependent increase in proliferation of dentate gyrus progenitor cells in females. Accordingly, female rats were housed either alone (isolated) or in groups (social) with (exercise) or without (sedentary) the opportunity to run in an exercise wheel. Proliferating progenitor cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). As expected, exercise increased the number of BrdU+ cells in socially housed animals. However, isolation prevented this running-induced increase. Our results expand upon previous findings by showing that the female brain is also susceptible to the suppressive effect of social isolation on exercise-induced neurogenesis.

  18. Increased atrial arrhythmia susceptibility induced by intense endurance exercise in mice requires TNFα

    PubMed Central

    Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh; Izaddoustdar, Farzad; Korogyi, Adam S.; Wang, Qiongling; Farman, Gerrie P.; Yang, FengHua; Yang, Wallace; Dorian, David; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Tuomi, Jari M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Cox, Brian; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Dorian, Paul; Backx, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia that, for unknown reasons, is linked to intense endurance exercise. Our studies reveal that 6 weeks of swimming or treadmill exercise improves heart pump function and reduces heart-rates. Exercise also increases vulnerability to AF in association with inflammation, fibrosis, increased vagal tone, slowed conduction velocity, prolonged cardiomyocyte action potentials and RyR2 phosphorylation (CamKII-dependent S2814) in the atria, without corresponding alterations in the ventricles. Microarray results suggest the involvement of the inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, in exercised-induced atrial remodelling. Accordingly, exercise induces TNFα-dependent activation of both NFκB and p38MAPK, while TNFα inhibition (with etanercept), TNFα gene ablation, or p38 inhibition, prevents atrial structural remodelling and AF vulnerability in response to exercise, without affecting the beneficial physiological changes. Our results identify TNFα as a key factor in the pathology of intense exercise-induced AF. PMID:25598495

  19. [Impaired exercise-induced blood pressure control in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kazushi

    2013-01-01

    An almost directly proportional increase in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate with exercise intensity has been reported in healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and pure autonomic failure (PAF) characterized by autonomic failure exhibit exercise-induced hypotension (EIH), prolonged hypotension following the cessation of exercise and exaggerated orthostatic hypotension after exercise. EIH, which can be the earliest symptom of PAF, provides a clue to the diagnosis of autonomic failure. Exercise-induced hypertension, which may be due to adrenergic receptor supersensitivity, may also be observed. BP during and after exercise was significantly lower in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) than in healthy subjects. Some PD patients exhibited symptoms related to EIH. PD patients who did not achieve 85% of target HR with treadmill testing lacked BP elevations during sub-maximal and peak exercise. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in exercise-induced BP elevations between PD patients with and without cardiac sympathetic denervation. Since BP control during exercise in PD was not affected by dosing with levodopa, exercise-related BP abnormalities in PD appear to manifest with the disease. These findings suggest that PD has impaired exercise-induced BP control, but not to the extent of MSA and PAF.

  20. High-intensity interval training attenuates the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6 in response to acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Croft, Louise; Bartlett, Jonathan D; MacLaren, Don P M; Reilly, Thomas; Evans, Louise; Mattey, Derek L; Nixon, Nicola B; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2009-12-01

    This aims of this study were to investigate the effects of carbohydrate availability during endurance training on the plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha response to a subsequent acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise. Three groups of recreationally active males performed 6 weeks of high-intensity interval running. Groups 1 (LOW+GLU) and 2 (LOW+PLA) trained twice per day, 2 days per week, and consumed a 6.4% glucose or placebo solution, respectively, before every second training session and at regular intervals throughout exercise. Group 3 (NORM) trained once per day, 4 days per week, and consumed no beverage during training. Each group performed 50 min of high-intensity interval running at the same absolute workloads before and after training. Muscle glycogen utilization in the gastrocnemius muscle during acute exercise was reduced (p < 0.05) in all groups following training, although this was not affected by training condition. Plasma IL-6 concentration increased (p < 0.05) after acute exercise in all groups before and after training. Furthermore, the magnitude of increase was reduced (p < 0.05) following training. This training-induced attenuation in plasma IL-6 increase was similar among groups. Plasma IL-8 concentration increased (p < 0.05) after acute exercise in all groups, although the magnitude of increase was not affected (p > 0.05) by training. Acute exercise did not increase (p > 0.05) plasma TNF-alpha when undertaken before or after training. Data demonstrate that the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6 concentration in response to customary exercise is attenuated by previous exercise training, and that this attenuation appears to occur independent of carbohydrate availability during training.

  1. Sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, N C; Patel, K R; Kerr, J W

    1978-01-01

    In thirteen patients with extrinsic asthma the effects of placebo, sodium cromoglycate, ipratropium bromide, and ipratropium bromide plus sodium cromoglycate were studied in a random double-blind fashion to assess their inhibitory action in exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Exercise testing consisted of steady state running on an inclined treadmill for up to eight minutes. In eight of the 13 patients studied the baseline ratio of expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity (VC) breathing helium-oxygen (V50He) to V50air was over 1.20 and they were called responders; the remaining five patients were called non-responders. There was a significantly lower baseline maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEF) in non-responders (P less than 0.02) as compared to responders but no difference in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FVC). Sodium cromoglycate (P less than 0.02), ipratropium bromide (P less than 0.01), and ipratropium bromide plus spdium cromoglycate (P less than 0.01) all significantly inhibited the percentage fall in FEV1 after exercise in the responders. Ipratropium bromide had no preventive action on non-responders, unlike sodium cromoglycate (P less than 0.05) and ipratropium bromide plus sodium cromoglycate (P less than 0.02). It is postulated that mediator release is an important factor in development of EIA in most extrinsic asthmatics, whereas cholinergic mechanisms are relevant only in those patients in whom the main site of airflow obstruction is in the large central airways. PMID:154747

  2. Effects of ipratropium on exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, L C; Araujo, A C; Martinez, J B; Vianna, E O

    2010-07-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is the transient narrowing of the airways that follows vigorous exercise. Ipratropium bromide may be used to prevent EIB, but its effect varies among individuals. We hypothesized that time of administration of ipratropium interferes with its action. This was a prospective, double-blind, cross-over study carried out to evaluate the bronchoprotective and bronchodilatory effect of ipratropium at different times of day. The study consisted of 4 exercise challenge tests (2 at 7 am and 2 at 6 pm). In the morning, one of the tests was performed after placebo administration and the other one after ipratropium (80 microg) and the two tests (placebo and ipratropium) were repeated in the evening. Twenty-one patients with severe or moderate asthma and previous confirmation of EIB were enrolled in this prospective trial. The bronchodilatory effect of ipratropium was 0.25+/-0.21 L or 13.11+/-10.99% (p=0.001 compared to baseline values) in the morning, and 0.14+/-0.25 L or 7.25+/-11.37% (p>0.05) in the evening. In the morning, EIB was 0.58+/-0.29 L on the placebo day and 0.38+/-0.22 L on the treatment day (p=0.01). In the evening, EIB was 0.62+/-0.28 L on the placebo day and 0.51+/-0.35 L on the treatment day (p>0.05). We suggest that the use of ipratropium for the treatment of asthma and EIB should take into consideration the time of administration.

  3. Voluntary exercise counteracts Aβ25-35-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Xu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jinrong; Sun, Jianguo; Gao, Junying; Wu, Ting; Xiao, Ming

    2013-11-01

    Exercise has been shown to enhance hippocampus-related cognition and slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether voluntary exercise directly decreases the neurotoxicity of amyloid peptide (Aβ) needs to be determined. In the present study, two-month old male C57bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with Aβ25-35, and then allowed for voluntary exercise for 12 days. Y-maze test revealed that voluntary exercise mitigated spatial memory impairment induced by Aβ25-35. Consistently, Aβ25-35 treated mice with exercise showed reduced neuronal degeneration and synaptic protein loss in the hippocampus compared with sedentary controls. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly ameliorated oxidative stress markers and increased vessel branches in the hippocampus of Aβ25-35 treated mice. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise counteracts the neurotoxicity of Aβ by reducing oxidative stress and increasing angiogenesis, which may underlie the beneficial effect of exercise on AD.

  4. Short- and Long-term exercise induced alterations in haemostasis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Posthuma, Jelle J; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Ten Cate, Hugo; Spronk, Henri M H

    2015-05-01

    Although regular exercise is beneficial for health, exercise-related thrombotic events, such as venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarctions, are occasionally observed. These events are characterized by a prothrombotic condition in which interactions between coagulation factors, the vessel wall and the fibrinolytic system play an important role. Apparently, various durations and intensities of exercise have different effects on haemostasis and especially high intensity exercise tends to increase the risk of thrombotic events. However, the mechanisms behind this have not been entirely established. In this review we provide an overview of the various effects of the different intensities and durations of exercise on haemostasis. Overall, the haemostatic profile is mainly affected by the intensity of exercise; and is more pronounced after high (>80%) compared to low intensity (<60%), as reflected by increased platelet and coagulant activity. These findings are in line with the increased risk of exercise-induced thrombotic events during high intensity exercise.

  5. MRI-detectable changes in mouse brain structure induced by voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Lindsay S; Steadman, Patrick E; Jones, Carly E; Laliberté, Christine L; Dazai, Jun; Lerch, Jason P; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G

    2015-06-01

    Physical exercise, besides improving cognitive and mental health, is known to cause structural changes in the brain. Understanding the structural changes that occur with exercise as well as the neuroanatomical correlates of a predisposition for exercise is important for understanding human health. This study used high-resolution 3D MR imaging, in combination with deformation-based morphometry, to investigate the macroscopic changes in brain structure that occur in healthy adult mice following four weeks of voluntary exercise. We found that exercise induced changes in multiple brain structures that are involved in motor function and learning and memory including the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex, olivary complex, inferior cerebellar peduncle and regions of the cerebellum. In addition, a number of brain structures, including the hippocampus, striatum and pons, when measured on MRI prior to the start of exercise were highly predictive of subsequent exercise activity. Exercise tended to normalize these pre-existing differences between mice.

  6. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  7. Exercise preconditioning modulates genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in multiple organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato Almeida; Minari, André Luis; Chaves, Marcelo Donizetti; dos Santos, Ronaldo Wagner Thomatieli; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise in multiple organs of rats treated with doxorubicin. Male adult Wistar rats were distributed into the following groups: sedentary + NaCl; exercise + NaCl; sedentary + doxorubicin; and exercise + doxorubicin. Animals were sacrificed 2 days following injections. Central fragments from heart, liver, and kidney were collected and minced in 0.9% NaCl being cellular suspensions used for the single-cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that exercise was able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells. By contrast, exercise was not able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in liver cells. The same occurred to kidney cells, i.e. no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found when compared with groups not exposed to doxorubicin. Taken together, our results support the idea that exercise could contribute to the protective effect against genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells.

  8. Exercise-induced cardioprotection: a role for eNOS uncoupling and NO metabolites.

    PubMed

    Farah, C; Kleindienst, A; Bolea, G; Meyer, G; Gayrard, S; Geny, B; Obert, P; Cazorla, O; Tanguy, S; Reboul, Cyril

    2013-11-01

    Exercise is an efficient strategy for myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Although endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is phosphorylated and activated during exercise, its role in exercise-induced cardioprotection remains unknown. This study investigated whether modulation of eNOS activation during IR could participate in the exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR injury. Hearts isolated from sedentary or exercised rats (5 weeks training) were perfused with a Langendorff apparatus and IR performed in the presence or absence of NOS inhibitors [N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, L-NIO] or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄). Exercise training protected hearts against IR injury and this effect was abolished by L-NAME or by L-NIO treatment, indicating that exercise-induced cardioprotection is eNOS dependent. However, a strong reduction of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 (eNOS-PSer1177) and of eNOS coupling during early reperfusion was observed in hearts from exercised rats (which showed higher eNOS-PSer1177 and eNOS dimerization at baseline) in comparison to sedentary rats. Despite eNOS uncoupling, exercised hearts had more S-nitrosylated proteins after early reperfusion and also less nitro-oxidative stress, indexed by lower malondialdehyde content and protein nitrotyrosination compared to sedentary hearts. Moreover, in exercised hearts, stabilization of eNOS dimers by BH4 treatment increased nitro-oxidative stress and then abolished the exercise-induced cardioprotection, indicating that eNOS uncoupling during IR is required for exercise-induced myocardial cardioprotection. Based on these results, we hypothesize that in the hearts of exercised animals, eNOS uncoupling associated with the improved myocardial antioxidant capacity prevents excessive NO synthesis and limits the reaction between NO and O₂·- to form peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻), which is cytotoxic.

  9. Exercise-induced muscle damage impairs insulin signaling pathway associated with IRS-1 oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Aoi, W; Naito, Y; Tokuda, H; Tanimura, Y; Oya-Ito, T; Yoshikawa, T

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces delayed-onset muscle damage including oxidative damage of cellular components. Oxidative stress to muscle cells impairs glucose uptake via disturbance of insulin signaling pathway. We investigated glucose uptake and insulin signaling in relation to oxidative protein modification in muscle after acute strenuous exercise. ICR mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Mice in the exercise group performed downhill running exercise at 30 m/min for 30 min. At 24 hr after exercise, metabolic performance and insulin-signaling proteins in muscle tissues were examined. In whole body indirect calorimetry, carbohydrate utilization was decreased in the exercised mice along with reduction of the respiratory exchange ratio compared to the rested control mice. Insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose in damaged muscle was decreased after acute exercise. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidyl-3-kinase/Akt signaling were impaired by exercise, leading to inhibition of the membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4. We also found that acute exercise caused 4-hydroxy-nonenal modification of IRS-1 along with elevation of oxidative stress in muscle tissue. Impairment of insulin-induced glucose uptake into damaged muscle after strenuous exercise would be related to disturbance of insulin signal transduction by oxidative modification of IRS-1.

  10. Exercise Protects against PCB-Induced Inflammation and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Margaret O.; Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB- induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE−/− mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12 week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 hours before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12 week exercise intervention significantly reduced these pro-atherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs. Keywords: exercise, polychlorinated biphenyl, endothelial function, antioxidant response, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, oxidative stress PMID:25586614

  11. Different protocols of treadmill exercise induce distinct neuroplastic effects in rat brain motor areas.

    PubMed

    Real, Caroline C; Garcia, Priscila C; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2015-10-22

    A variety of exercise protocols have been used to promote experimental neuroplasticity. However, the plastic brain responses generated by several aspects of training (types, frequency, regimens, duration) remain undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare the plastic changes in the glutamatergic system and synaptic proteins in motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum promoted by two different treadmill exercise regimens. The present study analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting the expression of the subunits of AMPA receptors (GluA1 and GluA2/3) and synaptic proteins (synapsin I and synaptophysin) in adult male Wistar rat brains. The animals were divided into animals subjected to two different frequencies of aerobic exercise groups and sedentary animals. The exercise groups were: intermittent treadmill exercise (ITE) - animals that exercised 3 times a week (every other day) during four weeks, and continuous treadmill exercise (CTE) - animals that exercised every day during four weeks. Our results reveal that different protocols of treadmill exercise were able to promote distinct synaptic reorganization processes among the exercised groups. In general, the intermittent exercise regimen induced a higher expression of presynaptic proteins, whereas the continuous exercise regimen increased postsynaptic GluA1 and GluA2/3 receptors.

  12. Evidence of a Redox-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses to Exercise-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sakelliou, Alexandra; Athanailidis, Ioannis; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Draganidis, Dimitris; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Liacos, Christina; Mandalidis, Dimitrios; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Mitrakou, Asimina

    2016-01-01

    We used thiol-based antioxidant supplementation (n-acetylcysteine, NAC) to determine whether immune mobilisation following skeletal muscle microtrauma induced by exercise is redox-sensitive in healthy humans. According to a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures design, 10 young men received either placebo or NAC (20 mg/kg/day) immediately after a muscle-damaging exercise protocol (300 eccentric contractions) and for eight consecutive days. Blood sampling and performance assessments were performed before exercise, after exercise, and daily throughout recovery. NAC reduced the decline of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and the increase of plasma protein carbonyls, serum TAC and erythrocyte oxidized glutathione, and TBARS and catalase activity during recovery thereby altering postexercise redox status. The rise of muscle damage and inflammatory markers (muscle strength, creatine kinase activity, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules) was less pronounced in NAC during the first phase of recovery. The rise of leukocyte and neutrophil count was decreased by NAC after exercise. Results on immune cell subpopulations obtained by flow cytometry indicated that NAC ingestion reduced the exercise-induced rise of total macrophages, HLA+ macrophages, and 11B+ macrophages and abolished the exercise-induced upregulation of B lymphocytes. Natural killer cells declined only in PLA immediately after exercise. These results indicate that thiol-based antioxidant supplementation blunts immune cell mobilisation in response to exercise-induced inflammation suggesting that leukocyte mobilization may be under redox-dependent regulation. PMID:27974950

  13. Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Rosene, John; Matthews, Tracey; Ryan, Christine; Belmore, Keith; Bergsten, Alisa; Blaisdell, Jill; Gaylord, James; Love, Rebecca; Marrone, Michael; Ward, Kristine; Wilson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d(-1) for 7 d followed by 6g.d(-1) for 23 d = 30 d). Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d(-1) of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days) bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days) bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage. Key pointsEccentric muscle actions highly associated with exercise induced muscle damage.Creatine supplementation has ergogenic effect to increase protein synthesis.Creatine supplementation does not attenuate exercise induced muscle damage with short term supplementation (7 days).Increased maximal isometric force seen with creatine supplementation after 30 days following exercise induced muscle damage.Ergogenic effect of creatine

  14. Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John; Matthews, Tracey; Ryan, Christine; Belmore, Keith; Bergsten, Alisa; Blaisdell, Jill; Gaylord, James; Love, Rebecca; Marrone, Michael; Ward, Kristine; Wilson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d). Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days) bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days) bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage. Key points Eccentric muscle actions highly associated with exercise induced muscle damage. Creatine supplementation has ergogenic effect to increase protein synthesis. Creatine supplementation does not attenuate exercise induced muscle damage with short term supplementation (7 days). Increased maximal isometric force seen with creatine supplementation after 30 days following exercise induced muscle damage. Ergogenic effect of creatine

  15. Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Methods Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. Results In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p < 0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p < 0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378 ± 421 ml (5.9%, p < 0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p = 0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p = 0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p = 0.35) or deltoid (p = 0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Conclusions Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline

  16. Exercise Does Not Protect against MPTP-Induced Neurotoxicity in BDNF Happloinsufficent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gerecke, Kim M.; Jiao, Yun; Pagala, Viswajeeth; Smeyne, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), have been shown to upregulate in response to exercise. In order to determine if exercise-induced neuroprotection is dependent upon BDNF, we compared the neuroprotective effects of voluntary exercise in mice heterozygous for the BDNF gene (BDNF+/−) with strain-matched wild-type (WT) mice. Stereological estimates of SNpc DA neurons from WT mice allowed 90 days exercise via unrestricted running demonstrated complete protection against the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. However, BDNF+/− mice allowed 90 days of unrestricted exercise were not protected from MPTP-induced SNpc DA neuron loss. Proteomic analysis comparing SN and striatum from 90 day exercised WT and BDNF+/− mice showed differential expression of proteins related to energy regulation, intracellular signaling and trafficking. These results suggest that a full genetic complement of BDNF is critical for the exercise-induced neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons. PMID:22912838

  17. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  18. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  19. The Role of Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Adaptation in Brain Health.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Takashi; Zhang, Rong

    2015-10-01

    Regular aerobic exercise improves brain health; however, a potential dose-response relationship and the underling physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Existing data support the following hypotheses: 1) exercise-induced cardiovascular adaptation plays an important role in improving brain perfusion, structure, and function, and 2) a hormetic relation seems to exist between the intensity of exercise and brain health, which needs to be further elucidated.

  20. The regulation of autophagy during exercise in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vainshtein, Anna; Hood, David A

    2016-03-15

    The merits of exercise on muscle health and well-being are numerous and well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying the robust adaptations induced by exercise, particularly on mitochondria, are less clear and much sought after. Recently, an evolutionary conserved cellular recycling mechanism known as autophagy has been implicated in the adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. A basal level of autophagy is constantly ongoing in cells and tissues, ensuring cellular clearance and energy homeostasis. This pathway can be further induced, as a survival mechanism, by cellular perturbations, such as energetic imbalance and oxidative stress. During exercise, a biphasic autophagy response is mobilized, leading to both an acute induction and a long-term potentiation of the process. Posttranslational modifications arising from upstream signaling cascades induce an acute autophagic response during a single bout of exercise by mobilizing core autophagy machinery. A transcriptional program involving the regulators Forkhead box O, transcription factor EB, p53, and peroxisome proliferator coactivator-1α is also induced to fuel sustained increases in autophagic capacity. Autophagy has also been documented to mediate chronic exercise-induced metabolic benefits, and animal models in which autophagy is perturbed do not adapt to exercise to the same extent. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field of autophagy and exercise. We specifically highlight the molecular mechanisms activated during acute exercise that lead to a prolonged adaptive response.

  1. Bi-phase transition diagrams of metallic thin multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.C.; Liu, W.; Jiang, Q. . E-mail: jiangq@jlu.edu.cn

    2005-02-01

    Phase transitions of metallic multilayers induced by differences in interface energy are considered thermodynamically, based on a thermodynamic model for interface energy and the Goldschmidt premise for lattice contraction. Bi-phase transition diagrams of Co/Cr, Zr/Nb, Ti/Nb and Ti/Al multilayers are constructed, which are in agreement with experimental results.

  2. Exercise protects against PCB-induced inflammation and associated cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret O; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB-induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12-week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 h before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12-week exercise intervention significantly reduced these proatherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs.

  3. Exercise-induced changes of the capillaries in the cortex of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-X; Qiu, X; Wang, S; Wu, H; Xia, L; Li, C; Gao, Y; Zhang, L; Xiu, Y; Chao, F; Tang, Y

    2013-03-13

    Previous studies have shown that running exercise could increase regional cerebral blood flow. There have been previous studies investigating the effects of running exercise on capillary density in the brain and showing that running exercise could induce brain angiogenesis. However, there have been no studies investigating the effects of running exercise on the total volume, total length and total surface area of the capillaries in the cortex. Moreover, sex differences in the effects of running exercise on the capillaries of the cortex have not previously been investigated. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of running exercise on the capillaries in the cortex of middle-aged rats using the new unbiased stereological methods. The present study found that the total length and total surface area of the capillaries in the cortex of running middle-aged female rats were significantly increased, compared to control rats. Our results also reveal that there are sex differences in the effects of running exercise on the capillaries in the cortex of middle-aged rats. These results demonstrate that exercise-induced increases of the capillaries in the female rat cortex might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced improvement in the spatial learning capacity of middle-aged female rats. These results provide a baseline for further studies that search for strategies to delay the deleterious effects of brain aging.

  4. Assessment of eccentric exercise-induced oxidative stress using oxidation-reduction potential markers.

    PubMed

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Ntontou, Amalia-Maria; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Deli, Chariklia K; Poulios, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Bar-Or, David; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of static (sORP) and capacity ORP (cORP) oxidation-reduction potential markers as measured by the RedoxSYS Diagnostic System in plasma, for assessing eccentric exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen volunteers performed eccentric exercise with the knee extensors. Blood was collected before, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Moreover, common redox biomarkers were measured, which were protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total antioxidant capacity in plasma, and catalase activity and glutathione levels in erythrocytes. When the participants were examined as one group, there were not significant differences in any marker after exercise. However, in 11 participants there was a high increase in cORP after exercise, while in 8 participants there was a high decrease. Thus, the participants were divided in low cORP group exhibiting significant decrease in cORP after exercise and in high cORP group exhibiting significant increase. Moreover, only in the low cORP group there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation after exercise suggesting induction of oxidative stress. The results suggested that high decreases in cORP values after exercise may indicate induction of oxidative stress by eccentric exercise, while high increases in cORP values after exercise may indicate no existence of oxidative stress.

  5. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals MicroRNAs Regulating Biological Pathways in Exercise-Induced Cardiac Physiological Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiahong; Liu, Yang; Xie, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy is generally considered to be a type of adaptive change after exercise training and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at investigating exercise-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential biological pathways. Here, we collected 23 miRNAs from 8 published studies. MirPath v.3 from the DIANA tools website was used to execute the analysis, and TargetScan was used to predict the target genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Various miRNA targets and molecular pathways, such as Fatty acid elongation, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and ECM-receptor interaction, were identified. This study could prompt the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28286759

  6. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals MicroRNAs Regulating Biological Pathways in Exercise-Induced Cardiac Physiological Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiahong; Liu, Yang; Xie, Yuan; Zhao, Cuimei; Wang, Hongbao

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy is generally considered to be a type of adaptive change after exercise training and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at investigating exercise-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential biological pathways. Here, we collected 23 miRNAs from 8 published studies. MirPath v.3 from the DIANA tools website was used to execute the analysis, and TargetScan was used to predict the target genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Various miRNA targets and molecular pathways, such as Fatty acid elongation, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and ECM-receptor interaction, were identified. This study could prompt the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

  7. Chronic exercise dampens hippocampal glutamate overflow induced by kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip V; Reiss, Jenny I; Murray, Patrick S; Dishman, Rod K; Spradley, Jessica M

    2015-05-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported that chronic, voluntary exercise diminishes seizure-related behaviors induced by convulsant doses of kainic acid. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that exercise exerts this protective effect through a mechanism involving suppression of glutamate release in the hippocampal formation. Following three weeks of voluntary wheel running or sedentary conditions, rats were injected with 10 mg/kg of kainic acid, and hippocampal glutamate was measured in real time using a telemetric, in vivo voltammetry system. A separate experiment measured electroencephalographic (EEG) activity following kainic acid treatment. Results of the voltammetry experiment revealed that the rise in hippocampal glutamate induced by kainic acid is attenuated in exercising rats compared to sedentary controls, indicating that the exercise-induced protection against seizures involves regulation of hippocampal glutamate release. The findings reveal the potential benefit of regular exercise in the treatment and prevention of seizure disorders and suggest a possible neurobiological mechanism underlying this effect.

  8. Platelet activation during exercise induced asthma: effect of prophylaxis with cromoglycate and salbutamol.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C E; Belfield, P W; Davis, S; Cooke, N J; Spencer, A; Davies, J A

    1986-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin were measured before and after exercise in nine asthmatic patients and 12 non-asthmatic volunteers. Exercise was preceded by administration in random order of either placebo, salbutamol 200 micrograms, or sodium cromoglycate 2 mg from a pressurised inhaler. In control subjects there were minimal changes in PEF and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin. In the asthmatic patients the typical changes in PEF were seen on exercise; plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin rose significantly in parallel, the rise preceding the fall in PEF. The changes in peak flow and platelet activation induced by exercise were attenuated by prior administration of salbutamol or cromoglycate. These results indicate that exercise induced asthma is associated with a rise in platelet release products similar to that observed in antigen induced asthma. PMID:2943049

  9. Effects of exercise on stress-induced changes of norepinephrine and serotonin in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Xuewei; Zhang, Na; Ma, Qiang

    2013-10-31

    Exercise is beneficial to brain and can attenuate stress-induced hippocampal damages. However, the details involved monoamine neurotransmitter in exercise to counteract stress have not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine exercise-induced responses of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) systems in counteracting stress-induced hippocampal damages. Rats were divided into exercise (four weeks of voluntary wheel running), stress (three weeks of restraint stress), exercise-stress (three weeks of stress following four weeks of exercise), and control groups. Levels of NE and 5-HT were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mRNA expression was detected with real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase reaction (FQ-RT-PCR) and proteins associated with 5-HT₁Α receptors (5-HT₁Α-R) and β₂-adrenergic receptors (β₂-AR) were analyzed by western blotting. 5-HT levels were highest (P < 0.01) in the exercised group, lowest (P < 0.05) in the stressed rats, and were similar (P = 0.065) in stressed and exercise-stressed rats. NE levels were highest (P < 0.01) in the exercised group, and higher in the exercise-stressed than the stressed rats (P < 0.01). 5-HT₁A-R mRNA expression was highest (P < 0.01) in the exercised group, lowest in the stressed group. The 5-HT₁Α-R protein expression changed in the same tendency as its mRNA levels. The β₂-AR mRNA was highest in exercised rats (P < 0.05), and its protein expression was higher in the exercised and exercise-stress rats than in the control and stress rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, norepinephrine may represent endophenotypic features of exercise states. Serotonin levels may be more susceptible to stress and responsible for deleterious stress-induced effects. Norepinephrine and serotonin may both contribute to counteraction of stress-induced hippocampal damages of physical exercises.

  10. Exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia in patients with vasospastic angina

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, M.; Koyanagi, S.; Sakai, K.; Irie, T.; Takeshita, A.; Nakamura, M.; Nakagaki, O. )

    1990-03-01

    To clarify the incidence and clinical characteristics of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with vasospastic angina, we performed exercise thallium computed tomography in 25 patients who had no significant coronary artery stenosis greater than 70%. Coronary artery spasm was documented by coronary angiography in all patients. Eleven patients (44%) developed exercise-induced perfusion defects, but only four of them had anginal pain (36%). Diltiazem (90 mg, administered orally) prevented the development of exercise-induced perfusion defects in all patients. Multivessel coronary spasm was documented by coronary angiography in 11 patients, and nine of them (82%) showed exercise-induced perfusion defects (p less than 0.05). From this study it can be concluded: (1) Exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was demonstrated in 44% of patients who had vasospastic angina without fixed coronary stenosis, and 64% of them were asymptomatic. (2) Patients with multivessel spasm had a greater prevalence of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia than those with single-vessel spasm.

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Shirdavani, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vanadium compounds are insulin like drugs which are accompanied with nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as their major side effects. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the role of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I had aerobic exercise on a treadmill 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Group II received vanadyl sulphate (50 mg/kg/week; i.p.) for 6 weeks. Group III had combination of exercise and vanadyl sulphate therapy as groups 1 and 2. At the end of study, blood samples were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for the tissues injury determination. Results: Vanadyl sulphate alone increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and kidney weight (KW) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P<0.05). These observations revealed nephrotoxicity induced by vanadyl sulphate, although exercise training did not attenuate these results. In addition, vanadyl sulphate alone induced liver tissue damage score and exercise training intensified it insignificantly, while the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase were greater in exercise alone group than others groups. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise could not attenuate vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings must be considered when vanadyl sulphate is suggested as insulin like drug. PMID:27689120

  12. High-intensity exercise training induces morphological and biochemical changes in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Toti, L; Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Soldani, P; Gobbi, P; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2013-12-01

    IN THE PRESENT STUDY WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT EXERCISE PROTOCOLS ON FIBRE COMPOSITION AND METABOLISM OF TWO SPECIFIC MUSCLES OF MICE: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism.

  13. The biphasic interphase-mitotic polarity of cell nuclei induced under DNA replication stress seems to be correlated with Pin2 localization in root meristems of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Chmielnicka, Agnieszka; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Long-term treatment of Allium cepa seedlings with low concentration of hydroxyurea (HU) results in a disruption of cell cycle checkpoints, leading root apex meristem (RAM) cells to an abnormal organization of nuclear structures forming interphase (I) and mitotic (M) domains of chromatin at opposite poles of the nucleus. Thus far, both critical cell length and an uneven distribution of cyclin B-like proteins along the nuclear axis have been recognized as essential factors needed to facilitate the formation of biphasic interphase-mitotic (IM) cells. Two new aspects with respect to their emergence are investigated in this study. The first concerns a relationship between the polarity of increasing chromatin condensation (IM orientation) and the acropetal (base→apex) alignment of RAM cell files. The second problem involves the effects of auxin (IAA), on the frequency of IM cells. We provide evidence that there is an association between the advanced M-poles of the IM cell nuclei and the polarized accumulation sites of auxin efflux carriers (PIN2 proteins) and IAA. Furthermore, our observations reveal exclusion regions for PIN2 proteins in the microtubule-rich structures, such as preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplast. The current and previous studies have prompted us to formulate a hypothetical mechanism linking PIN2-mediated unilateral localization of IAA and the induction of bipolar IM cells in HU-treated RAMs of A. cepa.

  14. Exercise preconditioning attenuates pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongyi; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Chengliang; Liu, Xiaohong; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a common response of the heart to a variety of cardiovascular diseases, is typically associated with myocytes remodeling and fibrotic replacement, cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) increases the myocardial mechanical load and enhances tolerance of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), however, is less reported in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. To determine the effect of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, Male 10-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were subjected to 4 weeks of EP followed by 4-8 weeks of pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) to induce pathological remodeling. TAC in untrained controls (n=30) led to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, depressed systolic function. We observed that left ventricular wall thickness in end diastole, heart size, heart weight-to-body weight ratio, heart weight-to-tibia length ratio, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes and the reactivation of fetal genes (atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide) were markedly increased, meanwhile left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole, systolic function were significantly decreased by TAC at 4 wks after operation (P < 0.01), all of which were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (P < 0.05), but the differences of these parameters were decreased at 8 wks after operation. Furthermore, EP treatment inhibited degradation of IκBα, and decreased NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and then reduced IL2 levels in the myocardium of rats subject to TAC. EP can effectively attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC possibly through inhibition of degradation of IκB and blockade of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the early stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25755743

  15. Normal human synovial fluid: osmolality and exercise-induced changes.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, M; Bloebaum, R D; Ross, S D; Campbell, P; Sarmiento, A

    1985-12-01

    We measured the osmolality of human synovial fluid in the knees of healthy young adults following minimum activity and exercise. These results were compared with each subject's blood-serum osmolality. The synovial fluid was hyperosmolal with minimum activity, decreasing to blood-serum levels after exercise.

  16. Exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in healthy humans.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B D; Babcock, M A; Suman, O E; Dempsey, J A

    1993-01-01

    1. Twelve healthy subjects (33 +/- 3 years) with a variety of fitness levels (maximal oxygen uptake (VO2, max) = 61 +/- 4 ml kg-1 min-1, range 40-80), exercised at 95 and 85% VO2, max to exhaustion (mean time = 14 +/- 3 and 31 +/- 8 min, expired ventilation (VE) over final minute of exercise = 149 +/- 9 and 126 +/- 10 l min-1). 2. Bilateral transcutaneous supramaximal phrenic nerve stimulation (BPNS) was performed before and immediately after exercise at four lung volumes, and 400 ms tetanic stimulations were performed at 10 and 20 Hz. The coefficients of variation of repeated measurements for the twitch transdiaphragm pressures (Pdi) were +/- 7-10% and for compound muscle action potentials (M wave) +/- 10-15%. 3. Following exercise at 95% of VO2, max, group mean Pdi twitch values were reduced at all lung volumes (range -8 +/- 3 to -32 +/- 5%) and tetanically stimulated Pdi values were reduced at both 10 and 20 Hz (-21 +/- 3 and -13 +/- 2%, respectively) (P = 0.001-0.047). Following exercise at 85% VO2, max, stimulated Pdi values were reduced at all lung volumes and stimulating frequencies, but only significantly so with the twitch at functional residual capacity (-15 +/- 5%). Stimulated Pdi values recovered partially by 30 min post-exercise and almost completely by an average time of 70 min. 4. The fall in stimulated Pdi values post-exercise was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in diaphragmatic work (integral of Pdi min-1) from rest to end-exercise and the relative intensity of the exercise. 5. The integral of Pdi min-1 and the integral of Po min-1 (Po, esophageal pressure) rose together from rest through the fifth to tenth minute of exercise, after which integral of Pdi min-1 plateaued even though integral of Po min-1, VE and inspiratory flow rate all continued to rise substantially until exercise terminated. Thus, the relative contribution of the diaphragm to total respiratory motor output was progressively reduced with exercise duration. 6

  17. Deconditioning-induced exercise responses as influenced by heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Haines, R. F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study to determine the effect of heat acclimation and physical training in temperate conditions on changes in exercise tolerance following water-immersion deconditioning is presented. Five young men were tested on a bicycle ergometer before and after heat acclimation and after water immersion. The subjects and the experimental procedure, heat acclimation and exercise training, water immersion, and exercise tolerance are discussed. Heat acclimation resulted in the usual decreases in exercise heart rate and rectal temperature and an increase in sweat rate. Water immersion resulted in substantial diuresis despite water consumed. The results show that heat acclimation provides an effective method of preventing the adverse effects of water-immersion deconditioning on exercise tolerance.

  18. Enhancement of ozone-induced lung injury by exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Mautz, W.J.; McClure, T.R.; Reischl, P.; Phalen, R.F.; Crocker, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were exposed for up to 3.75 h to 0.20-0.80 ppm O/sub 3/ under conditions of rest and treadmill exercise up to 30 m/min, 20% grade, to assess the importance of exposure duration, O/sub 3/ concentration, and exercise on lung tissue injury. Focal lung parenchymal lesions increased in abundance and severity in response to the three variables; however, exercise was the most important. Lesion response to exercise was greater than that predicted by a simple proportion to estimated effective dose of O/sub 3/. The results emphasize the importance of including exercise in assessment of possible adverse health effects of exposure to airborne pollutants.

  19. Physical exercise can reverse the deficit in fear memory induced by maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mello, Pâmela Billig; Benetti, Fernando; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-10-01

    Maternal deprivation during the first 10 days of life induces significant behavioral alterations in rodents which persist through adulthood. Physical exercise reduces the cognitive deficits associated with pharmacologic and pathological conditions. Here we investigated whether forced physical exercise alters memory deficits caused by postnatal maternal deprivation. Male rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) deprived, (3) exercised, and (4) deprived+exercised. In groups 2 and 4, pups were deprived from their mothers for 3h/day during the first 10 days post-birth. In groups 3 and 4, from postnatal day 45 (PND-45) on, animals were submitted to forced treadmill exercise. At adulthood, animals were submitted to four different behavioral tasks: open field, Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition (OR) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). Maternal deprivation had no effect on open field behavior, but disrupted memory in the three other tasks. Physical exercise alone had no effect, except for a slight enhancement of MWM learning. Importantly, physical exercise reversed the deficit of IA and reduced the deficit of spatial memory but not that of OR seen in deprived animals. It is possible that physical exercise may counteract the influence of maternal deprivation on neurohumoral or hormonal memory modulatory systems related to stress. Indeed, the decreasing order of the effect of exercise on the memory disturbances induced by deprivation roughly follows the descending degree of stress associated with each task (IA>MWM>OR). Maternal deprivation is known to hinder hormonal mechanisms involved in coping with stress.

  20. Daily treadmill exercise attenuates cocaine cue-induced reinstatement and cocaine induced locomotor response but increases cocaine-primed reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Stamos, Joshua; Robison, Lisa S.; Heyman, Gary; Tucci, Andrew; Wang, Gene-Jack; Robinson, John K.; Anderson, Brenda J.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise affects neuroplasticity and neurotransmission including dopamine (DA), which modulates drug-taking behavior. Previous research in rodents has shown that exercise may attenuate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The present study examined the effects of high and low exercise on cocaine responses in male Wistar rats that had been trained to self-administer and were compared to a group of sedentary rats. High exercise rats (HE) ran daily on a treadmill for 2 h and low exercise (LE) ran daily for 1 h. After 6 weeks of this exercise regimen, rats were tested over 2 days for reinstatement (day 1: cue-induced reinstatement; day 2: cocaine-primed reinstatement). During cue-induced reinstatement, the sedentary rats showed the expected increase in active lever responses when compared to maintenance, whereas these increased responses were inhibited in the exercised rats (HE and LE). During cocaine-primed reinstatement, however, there was a significant increase in active lever presses when compared to maintenance only in the HE group. This data suggests that chronic exercise during abstinence attenuates the cue-induced reinstatement seen in the sedentary rats by 26% (LE) and 21% (HE). In contrast, only the high exercise rats exhibited sensitized cocaine-seeking behavior (active lever presses) following cocaine-primed reinstatement. Finally, while sedentary rats increased locomotor activity during cocaine-primed reinstatement over that seen with cocaine during maintenance, this was not observed in the exercised rats, suggesting that exercise may interfere with the sensitized locomotor response during cocaine reinstatement. PMID:23103403

  1. Ingestion of TRP channel agonists attenuates exercise-induced muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Shank, Sean W; Gottschall, Jinger S; Passe, Dennis H; Murray, Bob; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-13

    Exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a poorly understood problem that is neuromuscular in origin. Ingestion of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists has been efficacious in attenuating electrically-induced muscle cramps.

  2. Aerobic Exercise Protects Retinal Function and Structure from Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Eric C.; Han, Moon K.; Sellers, Jana T.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min for 1 h) for 5 d/week or placed control mice on static treadmills. After 2 weeks of exercise, mice were exposed to either toxic bright light (10,000 lux) for 4 h to induce photoreceptor degeneration or maintenance dim light (25 lux). Bright light caused 75% loss of both retinal function and photoreceptor numbers. However, exercised mice exposed to bright light had 2 times greater retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei than inactive mice exposed to bright light. In addition, exercise increased retinal BDNF protein levels by 20% compared with inactive mice. Systemic injections of a BDNF tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkB) receptor antagonist reduced retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei counts in exercised mice to inactive levels, effectively blocking the protective effects seen with aerobic exercise. The data suggest that aerobic exercise is neuroprotective for retinal degeneration and that this effect is mediated by BDNF signaling. PMID:24523530

  3. Aerobic exercise protects retinal function and structure from light-induced retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Eric C; Han, Moon K; Sellers, Jana T; Chrenek, Micah A; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Pardue, Machelle T

    2014-02-12

    Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min for 1 h) for 5 d/week or placed control mice on static treadmills. After 2 weeks of exercise, mice were exposed to either toxic bright light (10,000 lux) for 4 h to induce photoreceptor degeneration or maintenance dim light (25 lux). Bright light caused 75% loss of both retinal function and photoreceptor numbers. However, exercised mice exposed to bright light had 2 times greater retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei than inactive mice exposed to bright light. In addition, exercise increased retinal BDNF protein levels by 20% compared with inactive mice. Systemic injections of a BDNF tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkB) receptor antagonist reduced retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei counts in exercised mice to inactive levels, effectively blocking the protective effects seen with aerobic exercise. The data suggest that aerobic exercise is neuroprotective for retinal degeneration and that this effect is mediated by BDNF signaling.

  4. Determinants of exercise-induced fat oxidation in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2010-03-01

    Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.

  5. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  6. Role of PGC-1α during acute exercise-induced autophagy and mitophagy in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vainshtein, Anna; Tryon, Liam D.; Pauly, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise leads to systemic metabolic benefits, which require remodeling of energy resources in skeletal muscle. During acute exercise, the increase in energy demands initiate mitochondrial biogenesis, orchestrated by the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Much less is known about the degradation of mitochondria following exercise, although new evidence implicates a cellular recycling mechanism, autophagy/mitophagy, in exercise-induced adaptations. How mitophagy is activated and what role PGC-1α plays in this process during exercise have yet to be evaluated. Thus we investigated autophagy/mitophagy in muscle immediately following an acute bout of exercise or 90 min following exercise in wild-type (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) animals. Deletion of PGC-1α resulted in a 40% decrease in mitochondrial content, as well as a 25% decline in running performance, which was accompanied by severe acidosis in KO animals, indicating metabolic distress. Exercise induced significant increases in gene transcripts of various mitochondrial (e.g., cytochrome oxidase subunit IV and mitochondrial transcription factor A) and autophagy-related (e.g., p62 and light chain 3) genes in WT, but not KO, animals. Exercise also resulted in enhanced targeting of mitochondria for mitophagy, as well as increased autophagy and mitophagy flux, in WT animals. This effect was attenuated in the absence of PGC-1α. We also identified Niemann-Pick C1, a transmembrane protein involved in lysosomal lipid trafficking, as a target of PGC-1α that is induced with exercise. These results suggest that mitochondrial turnover is increased following exercise and that this effect is at least in part coordinated by PGC-1α. Anna Vainshtein received the AJP-Cell 2015 Paper of the Year award. Listen to a podcast with Anna Vainshtein and coauthor David A. Hood at http://ajpcell.podbean.com/e/ajp-cell-paper-of-the-year-2015-award-podcast/. PMID

  7. NOX2 Inhibition Impairs Early Muscle Gene Expression Induced by a Single Exercise Bout.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Utreras-Mendoza, Yildy; Campos, Cristian; Arias-Calderón, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Altamirano, Francisco; Jaimovich, Enrique; Valladares, Denisse M

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg) or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho-p47(phox) levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47(phox)-gp91(phox) interaction) demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), citrate synthase (CS), mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam) and interleukin-6 (IL-I6) in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p < 0.001). These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise.

  8. NOX2 Inhibition Impairs Early Muscle Gene Expression Induced by a Single Exercise Bout

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Utreras-Mendoza, Yildy; Campos, Cristian; Arias-Calderón, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Altamirano, Francisco; Jaimovich, Enrique; Valladares, Denisse M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg) or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho–p47phox levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47phox–gp91phox interaction) demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), citrate synthase (CS), mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam) and interleukin-6 (IL-I6) in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p < 0.001). These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise. PMID:27471471

  9. Short-term exercise training protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial damage independent of HSP72.

    PubMed

    Kavazis, Andreas N; Smuder, Ashley J; Min, Kisuk; Tümer, Nihal; Powers, Scott K

    2010-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antitumor agent used in cancer treatment, but its clinical use is limited due to cardiotoxicity. Although exercise training can defend against Dox-mediated cardiac damage, the means for this cardioprotection remain unknown. To investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for exercise training-induced cardioprotection against Dox-mediated cardiotoxicity, we tested a two-pronged hypothesis: 1) exercise training protects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by preventing Dox-mediated mitochondrial damage/dysfunction and increased oxidative stress and 2) exercise training-induced cardiac expression of the inducible isoform of the 70-kDa heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is essential to achieve exercise training-induced cardioprotection against Dox toxicity. Animals were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups and paired with either placebo or Dox treatment (i.e., 20 mg/kg body wt ip Dox hydrochloride 24 h before euthanasia). Dox administration resulted in cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of proteases, and apoptosis. Exercise training increased cardiac antioxidant enzymes and HSP72 protein abundance and protected cardiac myocytes against Dox-induced mitochondrial damage, protease activation, and apoptosis. To determine whether exercise-induced expression of HSP72 in the heart is required for this cardioprotection, we utilized an innovative experimental strategy that successfully prevented exercise-induced increases in myocardial HSP72 levels. However, prevention of exercise-induced increases in myocardial HSP72 did not eliminate the exercise-induced cardioprotective phenotype that is resistant to Dox-mediated injury. Our results indicate that exercise training protects against the detrimental side effects of Dox in cardiac myocytes, in part, by protecting mitochondria against Dox-mediated damage. However, this exercise-induced cardioprotection is independent of myocardial HSP72 levels. Finally, our data are consistent with the

  10. Glucose ingestion during exercise blunts exercise-induced gene expression of skeletal muscle fat oxidative genes.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Anthony E; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Russell, Aaron P; Ravussin, Eric; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise may blunt the stimulation of fat oxidative pathways by raising plasma insulin and glucose concentrations and lowering plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, thereby causing a marked shift in substrate oxidation. We investigated the effects of a single 2-h bout of moderate-intensity exercise on the expression of key genes involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism with or without glucose ingestion in seven healthy untrained men (22.7 +/- 0.6 yr; body mass index: 23.8 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2); maximal O(2) consumption: 3.85 +/- 0.21 l/min). Plasma FFA concentration increased during exercise (P < 0.01) in the fasted state but remained unchanged after glucose ingestion, whereas fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) was higher in the fasted state vs. glucose feeding (P < 0.05). Except for a significant decrease in the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (P < 0.05), glucose ingestion during exercise produced minimal effects on the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization. However, glucose ingestion resulted in a decrease in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation (CD36, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, uncoupling protein 3, and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase-alpha(2); P < 0.05). In conclusion, glucose ingestion during exercise decreases the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism rather than increasing genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

  11. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. PMID:28349030

  12. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  13. Cooling System to Treat Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    and core temperature rises until exhaustion occurs at physiological limits [1]. Heat-related illnesses exist in a spectrum of disease states, ranging...water immersion and other forms of cryotherapy: physiological changes potentially affecting recovery from high-intensity exercise. Extrem Physiol Med...Beam WC, Adams GM. Collection of basic data. In: Exercise physiology laboratory manual, 7th ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Education; 2014:20-29. 8

  14. Recurrent exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity fitness exercise in a healthy young patient.

    PubMed

    Karre, Premnath Reddy; Gujral, Jeetinder

    2011-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon but life threatening condition that develops due to breakdown of muscle and release of intracellular components into the circulation. A 24-year-old man otherwise healthy was admitted to our hospital because of muscle aches and weakness as well as cola coloured urine developed 3 days after carrying out the low intensity exercise. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made with creatine kinase (CK) levels of 214 356 U/l. He was treated for a similar condition at age 21. A muscle biopsy was done and the findings were normal. Rhabdomyolysis can develop with low intensity exercise; thus, it be considered in healthy young people. Young people with recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity exercise, in the absence of obvious medical and physical causes, should be evaluated further to rule out uncommon metabolic diseases. Our case demonstrates that complications especially renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis do not correspond to CK levels.

  15. Exercise-induced interstitial pulmonary edema at sea-level in young and old healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bryan J.; Carlson, Alex R.; Miller, Andrew D.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    We asked whether aged adults are more susceptible to exercise-induced pulmonary edema relative to younger individuals. Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm) and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc) were measured before and after exhaustive discontinuous incremental exercise in 10 young (YNG; 27±3 yr) and 10 old (OLD; 69±5 yr) males. In YNG subjects, Dm increased (11±7%, P=0.031), Vc decreased (−10±9%, P=0.01) and DLCO was unchanged (30.5±4.1 vs. 29.7±2.9 ml/min/mmHg, P=0.44) pre- to post-exercise. In OLD subjects, DLCO and Dm increased (11±14%, P=0.042; 16±14%, P=0.025) but Vc was unchanged (58±23 vs. 56±23 ml, P=0.570) pre- to post-exercise. Group-mean Dm/Vc was greater after vs. before exercise in the YNG and OLD subjects. However, Dm/Vc was lower post-exercise in 2 of the 10 YNG (−7±4%) and 2 of the 10 OLD subjects (−10±5%). These data suggest that exercise decreases interstitial lung fluid in most YNG and OLD subjects, with a small number exhibiting evidence for exercise-induced pulmonary edema. PMID:24200644

  16. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-09-05

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.

  17. Exercise-induced stimulation of murine macrophage chemotaxis: role of corticosterone and prolactin as mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, E; Forner, M A; Barriga, C

    1997-01-01

    1. Exercise provokes changes in the immune system, including macrophage activity. Chemotaxis is a necessary function of macrophages if they are to reach the focus of infection and strenuous acute exercise may modulate chemotaxis. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. 2. Three experiments were performed in the present study. (1) The effect of strenuous acute exercise (swimming until exhaustion) on the chemotactic capacity of macrophages was evaluated. (2) Peritoneal macrophages from control mice were incubated with plasma from exercised mice or control (no exercise) mice. The differences in the resulting chemotactic capacity were measured. (3) Changes in the concentration of plasma corticosterone and prolactin after exercise were also measured, and the effect of incubation with the post-exercise levels of plasma corticosterone and prolactin on the chemotactic capacity of the peritoneal macrophages was then studied in vitro. 3. Exercise induced an increase in the macrophage chemotaxis index (103 +/- 8 vs. 47 +/- 11 in controls). Incubation with plasma from exercised mice led to an increased level of chemotaxis (68 +/- 18 vs. 40 +/- 6 with plasma from controls). Incubation with concentrations of corticosterone and prolactin similar to those observed in plasma immediately after exercise (corticosterone, 0.72 mumol l-1; prolactin, 88 pmol l-1) raised the chemotactic capacity with respect to that following incubation with the basal concentrations of the hormones in control animals (90 +/- 9 vs. 37 +/- 4 for corticosterone; 72 +/- 9 vs. 41 +/- 4 for prolactin). 4. It is concluded that corticosterone and prolactin may mediate the increased chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages induced by exercise. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9051584

  18. Exploring the Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Using Somatosensory and Laser Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew D.; Taylor, Janet L.; Booth, John; Barry, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced hypoalgesia is well described, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise on somatosensory evoked potentials, laser evoked potentials, pressure pain thresholds and heat pain thresholds. These were recorded before and after 3-min of isometric elbow flexion exercise at 40% of the participant's maximal voluntary force, or an equivalent period of rest. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia was confirmed in two experiments (Experiment 1–SEPs; Experiment 2–LEPs) by increased pressure pain thresholds at biceps brachii (24.3 and 20.6% increase in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively; both d > 0.84 and p < 0.001) and first dorsal interosseous (18.8 and 21.5% increase in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively; both d > 0.57 and p < 0.001). In contrast, heat pain thresholds were not significantly different after exercise (forearm: 10.8% increase, d = 0.35, p = 0.10; hand: 3.6% increase, d = 0.06, p = 0.74). Contrasting effects of exercise on the amplitude of laser evoked potentials (14.6% decrease, d = −0.42, p = 0.004) and somatosensory evoked potentials (10.9% increase, d = −0.02, p = 1) were also observed, while an equivalent period of rest showed similar habituation (laser evoked potential: 7.3% decrease, d = −0.25, p = 0.14; somatosensory evoked potential: 20.7% decrease, d = −0.32, p = 0.006). The differential response of pressure pain thresholds and heat pain thresholds to exercise is consistent with relative insensitivity of thermal nociception to the acute hypoalgesic effects of exercise. Conflicting effects of exercise on somatosensory evoked potentials and laser evoked potentials were observed. This may reflect non-nociceptive contributions to the somatosensory evoked potential, but could also indicate that peripheral nociceptors contribute to exercise-induced hypoalgesia. PMID:27965587

  19. Exploring the Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Using Somatosensory and Laser Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D; Taylor, Janet L; Booth, John; Barry, Benjamin K

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced hypoalgesia is well described, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise on somatosensory evoked potentials, laser evoked potentials, pressure pain thresholds and heat pain thresholds. These were recorded before and after 3-min of isometric elbow flexion exercise at 40% of the participant's maximal voluntary force, or an equivalent period of rest. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia was confirmed in two experiments (Experiment 1-SEPs; Experiment 2-LEPs) by increased pressure pain thresholds at biceps brachii (24.3 and 20.6% increase in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively; both d > 0.84 and p < 0.001) and first dorsal interosseous (18.8 and 21.5% increase in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively; both d > 0.57 and p < 0.001). In contrast, heat pain thresholds were not significantly different after exercise (forearm: 10.8% increase, d = 0.35, p = 0.10; hand: 3.6% increase, d = 0.06, p = 0.74). Contrasting effects of exercise on the amplitude of laser evoked potentials (14.6% decrease, d = -0.42, p = 0.004) and somatosensory evoked potentials (10.9% increase, d = -0.02, p = 1) were also observed, while an equivalent period of rest showed similar habituation (laser evoked potential: 7.3% decrease, d = -0.25, p = 0.14; somatosensory evoked potential: 20.7% decrease, d = -0.32, p = 0.006). The differential response of pressure pain thresholds and heat pain thresholds to exercise is consistent with relative insensitivity of thermal nociception to the acute hypoalgesic effects of exercise. Conflicting effects of exercise on somatosensory evoked potentials and laser evoked potentials were observed. This may reflect non-nociceptive contributions to the somatosensory evoked potential, but could also indicate that peripheral nociceptors contribute to exercise-induced hypoalgesia.

  20. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p < 0.05) in the placebo group, but not in the taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  1. Refractory period after exercise-induced asthma unexplained by respiratory heat loss.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dov, I; Bar-Yishay, E; Godfrey, S

    1982-05-01

    Fifteen asthmatic children and young adults each exercised for 6 min by cycling on a cycle ergometer while breathing either cold (4.1 degrees C +/- 0.5 SEM) and dry (2.05 mg/L +/- 0.05) air or warm (37.2 degrees C +/- 0.3) fully saturated air. Each subject performed 4 tests arranged in pairs. Test pair A consisted of cold dry exercise followed by another cold dry exercise and test pair B consisted of a warm humid exercise followed by a cold dry exercise. Ventilation, heart rate, and gas exchange were closely matched in all 4 tests in each subject with a mean oxygen consumption of 34.8 +/- 0.8 ml/min/kg. In test pair A, all subjects were rendered refractory by the first cold dry exercise as manifested by a significant attenuation of their exercise-induced asthma (EIA) after the second cold dry test (per cent decrease in FEV1, delta FEV1 = 16 +/- 4 compared with 38 +/- 4). In 3 subjects, the warm humid exercise did not cause EIA and did not render them refractory to the second cold dry exercise. The 12 remaining subjects exhibited a refractory period similar to that shown in test pair A. They did not develop EIA after the warm humid test (delta FEV1 = 1 +/- 2), but after the subsequent cold dry exercise the per cent decrease in FEV1 was 19 +/- 3, similar to that in the second of the 2 cold dry exercise tests. These experiments suggest that in the majority of subjects exercise per se appears to be the cause for refractoriness and not airway cooling or bronchoconstriction.

  2. An Evaluation of Levalbuterol HFA in the Prevention of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, D.S.; Rees, William; Schaefer, Kendyl; Huang, Holly; Andrews, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 90% of all patients with asthma. Objective This study evaluated the ability of levalbuterol hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 90 μg (two actuations of 45 μg) administered via metered dose inhaler (MDI) to protect against EIB in mild-to-moderate asthmatics. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way cross-over study. Patients with asthma (n = 15) were ≥18 years, had a ≥6-month history of EIB, ≥70% baseline predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and a 20% to 50% decrease in FEV1 after treadmill exercise challenge using single-blind placebo MDI. Levalbuterol or placebo was self-administered 30 minutes before exercise. Treatment sequences were separated by a 3-to 7-day washout period. Spirometry was performed predose, 20 minutes postdose/pre-exercise, and 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-exercise. The primary endpoint was the maximum percent decrease in FEV1 from baseline (postdose/pre-exercise). The percentage of protected (≤20% decrease in post-exercise FEV1) patients was also assessed. Results Levalbuterol had significantly smaller maximum percent post-exercise decrease in FEV1 compared with placebo (LS mean ± SE; −4.8% ± 2.8% versus −22.5% ± 2.8%, respectively). For levalbuterol, 14/15 (93.3%) patients had <20% decrease in post-exercise FEV1 compared with 8/15 (53.3%) for placebo (p = 0.0143). Treatment was well tolerated. Conclusion Levalbuterol HFA MDI (90 μg) administered 30 minutes before exercise was significantly more effective than placebo in protecting against EIB after a single exercise challenge and was well tolerated. Clinical Implications Levalbuterol HFA MDI when administered before exercise was effective in protecting adults with asthma from EIB. PMID:17994402

  3. Dose-response effect of sodium cromoglycate pressurised aerosol in exercise induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Tullett, W M; Tan, K M; Wall, R T; Patel, K R

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 2, 10, and 20 mg of sodium cromoglycate delivered by aerosol were compared with those of placebo in a double blind study in 11 patients with extrinsic and exercise induced asthma. The effect of nebulised sodium cromoglycate delivered through a Wright nebuliser (estimated dose 12 mg) was also studied. Patients exercised on a treadmill for six to eight minutes at submaximal work loads on five days, 30 minutes after inhaling placebo or sodium cromoglycate. The FEV1 was recorded before treatment, before exercise, and up to 30 minutes after exercise. Mean baseline values of FEV1 before and after placebo or sodium cromoglycate did not differ significantly on the five days. After exercise the mean (SEM) maximal percentage fall in FEV1 after placebo; 12 mg sodium cromoglycate nebuliser solution; and 2, 10, and 20 mg sodium cromoglycate aerosol were 31.1 (3.8); 9.4 (2.1); and 19.4 (4.6), 13.7 (3.5), and 9.4 (1.9). Sodium cromoglycate inhibited exercise induced asthma at all doses used; the protective effect of the aerosol increased from 2 to 20 mg. The protective effect of 20 mg sodium cromoglycate aerosol was similar to that seen with 12 mg nebulised solution. Our results suggest that the effect of sodium cromoglycate aerosol in exercise induced asthma is dose related. PMID:3918356

  4. Effects of a Strength Training Session After an Exercise Inducing Muscle Damage on Recovery Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; Lamblin, Julien; McCall, Alan; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Abaïdia, A-E, Delecroix, B, Leduc, C, Lamblin, J, McCall, A, Baquet, G, and Dupont, G. Effects of a strength training session after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 115-125, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an upper-limb strength training session the day after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery of performance. In a randomized crossover design, subjects performed the day after the exercise, on 2 separate occasions (passive vs. active recovery conditions) a single-leg exercise (dominant in one condition and nondominant in the other condition) consisting of 5 sets of 15 eccentric contractions of the knee flexors. Active recovery consisted of performing an upper-body strength training session the day after the exercise. Creatine kinase, hamstring strength, and muscle soreness were assessed immediately and 20, 24, and 48 hours after exercise-induced muscle damage. The upper-body strength session, after muscle-damaging exercise accelerated the recovery of slow concentric force (effect size = 0.65; 90% confidence interval = -0.06 to 1.32), but did not affect the recovery kinetics for the other outcomes. The addition of an upper-body strength training session the day after muscle-damaging activity does not negatively affect the recovery kinetics. Upper-body strength training may be programmed the day after a competition.

  5. Hemostatic studies in racing standardbred horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Hemostatic parameters at rest and after moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, I B; Viel, L; Crane, S; Whiting, T

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a defect in hemostasis might be a factor in the etiology of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). Hemostatic parameters were evaluated in 22 EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative racing horses while in a rested state. Nineteen EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative horses were further evaluated just before and immediately after a 15 min exercise period on a 260 m oval track. When EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses were compared at rest, there was no significant difference in any of the coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters studied. There was however, a significant difference in platelet function as assessed by aggregometry. The platelets from affected horses were significantly less responsive than those from nonaffected horses when exposed in vitro to the platelet agonists adenosine diphosphate, collagen and platelet activating factor. Exercise tended to increase the packed cell volume and factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and to decrease platelet aggregation responses to low concentrations of adenosine diphosphate. These effects of exercise however were quantitatively similar in both EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses. Reduced platelet function may therefore be a contributing factor in the bleeding characteristic of horses with EIPH.

  6. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with asthma in the United States: results from the Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm Landmark Survey.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Nancy K; Eid, Nemr S; Craig, Timothy J; Colice, Gene L; Hayden, Mary Lou; Parsons, Jonathan P; Stoloff, Stuart W

    2011-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective therapies, uncontrolled asthma remains a common problem. Previous large surveys suggest that exercise-related respiratory symptoms may be a significant element of uncontrolled asthma. The Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm (EIB) Landmark Survey is the first comprehensive, national survey evaluating EIB awareness and impact among the general public, asthma patients, and health care providers. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and impact of exercise-related respiratory symptoms in children (aged 4-17 years) with asthma. A national survey was conducted with parents of 516 children diagnosed with asthma or taking medications for asthma in the prior year. The majority of parents reported that their child experienced one or more exercise-related respiratory symptom and almost one-half (47.4%) experienced four or more symptoms. Most commonly reported symptoms were coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Respondents reported that asthma limited their child's ability to participate either "a lot" or "some" in sports (30%), other outdoor activities (26.3%), and normal physical exertion (20.9%). Only 23.1% of children with exercise-related respiratory symptoms were reported to take short-acting beta-agonists such as albuterol "always" or "most of the time" before exercising. Exercise-related respiratory symptoms among pediatric asthma patients are common and substantially limit the ability of children to participate normally and perform optimally in physical activities. Such symptoms may reflect uncontrolled underlying asthma that should be evaluated and treated with appropriate controller medications. Despite the availability of preventative therapy, many children do not use short-acting bronchodilators before exercise as recommended in national guidelines.

  7. Exercise- and Hypoxia-Induced Anaerobic Metabolism and Recovery: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, B. B.; Boily, P.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic metabolism is recruited in vertebrates under conditions of intense exercise or lowered environmental oxygen availability (hypoxia), typically resulting in the accumulation of lactate in blood and tissues. Lactate will be cleared over time after the reoxygenation of tissues, eventually returning to control levels. Here, we present a…

  8. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process. PMID:26843320

  9. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    PubMed

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-02-04

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  10. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  11. Strenuous physical exercise inhibits granulocyte activation induced by high altitude.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.

  12. Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Vincent J; Merkus, Daphne; Bender, Shawn B; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold

    2013-12-01

    Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP (relative to nitroprusside) and exercise were blunted in FH compared with Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with nitro-l-arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared with Control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was enhanced slightly, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared with Control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation, FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, while maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360527. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears to be the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity.

  13. The effect of exercise-induced elevation in core temperature on cold-induced vasodilatation response in toes.

    PubMed

    Dobnikar, Uros; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2009-06-01

    Cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) has been proposed as a potential protective mechanism against cold injuries during exposure of extremities to a cold environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise and the associated elevation in core temperature on toe skin temperatures during immersion of the foot in cold (8 degrees C) water. Subjects (N = 8) participated in two trials. In one, they conducted an incremental exercise to exhaustion (exercise) on a cycle ergometer, which was followed by immersion of the right foot in 8 degrees C water. In the second trial (control), immersion of the foot in cold water was not preceded by exercise. Upon completion of the exercise in the exercise trial, and at the onset of the immersion of the foot in cold water, tympanic temperature was 0.6 degrees C (P < 0.01) higher than pre-exercise levels. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the number of CIVD waves, but not their amplitudes, in the exercise trial compared to the control trial. A CIVD response occurred in 57.5% of all toes in the exercise trial, and in only 27.5% in the control trial. Additionally, 50% of subjects exhibited CIVD in at least one toe in the control trial, and 87.5% during the exercise trial. It is concluded that exercise, and particularly the associated elevation in core temperature, enhances the frequency of the toe CIVD responses, and can therefore potentially act as a protective mechanism against cold injury.

  14. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss. PMID:20886014

  15. Low fat loss response after medium-term supervised exercise in obese is associated with exercise-induced increase in food reward.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  16. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Remodeling and Metabolic Adaptation: Redox Signaling and Role of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Giammarioli, Anna Maria; Chiandotto, Sergio; Spoletini, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue. Exercise evokes signaling pathways that strongly modify myofiber metabolism and physiological and contractile properties of skeletal muscle. Regular physical activity is beneficial for health and is highly recommended for the prevention of several chronic conditions. In this review, we have focused our attention on the pathways that are known to mediate physical training-induced plasticity. Recent Advances: An important role for redox signaling has recently been proposed in exercise-mediated muscle remodeling and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) activation. Still more currently, autophagy has also been found to be involved in metabolic adaptation to exercise. Critical Issues: Both redox signaling and autophagy are processes with ambivalent effects; they can be detrimental and beneficial, depending on their delicate balance. As such, understanding their role in the chain of events induced by exercise and leading to skeletal muscle remodeling is a very complicated matter. Moreover, the study of the signaling induced by exercise is made even more difficult by the fact that exercise can be performed with several different modalities, with this having different repercussions on adaptation. Future Directions: Unraveling the complexity of the molecular signaling triggered by exercise on skeletal muscle is crucial in order to define the therapeutic potentiality of physical training and to identify new pharmacological compounds that are able to reproduce some beneficial effects of exercise. In evaluating the effect of new “exercise mimetics,” it will also be necessary to take into account the involvement of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and autophagy and their controversial effects. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 154–176. PMID:24450966

  17. Adaptations to exercise training and contraction-induced muscle injury in animal models of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Abresch, R Ted; Fowler, William M

    2002-11-01

    This article reviews the current status of exercise training and contraction-induced muscle-injury investigations in animal models of muscular dystrophy. Most exercise-training studies have compared the adaptations of normal and dystrophic muscles with exercise. Adaptation of diseased muscle to exercise occurs at many levels, starting with the extracellular matrix, but also involves cytoskeletal architecture, muscle contractility, repair mechanisms, and gene regulation. The majority of exercise-injury investigations have attempted to determine the susceptibility of dystrophin-deficient muscles to contraction-induced injury. There is some evidence in animal models that diseased muscle can adapt and respond to mechanical stress. However, exercise-injury studies show that dystrophic muscles have an increased susceptibility to high mechanical forces. Most of the studies involving exercise training have shown that muscle adaptations in dystrophic animals were qualitatively similar to the adaptations observed in control muscle. Deleterious effects of the dystrophy usually occur only in older animals with advanced muscle fiber degeneration or after high-resistive eccentric training. The main limitations in applying these conclusions to humans are the differences in phenotypic expression between humans and genetically homologous animal models and in the significant biomechanical differences between humans and these animal models.

  18. Exercise Prevents Amyloid-β-Induced Hippocampal Network Disruption by Inhibiting GSK3β Activation.

    PubMed

    Isla, Arturo G; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco Gabriel; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-03-16

    Exercise is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to prevent alterations both in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in transgenic models of AD. This neuroprotection has been associated with changes in hippocampal structure and function, as well as with the reduction of amyloid-β (Aβ) production and accumulation. However, whether exercise produces lasting changes in hippocampal population activity and renders it resistant to Aβ-induced network dysfunction is still unknown. Thus, we tested whether voluntary exercise changes hippocampal population activity and prevents its alteration in the presence of Aβ, which has been associated to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation. We found that the hippocampal population activity recorded in slices obtained from mice that exercised voluntarily (with free access to a running wheel for 21 days) exhibits higher power and faster frequency composition than slices obtained from sedentary animals. Moreover, the hippocampal network of mice that exercised becomes insensitive to Aβ-induced inhibition of spontaneous population activity. This protective effect correlates with the inability of Aβ to activate GSK3β, is mimicked by GSK3β inhibition with SB126763 (in slices obtained from sedentary mice), and is abolished by the inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 (in slices obtained from mice that exercised). We conclude that voluntary exercise produces a lasting protective state in the hippocampus, maintained in hippocampal slices by a PI3K-dependent mechanism that precludes its functional disruption in the presence of Aβ by avoiding GSK3β activation.

  19. Effects of Exercise on Oxidative Stress in Rats Induced by Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Campos, Catalina; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Bobadilla-Lugo, Rosa Amalia; Kross, Robert David; Villanueva, Cleva

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) induced by acute exercise is reduced by chronic exercise. Ozone (O3) exposure produces OS. The aim of this study was to determine if aerobic exercise (AE) reduced OS produced by O3. A pilot experiment was performed with male Wistar rats submitted to AE (trained to swim 90 min/day). Adaptation to exercise was demonstrated three weeks after training by means of changes in reduced nitrates (NOx) in plasma. Therefore, two-week training was chosen for the following experiments. Six of twelve trained rats were exposed to O3 (0.5 ppm, 4 h/day, one hour before exercise). Two groups of sedentary animals (n = 6 each) were used as controls, one of which was exposed to O3. At the end of the experiments NOx, 8-isoprostane (8-IP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and carbonyls (CBs) were measured in plasma. CBs did not change in any group. O3-induced OS was manifested by reduced NOx and SOD activity, as well as increased 8-IP and MDA. Exercise significantly blocked O3 effects although SOD was also decreased by exercise (a greater drop occurring in the O3 group). It is concluded that AE protects against OS produced by O3 and the effect is independent of SOD. PMID:22619585

  20. Neurobiological Alterations Induced by Exercise and Their Impact on Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Helmich, Ingo; Latini, Alexandra; Sigwalt, Andre; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Budde, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impact of physical activity on brain metabolic functions has been investigated in different studies and there is growing evidence that exercise can be used as a preventive and rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, the exact neuronal mechanisms underlying the latter phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. The present article summarises key results derived from studies that focussed on the neurobiological impact of exercise on brain metabolic functions associated with depressive disorders. Since major depressive disorder (MDD) is a life threatening disease it is of great significance to find reliable strategies to prevent or to cure this illness. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review (1) the physiological relationship between physical activity and depressive disorders and (2) the potential neurobiological alterations induced by exercise that might lead to the relief of mental disorders like depression. Methods: We searched electronic databases for literature concerning the relationship between exercise and depression from 1963 until 2009. Results: The data suggests an association between physical inactivity and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Properly designed studies could show that exercise training can be as effective as antidepressive medications. Conclusion: The exact mechanisms how exercise affects the brain are not fully understood and the literature lacks of well designed studies concerning the effects of exercise training on depressive disorders. But the observed antidepressant actions of exercise are strong enough that it already can be used as an alternative to current medications in the treatment of depressive disorders. PMID:21283646

  1. [Exercised-induced asthma in soccer players ages from 8 to 13 years].

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, M; Tsimaras, V; Fotiadou, E; Aggelopoulou-Sakadami, N

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was the detection of exercise induced asthma in soccer players aged 8-13 years. Thirty boys, 8-13 years old participated in the study. They were coming from an athletic team of north of Thessaloniki. The study included clinical examination, administration of a respiratory health questionnaire and the exercise -- free running -- test with spirometric measurements. Spirometric measurements were performed by using a microspirometer, before exercise and 2, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after a 6 min free running exercise (80 - 90 % max heart rate). The highest forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)) value before exercise was compared with the lowest of post exercise values. The results showed a decline in FEV (1) > 15 % in 12 out of 30 children. Particularly, decline in FEV (1) was present in 1 (11 %) out of 9 children with free personal medical history but positive family history for asthma, in 3 (25 %) out of 12 children with allergies, and in 8 (89 %) out of 9 children with asthma. Symptoms were reported by 9 of 12 children with fall in FEV (1) > 15 %, during the 6 min exercise test, who had no symptoms during the soccer games. Identification of EIA by exercise challenge test in young athletes is a useful component for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Similar studies should be performed on older and younger athletes who participate in different sports and games.

  2. Exercise-induced hypertension among healthy firefighters-a comparison between two different definitions.

    PubMed

    Leiba, Adi; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

    2013-01-01

    Different studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the association of hypertensive response to exercise and cardiovascular morbidity. We compared two different definitions of exaggerated hypertensive response to exercise and their association with cardio-respiratory fitness in a population of healthy firefighters. We examined blood pressure response to exercise in 720 normotensive male career firefighters. Fitness was measured as peak metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) achieved during maximal exercise treadmill tests. Abnormal hypertensive response was defined either as systolic blood pressure ≥ 200 mm Hg; or alternatively, as responses falling in the upper tertile of blood pressure change from rest to exertion, divided by the maximal workload achieved. Using the simple definition of a 200 mm Hg cutoff at peak exercise less fit individuals (METs ≤ 12) were protected from an exaggerated hypertensive response (OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.30-0.67). However, using the definition of exercise-induced hypertension that corrects for maximal workload, less fit firefighters had almost twice the risk (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.47). Blood pressure change corrected for maximal workload is better correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Systolic blood pressure elevation during peak exercise likely represents an adaptive response, whereas elevation out of proportion to the maximal workload may indicate insufficient vasodilation and a maladaptive response. Prospective studies are needed to best define exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise.

  3. Global Proteome Changes in the Rat Diaphragm Induced by Endurance Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Morton, Aaron B.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J.; Powers, Scott K.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for many critically ill patients. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. Importantly, endurance exercise training results in a diaphragmatic phenotype that is protected against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. The mechanisms responsible for this exercise-induced protection against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy remain unknown. Therefore, to investigate exercise-induced changes in diaphragm muscle proteins, we compared the diaphragmatic proteome from sedentary and exercise-trained rats. Specifically, using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed a proteomics analysis of both soluble proteins and mitochondrial proteins isolated from diaphragm muscle. The total number of diaphragm proteins profiled in the soluble protein fraction and mitochondrial protein fraction were 813 and 732, respectively. Endurance exercise training significantly (P<0.05, FDR <10%) altered the abundance of 70 proteins in the soluble diaphragm proteome and 25 proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, key cytoprotective proteins that increased in relative abundance following exercise training included mitochondrial fission process 1 (Mtfp1; MTP18), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MPST), microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (Mgst3; GST-III), and heat shock protein 70 kDa protein 1A/1B (HSP70). While these proteins are known to be cytoprotective in several cell types, the cyto-protective roles of these proteins have yet to be fully elucidated in diaphragm muscle fibers. Based upon these important findings, future experiments can now determine which of these diaphragmatic proteins are sufficient and/or required to promote exercise-induced protection against inactivity-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:28135290

  4. Exercise-induced changes in interleukin-10 in patients with knee osteoarthritis: new perspectives?

    PubMed

    Lems, Willem F; den Uyl, Debby

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common chronic disease leading to increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. Although exercise therapy has been shown to be beneficial for both pain and physical functioning, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. However, a recent study found an exercise-induced increase in interleukin-10 levels, to which anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties are ascribed, in the (peri-)synovial fluid of patients with knee OA. These interesting results provide more insight into the effects of exercise in OA and need to be validated and confirmed. Hopefully, the study offers a promising basis for further research.

  5. Effect of N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine on exercise-induced cardiac adaptations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew J; Harris, M Brennan; Boluyt, Marvin O; Hwang, Hyun Seok; Starnes, Joseph W

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-induced cardiac adaptations would be attenuated by the free radical scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (MPG). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 9-13 per group) for 3-4 wk: sedentary (S), S+MPG (100 mg/kg ip daily), exercised on a treadmill (E) (60 min/day, 5 days/wk, at a speed of 20 m/min up a 6° grade in a 6°C room), or E+MPG given 10 min prior to exercise. Additional rats (n = 55) were used to determine acute exercise effects on myocardial redox state [nonprotein nonglutathione sulfhydryls (NPNGSH)] and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Compared with S, NPNGSH levels were 48% lower in E (P < 0.05) and unchanged in E+MPG (P > 0.05). MPG also attenuated exercise-induced activation of the signaling proteins Akt and S6. Hearts from the 4-wk groups were weighed, and cardiac function was evaluated using an isolated perfused working heart preparation. Similar increases (P < 0.05) in both exercised groups were observed for heart weight and heart weight-to-body weight ratio. Cardiac function improved in E vs. S, as indicated by greater (P < 0.05) external work performed (cardiac output × systolic pressure) and efficiency of external work (work/Vo(2)). MPG prevented these exercise-induced functional improvements. Skeletal muscle mitochondria content increased to similar levels in E and E+MPG. This study provides evidence that free radicals do not play an essential role in the development of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy; however, they appear to be involved in functional cardiac adaptations, which may be mediated through the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  6. Improvement of Acetylcholine-Induced Vasodilation by Acute Exercise in Ovariectomized Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yuan; Su, Chia-Ting; Hu, Chun-Che; Yang, Ai-Lun

    2016-06-30

    Postmenopause is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. However, limited information is available regarding effects of exercise on cardiovascular responses and its underlying mechanisms in the simultaneous postmenopausal and hypertensive status. We aimed to investigate whether acute exercise could enhance vasodilation mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. The fifteen-week-old female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were bilaterally ovariectomized, at the age of twenty-four weeks, and randomly divided into sedentary (SHR-O) and acute exercise (SHR-OE) groups. Age-matched WKY rats were used as the normotensive control group. The SHR-OE group ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 24 m/min for one hour in a moderate-intensity program. Following a single bout of exercise, rat aortas were isolated for the evaluation of the endothelium-dependent (ACh-induced) and endothelium-independent (SNP-induced) vasodilation by the organ bath system. Also, the serum levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant activities, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase, were measured after acute exercise among the three groups. We found that acute exercise significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasodilation, but not the SNP-induced vasodilation, in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. This increased vasodilation was eliminated after the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Also, the activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased after acute exercise, whereas the level of MDA was comparable among the three groups. These results indicated that acute exercise improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilating response to ACh through the NOS-related pathway in ovariectomized hypertensive rats, which might be associated with increased serum antioxidant activities.

  7. Inflammation During Gestation Induced Spatial Memory and Learning Deficits: Attenuated by Physical Exercise in Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajan, Rajesh; Rai, Kiranmai. S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational infections induced inflammation (GIII) is a cause of various postnatal neurological deficits in developing countries. Such intra uterine insults could result in persistent learning-memory disabilities. There are no studies elucidating the efficacy of adolescence exercise on spatial learning- memory abilities of young adult rats pre-exposed to inflammatory insult during fetal life. Aims and Objectives The present study addresses the efficacy of physical (running) exercise during adolescent period in attenuating spatial memory deficits induced by exposure to GIII in rats. Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar dams were randomly divided into control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, injected intra peritoneally (i.p) with saline (0.5ml) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5mg/kg) on alternate days from gestation day 14 (GD 14) till delivery. After parturition, pups were divided into 3 groups (n=6/group) a) Sham control and LPS group divided into 2 subgroups- b) LPS and c) LPS exercise group. Running exercise was given only to LPS exercise group during postnatal days (PNDs) 30 to 60 (15min/day). Spatial learning and memory performance was assessed by Morris water maze test (MWM), on postnatal day 61 to 67 in all groups. Results Young rats pre-exposed to GIII and subjected to running exercise through juvenile period displayed significant decrease in latency to reach escape platform and spent significant duration in target quadrant in MWM test, compared to age matched LPS group. Results of the current study demonstrated that exercise through juvenile/adolescent period effectively mitigates gestational inflammation-induced cognitive deficits in young adult rats. Conclusion Inflammation during gestation impairs offspring’s spatial memory and learning abilities. Whereas, early postnatal physical exercise attenuates, to higher extent, cognitive impairment resulted from exposure to LPS induced inflammation during intrauterine growth period. PMID:26266117

  8. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Burini, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%–10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. PMID:25314645

  9. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies assessed by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed the assessment of the biochemical changes during bone mineralization induced by laser and LED irradiation in an animal model of bone repair using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: Clot, Laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW), LED (λ850 nm +/- 10 nm, 150 mW), Biomaterial (biphasic synthetic microgranular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), Laser + Biomaterial and LED + Biomaterial. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at 48 h interval during 2 wks, 20 J/cm2 per session. At 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA and carbonate HA, by using spectra of pure collagen, biomaterial and basal bone, respectively. At 15th days, the use of biomaterial associated to phototherapy reduced the collagen formation, whereas the amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups. The phosphate HA was higher in the groups that received biomaterial grafts. At 30th days, it was observed an increase of collagen for the group Laser + Biomaterial, and a reduction in the carbonate HA for the LED + Biomaterial. The phosphate HA was higher for the groups LED + Biomaterial and Laser + Biomaterial, while decreased for the group Biomaterial. These results indicated that the use of Laser and LED phototherapies improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the collagen deposition and phosphate HA.

  10. Little exercise, big effects: Reversing aging and infection-induced memory deficits, and underlying processes

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Chapman, Timothy R.; Ahrendsen, Jared T.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge; Watkins, Linda R.; Patterson, Susan L.; Maier, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found that healthy aged rats are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following a severe bacterial infection than are younger adult rats. Such a peripheral challenge is capable of producing a neuroinflammatory response, and in the aged brain this response is exaggerated and prolonged. Normal aging primes, or sensitizes microglia and this appears to be the source of this amplified inflammatory response. Among the outcomes of this exaggerated neuroinflammatory response are impairments in synaptic plasticity, and reductions of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both of which have been associated with cognitive impairments. Since it has been shown that physical exercise increases BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus, the present study examined voluntary exercise in 24 mos old F344xBN rats as a neuroprotective therapeutic in our bacterial infection model. Although aged rats ran only an average of 0.7 km per week, this small amount of exercise was sufficient to completely reverse infection-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent long-term memory compared to sedentary animals. Strikingly, exercise prevented the infection-induced exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and the blunted BDNF mRNA induction seen in the hippocampus of sedentary rats. Moreover, voluntary exercise abrogated age-related microglial sensitization, suggesting a possible mechanism for exercise-induced neuroprotection in aging. PMID:21832188

  11. Does Equating Total Volume of Work between Two Different Exercise Conditions Matter when Examining Exercise-Induced Feeling States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.

    2004-01-01

    This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two different…

  12. Treadmill Exercise Protects Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures and Oxidative Stress after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogério da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35 mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na+/K+-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

  13. Plasma endothelin-1 level in athletes after exercise in a hot environment: exercise-induced dehydration contributes to increases in plasma endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Miyauchi, T; Waku, T; Koda, Y; Kono, I; Goto, K; Matsuda, M

    1996-01-01

    We investigated whether dehydration due to exercise contributes to the increase in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration. We measured the plasma concentration of ET-1 before and after exercise in a hot environment (about 30 degrees C). Five male intercollegiate Kendo (Japanese fencing) players entered the present study. Each athlete participated in 15 min of Kendo fighting, followed by 5 min of rest and another 15 min of Kendo fighting (i.e., total exercise 30 min), with or without oral intake of 700 ml of water. Body weight and left atrial diameter, a parameter that reflects changes in circulating plasma volume, were significantly decreased after exercise under both conditions. However, the decreases in both values were significantly greater after exercise without water intake than after exercise with water intake, indicating that dehydration and decreased circulating plasma volume were more marked after exercise without water intake. The extent of the increase in plasma ET-1 concentration appeared to be closely related to the extent of exercise-induced dehydration; the greater the dehydration, the greater the increase in plasma ET-1 concentration. These findings suggest that exercise-induced dehydration may contribute to increases in plasma ET-1 concentrations.

  14. Effect of age on exercise-induced alterations in cognitive executive function: relationship to cerebral perfusion.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Ainslie, Philip N; Murrell, Carissa J; Thomas, Kate N; Franz, Elizabeth A; Cotter, James D

    2012-08-01

    Regular exercise improves the age-related decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and is associated with improved cognitive function; however, less is known about the direct relationship between CBF and cognitive function. We examined the influence of healthy aging on the capability of acute exercise to improve cognition, and whether exercise-induced improvements in cognition are related to CBF and cortical hemodynamics. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv; Doppler) and cortical hemodynamics (NIRS) were measured in 13 young (24±5 y) and 9 older (62±3 y) participants at rest and during cycling at 30% and 70% of heart rate range (HRR). Cognitive performance was assessed using a computer-adapted Stroop task (i.e., test of executive function cognition) at rest and during exercise. Average response times on the Stroop task were slower for the older compared to younger group for both simple and difficult tasks (P<0.01). Independent of age, difficult-task response times improved during exercise (P<0.01), with the improvement greater at 70% HRR exercise (P=0.04 vs. 30% HRR). Higher MCAv was correlated with faster response times for simple and difficult tasks at rest (R(2)=0.47 and R(2)=0.47, respectively), but this relation uncoupled progressively during exercise. Exercise-induced increases in MCAv were similar and unaltered during cognitive tasks for both age groups. In contrast, prefrontal cortical hemodynamic NIRS measures [oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb) and total hemoglobin (tHb)] were differentially affected by exercise intensity, age and cognitive task; e.g., there were smaller increases in [O(2)Hb] and [tHb] in the older group between exercise intensities (P<0.05). These data indicate that: 1) Regardless of age, cognitive (executive) function is improved while exercising; 2) while MCAv is strongly related to cognition at rest, this relation becomes uncoupled during exercise, and 3) there is dissociation between global CBF and regional cortical oxygenation and

  15. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  16. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation. PMID:28119873

  17. Protective role of L-carnitine supplementation against exhaustive exercise induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Síktar, Elif; Ekinci, Deniz; Síktar, Erdinç; Beydemir, Sükrü; Gülçin, Ilhami; Günay, Mehmet

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate temperature dependent effects of oral l-carnitine supplementation on exhaustive exercise induced oxidative damage in rats. 42 male Spraque Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven experimental groups. These groups were formed as three non-carnitine exercise groups, three carnitine-exercise groups and a sedentary group. l-carnitine was given intraperitoneally to the carnitine-exercise groups 1h before the exercise in 100mg/kg. Blood was collected to measure paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol concentrations. These biomarkers were measured in venous blood samples collected before and after the rats swam in pools at different water temperatures (18°C, 28°C and 38°C). In the non-carnitine group, exercise caused a significant decrease in PON1 activity and a significant elevation in MDA concentration at 28°C compared to the sedentary group. No significant alterations were evidenced in LDL and cholesterol concentrations upon exercise. The decrease in PON1 activity became higher with increasing temperature whereas the elevation in MDA levels increased at 18°C. In the l-carnitine supplementation group, recovery in PON1 activity was observed significant at 28°C and very significant at 38°C. MDA concentration was almost the same with that of the non-carnitine group at 18 and 38°C, but it significantly decreased at 28°C. Considering the recovery in PON1 and MDA levels at 28°C, which is the temperature of the sedentary group; our results suggest that l-carnitine supplementation has a protective role on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Findings of this study also demonstrate influences of thermal stress on these parameters during exhaustive exercise.

  18. Effects of low-intensity concentric and eccentric exercise combined with blood flow restriction on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Low-intensity blood-flow restriction (BFR) resistance training significantly increases strength and muscle size, but some studies report it produces exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in the lower body after exercise to failure. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a pre-set number of repetitions of upper body concentric and eccentric exercise when combined with BFR on changes in EIMD. Methods: Ten young men had arms randomly assigned to either concentric BFR (CON-BFR) or eccentric BFR (ECC-BFR) dumbbell curl exercise (30% one-repetition maximum (1-RM), 1 set of 30 repetitions followed by 3 sets of 15 repetitions). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC), muscle thickness (MTH), circumference, range of motion (ROM), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately after, and daily for 4 days post-exercise. Results: MVC decreased by 36% for CON-BFR and 12% for ECC-BFR immediately after exercise but was not changed 1–4 days post-exercise (p > 0.05). Only CON-BFR had significant changes in MTH and circumference immediately after exercise (p < 0.05). Muscle soreness was observed in the ECC-BFR arm at 1 and 2 days after exercise. Conclusions: Low-intensity ECC-BFR produces significant muscle soreness at 24 h but neither ECC-BFR nor CON-BFR exercise produces significant changes in multiple indices of EIMD. PMID:24265891

  19. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E

    2012-04-01

    Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

  20. Exercise induces cortical plasticity after neonatal spinal cord injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kao, T; Shumsky, JS; Murray, M; Moxon, KA

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-induced cortical plasticity is associated with improved functional outcome after brain or nerve injury. Exercise also improves functional outcomes after spinal cord injury, but its effects on cortical plasticity are not known. The goal of this investigation was to study the effect of moderate exercise (treadmill locomotion, 3 min/day, 5days/week) on the somatotopic organization of forelimb and hindlimb somatosensory cortex (SI) after neonatal thoracic transection. We used adult rats spinalized as neonates because some of these animals develop weight-supported stepping and, therefore, the relationship between cortical plasticity and stepping could also be examined. Acute, single-neuron mapping was used to determine the percentage of cortical cells responding to cutaneous forelimb stimulation in normal, spinalized, and exercised spinalized rats. Multiple single neuron recording from arrays of chronically implanted microwires examined the magnitude of response of these cells in normal and exercised spinalized rats. Our results show that exercise not only increased the percentage of responding cells in the hindlimb SI, but also increased the magnitude of the response of these cells. This increase in response magnitude was correlated with behavioral outcome measures. In the forelimb SI, neonatal transection reduced the percentage of responding cells to forelimb stimulation but exercise reversed this loss. This restoration in the percentage of responding cells after exercise was accompanied by an increase in their response magnitude. Therefore, the increase in responsiveness of hindlimb SI to forelimb stimulation after neonatal transection and exercise may be due, in part, to the effect of exercise on the forelimb SI. PMID:19515923

  1. Effects of the homeopathic remedy arnica on attenuating symptoms of exercise-induced muscle soreness

    PubMed Central

    Plezbert, Julie A.; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Arnica at a high potency (200c), on moderating delayed onset muscle soreness and accompanying symptoms of muscle dysfunction. Methods Twenty subjects completed a maximal eccentric exercise protocol with the non-dominate elbow flexors to induce delayed onset muscle soreness. Either Arnica or placebo tablets were administered in a random, double- blinded fashion immediately after exercise and at 24 hours and 72 hours after exercise. Before exercise, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours post-exercise, assessments of delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle function included: 1) muscle soreness and functional impairment; 2) maximum voluntary contraction torque; 3) muscle swelling; and 4) range of motion tests to document spontaneous muscle shortening and muscle shortening ability. Blood samples drawn before exercise and at 24, 48, and 96 hours after exercise were used to measure muscle enzymes as indirect indices of muscle damage. Results Regardless of the intervention, the extent of delayed onset muscle soreness and elevations in muscle enzymes were similar on the days following the eccentric exercise protocol. The post-exercise time profiles of decreases in maximum voluntary contraction torque and muscle shortening ability and increases in muscle swelling and spontaneous muscle shortening were similar for each treatment intervention. Conclusions The results of this study did not substantiate the clinical efficacy of Arnica at a high potency on moderating delayed onset muscle soreness and accompanying symptoms of muscle dysfunction. Despite the findings of this study, future investigations on the clinical efficacy of homeopathic interventions should consider incorporating research strategies that emphasize differential therapeutics for each patient rather than treating a specific disease or symptom complex, such as DOMS, with a single homeopathic remedy. PMID:19674657

  2. The effects of treadmill exercise on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercise (15, 30 and 60 min) on the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Material and methods In this study, 32 rats were assigned to 15, 30, and 60 min running exercise groups and the control group, each consisting of 8 rats. According to the specified protocol, the rats were submitted to running exercises at the same hour of each day for 90 days. After the exercise program, the rats were administered (500 IU/2.5 µl) of penicillin into the left cortex by the microinjection method. An electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording was performed for 3 h using a data acquisition system. The frequency and the amplitude of the recordings were analyzed. Results Short-duration treadmill exercise (15 min) caused a decrease in the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity at 70 min after penicillin injection (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of epileptiform activity decreased at 90 min after penicillin injection in the 30 and 60 min treadmill exercise groups (p < 0.01). The mean amplitude of epileptiform activity was not changed in any of the exercise groups compared to the control (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercises decreased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. These findings may contribute to improving the quality of life in epileptic patients. PMID:27695482

  3. Responses of brown adipose tissue to diet-induced obesity, exercise, dietary restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Nikki; Durrant, Jessica R; Bailey, David; Yoon, Lawrence; Jordan, Holly; Barton, Joanna; Brown, Roger H; Clifton, Lisa; Milliken, Tula; Harrington, Wallace; Kimbrough, Carie; Faber, Catherine A; Cariello, Neal; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days. Exercise and DR mice lost more body weight than controls and both ephedrine and exercise reduced percent body fat. All treatments reduced BAT and liver lipid accumulation (i.e., cytoplasmic lipids in brown adipocytes and hepatocytes) and increased oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/h) compared with controls. Mitochondrial biogenesis/function-related genes (TFAM, NRF1 and GABPA) were up-regulated in the BAT of all groups. UCP-1 was up-regulated in exercise and ephedrine groups, whereas MFSD2A was up-regulated in ephedrine and DR groups. PGC-1α up-regulation was observed in exercise and DR groups but not in ephedrine group. In all experimental groups, except for ephedrine, fatty acid transport and metabolism genes were up-regulated, but the magnitude of change was higher in the DR group. PRKAA1 was up-regulated in all groups but not significantly in the ephedrine group. ADRß3 was slightly up-regulated in the DR group only, whereas ESRRA remained unchanged in all groups. Although our data suggest a common pathway of BAT activation elicited by ephedrine treatment, exercise or DR, mRNA changes were indicative of additional nutrient-sensing pathways in exercise and DR.

  4. The influence of fatigue-induced increase in relative work rate on temperature regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kacin, Alan; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2008-05-01

    Heat-loss responses during steady-load exercise are affected by an increase in relative work rate induced by muscle ischaemia or hypoxaemia. The present study investigated whether progressive increases in perception of exertion and relative oxygen uptake %VO2peak which occur during prolonged steady-load exercise as a result of progressively increased peripheral fatigue, might also affect the regulation of heat loss responses and hence the exercise-induced increase in mean body temperature. Ten male subjects first performed a ramp-test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer to evaluate their initial peak oxygen uptake (Control VO2peak). On a separate day, 120 min of cycling at constant power output corresponding to 60% of Control VO2peak was performed in thermoneutral environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 50%, wind speed = 5 m s(-1)). This was immediately followed by another maximal performance test (Fatigue VO2peak). During prolonged exercise, median (range) rating of perceived exertion for whole-body (RPEwb) increased (P < 0.01) from initial 3.5 (1-5) to 5.5 (5-9) at the end of exercise. Fatigue VO2peak and peak power output were 9 (5) and 10 (5)% lower (P < 0.01) when compared to control values. At the onset of exercise, heat production, mechanical efficiency, heat loss and mean body temperature increased towards asymptotic values, thereafter remained constant throughout the 120 min exercise, despite the concomitant progressive increase in relative work rate, as reflected in increased RPEwb and relative oxygen uptake. It is thus concluded that the increase in relative work rate induced predominantly by peripheral muscle fatigue affects neither the level of increase in mean body temperature nor the regulation of heat loss responses during prolonged steady-load exercise.

  5. Muscle Contraction Induces Acute Hydroxymethylation of the Exercise-Responsive Gene Nr4a3

    PubMed Central

    Pattamaprapanont, Pattarawan; Garde, Christian; Fabre, Odile; Barrès, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training triggers numerous positive adaptations through the regulation of genes controlling muscle structure and function. Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, participate in transcriptional activation by allowing the recruitment of the transcription machinery to gene promoters. Exercise induces dynamic DNA demethylation at gene promoters; however, the contribution of the demethylation precursor hydroxymethylcytosine is unknown. Given the evanescent nature of hydroxymethylcytosine, a muscle contraction model that allows for the collection of samples that are repeatedly stimulated over time is required to determine whether contraction-induced demethylation is preceded by changes in the hydroxymethylcytosine level. Here, we established an acute skeletal muscle contraction model to mimic the effects of acute exercise on gene expression. We used this model to investigate the effect of muscle contraction on DNA demethylation and hydroxymethylation. First, we performed an acute exercise study in healthy humans to identify an exercise-responsive gene that we could study in culture. We identified the nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4a3) gene with the highest fold-expression increase after acute exercise. We then refined an electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) protocol that could induce expression of the Nr4a3 gene in C2C12 myotubes. Using targeted bisulfite sequencing, we found that in response to EPS, a region of the Nr4a3 promoter is rapidly demethylated at 60 min and re-methylated at 120 min. Of interest, hydroxymethylation of the differentially methylated region of Nr4a3 promoter after EPS was elevated immediately after EPS, with lowest levels reached at 60 min after EPS. In conclusion, we have established a cell culture-based protocol to mimic the acute transcriptional responses to exercise. Furthermore, we provide insight into the mechanism by which the exercise-responsive gene Nr4a3 is demethylated after muscle

  6. Circulatory impairment induced by exercise in the lizard Iguana iguana.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C G; Hicks, J W

    2000-09-01

    Mechanical integration of the cardiac, muscular and ventilatory pumps enables mammals to vary cardiac output over a wide range to match metabolic demands. We have found this integration lacking in a lizard (Iguana iguana) that differs from mammals because blood flow from the caudal body and ventilation are maximal after, rather than during, exercise. Because Iguana iguana are constrained from ventilation during intense locomotion, they appear to be unable to recruit the abdomen and thorax as a pump for venous return. This constraint on simultaneous running and costal breathing arises from their musculoskeletal design, which is similar to that of basal tetrapods, and so a constraint on venous return during exercise may be ancestral for tetrapods. We suggest that mechanical coupling of the pulmonary and cardiac pumps may have been important for the evolution of high-speed locomotor stamina in terrestrial vertebrates.

  7. Atropine-Induced Cutaneous Vasodilation Decreases Body Temperature during Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    during exercise in a cool environment after atropine treatment decreased body temperature and resulted in further suppression of eccrine sweating , thereby...block nsumber) FIEL GRUP SB-GOUP cholinergic blockage, skin blood flow, sweating , temperature regulation, vasodilation * 19. ABSTRACT (Contine on...revese sf neceury and Ilentify by block number) Jil ystemic atropine enhances forearm cutaneous blood flow (FBF) but depresses forearm sweating (Ia5) in

  8. Physiological and Mood Changes Induced by Exercise Withdrawal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    2,56)=0.18; SBP: Fcondition(1,2Figure 10. Heart Rate Response to Stroop reactivity to the cold pressor , effects of exercise withdrawal nt with respect...HR response will be important. HR is controlled by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Heart rate variability ( HRV ) is a...sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Heart rate variability has been used as an

  9. Mechanisms Involved in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate. Objective To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies. Results The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review. Conclusion On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions. PMID:25830711

  10. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01).

  11. The Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Oocyte Quality in a Diet-Induced Obese Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie; Thompson, Alysha; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity negatively affects many aspects of the human body, including reproductive function. In females, the root of the decline in fertility is linked to problems in the oocyte. Problems seen in oocytes that positively correlate with increasing BMI include changes to the metabolism, lipid accumulation, meiosis, and metaphase II (MII) spindle structure. Studies in mice indicate dietary interventions fail to reverse these problems [4]. How exercise affects the oocytes has not been addressed. Therefore, we hypothesized an exercise intervention would improve oocyte quality. Here we show in a mouse model of an exercise intervention can improve lipid metabolism in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. Oocytes significantly increased activity and transcription of the β-oxidation enzyme Hadha (Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase) in response to exercise training only if the mice had been fed a high fat diet (HFD). An exercise intervention also reversed the lipid accumulation seen in GV stage oocytes of HFD females. However, delays in meiosis and disorganized MII spindles remained present. Therefore, exercise is able to improve, but not reverse, damage imparted on oocytes as a result of a high fat diet and obesity. By utilizing an exercise intervention on a HFD, we determined only lipid content and lipid metabolism is changed in GV oocytes. Moving forward, interventions to improve oocyte quality may need to be more targeted to the oocyte specifically. Because of the HFD induced deficiency in β-oxidation, dietary supplementation with substrates to improve lipid utilization may be more beneficial. PMID:26700938

  12. Exercise induces age-dependent changes on epigenetic parameters in rat hippocampus: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Moysés, Felipe; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Regular exercise improves learning and memory, including during aging process. Interestingly, the imbalance of epigenetic mechanisms has been linked to age-related cognitive deficits. However, studies about epigenetic alterations after exercise during the aging process are rare. In this preliminary study we investigated the effect of aging and exercise on DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) and H3-K9 methylation levels in hippocampus from 3 and 20-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two exercise protocols: single session or chronic treadmill protocol. DNMT1 and H3-K9 methylation levels were decreased in hippocampus from aged rats. The single exercise session decreased both DNMT3b and DNMT1 levels in young adult rats, without any effect in the aged group. Both exercise protocols reduced H3-K9 methylation levels in young adult rats, while the single session reversed the changes on H3-K9 methylation levels induced by aging. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance on DNMTs and H3-K9 methylation levels might be linked to the brain aging process and that the outcome to exercise seems to vary through lifespan.

  13. Elevated central venous pressure: a consequence of exercise training-induced hypervolemia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    Resting blood volumes and arterial and central venous pressures (CVP) were measured in 14 men before and after exercise training to determine whether training-induced hypervolemia is accompanied by a change in total vascular capacitance. In addition, resting levels of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (Ald), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured. The same measurements were conducted in seven subjects who did not undergo exercise and acted as controls. Exercise training consisted of 10 wk of controlled cycle exercise for 30 min/day, 4 days/wk at 75-80% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max). A training effect was verified by a 20% increase in VO2max, a resting bradycardia, and a 9% increase in blood volume. Mean arterial blood pressure was unaltered by exercise training, but resting CVP increased by 16% (P less than 0.05). The percent change in blood volume from before to after training was linearly related to the percent change in CVP (r = 0.903, P less than 0.05). As a consequence of elevations in both blood volume and CVP, the volume-to-pressure ratio was unchanged after exercise training. Plasma AVP, ANP, Ald, and NE were unaltered. Our results indicate that elevated CVP is a consequence of training-induced hypervolemia without alteration in total effective venous capacitance.

  14. Elevated central venous pressure: A consequence of exercise training-induced hypervolemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mack, Gary W.; Nadel, Ethan R.

    1990-01-01

    Resting plasma volumes, and arterial and central venous pressures (CVP) were measured in 16 men before and after exercise training to determine if training-induced hypervolemia could be explained by a change in total vascular capacitance. In addition, resting levels of plasma vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (ALD), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured before and after training. The same measurements of vacular volume, pressures, and plasma hormones were measured in 8 subjects who did not undergo exercise and acted as controls. The exercise training program consisted of 10 weeks of controlled cycle exercise for 30 min/d, 4 d/wk at 75 to 80 percent of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A training effect was verified by a 20 percent increase in VO2max, a resting bradycardia, and a 370 ml (9 percent) increase in blood volume. Mean arterial blood pressure was unaltered by exercise training, but resting CVP increased. The percent change in blood volume from before to after training was linearly related to the percent change in CVP. As a consequence of elevations in both blood volume and CVP, the volume-to-pressure ratio was essentially unchanged following exercise training. Plasma AVP, ANP, ALD, and NE were unaltered. Results indicate that elevated CVP is a consequence of training-induced hypervolemia without alteration in total effective venous capacitance. This may represent a resetting of the pressure-volume stimulus-response relation for regulation of blood volume.

  15. Profiling of exercise-induced transcripts in the peripheral blood cells of Thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    TOZAKI, Teruaki; KIKUCHI, Mio; KAKOI, Hironaga; HIROTA, Kei-ichi; MUKAI, Kazutaka; AIDA, Hiroko; NAKAMURA, Seiji; NAGATA, Shun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transcriptome analyses based on DNA microarray technology have been used to investigate gene expression profiles in horses. In this study, we aimed to identify exercise-induced changes in the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral blood of Thoroughbred horses using DNA microarray technology (15,429 genes on 43,603 probes). Blood samples from the jugular vein were collected from six horses before and 1 min, 4 hr, and 24 hr after all-out running on a treadmill. After the normalization of microarray data, a total of 26,830 probes were clustered into four groups and 11 subgroups showing similar expression changes based on k-mean clustering. The expression level of inflammation-related genes, including interleukin-1 receptor type II (IL-1R2), matrix metallopeptidase 8 (MMP8), protein S100-A8 (S100-A8), and serum amyloid A (SAA), increased at 4 hr after exercise, whereas that of c-Fos (FOS) increased at 1 min after exercise. These results indicated that the inflammatory response increased in the peripheral blood cells after exercise. Our study also revealed the presence of genes that may not be affected by all-out exercise. In conclusion, transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood cells could be used to monitor physiological changes induced by various external stress factors, including exercise, in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27974875

  16. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaïdia, Abd Elbasset; Leduc, Cédric; Dawson, Brian; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition) or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES) = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%): -2.17 to -0.06), the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80) and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32) in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98). This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline) in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W) in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W) (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86). However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage. Key points When the recovery period between competitions was short, a curcumin and piperine supplementation could be an effective recovery

  17. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application.

  18. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application. PMID:27536098

  19. Exercise-induced cardioprotection is impaired by anabolic steroid treatment through a redox-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Elen A; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P; Nascimento, José Hamilton M; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2013-11-01

    High doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) impair the cardioprotective effects of exercise against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult, possibly through cellular redox imbalance. Here, the effect of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) treatment on heart redox metabolism was investigated during I/R in sedentary and exercised rats. DECA treatment significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities in exercised rats after heart reperfusion. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were not affected by DECA in both sedentary and trained rats, regardless the I/R period. DECA also induced myocardial oxidative stress, as evidenced by the reduced levels of total reduced thiols after heart reperfusion in exercised rats treated with the anabolic steroid. These results indicate that cardiotoxic effects of supraphysiological doses of AAS involve reduced heart antioxidant capacity.

  20. Lactate as a Signaling Molecule That Regulates Exercise-Induced Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Nalbandian, Minas; Takeda, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Lactate (or its protonated form: lactic acid) has been studied by many exercise scientists. The lactate paradigm has been in constant change since lactate was first discovered in 1780. For many years, it was unfairly seen as primarily responsible for muscular fatigue during exercise and a waste product of glycolysis. The status of lactate has slowly changed to an energy source, and in the last two decades new evidence suggests that lactate may play a much bigger role than was previously believed: many adaptations to exercise may be mediated in some way by lactate. The mechanisms behind these adaptations are yet to be understood. The aim of this review is to present the state of lactate science, focusing on how this molecule may mediate exercise-induced adaptations. PMID:27740597

  1. The L-Z complexity of exercise-induced muscle fatigue based on acoustic myographye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yijian, Min; Xinyuan, Liu; Tingting, Wang

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of exercise fatigue was investigated during exercise using L-Z complexity of non-linear analysis. Muscle fatigue was induced in the sitting position by lifting the heel under a load. An acoustic myogram of the gastrocnemius was obtained until exhaustion. The different modes of the speed responses were calculated using the L-Z complexity method, which analyzes muscle fibers participation, while the exercise is in progress. The L-Z complexity decreased incrementally with decreases in muscle strength, reaching a minimum value when the muscle was exhausted. Our data indicate that the L-Z complexity method is easy to use and effective at revealing the dynamic characteristics and variations of exercise fatigue. This method could be used to monitor sports training.

  2. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Exercise in High / Low Temperatures on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) in Trained Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Mohsen; Habibi, Abdolhamid; Shakeryan, Saeed; Nikbakht, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes airway narrowing that occurs in association with exercise. Exercise in hot and cold environments has been reported to increase exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in subjects with asthma. However, to our knowledge, the effect of hot and cold environment on pulmonary function and EIB in trained males has not been previously studied. The main goal of this research was to examine the influence of environmental temperature and high intensity interval exercise on pulmonary function in trained teenage males. Also, this study sought to assess the influence of exercise and environmental temperature on EIB. Materials and Methods Thirty trained subjects (mean age 16.56±0.89 yrs, all males) underwent high intensity interval exercise testing (22 minutes) by running on a treadmill in hot and cold environments under standardized conditions (10 °C and 45 °C with almost 50% relative humidity in random order in winter and summer). Lung function (flow volume loops) was measured before and 1, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after the exercise by digital spirometer. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and P < 0.05 was considered significant. The diagnosis of EIB was made by 10% fall in FEV1 post-exercise. Results The post-exercise maximal reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and average forced expiratory flow rate over the middle 50% of the FVC (FEF25-75) increased significantly compared to pre-exercise at 10 °C with almost 50% relative humidity (cold air). The obtained values were: -15.93(15min post-exercise), -22.53 (1 min post-exercise) and -18.25%(5min post-exercise). Post-exercise maximal reduction in FEV1, PEF and FEF25-75 increased significantly compared to pre-exercise value at 45 °C with almost 50% relative humidity (hot air). Obtained values were: -10.35 (1 min post-exercise), -9.16 (1 min post-exercise) and -7.39 (5 min post-exercise). Changes in FEV1, PEF and FEF25

  3. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  4. Eccentric-exercise induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress.

    PubMed

    Paine, Nicola J; Ring, Christopher; Aldred, Sarah; Bosch, Jos A; Wadley, Alex J; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S

    2013-05-01

    Mental stress has been identified as a trigger of myocardial infarction (MI), with inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress independently implicated as contributing factors. This study examined whether inflammation moderates the vascular responses to mental stress. Eighteen healthy male participants completed a stress task under two counter balanced conditions. In the exercise condition, a morning bout of eccentric exercise (12×5 repetitions of unilateral eccentric knee extension at 120% intensity of concentric one repetition maximum) was used to increase levels of inflammatory-responsive cytokines during an afternoon stress session scheduled 6h later. In the control condition, participants sat and relaxed for 45min, 6h prior to the afternoon stress session. Forearm blood flow, calf blood flow (measured in the leg which completed the exercise task), blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output were assessed at rest and in response to mental stress. As expected, interleukin-6 was higher (p=.02) 6h post exercise, i.e., at the start of the stress session, as compared to the no-exercise control condition. Mental stress increased forearm blood flow, calf blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output in both conditions (p's<.001). Stress-induced calf blood flow was attenuated in the exercise condition compared to the control condition (p<.05) which was not the case for forearm blood flow. This study found that the inflammatory response to eccentric exercise attenuated the vascular responses to mental stress locally at the site of eccentric exercise-induced inflammation. The observed impairment in vascular responses to stress associated with increased levels of inflammation suggests a mechanism through which inflammation might increase the risk for MI.

  5. Ammonium Chloride Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-Induced mRNA Levels in Human Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mündel, Toby; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hawke, Emma; Leikis, Murray; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Oliveira, Rodrigo S. F.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% V˙O2peak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID) or calcium carbonate (PLA) the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P<0.05). During the PLA condition, the mRNA content of mitochondrial- and glucose-regulating proteins was elevated immediately following exercise (P<0.05). In the early phase (0–2 h) of post-exercise recovery during ACID, PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome C, FOXO1, GLUT4, and HKII mRNA levels were not different from resting levels (P>0.05); the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08). Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle. PMID:26656911

  6. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration.

  7. Contribution of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor to exercise-induced vasodilation in health and hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Ozkor, Muhiddin A; Hayek, Salim S; Rahman, Ayaz M; Murrow, Jonathan R; Kavtaradze, Nino; Lin, Ji; Manatunga, Amita; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-02-01

    The role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in either the healthy circulation or in those with hypercholesterolemia is unknown. In healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) using strain-gauge plethysmography at rest, during graded handgrip exercise, and after sodium nitroprusside infusion. Measurements were repeated after l-NMMA, tetraethylammonium (TEA), and combined infusions. At rest, l-NMMA infusion reduced FBF in healthy but not hypercholesterolemic subjects. At peak exercise, vasodilation was lower in hypercholesterolemic compared to healthy subjects (274% vs 438% increase in FBF, p=0.017). TEA infusion reduced exercise-induced vasodilation in both healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects (27%, p<0.0001 and -20%, p<0.0001, respectively). The addition of l-NMMA to TEA further reduced FBF in healthy (-14%, p=0.012) but not in hypercholesterolemic subjects, indicating a reduced nitric oxide and greater EDHF-mediated contribution to exercise-induced vasodilation in hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, exercise-induced vasodilation is impaired and predominantly mediated by EDHF in hypercholesterolemic subjects. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION IDENTIFIER NCT00166166:

  8. Effect of exercise training on ethanol-induced oxidative damage in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjuna, K; Nishanth, K; Hou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Sathyavelu Reddy, K

    2009-02-01

    It is well known that lipid peroxidation increases with age, and alcohol drinking further exacerbates this damage. The present study determined the effect of regular exercise training on alcohol-induced oxidative damage and antioxidant status in the liver of aged animals. The age-matched Wistar albino rats (3 months young, n=24; 18 months old, n=24) were evenly divided into four groups: control (C), exercise trained (Ex), ethanol drinking (Et), and exercise plus ethanol drinking (Ex+Et). With ethanol drinking, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly elevated above control (P<.001), whereas glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents were significantly decreased below control. These changes were found to be greater in the aged rats than those of the young rats. For both age groups, exercise training significantly reversed the increase in MDA and decreases in GSH and ascorbic acid induced by ethanol drinking. The present study showed that ethanol-induced deterioration in lipid peroxidation and reduction in antioxidant status in the liver were exacerbated with age. Here, we found that exercise training significantly reversed the adverse conditions that were caused by ethanol in aged rats.

  9. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels.

  10. Acceleration slope of exercise-induced impacts is a determinant of changes in bone density.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Riikka; Vihriälä, Erkki; Vainionpää, Aki; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2007-01-01

    High acceleration levels (>4g) seen during impact exercises have been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. The aim of this study was to examine how the other acceleration signal characteristics, i.e. the slope, area and energy of the signal are related to changes in bone density, using long-term quantification of physical activity. Daily physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer-based body movement monitor in 64 premenopausal women participating in a 12-month population-based exercise trial. The daily number of exercise-induced impacts at different slope, area and energy levels of the acceleration signal was analyzed. Physical activity inducing slopes 1000 m/s(3), acceleration peak areas 2m/s or signal energies 75 m(2)/s(3) was associated with BMD change in the hip (p<0.05). Impacts with the smallest slopes (<1000 m/s(3)) were positively associated with changes in calcaneal speed of ultrasound, while impacts with slopes 1500 m/s(3) or areas 4m/s were positively correlated with broadband ultrasound attenuation changes (p<0.05). We conclude that the acceleration slope of exercise-induced impacts is an important determinant of bone density. The slope threshold for improving BMD at the hip is 1000 m/s(3), which can be achieved during normal exercise including fast movements such as running and jumping.

  11. Exercise-Induced Norepinephrine Decreases Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Colony-Forming Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Pekovits, Karin; Fuchs, Robert; Allard, Nathalie; Schinagl, Lukas; Hofmann, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed that ergometry increased circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (CPC) numbers, but reduced hematopoietic colony forming capacity/functionality under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia. Herein we investigated whether an exercise-induced elevated plasma free/bound norepinephrine (NE) concentration could be responsible for directly influencing CPC functionality. Venous blood was taken from ten healthy male subjects (25.3+/−4.4 yrs) before and 4 times after ergometry under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (FiO2<0.15). The circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell numbers were correlated with free/bound NE, free/bound epinephrine (EPI), cortisol (Co) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, the influence of exercise-induced NE and blood lactate (La) on CPC functionality was analyzed in a randomly selected group of subjects (n = 6) in vitro under normoxia by secondary colony-forming unit granulocyte macrophage assays. Concentrations of free NE, EPI, Co and IL-6 were significantly increased post-exercise under normoxia/hypoxia. Ergometry-induced free NE concentrations found in vivo showed a significant impairment of CPC functionality in vitro under normoxia. Thus, ergometry-induced free NE was thought to trigger CPC mobilization 10 minutes post-exercise, but as previously shown impairs CPC proliferative capacity/functionality at the same time. The obtained results suggest that an ergometry-induced free NE concentration has a direct negative effect on CPC functionality. Cortisol may further influence CPC dynamics and functionality. PMID:25180783

  12. Exercise training with ageing protects against ethanol induced myocardial glutathione homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Pushpalatha; Kesireddy, Sathyavelureddy; Christiaan, Leeuwenburgh

    2008-05-01

    Glutathione plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular antioxidant defense. The alterations in the glutathione and associated recyclic enzymes caused by both exercise training and ethanol are well documented; however, their interactive effects with age are not well understood. Therefore, the influence of ageing and the interactive effects of exercise training and ethanol on the myocardial glutathione system in 3 months and 18 months old rats were examined. The results showed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in GSH content, Se and non-Se GSH-Px, GR and GST activities in the myocardium of rat with age. A significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes was observed in both age groups of rats in response to exercise training. This exercise-induced elevation of Se and non-Se GSH-Px and GR activities was more pronounced in the 18 months old rats when compared to 3 months old rats. Ethanol consumption significantly (p<0.05) reduced the GSH content, Se and non-Se GSH-Px and GR activities in both age groups of rats. In contrast, ethanol consumption significantly (p<0.05) increased the activity of GST. The combined action of exercise plus ethanol significantly (p<0.05) elevated the GSH content, Se and non-Se GSH-Px, GR and GST activities when compared to the ethanol treated rats in both age groups, indicating the suppression of ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training. In conclusion, there was a compensatory myocardial response lessening ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training, which seemed to result from the higher activity of glutathione recycling and utilizing enzymes, which may be critical for preventing chronic oxidative damage to the myocardium during ageing and even due to ethanol consumption.

  13. Exercise-induced release of histamine and neutrophil chemotactic factor in atopic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Brown, M J; Nagy, L; Causon, R; Walport, M J; Kay, A B

    1982-08-01

    Concentrations of plasma histamine and serum neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) were measured in seven atopic asthmatics who developed exercise-induced asthma (EIA) after a treadmill task. The results were compared with those obtained after inhalation of specific antigen or methacholine. Plasma histamine concentrations were measured with a novel double-isotope radiometric assay, and NCF was identified by its elution in the void volume fractions of Sephadex G-200 and as a single peak of activity at approximately 0.20 molar NaCl after anion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sephacel (pH 7.8). After exercise or antigen challenge, the time courses of appearance of both mediators were virtually identical and accompanied the increase in airways obstruction. There was a statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of histamine or NCF and the magnitude of airflow obstruction after exercise and antigen challenge. This suggested that there may be a direct association between mediator release and EIA or antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. In contrast, there were no significant elevations in circulating histamine and NCF after inhalation of methacholine, at concentrations giving a fall in FEV1 comparable to that induced by exercise or antigen. The prior administration of cromolyn to three asthmatics inhibited both their EIA and the release of histamine and NCF. When four asthmatics were exercised for periods of 1, 3, and 6 min, the release of NCF and fall in peak expiratory flow rate were directly related to the duration of the exercise. The rise of NCF activity in subjects with EIA was fivefold greater than that observed in asthmatics who did not experience airways obstruction when subjected to the same exercise task. These results provide further evidence that mediators of hypersensitivity are released during EIA.

  14. Comparison of Nigella sativa- and exercise-induced models of cardiac hypertrophy: structural and electrophysiological features.

    PubMed

    Al-Asoom, Lubna Ibrahim; Al-Shaikh, Basil Abdulrahman; Bamosa, Abdullah Omar; El-Bahai, Mohammad Nabil

    2014-09-01

    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapeutic intervention for heart failure, due to its ability to induce physiological cardiac hypertrophy. In parallel, supplementation with Nigella sativa (N. sativa) was found to enhance myocardial function and induce cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we aim to compare the morphological and electrophysiological changes associated with these patterns of cardiac hypertrophy and the possible changes upon administration of N. sativa to exercise-trained animals. Fifty-six adult Wistar rats were divided into: control, Nigella-treated (N), exercise-trained (E), and Nigella-treated-exercise-trained (NE) rats. Daily 800 mg/kg N. sativa was administered orally to N and NE. E and NE ran on treadmill, 2 h/day. At the end of 8 weeks ECG, body weight (BW), heart weight (HW), and left ventricular weight (LVW) were recorded. Hematoxylin and Eosin and periodic acid-Schiff sections were prepared to study the histology of left ventricles and to measure diameter of cardiomyocytes (Cdia). HW/BW, LVW/BW, and mean Cdia were significantly higher in all experimental animals compared to the controls. Histology showed normal cardiomyocytes with no fibrosis. ECG showed significantly lower heart rates, higher QRS amplitude, and ventricular specific potential in NE group compared to control group. Supplementation of N. sativa demonstrated a synergistic effect with exercise training as Nigella-exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy had lower heart rate and well-matched electrical activity of the heart to its mass. Therefore, this model of cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment for heart failure with superior advantages to exercise training.

  15. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  16. Biphasic Regulation of p38 MAPK by Serotonin Contributes to the Efficacy of Stimulus Protocols That Induce Long-Term Synaptic Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The MAPK isoforms ERK and p38 MAPK are believed to play opposing roles in long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) induced by serotonin (5-HT) in Aplysia. To fully understand their roles, however, it is necessary to consider the dynamics of ERK and p38 MAPK activation. Previous studies determined that activation of ERK occurred ∼45 min after a 5-min pulse of 5-HT treatment. The dynamics of p38 MAPK activation following 5-HT are yet to be elucidated. Here, the activity of p38 MAPK was examined at different times after 5-HT, and the interaction between the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways was investigated. A 5-min pulse of 5-HT induced a transient inhibition of p38 MAPK, followed by a delayed activation between 25 and 45 min. This activation was blocked by a MAPK kinase inhibitor, suggesting that similar pathways are involved in activation of ERK and p38 MAPK. ERK activity decreased shortly after the activation of p38 MAPK. A p38 MAPK inhibitor blocked this decrease in ERK activity, suggesting a causal relationship. The p38 MAPK activity ∼45 min after different stimulus protocols was also characterized. These data were incorporated into a computational model for the induction of LTF. Simulations and empirical data suggest that p38 MAPK, together with ERK, contributes to the efficacy of spaced stimulus protocols to induce LTF, a correlate of long-term memory (LTM). For example, decreased p38 MAPK activity ∼45 min after the first of two sensitizing stimuli might be an important determinant of an optimal interstimulus interval (ISI) for LTF induction. PMID:28197555

  17. Functional and morphological effects of resistance exercise on disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, H; Zanchi, N E; Luz, C R da; Lancha, A H

    2011-11-01

    Abstract quality of life. Since there is no currently effective and safe treatment available for skeletal muscle atrophy, the search for new alternatives is necessary. Resistance exercise (RE) seems to be an important tool in the treatment of disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by promoting positive functional (strength and power) and structural (hypertrophy and phenotypic changes) adaptive responses. Human and animal studies using different types of resistance exercise (flywheel, vascular occlusion, dynamic, isometric, and eccentric) have obtained results of great importance. However, since RE is a complex phenomenon, lack of strict control of its variables (volume, frequency, intensity, muscle action, rest intervals) limits the interpretation of the impact of the manipulation on skeletal muscle remodeling and function under disuse. The aim of this review is to critically describe the functional and morphological role of resistance exercise in disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy with emphasis on the principles of training.

  18. Mitochondria modify exercise-induced development of stem cell-derived neurons in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Steib, Kathrin; Schäffner, Iris; Jagasia, Ravi; Ebert, Birgit; Lie, D Chichung

    2014-05-07

    Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian hippocampus continuously generate new functional neurons, which modify the hippocampal network and significantly contribute to cognitive processes and mood regulation. Here, we show that the development of new neurons from stem cells in adult mice is paralleled by extensive changes to mitochondrial mass, distribution, and shape. Moreover, exercise-a strong modifier of adult hippocampal neurogenesis-accelerates neuronal maturation and induces a profound increase in mitochondrial content and the presence of mitochondria in dendritic segments. Genetic inhibition of the activity of the mitochondrial fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) inhibits neurogenesis under basal and exercise conditions. Conversely, enhanced Drp1 activity furthers exercise-induced acceleration of neuronal maturation. Collectively, these results indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires adaptation of the mitochondrial compartment and suggest that mitochondria are targets for enhancing neurogenesis-dependent hippocampal plasticity.

  19. Exercise-induced neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases: the key role of trophic factors.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Nardi, António E; Machado, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, are becoming a major issue to public health care. Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment to address cognitive impairment in these patients. Here, we aim to explore the role of exercise-induced trophic factor enhancement in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. There is a significant amount of evidence from animal and human studies that links neurodegenerative related cognitive deficits with changes on brain and peripheral trophic factor levels. Several trials with elderly individuals and patients with neurodegenerative diseases report exercise induced cognitive improvements and changes on trophic factor levels including BDNF, IGF-I, among others. Further studies with healthy aging and clinical populations are needed to understand how diverse exercise interventions produce different variations in trophic factor signaling. Genetic profiles and potential confounders regarding trophic factors should also be addressed in future trials.

  20. Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Among athletes strenuous exercise, dehydration and gastric emptying (GE) delay are the main causes of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, whereas gut ischemia is the main cause of their nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and (blood) diarrhea. Additionally any factor that limits sweat evaporation, such as a hot and humid environment and/or body dehydration, has profound effects on muscle glycogen depletion and risk for heat illness. A serious underperfusion of the gut often leads to mucosal damage and enhanced permeability so as to hide blood loss, microbiota invasion (or endotoxemia) and food-born allergen absorption (with anaphylaxis). The goal of exercise rehydration is to intake more fluid orally than what is being lost in sweat. Sports drinks provide the addition of sodium and carbohydrates to assist with intestinal absorption of water and muscle-glycogen replenishment, respectively. However GE is proportionally slowed by carbohydrate-rich (hyperosmolar) solutions. On the other hand, in order to prevent hyponatremia, avoiding overhydration is recommended. Caregiver's responsibility would be to inform athletes about potential dangers of drinking too much water and also advise them to refrain from using hypertonic fluid replacements. PMID:21955383

  1. Suppression of exercise-induced angina by magnesium sulfate in patients with variant angina

    SciTech Connect

    Kugiyama, K.; Yasue, H.; Okumura, K.; Goto, K.; Minoda, K.; Miyagi, H.; Matsuyama, K.; Kojima, A.; Koga, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    1988-11-01

    The effects of intravenous magnesium on exercise-induced angina were examined in 15 patients with variant angina and in 13 patients with stable effort angina and were compared with those of placebo. Symptom-limited bicycle exercise and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were performed after intravenous administration of 0.27 mmol/kg body weight of magnesium sulfate and after placebo on different days. In all patients, serum magnesium levels after administration of magnesium sulfate were about twofold higher than levels after placebo. Exercise-induced angina associated with transient ST segment elevation occurred in 11 patients with variant angina receiving placebo and in only 2 of these patients receiving magnesium (p less than 0.005). On the other hand, exercise-induced angina was not suppressed by magnesium in any patient with stable effort angina. In these patients there was no significant difference in exercise duration after administration of placebo versus after administration of magnesium. The size of the perfusion defect as measured by thallium-201 scintigraphy was significantly less in patients with variant angina receiving magnesium than that in those receiving placebo (p less than 0.001), whereas it was not significantly different in patients with stable effort angina receiving placebo versus magnesium. In conclusion, exercise-induced angina is suppressed by intravenous magnesium in patients with variant angina but not in patients with stable effort angina. This beneficial effect of magnesium in patients with variant angina is most likely due to improvement of regional myocardial blood flow by suppression of coronary artery spasm.

  2. Exercise-induced hemostatic alterations are detectable by rotation thrombelastography (ROTEM): A marathon study.

    PubMed

    Sucker, Christoph; Zotz, Rainer B; Senft, Beate; Scharf, Rudiger E; Kröger, Knut; Erbel, Raimund; Möhlenkamp, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Rotation thrombelastography (ROTEM) provides a whole blood assay that allows the assessment of plasmic- and platelet-related hemostasis in a single-step procedure. In our current study, we focused on the capability of the method to detect hemostatic alterations induced by physical exercise, enrolling 33 healthy participants of the Dusseldorf Marathon 2006. Venous blood drawn immediately before and after finishing the marathon was analyzed by a rotational thrombelastograph (Pentapharm, Munich, Germany). On initiation of blood coagulation by recalcification, standard ROTEM parameters were determined. Comparison of the results obtained before and after the physical exercise was performed using the Student t test for paired samples. As a result, the mean clotting time (CT) determined from blood samples obtained immediately after the marathon was significantly shorter (662.9 + or - 67.8 seconds vs 505.6 + or - 97.3 seconds, P = .002) and the mean maximal clot firmness was significantly broader (48.4 +/- 6.6 mm vs 51.5 +/- 4.5 mm, P = .0004) when compared to results obtained before the physical exercise. Differences between mean clot formation times (CFTs; 280.6 + 96 seconds vs 270.4 + or - 73.8 seconds) and mean alpha angles (45.9 degrees + or - 8 degrees vs 47.8 degrees + or - 5.8 degrees ) before and after the marathon were not statistically significant. Remarkably, some participants showed opposed results, particularly prolongation of CT and narrowing of maximum clot firmness (MCF). Our study demonstrates that ROTEM is sensitive to exercise-induced hemostatic alterations. The method appears to be capable of detecting even distinct changes in hemostasis in a single-step procedure. Further analyses are needed to clarify which hemostasis parameters influence ROTEM results and which ROTEM results are independent predictors of exercise-induced alterations of plasmic and platelet function. This might help to explain interindividual differences in exercise-induced

  3. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies and assessed by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Silveira, Landulfo

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed the assessment of biochemical changes induced by laser or LED irradiation during mineralization of a bone defect in an animal model using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: clot, laser (λ = 780 nm; 70 mW), LED (λ = 850 ± 10 nm; 150 mW), biomaterial (biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), biomaterial + laser, and biomaterial + LED. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at a 48-h interval during 2 weeks (20 J/cm(2) per session). At the 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA, and carbonate HA by using the spectra of pure collagen and biomaterials composed of phosphate and carbonate HA, respectively. The use of the biomaterial associated to phototherapy did not change the collagen formation at both 15 and 30 days. The amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups at the 15th day. However, at the 30th day, there was a significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.01), with lower carbonate HA for the group biomaterial + LED compared to biomaterial (p < 0.05). The phosphate HA was higher in the groups that received biomaterial grafts at the 15th day compared to clot (significant for the biomaterial; p < 0.01). At the 30th day, the phosphate HA was higher for the group biomaterial + laser, while this was lower for all the other groups. These results indicated that the use of laser phototherapy improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the deposition of phosphate HA.

  4. Effects of propranolol and nifedipine on exercise-induced attack in patients variant angina: assessment by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy with quantitative rotational tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kugiyama, K.; Yasue, H.; Horio, Y.; Morikami, Y.; Fujii, H.; Koga, Y.; Kojima, A.; Takahashi, M.

    1986-08-01

    To examine the effects of propranolol and nifedipine on exercise-induced attack in patients with variant angina, exercise /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy with quantitative analysis by emission-computed tomography was performed in 20 patients with variant angina after oral propranolol (80 mg), nifedipine (20 mg), and placebo. Exercise-induced attack occurred in 11 patients on placebo, in 14 on propranolol, and in none on nifedipine. The exercise duration was significantly shorter in those on propranolol (p less than .05), but significantly longer in patients on nifedipine (p less than .05) than in those on placebo. The peak rate-pressure product was significantly lower in patients on propranolol (p less than .01), but did not change in those on nifedipine, as compared with that in patients on placebo. The size of the perfusion defect as measured by /sup 201/Tl tomography was significantly greater in patients on propranolol (p less than .05), but significantly less in those on nifedipine (p less than .01) than in those on placebo. In conclusion, propranolol does not suppress but rather may aggravate exercise-induced attack in patients with variant angina, while nifedipine suppresses it. This unfavorable effect of propranolol on exercise-induced attack in patients with variant angina is likely to be due to a reduction of regional myocardial blood flow.

  5. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  6. Moderate exercise prevents neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Xu, Meng; Shen, Bo; Li, Man; Gao, Qian; Wei, Shou-gang

    2016-01-01

    D-galactose has been widely used in aging research because of its efficacy in inducing senescence and accelerating aging in animal models. The present study investigated the benefits of exercise for preventing neurodegeneration, such as synaptic plasticity, spatial learning and memory abilities, in mouse models of aging. D-galactose-induced aging mice were administered daily subcutaneous injections of D-galactose at the base of the neck for 10 consecutive weeks. Then, the mice were subjected to exercise training by running on a treadmill for 6 days a week. Shortened escape latency in a Morris water maze test indicated that exercise improved learning and memory in aging mice. The ameliorative changes were likely induced by an upregulation of Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the repression of apoptosis factors such as Fas and Bax, and an increase in the activity of glucose transporters-1 and 4. The data suggest moderate exercise may retard or inhibit neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice. PMID:27335566

  7. Exercise-induced haemoptysis as a rare presentation of a rare lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mihalek, Andrew D; Haney, Carissa; Merino, Maria; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Moss, Joel; Olivier, Kenneth N

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid primarily affecting the lungs is a seldom seen clinical entity. This case discusses the work-up of a patient presenting with exercise-induced haemoptysis and diffuse cystic lung disease on radiographic imaging. The common clinical and radiographic findings of diffuse cystic lung diseases as well as a brief overview of pulmonary amyloid are presented.

  8. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  9. Angiotensin II and VEGF are involved in angiogenesis induced by short-term exercise training.

    PubMed

    Amaral, S L; Papanek, P E; Greene, A S

    2001-09-01

    Results from our laboratory have suggested a pathway involving angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in angiogenesis induced by electrical stimulation. The present study investigated if similar mechanisms underlie the angiogenesis induced by short-term exercise training. Seven days before training and throughout the training period, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either captopril or losartan in their drinking water. Rats underwent a 3-day treadmill training protocol. The tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were harvested under anesthesia and lightly fixed in formalin (vessel density) or frozen in liquid nitrogen (VEGF expression). In controls, treadmill training resulted in a significant increase in vessel density in all muscles studied. However, the angiogenesis induced by exercise was completely blocked by either losartan or captopril. Western blot analysis showed that VEGF expression was increased in the exercised control group, and both losartan and captopril blocked this increase. The role of VEGF was directly confirmed using a VEGF-neutralizing antibody. These results confirm the role of angiotensin II and VEGF in angiogenesis induced by exercise.

  10. Exercise-induced Signals for Vascular Endothelial Adaptations: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Martin, Jeffrey S.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of hemodynamic signals, external/compressive forces, and circulating factors that mediate exercise training-induced vascular adaptations, with particular attention to the roles of these signals in prevention and treatment of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. PMID:22844545

  11. Moderate treadmill exercise prevents oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Salim, Samina; Sarraj, Nada; Taneja, Manish; Saha, Kaustuv; Tejada-Simon, Maria Victoria; Chugh, Gaurav

    2010-04-02

    Recent work has suggested correlation of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior. There also is evidence for anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. However, a direct role of oxidative stress in anxiety is not clear and a protective role of physical exercise in oxidative stress-mediated anxiety has never been addressed. In this study, we have utilized rats to test direct involvement of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior and have identified oxidative stress mechanisms likely involved in anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. Intraperitoneal injections at non-toxic dose of l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an agent that increases oxidative stress markers, increased anxiety-like behavior of rats compared to vehicle-treated control rats. Prior 2 weeks treatment with the antioxidant, tempol attenuated BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats suggesting a role of oxidative stress in this phenomenon. Moreover, moderate treadmill exercise prevented BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats and also prevented BSO-mediated increase in oxidative stress markers in serum, urine and brain tissue homogenates from hippocampus, amygdala and locus coeruleus. Thus increasing oxidative stress increases anxiety-like behavior of rats. Moreover, antioxidant or treadmill exercise training both reduce oxidative stress in the rat brain regions implicated in anxiety response and prevent anxiety-like behavior of rats.

  12. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol.

  13. Influence of menstrual status on fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration in healthy young women.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J; McArthur, M; Shirreffs, S M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration varies over the normal menstrual cycle. METHODS--Five subjects, with a regular menstrual cycle lasting 28 (SEM 2) d, were dehydrated by 1.8(0.1)% of their pre-exercise mass by cycle exercise in the heat. Trials were undertaken 2 d before (trial -2) and 5 and 19 d after the onset of menses (trials 6 and 20 respectively). After exercise, subjects ingested a fixed volume, equivalent to 150% of mass loss, of a commercially available sports drink over a 60 min period. RESULTS--Cumulative urine output [median (range)] over the 6 h following ingestion was the same on all trials: 714(469-750) ml on trial -2; 476(433-639) ml on trial 6; 534(195-852) ml on trial 20. There was no menstrual cycle effect on urinary electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) excretion or serum electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) concentrations. Plasma volume increased by 8-12% of the postexercise value following rehydration. The percentage of ingested fluid retained did not differ between trials at any time. Six hours after drink ingestion, net fluid balance was not different from the initial value on any of the trials. CONCLUSIONS--Acute replacement of exercise induced fluid losses is not affected by the normal menstrual cycle. PMID:8665117

  14. Different types of exercise induce differential effects on neuronal adaptations and memory performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Wei; Chen, Shean-Jen; Huang, Tung-Yi; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jen, Chauying J

    2012-01-01

    Different exercise paradigms show differential effects on various forms of memory. We hypothesize that the differential effects of exercises on memory performance are caused by different neuroplasticity changes in relevant brain regions in response to different exercise trainings. We examined the effects of treadmill running (TR) and wheel running (WR) on the Pavlovian fear conditioning task that assesses learning and memory performance associated with the amygdala (cued conditioning) and both the amygdala and hippocampus (contextual conditioning). The skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, an indicator of aerobic capacity, was elevated in rats received 4 w of TR, but not WR. While both TR and WR elevated the contextual conditional response, only TR facilitated the cued conditional response. Using a single-neuron labeling technique, we found that while both TR and MR enlarged the dendritic field and increased the spine density in hippocampal CA3 neurons, only TR showed these effects in basolateral amygdalar neurons. Moreover, both types of exercise upregulated synaptic proteins (i.e., TrkB and SNAP-25) in the hippocampus; however only TR showed similar effects in the amygdala. Injection of K252a, a TrkB kinase inhibitor, in the dorsal hippocampus or basolateral amygdala abolished the exercise-facilitated contextual or cued fear learning and memory performance, respectively, regardless of the types of exercise. In summary, our results supported that different types of exercise affect the performance of learning and memory via BDNF-TrkB signaling and neuroplasticity in specific brain regions. The brain region-specific neuronal adaptations are possibly induced by various levels of intensity/stress elicited by different types of exercise.

  15. Exercise-induced neuronal plasticity in central autonomic networks: role in cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Lisete C; Stern, Javier E

    2009-09-01

    more comprehensive studies aimed at understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms within CNS neuronal networks that contribute to exercise-induced neuroplasticity and cardiovascular adjustments.

  16. Voluntary exercise protects against stress-induced decreases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression.

    PubMed

    Adlard, P A; Cotman, C W

    2004-01-01

    Exercise is increasingly recognized as an intervention that can reduce CNS dysfunctions such as cognitive decline, depression and stress. Previously we have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is increased in the hippocampus following exercise. In this study we tested the hypothesis that exercise can counteract a reduction in hippocampal BDNF protein caused by acute immobilization stress. Since BDNF expression is suppressed by corticosterone (CORT), circulating CORT levels were also monitored. In animals subjected to 2 h immobilization stress, CORT was elevated immediately following, and at 1 h after the cessation of stress, but remained unchanged from baseline up to 24 h post-stress. The stress protocol resulted in a reduction in BDNF protein at 5 and 10 h post-stress that returned to baseline at 24 h. To determine if exercise could prevent this stress-induced reduction in BDNF protein, animals were given voluntary access to running wheels for 3 weeks prior to the stress. Stressed animals, in the absence of exercise, again demonstrated an initial elevation in CORT (at 0 h) and a subsequent decrease in hippocampal BDNF at the 10 h time point. Exercising animals, both non-stressed and stressed, demonstrated circulating CORT and hippocampal BDNF protein levels that were significantly elevated above control values at both time points examined (0 and 10 h post-stress). Thus, the persistently high CORT levels in exercised animals did not affect the induction of BDNF with exercise, and the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF protein was overcome. To examine the role of CORT in the stress-related regulation of BDNF protein, experiments were carried out in adrenalectomized (ADX) animals. BDNF protein was not downregulated as a result of immobilization stress in ADX animals, while there continued to be an exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF. This study demonstrates that CORT modulates stress-related alterations in BDNF protein. Further, exercise

  17. The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Dawson, R; Biasetti, M; Messina, S; Dominy, J

    2002-06-01

    Intense exercise is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage muscle tissue. Taurine is present in high concentration in skeletal muscle and may play a role in cellular defenses against free radical-mediated damage. The aim of this study was to determine if manipulating muscle levels of taurine would alter markers of free radical damage after exercise-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were supplemented via the drinking water with either 3% (w/v) taurine (n = 10) or the competitive taurine transport inhibitor, beta-alanine (n = 10), for one month. Controls (n = 20) drank tap water containing 0.02% taurine and all rats were placed on a taurine free diet. All the rats except one group of sedentary controls (n = 10) were subjected to 90 minutes of downhill treadmill running. Markers of cellular injury and free radical damage were determined along with tissue amino acid content. The 3% taurine treatment raised plasma levels about 2-fold and 3% beta-alanine reduced plasma taurine levels about 50%. Taurine supplementation (TS) significantly increased plasma glutamate levels in exercised rats. Exercise reduced plasma methionine levels and taurine prevented its decline. Taurine supplementation increased muscle taurine content significantly in all muscles except the soleus. beta-alanine decreased muscle taurine content about 50% in all the muscles examined. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was significantly increased by exercise in the extensor digitorium longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius (GAST) muscles. Both taurine and beta-alanine completely blocked the increase in TBARs in the EDL, but had no effect in the GAST. Muscle content of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly decreased by exercise in the GAST muscle and this effect was attenuated by both taurine and beta-alanine. Muscle myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly elevated in the gastrocnemius muscle, but diet had no effect. MPO activity was significantly increased by

  18. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement.

  19. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12-13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham‑surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD.

  20. Protective effects of forced exercise against methylphenidate-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Larijani, Setare Farokhi; Khajehamedi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH), a neural stimulant, can cause damages to brain; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of MPH remain unclear. Exercise lowers stress and anxiety and can act as non-pharmacologic neuroprotective agent. In this study protective effects of exercise in MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment were investigated. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group 1 served as negative control, received normal saline (0.2 ml/rat) for 21 days, group 2 and 3 (as positive controls) received MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 4 and 5 concurrently were treated with MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) and forced exercise for 21 days. On day 21, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Open Field Test (OFT), Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) were used to investigate the level of anxiety and depression in animals. In addition between 17th and 21th days, Morris Water Maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the effect of MPH on spatial learning and memory. Results: MPH-treated animals indicated a reflective depression and anxiety in a dose-dependent manner in FST, EPM and TST which were significantly different from the control group and also can significantly attenuate the motor activity and anxiety in OFT. Forced exercise by treadmill can attenuate MPH-induced anxiety, depression and motor activity alteration in OFT. MPH also can disturb learning and memory in MWM and forced exercise can neutralize this effect of MPH. Conclusion: We conclude that forced exercise can be protective in brain against MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition alteration. PMID:26322282

  1. Biphasic Effects of Nitric Oxide Radicals on Radiation-Induced Lethality and Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lung Cancer Cells Carrying Different p53 Gene Status

    SciTech Connect

    Su Xiaoming; Takahashi, Akihisa; Guo Guozhen; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Ohnishi, Ken; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on radiation-induced cell killing and chromosome aberrations in two human lung cancer cell lines with a different p53 gene status. Methods and Materials: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cell lines that were derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53 null. The wtp53 and mp53 cell lines were generated by transfection of the appropriate p53 constructs into the parental cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (an NO donor) and/or 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) (an NO scavenger) and then exposed to X-rays. Cell survival, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored by use of a colony-forming assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP [deoxyuridine triphosphate] nick end labeling) assay, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In wtp53 cells the induction of radioresistance and the inhibition of apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in the presence of ISDN at low 2- to 10-{mu}mol/L concentrations before X-irradiation. The addition of c-PTIO and ISDN into the culture medium 6 h before irradiation almost completely suppressed these effects. However, at high concentrations of ISDN (100-500 {mu}mol/L), clear evidence of radiosensitization, enhancement of apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations was detected. However, these phenomena were not observed in mp53 cells at either concentration range with ISDN. Conclusions: These results indicate that low and high concentrations of NO radicals can choreograph inverse radiosensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations in human lung cancer cells and that NO radicals can affect the fate of wtp53 cells.

  2. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L.; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods In a crossover design 28 women (age 18–45 y, BMI 18.5–27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022. PMID:24465955

  3. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia is unaffected by intense physical training: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) occurs in some healthy humans at sea-level, whereby the most aerobically trained individuals develop the most severe hypoxemia. A female competitive runner completed 2 maximal exercise tests. Maximal oxygen consumption increased by 15% between testing days, but the degree of hypoxemia remained similar (PaO2, SaO2; 82 and 80 mm Hg; 93.8% and 92.8%; first and second test, respectively). Our case indicates that EIAH does not necessarily worsen with aerobic training.

  4. Gestational exercise protects adult male offspring from high-fat diet induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ryan D.; Blaize, A. Nicole; Fletcher, Justin A.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Donkin, Shawn; Newcomer, Sean C.; Rector, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Mounting evidence indicates that maternal exercise confers protection to adult offspring against various diseases. Here we hypothesized that maternal exercise during gestation would reduce high fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in adult rat offspring. Methods Following conception, pregnant dams were divided into either voluntary wheel running exercise (GE) or wheel-locked sedentary (GS) groups throughout gestation (days 4-21). Post-weaning, offspring received either normal chow diet (ND; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat, 35% carbohydrate, and 20% protein) until sacrifice at 4-or 8-months of age. Results GE did not affect offspring birth weight or litter size. HFD feeding in offspring increased weight gain, % body fat, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve (GTT-AUC). Male offspring from GE dams had reduced % body fat across all ages (p < 0.05). In addition, 8-mo male offspring from GE dams were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, which was associated with increased markers of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and TFAM), autophagic potential (ATG12:ATG5 conjugation) and hepatic triacylglycerol secretion (MTTP). Conclusions The current study provides the first evidence that gestational exercise can reduce susceptibility to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis in adult male offspring. PMID:26325536

  5. The basic chemistry of exercise-induced DNA oxidation: oxidative damage, redox signaling, and their interplay.

    PubMed

    Cobley, James N; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Malone, John K

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise increases reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation. This phenomenon is associated with two major outcomes: (1) redox signaling and (2) macromolecule damage. Mechanistic knowledge of how exercise-induced redox signaling and macromolecule damage are interlinked is limited. This review focuses on the interplay between exercise-induced redox signaling and DNA damage, using hydroxyl radical ((·)OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as exemplars. It is postulated that the biological fate of H2O2 links the two processes and thus represents a bifurcation point between redox signaling and damage. Indeed, H2O2 can participate in two electron signaling reactions but its diffusion and chemical properties permit DNA oxidation following reaction with transition metals and (·)OH generation. It is also considered that the sensing of DNA oxidation by repair proteins constitutes a non-canonical redox signaling mechanism. Further layers of interaction are provided by the redox regulation of DNA repair proteins and their capacity to modulate intracellular H2O2 levels. Overall, exercise-induced redox signaling and DNA damage may be interlinked to a greater extent than was previously thought but this requires further investigation.

  6. Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Levi W.; Omaye, Stanley T.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma. Exercise can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a trend of antioxidant supplementation to combat its assumed detriments. Vitamin C is a popular antioxidant supplement in the realm of sports and exercise. One potential avenue for evaluating exercise induced oxidative stress is through assessment of biomarkers like vitamin C and malondialdehyde in saliva. At present, limited research has been done in this area. The current state of research involving exercise-induced oxidative stress, salivary biomarkers, and vitamin C supplementation is reviewed in this article. PMID:28085082

  7. Attenuation of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage conferred by maximal isometric contractions: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Leonardo C. R.; Denadai, Benedito S.

    2015-01-01

    Although, beneficial in determined contexts, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) might be unwanted during training regimens, competitions and daily activities. There are a vast number of studies investigating strategies to attenuate EIMD response after damaging exercise bouts. Many of them consist of performing exercises that induce EIMD, consuming supplements or using equipment that are not accessible for most people. It appears that performing maximal isometric contractions (ISOs) 2–4 days prior to damaging bouts promotes significant attenuation of EIMD symptoms that are not related to muscle function. It has been shown that the volume of ISOs, muscle length in which they are performed, and interval between them and the damaging bout influence the magnitude of this protection. In addition, it appears that this protection is not long-lived, lasting no longer than 4 days. Although no particular mechanisms for these adaptations were identified, professionals should consider applying this non-damaging stimulus before submitting their patients to unaccustomed exercised. However, it seems not to be the best option for athletes or relatively trained individuals. Future, studies should focus on establishing if ISOs protect other populations (i.e., trained individuals) or muscle groups (i.e., knee extensors) against EIMD, as well as investigate different mechanisms for ISO-induced protection. PMID:26578972

  8. Potential role of lipin-1 in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2008-09-26

    Endurance exercise induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. It has been shown that lipin-1 acts as a transcriptional coactivator in liver, and stimulates gene expression of mitochondrial enzymes. We hypothesized that lipin-1 might be involved in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The present investigation first demonstrated that lipin-1 mRNA in rat triceps muscle was increased by approximately 2-fold after an acute bout of endurance swimming exercise. Second, ectopic expression of lipin-1 in L6 myotube increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and delta-aminolevulinate synthase gene expression. Finally, lipin-1 mRNA expression in rat triceps muscle was significantly elevated at 6h after subcutaneous injections of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) or clenbuterol, which are 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) activators, respectively. These results may suggest that enhanced expression of lipin-1 is involved in exercise-induced mitochondrial enzyme adaptations, possibly through AMPK- and beta2-AR-related mechanisms.

  9. Vorticity banding in biphasic polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Sergio; Guido, Stefano

    2012-11-27

    Pattern formation under the action of flow is a subject of considerable scientific interest with applications going from microfluidics to granular materials. Here, we present a systematic investigation of shear-induced banding in confined biphasic liquid-liquid systems, i.e., formation of alternating regions of high and low volume fraction of droplets in a continuous phase (shear bands). This phenomenon is investigated in immiscible polymer blends sheared in a sliding parallel plate flow cell. Starting from a spatially uniform distribution of droplets, the formation of bands aligned along the flow direction is observed, eventually leading to an almost complete separation between droplet-rich and continuous phase regions. The initial band size is related to the gap dimension; the merging of bands and consequent spacing reduction has also been observed for long times. Shear banding is only observed when the viscosity of the dispersed phase is lower as compared to the continuous phase and in a limited range of the applied shear rate. Rheological measurements show that band formation is associated with a viscosity decrease with respect to the homogeneous case, thus implying that system microstructure is somehow evolving toward reduced viscous dissipation under flow.

  10. Do swimming exercises induce anthropometric changes in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Bielec, Grzegorz; Peczak-Graczyk, Alicja; Waade, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of regular participation in school swimming lessons on anthropometric variables and postural defect occurrence in junior high school students. An intervention group (n = 116) and a control group (n = 114) of boys and girls aged 13.4 ± 0.3 years had an equal physical education obligatory course requirement at school, with the intervention group additionally participating in swimming class once a week for 2 years. Anthropometric variables were recorded in both groups 3 times between autumn 2006 and 2008, and a clinical examination was conducted twice during this same period of time. Students from the intervention group had lower body mass than their peers in the control group at the end of the course (ANOVA, P < 0.05). The differences in body height and body mass index between the groups were insignificant. In swimming students, the correction in scoliosis was more distinct than in the control group (P < 0.05 by chi-squared test). The groups did not differ significantly in occurrence of other postural defects. Regular participation in standard swimming education at school did not have much effect on postural defects in adolescents. A special program of corrective water exercises should be applied to the school physical education syllabus.

  11. Syndecan-4 Signaling Is Required for Exercise-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; He, Guixin; Chen, Qinhua; Sun, Jiayin; Dai, Qin; Lu, Jianrong; Li, Guannan; Wu, Han; Li, Ran; Chen, Jianzhou; Xu, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy can be broadly classified as either physiological or pathological. Physiological stimuli such as exercise cause adaptive cardiac hypertrophy and normal heart function. Pathological stimuli including hypertension and aortic valvular stenosis cause maladaptive cardiac remodeling and ultimately heart failure. Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a transmembrane proteoglycan identified as being involved in cardiac adaptation after injury, but whether it takes part in physiological cardiac hypertrophy is unclear. We observed upregulation of synd4 in exercise-induced hypertrophic myocardium. To evaluate the role of synd4 in the physiological form of cardiac hypertrophy, mice lacking synd4 (synd4–/–) were exercised by swimming for 4 wks. Ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) and histological analysis revealed that swimming induced the hypertrophic phenotype but was blunted in synd4–/– compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The swimming-induced activation of Akt, a key molecule in physiological hypertrophy was also more decreased than in WT controls. In cultured cardiomyocytes, synd4 overexpression could induce cell enlargement, protein synthesis and distinct physiological molecular alternation. Akt activation also was observed in synd4-overexpressed cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) prevented the synd4-induced hypertrophic phenotype and Akt phosphorylation. This study identified an essential role of synd4 in mediation of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26835698

  12. Central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to electrically induced and voluntary leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltin, B.; Strange, S.; Bangsbo, J.; Kim, C. K.; Duvoisin, M.; Hargens, A.; Gollnick, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    With long missions in space countermeasures have to be used to secure safe operations in space and a safe return to Earth. Exercises of various forms have been used, but the question has arisen whether electrically induced contractions of muscle especially sensitive to weightlessness and crucial for man's performance would aid in maintaining their optimal function. The physiological responses both to short term and prolonged dynamic exercise performed either voluntarily or induced by electrical stimulation were considered. The local and systemic circulatory responses were similar for the voluntary and electrically induced contractions. The metabolic response was slightly more pronounced with electrical stimulation. This could be a reflection of not only slow twitch (type 1) but also fast twitch (type 2) fibers being recruited when the contractions were induced electrically. Intramuscular pressure recordings indicated that the dominant fraction of the muscle group was engaged regardless of mode of activation. Some 70 percent of the short term peak voluntary exercise capacity could be attained with electrical stimulation. Thus, electrically induced contractions of specific muscle groups should indeed be considered as an efficient countermeasure.

  13. Transcription of LINE-derived sequences in exercise-induced stress in horses.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, S; Verini-Supplizi, A; Galla, G; Vitulo, N; Barcaccia, G; Felicetti, M; Silvestrelli, M; Cappelli, K

    2010-12-01

    A large proportion of mammalian genomes is represented by transposable elements (TE), most of them being long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (LINE-1 or L1). An increased expression of LINE-1 elements may play an important role in cellular stress-related conditions exerting drastic effects on the mammalian transcriptome. To understand the impact of TE on the known horse transcriptome, we masked the horse EST database, pointing out that the amount is consistent with other major vertebrates. A previously developed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) dataset, deriving from exercise-stimulated horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), was found to be enriched with L1 (26.8% in terms of bp). We investigated the involvement of TDFs in exercise-induced stress through bioinformatics and gene expression analysis. Results indicate that LINE-derived sequences are not only highly but also differentially expressed during physical effort, hinting at interesting scenarios in the regulation of gene expression in relation to exercise.

  14. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2012-12-01

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided.

  15. Prevention of exercised induced cardiomyopathy following Pip-PMO treatment in dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Betts, Corinne A; Saleh, Amer F; Carr, Carolyn A; Hammond, Suzan M; Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; Godfrey, Caroline; McClorey, Graham; Varela, Miguel A; Roberts, Thomas C; Clarke, Kieran; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew J A

    2015-03-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene. In addition to skeletal muscle wasting, DMD patients develop cardiomyopathy, which significantly contributes to mortality. Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) are a promising DMD therapy, restoring functional dystrophin protein by exon skipping. However, a major limitation with current AOs is the absence of dystrophin correction in heart. Pip peptide-AOs demonstrate high activity in cardiac muscle. To determine their therapeutic value, dystrophic mdx mice were subject to forced exercise to model the DMD cardiac phenotype. Repeated peptide-AO treatments resulted in high levels of cardiac dystrophin protein, which prevented the exercised induced progression of cardiomyopathy, normalising heart size as well as stabilising other cardiac parameters. Treated mice also exhibited significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis and improved sarcolemmal integrity. This work demonstrates that high levels of cardiac dystrophin restored by Pip peptide-AOs prevents further deterioration of cardiomyopathy and pathology following exercise in dystrophic DMD mice.

  16. A role for the endocannabinoid system in exercise-induced spatial memory enhancement in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H; Bastos, Cristiane P; Pereira, Grace S; Moreira, Fabricio A; Massensini, André R

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive functions and hippocampal plasticity. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained to be further investigated. Here we investigated the hypothesis that the memory-enhancement promoted by physical exercise relies on facilitation of the endocannabinoid system. We observed that the spatial memory tested in the object location paradigm did not persist in sedentary mice, but could be improved by 1 week of treadmill running. In addition, exercise up-regulated CB1 receptor and BDNF expression in the hippocampus. To verify if these changes required CB1 activation, we treated the mice with the selective antagonist, AM251, before each period of physical activity. In line with our hypothesis, this drug prevented the exercise-induced memory enhancement and BDNF expression. Furthermore, AM251 reduced CB1 expression. To test if facilitating the endocannabinoid system signaling would mimic the alterations observed after exercise, we treated sedentary animals during 1 week with the anandamide-hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597. Mice treated with this drug recognized the object in a new location and have increased levels of CB1 and BDNF expression in the hippocampus, showing that potentiating the endocanabinoid system equally benefits memory. In conclusion, the favorable effects of exercise upon spatial memory and BDNF expression depend on facilitation of CB1 receptor signaling, which can be mimic by inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis in sedentary animals. Our results suggest that, at least in part, the promnesic effect of the exercise is dependent of CB1 receptor activation and is mediated by BDNF.

  17. Conventional and novel body temperature measurement during rest and exercise induced hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Towey, Colin; Easton, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Pedlar, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite technological advances in thermal sensory equipment, few core temperature (TCORE) measurement techniques have met the established validity criteria in exercise science. Additionally, there is debate as to what method serves as the most practically viable, yet upholds the proposed measurement accuracy. This study assessed the accuracy of current and novel TCORE measurement techniques in comparison to rectal temperature (TREC) as a reference standard. Fifteen well-trained subjects (11 male, 4 female) completed 60min of exercise at an intensity equating to the lactate threshold; measured via a discontinuous exercise test. TREC was significantly elevated from resting values (37.2±0.3°C) at the end of moderate intensity exercise (39.6±0.04°C; P=0.001). Intestinal telemetric pill (TPILL) temperature and temporal artery temperature (TTEM) did not differ significantly from TREC at rest or during exercise (P>0.05). However, aural canal temperature (TAUR) and thermal imaging temperature (TIMA) were both significantly lower than TREC (P<0.05). Bland Altman analysis revealed only TPILL was within acceptable limits of agreement (mean bias; 0.04°C), while TTEM, TAUR and TIMA demonstrated mean bias values outside of the acceptable range (>0.27°C). Against TREC, these results support the use of TPILL over all other techniques as a valid measure of TCORE at rest and during exercise induced hyperthermia. Novel findings illustrate that TIMA (when measured at the inner eye canthus) shows poor agreement to TREC during rest and exercise, which is similar to other 'surface' measures.

  18. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  19. Concentrically trained cyclists are not more susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are stretch-shortening exercise-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Snieckus, Audrius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-03-01

    Here, we test the hypothesis that continuous concentric exercise training renders skeletal muscles more susceptible to damage in response to eccentric exercise. Elite road cyclists (CYC; n = 10, training experience 8.1 ± 2.0 years, age 22.9 ± 3.7 years), long-distance runners (LDR; n = 10, 9.9 ± 2.3 years, 24.4 ± 2.5 years), and healthy untrained (UT) men (n = 10; 22.4 ± 1.7 years) performed 100 submaximal eccentric contractions at constant angular velocity of 60° s(-1). Concentric isokinetic peak torque, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and electrically induced knee extension torque were measured at baseline and immediately and 48 h after an eccentric exercise bout. Muscle soreness was assessed and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured at baseline and 48 h after exercise. Voluntary and electrically stimulated knee extension torque reduction were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in UT than in LDR and CYC. Immediately and 48 h after exercise, MVC decreased by 32 % and 20 % in UT, 20 % and 5 % in LDR, and 25 % and 6 % in CYC. Electrically induced 20 Hz torque decreased at the same times by 61 and 29 % in UT, 40 and 17 % in LDR, and 26 and 14 % in CYC. Muscle soreness and plasma CK activity 48 h after exercise did not differ significantly between athletes and UT subjects. In conclusion, even though elite endurance athletes are more resistant to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are UT people, stretch-shortening exercise-trained LDR have no advantage over concentrically trained CYC.

  20. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, David C.; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-01-01

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13) and placebo (n = 15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively), with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001), with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day) significantly increased 25(OH)D2 and decreased 25(OH)D3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise. PMID:24362707

  1. Vitamin D2 supplementation amplifies eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in NASCAR pit crew athletes.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-12-20

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n=13) and placebo (n=15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p<0.001, p=0.036, respectively), with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p=0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p<0.001), with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day) significantly increased 25(OH)D2 and decreased 25(OH)D3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  2. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Silva, Albená; Bernardes, Priscila T T; Rezende, Bárbara M; Lopes, Fernando; Gomes, Elisa C; Marques, Pedro E; Lima, Paulo M A; Coimbra, Cândido C; Menezes, Gustavo B; Teixeira, Mauro M; Pinho, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase) mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  3. Treadmill Exercise Induces Neutrophil Recruitment into Muscle Tissue in a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Manner. An Intravital Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Silva, Albená; Bernardes, Priscila T. T.; Rezende, Bárbara M.; Lopes, Fernando; Gomes, Elisa C.; Marques, Pedro E.; Lima, Paulo M. A.; Coimbra, Cândido C.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Pinho, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase) mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process. PMID:24798414

  4. The TreadWheel: A Novel Apparatus to Measure Genetic Variation in Response to Gently Induced Exercise for Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Sean; Watanabe, Louis; Hill, Rachel; Owens, Meredith; Moraczewski, Jason; Rowe, Glenn C.; Riddle, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the dramatic health issues affecting developed and developing nations, and exercise is a well-established intervention strategy. While exercise-by-genotype interactions have been shown in humans, overall little is known. Using the natural negative geotaxis of Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism for the study of genetic interactions, a novel exercise machine, the TreadWheel, can be used to shed light on this interaction. The mechanism for inducing exercise with the TreadWheel is inherently gentle, thus minimizing possible confounding effects of other stressors. Using this machine, we were able to assess large cohorts of adult flies from eight genetic lines for their response to exercise after one week of training. We measured their triglyceride, glycerol, protein, glycogen, glucose content, and body weight, as well as their climbing ability and feeding behavior in response to exercise. Exercised flies showed decreased stored triglycerides, glycogen, and body weight, and increased stored protein and climbing ability. In addition to demonstrating an overall effect of TreadWheel exercise on flies, we found significant interactions of exercise with genotype, sex, or genotype-by-sex effects for most of the measured phenotypes. We also observed interaction effects between exercise, genotype, and tissue (abdomen or thorax) for metabolite profiles, and those differences can be partially linked to innate differences in the flies' persistence in maintaining activity during exercise bouts. In addition, we assessed gene expression levels for a panel of 13 genes known to be associated with respiratory fitness and found that many responded to exercise. With this study, we have established the TreadWheel as a useful tool to study the effect of exercise in flies, shown significant genotype-specific and sex-specific impacts of exercise, and have laid the ground work for more extensive studies of how genetics, sex, environment, and aging interact

  5. Restoration of plasma volume after 16 days of head-down tilt induced by a single bout of maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Seven healthy men performed maximal exercise 24 h before the end of 16 days exposure to 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that such an exercise technique could restore plasma volume (PV) at the end of a simulated space mission. Exercise consisted of supine cycling with graded work rates increasing by 16 W/min to volitional fatigue and required an average of 16 min. The experimental protocol was a standard cross-over design in which the order of treatment (exercise or control) was counterbalanced across all seven subjects. PV, fluid intake (ad libitum), urine output, renal function, and hormones associated with fluid homeostasis were measured before HDT, 24 h before the end of HDT just prior to exercise, and at the end of HDT 24 h after exercise. HDT reduced PV by 16% in both control and exercise conditions. Maximal exercise completely restored plasma volume within 24 h to 3.9 +/- 3.2% of pre-HDT levels despite continued HDT. Compared with control, exercise induced a 660-ml larger positive fluid balance because of greater fluid intake and reduced urine volume during the 24 h after exercise. These results suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise before return from 16 days of spaceflight may be completely effective in stimulating thirst and restoring plasma volume to preflight levels.

  6. Effect of lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tullett, WM; Patel, KR; Berkin, KE; Kerr, JW

    1982-01-01

    Eight patients with exercise-induced asthma participated in a single-blind trial comparing the protective effects of inhaled lignocaine (estimated dose 48 mg), sodium cromoglycate (estimated dose 12 mg), and ipratropium bromide (estimated dose 120 μg). Saline was used as control. Effects were assessed from the mean maximal percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximal mid-expiratory flow rates (MMFR) after they had run on a treadmill for eight minutes. There was no significant change in baseline FEV1 or MMFR before each agent was given. Saline, lignocaine, and sodium cromoglycate did not alter the mean baseline FEV1 or MMFR significantly. Ipratropium caused bronchodilatation with an increase of 16·3% in the mean FEV1 (p<0·001) and of 43·4% in the mean MMFR (p<0·05). After exercise the maximal percentage falls in FEV1 (means and SEM) after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 38·1% (5·0), 34·5% (6·1), 11·3% (3·7), and 19·3% (7·4) respectively. Similarly, the mean maximal falls in MMFR after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 54·4% (5·2), 52·9% (7·7), 23·6% (6·6), and 32·1% (10·5) respectively. The inhibitory effects of sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide were significant whereas lignocaine failed to produce an effect. These results suggest that mediator release is an important factor in exercise-induced asthma and that in some patients the effects of the mediators may be on the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors. Local anaesthesia of sensory vagal receptors, on the other hand, does not prevent exercise asthma and these receptors do not appear to have any important role in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. PMID:6218645

  7. Genetic influences on exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis across 12 divergent mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Kohman, Rachel A.; Miller, Daniel S.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Brzezinska, Weronika J.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    New neurons are continuously born in the hippocampus of several mammalian species throughout adulthood. Adult neurogenesis represents a natural model for understanding how to grow and incorporate new nerve cells into pre-existing circuits in the brain. Finding molecules or biological pathways that increase neurogenesis has broad potential for regenerative medicine. One strategy is to identify mouse strains that display large versus small increases in neurogenesis in response to wheel running so the strains can be contrasted to find common genes or biological pathways associated with enhanced neuron formation. Therefore, mice from 12 different isogenic strains were housed with or without running wheels for 43 days to measure the genetic regulation of exercise-induced neurogenesis. The first 10 days mice received daily injections of BrdU to label dividing cells. Neurogenesis was measured as the total number of BrdU cells co-expressing NeuN mature neuronal marker in the hippocampal granule cell layer by immunohistochemistry. Exercise increased neurogenesis in all strains, but the magnitude significantly depended on genotype. Strain means for distance run on wheels, but not distance traveled in cages without wheels, were significantly correlated with strain mean level of neurogenesis. Further, certain strains displayed greater neurogenesis than others for a fixed level of running. Strain means for neurogenesis under sedentary conditions were not correlated with neurogenesis under runner conditions suggesting that different genes influence baseline versus exercise-induced neurogenesis. Genetic contributions to exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis suggest that it may be possible to identify genes and pathways associated with enhanced neuroplastic responses to exercise. PMID:21223504

  8. Threshold frequency of an electrically induced cramp increases following a repeated, localized fatiguing exercise.

    PubMed

    Stone, Marcus B; Edwards, Jeffrey E; Huxel, Kellie C; Cordova, Mitchell L; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Babington, J Patrick

    2010-02-01

    Though clinical observations and laboratory data provide some support for the neuromuscular imbalance theory of the genesis of exercise-associated muscle cramps, no direct evidence has been published. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of local muscle fatigue on the threshold frequency of an electrically induced muscle cramp. To determine baseline threshold frequency, a cramp was electrically induced in the flexor hallucis brevis of 16 apparently healthy participants (7 males, 9 females; age 25.1 +/- 4.8 years). The testing order of control and fatigue conditions was counterbalanced. In the control condition, participants rested in a supine position for 30 min followed by another cramp induction to determine post-threshold frequency. In the fatigue condition, participants performed five bouts of great toe curls at 60% one-repetition maximum to failure with 1 min rest between bouts followed immediately by a post-threshold frequency measurement. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and simple main effects testing showed post-fatigue threshold frequency (32.9 +/- 11.7 Hz) was greater (P < 0.001) than pre-fatigue threshold frequency (20.0 +/- 7.7 Hz). An increase in threshold frequency seems to demonstrate a decrease in one's propensity to cramp following the fatigue exercise regimen used. These results contradict the proposed theory that suggests cramp propensity should increase following fatigue. However, differences in laboratory versus clinical fatiguing exercise and contributions from other sources, as well as the notion of a graded response to fatiguing exercise, on exercise-associated muscle cramp and electrically induced muscle cramp should be considered.

  9. Effects of Massage on Muscular Strength and Proprioception After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), which is commonly associated with eccentric exercise, unaccustomed exercise, and resistance training, may lead to delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, decreased muscle strength, and range of motion. Many researchers have evaluated various interventions to treat the signs and symptoms of EIMD. However, the effects of massage after EIMD are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of massage on muscle strength and proprioception after EIMD. All subjects randomly were divided into an EIMD-treated control group (n = 10) and a massage-treated after EIMD experimental group (n = 11). Exercise-induced muscle damage was induced by repeated exercise. Massage treatment was provided by physiotherapist for 15 minutes. It consists of light stroking, milking, friction, and skin rolling. Lactate was evaluated by Lactate Pro analyzer in pre- and postexercise. Surface electromyography (muscle activity) and sonography (muscle thickness) were used to confirm the muscular characteristics. Proprioception was investigated by dual inclinometer. As a result, massage treatment on the gastrocnemius after EIMD increased activation of the medial gastrocnemius during contraction (p ≤ 0.05). In the lateral and medial gastrocnemius, the θs, which is the angle between muscle fibers and superficial aponeurosis, showed a significant change (p ≤ 0.05). However, there are no differences in the θd, which is the angle between muscle fibers and deep aponeurosis. We also found that proprioceptive acuity in the ankle joint was significantly greater in the massage-treated experimental group compared with that in the control group (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that massage of the gastrocnemius after EIMD can improve muscle strength and proprioception by influencing the superficial layer of the gastrocnemius.

  10. Exercise-induced myalgia may limit the cardiovascular benefits of statins.

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2013-12-01

    The positive health benefits of statins extend beyond the cardiovascular and include increased flow mediated dilation, decreased atrial fibrillation, modest antihypertensive effects and reduced risks of malignancies. Prominent among the statin side-effects are myalgia and muscular weakness, which may be associated with a rise in circulating creatine kinase values. In increasing severity and decreasing incidence, the statin-induced muscle related conditions are myalgia, myopathy with elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without symptoms, and rhabdomyolysis. Statin use may increase CK levels without decreasing average muscle strength or exercise performance. In one large study, only about 2 % had myalgia that could be attributed to statin use. A novel current hypothesis is that statins optimize cardiac mitochondrial function but impair the vulnerable skeletal muscle by inducing different levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these two sites. In an important observational study, both statins and exercise reduced the adverse outcomes of cardiovascular disease, and the effects were additive. The major unresolved problem is that either can cause muscular symptoms with elevation of blood creatine kinase levels. There is, as yet, no clearly defined outcomes based policy to deal with such symptoms from use of either statins or exercise or both. A reasonable practical approach is to assess the creatine kinase levels, and if elevated to reduce the statin dose or the intensity of exercise.

  11. Arterial baroreflex buffering of sympathetic activation during exercise-induced elevations in arterial pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, U; Pryor, S L; Bertocci, L A; Victor, R G

    1990-01-01

    Static muscle contraction activates metabolically sensitive muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure. To determine if this contraction-induced reflex is modulated by the sinoaortic baroreflex, we performed microelectrode recordings of sympathetic nerve activity to resting leg muscle during static handgrip in humans while attempting to clamp the level of baroreflex stimulation by controlling the exercise-induced rise in blood pressure with pharmacologic agents. The principal new finding is that partial pharmacologic suppression of the rise in blood pressure during static handgrip (nitroprusside infusion) augmented the exercise-induced increases in heart rate and sympathetic activity by greater than 300%. Pharmacologic accentuation of the exercise-induced rise in blood pressure (phenylephrine infusion) attenuated these reflex increases by greater than 50%. In contrast, these pharmacologic manipulations in arterial pressure had little or no effect on: (a) forearm muscle cell pH, an index of the metabolic stimulus to skeletal muscle afferents; or (b) central venous pressure, an index of the mechanical stimulus to cardiopulmonary afferents. We conclude that in humans the sinoaortic baroreflex is much more effective than previously thought in buffering the reflex sympathetic activation caused by static muscle contraction. PMID:2254449

  12. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma: Considerations for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Kelly; Shaw, Michele R.; Postma, Julie; Katz, Janet R.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a major cause of illness, missed school days, and hospitalization in children. One type of asthma common in children is exercise-induced asthma (EIA). EIA causes airway narrowing with symptoms of cough and shortness of breath during exercise. The purpose of this article is to review the literature relevant to screening children and…

  13. Prior endurance exercise prevents postprandial lipaemia-induced increases in reactive oxygen species in circulating CD31+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T; Landers, Rian Q; Thakkar, Sunny R; Fan, Xiaoxuan; Brown, Michael D; Prior, Steven J; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesized that prior exercise would prevent postprandial lipaemia (PPL)-induced increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in three distinct circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) subpopulations. CD34+, CD31+/CD14−/CD34−, and CD31+/CD14+/CD34− CACs were isolated from blood samples obtained from 10 healthy men before and 4 h after ingesting a high fat meal with or without ∼50 min of prior endurance exercise. Significant PPL-induced increases in ROS production in both sets of CD31+ cells were abolished by prior exercise. Experimental ex vivo inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial ROS production indicated that mitochondria were the primary source of PPL-induced oxidative stress. The attenuated increases in ROS with prior exercise were associated with increased antioxidant gene expression in CD31+/CD14−/CD34− cells and reduced intracellular lipid uptake in CD31+/CD14+/CD34− cells. These findings were associated with systemic cardiovascular benefits of exercise, as serum triglyceride, oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and plasma endothelial microparticle concentrations were lower in the prior exercise trial than the control trial. In conclusion, prior exercise completely prevents PPL-induced increases in ROS in CD31+/CD14−/CD34− and CD31+/CD14+/CD34− cells. The mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on CAC function appear to vary among specific CAC types. PMID:21930598

  14. Acute Exercise-Induced Response of Monocyte Subtypes in Chronic Heart and Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H.; Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Verpooten, Gert A.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Couttenye, Marie M.; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Monocytes (Mon1-2-3) play a substantial role in low-grade inflammation associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). The effect of an acute exercise bout on monocyte subsets in the setting of systemic inflammation is currently unknown. This study aims (1) to evaluate baseline distribution of monocyte subsets in CHF and CKD versus healthy subjects (HS) and (2) to evaluate the effect of an acute exercise bout. Exercise-induced IL-6 and MCP-1 release are related to the Mon1-2-3 response. Methods. Twenty CHF patients, 20 CKD patients, and 15 HS were included. Before and after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, monocyte subsets were quantified by flow cytometry: CD14++CD16−CCR2+ (Mon1), CD14++CD16+CCR2+ (Mon2), and CD14+CD16++CCR2− (Mon3). Serum levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 were determined by ELISA. Results. Baseline distribution of Mon1-2-3 was comparable between the 3 groups. Following acute exercise, %Mon2 and %Mon3 increased significantly at the expense of a decrease in %Mon1 in HS and in CKD. This response was significantly attenuated in CHF (P < 0.05). In HS only, MCP-1 levels increased following exercise; IL-6 levels were unchanged. Circulatory power was a strong and independent predictor of the changes in Mon1 (β = −0.461, P < 0.001) and Mon3 (β = 0.449, P < 0.001); and baseline LVEF of the change in Mon2 (β = 0.441, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The response of monocytes to acute exercise is characterized by an increase in proangiogenic and proinflammatory Mon2 and Mon3 at the expense of phagocytic Mon1. This exercise-induced monocyte subset response is mainly driven by hemodynamic changes and not by preexistent low-grade inflammation. PMID:25587208

  15. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training–induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Tamura, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity interval exercise (10 bouts of 1 min treadmill running at 40 m/min with a 1 min rest). At the same time, exercise-induced signal cascades did not change by pre-exercise DCA administration. These results suggested that DCA administration affected only lactate concentrations after exercise. We next examined the effects of acute DCA administration on mRNA expressions involved with mitochondrial biogenesis after same high-intensity interval exercise and the effects of chronic DCA administration on mitochondrial adaptations after high-intensity interval training (increasing intensity from 38 to 43 m/min by the end of training period). Acute DCA administration did not change most of the exercise-induced mRNA upregulation. These data suggest that lactate reductions by DCA administration did not affect transcriptional activation after high-intensity interval exercise. However, chronic DCA administration attenuated, in part, mitochondrial adaptations such as training-induced increasing rates of citrate synthase (P = 0.06), β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05), cytochrome c oxidase IV (P < 0.05) and a fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (P < 0.05), proteins after exercise training. These results suggest that lactate accumulation during high-intensity interval exercise may be associated with mitochondrial adaptations after chronic exercise training. PMID:26416973

  16. The effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise-induced hypoalgesia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Black, Christopher D; Gonglach, Alexander R; Renfroe, Jessica B; Hight, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    Exercise acutely reduces pain sensitivity, termed exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The mechanisms underlying EIH remain unclear. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist has been shown to attenuate EIH in animals-suggesting the involvement of the adenosinergic system. This pilot study investigated the effects of caffeine on pain sensitivity following cycling exercise in college-aged men. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and thermal pain threshold (TPT) were assessed in thirteen low caffeine consuming men prior to ingestion of a counter-balanced 5mg·kg(-1) dose of caffeine or a placebo (Pre), 60min following ingestion (Post-In), and then following a 15min bout of cycling exercise (Post-Ex) at an intensity eliciting a quadriceps muscle pain rating of 3 out of 10. Nine of the men completed follow-up testing which was identical except that the exercise consisted of 10min of cycling eliciting a pain rating of 5 out of 10. Caffeine had no effect compared to placebo on PPT (p≥0.15) or TPT (p≥0.41) 60min following ingestion and following exercise. PPT increased from 599±176kPa to 648±202kPa (p=0.009) and from 578±217kPa to 666±278kPa (p=0.01) following 15 and 10min of cycling, respectively. TPT increased from 46.2±2.9°C to 46.8±2.6°C (p=0.008) following the 15min exercise bout, but did not change (46.4±3.6°C vs. 46.8±3.3°C; p=0.24) following the shorter, higher intensity exercise bout. The results from this study indicate cycling exercise reduces pain sensitivity, especially to pressure stimuli. Caffeine ingestion did not alter the EIH response-suggesting adenosine may not play a prominent role in the EIH response in humans.

  17. A combination of soy isoflavone supplementation and exercise improves lipid profiles and protects antioxidant defense-systems against exercise-induced oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hea Young; Lim, Soyoung; Lee, Joo Min; Kim, Dae-Young; Ann, Eue-Soo; Yoon, Sun

    2007-01-01

    Menopause is often accompanied with weight gain, metabolic lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and soy isoflavone supplementation on the lipid profiles and antioxidant capacities of ovariectomized rats. Twenty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX with exercise (OVX+EX), OVX with soy isoflavone supplementation (OVX+ISO), and OVX with both soy isoflavones and exercise (OVX+ISO+EX). After 12 weeks of intervention, antioxidant status was evaluated in collected blood samples by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), glutathione (GSH) content, and sodium oxide dismutase (SOD) activity. DNA damage in the lymphocytes was determined using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (the Comet assay). Although there were no significant differences in weight gain and food intake, weight gain was lower in OVX+EX, OVX+ISO, and OVX+ISO+EX than in OVX. OVX+EX, OVX+ISO, and OVX+ ISO+EX showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol compared to OVX. The soy isoflavone supplemented group had significantly increased FRAP values and GSH contents in contrast to no changes in the exercised group, whereas exercise markedly increased SOD activity and H2O2-induced DNA tail length and tail moment. Exercise with soy isoflavone supplementation significantly increased FRAP values and had no difference on SOD activity, including DNA damage. These results demonstrate that a combined treatment of moderate exercise and soy isoflavone supplementation could exert a beneficial effect on weight control and lipid profiles, and offer protection from exercise-induced oxidative stress in postmenopausal women.

  18. Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI <25 kg/m2; 58.3±8.6 years) and overweight/obese (n = 76; BMI ≥25 kg/m2; 58.3±8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. These results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. PMID:21655751

  19. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  20. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  1. Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Burt, Dean Gareth; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase (CK) and decreases in peak knee extensor torque at 24 and 48 h after squatting exercise. Moreover, RMR, physiological, metabolic and perceptual responses during sub-maximal running and EPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (P<0.05). It is suggested that the elevated RMR was a consequence of a raised energy requirement for the degradation and resynthesis of damaged muscle fibres. The increased oxygen demand during sub-maximal running after muscle damage was responsible for the increase in EPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow.

  2. Exercise-Induced Cognitive Plasticity, Implications for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Philip P.; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Kuljiš, Rodrigo O.

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe) functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak and Braak (1991) and Braak et al. (1993) we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The “inward” continuum from isocortex (neocortex) to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal “outward” continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis, and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ) levels by increased clearance via the choroid

  3. Exercise-induced effects on UCP1 expression in classical brown adipose tissue: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Dinas, Petros C; Valente, Angelica; Andrade, Cláudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Sakellariou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-13

    Understanding the impact of regular exercise training on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activity in classical brown adipose tissue (CBAT) is vital to our knowledge of whole-body thermogenic activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available experimental evidence on the effect of regular exercise training on UCP1 expression in CBAT. We performed a literature search using PubMed (1966-2016), Scopus, and EMBASE (1974-2016). Studies in any language that examined the effect of regular exercise training on UCP1 expression in CBAT, and not white adipose tissue (WAT), were eligible. Reviews, editorials, and conference proceedings were excluded. Nine studies fulfilled the set criteria. Risk of bias was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) tool. The quality of reporting the results in the included studies was assessed using the 38-item checklist of the Animal Research Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE). Based on the evidence available and a comprehensive analysis of different confounding factors, we conclude that regular exercise training does not represent a major stimulus of UCP1 expression in CBAT. However, regular exercise training may induce adaptive responses to CBAT thermogenic activity in cases where: (i) animals consume a high-fat diet, (ii) exercise is combined with cold exposure, and (iii) animals show endogenously low UCP1 levels. Finally, it is important to note an inconsistency in the results from the analysed studies, which may be attributed to a number of confounding factors, increased risk of bias, as well as low quality of reporting the results.

  4. Effects of exercise-induced low back pain on intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflexes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily M; Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2013-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to (1) compare trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with no history of low back pain (LBP) and individuals who experience exercise-induced LBP (eiLBP) when pain free, and (2) investigate changes in trunk neuromuscular behavior with eiLBP. Seventeen young adult males participated including eight reporting recurrent, acute eiLBP and nine control participants reporting no history of LBP. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex delay were determined in both groups using sudden trunk flexion position perturbations 1-2 days following exercise when the eiLBP participants were experiencing an episode of LBP (termed post-exercise) and 4-5 days following exercise when eiLBP had subsided (termed post-recovery). Post-recovery, when the eiLBP group was experiencing minimal LBP, trunk stiffness was 26% higher in the eiLBP group compared to the control group (p=0.033) and reflex delay was not different (p=0.969) between groups. Trunk stiffness did not change (p=0.826) within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery, but decreased 22% within the control group (p=0.002). Reflex delay decreased 11% within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery (p=0.013), and increased 15% within the control group (p=0.006). Although the neuromuscular mechanisms associated with eiLBP and chronic LBP may differ, these results suggest that previously-reported differences in trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with chronic LBP and healthy controls reflect a combination of inherent differences in neuromuscular behavior between these individuals as well as changes in neuromuscular behavior elicited by pain.

  5. Efficacy of omeprazole for the prevention of exercise-induced gastritis in racing Alaskan sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Davis, M S; Willard, M D; Nelson, S L; McCullough, S M; Mandsager, R E; Roberts, J; Payton, M E

    2003-01-01

    Exercise-induced gastritis and gastric ulcers are common in humans and horses, and recently have been described in racing sled dogs. The cause of exercise-induced gastric disease is not completely understood in any species, but pharmacologic suppression of acid secretion is an effective treatment in humans and horses. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor shown to reduce gastric acid secretion in dogs, would reduce the severity of exercise-induced gastric disease. Three teams of 16 dogs each competing in the 2002 Iditarod Sled Dog Race were recruited for participation. Within each team, dogs were randomly assigned to either treatment (20 mg omeprazole PO q24h) or placebo. Treatments were administered until either completion of the race or withdrawal of an individual dog from competition. Gastric endoscopy was performed in all dogs 24 hours after completion or withdrawal, and the gastric mucosa was scored by using a subjective severity score (0 = normal, 3 = numerous bleeding ulcers). Treatment with omeprazole significantly reduced mean gastricseverity score compared to placebo (omeprazole: 0.65 +/- 0.17, placebo: 1.09 +/- 0.18; P = .028), but also was associated with increased frequency of diarrhea during the race (omeprazole 54%, placebo 21%; P = .017). Examination of our data suggests that omeprazole may be an effective treatment for exercise-induced gastric disease in racing sled dogs. However, further investigation regarding the cause and clinical relevance of diarrhea associated with omeprazole treatment must be conducted before omeprazole can be recommended for routine prophylactic treatment in these athletes.

  6. Acute and chronic watercress supplementation attenuates exercise-induced peripheral mononuclear cell DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Mark C; Hughes, Ciara M; Burke, George; Brown, John C; Davison, Gareth W

    2013-01-28

    Pharmacological antioxidant vitamins have previously been investigated for a prophylactic effect against exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, large doses are often required and may lead to a state of pro-oxidation and oxidative damage. Watercress contains an array of nutritional compounds such as β-carotene and α-tocopherol which may increase protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress. The present randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that acute (consumption 2 h before exercise) and chronic (8 weeks consumption) watercress supplementation can attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress. A total of ten apparently healthy male subjects (age 23 (SD 4) years, stature 179 (SD 10) cm and body mass 74 (SD 15) kg) were recruited to complete the 8-week chronic watercress intervention period (and then 8 weeks of control, with no ingestion) of the experiment before crossing over in order to compete the single-dose acute phase (with control, no ingestion). Blood samples were taken at baseline (pre-supplementation), at rest (pre-exercise) and following exercise. Each subject completed an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion following chronic and acute watercress supplementation or control. The main findings show an exercise-induced increase in DNA damage and lipid peroxidation over both acute and chronic control supplementation phases (P< 0.05 v. supplementation), while acute and chronic watercress attenuated DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and decreased H₂O₂ accumulation following exhaustive exercise (P< 0.05 v. control). A marked increase in the main lipid-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and xanthophyll) was observed following watercress supplementation (P< 0.05 v. control) in both experimental phases. These findings suggest that short- and long-term watercress ingestion has potential antioxidant effects against exercise-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  7. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption during exercise-induced hypervolemia in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagashima, K.; Wu, J.; Kavouras, S. A.; Mack, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that renal tubular Na(+) reabsorption increased during the first 24 h of exercise-induced plasma volume expansion. Renal function was assessed 1 day after no-exercise control (C) or intermittent cycle ergometer exercise (Ex, 85% of peak O(2) uptake) for 2 h before and 3 h after saline loading (12.5 ml/kg over 30 min) in seven subjects. Ex reduced renal blood flow (p-aminohippurate clearance) compared with C (0.83 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.49 +/- 0.24 l/min, P < 0.05) but did not influence glomerular filtration rates (97 +/- 10 ml/min, inulin clearance). Fractional tubular reabsorption of Na(+) in the proximal tubules was higher in Ex than in C (P < 0.05). Saline loading decreased fractional tubular reabsorption of Na(+) from 99.1 +/- 0.1 to 98.7 +/- 0.1% (P < 0.05) in C but not in Ex (99.3 +/- 0.1 to 99.4 +/- 0.1%). Saline loading reduced plasma renin activity and plasma arginine vasopressin levels in C and Ex, although the magnitude of decrease was greater in C (P < 0.05). These results indicate that, during the acute phase of exercise-induced plasma volume expansion, increased tubular Na(+) reabsorption is directed primarily to the proximal tubules and is associated with a decrease in renal blood flow. In addition, saline infusion caused a smaller reduction in fluid-regulating hormones in Ex. The attenuated volume-regulatory response acts to preserve distal tubular Na(+) reabsorption during saline infusion 24 h after exercise.

  8. Voluntary exercise rescues sevoflurane-induced memory impairment in aged male mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dan; Tian, Miao; Ma, Zhiming; Zhang, Leilei; Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative cognitive impairment is especially common in older patients following major surgery. Although exposure to sevoflurane is known to cause memory deficits, few studies have examined the putative approaches to reduce such impairments. This study tested the hypotheses that sevoflurane exposure can decrease NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor activity in hippocampus of aged mice, and voluntary exercise may counteract the declining hippocampal functions. We found that long exposure (3 h/day for 3 days), but not short exposure (1 h/day for 3 days), to 3 % sevoflurane produced a long-lasting spatial memory deficits up to 3 weeks in aged mice, and such an effect was not due to the neuronal loss in the hippocampus, but was correlated with a long-term decrease in Fyn kinase expression and NR2B subunit phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, voluntary exercise rescued sevoflurane-induced spatial memory deficits in aged mice and restored Fyn kinase expression and NR2B subunit phosphorylation in the hippocampus to a level comparable to control animals. Generally, our results suggested that Fyn-mediated NR2B subunit phosphorylation may play a critical role in sevoflurane-induced impairment in cognitive functions in aged animals, and voluntary exercise might be an important non-pharmacological approach to treatment of inhaled anesthetics-induced postoperative cognitive impairment in clinical settings.

  9. Massage and ultrasound as therapeutic modalities in exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Tiidus, P M

    1999-06-01

    Although both massage and ultrasound treatment are used in clinical settings to enhance muscle functional recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage, there is a paucity of experimental evidence for their efficacy. Theoretically both massage and ultrasound could affect some physiological factors associated with enhancement of postexercise muscle recovery. However, the actual physiological mechanisms by which massage or ultrasound could influence postexercise muscle damage and repair are unknown. Most experimental evidence suggests that massage has little influence on muscle blood flow, clearance of "noxious" substances, recovery of postexercise muscle strength, or delayed soreness sensation. However, more data is needed before conclusions can be drawn as to the ability of massage to influence postexercise inflammatory response or various other physiological changes that characterize exercise-induced muscle damage and repair. There is even less information on the ability of ultrasound to influence physiological or functional factors associated with postexercise muscle damage. The few experiments that have been done tend to be contradictory and have yet to consider the range of ultrasound treatment parameters for therapeutic effectiveness in treating postexercise damage and influencing repair processes. Much more research is needed to determine whether either treatment modality can have any therapeutic effect on exercise-induced muscle damage and recovery of postexercise muscle function.

  10. Sex Differences in Exercise-Induced Muscle Pain and Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dannecker, Erin A.; Liu, Ying; Rector, R. Scott; Thomas, Tom R.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    There is uncertainty about sex differences in exercise-induced muscle pain and muscle damage due to several methodological weaknesses in the literature. This investigation tested the hypothesis that higher levels of exercise-induced muscle pain and muscle damage indicators would be found in women than men when several methodological improvements were executed in the same study. Participants (N = 33; 42% women) with an average age of 23 years (SD = 2.82) consented to participate. After a familiarization session, participants visited the laboratory before and across four days after eccentric exercise was completed to induce arm muscle pain and muscle damage. Our primary outcomes were arm pain ratings and pressure pain thresholds. However, we also measured the following indicators of muscle damage: arm girth; resting elbow extension; isometric elbow flexor strength; myoglobin (Mb); tumor necrosis factor (TNFa); interleukin 1beta (IL1b); and total nitric oxide (NO). Temporary induction of muscle damage was indicated by changes in all outcome measures except TNFa, and IL1b. In contrast to our hypotheses, women reported moderately lower and less frequent muscle pain than men. Also, women’s arm girth and Mb levels increased moderately less than men’s, but the differences were not significant. Few large sex differences were detected. PMID:23182229

  11. Update on the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Imbalance Induced by Exercise.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Carbonell, T; Tuesta, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the generation of oxidative damage and lung inflammation induced by physical exercise are described. Changes in lung function induced by exercise involve cooling of the airways, fluid evaporation of the epithelial surface, increased contact with polluting substances, and activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. The present work includes evidence obtained from the different types of exercise in terms of duration and intensity, the effect of both acute performance and chronic performance, and the influence of special conditions such as cold weather, high altitude, and polluted environments. Levels of prooxidants, antioxidants, oxidative damage to biomolecules, and cellularity, as well as levels of soluble mediators of the inflammatory response and its effects on tissues, are described in samples of lung origin. These samples include tissue homogenates, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, biopsies, and exhaled breath condensate obtained in experimental protocols conducted on animal and human models. Finally, the need to simultaneously explore the oxidative/inflammatory parameters to establish the interrelation between them is highlighted.

  12. Update on the Mechanisms of Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Imbalance Induced by Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, O. F.; Carbonell, T.; Tuesta, M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the generation of oxidative damage and lung inflammation induced by physical exercise are described. Changes in lung function induced by exercise involve cooling of the airways, fluid evaporation of the epithelial surface, increased contact with polluting substances, and activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. The present work includes evidence obtained from the different types of exercise in terms of duration and intensity, the effect of both acute performance and chronic performance, and the influence of special conditions such as cold weather, high altitude, and polluted environments. Levels of prooxidants, antioxidants, oxidative damage to biomolecules, and cellularity, as well as levels of soluble mediators of the inflammatory response and its effects on tissues, are described in samples of lung origin. These samples include tissue homogenates, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, biopsies, and exhaled breath condensate obtained in experimental protocols conducted on animal and human models. Finally, the need to simultaneously explore the oxidative/inflammatory parameters to establish the interrelation between them is highlighted. PMID:26881028

  13. Molecular Mechanisms for Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Vascular Structure and Function: Skeletal Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and the Brain.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Ferguson, Brian S; Laughlin, M Harold

    2015-01-01

    Compared with resting conditions, during incremental exercise, cardiac output in humans is elevated from ~5 to 25 L min(-1). In conjunction with this increase, the proportion of cardiac output directed toward skeletal muscle increases from ~20% to 85%, while blood flow to cardiac muscle increases 500% and blood flow to specific brain structures increases nearly 200%. Based on existing evidence, researchers believe that blood flow in these tissues is matched to the increases in metabolic rate during exercise. This phenomenon, the matching of blood flow to metabolic requirement, is often referred to as functional hyperemia. This chapter summarizes mechanical and metabolic factors that regulate functional hyperemia as well as other exercise-induced signals, which are also potent stimuli for chronic adaptations in vascular biology. Repeated exposure to exercise-induced increases in shear stress and the induction of angiogenic factors alter vascular cell gene expression and mediate changes in vascular volume and blood flow control. The magnitude and regulation of this coordinated response appear to be tissue specific and coupled to other factors such as hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The cumulative effects of these adaptations contribute to increased exercise capacity, reduced relative challenge of a given submaximal exercise bout and ameliorated vascular outcomes in patient populations with pathological conditions. In the subsequent discussion, this chapter explores exercise as a regulator of vascular biology and summarizes the molecular mechanisms responsible for exercise training-induced changes in vascular structure and function in skeletal and cardiac muscle as well as the brain.

  14. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During aging, chronic systemic inflammation increases in prevalence and antioxidant balance shifts in favor of oxidant generation. Avenanthramide (AVA) is a group of oat phenolics that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capability. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation after a bout of downhill walking (DW) in postmenopausal women. Women at age of 50–80 years (N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA or 0.4 mg AVA (control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen, each group of subjects walked downhill on a treadmill (−9% grade) for 4 bouts of 15 minutes at a speed of 4.0 km/h with 5 minutes rest between sessions. Blood samples were collected at rest, 24 h post-DW, and 48 h post-DW pre- and post-supplementation. Both DW sessions increased plasma creatine kinase activity (P < 0.05). Before supplementation, in vitro neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) activity was increased at 24 h post-DW (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased 48 h post-DW (P < 0.05). AVA supplementation decreased DW-induced NRB at 24 h (P < 0.05) and CRP level 48 h (P < 0.05). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β concentration and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB binding were suppressed at rest and during post-DW period in AVA but not C group (P < 0.05). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were increased in AVA vs. C (P < 0.05), whereas glutathione redox status was elevated 48 h post-DW but not affected by AVA. Thus, chronic AVA supplementation decreased systemic and DW-induced inflammation and increased blood-borne antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women. PMID:24645793

  15. The protective effect of inhaled terbutaline, sodium cromoglycate and budesonide on exercise-induced asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Pichaipat, V; Tongpenyai, Y; Nerntong, T; Sriprapachiranont, C

    1995-10-01

    The effect of single-dose inhaled terbutaline, sodium cromo-glycate and budesonide were compared with control in 11 exercise-induced asthma (EIA) patients, aged 9-14 years. Patients exercise for 6 minutes, 15 minutes after inhaling drugs. The FVC, FEV1, PEFR and MMEF were recorded before exercise and after exercise at 5 minutes interval up to 25 minutes. After exercise, the mean (SEM) maximal percentage fall in FEV1 after placebo, 200 micrograms of terbutaline, 10 mg of sodium cromoglycate, and 100 micrograms of budesonide were 22.81 (3.45), 4.05 (2.11), 11.29 (1.18), and 20.36 (2.33) respectively. It was concluded that single-dose inhaled terbutaline and sodium cromoglycate resulted in a significant protective effect on exerxide-induced asthma whereas budesonide did not.

  16. Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Viana, André Luiz Machado; Fonseca, Miriam das Dores Mendes; Meireles, Elisson Lamin Jerônimo; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araujo

    2012-03-01

    Many authors attribute the antioxidant activity of brewed coffee to its caffeine content. In addition, caffeine intake has been associated with increased performance during physical exercise. This study analyzed the in vivo effects of drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee (8%, w/v) on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats subjected to intense exercise. It was observed that exercise induced lipid peroxidation (estimated using malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (evaluated by determining the formation of carbonyl groups) in the muscle (P < 0.05). Decaffeinated instant coffee and caffeine solution did not exhibit antioxidant activity in vivo. Caffeinated instant coffee beverage intake did not induce changes in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities but was able to diminish lipid and protein oxidation in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats after exercise (P < 0.05), contributing to a reduction in the oxidative stress triggered by exercise.

  17. Exercise-induced metabolic fluctuations influence AMPK, p38-MAPK and CaMKII phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Combes, Adrien; Dekerle, Jeanne; Webborn, Nick; Watt, Peter; Bougault, Valérie; Daussin, Frédéric N

    2015-01-01

    During transition from rest to exercise, metabolic reaction rates increase substantially to sustain intracellular ATP use. These metabolic demands activate several kinases that initiate signal transduction pathways which modulate transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic fluctuations per se affect the signaling cascades known to regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). On two separate occasions, nine men performed a continuous (30-min) and an intermittent exercise (30 × 1-min intervals separated by 1-min of recovery) at 70% of . Skeletal muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken at rest and at +0 h and +3 h after each exercise. Metabolic fluctuations that correspond to exercise-induced variation in metabolic rates were determined by analysis of VO2 responses. During intermittent exercise metabolic fluctuations were 2.8-fold higher despite identical total work done to continuous exercise (317 ± 41 vs. 312 ± 56 kJ after intermittent and continuous exercise, respectively). Increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (˜2.9-fold, P < 0.01), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (˜2.7-fold, P < 0.01) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (˜4.2-fold, P < 0.01) occurred immediately in both exercises and to a greater extent after the intermittent exercise (condition x time interaction, P < 0.05). A single bout of intermittent exercise induces a greater activation of these signaling pathways regulating PGC-1α when compared to a single bout of continuous exercise of matched work and intensity. Chronic adaptations to exercise on mitochondria biogenesis are yet to be investigated. PMID:26359238

  18. Treadmill exercise prevents GABAergic neuronal loss with suppression of neuronal activation in the pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Baek-Vin; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by seizure and loss of neuronal cells by abnormal rhythmic firing of neurons in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal loss in relation with neuronal activation using pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: control group, control and treadmill exercise group, pilocarpine-induced epilepsy group, and pilocarpine-induced epilepsy and treadmill exercise group. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 320 mg/kg pilocarpine hydrochloride. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 2 weeks. In the present results, neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 region was increased after pilocarpine-induced seizure. Treadmill exercise inhibited hippocampal neuronal loss in the epileptic rats. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) expression in the hippocampal CA1 region was reduced by pilocarpine-induced seizure. Treadmill exercise increased GAD67 expression in the epileptic rats. c-Fos expression in the hippocampal CA1 region was increased in response to epileptic seizure. Treadmill exercise inhibited c-Fos expression in the epileptic rats. Epileptic seizure increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus. Treadmill exercise suppressed BDNF and TrkB expressions in the epileptic rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise prevented GABAergic neuronal loss and inhibited neuronal activation in the hippocampal CA1 region through the down-regulation of BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:25960980

  19. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group. Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22607394

  20. The impact of early aerobic exercise on brain microvascular alterations induced by cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Leardini-Tristão, Marina; Borges, Juliana Pereira; Freitas, Felipe; Rangel, Raquel; Daliry, Anissa; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Estato, Vanessa

    2017-02-15

    The therapeutic potential of early exercise training following cerebral hypoperfusion was investigated on brain perfusion and inflammation in rats with permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO). Wistar rats were subjected to 2VO or sham surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into sedentary or exercise groups. Early exercise training was initiated after three days of 2VO or sham surgery and consisted of seven days of treadmill training (30min/day at ∼60% of maximal exercise test), composing four groups: 1) Sham sedentary (Sham-Sed), 2) Sham exercised (Sham-Ex), 3) 2VO sedentary (2VO-Sed) and 4) 2VO exercised (2VO-Ex). Microvascular cerebral blood flow (MCBF) and NADPH oxidase and eNOS gene expression were evaluated by laser speckle contrast imaging and RT-PCR, respectively, and brain functional capillary density and endothelial-leukocyte interactions were evaluated by fluorescence intravital video-microscopy. The 2VO-Sed group presented a decrease in MCBF (Sham-Sed: 230.9±12.2 vs. 2VO-Sed: 183.6±10.6 arbitrary perfusion units, P<0.05) and in functional capillary density (Sham-Sed: 336.4±25.3 vs. 2VO-Sed: 225.5±28.1capillaries/mm(2), P<0.05). Early intervention with physical exercise was able to prevent the cerebral microvascular inflammation by decreasing endothelial-leukocyte interactions (2VO-Ex: 0.9±0.3 vs. 2VO-Sed: 5±0.6cells/min/100μm, P<0.0001) and reducing brain NADPH oxidase gene expression (2VO-Ex: 1.7±0.1 arbitrary units, P<0.05). Cerebral microcirculatory and inflammatory alterations appear to be triggered during the first days after 2VO surgery, and early intervention with physical exercise may represent a means of preventing the microvascular alterations induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

  1. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation.

  2. Spontaneous decline in exercise-induced proteinuria during a 100-mile triathlon.

    PubMed

    Edes, T E; Shah, J H; Thornton, W H

    1990-09-01

    To study the effect of prolonged exercise on glomerular permeability and proteinuria, we collected serial urine samples from six athletes during a 100-mile triathlon. Urine collected just before, at the midpoint of, and immediately after the race was analyzed for creatinine by an automated chemistry analyzer, pack method, and for microalbumin by radioimmunoassay. By midrace, the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio increased from the prerace mean +/- SEM of 3.5 +/- 0.5 to 38.3 +/- 11.7 mg/g. The ratio then declined to 12.5 +/- 2.7 mg/g by the end of the race (P less than .04). Similarly, the urinary albumin level increased significantly from 5.9 +/- 0.7 to 80.5 +/- 26.8 micrograms/mL by midrace, followed by a decline to 39.2 +/- 12.9 micrograms/mL. The initial increase in albuminuria was expected and reflects the increase in exercise-induced cardiac output and glomerular permeability. The subsequent decline in albuminuria and albumin-creatinine ratio, despite continued exercise, was unexpected and indicates a decrease in glomerular permeability. Further study is warranted to determine the mechanism of this apparently protective renal response to prolonged exercise.

  3. Underweight and overweight men have greater exercise-induced dyspnoea than normal weight men

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed a.; Bokhari, Syed S. I.; Khan, Mohammed n.; Ahmad, Hakimuddin r.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Persons with high or low body mass index (BMI), involved in clinical or mechanistic trials involving exercise testing, might estimate dyspnoea differently from persons with a normal BMI. Aims. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between BMI and dyspnoea during exercise in normal subjects with varying BMI. Material and methods. A total of 37 subjects undertook progressive exercise testing. Subjects were divided into three groups: underweight (UW), normal weight (NW), and overweight (OW). Dyspnoea was estimated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Spirometry, maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) were measured. Results and discussion. The intercept of the VAS/ventilation relationship was significantly higher in NW subjects compared to UW (P = 0.029) and OW subjects (P = 0.040). Relative to the OW group, FVC (P = 0.020), FEV1 (P = 0.024), MVV (P = 0.019), and RMS (P = 0.003) were significantly decreased in the UW group. The greater levels of dyspnoea in UW subjects could possibly be due to decreased RMS. Healthy persons should aim to achieve an optimum BMI range to have the lowest exercise-induced dyspnoea. PMID:22931098

  4. Impact of family hypertension history on exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baggish, Aaron L; Weiner, Rory B; Yared, Kibar; Wang, Francis; Kupperman, Eli; Hutter, Adolph M; Picard, Michael H; Wood, Malissa J

    2009-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a well-established, but highly variable, finding among exercise-trained persons. The causes for the variability in LV remodeling in response to exercise training remain incompletely understood. The present study sought to determine whether a family history of hypertension is a determinant of the cardiac response to exercise training. The cardiac parameters in 60 collegiate rowers (30 men/30 women; age 19.8 +/- 1.1 years) with (family history positive [FH+], n = 22) and without (family history negative [FH-], n = 38) a FH of hypertension were studied with echocardiography before and after 90 days of rowing training. The LV mass increased significantly in both groups. However, the LV mass increased significantly more in FH- persons (Delta 17 +/- 5 g/m(2)) than in FH+ persons (Delta 9 +/- 6 g/m(2), p <0.001) with distinctly differently patterns of LV hypertrophy between the 2 groups. FH- athletes experienced eccentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.39 +/- 0.4) characterized by LV dilation. In contrast, FH+ athletes developed concentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.44 +/- 0.3; p <0.001) characterized by LV wall thickening. Furthermore, the eccentric LV remodeling in FH- athletes was associated with a more robust enhancement of LV diastolic function than the concentric LV remodeling that occurred in FH+ athletes. In conclusion, these findings suggest that patterns of exercise-induced LV remodeling are strongly associated with FH history status.

  5. Susceptibility to Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: a Cluster Analysis with a Large Sample.

    PubMed

    Damas, F; Nosaka, K; Libardi, C A; Chen, T C; Ugrinowitsch, C

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the responses of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) among a large number of young men (N=286) stratified in clusters based on the largest decrease in maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVC) after an unaccustomed maximal eccentric exercise bout of the elbow flexors. Changes in MVC, muscle soreness (SOR), creatine kinase (CK) activity, range of motion (ROM) and upper-arm circumference (CIR) before and for several days after exercise were compared between 3 clusters established based on MVC decrease (low, moderate, and high responders; LR, MR and HR). Participants were allocated to LR (n=61), MR (n=152) and HR (n=73) clusters, which depicted significantly different cluster centers of 82%, 61% and 42% of baseline MVC, respectively. Once stratified by MVC decrease, all muscle damage markers were significantly different between clusters following the same pattern: small changes for LR, larger changes for MR, and the largest changes for HR. Stratification of individuals based on the magnitude of MVC decrease post-exercise greatly increases the precision in estimating changes in EIMD by proxy markers such as SOR, CK activity, ROM and CIR. This indicates that the most commonly used markers are valid and MVC orchestrates their responses, consolidating the role of MVC as the best EIMD indirect marker.

  6. The calcineurin antagonist RCAN1-4 is induced by exhaustive exercise in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Emrani, Ramin; Rébillard, Amélie; Lefeuvre, Luz; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Davies, Kelvin J A; Cillard, Josiane

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the regulation of the calcineurin antagonist regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) in rat skeletal muscles after exhaustive physical exercise, which is a physiological modulator of oxidative stress. Three skeletal muscles, namely extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius, and soleus, were investigated. Exhaustive exercise increased RCAN1-4 protein levels in EDL and gastrocnemius, but not in soleus. Protein oxidation as an index of oxidative stress was increased in EDL and gastrocnemius, but remained unchanged in soleus. However, lipid peroxidation was increased in all three muscles. CuZnSOD and catalase protein levels were increased at 3 h postexercise in soleus, whereas they remained unchanged in EDL and gastrocnemius. Calcineurin enzymatic activity declined in EDL and gastrocnemius but not in soleus, and its protein expression was decreased in all three muscles. The level of PGC1-α protein remained unchanged, whereas the protein expression of the transcription factor NFATc4 was decreased in all three muscles. Adiponectin expression was increased in all three muscles. RCAN1-4 expression in EDL and gastrocnemius muscles was augmented by the oxidative stress generated from exhaustive exercise. We propose that increased RCAN1-4 expression and the signal transduction pathways it regulates represent important components of the physiological adaptation to exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Baroreflex deficit blunts exercise training-induced cardiovascular and autonomic adaptations in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Silva, I C; De La Fuente, R N; Mostarda, C; Rosa, K; Flues, K; Damaceno-Rodrigues, N R; Caldini, E G; De Angelis, K; Krieger, E M; Irigoyen, M C

    2010-03-01

    1. Baroreceptors regulate moment-to-moment blood pressure (BP) variations, but their long-term effect on the cardiovascular system remains unclear. Baroreceptor deficit accompanying hypertension contributes to increased BP variability (BPV) and sympathetic activity, whereas exercise training has been associated with an improvement in these baroreflex-mediated changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic, haemodynamic and cardiac morphofunctional effects of long-term sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation (SAD) in trained and sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 2. Rats were subjected to SAD or sham surgery and were then further divided into sedentary and trained groups. Exercise training was performed on a treadmill (five times per week, 50-70% maximal running speed). All groups were studied after 10 weeks. 3. Sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation in SHR had no effect on basal heart rate (HR) or BP, but did augment BPV, impairing the cardiac function associated with increased cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition. Exercise training reduced BP and HR, re-established baroreflex sensitivity and improved both HR variability and BPV. However, SAD in trained SHR blunted all these improvements. Moreover, the systolic and diastolic hypertensive dysfunction, reduced left ventricular chamber diameter and increased cardiac collagen deposition seen in SHR were improved after the training protocol. These benefits were attenuated in trained SAD SHR. 4. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that the arterial baroreflex mediates cardiac disturbances associated with hypertension and is crucial for the beneficial cardiovascular morphofunctional and autonomic adaptations induced by chronic exercise in hypertension.

  8. Nedocromil sodium versus sodium cromoglycate in treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K D; Spooner, C H; Rowe, B H

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare the effects of prophylactic doses of nedocromil sodium (NCS) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on postexercise lung function, in persons diagnosed with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Randomized controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Airways Review Group Asthma Register, plus hand searching for trials in journals, bibliographies of relevant studies and review articles. Randomized controlled trials comparing NCS to SCG in prophylactic treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction were eligible. Studies were pooled using odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous outcomes or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for continuous outcomes. No significant differences were noted between NCS and SCG with respect to the maximum per cent decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (WMD=-0.88; 95% CI -4.50-2.74), complete protection (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.50-1.81), clinical protection (OR=0.71; 95% CI 0.36-1.39), unpleasant taste (OR=6.85; 95% CI 0.77-60.73), or sore throat (OR=3.46; 95% CI 0.32-37.48). Subgroup analyses based on age, dosages of medications and timing of exercise postinhalation were consistent with the overall pooled analyses. No significant differences were evident between the effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate during the immediate postexercise period in adults and children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, with regards to maximum per cent decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second, complete protection, or clinical protection. Side-effect profiles were similar.

  9. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Fei; Wang, Qing-Qing; Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  10. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  11. Sulforaphane treatment protects skeletal muscle against damage induced by exhaustive exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Garatachea, Nuria; Baldini, Marta; Leoncini, Emanuela; Collado, Pilar S; Teti, Gabriella; Falconi, Mirella; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; Hrelia, Silvana

    2009-10-01

    Sulforaphane (SF), one of the most important isothiocyanates in the human diet, present in cruciferous vegetables, is known to have chemopreventive activities in different tissues. No data are available on its effects in the prevention of skeletal muscle damage. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of SF treatment on muscle damage and oxidative stress induced by an acute bout of exhaustive exercise in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with SF (25 mg/kg body wt ip) for 3 days before undergoing an acute exhaustive exercise protocol in a treadmill (+7% slope and 24 m/min). Acute exercise resulted in a significant increase in plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities. It also resulted in a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in a significant decrease in tissue total antioxidant capacity, and in a significant decrease in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression and activity in vastus lateralis muscle. SF treatment significantly increased muscle NQO1, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase expression and activity, with no effect on glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. The observed SF-induced upregulation of phase II enzymes was accompanied by a significant increase in nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 expression and correlated with a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and a decrease in plasma LDH and CPK activities. Our data demonstrate that SF acts as an indirect antioxidant in skeletal muscle and could play a critical role in the modulation of the muscle redox environment, leading to the prevention of exhaustive exercise-induced muscle damage.

  12. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:26368803

  13. Mechanisms underpinning protection against eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage by ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander; Behringer, Michael; Nosaka, Kazunori; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Mayer, Constantin; Zilkens, Christoph; Schumann, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Eccentric exercise training is effective for increasing muscle mass and strength, and improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles. However, potential muscle damage symptoms such as prolonged loss of muscle function and delayed onset of muscle soreness may restrict the use of eccentric exercise, especially in clinical populations. Therefore, strategies to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are necessary, and an extensive number of scientific studies have tried to identify potential intervention modalities to perform eccentric exercises without adverse effects. The present paper is based on a narrative review of current literature, and provides a novel hypothesis by which an ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of the extremities may reduce EIMD. IPC consists of an intermittent application of short-time non-lethal ischemia to an extremity (e.g. using a tourniquet) followed by reperfusion and was discovered in clinical settings in an attempt to minimize inflammatory responses induced by ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion-injury (I/R-Injury) during surgery. The present hypothesis is based on morphological and biochemical similarities in the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle damage during clinical surgery and EIMD. Even though the primary origin of stress differs between I/R-Injury and EIMD, subsequent cellular alterations characterized by an intracellular accumulation of Ca(2+), an increased production of reactive oxygen species or increased apoptotic signaling are essential elements for both. Moreover, the incipient immune response appears to be similar in I/R-Injury and EIMD, which is indicated by an infiltration of leukocytes into the damaged soft-tissue. Thus far, IPC is considered as a potential intervention strategy in the area of cardiovascular or orthopedic surgery and provides significant impact on soft-tissue protection and downregulation of undesired excessive inflammation induced by I/R-Injury. Based on the known major impact of IPC

  14. The susceptibility of the knee extensors to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage is not affected by leg dominance but by exercise order.

    PubMed

    Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, P<0.001), CK activity (-62%, P<0.05) and strength loss (-54%, P<0.01) were significantly lower after the second bout. This study suggests that leg dominance does not influence the magnitude of exercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs.

  15. Biphasic peptide amphiphile nanomatrix embedded with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for stimulated osteoinductive response.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel M; Patterson, Jessica L; Vines, Jeremy B; Javed, Amjad; Gilbert, Shawn R; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2011-12-27

    Formation of the native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an attractive template for bone tissue engineering. The structural support and biological complexity of bone ECM are provided within a composite microenvironment that consists of an organic fibrous network reinforced by inorganic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Recreating this biphasic assembly, a bone ECM analogous scaffold comprising self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers and interspersed HA nanoparticles was investigated. PAs were endowed with biomolecular ligand signaling using a synthetically inscribed peptide sequence (i.e., RGDS) and integrated with HA nanoparticles to form a biphasic nanomatrix hydrogel. It was hypothesized the biphasic hydrogel would induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and improve bone healing as mediated by RGDS ligand signaling within PA nanofibers and embedded HA mineralization source. Viscoelastic stability of the biphasic PA hydrogels was evaluated with different weight concentrations of HA for improved gelation. After demonstrating initial viability, long-term cellularity and osteoinduction of encapsulated hMSCs in different PA hydrogels were studied in vitro. Temporal progression of osteogenic maturation was assessed by gene expression of key markers. A preliminary animal study demonstrated bone healing capacity of the biphasic PA nanomatrix under physiological conditions using a critical size femoral defect rat model. The combination of RGDS ligand signaling and HA nanoparticles within the biphasic PA nanomatrix hydrogel demonstrated the most effective osteoinduction and comparative bone healing response. Therefore, the biphasic PA nanomatrix establishes a well-organized scaffold with increased similarity to natural bone ECM with the prospect for improved bone tissue regeneration.

  16. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one’s physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea

    PubMed Central

    Everard, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy. The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice. Dysfunctional breathing is an umbrella term for an alteration in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing that result in intermittent or chronic symptoms, which may be respiratory and/or nonrespiratory. This alteration may be due to structural causes or, much more commonly, be functional as exemplified by thoracic pattern disordered breathing (PDB) and extrathoracic paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (pVFMD). Careful history and examination together with spirometry may identify those likely to have PDB and/or pVFMD. Where there is doubt about aetiology, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be required to identify the deconditioned, unfit or fit individual reaching their physiological limit and PDB, while continuous laryngoscopy during exercise is increasingly becoming the benchmark for assessing extrathoracic causes. Accurate assessment and diagnosis can prevent excessive use of drug therapy and result in effective management of the cause of the individual’s complaint through cost-effective approaches such as reassurance, advice, breathing retraining and vocal exercises. This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise-­induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of

  17. Duration of action of sodium cromoglycate on exercise induced asthma: comparison of 2 formulations.

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yishay, E; Gur, I; Levy, M; Volozni, D; Godfrey, S

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen asthmatic children aged 9-14 years participated in a double blind randomised trial to compare the effectiveness and duration of action of 2 formulations of sodium cromoglycate; one a 20 mg capsule of powdered sodium cromoglycate delivered by turbo inhaler (spinhaler), and the other 1 mg of aerosolised sodium cromoglycate delivered by pressurised cannister inhaler (aerosol). The children performed exercise tests on each of 3 days in a 10 day period--15 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours after inhalation of powder, aerosol, or a placebo. Two patients were not protected from exercise induced asthma by either formulation of sodium cromoglycate. Among the remaining patients both formulations gave good protection from exercise induced asthma 15 minutes after inhalation, and the effect of both wore off steadily over the next 6 hours. The spinhaler gave appreciably better protection than the aerosol at 15 minutes after inhalation, and was the only formulation to provide good protection at 2 hours and 6 hours. The more limited effectiveness of the aerosol may be explained by the lower dose of sodium cromoglycate and the more complicated inhalation technique required. PMID:6412638

  18. Does exercise-induced muscle damage play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy?

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2012-05-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) occurs primarily from the performance of unaccustomed exercise, and its severity is modulated by the type, intensity, and duration of training. Although concentric and isometric actions contribute to EIMD, the greatest damage to muscle tissue is seen with eccentric exercise, where muscles are forcibly lengthened. Damage can be specific to just a few macromolecules of tissue or result in large tears in the sarcolemma, basal lamina, and supportive connective tissue, and inducing injury to contractile elements and the cytoskeleton. Although EIMD can have detrimental short-term effects on markers of performance and pain, it has been hypothesized that the associated skeletal muscle inflammation and increased protein turnover are necessary for long-term hypertrophic adaptations. A theoretical basis for this belief has been proposed, whereby the structural changes associated with EIMD influence gene expression, resulting in a strengthening of the tissue and thus protection of the muscle against further injury. Other researchers, however, have questioned this hypothesis, noting that hypertrophy can occur in the relative absence of muscle damage. Therefore, the purpose of this article will be twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature and attempt to determine what, if any, role EIMD plays in promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy and (b) to make applicable recommendations for resistance training program design.

  19. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-11-04

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression.

  20. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood–brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

  1. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: a case related to chickpea ingestion and review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chet G; Mace, Sean R

    2007-12-15

    : Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s). Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s) without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  2. Exercise training associated with estrogen therapy induced cardiovascular benefits after ovarian hormones deprivation.

    PubMed

    Flues, Karin; Paulini, Janaina; Brito, Sebastião; Sanches, Iris Callado; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2010-03-01

    Menopause is recognized as a period of increased risk for coronary heart disease. Although the benefits of exercise training in lowering cardiovascular risk factors are well established, the risks and benefits of hormone therapy have been questioned. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of estrogen therapy (HT) associated or not with exercise training (ET) in autonomic cardiovascular control in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female rats were divided into: control, OVX, OVX+HT, OVX+ET and OVX+HT+ET. HT was performed using a 0.25mg 8-weeks sustained release pellet. Trained groups were submitted to an 8-week exercise training protocol on treadmill. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was evaluated by heart rate responses to arterial pressure (AP) changes, and vagal and sympathetic tonus by pharmacological blockade. Ovariectomy induced an AP increase (123+/-2mmHg vs. 108+/-2mmHg), BRS impairment ( approximately 69%), sympathetic activation ( approximately 100%) and vagal tonus reduction ( approximately 77%) compared to controls. HT or ET normalized the changes in parasympathetic tonus. However, only the association HT+ET was able to promote normalization of AP, BRS and sympathetic tonus, as compared to controls. These results indicate that ET induces cardiovascular and autonomic benefits in OVX rats under HT, suggesting a positive role of this association in the management of cardiovascular risk factor in postmenopausal women.

  3. Acute ventilatory responses to hypoxia during voluntary and electrically induced leg exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Robbins, P A

    1994-05-15

    1. The acute ventilatory response to a brief period of hypoxia (AHVR) was measured in six subjects (a) at rest, (b) during electrically induced leg exercise (EEL), (c) during voluntary leg exercise at an external work rate matched to electrical exercise (EV1) and (d) during voluntary leg exercise at an internal work rate (i.e. metabolic rate) matched to electrical exercise (EV2). The end-tidal PO2 during hypoxia was 50 mmHg and the end-tidal PCO2 was held constant at 1-2 mmHg above resting values throughout each of these four protocols. 2. EEL was produced by surface electrode stimulation of the quadriceps muscles so as to cause the legs to extend at the knee and lift a set of weights via a pulley system. During EV1, each subject lifted the same weight through the same height and at the same frequency as during his EEL protocol. During EV2, the weight, the height through which it was lifted and the frequency of voluntary contractions were altered to produce a similar O2 consumption and CO2 production as during EEL. 3. In each subject, end-tidal PCO2 values showed no change between the four protocols, and in three subjects in whom they were measured, arterial PCO2 values were also similar between the protocols. Venous lactate levels did not increase after EEL or EV2. 4. The AHVR during EEL (14.1 +/- 1.42 l min-1; mean +/- S.E.M) was significantly increased (Student's paired t test) compared with rest (7.55 +/- 1.10 l min-1; P < 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Resistance exercise induces region-specific adaptations in anterior pituitary gland structure and function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Nindl, Bradley C; Vingren, Jakob L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Looney, David P; Maresh, Carl M; Hymer, Wesley C

    2013-12-01

    The anterior pituitary gland (AP) increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in response to resistance exercise (RE), but the nature of AP adaptations to RE is unknown. To that end, we examined the effects of RE on regional AP somatotroph GH release, structure, and relative quantity. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) no training or acute exercise (NT-NEX); 2) no training with acute exercise (NT-EX); 3) resistance training without acute exercise (RT-NEX); 4) resistance training with acute exercise (RT-EX). RE incorporated 10, 1 m-weighted ladder climbs at an 85° angle. RT groups trained 3 days/wk for 7 wk, progressively. After death, trunk blood was collected, and each AP was divided into quadrants (ventral-dorsal and left-right). We measured: 1) trunk plasma GH; 2) somatotroph GH release; 3) somatotroph size; 4) somatotroph secretory content; and 5) percent of AP cells identified as somatotrophs. Trunk GH differed by group (NT-NEX, 8.9 ± 2.4 μg/l; RT-NEX, 9.2 ± 3.5 μg/l; NT-EX, 15.6 ± 3.4 μg/l; RT-EX, 23.4 ± 4.6 μg/l). RT-EX demonstrated greater somatotroph GH release than all other groups, predominantly in ventral regions (P < 0.05-0.10). Ventral somatotrophs were larger in NT-EX and RT-NEX compared with RT-EX (P < 0.05-0.10). RT-NEX exhibited significantly greater secretory granule content than all other groups but in the ventral-right region only (P < 0.05-0.10). Our findings indicate reproducible patterns of spatially distinct, functionally different somatotroph subpopulations in the rat pituitary gland. RE training appears to induce dynamic adaptations in somatotroph structure and function.

  5. Coronary-bronchial blood flow and airway dimensions in exercise-induced syndromes.

    PubMed

    White, S W; Pitsillides, K F; Parsons, G H; Hayes, S G; Gunther, R A; Cottee, D B

    2001-01-01

    1. We have an incomplete understanding of integrative cardiopulmonary control during exercise and particularly during the postexercise period, when symptoms and signs of myocardial ischaemia and exercise-induced asthma not present during exercise may appear. 2. The hypothesis is advanced that baroreflex de-resetting during exercise recovery is normally associated with (i) a dominant sympathetic vasoconstrictor effect in the coronary circulation, which, when associated with obstructive coronary disease, may initiate a potentially positive-feedback cardiocardiac sympathetic reflex (variable myocardial ischaemia with symptoms and signs); and (ii) a dominant parasympathetic bronchoconstrictor effect in the presence of bronchovascular dilatation, which, when associated with raised mediator release in the bronchial wall, reinforces the tendency for airway obstruction (variable dyspnoea results). 3. There is a need for new techniques to examine hypotheses concerning autonomic control, during and after exercise, of the coronary and bronchial circulations and the dimensions of airways. Accordingly, a new ultrasonic instrument has been designed named an 'Airways Internal Diameter Assessment (AIDA) Sonomicrometer'. It combines pulsed Doppler flowmetry with transit-time sonomicrometry of airway circumference and single-crystal sonomicrometry of airway wall thickness. Initial evaluation suggests it is relatively easy to apply during thoracotomy in recovery animals. The component devices are linear and will measure target variables with excellent accuracy. 4. In anaesthetized sheep, intubated with controlled ventilation, intravenous isoproterenol causes large increases in bronchial blood flow, a fall in arterial pressure and a reduction in airway circumference. This may reflect the dominant action of reflex vagal activity over direct beta-adrenoceptor inhibition of bronchial smooth muscle, the reflex source being baroreflex secondary to the fall in arterial pressure. These

  6. Role of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced cardiovascular function and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Daniel; Mason, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P; McEneny, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2) separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr) or a placebo (P) for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise), at the end of exercise (postexercise), and the day following exercise (post24 h). Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 ± 5% above preexercise values (p = 0.030). However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations), resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation) and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, lycopene and vitamin C). Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males. PMID:20716911

  7. Heart disease induced by AAS abuse, using experimental mice/rats models and the role of exercise-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Riezzo, I; De Carlo, D; Neri, M; Nieddu, A; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are all synthetic derivates of testosterone and are commonly used as sport performance enhancers in athletes. The heart is one of the organs most frequently affected by administration of anabolic steroids. A direct myocardial injury caused by AAS is supposed to determine marked hypertrophy in myocardial cells, extensive regional fibrosis and necrosis. A number of excellent studies, using animal models, were performed to evaluate the cardiac effects of AAS. It is known that exogenous administration induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, and when combined with exercise, anabolic steroid use has been shown to change exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy to pathophysiological cardiac hypertrophy. However the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. It's described that sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarct; ventricular remodelling and cardiomyopathy do to AAS is related to apoptosis and oxidative stress when associated with exercise. Mechanical stimuli and circulating humoral factors (TNF-α, HSP-70, IL-1β) released by the heart and peripheral organs are responsible. Testosterone and derivates can work through genomic (activation of specific androgen receptor, interaction with coactivators and co-repressors transcription factors, gene regulation) and non-genomic mechanism (membrane-receptor-second messenger cascades). Chronic AAS abuse results in different patterns of pathologic alterations, which depend on type, dose, frequency, and mode of use. The difficulty in interpreting experimental data on animals (mice and rats) lies in the diversity of experiments (the diversity of substances, which show different properties, different mice / rats by sex and age, duration of treatment with AAS, dosages used, type, scope and exercise duration).

  8. The exercise-induced enhancement of influenza immunity is mediated in part by improvements in psychosocial factors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohut, M L; Lee, W; Martin, A; Arnston, B; Russell, D W; Ekkekakis, P; Yoon, K J; Bishop, A; Cunnick, J E

    2005-07-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine whether exercise-associated improvements of the immune response to influenza vaccination were mediated by improvements in psychosocial factors in older adults. At baseline, prior to the exercise intervention, older adult participants were immunized with influenza vaccine. Blood samples collected pre-immunization, 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-immunization were analyzed for anti-influenza antibody, whereas influenza-specific cytokine (IFNgamma) was evaluated at 1 week post-immunization. Depression and sense of coherence were measured pre-immunization. Four weeks post-immunization, participants were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise group (n=14) or a control group (n=14). After a 10-month exercise intervention, the immunization, blood collections, and psychosocial measures were repeated. At the post-intervention evaluation, exercise participants had improved scores on depression and sense of coherence. Also post-intervention, exercise participants had a greater increase in antibody and IFNgamma production. After controlling for the effect of both psychosocial measures, the exercise treatment remained significant with respect to antibody titer suggesting that the increases in antibody were not mediated by improvement in the psychosocial factors. In contrast, the enhancement of IFNgamma appeared to be mediated at least in part by the psychosocial factors. After controlling for psychosocial factors, exercise treatment was no longer significantly related to the change in IFNgamma. Taken together, our findings may suggest that the mechanism(s) of exercise-induced improvement in immunocompetence involve both physiological and psychological pathways.

  9. Exercise-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and IL-8 genes in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Katia; Felicetti, Michela; Capomaccio, Stefano; Pieramati, Camillo; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Background The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders. In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90–120 km in a time-course experimental design. Conclusion These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon. PMID:19552796

  10. Exercise-induced second-degree atrioventricular block in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Doutreleau, Stéphane; Pistea, Cristina; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Charloux, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Training induces volume- and time-dependent morphological and functional changes in the heart. Heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial arrhythmia (including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter), are a well-established consequence of such long-term endurance practice. Although resting bradycardia and first-degree atrioventricular persist in veteran athletes, a higher conduction system impairment has never been reported neither at rest nor during exercise. We report here two cases of Type II second-degree atrioventricular block occurring during exercise in middle-age well-trained athletes. Because animal and human studies suggest that a progressive myocardial fibrosis could explain such phenomenon, long-term training could also have consequences on the conduction pathways.

  11. Energy deficit after exercise augments lipid mobilization but does not contribute to the exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Newsom, Sean A.; Schenk, Simon; Thomas, Kristin M.; Harber, Matthew P.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Goldenberg, Naila

    2010-01-01

    The content of meals consumed after exercise can impact metabolic responses for hours and even days after the exercise session. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low dietary carbohydrate (CHO) vs. low energy intake in meals after exercise on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism the next day. Nine healthy men participated in four randomized trials. During the control trial (CON) subjects remained sedentary. During the other three trials, subjects exercised [65% peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak); cycle ergometer and treadmill exercise] until they expended ∼800 kcal. Dietary intake during CON and one exercise trial (BAL) was designed to provide sufficient energy and carbohydrate to maintain nutrient balance. In contrast, the diets after the other two exercise trials were low in either CHO (LOW-CHO) or energy (LOW-EN). The morning after exercise we obtained a muscle biopsy, assessed insulin sensitivity (Si; intravenous glucose tolerance test) and measured lipid kinetics (isotope tracers). Although subjects were in energy balance during both LOW-CHO and CON, the lower muscle glycogen concentration during LOW-CHO vs. CON (402 ± 29 vs. 540 ± 33 mmol/kg dry wt, P < 0.01) coincided with a significant increase in Si [5.2 ± 0.7 vs. 3.8 ± 0.7 (mU/l)−1·min−1; P < 0.05]. Conversely, despite ingesting several hundred fewer kilocalories after exercise during LOW-EN compared with BAL, this energy deficit did not affect Si the next day [4.9 ± 0.9, and 5.0 ± 0.8 (mU/l)−1·min−1]. Maintaining an energy deficit after exercise had the most potent effect on lipid metabolism, as measured by a higher plasma triacylglycerol concentration, and increased plasma fatty acid mobilization and oxidation compared with when in nutrient balance. Carbohydrate deficit after exercise, but not energy deficit, contributed to the insulin-sensitizing effects of acute aerobic exercise, whereas maintaining an energy deficit after exercise augmented lipid

  12. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia and the mechanics of breathing in healthy young women

    PubMed Central

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), pulmonary gas exchange and respiratory mechanics during exercise, in young healthy women. We defined EIAH as a >10 mmHg decrease in arterial oxygen tension () during exercise compared to rest. We used a heliox inspirate to test the hypothesis that mechanical constraints contribute to EIAH. Subjects with a spectrum of aerobic capacities (n= 30; maximal oxygen consumption () = 49 ± 1, range 28–62 ml kg−1 min−1) completed a stepwise treadmill test and a subset (n= 18 with EIAH) completed a constant load test (∼85%) with heliox gas. Throughout exercise arterial blood gases, oxyhaemoglobin saturation (), the work of breathing (WOB) and expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were assessed. Twenty of the 30 women developed EIAH with a nadir and ranging from 58 to 88 mmHg and 87 to 96%, respectively. At maximal exercise, was inversely related to (r=–0.57, P < 0.05) with notable exceptions where some subjects with low aerobic fitness levels demonstrated EIAH. Subjects with EIAH had a greater (51 ± 1 vs. 43 ± 2 ml kg−1 min−1), lower end-exercise (93.2 ± 0.5 vs. 96.1 ± 0.3%) and a greater maximal energetic WOB (324 ± 19 vs. 247 ± 23 J min−1), but had similar resting pulmonary function compared to those without EIAH. Most subjects developed EIAH at submaximal exercise intensities, with distinct patterns of hypoxaemia. In some subjects with varying aerobic fitness levels, mechanical ventilatory constraints (i.e. EFL) were the primary mechanism associated with the hypoxaemia during the maximal test. Mechanical ventilatory constraints also prevented adequate compensatory alveolar hyperventilation in most EIAH subjects. Minimizing mechanical ventilatory constraints with heliox inspiration partially reversed EIAH in subjects who developed EFL. In conclusion, healthy women of all aerobic fitness levels can develop EIAH and begin to do so at submaximal intensities. Mechanical

  13. Cardiac Molecular-Acclimation Mechanisms in Response to Swimming-Induced Exercise in Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Helland, Ståle J.; Torgersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Torstein; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P.; Takle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac muscle is a principal target organ for exercise-induced acclimation mechanisms in fish and mammals, given that sustained aerobic exercise training improves cardiac output. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying such cardiac acclimation have been scarcely investigated in teleosts. Consequently, we studied mechanisms related to cardiac growth, contractility, vascularization, energy metabolism and myokine production in Atlantic salmon pre-smolts resulting from 10 weeks exercise-training at three different swimming intensities: 0.32 (control), 0.65 (medium intensity) and 1.31 (high intensity) body lengths s−1. Cardiac responses were characterized using growth, immunofluorescence and qPCR analysis of a large number of target genes encoding proteins with significant and well-characterized function. The overall stimulatory effect of exercise on cardiac muscle was dependent on training intensity, with changes elicited by high intensity training being of greater magnitude than either medium intensity or control. Higher protein levels of PCNA were indicative of cardiac growth being driven by cardiomyocyte hyperplasia, while elevated cardiac mRNA levels of MEF2C, GATA4 and ACTA1 suggested cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In addition, up-regulation of EC coupling-related genes suggested that exercised hearts may have improved contractile function, while higher mRNA levels of EPO and VEGF were suggestive of a more efficient oxygen supply network. Furthermore, higher mRNA levels of PPARα, PGC1α and CPT1 all suggested a higher capacity for lipid oxidation, which along with a significant enlargement of mitochondrial size in cardiac myocytes of the compact layer of fish exercised at high intensity, suggested an enhanced energetic support system. Training also elevated transcription of a set of myokines and other gene products related to the inflammatory process, such as TNFα, NFκB, COX2, IL1RA and TNF decoy receptor. This study provides the first characterization of the

  14. Electromyographic activity of the biceps brachii after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Sirous; Sinclair, Peter J; Foroughi, Nasim; Davis, Glen M

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that strenuous eccentric exercise may result in muscle damage. We proposed that vigorous eccentric exercise (EE) would impair myoelectric activity of the biceps brachii. This study utilised a 7-day prospective time-series design. Ten healthy males performed a session of 70 maximal EE elbow flexion contractions. Analysis of surface electromyography activity (sEMG) was performed on the signals recorded during isometric contractions at 50% (IC50) and 80% (IC80) of maximum voluntary isometric torque (MVT), deriving RMS and MDF as sEMG parameters. Linear regression of the RMS and MDF time-series (20-s sustained IC50 and IC80) was used to extract intercepts and slopes of these signals on each day. Plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), MVT, arm circumference, subjective perception of soreness and elbow joint range of motion were also measured to assess effectiveness of EE to evoke muscle damage. CK increased over resting values until day 5 after EE, and remained significantly (p < 0.05) elevated even on day 7. MVT had decreased to 45% of its initial value by day 2 after EE, and remained significantly depressed for the following 6 days. In addition, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased, and range of motion decreased after EE. A significant shift of MDF intercept towards lower frequencies at both IC50 and IC80 was observed after EE in the exercised arm, and these values gradually recovered within the next 3 days during IC50. Although there were some changes in RMS values, these alterations were persistent in both control and exercised arms, and did not follow a consistent pattern. In conclusion, a prolonged reduction in MDF intercept was observed after EE, but this was not closely time-associated with the biochemical, anthropometric or functional markers of muscle damage. Compared to RMS, MDF was a more consistent measure to reflect changes in sEMG. Key pointsEMG can be a useful tool to detect exercise-induced muscle damage,MDF decreased after

  15. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia and the mechanics of breathing in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2013-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), pulmonary gas exchange and respiratory mechanics during exercise, in young healthy women. We defined EIAH as a >10 mmHg decrease in arterial oxygen tension ( ) during exercise compared to rest. We used a heliox inspirate to test the hypothesis that mechanical constraints contribute to EIAH. Subjects with a spectrum of aerobic capacities (n = 30; maximal oxygen consumption ( ) = 49 ± 1, range 28-62 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a stepwise treadmill test and a subset (n = 18 with EIAH) completed a constant load test (~85% ) with heliox gas. Throughout exercise arterial blood gases, oxyhaemoglobin saturation ( ), the work of breathing (WOB) and expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were assessed. Twenty of the 30 women developed EIAH with a nadir and ranging from 58 to 88 mmHg and 87 to 96%, respectively. At maximal exercise, was inversely related to (r = -0.57, P < 0.05) with notable exceptions where some subjects with low aerobic fitness levels demonstrated EIAH. Subjects with EIAH had a greater (51 ± 1 vs. 43 ± 2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), lower end-exercise (93.2 ± 0.5 vs. 96.1 ± 0.3%) and a greater maximal energetic WOB (324 ± 19 vs. 247 ± 23 J min(-1)), but had similar resting pulmonary function compared to those without EIAH. Most subjects developed EIAH at submaximal exercise intensities, with distinct patterns of hypoxaemia. In some subjects with varying aerobic fitness levels, mechanical ventilatory constraints (i.e. EFL) were the primary mechanism associated with the hypoxaemia during the maximal test. Mechanical ventilatory constraints also prevented adequate compensatory alveolar hyperventilation in most EIAH subjects. Minimizing mechanical ventilatory constraints with heliox inspiration partially reversed EIAH in subjects who developed EFL. In conclusion, healthy women of all aerobic fitness levels can develop EIAH and begin to do so at submaximal intensities. Mechanical

  16. Sex differences in exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Guenette, Jordan A; Romer, Lee M; Querido, Jordan S; Chua, Romeo; Eves, Neil D; Road, Jeremy D; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2010-07-01

    There is evidence that female athletes may be more susceptible to exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and expiratory flow limitation and have greater increases in operational lung volumes during exercise relative to men. These pulmonary limitations may ultimately lead to greater levels of diaphragmatic fatigue in women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are sex differences in the prevalence and severity of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in 38 healthy endurance-trained men (n = 19; maximal aerobic capacity = 64.0 +/- 1.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and women (n = 19; maximal aerobic capacity = 57.1 +/- 1.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) was calculated as the difference between gastric and esophageal pressures. Inspiratory pressure-time products of the diaphragm and esophagus were calculated as the product of breathing frequency and the Pdi and esophageal pressure time integrals, respectively. Cervical magnetic stimulation was used to measure potentiated Pdi twitches (Pdi,tw) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after a constant-load cycling test performed at 90% of peak work rate until exhaustion. Diaphragm fatigue was considered present if there was a >or=15% reduction in Pdi,tw after exercise. Diaphragm fatigue occurred in 11 of 19 men (58%) and 8 of 19 women (42%). The percent drop in Pdi,tw at 10, 30, and 60 min after exercise in men (n = 11) was 30.6 +/- 2.3, 20.7 +/- 3.2, and 13.3 +/- 4.5%, respectively, whereas results in women (n = 8) were 21.0 +/- 2.1, 11.6 +/- 2.9, and 9.7 +/- 4.2%, respectively, with sex differences occurring at 10 and 30 min (P < 0.05). Men continued to have a reduced contribution of the diaphragm to total inspiratory force output (pressure-time product of the diaphragm/pressure-time product of the esophagus) during exercise, whereas diaphragmatic contribution in women changed very little over time. The findings from this study point to a female diaphragm that is more resistant

  17. Acute Resistance Exercise Induces Antinociception by Activation of the Endocannabinoid System in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago; da Silva, José Felippe Pinho; Aguiar, Daniele; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise (RE) is also known as strength training, and it is performed to increase the strength and mass of muscles, bone strength and metabolism. RE has been increasingly prescribed for pain relief. However, the endogenous mechanisms underlying this antinociceptive effect are still largely unexplored. Thus, we investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in RE-induced antinociception. Methods Male Wistar rats were submitted to acute RE in a weight-lifting model. The nociceptive threshold was measured by a mechanical nociceptive test (paw pressure) before and after exercise. To investigate the involvement of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids in RE-induced antinociception, cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists, endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor were injected before RE. After RE, CB1 cannabinoid receptors were quantified in rat brain tissue by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In addition, endocannabinoid plasma levels were measured by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results RE-induced antinociception was prevented by preinjection with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists. By contrast, preadministration of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and the anandamide reuptake inhibitor prolonged and enhanced this effect. RE also produced an increase in the expression and activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in rat brain tissue and in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal regions and an increase of endocannabinoid plasma levels. Conclusion The present study suggests that a single session of RE activates the endocannabinoid system to induce antinociception. PMID:24977916

  18. Dose-response study of sodium cromoglycate in exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, K R; Berkin, K E; Kerr, J W

    1982-01-01

    Ten patients with exercise-induced asthma participated in a single-blind dose-response study comparing the protective effect of inhaled sodium cromoglycate in increasing concentrations from 2 to 40 mg/ml. Saline was used as a control. Effects were assessed from the mean maximal percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after the patients had run on a treadmill for eight minutes. There was slight bronchodilation evident from the increase in baseline FEV1 after inhalation of sodium cromoglycate, the difference reaching statistical significance with the highest concentration (5.7%, p less than 0.05). After exercise the maximal percentage falls in FEV1 (means and SEM) after saline and after sodium cromoglycate at 2, 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml were 37.3 +/- 4.7, 17.3 +/- 4.1, 10 +/- 3.3, 7.6 +/- 2.4, and 12 +/- 2.9. Sodium cromoglycate inhibited the exercise-induced fall in FEV1 at all the concentrations used in the study (p less than 0.001) and its inhibitory effect increased from 2 to 20 mg/ml. The mean FEV1 returned to baseline values within 15 minutes at higher concentrations of sodium cromoglycate (20 and 40 mg/ml) and a small bronchodilator effect was noted at 30 minutes. The findings suggest that the protective effect of sodium cromoglycate in exercise asthma is dose related. At higher concentration the drug suppresses chemical mediator release from the lung mast cells and may also modify the bronchial reactivity to release mediators. PMID:6818707

  19. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation.

  20. Eccentric and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise training: microRNAs and molecular determinants.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, T; Soci, U P R; Oliveira, E M

    2011-09-01

    Among the molecular, biochemical and cellular processes that orchestrate the development of the different phenotypes of cardiac hypertrophy in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the specific contribution of exercise training has recently become appreciated. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy involves complex cardiac remodeling that occurs as an adaptive response to static or dynamic chronic exercise, but the stimuli and molecular mechanisms underlying transduction of the hemodynamic overload into myocardial growth are poorly understood. This review summarizes the physiological stimuli that induce concentric and eccentric physiological hypertrophy, and discusses the molecular mechanisms, sarcomeric organization, and signaling pathway involved, also showing that the cardiac markers of pathological hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain and α-skeletal actin) are not increased. There is no fibrosis and no cardiac dysfunction in eccentric or concentric hypertrophy induced by exercise training. Therefore, the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated as one of the regulatory mechanisms for the control of cardiac function and structure. Here, we show that the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor is locally activated in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy, although with exercise training it can be stimulated independently of the involvement of angiotensin II. Recently, microRNAs (miRs) have been investigated as a possible therapeutic approach since they regulate the translation of the target mRNAs involved in cardiac hypertrophy; however, miRs in relation to physiological hypertrophy have not been extensively investigated. We summarize here profiling studies that have examined miRs in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. An understanding of physiological cardiac remodeling may provide a strategy to improve ventricular function in cardiac dysfunction.

  1. Alcohol pharmacokinetics and risk-taking behaviour following exercise-induced dehydration.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Christopher; Goodwin, Alison; Leveritt, Michael; Davey, Andrew K; Desbrow, Ben

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of exercise-induced dehydration on alcohol pharmacokinetics, subjective ratings of impairment, and risk-taking behaviours. Twelve male volunteers participated in 3 experimental trials completed in a randomised cross over design separated by at least 7 days. In one trial, participants exercised to cause dehydration of ~2.5% body weight loss. For the other trials, participants were required to be in a rested and euhydrated state. A set volume of alcohol was then consumed in each trial and participants were monitored over a 4h period. Blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol samples were collected throughout and analysed to calculate pharmacokinetic variables associated with the blood alcohol curve. Total urine production, estimates of BrAC, and subjective ratings of intoxication and impairment were also recorded throughout each trial. No difference was found in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol between any of the trial conditions. BrACs were higher than BACs for 2h following alcohol consumption, but lower at measures taken 3 and 4 h post ingestion. Participants' ratings of confusion and intoxication were significantly lower, and they were more willing to drive in the dehydration trial compared with one of the euhydration trials. These findings suggest that dehydration or other physiological changes associated with exercise may have an ability to influence the subjective effects of alcohol and increase the likelihood of risk-taking behaviours such as drink-driving. However, further research is required to examine the effects of alcohol under conditions of exercise-induced fluid loss in order to clarify these findings.

  2. High physical fitness is associated with reduction in basal- and exercise-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kleiven, Ø; Bjørkavoll-Bergseth, M; Melberg, T; Skadberg, Ø; Bergseth, R; Selvåg, J; Auestad, B; Aukrust, P; Aarsland, T; Ørn, S

    2017-03-17

    C-reactive protein (CRP) increases after strenuous exercise. It has been a concern that prolonged strenuous exercise may be harmful and induce a deleterious inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to (a) assess and quantify the magnitude of CRP response following an endurance cycling competition in healthy middle-aged recreational cyclists. (b) Identify important determinants of this response. (c) Identify the relationship between CRP, myocardial damage (cardiac Troponin I (cTnI)), and myocardial strain (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]). (d) Identify the relationship between CRP and clinical events, defined as utilization of healthcare services or self-reported unusual discomfort. Race time was used as a measure of physical fitness. A total of 97 individuals (43±10 years of age, 74 [76%] males) were assessed prior to and 0, 3, and 24 hours following the 91-km mountain bike race "Nordsjørittet" (Sandnes, Norway, June 2013). There was a highly significant increase in CRP from baseline to 24 hours (0.9 (0.5-1.8) mg/L vs. 11.6 (6.0-17.5) mg/L (median[IQR]), P<.001), with no correlation of CRP to cTnI and BNP at any time-point. CRP was strongly correlated to race time at baseline (r=.38, P<.001) and at 24 hours following the race (r=.43, P<.001), In multivariate models, race time was an independent predictor of CRP both at baseline and at 24 hours (P<.01). There was no relationship between CRP levels and clinical events. In conclusion, high physical fitness was associated with reduction in both basal- and exercise-induced CRP. No adverse relationship was found between high intensity physical exercise, CRP levels, and outcomes.

  3. Biphasic Dependence of Glioma Survival and Cell Migration on CD44 Expression Level.

    PubMed

    Klank, Rebecca L; Decker Grunke, Stacy A; Bangasser, Benjamin L; Forster, Colleen L; Price, Matthew A; Odde, Thomas J; SantaCruz, Karen S; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Canoll, Peter; Turley, Eva A; McCarthy, James B; Ohlfest, John R; Odde, David J

    2017-01-03

    While several studies link the cell-surface marker CD44 to cancer progression, conflicting results show both positive and negative correlations with increased CD44 levels. Here, we demonstrate that the survival outcomes of genetically induced glioma-bearing mice and of high-grade human glioma patients are biphasically correlated with CD44 level, with the poorest outcomes occurring at intermediate levels. Furthermore, the high-CD44-expressing mesenchymal subtype exhibited a positive trend of survival with increased CD44 level. Mouse cell migration rates in ex vivo brain slice cultures were also biphasically associated with CD44 level, with maximal migration corresponding to minimal survival. Cell simulations suggest that cell-substrate adhesiveness is sufficient to explain this biphasic migration. More generally, these results highlight the potential importance of non-monotonic relationships between survival and biomarkers associated with cancer progression.

  4. Exercise-induced albuminuria vs circadian variations in blood pressure in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tadida Meli, Isabelle Hota; Tankeu, Aurel T; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Chelo, David; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the relationship between exercise-induced ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) abnormalities in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adolescents. METHODS We conducted a case-control at the National Obesity Center of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We compared 24 h ABPM and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise between 20 Cameroonian T1DM patients and 20 matched controls. T1DM adolescents were aged 12-18 years, with diabetes for at least one year, without proteinuria, with normal office blood pressure (BP) and renal function according to the general reference population. Non-diabetic controls were adolescents of general population matched for sex, age and BMI. RESULTS Mean duration of diabetes was 4.2 ± 2.8 years. The mean 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were respectively 116 ± 9 mmHg in the diabetic group vs 111 ± 8 mmHg in the non-diabetic (P = 0.06), and 69 ± 7 mm Hg vs 66 ± 5 mm Hg (P = 0.19). There was no difference in the diurnal pattern of BP in diabetes patients and non-diabetic controls (SBP: 118 ± 10 mmHg vs 114 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.11; DBP: 71 ± 7 mmHg vs 68 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.22). Nighttime BP was higher in the diabetic group with respect to SBP (112 ± 11 mmHg vs 106 ± 7 mmHg, P = 0.06) and to the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (89 ± 9 mmHg vs 81 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.06). ACR at rest was similar in both groups (5.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.74), but significantly higher in diabetes patients after exercise (10.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.03). SBP was higher in patients having exercise-induced albuminuria (116 ± 10 mmHg vs 108 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION Exercise-induced albuminuria could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney damage in adolescents with T1DM. PMID:28265345

  5. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  6. Exercise training starting at weaning age preserves cardiac pacemaker function in adulthood of diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho de Lima, Daniel; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Silveira, Simonton Andrade; Haibara, Andrea Siqueira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral sympathetic overdrive in young obese subjects contributes to further aggravation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension, thus inducing worsening clinical conditions in adulthood. Exercise training has been considered a strategy to repair obesity autonomic dysfunction, thereby reducing the cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of early exercise training, starting immediately after weaning, on cardiac autonomic control in diet-induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (weaning) were divided into four groups: (i) a control group (n = 6); (ii) an exercise-trained control group (n = 6); (iii) a diet-induced obesity group (n = 6); and (iv) an exercise-trained diet-induced obesity group (n = 6). The development of obesity was induced by 9 weeks of palatable diet intake, and the training program was implemented in a motor-driven treadmill (5 times per week) during the same period. After this period, animals were submitted to vein and artery catheter implantation to assess cardiac autonomic balance by methylatropine (3 mg/kg) and propranolol (4 mg/kg) administration. Exercise training increased running performance in both groups (p < 0.05). Exercise training also prevented the increased resting heart rate in obese rats, which seemed to be related to cardiac pacemaker activity preservation (p < 0.05). Additionally, the training program preserved the pressure and bradycardia responses to autonomic blockade in obese rats (p < 0.05). An exercise program beginning at weaning age prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in obese rats, indicating that exercise training may be used as a nonpharmacological therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.

  7. miR-222 is Necessary for Exercise-induced Cardiac Growth and Protects Against Pathological Cardiac Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Junjie; Zhu, Han; Wei, Xin; Platt, Colin; Damilano, Federico; Xiao, Chunyang; Bezzerides, Vassilios; Boström, Pontus; Che, Lin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Exercise induces physiological cardiac growth and protects the heart against pathological remodeling. Recent work suggests exercise also enhances the heart’s capacity for repair, which could be important for regenerative therapies. While microRNAs are important in certain cardiac pathologies, less is known about their functional roles in exercise-induced cardiac phenotypes. We profiled cardiac microRNA expression in two distinct models of exercise and found microRNA-222 (miR-222) was upregulated in both. Downstream miR-222 targets modulating cardiomyocyte phenotype were identified, including HIPK1 and Homeobox-1. Inhibition of miR-222 in vivo completely blocked cardiac and cardiomyocyte growth in response to exercise, while reducing markers of cardiomyocyte proliferation. Importantly, mice with inducible cardiomyocyte miR-222 expression were resistant to adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after ischemic injury. These studies implicate miR-222 as necessary for exercise-induced cardiomyocyte growth and proliferation in the adult mammalian heart and show that it is sufficient to protect the heart against adverse remodeling. PMID:25863248

  8. miR-222 is necessary for exercise-induced cardiac growth and protects against pathological cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Junjie; Zhu, Han; Wei, Xin; Platt, Colin; Damilano, Federico; Xiao, Chunyang; Bezzerides, Vassilios; Boström, Pontus; Che, Lin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2015-04-07

    Exercise induces physiological cardiac growth and protects the heart against pathological remodeling. Recent work suggests exercise also enhances the heart's capacity for repair, which could be important for regenerative therapies. While microRNAs are important in certain cardiac pathologies, less is known about their functional roles in exercise-induced cardiac phenotypes. We profiled cardiac microRNA expression in two distinct models of exercise and found microRNA-222 (miR-222) was upregulated in both. Downstream miR-222 targets modulating cardiomyocyte phenotypes were identified, including HIPK1 and HMBOX1. Inhibition of miR-222 in vivo completely blocked cardiac and cardiomyocyte growth in response to exercise while reducing markers of cardiomyocyte proliferation. Importantly, mice with inducible cardiomyocyte miR-222 expression were resistant to adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after ischemic injury. These studies implicate miR-222 as necessary for exercise-induced cardiomyocyte growth and proliferation in the adult mammalian heart and show that it is sufficient to protect the heart against adverse remodeling.

  9. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during exercise is linked to exercise-induced changes in arterial load

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Paul D.; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Schulman, Steven P.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Becker, Lewis C.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L.; Najjar, Samer S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective arterial elastance(EA) is a measure of the net arterial load imposed on the heart that integrates the effects of heart rate(HR), peripheral vascular resistance(PVR), and total arterial compliance(TAC) and is a modulator of cardiac performance. To what extent the change in EA during exercise impacts on cardiac performance and aerobic capacity is unknown. We examined EA and its relationship with cardiovascular performance in 352 healthy subjects. Subjects underwent rest and exercise gated scans to measure cardiac volumes and to derive EA[end-systolic pressure/stroke volume index(SV)], PVR[MAP/(SV*HR)], and TAC(SV/pulse pressure). EA varied with exercise intensity: the ΔEA between rest and peak exercise along with its determinants, differed among individuals and ranged from −44% to +149%, and was independent of age and sex. Individuals were separated into 3 groups based on their ΔEAI. Individuals with the largest increase in ΔEA(group 3;ΔEA≥0.98 mmHg.m2/ml) had the smallest reduction in PVR, the greatest reduction in TAC and a similar increase in HR vs. group 1(ΔEA<0.22 mmHg.m2/ml). Furthermore, group 3 had a reduction in end-diastolic volume, and a blunted increase in SV(80%), and cardiac output(27%), during exercise vs. group 1. Despite limitations in the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac function, peak aerobic capacity did not differ by group because arterial-venous oxygen difference was greater in group 3 vs. 1. Thus the change in arterial load during exercise has important effects on the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac performance but not on exercise capacity. These findings provide interesting insights into the dynamic cardiovascular alterations during exercise. PMID:22003052

  10. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during exercise is linked to exercise-induced changes in arterial load.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Paul D; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Schulman, Steven P; Gerstenblith, Gary; Becker, Lewis C; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L; Lakatta, Edward G; Najjar, Samer S

    2012-01-01

    Effective arterial elastance(E(A)) is a measure of the net arterial load imposed on the heart that integrates the effects of heart rate(HR), peripheral vascular resistance(PVR), and total arterial compliance(TAC) and is a modulator of cardiac performance. To what extent the change in E(A) during exercise impacts on cardiac performance and aerobic capacity is unknown. We examined E(A) and its relationship with cardiovascular performance in 352 healthy subjects. Subjects underwent rest and exercise gated scans to measure cardiac volumes and to derive E(A)[end-systolic pressure/stroke volume index(SV)], PVR[MAP/(SV*HR)], and TAC(SV/pulse pressure). E(A) varied with exercise intensity: the ΔE(A) between rest and peak exercise along with its determinants, differed among individuals and ranged from -44% to +149%, and was independent of age and sex. Individuals were separated into 3 groups based on their ΔE(A)I. Individuals with the largest increase in ΔE(A)(group 3;ΔE(A)≥0.98 mmHg.m(2)/ml) had the smallest reduction in PVR, the greatest reduction in TAC and a similar increase in HR vs. group 1(ΔE(A)<0.22 mmHg.m(2)/ml). Furthermore, group 3 had a reduction in end-diastolic volume, and a blunted increase in SV(80%), and cardiac output(27%), during exercise vs. group 1. Despite limitations in the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac function, peak aerobic capacity did not differ by group because arterial-venous oxygen difference was greater in group 3 vs. 1. Thus the change in arterial load during exercise has important effects on the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac performance but not on exercise capacity. These findings provide interesting insights into the dynamic cardiovascular alterations during exercise.

  11. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Human Polymorphism Impairs the Beneficial Exercise-Induced Neurobiological Changes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Madaio, Alessandro I; Mallei, Alessandra; Lee, Francis S; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have shown that exercise improves cognitive functions and emotional behaviors. Positive effects of exercise have been associated with enhanced brain plasticity, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, a substantial variability of individual response to exercise has been described, which may be accounted for by individual genetic variants. Here, we have assessed whether and how the common human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the neurobiological effects modulated by exercise in BDNF Val66Met knock-in male mice. Wild-type (BDNF(Val/Val)) and homozygous BDNF Val66Met (BDNF(Met/Met)) male mice were housed in cages equipped with or without running wheels for 4 weeks. Changes in behavioral phenotype, hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and gene expression were evaluated in exercised and sedentary control mice. We found that exercise reduced the latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding and the immobility time in the forced swimming test in BDNF(Val/Val) but not in BDNF(Met/Met) mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced in BDNF(Met/Met) mice compared with BDNF(Val/Val) mice. BDNF(Met/Met) mice had lower basal BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus, which was not recovered following exercise. Moreover, exercise-induced expression of total BDNF, BDNF splice variants 1, 2, 4, 6 and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) mRNA levels were absent or reduced in the dentate gyrus of BDNF(Met/Met) mice. Exercise failed to enhance PGC-1α and FNDC5 mRNA levels in the BDNF(Met/Met) muscle. Overall these results indicate that, in adult male mice, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism impairs the beneficial behavioral and neuroplasticity effects induced by physical exercise.

  12. Loss of functional endothelial connexin40 results in exercise-induced hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Morton, Susan K; Chaston, Daniel J; Howitt, Lauren; Heisler, Jillian; Nicholson, Bruce J; Fairweather, Stephen; Bröer, Stefan; Ashton, Anthony W; Matthaei, Klaus I; Hill, Caryl E

    2015-03-01

    During activity, coordinated vasodilation of microcirculatory networks with upstream supply vessels increases blood flow to skeletal and cardiac muscles and reduces peripheral resistance. Endothelial dysfunction in humans attenuates activity-dependent vasodilation, resulting in exercise-induced hypertension in otherwise normotensive individuals. Underpinning activity-dependent hyperemia is an ascending vasodilation in which the endothelial gap junction protein, connexin (Cx)40, plays an essential role. Because exercise-induced hypertension is proposed as a forerunner to clinical hypertension, we hypothesized that endothelial disruption of Cx40 function in mice may create an animal model of this condition. To this end, we created mice in which a mutant Cx40T152A was expressed alongside wildtype Cx40 selectively in the endothelium. Expression of the Cx40T152A transgene in Xenopus oocytes and mouse coronary endothelial cells in vitro impaired both electric and chemical conductance and acted as a dominant-negative against wildtype Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45, but not Cx37. Endothelial expression of Cx40T152A in Cx40T152ATg mice attenuated ascending vasodilation, without effect on radial coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions. Using radiotelemetry, Cx40T152ATg mice showed an activity-dependent increase in blood pressure, which was significantly greater than in wildtype mice, but significantly less than in chronically hypertensive, Cx40knockout mice. The increase in heart rate with activity was also greater than in wildtype or Cx40knockout mice. We conclude that the endothelial Cx40T152A mutation attenuates activity-dependent vasodilation, producing a model of exercise-induced hypertension. These data highlight the importance of endothelial coupling through Cx40 in regulating blood pressure during activity.

  13. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats.

    PubMed

    Farah, Daniela; Nunes, Jonas; Sartori, Michelle; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Sirvente, Raquel; Silva, Maikon B; Fiorino, Patrícia; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana; Farah, Vera; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): Sedentary control (SC), Trained control (TC), Sedentary Fructose (SF) and Trained Fructose (TF). Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40-60% of maximum exercise test). Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV) were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI) (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05) and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg) associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP)- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox). The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04), arterial pressure (118±2mmHg), sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training.

  14. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Daniela; Nunes, Jonas; Sartori, Michelle; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Sirvente, Raquel; Silva, Maikon B.; Fiorino, Patrícia; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana; Farah, Vera; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): Sedentary control (SC), Trained control (TC), Sedentary Fructose (SF) and Trained Fructose (TF). Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40–60% of maximum exercise test). Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV) were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI) (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05) and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg) associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP)- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox). The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04), arterial pressure (118±2mmHg), sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training. PMID:27930685

  15. Long-term resistance exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy is associated with autophagy modulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Insu; Jang, Yongchul; Cho, Joon-Yong; Jang, Young C; Lee, Youngil

    2017-02-17

    Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K). Importantly, RE-treated FDP muscle exhibited a significant decline in autophagy evidenced by diminished phosphorylation levels of AMPK, a decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, an increase in p62 level, and a decline in active form of lysosomal protease CATHEPSIN L in the absence of alterations of key autophagy proteins: ULK1 phosphorylation, BECLIN1, and BNIP3. Our study suggests that RE-induced hypertrophy is achieved by potentiating anabolism and restricting autophagy-induced catabolism.

  16. Physical and balance performance following exercise induced muscle damage in male soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muzaffar Ahmad; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Raza, Shahid; Verma, Shalini; Shareef, M.Y.; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the changes in physical and balance performance following exercise-induced muscle damage using a sport-specific protocol. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen collegiate soccer players were asked to perform a sport-specific sprint protocol to induce muscle damage. The markers of muscle damage (soreness, range of motion, limb girth, muscle strength, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), physical performance (speed, agility and power) and balance (static and dynamic balance) were assessed at baseline and 24, 48 and 72 hours following the sprint protocol. [Results] All variables, including the markers of muscle damage, physical performance and balance showed a significant difference when assessed at the 4 time points. [Conclusion] The study demonstrated that both the physical and balance performance were affected following repeated sprint protocol in soccer players. It is recommended the balance performance of an athlete be continually assessed following exercise-induced muscle damage so as to determine the appropriate return to sport decision thereby, minimizing the risk of further injury. PMID:27821967

  17. Physical and balance performance following exercise induced muscle damage in male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muzaffar Ahmad; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Raza, Shahid; Verma, Shalini; Shareef, M Y; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the changes in physical and balance performance following exercise-induced muscle damage using a sport-specific protocol. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen collegiate soccer players were asked to perform a sport-specific sprint protocol to induce muscle damage. The markers of muscle damage (soreness, range of motion, limb girth, muscle strength, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), physical performance (speed, agility and power) and balance (static and dynamic balance) were assessed at baseline and 24, 48 and 72 hours following the sprint protocol. [Results] All variables, including the markers of muscle damage, physical performance and balance showed a significant difference when assessed at the 4 time points. [Conclusion] The study demonstrated that both the physical and balance performance were affected following repeated sprint protocol in soccer players. It is recommended the balance performance of an athlete be continually assessed following exercise-induced muscle damage so as to determine the appropriate return to sport decision thereby, minimizing the risk of further injury.

  18. Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized with hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap.

    PubMed

    Chinuki, Yuko; Morita, Eishin

    2012-12-01

    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  19. Adaptive control of functional neuromuscular stimulation-induced knee extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, B N; Glaser, R M; Couch, W; Figoni, S F; Rodgers, M M

    1991-01-01

    An automated system for exercising the paralyzed quadriceps muscles of spinal cord injured patients using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) has been developed. It induces smooth concentric and eccentric contractions in both limbs to enable bilateral 70 degree knee extensions in an asynchronous pattern. External load resistance is applied at the ankle level to "overload" the muscles and bring about training effects. The system uses adaptive control methods to adjust FNS current output (threshold level and the ramp slope) to the quadriceps muscles to maintain performance as the muscles fatigue. Feedback control signals for limb movement and knee extension angle are used to continuously adjust the FNS current parameters so that the external load is moved through the preset zero to 70 degree angle range. Typically, the threshold current level and the FNS current increase as the muscles fatigue to maintain performance with repetitive contractions. Fatigue is defined as the inability to extend the knee to 50 percent of the 70 degree target angle. When this occurs, FNS is automatically terminated for the fatigued leg, while the functioning leg continues to exercise. The automated nature of this system appears to be advantageous as compared to a manually operated system for subject safety, convenience, and uniformity of exercise bouts. Simulated safety problems, such as hyperextension of the knee joint, open circuitry, muscle spasms, and low battery power, were successfully detected by the logic circuitry, and the system followed appropriate safety procedures to minimize risk.

  20. The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in soccer player children, ages 7 to 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Yousefi, Azizollah; Movahedi, Massoud; Mehrkhani, Farhad; Noorian, Rohollah

    2007-03-01

    This study represents an attempt to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm among soccer player children. A total of 234 soccer player boys of all soccer schools from Shahr-Rey enrolled in this study. They did not have any history of a recent or chronic respiratory tract disease, a history of allergic diseases, and history of bronchodilator drugs consumption during the 24 hours prior to the study. Pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed for each participant before exercise and 6 and 15 minutes after playing soccer. The diagnosis of EIB was by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by at least 10% and in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) by at least 15% with exercise challenge. If there was reduction in one parameter alone, the participants were considered as prone to EIB. Considering both FEV1 and PEFR the prevalence of EIB was 2.1% and 18.4% were prone to EIB. If FEV1 or PEFR tests were used as criteria for diagnosis of airway obstruction, the prevalence of EIB would be 6% and 15.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the post of players, family history of allergic disease and EIB in soccer players. This study suggests that at least 2.1% of soccer players will develop bronchospasm even if they do not have any history of asthma and allergy.

  1. The Intervention Effects of Acupuncture on Fatigue Induced by Exhaustive Physical Exercises: A Metabolomics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haifeng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Naixia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antifatigue effects of acupuncture had been investigated at the metabolic level on the young male athletes with exhaustive physical exercises. After a series of exhaustive physical exercises and a short-term rest, the athletes either were treated with needling acupuncture on selected acupoints (TA group) or enjoyed an extended rest (TR group). NMR-based metabolomics analysis was then applied to depict the metabolic profiles of urine samples, which were collected from the athletes at three time points including the time before exercises, the time before and after the treatment of acupuncture, or taking the extended rest. The results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the recoveries of disturbed metabolites in the athletes treated with acupuncture were significantly faster than in those only taking rest. After the treatment with acupuncture, the levels of distinguished metabolites, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, citrate, dimethylglycine, choline, glycine, hippurate, and hypoxanthine were recovered at an accelerated speed in the TA group in comparison with the TR group. The above-mentioned results indicated that the acupuncture treatment ameliorated fatigue by backregulating the perturbed energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and attenuating the ROS-induced stress at an accelerated speed, which demonstrated that acupuncture could serve as an alternative fatigue-relieving approach. PMID:26442121

  2. The right heart in athletes. Evidence for exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Heidbüchel, H; La Gerche, A

    2012-06-01

    Although 'athlete's heart' usually constitutes a balanced dilation and hypertrophy of all four chambers, there is increasing evidence that intense endurance activity may particularly tax the right ventricle (RV), both acutely and chronically. We review the evidence that the high wall stress of the RV during intense sports may explain observed B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) elevations immediately after a race, may lead to cellular disruption and leaking of cardiac enzymes, and may even result in transient RV dilatation and dysfunction. Over time, this could lead to chronic remodelling and a pro-arrhythmic state resembling arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in some cases. ARVC in high-endurance athletes most often develops in the absence of underlying desmosomal abnormalities, probably only as a result of excessive RV wall stress during exercise. Therefore, we have labelled this syndrome 'exercise-induced ARVC'. Sports cardiologists should be aware that excessive sports activity can lead to cardiac sports injuries in some individuals, just like orthopaedic specialists are familiar with musculoskeletal sports injuries. This does not negate the fact that moderate exercise has positive cardiovascular effects and should be encouraged.

  3. Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Denise; Knez, Wade; Sinclair, Wade

    2010-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants are molecules that reduce the damage associated with oxidative stress by counteracting free radicals. Regular exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, although it can increase oxidative stress. As a typical vegetarian diet comprises a wide range of antioxidant-rich foods, it is plausible that the consumption of these foods will result in an enhanced antioxidant system capable of reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a relationship between a vegetarian diet and lower risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers has been established. This review explores the current available evidence linking exercise, vegetarians, antioxidants, and oxidative stress.

  4. A critical assessment of the mechanism by which hyperoxia attenuates exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, A D; Deal, E C; Ingram, R H; McFadden, E R

    1979-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the magnitude of the heat loss that occurs from the respiratory tract during exercise correlates with the degree of post-exertional obstruction that develops in asthmatics. Respiratory heat loss relates directly to the minute ventilation and heat capacity of the inspired gas and inversely to its water content and temperature. Because it has been shown that inhaling 100% oxygen during exercise blunts the obstructive response, we wondered if this effect could be accounted for by differing values of heat exchange with air and oxygen breathing. To examine this question, we studied 10 asthmatics by measuring multiple aspects of pulmonary mechanics before and after four bouts of exhausting leg work during which the subjects inhaled either air or oxygen conditioned to provide widely differing thermal burdens on their airways. Under all inspired gas conditions, oxygen breathing produced significantly less obstruction than air. Minute ventilation was also significantly less with oxygen as was the total heat lost. As the latter fell, so did the magnitude of the postexercise obstruction. When the differences in ventilation and respiratory heat loss between air and oxygen were eliminated by eucapnic hyperventilation, the differences in the obstructive responses also disappeared. Thus, the effects of hyperoxia on exercise-induced asthma can be accounteed for solely by alterations in heat exchange. PMID:457867

  5. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  6. Where to from here for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: the unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Hallstrand, Teal S; Kippelen, Pascale; Larsson, Johan; Bougault, Valérie; van Leeuwen, Janneke C; Driessen, Jean M M; Brannan, John D

    2013-08-01

    The role of epithelial injury is an unanswered question in those with established asthma and in elite athletes who develop features of asthma and exercise-induced bronchorestriction (EIB) after years of training. The movement of water in response to changes in osmolarity is likely to be an important signal to the epithelium that may be central to the onset of EIB. It is generally accepted that the mast cell and its mediators play a major role in EIB and the presence of eosinophils is likely to enhance EIB severity.

  7. The glucocorticoid system is required for the voluntary exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajisoltani, Razieh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas A; Ghaderdoost, Behshid; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2011-05-16

    Although it is well established that voluntary exercise can improve cognitive functions, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Glucocorticoids play an important role in learning and memory functions. This study addressed whether the glucocorticoid system would play a role in the exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory. Intact rats or those that were either adrenalectomized or daily given the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 10 days. Control animals were kept sedentary for this period. After this period, they were trained and tested on a water-maze spatial task using three-trial per day for 5 consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial two days later. Exercise increased plasma corticosterone levels, as assessed after this 10-day period. Both adrenalectomy and metyrapone slightly reduced running-wheel activity. Adrenalectomy reduced the plasma corticosterone levels to almost zero whereas metyrapone selectively blocked the exercise-induced increase in corticosterone levels. Exercise significantly improved performance during both training and retention of the water-maze task whereas this effect was absent in both adrenalectomized and metyrapone-treated rats. These findings indicate that the glucocorticoid system play a crucial role in the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions in rats.

  8. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Bo, Hai; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury.

  9. Endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression and transiently decreases mTORC1 signaling in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Miki; Tsunekawa, Haruka; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Murakami, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Working muscle conserves adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscle contraction by attenuating protein synthesis through several different pathways. Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) is one candidate protein that can itself attenuate muscle protein synthesis during muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated whether endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression in association with decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex I (mTORC1) signaling and global protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. After overnight fasting, rats ran on a treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 60 min, and were killed before and immediately, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after exercise. REDD1 mRNA and corresponding protein levels increased rapidly immediately after exercise, and gradually decreased back to the basal level over a period of 6 h in the gastrocnemius muscle. Phosphorylation of mTOR Ser2448 and S6K1 Thr389 increased with the exercise, but diminished in 1–3 h into the recovery period after cessation of exercise. The rate of protein synthesis, as determined by the surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) method, was not altered by exercise in fasted muscle. These results suggest that REDD1 attenuates exercise‐induced mTORC1 signaling. This may be one mechanism responsible for blunting muscle protein synthesis during exercise and in the early postexercise recovery period. PMID:25539833

  10. Effect of electrical stimulation-induced resistance exercise on mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Yu; Ogasawara, Riki; Tamura, Yuki; Fujita, Satoshi; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and muscle strength. However, little is known about the effect of resistance exercise on mitochondrial dynamics, which is coupled with mitochondrial function. In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist as dynamic networks that are continuously remodeling through fusion and fission. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic resistance exercise, which induces muscle hypertrophy, on the expression of proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics in rat skeletal muscle. Resistance exercise consisted of maximum isometric contraction, which was induced by percutaneous electrical stimulation of the gastrocnemius muscle. Our results revealed no change in levels of proteins that regulate mitochondrial fission (Fis1 and Drp1) or fusion (Opa1, Mfn1, and Mfn2) over the 24-h period following acute resistance exercise. Phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser616 was increased immediately after exercise (P < 0.01). Four weeks of resistance training (3 times/week) increased Mfn1 (P < 0.01), Mfn2 (P < 0.05), and Opa1 (P < 0.01) protein levels without altering mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins. These observations suggest that resistance exercise has little effect on mitochondrial biogenesis but alters the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion and fission, which may contribute to mitochondrial quality control and improved mitochondrial function.

  11. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients. PMID:27656625

  12. Effects of inducing exercise on growing mice by means of three-dimensional structure in rearing environment

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yu; Ueno, Aki; Nunomura, Yuka; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Takeda, Shohei; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    We reared ICR mice during a growth period (3 to 10 weeks of age) and examined the effect of exercise induction, by enriching the rearing environment with obstacles such as ladders, compared to the standard environment. Environmental enrichment significantly increased the amount of exercise in both sexes (P<0.01). Enriched exercise mice had higher body weight than control mice at 6 to 9 weeks of age in males and 8 weeks of age in females (P<0.05). The sexual maturation of female enriched exercise mice was significantly advanced compared to the control (P<0.001). Enriched exercise mice showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and lower plasma corticosterone levels in both sexes compared to the control, and differences were statistically significant in males (P<0.05). In both sexes, enriched exercise appeared to increase natural killer cells in blood compared to the control, but no statistical differences was detected. In conclusion, we confirmed that daily low-stress exercise could be induced using a three-dimensional rearing environment in growing mice. In addition, we suggest that exercise has beneficial effects on physical growth, sexual maturation and anxiety-like behavior. Furthermore, environmental enrichment might be more effective in male than female in group-housed mice. PMID:27301720

  13. Increased uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in postischemic myocardium of patients with exercise-induced angina

    SciTech Connect

    Camici, P.; Araujo, L.I.; Spinks, T.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Kaski, J.C.; Shea, M.J.; Selwyn, A.P.; Jones, T.; Maseri, A.

    1986-07-01

    Regional myocardial perfusion and exogenous glucose uptake were assessed with rubidium-82 (82Rb) and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) in 10 normal volunteers and 12 patients with coronary artery disease and stable angina pectoris by means of positron emission tomography. In patients at rest, the myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb and FDG did not differ significantly from that measured in normal subjects. The exercise test performed within the positron camera in eight patients produced typical chest pain and ischemic electrocardiographic changes in all. In each of the eight patients a region of reduced cation uptake was demonstrated in the /sup 82/Rb scan recorded at peak exercise, after which uptake of /sup 82/Rb returned to the control value 5 to 14 min after the end of the exercise. In these patients, FDG was injected in the recovery phase when all the variables that were altered during exercise, including regional myocardial /sup 82/Rb uptake, had returned to control values. In all but one patient, FDG accumulation in the regions of reduced /sup 82/Rb uptake during exercise was significantly higher than that in the nonischemic regions, i.e., the ones with a normal increment of /sup 82/Rb uptake on exercise. In the nonischemic areas, FDG uptake was not significantly different from that found in normal subjects after exercise. In conclusion, myocardial glucose transport and phosphorylation seem to be enhanced in the postischemic myocardium of patients with exercise-induced ischemia.

  14. Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Kristin L; Pallardy, Shannon E; Johnson, Richard J; Horswill, Craig A

    2010-02-01

    Rapid and complete rehydration, or restoration of fluid spaces, is important when acute illness or excessive sweating has compromised hydration status. Many studies have investigated the effects of graded concentrations of sodium and other electrolytes in rehydration solutions; however, no study to date has determined the effect of carbohydrate on fluid retention when electrolyte concentrations are held constant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded levels of carbohydrate on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration. Fifteen heat-acclimatized men exercised in the heat for 90 min with no fluid to induce 2-3% dehydration. After a 30-min equilibration period, they received, over the course of 60 min, one of five test beverages equal to 100% of the acute change in body mass. The experimental beverages consisted of a flavored placebo with no electrolytes (P), placebo with electrolytes (P + E), 3%, 6%, and 12% carbohydrate solutions with electrolytes. All beverages contained the same type and concentration of electrolytes (18 meq/l Na(+), 3 meq/l K(+), 11 meq/l Cl(-)). Subjects voided their bladders at 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min, and urine specific gravity and urine volume were measured. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 30, 90, 180, and 240 min following exercise and were analyzed for glucose, sodium, hemoglobin, hematocrit, renin, aldosterone, and osmolality. Body mass was measured before and after exercise and a final body mass was taken at 240 min. There were no differences in percent dehydration, sweat loss, or fluid intake between trials. Fluid retention was significantly greater for all carbohydrate beverages compared with P (66.3 +/- 14.4%). P + E (71.8 +/- 9.9%) was not different from water, 3% (75.4 +/- 7.8%) or 6% (75.4 +/- 16.4%) but was significantly less than 12% (82.4 +/- 9.2%) retention of the ingested fluid. No difference was found between the carbohydrate beverages. Carbohydrate at the levels

  15. The influence of ice slurry ingestion on maximal voluntary contraction following exercise-induced hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rodney; Maté, Joseph; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of a small bolus of ice slurry (1.25 g kg(-1)) could attenuate the reduction in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque output during a 2-min sustained task following exercise-induced hyperthermia. On two separate occasions, 10 males (age: 24 ± 3 years, .VO(2peak): 49.8 ± 4.7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) ran to exhaustion at their first ventilatory threshold in a hot environment (34.1 ± 0.1°C, 49.5 ± 3.6% RH). Prior to and after exercise, subjects performed a 2-min sustained MVC of the right elbow flexors in a thermoneutral environment (24.6 ± 0.8°C, 37.2 ± 4.5% RH). The post exercise MVC was performed immediately following the ingestion of either 1.25 g kg(-1) of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE) or warm fluid (40°C; CON), in a counterbalanced and randomised order. Run time to exhaustion (42.4 ± 9.5 vs. 41.7 ± 8.7 min; p = 0.530), and rectal (39.08 ± 0.30 vs. 39.08 ± 0.30°C; p = 0.934) and skin temperatures (35.26 ± 0.65 vs. 35.28 ± 0.67°C; p = 0.922) and heart rate (189 ± 5 vs. 189 ± 6 beats min(-1); p = 0.830) at the end of the run were similar between trials. Torque output during the post-exercise 2-min sustained MVC was significantly higher (p = 0.001) following ICE (30.75 ± 16.40 Nm) compared with CON (28.69 ± 14.88 Nm). These results suggest that ice slurry ingestion attenuated the effects of exercise-induced hyperthermia on MVC, possibly via internal thermoreceptive and/or temperature-related sensory mechanisms.

  16. Exercise training-induced adaptations associated with increases in skeletal muscle glycogen content.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S C; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young-Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2013-02-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism leading to increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4 or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. As compared with sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3. Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of R(GL)(G(M)), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1 activity, GSK-3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~ 40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks, and may function as a negative feedback mechanism in response to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms, including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase, and PP1 activity.

  17. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E.; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing. PMID:26190989

  18. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Pournot, Hervé; Tindel, Jérémy; Testa, Rodolphe; Mathevon, Laure; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV) as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE), immediately after exercise (POST-EX) and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001) and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025) when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210). LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations. Key points Bouts of barbell curl exercise induce an immediate increased passive stiffness of the biceps brachii muscle, as evidenced by greater shear elastic modulus measured by supersonic shear imaging. The administration of a vibratory massage did not reduce this acute exercise-induced increased stiffness. PMID:26957937

  19. Biphasic nanoparticles made by electrified jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahann, Joerg

    2005-03-01

    Nano-colloids have recently attracted intense attention due to unique properties that are distinctly different from bulk solid-state materials; including unique magnetic, electronic, optical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The vision that these nano-objects could essentially act as functional components in novel device generations, which ``magically'' assemble following a master blueprint void any human manipulation, has resulted in a new ``gold rush'' in materials science. These concepts have results in the synthesis of a multitude of nano-objects, such as nano-wires, nano-rods, nano-disks, or nano-prisms.^ Recently, nano-particles with anisotropic materials distributions (biphasic nano-particles) moved in the focus of research. Our approach differs fundamentally from the above-mentioned methods in that it takes advantage of electrified polymer jets to create anisotropic materials distributions in nano-objects. jetting is a process to generate liquid jets by use of electrostatic forces. It is well-known that high electrical potentials (typically several thousand volts) applied between the jetting liquids that are fed through a capillary and a collecting substrate will induce jetting of a charged liquid. The differences in the final morphologies from similar processes are mainly determined by the properties of the jetting liquids and the process parameters. transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate the applicability of the process to control size, shape, and materials distribution at the nanoscale. The resulting anisotropic nanoparticles may have potential applications for targeted drug delivery or as electro-rehological fluid